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Sample records for proximity relations toddlers

  1. Relations Between Toddler Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfese, Victoria J; Rudasill, Kathleen M; Prokasky, Amanda; Champagne, Carly; Holmes, Molly; Molfese, Dennis L; Bates, John E

    2015-01-01

    Two sources of information (parent-reported sleep diaries and actigraph records) were used to investigate how toddler sleep characteristics (bed time/sleep onset, wake time/sleep offset, total nighttime sleep, and total sleep time) are related to sleep problems and temperament. There were 64 toddler participants in the study. Consistent with studies of older children, parent reports differed from actigraph-based records. The findings that parent-reported and actigraph-recorded sleep characteristics varied as a function of parent report of toddler sleep problems and temperament add needed information on toddler sleep. Such information may contribute to improving parents' awareness of their child's sleep characteristics and correlates of problem sleep.

  2. Toddlers' Flexibility in Production of Similarity and Thematic Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Cecilia; Bauer, Patricia

    Recent work suggests that the apparent shift from thematic to taxonomic concept organization reflects changes in children's preference for these forms of organization, rather than their capacity. A study was made to assess toddlers' knowledge of the different possible relations for the same concept and to extend the triad method to children under…

  3. The relations among maternal depressive disorder, maternal Expressed Emotion, and toddler behavior problems and attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2015-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (maternal depression); the Five Minute Speech Sample (EE); the Child Behavior Checklist (toddler behavior problems); the Strange Situation (child attachment). Direct relations were significant linking: 1) maternal depression with both EE and child functioning; 2) Child-Criticism with child internalizing and externalizing symptoms; 3) Self-Criticism with child attachment. Significant indirect relations were found linking maternal depression with: 1) child externalizing behaviors via Child-Criticism; 2) child internalizing behaviors via Self- and Child-Criticism; and 3) child attachment via Self-Criticism. Findings are consistent with a conceptual model in which maternal EE mediates relations between maternal depression and toddler socio-emotional functioning. PMID:22146899

  4. Opportunities knock: Mediation of peer-relations during meal-time in toddler groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Os

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available According to socio-cultural perspectives, adults are seen as mediators of cultural believes, values and practices. Qualitative analyses of teachers’ mediation of peer relations based on video-recordings in 9 toddler-groups indicate that meal-time represents opportunities for teachers to facilitate togetherness and peer-relations between toddlers. The teachers might facilitate sharing, passing food, routinized practices such as singing, and conversations. The results indicate variations between child- and group-oriented approaches, and accomplishing meals in an effective way. The child- and group-oriented approaches are marked by encouragement of toddlers’ initiatives and teachers supporting peer-interactions. Raising teachers’ consciousness about their contributions to children’s development of peer-relations and togetherness in group settings might contribute to enhance reflected practices in working with toddlers in groups.

  5. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

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    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  6. Understanding Preemptive Parenting: Relations with Toddlers' Misbehavior, Overreactive and Lax Discipline, and Praise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Carey Bernini; Slep, Amy M. Smith; O'Leary, Susan G.

    2009-01-01

    The relations among preemptive parenting (i.e., a hypothetical set of strategies parents can use prior to child misbehavior that serves to prevent or avoid undesirable child behaviors), dysfunctional discipline, and praise were examined. Forty mother-toddler (M age = 26.15 months, SD = 5.60) dyads interacted in a standard laboratory task designed…

  7. Cultural Influences on Toddlers' Prosocial Behavior: How Maternal Task Assignment Relates to Helping Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Moritz; Cavalcante, Lilia; Vera Cruz de Carvalho, Rafael; Dôgo Resende, Briseida; Kärtner, Joscha

    2016-01-01

    This cross-cultural study investigates how maternal task assignment relates to toddlers' requested behavior and helping between 18 and 30 months. One hundred seven mother-child dyads were assessed in three different cultural contexts (rural Brazil, urban Germany, and urban Brazil). Brazilian mothers showed assertive scaffolding (serious and…

  8. Toddlers' Temperament Profiles: Stability and Relations to Negative and Positive Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, Alithe L.; Dekovic, Maja; Prinzie, Peter; Asscher, Jessica J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the type and stability of temperament profiles in toddlers, and relations of profile probability to negative and positive parenting trajectories. Mothers (N = 96) rated their child's (41 girls and 54 boys) Sociability, Anger Proneness, and Activity Level four times during 1 year. The assessment of parenting included both…

  9. TODDLERS (1 - 5 YEARS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    Crèches, play schools and nursery schools bombard the toddler with air-borne micro-organisms and allergens. Some toddlers may have a genetic predisposition to atopic dermatitis, but apart from this, the toddler years are a relatively quiet period dermatologically, superseded to a large extent by upper respiratory tract.

  10. It's all relative: The role of object weight in toddlers' gravity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hast, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Work over the past 20 years has demonstrated a gravity bias in toddlers; when an object is dropped into a curved tube, they will frequently search at a point immediately beneath the entry of the tube rather than in the object's actual location. The current study tested 2- to 3½-year-olds' (N = 88) gravity bias under consideration of object weight. They were tested with either a heavy or light ball, and they had information about either one of the balls only or both balls. Evaluating their first search behavior showed that participants generally displayed the same age trends as other studies had demonstrated, with older toddlers passing more advanced task levels by being able to locate objects in the correct location. Object weight appeared to have no particular impact on the direction of these trends. However, where weight was accessible as relative information, toddlers were younger at passing levels and older at failing levels, although significantly so only from around 3 years of age onward. When they failed levels, toddlers made significantly more gravity errors with the heavy ball when they had information about both balls and made more correct choices with the light ball. As a whole, the findings suggest that nonvisual object variables, such as weight, affect young children's search behaviors in the gravity task, but only if these variables are presented in relation to other objects. This relational information has the potential to enhance or diminish the gravity bias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stress-related changes in toddlers and their mothers following the attack of September 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Anne; McDonough, Susan C; MacKenzie, Michael J; Follett, Chantal; Sameroff, Arnold

    2013-10-01

    Unlike other forms of disaster, terrorism is not confined to a particular place or time, and recent evidence indicates that the 9/11 terrorist attack was a significant macrolevel stressor affecting the health and mental health of United States citizens. No studies, however, have reported symptoms in toddlers and their mothers both before and after the attacks. To address this gap, we examined the effects of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on mothers and their 33-month-old toddlers. The attacks occurred during data collection at 33 months of a longitudinal study. Thirty-three-month-old toddlers and mothers who were assessed after the attacks were compared with those assessed before the attacks. When changes were examined from a previous wave of data collected at 15 months, those in the after-attack group showed poorer health, lower child acceptance, and marginally more anxiety, and their toddlers cried more and slept less, whereas the before-attack group showed no changes. Our findings contribute to research documenting widespread effects of the 9/11 terrorist attack on stress-related symptoms and suggest that greater attention must be placed on the needs of our youngest citizens and their caregivers. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  12. Marital conflict and parental responses to infant negative emotions: Relations with toddler emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Proximity strategies in outsourcing relations: the role of geographical, cultural and relational proximity in the European automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Alexander; Van Biesebroeck, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Several trends that affect the manufacturing of sophisticated goods - increasing international fragmentation of production, and lean and modular process technologies - have increased the importance of proximity in the supply chain. We use the case of the European automotive industry to simultaneously evaluate the relative importance of three dimensions: geographical, cultural, and relational proximity. Using a rich and novel data set, we find that carmakers value some aspects of each dimensio...

  14. Toddler Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are worried about your toddler, call your health care provider right away. Well-child visits are important to your toddler's health. Toddlers will get their recommended immunizations during these ...

  15. The longitudinal relations between parenting and toddlers' attention problems and aggressive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aken, C; Junger, M; Verhoeven, M; van Aken, M A G; Deković, M

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the normative developmental trajectories of toddlers' externalizing behaviors and several maternal and paternal parenting dimensions. Latent growth models were used to determine intraindividual changes and interindividual differences in these changes. One hundred and eight boys were followed from 17 months of age to 35 months of age. A significant linear decrease in attention problems and a significant linear increase in aggressive behaviors were found. Additionally, multivariate models were tested that related the developmental trajectories of externalizing behaviors to the trajectories of the parenting dimensions. The results showed meaningful contemporary relations and relations between over-time trajectories of parenting dimensions and children's externalizing behaviors.

  16. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire for identifying the dietary patterns of toddlers in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Virginia C; Skidmore, Paula M L; Watson, Emily O; Taylor, Rachael W; Fleming, Elizabeth A; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2015-04-01

    Dietary patterns provide insight into relationships between diet and disease. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) can identify dietary patterns in adults, but similar analyses have not been performed for toddlers. The aim of the Eating Assessment in Toddlers study was to evaluate the relative validity and reproducibility of dietary patterns from an FFQ developed for toddlers aged 12 to 24 months. Participants were 160 toddlers aged 12 to 24 months and their primary caregiver who completed an FFQ twice, approximately 5 weeks apart (FFQ1 and FFQ2). A 5-day weighed food record was collected on nonconsecutive days between FFQ administrations. Principal component analysis identified three major dietary patterns similar across FFQ1, FFQ2, and the 5-day weighted food record. The sweet foods and fries pattern was characterized by high intakes of sweet foods, fries and roast potato and kumara (sweet potato), butter and margarines, processed meat, sweet drinks, and fruit or milk drinks. The vegetables and meat pattern was characterized by high intakes of vegetables, meat, eggs and beans, and fruit. The milk and fruit pattern was characterized by high intakes of milk and milk products and fruit, and low intakes of breastmilk and infant and follow-up formula. The FFQ (FFQ1) correctly classified 43.1% to 51.0% of toddlers into the same quartile of pattern score as the 5-day weighted food record, and Pearson correlations ranged from 0.56 to 0.68 for the three patterns. Reliability coefficients ranged from 0.71 to 0.72 for all three dietary patterns. the Eating Assessment in Toddlers study FFQ shows acceptable relative validity and high reproducibility for identifying dietary patterns in toddlers. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of Relational Proximity on Distress from Infidelity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Maryanne; Geher, Glenn; Cox, Anthony; Tran, Ulrich S.; Hoben, Ashley; Arrabaca, Andrew; Chaize, Corinna; Dietrich, Robert; Voracek, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Men are generally more distressed by a partner's sexual infidelity whereas women are generally more distressed by a partner's emotional infidelity. The importance of the identity of the interloper, however, has been neglected. We explored the influence of relational proximity (i.e., the degree of

  18. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition of small catfish, Mystus bleekeri, from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan was investigated and fluctuation in relation to body size and condition factor was carried out. Mean percentages for water, fat, protein and ash contents in the whole wet body weight of wild M. bleekeri were 77.87, 3.26, 15.01 and ...

  19. The concept Conduct of Everyday Life in relation to toddlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Pernille

    In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed by...... contexts (home, day care, part-time foster family) and in relation to other co-participants....

  20. Antecedents of Toddler Aggression: Dysfunctional Parenting in Mother-Toddler Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Tamara; O'Leary, Susan G.

    2006-01-01

    Aggression is stable as early as 2 years of age and predicts many negative adult outcomes. Although longitudinal predictors of child aggression have been identified, information is lacking regarding the proximal precursors of toddlers' aggression. During a 30-min interaction, 54 mother-toddler dyads were observed. Toddlers were categorized as…

  1. Impact of Relational Proximity on Distress from Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryanne Fisher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Men are generally more distressed by a partner's sexual infidelity whereas women are generally more distressed by a partner's emotional infidelity. The importance of the identity of the interloper, however, has been neglected. We explored the influence of relational proximity (i.e., the degree of genetic relatedness on distress about infidelity. In Study 1, participants were most distressed when the imagined infidelity occurred between their current mate and close kin. In Study 2, relational proximity mattered more than the type of sexual behavior, the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted disease, and the likelihood of the infidelity leading to a damaged reputation. Together, the results indicate that identity matters, especially if the interloper is someone with whom we have familial bonds.

  2. Toddler Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... developmental milestones. It is exciting to watch your toddler learn new skills. The normal development of children ... playing with others, taking turns, doing fantasy play Toddlers do not develop at the same rate. There ...

  3. Mothers and toddlers lunch together. The relation between observed and reported behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Worobey, John

    2011-06-01

    Many factors are acknowledged as contributing to the current childhood obesity crisis, with the role of parenting style having recently come under scrutiny as researchers have begun to apply behavioral concepts like control and permissiveness to the context of feeding. In the present study, 20 mothers (10 overweight, 10 normal weight) and their 2-year-old offspring were observed eating a lunch under laboratory conditions. Mothers additionally provided demographic information and completed questionnaires regarding weight concerns and feeding styles. Overweight mothers were more concerned about their own weight relative to normal weight mothers but they showed no difference in their feeding behavior nor in their feeding behavior toward their children. Apart from maternal weight, however, aspects of maternal feeding style, namely observed and self-reported restriction and self-reported pressure, were associated with toddler Body Mass Index. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic and epigenetic transgenerational implications related to omega-3 fatty acids. Part II: maternal FADS2 rs174575 genotype and DNA methylation predict toddler cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Carol L; Lupu, Daniel S; Niculescu, Mihai D

    2015-11-01

    Maternal transfer of fatty acids is important to fetal brain development. The prenatal environment may differentially affect the substrates supporting declarative memory abilities, as the level of fatty acids transferred across the placenta may be affected by the maternal fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) rs174575 single nucleotide polymorphism. In this study, we hypothesized that toddler and maternal rs174575 genotype and FADS2 promoter methylation would be related to the toddlers' declarative memory performance. Seventy-one 16-month-old toddlers participated in an imitation paradigm designed to test immediate and long-term declarative memory abilities. FADS2 rs174575 genotype was determined and FADS2 promoter methylation was quantified from blood by bisulfite pyrosequencing for the toddlers and their natural mothers. Toddlers of GG mothers at the FADS2 rs174575 single nucleotide polymorphism did not perform as well on memory assessments as toddlers of CC or CG mothers when controlling for plasma α-linolenic acid and child genotype. Toddler methylation status was related to immediate memory performance, whereas maternal methylation status was related to delayed memory performance. Thus, prenatal experience and maternal FADS2 status have a pervasive, long-lasting influence on the brain development of the offspring, but as the postnatal environment becomes more primary, the offsprings' own biology begins to have an effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Temperament and Maternal Discourse about Internal States as Predictors of Toddler Empathy- and Aggression-Related Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Pamela W.; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Sixty-five mothers reported on their toddlers' attention regulation and negative emotional intensity and provided information about the toddlers' empathy and aggression. Toddler concerned attention was also observed during a laboratory session as was mothers' discourse about mental states. Toddlers reported to have better attention regulation and…

  6. Maternal perceptions of toddler body size: accuracy and satisfaction differ by toddler weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; Candelaria, Margo; Latta, Laura W; Hurley, Kristen M; Wang, Yan; Caulfield, Laura E; Black, Maureen M

    2012-05-01

    To examine (1) accuracy of maternal perceptions of toddler body size; (2) factors associated with accuracy of toddler body size; and (3) how maternal satisfaction relates to accuracy/toddler body size. Cross-sectional. Low-income community sample from suburban Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)/urban pediatric clinics. Two hundred eighty-one mother-toddler dyads (toddlers: 54.1% male; mean age, 20.2 months; 70.8% African American; 8.5% underweight [<15th weight-for-length percentile]; and 29.2% overweight [≥85th weight-for-length percentile]). Measured anthropometry (mother/toddler) and demographics. Validated toddler silhouette scale (accuracy and satisfaction). Nearly 70% of mothers were inaccurate in assessing their toddler's body size. Compared with mothers of healthy-weight toddlers, mothers of underweight toddlers were 9.13 times more likely to be accurate (95% CI, 2.94-28.36) and mothers of overweight toddlers were 87% less likely to be accurate (95% CI, 0.05-0.33); accuracy did not differ by toddler age, sex, or race or mother's education or weight status. More than 70% of all mothers and 81.7% of mothers of overweight toddlers were satisfied with their toddler's body size. Accurate mothers of underweight toddlers were less likely to be satisfied than accurate mothers of healthy-weight toddlers (30.0% vs 76.8%; P < .001). Mothers of overweight toddlers had inaccurate perceptions of their toddler's body size and were highly satisfied, suggesting a view of heavy toddlers as normative. Mothers of underweight toddlers had accurate perceptions yet were dissatisfied, suggesting recognition of their child as outside the norm. Because inaccurate perceptions begin early in toddlerhood, pediatric providers should help improve families' understanding of healthy body size. Future studies should examine how satisfaction and accuracy relate to parenting behaviors.

  7. Relative entropy and proximity of quantum field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, Vijay [David Rittenhouse Laboratories, University of Pennsylvania,Philadelphia (United States); CUNY Graduate Center, Initiative for the Theoretical Sciences,New York (United States); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Heckman, Jonathan J. [Department of Physics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,Chapel Hill (United States); Maloney, Alexander [Department of Physics, McGill University,Montreal (Canada)

    2015-05-20

    We study the question of how reliably one can distinguish two quantum field theories (QFTs). Each QFT defines a probability distribution on the space of fields. The relative entropy provides a notion of proximity between these distributions and quantifies the number of measurements required to distinguish between them. In the case of nearby conformal field theories, this reduces to the Zamolodchikov metric on the space of couplings. Our formulation quantifies the information lost under renormalization group flow from the UV to the IR and leads us to a quantification of fine-tuning. This formalism also leads us to a criterion for distinguishability of low energy effective field theories generated by the string theory landscape.

  8. Empathy-Related Responding in Chinese Toddlers: Factorial Structure and Cognitive Contributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heqing; Su, Yanjie; Jin, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The critical role of the second year of life in the development of empathy is well accepted by psychologists. However, the developmental trends of the different components of empathy and the potential factors underlying these components during this critical period remain unclear. Eighty-four Chinese toddlers in the second year of life participated…

  9. Development of Body-Part Vocabulary in Toddlers in Relation to Self-Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Whitney E.; Brownell, Celia A.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand young children's ability to communicate about their bodies, toddlers' comprehension and production of 27 common body-part words was assessed using parental report at 20 and 30 months (n?=?64), and self-awareness was assessed using mirror self-recognition. Children at both ages comprehended more body-part words that referred to…

  10. Haemoglobin level in relation to vitamin D status in infants and toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin D Deficiency (VDD is defined as the level of 25(OHD in the serum < 30 ng/ml. According to the contemporary research, even the slight vitamin D deficiency can adversely affect our body in many ways. Numerous studies indicate that vitamin D deficiency is very common in children. The study aimed to research the frequency of vitamin D deficiency in infants and toddlers, the connection between VDD and iron deficiency anemia (IDA, as well as the correlation between 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OHD and haemoglobin (Hb in the examinees. Method: The study includes 150 children, 73 (49% newborns and 77 (51% infants. Vitamin D status was determined through the amount of 25(OHD in blood, using the electrochemiluminescence. Results: Vitamin D Deficiency was found in 58% of infants and toddlers (severe vitamin D deficiency was found in 16% of examinees, vitamin D deficiency was found in 23% of examinees, while vitamin D insufficiency was found in 19% of examinees. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD and anaemia were found in 80% of examined infants and toddlers. VDD was found in 49% of newborns that were not anaemic. We have observed the substantial difference between the examinees suffering from both anaemia and VDD and the examinees suffering from VDD only. Conclusion: The highest level on anaemia was found in the children with severe vitamin D deficiency, while in the examined infants and toddlers, there was a connection between the level of 25(OHD and Hb in the serum.

  11. Smell differential reactivity, but not taste differential reactivity, is related to food neophobia in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnery-Patris, Sandrine; Wagner, Sandra; Rigal, Natalie; Schwartz, Camille; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has identified relationships between chemosensory reactivity and food neophobia in children. However, most studies have investigated this relationship using declarative data and without separately analysing smell and taste reactivity. Our first objective was to assess the relationships between smell and taste differential reactivity in toddlers (i.e. reactivity towards several stimuli), using experimental behavioural measurements. The second objective was to determine the relationships between smell (or taste) differential reactivity and food neophobia in toddlers, with the hypothesis that the more responsive a toddler was across food odours or tastes, the more neophobic s/he would be. An additional objective was to determine whether the potential relationships between smell (or taste) differential reactivity and food neophobia differ according to gender. One hundred and twenty-three toddlers aged from 20 to 22 months from the Opaline birth cohort (Observatory of Food Preferences in Infants and Children) were involved. A questionnaire was used to assess child's food neophobia. Toddlers' differential reactivity for smell (and for taste) was defined as the variability of behavioural responses over 8 odorants, and over the five basic tastes. Smell and taste differential reactivities were not correlated. Food neophobia scores were modestly but significantly positively correlated with smell differential reactivity but not with taste differential reactivity. When gender was considered, smell reactivity and neophobia were correlated only among boys. This indicates the need to study smell and taste reactivity separately to determine their associations with eating behaviours. This suggests that the rejection of novel foods in neophobic boys could be partly due to food odour. This finding is new and clearly requires further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prenatal maternal stress in relation to the effects of prenatal lead exposure on toddler cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Jinsong; Yan, Chonghuai; Lin, Yanfen; Jia, Yinan; Hu, Wenjing

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of maternal lead exposure during pregnancy on toddler cognitive development and the potential effect modification by maternal stress. We conducted a prospective birth-cohort study in Shanghai from 2010 to 2012 and investigated 225 mother-infant pairs. The mothers were recruited in mid-to-late pregnancy and children were followed up until 24-36 months old. A self-administered Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale (SCL-90-R) was used to assess maternal emotional stress during pregnancy. Maternal whole blood lead levels were measured during gestational weeks 28-36. The toddlers' cognitive levels were assessed using the Gesell Development Scale. Multiple linear regression models were established to explore the main effects of prenatal lead exposure on toddlers' cognitive abilities and the modifying effects of maternal stress. Covariate information was collected through interviews, questionnaires and medical records. The mean maternal blood lead concentration was 3.30 (95%CI: 3.05, 3.57) μg/dL. After adjusting for relevant confounders, no significant associations of maternal blood lead concentrations with toddlers' cognitive levels were observed in all five domains of the Gesell scale (P>0.05). However, the interaction between prenatal maternal blood lead and stress was significant in the domains of adaptive behavior, language and social behavior. When stratified by maternal stress levels, compared with non-significant associations (P>0.05) among low (P1-P75) prenatal stress group, adverse associations between maternal blood lead concentrations (log10-transformed) and toddlers' cognitive levels were observed among high (P75-P100) prenatal stress group in the domains of language (β=-33.82, 95%CI: -60.04, -7.59), social behavior (β=-41.00, 95%CI: -63.11, -18.89) and adaptive behavior (β=-17.93, 95%CI: -35.83, -0.03). Prenatal maternal stress may exacerbate the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to lead on toddler cognitive development

  13. Relation between infants'/toddlers' developmental status and their levels of object play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of introduced study was to establish the connection between the highest achieved levels of infant' and toddler's object play and their developmental status. 23 Slovenian infants and toddlers were included in the sample. They were engaged in solitary play with standard toys. Global and partial quotients were established using the early childhood development scale RT-R. The levels of child's solitary play were estimated using assesment scale designed by Belsky and Most. The results showed some statisticaly significant correlations between children's developmental qoutients (global and partial and their highest achieved levels of object play. As the basis for the interpretation of results I used the theories which explain the development of child's language, cognition and play.

  14. Toddlers' bias to look at average versus obese figures relates to maternal anti-fat prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; O'Brien, Kerry S; Taumoepeau, Mele; Latner, Janet D; Hunter, John A

    2016-02-01

    Anti-fat prejudice (weight bias, obesity stigma) is strong, prevalent, and increasing in adults and is associated with negative outcomes for those with obesity. However, it is unknown how early in life this prejudice forms and the reasons for its development. We examined whether infants and toddlers might display an anti-fat bias and, if so, whether it was influenced by maternal anti-fat attitudes through a process of social learning. Mother-child dyads (N=70) split into four age groups participated in a preferential looking paradigm whereby children were presented with 10 pairs of average and obese human figures in random order, and their viewing times (preferential looking) for the figures were measured. Mothers' anti-fat prejudice and education were measured along with mothers' and fathers' body mass index (BMI) and children's television viewing time. We found that older infants (M=11months) had a bias for looking at the obese figures, whereas older toddlers (M=32months) instead preferred looking at the average-sized figures. Furthermore, older toddlers' preferential looking was correlated significantly with maternal anti-fat attitudes. Parental BMI, education, and children's television viewing time were unrelated to preferential looking. Looking times might signal a precursor to explicit fat prejudice socialized via maternal anti-fat attitudes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Toddlers Watching TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2007-01-01

    In recent studies on children and electronic media, children are acknowledged as active users, interpreting TV-texts in various meaningful ways, according to their previously constructed knowledge of narratives and relating the texts to their everyday lives. Still, there is a tendency that toddlers...... of children's media use, the way both parents, media and market set up the frames of children's reception....

  16. Best proximity pair theorems for relatively nonexpansive mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sankar Raj

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Let A, B be nonempty closed bounded convex subsets of a uniformly convex Banach space and T : A∪B → A∪B be a map such that T(A ⊆ B, T(B ⊆ A and ǁTx − Tyǁ ≤ ǁx − yǁ, for x in A and y in B. The fixed point equation Tx = x does not possess a solution when A ∩ B = Ø. In such a situation it is natural to explore to find an element x0 in A satisfying ǁx0 − Tx0ǁ = inf{ǁa − bǁ : a ∈ A, b ∈ B} = dist(A,B. Using Zorn’s lemma, Eldred et.al proved that such a point x0 exists in a uniformly convex Banach space settings under the conditions stated above. In this paper, by using a convergence theorem we attempt to prove the existence of such a point x0 (called best proximity point without invoking Zorn’s lemma.

  17. Age-related changes in proximal humerus bone health in healthy, white males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantila Roosa, Sara M.; Hurd, Andrea L.; Xu, Huiping; Fuchs, Robyn K.; Warden, Stuart J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The proximal humerus is relatively under investigated despite being the fourth most common site for osteoporotic fracture. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed to assess age-related changes in dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) properties of the proximal humerus in a cohort of 170 healthy, white males. Results Regression models estimated considerable age-related loss of DXA measured bone quantity at the proximal humerus, with areal bone mineral density modeled to decline by 29% (95%CI, 17.5–35.0%) in the 50 years between ages 30 and 80 years (pproximal humerus bone strength in the 50 years between ages 30 and 80 years (pproximal humeral bone health which, when coupled with a traumatic event such as a fall, may contribute to osteoporotic fracture at this site. PMID:22258805

  18. Positive and negative expressions of shyness in toddlers: are they related to anxiety in the same way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonnesi, Cristina; Napoleone, Elisa; Bögels, Susan M

    2014-04-01

    Shyness has generally been investigated as a negative and unpleasant emotional state, strongly related to social anxiety and loneliness. However, recent evidence has suggested that shyness may have a positive and socially adaptive form. We examined whether the positive expression of shyness differs from the negative expression of shyness during toddlerhood, and whether a negative relation to anxiety exists. Participants were 30-month-old children (N=102; 56 girls) who were asked to mimic animal sounds with a novel person (performance) and then to watch their performance (self-watching). Their expression of pleasure (positive reactions) and distress (negative reactions), as well as their positive and negative expressions of shyness, were coded. Children's temperamental level of shyness, sociability, and anxiety were measured with parent-reported questionnaires. Toddlers produced more positive and negative displays of shyness in the performance task than in the self-watching task. Children's positive expression of shyness was associated with lower parent-reported anxiety and higher sociability. Negative reactions, but not negative shyness, were related to children's higher anxiety levels and lower sociability. Multiple linear regression analyses confirmed a negative predictive role of the positive expression of shyness on anxiety. These results suggest that the positive expression of shyness can regulate early anxiety symptoms and already serves a social function in interpersonal interactions in early childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Attachment security mediates the longitudinal association between child-parent psychotherapy and peer relations for toddlers of depressed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Danielle J; Toth, Sheree L; Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2017-05-01

    Numerous investigations have demonstrated that child-parent psychotherapy (CPP) promotes secure attachment between mothers and offspring. However, the role of postintervention attachment security as it relates to long-term child outcomes has never been evaluated. The present study therefore examined postintervention attachment status as a mediator of the association between CPP for depressed mothers and their offspring and subsequent peer relations among offspring. Depressed mothers and their toddlers were randomized to receive CPP (n = 45) or to a control group (n = 55). A prior investigation with this sample indicated that offspring who received CPP attained significantly higher rates of secure attachment postintervention, whereas insecure attachment continued to predominate for offspring in the control group. The present study examined follow-up data of teachers' reports on participants' competence with classroom peers when they were approximately 9 years old. Findings indicated that children who received CPP were more likely to evidence secure attachments at postintervention, which in turn was associated with more positive peer relationships at age 9.

  20. Health related quality of life in Dutch infants, toddlers, and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, S A; van Oers, H A; Maurice-Stam, H; Huisman, J; Verhaak, C M; Grootenhuis, M A; Haverman, L

    2017-04-24

    The purpose of this study is to provide Dutch normative data and to assess internal consistency and known-groups validity for the TNO AZL Preschool Children Quality of Life (TAPQOL) and the acute version of the generic Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0) in Dutch young children aged 0-7 years. Participants were selected from a panel of a large Dutch market research agency. A sample of 794 parents (response rate 61%, 39% fathers) of children (53% boys) from the general Dutch population, completed an electronic version of the TAPQOL (N = 227 infants aged 0-1 years) or PedsQL 4.0 (N = 293 toddlers aged 2-4 years and N = 274 young children aged 5-7 years). Except for the 'stomach' scale (α = .39), the TAPQOL showed acceptable to excellent internal consistency (α = .60-.88). The PedsQL 4.0 showed acceptable to excellent reliability in children aged 2-4 years (α = .60-.88) and in children aged 5-7 years (α = .76-.90). Children with a chronic health condition had lower scores than healthy children on 3 out of 12 domains of the TAPQOL (p = .001-.013) and on 2 out of 6 domains of the PedsQL 4.0 for children aged 2-4 years (p = .016-.04). The PedsQL 4.0 differentiated on all domains (p children aged 5-7 years with and without a chronic health condition. In Dutch children aged 0-7 years old, HRQoL can be relialy measured with the TAPQOL and the PedsQL 4.0. However, it remains unclear whether these HRQoL instruments can distinguish between healthy children and children with a chronic health condition under the age of 5.

  1. Poor relation between biomechanical and clinical studies for the proximal femoral locking compression plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viberg, Bjarke; Voergård Rasmussen, Katrine Marie; Overgaard, Søren

    2017-01-01

    or higher failure loads for femoral neck fracture, the clinical results were far worse, with a 37% complication rate. There were no biomechanical studies on pertrochanteric fractures. Biomechanical studies on subtrochanteric fractures showed that PF-LCP had a lower failure load than with proximal femoral......Background and purpose — The proximal femur locking compression plate (PF-LCP) is a new concept in the treatment of hip fractures. When releasing new implants onto the market, biomechanical studies are conducted to evaluate performance of the implant. We investigated the relation between...

  2. Snacks for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Braces Eating Disorders Mitral Valve Prolapse Arrhythmias Snacks for Toddlers KidsHealth > For Parents > Snacks for Toddlers ... it at snack time. continue Stick to a Snack Schedule Kids do better with a routine, so ...

  3. Toddlers and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Toddlers and Sexual Behavior Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... problem or sexual abuse. What kind of sexual behaviors are okay? Masturbation in toddlers is usually nothing ...

  4. Proximity under Threat: The Role of Physical Distance in Intergroup Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Michael J. A.; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human history, social groups have invested immense amounts of wealth and time to keep threatening out-groups at a distance. In the current research, we explored the relationship between intergroup threat, physical distance, and discrimination. Specifically, we examined how intergroup threat alters estimates of physical distance to out-groups and how physical proximity affects intergroup relations. Previous research has found that people judge threatening out-groups as physically close. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined ways to attenuate this bias. In Study 1 a secure (vs. permeable) US-Mexico border reduced the estimated proximity to Mexico City among Americans who felt threatened by Mexican immigration. In Study 2, intergroup apologies reduced estimates of physical proximity to a threatening cross-town rival university, but only among participants with cross-group friendships. In Study 3, New York Yankees fans who received an experimental induction of physical proximity to a threatening out-group (Boston Red Sox) had a stronger relationship between their collective identification with the New York Yankees and support for discriminatory policies toward members of the out-group (Red Sox fans) as well as how far they chose to sit from out-group members (Red Sox fans). Together, these studies suggest that intergroup threat alters judgment of physical properties, which has important implications for intergroup relations. PMID:27467267

  5. Toddlers: Learning by Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Top 10 Homework Tips Raising Confident Kids Toddlers: Learning by Playing KidsHealth > For Parents > Toddlers: Learning by Playing Print A A A What's in ... child's play, but toddlers are hard at work learning important physical skills as they gain muscle control, ...

  6. Toddler Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child: 1 to 2 Years Safety for Your Child: 2 to 4 Years Shoes for Active Toddlers Social Development: 1 Year Olds Social Development: 2 Year Olds Stuttering in Toddlers & Preschoolers: What’s Typical, What’s Not? Teaching Toddlers to Feed Themselves AUDIO Tips for Grandparents of a 1-Year-Old ... Find Us Donate Contact ...

  7. Toddlers as Mathematicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shiree

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a recent case study providing evidence that toddlers explore mathematical concepts in their outdoor play. The play experiences the toddlers engaged in gave rise to seven mathematical categories. In each of these categories examples are given of some of the ways the toddlers displayed their mathematical knowledge and skill.

  8. Existential neuroscience: neurophysiological correlates of proximal defenses against death-related thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Eva; Kronbichler, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A great deal of evidence suggests that reminders of mortality increase ingroup support and worldview defense, presumably in order to deal with the potential for anxiety that roots in the knowledge that death is inevitable. Interestingly, these effects are obtained solely when thoughts of death are not in the focus of consciousness. When conscious, death-related thoughts are usually defended against using proximal defenses, which entail distraction or suppression. The present study aimed at demonstrating neurophysiological correlates of proximal defenses. We focused on the late positive potential (LPP), which is thought to reflect an increased allocation of attention toward, and processing of, motivationally relevant stimuli. Our prediction was that the LPP should be increased for death-related relative to death-unrelated, but equally unpleasant stimulus words. In Experiment 1, this prediction was confirmed. This finding was replicated in Experiment 2, which used a target word detection task. In Experiment 2, both death-related and pleasant words elicited an enhanced LPP, presumably because during the less demanding task, people might have distracted themselves from the mortality reminders by focusing on pleasant words. To summarize, we were able to identify a plausible neurophysiological marker of proximal defenses in the form of an increased LPP to death-related words. PMID:22267519

  9. Congenital anomalies, prematurity, and low birth weight rates in relation to nuclear power plant proximity1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangones, Tania; Visintainer, Paul; Brumberg, Heather L

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal residential proximity to a nuclear reactor is associated with prevalence of certain birth defects. The New York State Vital Statistics and Congenital Malformations Registry data (1992-2001) were analyzed for five Hudson Valley counties in a 20-mile radius from the Indian Point nuclear reactor (Buchanan, NY, USA). Four zones of 5-mile increments were used to categorize proximity to the reactor. Data included congenital anomalies, low birth weight, and prematurity. Over the 10-year period, 702 malformations in 666 children were identified from a birth population of 328,124, yielding a regional rate of 2.1 major malformations per 1000 births. The prevalence of defects, low birth weight, and prematurity were not related to proximity to the nuclear power plant. These data did not substantiate an association between maternal proximity to the reactor and certain birth defects and provide baseline data for comparison in the event of a nuclear accident.

  10. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers? eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach

    OpenAIRE

    van der Horst, Klazine; Sleddens, Ester F. C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Toddlers? eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. Methods An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardian...

  11. Relative Language Exposure, Processing Efficiency and Vocabulary in Spanish-English Bilingual Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Nereyda; Gruter, Theres; Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Research with monolingual children has shown that early efficiency in real-time word recognition predicts later language and cognitive outcomes. In parallel research with young bilingual children, processing ability and vocabulary size are closely related within each language, although not across the two languages. For children in dual-language…

  12. Toddler test or procedure preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preparing toddler for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - toddler; Preparing for a medical test or procedure - toddler ... Before the test, know that your child will probably cry. Even if you prepare, your child may feel some discomfort or ...

  13. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers' eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klazine van der Horst

    Full Text Available Toddlers' eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices and by reported child eating styles.An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles.A three cluster solution of parenting style was found and clusters were labelled as overprotective/supervising, authoritarian, and authoritative. The clusters differed in terms of general parenting behaviors. Both overprotective and authoritative clusters showed high scores on structure, behavioral control, and nurturance. The overprotective cluster scored high on overprotection. The 'authoritarian' cluster showed lowest levels of nurturance, structure and behavioral control. Overprotective and authoritative parents showed very similar patterns in the use of food parenting practices, e.g. monitoring food intake, modeling, and promoting healthy food intake and availability at home. Overprotective parents also reported higher use of pressure to eat and involvement. Authoritarian parents reported high use of giving the child control over their food behaviors, emotion regulation, using food as a reward, and controlling food intake for weight control. Children's eating styles did not largely vary by parenting cluster.This study showed that a relatively new parenting style of overprotection is relevant for children's eating behaviors. Overprotective parents reported food parenting practices that are known to be beneficial for children's food intake, such as modelling healthy food

  14. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers' eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Sleddens, Ester F C

    2017-01-01

    Toddlers' eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians) with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles. A three cluster solution of parenting style was found and clusters were labelled as overprotective/supervising, authoritarian, and authoritative. The clusters differed in terms of general parenting behaviors. Both overprotective and authoritative clusters showed high scores on structure, behavioral control, and nurturance. The overprotective cluster scored high on overprotection. The 'authoritarian' cluster showed lowest levels of nurturance, structure and behavioral control. Overprotective and authoritative parents showed very similar patterns in the use of food parenting practices, e.g. monitoring food intake, modeling, and promoting healthy food intake and availability at home. Overprotective parents also reported higher use of pressure to eat and involvement. Authoritarian parents reported high use of giving the child control over their food behaviors, emotion regulation, using food as a reward, and controlling food intake for weight control. Children's eating styles did not largely vary by parenting cluster. This study showed that a relatively new parenting style of overprotection is relevant for children's eating behaviors. Overprotective parents reported food parenting practices that are known to be beneficial for children's food intake, such as modelling healthy food intake, as well as

  15. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers' vocabulary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgström, Kristina; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Lindgren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds' (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24) ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development. PMID:25762957

  16. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers' vocabulary size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgström, Kristina; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Lindgren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds' (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24) ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development.

  17. The effects of clothes on independent walking in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théveniau, Nicolas; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Varieras, Sabine; Olivier, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The spatiotemporal features of walking in toddlers are known to be related to the level of maturation of the central nervous system. However, previous studies did not assess whether there could be an effect of clothes on the acquisition of walking. In this study, it was hypothesized that clothes modify the toddlers' walking. To test this hypothesis, 22 healthy toddlers divided into 3 groups of walking experience were assessed in four clothing conditions (Diaper+Trousers; Diaper+Pants of tracksuit; Diaper; Underwear). Results revealed significant effects of clothing on velocity and step length of toddlers from 6 to 18 months of walking experience. These results suggested that biomechanical constraints induced by the textile features alter the walking of toddlers. Therefore, in studies of toddler's gait, the clothing worn should be carefully mentioned and controlled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Nutrition > Dietary Supplements for Toddlers Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size ... variety of iron-rich foods so that, eventually, supplementation won't be necessary. Additional Information ... & Nutrition Tips: Your 2-Year-Old Vitamin D Deficiency ...

  19. Toddler Reading Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Shopping Healthy Drinks for Kids Toddler Reading Time KidsHealth > For Parents > Toddler Reading Time Print A A A What's in this article? ... Kids make big leaps in vocabulary during this time, and learn about letters, shapes, colors, weather, animals, ...

  20. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth / For Parents / Nutrition Guide ... español Guía de nutrición para sus hijos pequeños Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  1. Structural patterns of the proximal femur in relation to age and hip fracture risk in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Harnish, Roy; Saeed, Isra; Streeper, Timothy; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Amin, Shreyasee; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Therneau, Terry M.; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Melton, L. Joseph; Keyak, Joyce; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Khosla, Sundeep; Harris, Tamara B.; Lang, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal femur are the most devastating outcome of osteoporosis. It is generally understood that age-related changes in hip structure confer increased risk, but there have been few explicit comparisons of such changes in healthy subjects to those with hip fracture. In this study, we used quantitative computed tomography and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to identify three-dimensional internal structural patterns of the proximal femur associated with age and with incident hip fracture. A population-based cohort of 349 women representing a broad age range (21–97 years) were included in this study, along with a cohort of 222 older women (mean age 79±7 years) with (n=74) and without (n=148) incident hip fracture. Images were spatially normalized to a standardized space, and age- and fracture-specific morphometric features were identified based on statistical maps of shape features described as local changes of bone volume. Morphometric features were visualized as maps of local contractions and expansions, and significance was displayed as Student’s t-test statistical maps. Significant age-related changes included local expansions of regions low in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and local contractions of regions high in vBMD. Some significant fracture-related features resembled an accentuated aging process, including local expansion of the superior aspect of the trabecular bone compartment in the femoral neck, with contraction of the adjoining cortical bone. However, other features were observed only in the comparison of hip fracture subjects with age-matched controls including focal contractions of the cortical bone at the superior aspect of the femoral neck, the lateral cortical bone just inferior to the greater trochanter, and the anterior intertrochanteric region. Results of this study support the idea that the spatial distribution of morphometric features is relevant to age-related changes in bone and independently to fracture risk. In

  2. Exploring the Relationship between Global Quality and Group Engagement in Toddler Child Care Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Alison; Hallam, Rena

    2017-01-01

    Toddlers' engagement with their social and physical environment is an important aspect of their experience in early care and education programs. The purpose of this research study was to examine how global quality relates to children's engagement in toddler child care classrooms. Additionally, this study explored how toddlers' group engagement…

  3. Proximal and distal styles of pegmatite-related metasomatic emerald mineralization at Ianapera, southern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianjakavah, Prosper Rakotovao; Salvi, Stefano; Béziat, Didier; Rakotondrazafy, Michel; Giuliani, Gaston

    2009-10-01

    The Ianapera emerald deposit is located in the Neoproterozoic Vohibory Block of southern Madagascar. The local geology consists of intercalated migmatitic gneissic units and calcareous metasedimentary rocks, containing boudinaged metamorphosed mafic/ultramafic lenses, all intruded by pegmatite veins. These units occur near the hinge of the tightly folded Ianapera antiform, within a few kilometers of the Ampanihy shear zone. Emerald mineralization is hosted by metasomatic phlogopite veins, and bodies developed within the mafic/ultramafic rocks. Based on field and textural relationships, we distinguish proximal and distal styles of mineralization. Proximal mineralization occurs at the contact of pegmatite veins with mafic/ultramafic units; in the distal style, pegmatites are not observed. Three types of emeralds could be distinguished, mainly on the basis of color and mineral zoning. Some of these emeralds have the most Al-depleted and Cr-rich composition ever recorded. Another characteristic feature to the Ianapera deposit and, to our knowledge, yet unreported, is the association of some emeralds with scapolite in metasomatised mafic rocks. Mineral inclusions are common in most emeralds and include phlogopite, carbonates, barite, K-feldspar, quartz, pyrite, zircon, monazite, bastnaesite, phenakite, plus Fe and Cr oxides. However, feldspar and rare earth element-bearing minerals occur predominantly in proximal emeralds, which also have a more incompatible trace-element signature than distal emeralds. We propose a model related to syn- to post-tectonic magmatic-hydrothermal activity. Pegmatitic bodies intruded units of the Ianapera antiform probably during tectonic relaxation. Exsolution of fluids rich in halogens and incompatible elements from the cooling pegmatites caused hydrothermal metasomatism of Cr-bearing mafic/ultramafic rocks in direct contact with the pegmatites. Local fracturing favored fluid infiltration, permitting the formation of distal mineralization

  4. Creative Careers and Territorial Development: The Role of Networks and Relational Proximity in Fashion Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Geater Montreal is the third largest city in North America for the garment industry in terms of labour force, after Los Angeles and New York. The industry has however changed partly into a service industry, centered on fashion design, with a focus on international competitiveness but also the role of fashion in Montreal's economic and territorial development. Our article analyzes careers in the fashion design sector, sheds light on the evolution of creative sectors, and shows how these sectors could be better supported to favor local development, as neighborhoods and space design appear important in these creative sectors. We situate our analysis in the theoretical context of career theories, and analyze key moments in careers and the role of intermediate organizations and government programs in supporting these careers. Our paper makes a contribution to our knowledge of career paths in the fashion industry, but also to the role of relational proximity in supporting these careers, and thus local development. It highlights the importance of personal connections, the milieu in which the individual works and functions, the creativity of the individual, as well as the role of the local support organizations and professional associations, including agencies of the provincial government.

  5. The Relations between Reported Well-Being and Divorce History, Availability of a Proximate Adult, and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.

    1991-01-01

    Examined relations between reported well-being, divorce history, availability of proximate adult, and gender in 6,573 respondents. Three main effects were significant: those with history of no divorce reported greater happiness than those with divorce; married persons reported greater happiness and less depression than those cohabiting; and men…

  6. The impact of neighborhood, family, and individual risk factors on toddlers' disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, Amy E; Thomas, Yolanda M; Wagmiller, Robert L; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Carter, Alice S

    2014-01-01

    Disadvantaged neighborhoods confer risk for behavior problems in school-aged children but their impact in toddlerhood is unknown. Relations between toddlers' disruptive behavior and neighborhood disadvantage, family disadvantage, violence or conflict exposure, parent depressive symptoms, and parenting behavior were examined using multilevel, multigroup (girl-boy) models. Participants were 1,204 families (mean child age = 24.7 months). Unique associations between disruptive behavior and all risk factors were observed, but the effect of neighborhood disadvantage was negligible when all of the more proximal factors were accounted for. The results suggest both that children in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at greater risk of behavior problems than children in nondisadvantaged neighborhoods and that optimal prevention/intervention work with these children will attend to proximal risk factors. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Shoes versus sneakers in toddler ambulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, N

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative values and differences between shoes and sneakers for young children just learning to walk. In phase 1 of the study, 79 toddlers (47 females and 32 males), ranging in age from 11 months to 3 years, were carefully measured for footwear. Only 15 toddlers (19%) could be properly fitted in the medium-width sneakers that are currently available on the market. The majority of the measured toddlers required widths greater than D, and to accommodate these wider feet, it was necessary to fit them with longer sneakers than they actually needed otherwise, thus making ambulation a bit more difficult and clumsy. In phase 2, eight toddlers, randomly selected except for sex (four male and four female), ranging in age from 11 to 16 months who had been ambulating 2 weeks to 5 months, were tagged with an identifying letter and videotaped in four walking situations: sneakers on tile, shoes on tile, sneakers on rugging, and shoes on rugging. Four hours of video taping was edited down to one-half hour. Twenty-three observers (orthopaedic surgeons, pediatricians, and shoe fitters) carefully reviewed the tape on multiple occasions and came to the following conclusions: better fit, stance, gait, cadence, and stability were noted with shoes in all the toddlers and in all situations. Falls were three times more frequent in sneakers as compared to shoes on tile surfaces and five times more frequent on rugging. It was concluded that the slight economic advantage of sneakers over shoes was not that great to warrant jeopardizing the capabilities of the toddler in the earliest stages of ambulation.

  8. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  9. Toddler Nutrition: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6 months to 2 years Related Health Topics Child Nutrition Infant and Newborn Nutrition National Institutes of Health The primary NIH organization for research on Toddler Nutrition is the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Disclaimers MedlinePlus links to ...

  10. Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived proximity to mobile phone base stations and powerlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolte John

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence about a possible causal relationship between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF emitted by sources such as mobile phone base stations (BS and powerlines is insufficient. So far little epidemiological research has been published on the contribution of psychological components to the occurrence of EMF-related NSPS. The prior objective of the current study is to explore the relative importance of actual and perceived proximity to base stations and psychological components as determinants of NSPS, adjusting for demographic, residency and area characteristics. Methods Analysis was performed on data obtained in a cross-sectional study on environment and health in 2006 in the Netherlands. In the current study, 3611 adult respondents (response rate: 37% in twenty-two Dutch residential areas completed a questionnaire. Self-reported instruments included a symptom checklist and assessment of environmental and psychological characteristics. The computation of the distance between household addresses and location of base stations and powerlines was based on geo-coding. Multilevel regression models were used to test the hypotheses regarding the determinants related to the occurrence of NSPS. Results After adjustment for demographic and residential characteristics, analyses yielded a number of statistically significant associations: Increased report of NSPS was predominantly predicted by higher levels of self-reported environmental sensitivity; perceived proximity to base stations and powerlines, lower perceived control and increased avoidance (coping behavior were also associated with NSPS. A trend towards a moderator effect of perceived environmental sensitivity on the relation between perceived proximity to BS and NSPS was verified (p = 0.055. There was no significant association between symptom occurrence and actual distance to BS or powerlines. Conclusions Perceived proximity to BS

  11. Maternal depressive symptoms, maternal behavior, and toddler internalizing outcomes: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Alexandra C; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2015-02-01

    Maternal depression relates to child internalizing outcomes, but one missing aspect of this association is how variation in depressive symptoms, including mild and moderate symptoms, relates to young children's outcomes. The current study examined a moderated mediation model to investigate how maternal behaviors may mediate this association in the context of child temperament and gender. Mothers and toddlers completed a free-play/clean-up task in the laboratory. Mothers rated their depressive symptoms and their toddlers' temperament and internalizing behaviors. Results indicated a significant indirect effect of maternal warmth on the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and toddler internalizing outcomes for boys with low negative emotionality. Toddler gender and temperament moderated the relation between maternal intrusiveness and toddler internalizing outcomes, but mediation was not supported. Results highlight the important interaction between child and maternal variables in predicting child outcomes, and suggest mechanisms by and conditions under which mild maternal depressive symptomatology can be a risk factor for toddler internalizing outcomes.

  12. The combination of structural parameters and areal bone mineral density improves relation to proximal femur strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Ahrberg, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    -one human proximal femur specimens (8 men and 23 women, median age 74 years, range 50-89) were examined with HR-pQCT at four regions of interest (femoral head, neck, major and minor trochanter) with 82 μm and in a subgroup (n = 17) with 41 μm resolution. Separate analyses of cortical and trabecular geometry...... fractures were confirmed. Geometry, vBMD, microarchitecture, and aBMD correlated significantly with MCS, with Spearman's correlation coefficients up to 0.77, 0.89, 0.90, and 0.85 (P ...

  13. Maternal depressive symptoms, toddler emotion regulation, and subsequent emotion socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Motor development of blind toddler

    OpenAIRE

    Likar, Petra

    2013-01-01

    For blind toddlers, development of motor skills enables possibilities for learning and exploring the environment. The purpose of this graduation thesis is to systematically mark the milestones in development of motor skills in blind toddlers, to establish different factors which affect this development, and to discover different ways for teachers for visually impaired and parents to encourage development of motor skills. It is typical of blind toddlers that they do not experience a wide varie...

  15. Brain region's relative proximity as marker for Alzheimer's disease based on structural MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge Emil; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2014-01-01

    brain structures like hippocampus, this paper investigates the relationship and proximity between regions in the brain and uses this information as a novel way of classifying normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and AD subjects.METHODS:A longitudinal cohort of 528 subjects (170 NC, 240......BACKGROUND:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, incurable neurodegenerative disease and the most common type of dementia. It cannot be prevented, cured or drastically slowed, even though AD research has increased in the past 5-10 years. Instead of focusing on the brain volume or on the single...... MCI, and 114 AD) from ADNI at baseline and month 12 was studied. We investigated a marker based on Procrustes aligned center of masses and the percentile surface connectivity between regions. These markers were classified using a linear discriminant analysis in a cross validation setting and compared...

  16. Adaptive relative pose control for autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and proximity operations with thrust misalignment and model uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Zheng, Zewei

    2017-04-01

    An adaptive relative pose control strategy is proposed for a pursue spacecraft in proximity operations on a tumbling target. Relative position vector between two spacecraft is required to direct towards the docking port of the target while the attitude of them must be synchronized. With considering the thrust misalignment of pursuer, an integrated controller for relative translational and relative rotational dynamics is developed by using norm-wise adaptive estimations. Parametric uncertainties, unknown coupled dynamics, and bounded external disturbances are compensated online by adaptive update laws. It is proved via Lyapunov stability theory that the tracking errors of relative pose converge to zero asymptotically. Numerical simulations including six degrees-of-freedom rigid body dynamics are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  17. Maternal Accuracy in Predicting Toddlers' Behaviors and Associations with Toddlers' Fearful Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2006-01-01

    Past research provides associations between maternal parenting behaviors and characteristics such as depression and toddlers' fearful temperament. Less is known about how maternal cognitive characteristics and normal personality relate to fearful temperament. This study examined associations among the maternal cognitive characteristic of accuracy,…

  18. Incidence and risk factors of hardware-related complications after proximal femoral osteotomy in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Myung Ki; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Cho, Byung Chae; Lee, Gye Wang; Kim, Jaeyoung; Moon, Seung Jun; Lee, Jae Woo; Chung, Chin Youb; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Kyoung Min; Park, Moon Seok

    2017-03-08

    Proximal femoral osteotomy has been used in cerebral palsy, Perthes disease, hip dysplasia, idiopathic femoral anteversion, and various hip diseases in children and adolescents. Conventionally, a blade plate (BP) has been used. However, the pediatric locking compression plate (LCP) has recently been applied widely. We compared the hardware-related complications of the BP and the LCP as well as the factors influencing these complications in patients who have undergone a proximal femoral osteotomy in children and adolescents. We enrolled consecutive patients aged less than or equal to 20 years who had undergone proximal femoral osteotomy with BP or LCP between May 2003 and December 2014, and who were followed up until 6 months after hardware removal. Following consensus building, hardware-related complications were identified from the patients' medical records and hip radiographs. Patient age, sex, type of plate, and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level in cerebral palsy patients were evaluated as possible risk factors, and a generalized estimating equation was used to assess the risk factors for hardware-related complications. A total of 417 hips from 251 patients were finally included in this study. Seven losses of fixation around the plate (five patients, 3.0%) occurred in the BP, three implant-related fractures (three patients, 3.6%) occurred in the LCP, and there was no significant difference (P=0.74). All hardware-related complications occurred in cerebral palsy patients, and the implant-related fractures occurred in patients with GMFCS IV/V. The risk of complications increased with age (P=0.002). The risk of loss of fixation around the BP is a well-known complication. However, LCP is not without hardware-related complications. The LCP provides strong stability of fixation. However, it is speculated that the LCP is related to implant-related fractures because of the stress shielding effect. Therefore, care should be exercised when using a

  19. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  20. Systematic development and validation of a theory-based questionnaire to assess toddler feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kristen M; Pepper, M Reese; Candelaria, Margo; Wang, Yan; Caulfield, Laura E; Latta, Laura; Hager, Erin R; Black, Maureen M

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a 27-item caregiver-reported questionnaire on toddler feeding. The development of the Toddler Feeding Behavior Questionnaire was based on a theory of interactive feeding that incorporates caregivers' responses to concerns about their children's dietary intake, appetite, size, and behaviors rather than relying exclusively on caregiver actions. Content validity included review by an expert panel (n = 7) and testing in a pilot sample (n = 105) of low-income mothers of toddlers. Construct validity and reliability were assessed among a second sample of low-income mothers of predominately African-American (70%) toddlers aged 12-32 mo (n = 297) participating in the baseline evaluation of a toddler overweight prevention study. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α: 0.64-0.87) and test-retest (0.57-0.88) reliability were acceptable for most constructs. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed 5 theoretically derived constructs of feeding: responsive, forceful/pressuring, restrictive, indulgent, and uninvolved (root mean square error of approximation = 0.047, comparative fit index = 0.90, standardized root mean square residual = 0.06). Statistically significant (P < 0.05) convergent validity results further validated the scale, confirming established relations between feeding behaviors, toddler overweight status, perceived toddler fussiness, and maternal mental health. The Toddler Feeding Behavior Questionnaire adds to the field by providing a brief instrument that can be administered in 5 min to examine how caregiver-reported feeding behaviors relate to toddler health and behavior.

  1. Positive and negative expressions of shyness in toddlers: are they related to anxiety in the same way?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colonnesi, C.; Napoleone, E.; Bögels, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Shyness has generally been investigated as a negative and unpleasant emotional state, strongly related to social anxiety and loneliness. However, recent evidence suggests that shyness may have a positive and socially adaptive form. We examined whether the positive expression of shyness differs from

  2. Bidirectional Influences in Mother-Toddler Dyads: An Examination of the Relative Influence of Mothers’ and Children’s Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Del Vecchio, Tamara; Rhoades, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional relations between mothers’ lax and overreactive discipline and children’s misbehavior and negative affect. We examined the moment-to-moment stability of mothers’ and children’s behaviors (actor effects) and mothers’ and children’s influence on their partners’ subsequent behaviors (partner effects). Participants were 71 mothers and their 24–48-month-old children observed during a thirty-minute interaction. Both children and mothers exhibited stability in their...

  3. Pattern size tolerance of reverse offset printing: a proximity deformation effect related to local PDMS slipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Kanazawa, Shusuke; Koutake, Masayoshi; Ushijima, Hirobumi

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the shape integrity of silver nanoparticle ink patterns formed by reverse offset printing, focusing particularly on the proximity effect of neighbouring patterns due to the local deformation of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) blanket during contact with a hard cliché. We performed printing tests using a cliché having circular patterns with smaller neighbouring circles located at various distances (2-20 µm), and the results revealed that as we decrease the thickness of PDMS and the inter-pattern gap distance, and as we increase the printing indentations, the shape integrity of the printed pattern was worsened. A complementary numerical simulation of PDMS deformations suggested that the pattern distortion during the contact with clichés was caused by the horizontal deformation of PDMS during the printing, which becomes a significant burden when the uplifted region of PDMS is closer to the gap distance of each pattern. Our analysis further indicates that during printing, there is slipping of the ink at the PDMS interface. In addition, we examined the effects of a synchronization mismatch in a roll-to-sheet printing on the pattern size tolerance. The magnitude of the size distortions was severely influenced not only by the mismatch ratio but also by the nip width. This result verifies the scraping of the ink accompanied by the slipping of the PDMS during the printing process, and thereby determines the size tolerance of printed patterns in reverse offset printing. Finally, we discuss the optimization of process parameters to ensure the size integrity of reverse offset printing.

  4. Advantage of minimally invasive lateral approach relative to conventional deltopectoral approach for treatment of proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuan; Liu, Peng-cheng; Liu, Run; Wu, Xing

    2015-02-15

    Despite the wide application of open reduction and internal fixation with locking plates for the treatment of proximal humeral fractures, the surgical invasive approach remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the pros and cons of the minimally invasive lateral approach for the treatment of proximal humeral fracture (PHF) in comparison with the deltopectoral approach. All patients who sustained a PHF and received open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) surgery with locking plate through either minimally invasive subacromial approach or conventional deltopectoral approach between January 2008 and February 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into the conventional group and min-group according to the surgical incision. Surgery-related information, postoperative radiography, complications, and shoulder functional measurement scores in a 2-year follow-up were collected and evaluated. Ninety-one patients meeting the inclusion criteria were included in this study. We observed a significant difference in both surgery time (81.8±18.3 vs. 91.0±18.4) (p=0.021) and blood loss (172±54.2 vs. 205±73.6) (p=0.016) between the min-group and conventional group. Compared to the conventional group, the min-group had significantly better Constant-Murley score and DASH score at early follow-up (pfractures, was observed in the min-group, the conventional group obtained better movement in the 4-part fractures. The minimally invasive lateral approach is the optimal alternative for the treatment of Neer's type 2 and 3 proximal humerus fractures.

  5. Systematic Development and Validation of a Theory-Based Questionnaire to Assess Toddler Feeding12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kristen M.; Pepper, M. Reese; Candelaria, Margo; Wang, Yan; Caulfield, Laura E.; Latta, Laura; Hager, Erin R.; Black, Maureen M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a 27-item caregiver-reported questionnaire on toddler feeding. The development of the Toddler Feeding Behavior Questionnaire was based on a theory of interactive feeding that incorporates caregivers’ responses to concerns about their children’s dietary intake, appetite, size, and behaviors rather than relying exclusively on caregiver actions. Content validity included review by an expert panel (n = 7) and testing in a pilot sample (n = 105) of low-income mothers of toddlers. Construct validity and reliability were assessed among a second sample of low-income mothers of predominately African-American (70%) toddlers aged 12–32 mo (n = 297) participating in the baseline evaluation of a toddler overweight prevention study. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α: 0.64–0.87) and test-retest (0.57–0.88) reliability were acceptable for most constructs. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed 5 theoretically derived constructs of feeding: responsive, forceful/pressuring, restrictive, indulgent, and uninvolved (root mean square error of approximation = 0.047, comparative fit index = 0.90, standardized root mean square residual = 0.06). Statistically significant (P feeding behaviors, toddler overweight status, perceived toddler fussiness, and maternal mental health. The Toddler Feeding Behavior Questionnaire adds to the field by providing a brief instrument that can be administered in 5 min to examine how caregiver-reported feeding behaviors relate to toddler health and behavior. PMID:24068792

  6. Early Vocabulary, Parental Education, and the Frequency of Shared Reading as Predictors of Toddler's Vocabulary and Grammar at Age 2;7: A Slovenian Longitudinal CDI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Socan, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study, carried out on a sample of Slovenian-speaking toddlers, was to analyze developmental changes and stability in early vocabulary development; to establish relations between toddler's vocabulary and grammar; and to analyze the effects of parental education and the frequency of shared reading on toddlers' vocabulary…

  7. Implant-related Fractures in Children With Proximal Femoral Osteotomy: Blade Plate Versus Screw-side Plate Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Thompson, John M; Brooks, Jaysson T; Ain, Michael C; Sponseller, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Implant design may affect risk of fracture, especially in the proximal femur, which has been shown to have the highest risk of implant-related fracture (IRF). Blade plate (BPL) and screw-side plate (SSP) implants are used to stabilize proximal femoral osteotomies (PFOs). Our goal was to compare BPL and SSP constructs with regard to the rate, location, and timing of IRF in children undergoing PFOs. We retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiographic records from 1 pediatric orthopaedic practice from 1995 through 2010. We identified 734 children 18 years or younger who underwent PFO with a BPL (480 patients) or an SSP (254 patients). Manufacture and style of implants were consistent throughout this period. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of mean age, sex, race, or diagnosis. The 2 groups were compared with respect to the rate, location, and timing of IRF. The t, Z, χ, and Fisher exact tests were used to analyze the data (statistical significance, Ptimes to fracture were 3.8±2.9 and 2.4±2.3 years (P=0.39) in the BPL and SSP groups, respectively. The risk of IRF in children after PFO is substantial. Despite differences in design, there was no significant difference between BPL and SSP implants with respect to IRF risk. Level III.

  8. Recurrent hypoglycemia in a toddler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marissa; Zwiebel, Sean; Jeanmonod, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic ketotic hypoglycemia is the most common cause of hypoglycemia in toddlers. This diagnosis should be considered in any hypoglycemic toddler with no prior history of abnormal growth who is developmentally normal when toxic ingestions and sepsis are inconsistent with the clinical picture. Diagnosis is important in preventing serious long-term sequelae and is made in the setting of hypoglycemia, ketonuria, and ketonemia. Therefore, checking urine and blood ketones is an essential part of the evaluation in any hypoglycemic toddler. We report the case of a 3-year-old girl with recurrent hypoglycemia secondary to idiopathic ketotic hypoglycemia.

  9. How Yellow Is Your Banana? Toddlers' Language-Mediated Visual Search in Referent-Present Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Nivedita; Johnson, Elizabeth; McQueen, James M.; Huettig, Falk

    2013-01-01

    What is the relative salience of different aspects of word meaning in the developing lexicon? The current study examines the time-course of retrieval of semantic and color knowledge associated with words during toddler word recognition: At what point do toddlers orient toward an image of a yellow cup upon hearing color-matching words such as…

  10. Look at That! Video Chat and Joint Visual Attention Development among Babies and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Elisabeth R.; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E.; Holochwost, Steven J.; Parrott, W. G.; Barr, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Although many relatives use video chat to keep in touch with toddlers, key features of adult-toddler interaction like joint visual attention (JVA) may be compromised in this context. In this study, 25 families with a child between 6 and 24 months were observed using video chat at home with geographically separated grandparents. We define two types…

  11. The Role of Mothers' and Fathers' Parental Control and Coparenting in Toddlers' Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Elicker, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the unique and relative contributions of mothers' and fathers' parental control and coparenting to toddlers' committed compliance with parents in both dyadic parent-child and triadic family play contexts. Sixty-eight mostly middle-class, 2-parent families with toddlers (16-37 months) were observed in a…

  12. The Interplay of Maternal Sensitivity and Toddler Engagement of Mother in Predicting Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispa, Jean M.; Su-Russell, Chang; Palermo, Francisco; Carlo, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, a cross-lag mediation model was tested to examine longitudinal relations among low-income mothers' sensitivity; toddlers' engagement of their mothers; and toddler's self-regulation at ages 1, 2, and 3 years (N = 2,958). Age 1 maternal sensitivity predicted self-regulation at…

  13. Assessing Toddler Language Competence: Agreement of Parents' and Preschool Teachers' Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja, Urska; Podlesek, Anja; Kranjc, Simona

    2011-01-01

    According to the findings of several studies, parents' assessments of their toddler's language are valid and reliable evaluations of children's language competence, especially at early development stages. This study examined whether preschool teachers, who spend a relatively great deal of time with toddlers in various preschool activities and…

  14. How Yellow Is Your Banana? Toddlers' Language-Mediated Visual Search in Referent-Present Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mani, N.; Johnson, E.K.; McQueen, J.M.; Hüttig, F.

    2013-01-01

    What is the relative salience of different aspects of word meaning in the developing lexicon? The current study examines the time-course of retrieval of semantic and color knowledge associated with words during toddler word recognition: At what point do toddlers orient toward an image of a yellow

  15. Concern for Others: A Study on Empathy in Toddlers with Moderate Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Evelien; Ketelaar, Lizet; van der Zee, Rosanne; Netten, Anouk P.; Frijns, Johan H. M.; Rieffe, Carolien

    2017-01-01

    Empathy, the ability to feel the emotions of others and respond affectively to these emotions, is an important factor in the development of social competence. The purpose of this study was to examine empathy levels in toddlers with moderate hearing loss (MHL) compared to toddlers with no hearing loss (nHL), and to explore the relation between…

  16. Parent-Reported Feeding and Feeding Problems in a Sample of Dutch Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with their parents. Results show that three meals a day…

  17. Microregulatory patterns of family interactions: cultural pathways to toddlers' self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq; Alony, Dalia

    2006-12-01

    Pathways to children's self-regulation were examined in 2 cultures representing individualistic and collectivistic orientations. Family interactions were observed in 100 Israeli and 62 Palestinian couples and their firstborn child at 5 months and in a problem-solving task at 33 months. Patterns of gaze, affect, proximity, touch, and parental teaching strategies were coded. Child self-regulation was observed at child care locations. Among Israeli families, interactions involved face-to-face exchange, social gaze, object focus, and active touch in infancy and indirect parental assistance to toddlers. Among Palestinian families, interactions consisted of continuous contact, neutral affect, reduced negative emotionality, and concrete assistance. Levels of self-regulation were comparable and were predicted by culture-specific patterns. Social gaze, touch, and indirect teaching were found to predict self-regulation among Israeli toddlers; contact and concrete assistance were predictors among Palestinians. Discussion considers the ways early relational patterns mirror cultural philosophies on the self and differentially support self-regulation at the transition from family to the larger social context. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Proximal Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  19. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedir, Abdu; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n=5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... and alcohol consumption (volume of drinking and risky single occasion drinking). Conclusions: This study found some support for an association between closer distances between place of residence and alcohol outlets and alcohol related harm for women. Future studies in the Nordic region should continue...

  20. Effect of Anticipatory Guidance Presentation Methods on the Knowledge and Attitude of Pregnant Women Relative to Maternal, Infant and Toddler's Oral Health Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ramazani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The prenatal period is the best time for health interventions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different methods of anticipatory guidance presentation on the change of knowledge and attitude of pregnant women regarding oral healthcare in the mother, infant and toddler.In this quasi-experimental study, 90 pregnant women attended one health center in Zahedan, Iran; they were divided into direct intervention, indirect intervention and control groups. A self-reported questionnaire was completed before intervention. The guidance was presented to the direct intervention group, by PowerPoint and to the indirect group by pamphlet. Immediately after the intervention, the questionnaire was completed by intervention groups and two months later by all participants. Difference in the scores at start and end was calculated. Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis with Dunn's post hoc and Friedman with K-W post-hoc tests were used for statistical analysis. The data was analyzed using SPPS version 19 software at a significance level of 0.05.The change in scores of knowledge relevant to maternal, infant and toddler's oral health and attitude toward maternal oral healthcare had significant differences in the three studied groups (P>0.05, The changes of scores in the four mentioned variables in the intervention groups were significantly higher than controls. In comparison between the intervention groups, the change in score of knowledge about maternal oral healthcare was significantly higher in the direct intervention group (P=0.023.Anticipatory guidance presentation led to change in the score of knowledge about maternal, infant and toddler's oral health and attitude towards maternal oral health in comparison to no presentation. The direct presentation had superiority over indirect in increasing knowledge about maternal oral healthcare.

  1. Boredom at Work: Proximal and Distal Consequences of Affective Work-Related Boredom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.L.M. van; Hooft, E.A.J. van

    2014-01-01

    Boredom is an emotion that occurs regularly at the workplace, with negative consequences for the employee and the organization. It is therefore important to understand why work-related boredom leads to such adverse consequences and what can be done to mitigate its occurrence and its negative

  2. Boredom at work: proximal and distal consequences of affective work-related boredom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooff, M.L.M.; van Hooft, E.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Boredom is an emotion that occurs regularly at the workplace, with negative consequences for the employee and the organization. It is therefore important to understand why work-related boredom leads to such adverse consequences and what can be done to mitigate its occurrence and its negative

  3. A Monocular SLAM Method to Estimate Relative Pose During Satellite Proximity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Memory: 2.0 GB RAM Processor Cores: 4 System type: 64-bit 35 A Point Grey Research Flea 3 camera was used to acquire video sequences ana- lyzed in...Point Grey Research, Inc. Product Name: Flea 3 USB 3.0 Model: FL3-U3-13S2C/M-CS Megapixels: 1.3 Imaging Sensor: Sony IMX035 CMOS, 1/3” Max...threshold is assigned based on the rate of relative motion. Auto- mated initialization based on initial track point motion results in two pose estimates

  4. Assessing Quality in Toddler Classrooms Using the CLASS-Toddler and the ITERS-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Paro, Karen M.; Williamson, Amy C.; Hatfield, Bridget

    2014-01-01

    Many very young children attend early care and education programs, but current information about the quality of center-based care for toddlers is scarce. Using 2 observation instruments, the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ITERS-R) and the Classroom Assessment Scoring System, Toddler Version (CLASS-Toddler), 93 child care…

  5. Prediction of toddlers' expressive language from maternal sensitivity and toddlers' anger expressions: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozadi, Sara S; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eisenberg, Nancy; Bolnick, Rebecca; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D; Smith, Cynthia L; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne; Sallquist, Julie

    2013-12-01

    Despite evidence for the importance of individual differences in expressive language during toddlerhood in predicting later literacy skills, few researchers have examined individual and contextual factors related to language abilities across the toddler years. Furthermore, a gap remains in the literature about the extent to which the relations of negative emotions and parenting to language skills may differ for girls and boys. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the associations among maternal sensitivity, children's observed anger reactivity, and expressive language when children were 18 (T1; n = 247) and 30 (T2; n = 216) months. At each age, mothers reported on their toddlers' expressive language, and mothers' sensitive parenting behavior was observed during an unstructured free-play task. Toddlers' anger expressions were observed during an emotion-eliciting task. Using path modeling, results showed few relations at T1. At T2, maternal sensitivity was negatively related to anger, and in turn, anger was associated with lower language skills. However, moderation analyses showed that these findings were significant for boys but not for girls. In addition, T1 maternal sensitivity and anger positively predicted expressive language longitudinally for both sexes. Findings suggest that the relations between maternal sensitivity, anger reactivity and expressive language may vary depending on the child's developmental stage and sex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Feeding Vegetarian and Vegan Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Toddlers Print Email Feeding Vegetarian and Vegan Infants and Toddlers By Dayle Hayes, MS, RD Published November 1, 2017 zest_marina/Thinkstock The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and American Academy of Pediatrics agree: ...

  7. Disrupted Neural Synchronization in Toddlers with Autism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dinstein, Ilan; Pierce, Karen; Eyler, Lisa; Solso, Stephanie; Malach, Rafael; Behrmann, Marlene; Courchesne, Eric

    2011-01-01

    .... Here, we show that disrupted synchronization is evident in the spontaneous cortical activity of naturally sleeping toddlers with autism, but not in toddlers with language delay or typical development...

  8. Distal and proximal factors related to aggression severity among patients in substance abuse treatment: family history, alcohol use and expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermack, Stephen T; Wryobeck, John M; Walton, Maureen A; Blow, Frederic C

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the relationships among distal (paternal and maternal family history of alcohol problems and violence) and proximal (general alcohol use, acute use associated with conflict incidents, alcohol-aggression expectancies) factors and physical aggression severity among 125 men and 125 women recruited from substance abuse treatment. Paternal alcohol problem history (PA) was related to alcohol-aggression expectancies, but no family history factors were related to general or acute alcohol use. Separate analyses examining predictors of aggression were conducted, one with general alcohol use and one with acute alcohol use. In both analyses, alcohol use and the maternal violence (MV) by PA interaction were significant. Specifically, MV was associated with aggression severity for those with a history of PA. The general alcohol use model also revealed significant alcohol by expectancy and MV by gender interactions. The findings suggest that expectancies are not the primary mediator of the alcohol-aggression relationship, alcohol use measurement issues may impact whether expectancies are observed to moderate the alcohol-aggression relationship, and that both maternal and paternal family history factors appear to impact aggression severity.

  9. Linear trend and climate response of five-needle pines in the western United States related to treeline proximity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipfmueller, K.F. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Geography; Salzer, M.W. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research

    2010-01-15

    This study investigated sixty-six 5-needle pine growth chronologies from 1896 to their end years in order to identify potential patterns related to linear trends in ring width. Individual chronology responses to climate were also evaluated by comparing the chronologies with seasonal temperature and precipitation data from 1896 to the present date. Chronologies exhibiting similar patterns of climate response were grouped in order to examine the role of treeline proximity on climate-growth relationships. Ring width measurements for pine sites located in the western United States were obtained from the International Tree Ring Data Bank. Growth indices were compared among all sites in order to assess the relative strength of common signals with increasing distance. Pearson correlations were used to calculate linear trends for each chronology. A cluster analysis of climate response patterns indicated that most chronologies positively associated with temperatures were located near upper treeline and contained significant positive linear trends. The study suggested that 5-needle pine treeline chronologies may be used as predictors in temperature reconstructions. However, care must be taken to determine that collection sites have not been impacted by disturbances such as fire or insect outbreaks. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  10. Toddler Social Development in Two Daycare Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Carollee; Rubenstein, Judith

    This study investigated the child rearing environments in 8 community based day care centers and 16 family day care homes and the social competencies of the toddlers enrolled in them. Subjects were forty 19-month-old toddlers from similar backgrounds, half in each type of day care. Socially directed behaviors between the toddler and peers, and…

  11. Treatment of proximal hamstring tendinopathy-related sciatic nerve entrapment: presentation of an ultrasound-guided "Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis" application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiussi, Gabriele; Moreno, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy-related Sciatic Nerve Entrapment (PHTrSNE) is a neuropathy caused by fibrosis interposed between the semimembranosus tendon and the sciatic nerve, at the level of the ischial tuberosity. Ultrasound-guided Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis (US-guided EPI) involves galvanic current transfer within the treatment target tissue (fibrosis) via a needle 0.30 to 0.33 mm in diameter. The galvanic current in a saline solution instantly develops the chemical process of electrolysis, which in turn induces electrochemical ablation of fibrosis. In this article, the interventional procedure is presented in detail, and both the strengths and limits of the technique are discussed. US-guided EPI eliminates the fibrotic accumulation that causes PHTrSNE, without the semimembranosus tendon or the sciatic nerve being directly involved during the procedure. The technique is however of limited use in cases of compression neuropathy. US-guided EPI is a technique that is quick to perform, minimally invasive and does not force the patient to suspend their activities (work or sports) to make the treatment effective. This, coupled to the fact that the technique is generally well-tolerated by patients, supports use of US-guided EPI in the treatment of PHTrSNE.

  12. Toddlers Selectively Help Fair Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Surian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that infants and toddlers are inclined to help prosocial agents and assign a positive valence to fair distributions. Also, they expect that positive and negative actions directed toward distributors will conform to reciprocity principles. This study investigates whether toddlers are selective in helping others, as a function of others’ previous distributive actions. Toddlers were presented with real-life events in which two actresses distributed resources either equally or unequally between two puppets. Then, they played together with a ball that accidentally fell to the ground and asked participants to help them to retrieve it. Participants preferred to help the actress who performed equal distributions. This finding suggests that by the second year children’s prosocial actions are modulated by their emerging sense of fairness.HighlightsToddlers (mean age = 25 months are selective in helping distributors.Toddlers prefer helping a fair rather than an unfair distributor.Toddlers’ selective helping provides evidence for an early sense of fairness.

  13. Models for cooperative games with fuzzy relations among the agents fuzzy communication, proximity relation and fuzzy permission

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez-Losada, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive introduction to cooperative game theory and a practice-oriented reference guide to new models and tools for studying bilateral fuzzy relations among several agents or players. It introduces the reader to several fuzzy models, each of which is first analyzed in the context of classical games (crisp games) and subsequently in the context of fuzzy games. Special emphasis is given to the value of Shapley, which is presented for the first time in the context of fuzzy games. Students and researchers will find here a self-contained reference guide to cooperative fuzzy games, characterized by a wealth of examples, descriptions of a wide range of possible situations, step-by-step explanations of the basic mathematical concepts involved, and easy-to-follow information on axioms and properties.

  14. Maternal depression and mother-child interaction patterns: association with toddler problems and continuity of effects to late childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckman-Westin, Emily; Cohen, Patricia R; Stueve, Ann

    2009-09-01

    Increased behavior problems have been reported in offspring of mothers with depression. In-home observations link maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) and mother-child interaction patterns with toddler behavior problems and examine their persistence into late childhood. Maternal characteristics (N = 153) and behaviors of two-year-old offspring (N = 215) were assessed in families from a randomly selected population cohort. Maternal self-reported depressive symptoms and observed maternal-toddler interaction patterns were evaluated as risks for toddler problem behaviors. Follow-up CBCL assessments about a decade later assessed persistence of effects identified in the toddler data. Maternal negativity toward her toddler was related to toddler problems, regardless of maternal depressive symptoms. MDS in combination with positive mother-toddler interaction showed only marginal ill effects on toddler offspring and no long-term effects. Depressive symptoms of less responsive/emotion teaching dyads were related to offspring tantrums and to mother and observer rated fearfulness, independent of family contextual risks. Analyses of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) problem scales obtained on these children in late childhood showed persistent effects similar to those shown at the younger age. In sum, these findings suggest that for mothers with high levels of depressive symptoms, demonstrations of affection and responsiveness to toddler offspring may mitigate both current and long-term consequences on offspring behavior.

  15. Influences of biological risk at birth and temperament on development at toddler and preschool ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, A-W; Soong, W-T; Liao, H-F

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed at investigating: (1) the effects of temperament and biological risk at birth on various developmental domains at toddler and preschool ages; (2) the interaction effects of the biological risk and temperament on development. Participants One hundred and ten full-term and 98 preterm children without significant physical or developmental disabilities and consisting of various biological risks were examined at toddler age (18-36 months) and preschool age (51-67 months). The Neonatal Medical Index was used to classify the biological risk level. Parental reports on the Chinese Toddler Temperament Scale at toddler age were collected and the temperament (easy, intermediate and difficult) of each child was assigned according to local norm. The Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers was used for assessing child development at toddler and preschool ages. Other family variables were also collected as possible confounders for child development. Two-way ancova was conducted to analyse the predictability of biological risk and temperament, by controlling the potential family variables on child development. At toddler age, higher biological risk had significant adverse effects on both the Perceptual-motor developmental quotients (DQs) (F(1,201)= 19.4, P Toddlers. There were no significant interactions between biological risk and temperament on DQs at both ages. The biological risk and temperament affected child development at toddler age but not at preschool age. No interaction of biological risk and temperament effects on the child development at toddler age existed. The effects of biological risk and temperament on child development were temporary for the children with relatively low biological risk.

  16. Relapse after SSRO for mandibular setback movement in relation to the amount of mandibular setback and intraoperative clockwise rotation of the proximal segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong Joon; Yang, Hoon Joo; Lee, Shin-Jae; Hwang, Soon Jung

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the amount of setback movement and intraoperative clockwise rotation of the proximal segments on postoperative stability after orthognathic surgery to correct mandibular prognathism. Thirty-six patients with mandibular prognathism who underwent orthognathic surgery with bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy were evaluated. The amount of postoperative relapse was analyzed using a cephalometric analysis. Six months after surgery, the mean backward movement of the mandible at point B was 11.2 mm, the mean intraoperative clockwise rotation of the proximal segment was 4.3° and the amount of postoperative relapse at point B was 2.3 mm (20.3%) on average. The tendency of relapse did not significantly increase with the amount of setback but did increase significantly with the intraoperative clockwise rotation of the proximal segment. This study suggested that postoperative relapse after mandibular setback surgery might be more related to the degree of the intraoperative clockwise movement of the proximal segment, rather than the amount of setback movement. When the amount of mandibular setback is considerable, postoperative relapse might be minimized with adequate control of the intraoperative positioning of the proximal segments. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nucleotide Analogue-Related Proximal Renal Tubular Dysfunction during Long-Term Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhasnee Sobhonslidsuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There have been few reports of nucleotide analogue-related renal tubular dysfunction (RTD in CHB patients. We assessed the prevalence and presentation of nucleotide analogue-related proximal RTD. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in CHB patients taking nucleotide analogues. Inclusion criteria were patients who were on adefovir or tenofovir as mono- or add-on therapy with lamivudine (LAM >1 year. Serum and urine were collected. Fractional excretion of phosphate (FEPO4, uric acid (FEUA, and potassium was calculated. Renal losses were defined based on the criteria: protein (24-hour urine protein >150 mg, glucose (glycosuria with normoglycemia, phosphate (FEPO4 >18%, uric acid (FEUA >15%, potassium (renal potassium losses with hypokalemia, and bicarbonate (normal gap acidosis. Subclinical and overt proximal RTD were defined when 2 and ≥3 criteria presented. Results. Ninety-two patients were enrolled. The mean duration of nucleotide analogue taking was 55.1±29.6 months. Proximal RTD was found in 24 (26.1% patients (subclinical 15 (16.3% and overt 9 (9.8%. The severity of RTD was associated with the duration of nucleotide analogue (P=0.01. Conclusions. The prevalence of proximal RTD in CHB patients taking nucleotide analogues was 26%. The severity of RTD was associated with the treatment duration. Comprehensive testing is necessary for early detecting nucleotide analogue-related nephrotoxicity.

  18. Commentary: The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Tony; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Baird, Gillian; Cox, Antony; Wheelwright, Sally; Swettenham, John; Drew, Auriol

    2001-01-01

    This article comments on results of a study (EC 629 869) on the reliability of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), a early detection screening test. It discusses concerns relating to clinic vs. population samples, data analysis, use of a parent questionnaire only to identify autism, and the age of screening. (Contains…

  19. Mothering, Fathering, and Externalizing Behavior in Toddler Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reported maternal and paternal support, psychological control, and spanking on externalizing behavior of toddler boys. Questionnaires were administered to both parents of 104 two-parent families with a 3-year-old son. Both maternal and paternal psychological control was related to boys' externalizing behavior.…

  20. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Amy N.; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Guthrie, Whitney; Wetherby, Amy; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Standardized calibrated severity scores (CSS) have been created for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) Modules 1-4 as a metric of the relative severity of autism-specific behaviors. Total and domain CSS were created for the Toddler Module to facilitate comparison to other modules. Analyses included 388 children with ASD…

  1. Comparison of Autism Screening in Younger and Older Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturner, Raymond; Howard, Barbara; Bergmann, Paul; Stewart, Lydia; Afarian, Talin E.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age at completion of an autism screening test on item failure rates contrasting older (>20 months) with younger (toddlers in a community primary care sample of 73,564 children. Items related to social development were categorized into one of three age sets per criteria from Inada et al.…

  2. Measuring the Multifaceted Nature of Infant and Toddler Care Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Peter L.; Kriener-Althen, Kerry; Marcella, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The quality of group care infants and toddlers experience relates to their concurrent and later development. Recent quality improvement initiatives point to the need for ecologically valid measures that assess the multifaceted nature of child care quality. In this article, we present the psychometric properties of an infant and…

  3. Diversity Matters: Parent Input Predicts Toddler Verb Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ning; Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of parent input to children's subsequent expressive verb diversity was explored in twenty typically developing toddlers with small verb lexicons. Child developmental factors and parent input measures (i.e. verb quantity, verb diversity, and verb-related structural cues) at age 1;9 were examined as potential predictors of…

  4. Coronal subluxation of the proximal tibia relative to the distal femur after opening wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Yasushi; Ohno, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Hideo; Kusayama, Yoshihiro; Kumagai, Ken; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2017-01-01

    The coronal subluxation of the proximal tibia relative to the distal femur is a common radiological finding in patients with knee osteoarthritis. The purpose was to evaluate whether the coronal subluxation was corrected after opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO), and whether this subluxation was one cause of inconsistency between the actual and predicted alignments (correction loss). Fifty-one patients (55 knees) were treated with OWHTO. The change of location between the intersection points of the femoral and tibial axes on the tibial plateau (subluxation-C), the change of location between the lines through the most lateral points of the lateral femoral and tibial condyles (subluxation-L), and joint space angle (JSA) were compared in standing knee radiographs before and one year after OWHTO. The subluxation-C and subluxation-L were converted to a percentage of the tibial plateau width. The mean subluxation-C of 6.5% before OWHTO significantly increased to a mean subluxation-C of 7.3% one year after OWHTO. The mean subluxation-L of 6.3% and JSA of 4.5° before OWHTO significantly decreased to a subluxation-L of 1.8% and JSA of 3.3° one year after OWHTO. The change in subluxation-L correlated with the change in femorotibial angle and correction loss (r=0.634, Pfemur after OWHTO. This medial shift correlated with the correction loss. The coronal subluxation might be one cause of correction loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Feature network models for proximity data : statistical inference, model selection, network representations and links with related models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, Laurence Emmanuelle

    2006-01-01

    Feature Network Models (FNM) are graphical structures that represent proximity data in a discrete space with the use of features. A statistical inference theory is introduced, based on the additivity properties of networks and the linear regression framework. Considering features as predictor

  6. Proband Mental Health Difficulties and Parental Stress Predict Mental Health in Toddlers at High-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Katherine; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Hudry, Kristelle

    2016-01-01

    Family-related predictors of mental health problems were investigated among 30 toddlers at familial high-risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 28 controls followed from age 2- to 3-years. Parents completed the self-report Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the parent-report Behavior Assessment System for Children. High-risk toddlers were…

  7. Lexical characteristics of expressive vocabulary in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2014-08-01

    Vocabulary is a domain of particular challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has drawn attention to ways in which lexical characteristics relate to vocabulary acquisition. The current study tested the hypothesis that lexical characteristics account for variability in vocabulary size of young children with ASD, applying the extended statistical learning theory of vocabulary delay in late talkers (Stokes, Kern, & Dos Santos, 2012) to toddlers with ASD. Parents reported the words produced by toddlers with ASD (n = 57; age 21-37 months) or toddlers without ASD (n = 41; age 22-26 months) on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories. The average phonological neighborhood density, word frequency, and word length of each toddler's lexicon were calculated. These lexical characteristics served as predictors of vocabulary size. Findings differed for toddlers with and without ASD and according to subsamples. Word length was the most consistent predictor of vocabulary size for toddlers with ASD. Distinct relationships between lexical characteristics and vocabulary size were observed for toddlers with and without ASD. Experimental studies on distributional cues to vocabulary acquisition are needed to inform what is known about mechanisms of learning in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  8. Lexical Characteristics of Expressive Vocabulary in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Vocabulary is a domain of particular challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has drawn attention to ways in which lexical characteristics relate to vocabulary acquisition. The current study tested the hypothesis that lexical characteristics account for variability in vocabulary size of young children with ASD, applying the Extended Statistical Learning theory of vocabulary delay in late talkers (Stokes, Kern, & dos Santos, 2012) to toddlers with ASD. Method Parents reported the words produced by toddlers with ASD (n=57; ages 21–37 months) or toddlers without ASD (n=41; ages 22–26 months) on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories. The average phonological neighborhood density, word frequency, and word length of each toddler’s lexicon was calculated. These lexical characteristics served as predictors of vocabulary size. Results Findings differed for toddlers with and without ASD and according to subsamples. Vocabulary size was predicted by word length for toddlers with ASD and by phonological neighborhood density for toddlers without ASD. Conclusions Distinct relationships between lexical characteristics and vocabulary size were observed for toddlers with and without ASD. Experimental studies on distributional cues to vocabulary acquisition are needed to inform what is known about mechanisms of learning in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24687027

  9. Caregiver Protective Behavior, Toddler Fear and Sadness, and Toddler Cortisol Reactivity in Novel Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, Rachel L; Buss, Kristin A; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2013-09-01

    Previous research has shown that caregiver protective behavior may exacerbate toddler distress in specific contexts. The current study sought to extend this work to examine associations between these variables and toddler cortisol reactivity. Ninety-three 24-month-old toddlers were observed across six novel contexts designed to elicit distress. Toddlers were asked to give saliva samples at the beginning and end of the laboratory procedure. Toddler sadness, toddler fear, and caregiver protective behavior were coded. Results indicate that caregiver protective behavior accounted for the association between toddler sadness and cortisol reactivity where higher levels of protective behavior were associated with higher cortisol reactivity. The current study showed that caregiver protective behavior, which functions to prevent a child from interacting with a novel stimulus, is an important mechanism to consider when understanding toddler stress responses during novel contexts.

  10. Coffee consumption and CYP1A2 genotype in relation to bone mineral density of the proximal femur in elderly men and women: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Lars

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drinking coffee has been linked to reduced calcium conservation, but it is less clear whether it leads to sustained bone mineral loss and if individual predisposition for caffeine metabolism might be important in this context. Therefore, the relation between consumption of coffee and bone mineral density (BMD at the proximal femur in men and women was studied, taking into account, for the first time, genotypes for cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2 associated with metabolism of caffeine. Methods Dietary intakes of 359 men and 358 women (aged 72 years, participants of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS, were assessed by a 7-day food diary. Two years later, BMD for total proximal femur, femoral neck and trochanteric regions of the proximal femur were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Genotypes of CYP1A2 were determined. Adjusted means of BMD for each category of coffee consumption were calculated. Results Men consuming 4 cups of coffee or more per day had 4% lower BMD at the proximal femur (p = 0.04 compared with low or non-consumers of coffee. This difference was not observed in women. In high consumers of coffee, those with rapid metabolism of caffeine (C/C genotype had lower BMD at the femoral neck (p = 0.01 and at the trochanter (p = 0.03 than slow metabolizers (T/T and C/T genotypes. Calcium intake did not modify the relation between coffee and BMD. Conclusion High consumption of coffee seems to contribute to a reduction in BMD of the proximal femur in elderly men, but not in women. BMD was lower in high consumers of coffee with rapid metabolism of caffeine, suggesting that rapid metabolizers of caffeine may constitute a risk group for bone loss induced by coffee.

  11. Classification of toddler nutritional status using fuzzy inference system (FIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permatasari, Dian; Azizah, Isnaini Nur; Hadiat, Hanifah Latifah; Abadi, Agus Maman

    2017-08-01

    Nutrition is a major health problem and concern for parents when it is relating with their toddler. The nutritional status is an expression of the state caused by the status of the balance between the number of intake of nutrients and the amount needed by the body for a variety of biological functions. The indicators that often used to determine the nutritional status is the combination of Weight (W) and Height (H) symbolized by W/H, because it describe a sensitive and specific nutritional status. This study aims to apply the Fuzzy Inference System Mamdani method to classify the nutritional status of toddler. The inputs are weight and height of the toddler. There are nine rules that used and the output is nutritional status classification consisting of four criteria: stunting, wasting, normal, and overweight. Fuzzy Inference System that be used is Mamdani method and the defuzzification use Centroid Method. The result of this study is compared with Assessment Anthropometric Standard of Toddler Nutritional Status by Ministry of Health. The accuracy level of this fuzzy model is about 84%.

  12. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  13. Different proximal thoracic curve patterns have different relative positions of esophagus to spine in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Mao, Saihu; Zhao, Qinghua; Liu, Zhen; Qian, Bangping; Zhu, Feng; Qiu, Yong

    2012-02-01

    A computed tomography (CT) study. To evaluate the changed relative positions of esophagus in proximal thoracic (PT) curves of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and analyze the potential risks of esophageal injuries from thoracic pedicle screw (TPS) insertion. Translation and rotation of the vertebrae could lead to altered relative positions of surrounding vital structures in AIS patients. The changed positions of aorta and spinal cord in main thoracic (MT) curve have been comprehensively investigated; however, no studies have analyzed the relative position of esophagus in PT curve. Twenty patients with complete proximal thoracic (CPT group) curve, 22 patients with fractional proximal thoracic (FPT group) curve, and 14 normal patients with a straight spine (normal group) were included. Axial CT images from T2 to T5 at the midvertebral body level were obtained to evaluate esophagus-vertebral angle (EVA, defined as 0° when the esophagus was located directly lateral to the left, 90° when strictly anterior, and 180° when directly lateral to the right). The percentages of esophagus in the direction of screw passage were calculated to analyze potential risks of esophageal injuries during TPS insertion. EVA in the FPT group was significantly smaller than that in the normal group (P spine and result in different potential risks of esophageal injuries during TPS insertion. Spine surgeons should choose appropriate pedicle screw length to avoid anterior cortical perforation in the PT region of AIS patients.

  14. Parent socialization, family economic well-being, and toddlers' cognitive development in rural Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Ann Marie Berghout; de Aquino, C. N.; de Burro, E. U.; Park, K.E.; Bayley, B.; Christensen, M; Leavitt, S; Merrill, J.; Taylor, D.; George, A T

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the specific factors relative to healthy socialization and economic well-being that predicted toddler mental development in rural Paraguay. Thirty toddlers and their primary caregivers were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) to assess socialization, and a Family Resource Survey to assess economic well-being. As has been found in other studies, parent responsivity, parent suppor...

  15. Characteristics of early vocabulary and grammar development in Slovenian-speaking infants and toddlers: a CDI-adaptation study*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovič-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Podlesek, Anja

    2013-09-01

    A large body of research shows that vocabulary does not develop independently of grammar, representing a better predictor of the grammatical complexity of toddlers' utterances than age. This study examines for the first time the characteristics of vocabulary and grammar development in Slovenian-speaking infants and toddlers using the Slovenian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI). The sample included 512 Slovenian-speaking infants and toddlers aged 0 ; 8 to 2 ; 6. The findings suggest that between age 0 ; 8 and 2 ; 6 the development of vocabulary is best described using a quadratic function. The results also show that nouns predominate in the vocabularies of infants and toddlers of various ages; as they age and with the increasing size of their vocabularies, the share of interjections decreases and the share of verbs and adjectives increases. The size of vocabulary was also found to be related to the grammatical structure of toddlers' utterances.

  16. Toddler Emotional States, Temperamental Traits, and Their Interaction: Associations with Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Margaret A; Cole, Pamela M; Maggi, Mirella C

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the degree to which toddlers' observed emotional states, toddlers' temperamental traits, and their interaction accounted for variance in mothers' and fathers' parenting. Main effects of two emotional states (positive emotion and negative emotion), three temperamental traits (negative affectivity, effortful control, and surgency) as well as state-by-trait interactions, were examined in relation to parental sensitivity, positive affect, and negative affect. The hypothesis that toddlers' temperamental traits would moderate the association between their observed emotional states and parenting was partially supported. Significant state-by-trait interactions were found in models predicting the probability that mothers and fathers expressed negative affect towards their toddlers. For parental sensitivity and positive affect, only main effects of temperament and/or emotion expression accounted for variance in parenting.

  17. Is loss of fixation following locked plating of proximal humeral fractures related to the number of screws and their positions in the humeral head?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maddah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between the chosen position of screws and the complications observed in patients who underwent locked plating of proximal humeral fractures. We evaluated radiographs of 367 patients treated by locked-plating for proximal humeral fractures. Radiographs were taken at one day, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after surgery, and were analyzed for secondary fracture displacement, loss of fixation, cutting out of screws and necrosis of the humeral head. Secondary loss of fixation occurred in 58 cases (15.8% and among those cutting out of screws was observed in 25 cases (6.8%. In cases of secondary loss of fixation a mean of 6.7 screws were used to fix the fracture (vs 6.6, P=0.425. There was neither significant correlation between position of screws and the occurrence of postoperative loss of fixation in Spearman correlation nor relationship from backward logistic regression analysis. Loss of fixation following locked plating of proximal humeral fractures does not relate to the number of screws and their positions in the humeral head. In consequence, anatomic fracture reduction and restoration of the humeral head-shaft angle are still important factors and should not be disregarded.

  18. Dynamic measures of RSA predict distress and regulation in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J; Buss, Kristin A

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we examined a new method for quantifying individual variability using dynamic measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). This method incorporated temporal variation into the measurement of RSA and provided information beyond that offered by more traditional quantifications such as difference scores. Dynamic and static measures of change in RSA were tested in relation to displays of emotion and affective behaviors during a fear-eliciting episode in a sample of 88 typically developing and high-fear toddlers during a laboratory visit at age 24 months. Dynamic measures of RSA contributed information that was unique from traditionally employed, static change scores in predicting high-fear toddlers' displays of shyness during a fear-eliciting episode. In contrast, RSA change scores offered information related to boldness in nonhigh-fear children. In addition, several associations included estimates of nonlinear change in RSA. Implications for the study of individual differences in RSA and relations with emotion and emotion regulation are discussed.

  19. Vocabulary of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Fahey, Katlin J.; Kaden, Elyssa R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand vocabulary characteristics in toddlers who are late talkers (LT) as compared with age-matched (AM) and vocabulary-matched (VM) peers. The semantic categories (e.g., animals, foods, toys) and the percentage of nouns, verbs, and closed-class words in the vocabularies of 36 toddlers (12 LT, 12 AM, 12 VM)…

  20. Developmental Milestones in Toddlers with Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.

    2011-01-01

    The attainment of developmental milestones was examined and compared in 162 infants and toddlers with developmental disabilities, including Down Syndrome (n = 26), Cerebral Palsy (n = 19), Global Developmental Delay (n = 22), Premature birth (n = 66), and Seizure Disorder (n = 29). Toddlers in the Seizures Disorder group began crawling at a…

  1. Toddlers' context-varying emotions, maternal responses to emotions, and internalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbe, Aaron M; Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A

    2011-06-01

    Relations of toddlers' observed negative affect in high- and low-threat contexts to maternal perceptions of their toddlers' internalizing problems and to mothers' responses to emotions (RTE) for fear and sadness were examined. Child-driven, parent-driven, and reciprocal transactional models across 1 year were directly compared. Two-year-old toddlers (N = 106) participated in lab-based activities to elicit distress, and their negative affect was coded. Mothers completed measures of their child's internalizing behaviors and their responses to their toddler's fear and sadness at ages 2 and 3. At age 2, only negative affect in low-threat contexts was associated with greater internalizing problems. Mothers' punishing and minimizing RTE at age 2 predicted an increase in internalizing problems across 1 year. Age 2 internalizing problems predicted an increase in mother's use of supportive RTE over time. Results highlight the importance of considering the context of toddlers' negative affective displays and supported a reciprocal conceptualization of toddlers' internalizing behaviors and mothers' RTE.

  2. Identification of caries risk factors in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, M; Jackson, R; Eckert, G; Swigonski, N; Chin, J; Zandona, A Ferreira; Ando, M; Stookey, G K; Downs, S; Zero, D T

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors to predict caries progression in toddlers in primary-healthcare settings for the cost-effective targeting of preventive and referral strategies. We examined 329 children (26 ± 6 mos old) twice, one year apart, in Indiana, USA. A 107-item structured interview was used to collect information from the primary caregiver and child on factors/beliefs/perceptions/behaviors that could affect caries development, transmission of bacteria, medical-dental health, and access to care. Bacterial levels, gingivitis, dental plaque, and caries experience were assessed. Multiple-variable logistic regression models of caries progression toward cavitation included family caries experience, transmission-related behaviors, dietary factors, health beliefs, and lower income, but differed in selected predictors/predictive power by race/ethnicity. Addition of clinical variables did not significantly improve the prediction.

  3. Pathways From Toddler Information Processing to Adolescent Lexical Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A; Feldman, Judith F; Jankowski, Jeffery J

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation of 3-year core information-processing abilities to lexical growth and development. The core abilities covered four domains-memory, representational competence (cross-modal transfer), processing speed, and attention. Lexical proficiency was assessed at 3 and 13 years with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and verbal fluency. The sample (N = 128) consisted of 43 preterms (toddler information processing and language proficiency and, independent of stability in language, direct predictive links between (a) 3-year cross-modal ability and 13-year PPVT and (b) 3-year processing speed and both 13-year measures, PPVT and verbal fluency. Thus, toddler information processing was related to growth in lexical proficiency from 3 to 13 years. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Differential associations between maternal scaffolding and toddler emotion regulation in toddlers born preterm and full term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J; Duvall, Susanne W; Fuller, Janell; Schrader, Ron; MacLean, Peggy; Lowe, Jean R

    2013-09-01

    Parental "scaffolding" behavior has been associated with developmental outcomes in at-risk children. Because there are limited empirical data regarding how scaffolding is associated with emotion-based developmental skills, the purpose of this study was to compare associations between maternal verbal scaffolding and toddler emotion regulation, including fewer displays of negative affect and increased contentment and enjoyment during play, in toddlers born preterm and full term. This study was a cross-sectional cohort design. Maternal and toddler behavior was assessed during 5 min of videotaped free play with standardized toys. 131 toddlers (18-22 months) and their mothers were included (77 born preterm; 54 born full term). Toddler emotion regulation, negative affect, and dyadic mutual enjoyment were coded from videotaped play. The association between maternal scaffolding and emotion regulation was different for dyads with a toddler born preterm versus full term, wherein the association was positive for toddlers born preterm and non-significant for toddlers born full term. Similarly, the association between maternal scaffolding and negative affect was different for the two groups: negative for toddlers born preterm and non-significant for toddlers born full term. Finally, the association between maternal scaffolding and mutual enjoyment was positive for toddlers born preterm and non-significant for toddlers born full term. Our findings highlight early differences in mother-child interactive style correlates of children born preterm compared to those born full term. Maternal scaffolding behavior may be uniquely associated with emotion regulation and a positive dyadic encounter for toddlers born preterm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  6. The effect of toddler emotion regulation on maternal emotion socialization: Moderation by toddler gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2014-08-01

    Although developmental research continues to connect parenting behaviors with child outcomes, it is critical to examine how child behaviors influence parenting behaviors. Given the emotional, cognitive, and social costs of maladaptive parenting, it is vital to understand the factors that influence maternal socialization behaviors. The current study examined children's observed emotion regulatory behaviors in two contexts (low-threat and high-threat novelty) as one influence. Mother-child dyads (n = 106) with toddlers of 24 months of age participated in novelty episodes from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors (i.e., caregiver-focused, attention, and self-soothing) were coded, and mothers reported their use of emotion socialization strategies when children were 24 and 36 months. We hypothesized that gender-specific predictive relations would occur, particularly from regulatory behaviors in the low-threat contexts. Gender moderated the relation between caregiver-focused emotion regulation in low-threat contexts and nonsupportive emotion socialization. Results from the current study inform the literature on the salience of child-elicited effects on the parent-child relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The Effect of Toddler Emotion Regulation on Maternal Emotion Socialization: Moderation by Toddler Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Julie E.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Although developmental research continues to connect parenting behaviors with child outcomes, it is critical to examine how child behaviors influence parenting behaviors. Given the emotional, cognitive, and social costs of maladaptive parenting, it is vital to understand the factors that influence maternal socialization behaviors. The current study examines children’s observed emotion regulatory behaviors in two contexts (low-threat and high-threat novelty) as one influence. Mother-child dyads (n = 106) with toddlers of 24 months of age participated in novelty episodes from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors (caregiver-focused, attention, and self-soothing) were coded, and mothers reported their use of emotion socialization strategies when children were 24 and 36 months. We hypothesized that gender-specific predictive relations would occur, particularly from regulatory behaviors in the low-threat contexts. Gender moderated the relation between caregiver-focused emotion regulation in low-threat contexts and non-supportive emotion socialization. Results from the current study inform the literature on the salience of child-elicited effects on the parent-child relationship. PMID:24821395

  8. Proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  9. Proximal aortic stiffness is related to left ventricular function and exercise capacity in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrianakos, Alexandros P; Parthenakis, Fragiskos I; Karakitsos, Dimitrios; Nyktari, Eva; Vardas, Panos E

    2009-05-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) show abnormal arterial stiffening. We examined 60 patients (52.1 +/- 12, 8 years) with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDC), New York Heart Association II-III, in sinus rhythm, left ventricular ejection fraction 30.1 +/- 8.6%, and 44 normals. All subjects underwent an echocardiographic study and a cardiopulmonary exercise test. We evaluated the segmental proximal aorta (AO) pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the region of aortic arch with a new echo-method: from the suprasternal view, the distance between ascending and descending AO was measured with two-dimensional ultrasound, and the aortic flow wave transit time (TT) was measured with pulsed-wave Doppler. Pulse wave velocity was calculated as aortic distance/TT. Patients showed increased PWV (7.4 +/- 2.9 vs. 4.8 +/- 1.1 m/s, P age, sex, and body mass) VO(2) (both P exercise capacity. The echocardiographic assessment of the regional aorta PWV seems to be clinically important.

  10. Fatigue-related firing of distal muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of proximal muscles of the same limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2014-02-15

    With fatiguing exercise, firing of group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and force of the exercised muscles. These afferents can also act across agonist/antagonist pairs, reducing voluntary activation and force in nonfatigued muscles. We hypothesized that maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents after a fatiguing adductor pollicis (AP) contraction would decrease voluntary activation and force of AP and ipsilateral elbow flexors. In two experiments (n = 10) we examined voluntary activation of AP and elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by ulnar nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex, respectively. Inflation of a sphygmomanometer cuff after a 2-min AP maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) blocked circulation of the hand for 2 min and maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min AP MVC, maximal AP voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (56.2 ± 17.7% vs. 76.3 ± 14.6%; mean ± SD; P muscle afferents from the hand decreased voluntary drive and force of AP. Moreover, this effect decreased voluntary drive and torque of proximal unfatigued muscles, the elbow flexors. Fatigue-sensitive group III/IV muscle nociceptors act to limit voluntary drive not only to fatigued muscles but also to unfatigued muscles within the same limb.

  11. Circadian phase and its relationship to nighttime sleep in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBourgeois, Monique K; Carskadon, Mary A; Akacem, Lameese D; Simpkin, Charles T; Wright, Kenneth P; Achermann, Peter; Jenni, Oskar G

    2013-10-01

    Circadian phase and its relation to sleep are increasingly recognized as fundamental factors influencing human physiology and behavior. Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) is a reliable marker of the timing of the circadian clock, which has been used in experimental, clinical, and descriptive studies in the past few decades. Although DLMO and its relationship to sleep have been well documented in school-aged children, adolescents, and adults, very little is known about these processes in early childhood. The purpose of this study was 1) to describe circadian phase and phase angles of entrainment in toddlers and 2) to examine associations between DLMO and actigraphic measures of children's nighttime sleep. Participants were 45 healthy toddlers aged 30 to 36 months (33.5 ± 2.2 months; 21 females). After sleeping on a parent-selected schedule for 5 days (assessed with actigraphy and diaries), children participated in an in-home DLMO assessment involving the collection of saliva samples every 30 minutes for 6 hours. Average bedtime was 2015 ± 0036 h, average sleep onset time was 2043 ± 0043 h, average midsleep time was 0143 ± 0038 h, and average wake time was 0644 ± 0042 h. Average DLMO was 1929 ± 0051 h, with a 3.5-hour range. DLMO was normally distributed; however, the distribution of the bedtime, sleep onset time, and midsleep phase angles of entrainment were skewed. On average, DLMO occurred 47.8 ± 47.6 minutes (median = 39.4 minutes) before bedtime, 74.6 ± 48.0 minutes (median = 65.4 minutes) before sleep onset time, 6.2 ± 0.7 hours (median = 6.1 hours) before midsleep time, and 11.3 ± 0.7 hours before wake time. Toddlers with later DLMOs had later bedtimes (r = 0.46), sleep onset times (r = 0.51), midsleep times (r = 0.66), and wake times (r = 0.65) (all p < 0.001). Interindividual differences in toddlers' circadian phase are large and associated with their sleep timing. The early DLMOs of toddlers indicate a maturational delay in the circadian timing

  12. The Healthy Toddlers Trial Protocol: An Intervention to Reduce Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in Economically and Educationally Disadvantaged Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auld Garry

    2011-07-01

    , attitudes, self-efficacy, feeding style related to child feeding; b provision of a more positive mealtime physical environment (turning off the TV; and c creation of a more positive mealtime social environment (sitting down together for meals. Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes are that the intervention will be effective in helping toddlers develop healthy eating skills that contribute to improve overall health and development and to the prevention of obesity. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ACTRN12610000981022

  13. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Amy N; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Guthrie, Whitney; Wetherby, Amy; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    Standardized calibrated severity scores (CSS) have been created for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) Modules 1-4 as a metric of the relative severity of autism-specific behaviors. Total and domain CSS were created for the Toddler Module to facilitate comparison to other modules. Analyses included 388 children with ASD age 12-30 months and were replicated on 435 repeated assessments from 127 children with ASD. Compared to raw scores, associations between total and domain CSS and participant characteristics were reduced in the original sample. Verbal IQ effects on Social Affect-CSS were not reduced in the replication sample. Toddler Module CSS increases comparability of ADOS-2 scores across modules and allows studies of symptom trajectories to extend to earlier ages.

  14. Racing performance in Standardbred trotting horses with proximal palmar/plantar first phalangeal fragments relative to the timing of surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, J L; Borg, H; Näslund, H; Waldner, C

    2015-07-01

    Proximal palmar/plantar osteochondral fragmentation of the first phalanx is a frequent radiographic finding in Standardbred horses. These lesions are routinely removed prior to the onset of a racing career with no evidence to support the timing of this surgical intervention. To determine whether horses racing before surgery slowed as they approached surgery date and whether they speeded up after surgery. To investigate the factors affecting whether a horse raced after surgery and compare the performance of horses that did and did not race before surgery. A retrospective study using 193 Swedish Standardbred trotters. Medical records and radiographs of each horse were examined. Racing data were retrieved from official online records. Generalising estimating equations were used to examine presurgery racing performance and determine whether this differed between horses that raced before surgery and those that had not. Multivariable regression was used to examine career earnings and number of career races. Horses racing before surgery neither slowed as they approached surgery, nor speeded up after surgery. Race speed of horses raced before surgery was not different from those that only raced after surgery. Racing before surgery was not associated with whether horses raced following surgery. Only horses with 3 affected legs had slower race speeds than other horses. No other horse level variables affected race speed, number of career races, career earnings or top speed. There was no significant difference in race speed between horses that raced before surgery and those that did not. Horses did not slow down prior to surgery. Horses with 3 affected legs ran slower than those with only a single or 2 affected limbs. There was no association between timing of surgery and race speed or career longevity. The potential benefits of surgical intervention should be critically examined. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  15. A NIMA-related kinase, Fa2p, localizes to a novel site in the proximal cilia of Chlamydomonas and mouse kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, Moe R; Qasim Rasi, M; Quarmby, Lynne M

    2004-11-01

    Polycystic kidney disease and related syndromes involve dysregulation of cell proliferation in conjunction with ciliary defects. The relationship between cilia and cell cycle is enigmatic, but it may involve regulation by the NIMA-family of kinases (Neks). We previously showed that the Nek Fa2p is important for ciliary function and cell cycle in Chlamydomonas. We now show that Fa2p localizes to an important regulatory site at the proximal end of cilia in both Chlamydomonas and a mouse kidney cell line. Fa2p also is associated with the proximal end of centrioles. Its localization is dynamic during the cell cycle, following a similar pattern in both cell types. The cell cycle function of Fa2p is kinase independent, whereas its ciliary function is kinase dependent. Mice with mutations in Nek1 or Nek8 have cystic kidneys; therefore, our discovery that a member of this phylogenetic group of Nek proteins is localized to the same sites in Chlamydomonas and kidney epithelial cells suggests that Neks play conserved roles in the coordination of cilia and cell cycle progression.

  16. Sociodemographic Variation of Caries Risk Factors in Toddlers and Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Eckert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease, with numerous identified risk factors. Risk factor differences could indicate the need to target caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies based on population and/or individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries risk factors differences by race/ethnicity, income, and education. Methods. We enrolled 396 caregiver-toddler pairs and administered a 105-item questionnaire addressing demographics, access to care, oral bacteria transmission, caregiver's/toddler's dental and medical health practices, caregiver's dental beliefs, and caregiver's/toddler's snacking/drinking habits. Logistic regressions and ANOVAs were used to evaluate the associations of questionnaire responses with caregiver's race/ethnicity, income, and education. Results. Caregivers self-identified as Non-Hispanic African-American (44%, Non-Hispanic White (36%, Hispanic (19%, and “other” (1%. Differences related to race/ethnicity, income, and education were found in all risk factor categories. Conclusions. Planning of caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies should be undertaken with these caries risk factor differences kept in mind.

  17. Computer-aided joint space analysis of the metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint: normative age-related and gender-specific data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeil, Alexander; Boettcher, Joachim; Seidl, Bettina E.; Heyne, Jens-Peter; Petrovitch, Alexander; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); Eidner, Torsten; Wolf, Gunter; Hein, Gert [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Rheumatology and Osteology, Clinic of Internal Medicine III, Jena (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of the study was to provide reference data for computer-aided joint space analysis based on a semi-automated and computer-aided diagnostic system for the measurement of metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint widths; additionally, the determination of sex differences and the investigation of changes in joint width with age were evaluated. Eighty hundred and sixty-nine patients (351 female and 518 male) received radiographs of the hand for trauma and were screened for a host of conditions known to affect the joint spaces. All participants underwent measurements of joint space distances at the metacarpal-phalangeal articulation (JSD-MCP) from the thumb to the small finger and at the proximal-interphalangeal articulation (JSD-PIP) from the index finger to the small finger using computer-aided diagnosis technology with semi-automated edge detection. The study revealed an annual narrowing of the JSD of 0.6% for the JSD-MCP and for the JSD-PIP. Furthermore, the data demonstrated a notable age-related decrease in JSD, including an accentuated age-related joint space narrowing in women for both articulations. Additionally, males showed a significantly wider JSD-MCP (+11.1%) and JSD-PIP (+15.4%) compared with the female cohort in all age groups. Our data presented gender-specific and age-related normative reference values for computer-aided joint space analysis of the JSD-MCP and JSD-PIP that could be used to identify disease-related joint space narrowing, particularly in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis commonly involving the peripheral small hand joints. (orig.)

  18. Iron Requirements of Infants and Toddlers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Domellöf, Magnus; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamas; Fewtrell, Mary; Hojsak, Iva; Mihatsch, Walter; Molgaard, Christian; Shamir, Raanan; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of this position paper was to review the field and provide recommendations regarding iron requirements in infants and toddlers, including those of moderately or marginally low birth weight...

  19. Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a child's diet and it's not a deprivation to not serve them during the toddler years. ... Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. ...

  20. Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents Page Content ... situation or repeats scripts from TV Delays in language Delays in language are the most common types ...

  1. Iron requirements of infants and toddlers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Domellöf, Magnus; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamas; Fewtrell, Mary; Hojsak, Iva; Mihatsch, Walter; Molgaard, Christian; Shamir, Raanan; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of this position paper was to review the field and provide recommendations regarding iron requirements in infants and toddlers, including those of moderately or marginally low birth weight...

  2. Nighttime Sleep Duration and Sleep Behaviors among Toddlers from Low-Income Families: Associations with Obesogenic Behaviors and Obesity and the Role of Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; Calamaro, Christina J; Bentley, Lauren M; Hurley, Kristen M; Wang, Yan; Black, Maureen M

    2016-10-01

    Shortened sleep duration is associated with poor health and obesity among young children. Little is known about relationships among nighttime sleep duration, sleep behaviors, and obesogenic behaviors/obesity among toddlers. This study characterizes sleep behaviors/duration and examines relationships with obesogenic behaviors/obesity among toddlers from low-income families. Mothers of toddlers (age 12-32 months) were recruited from urban/suburban sites serving low-income families. Mothers provided demographic information and completed the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ); a 6-item Toddler Sleep Behavior Scale was derived (TSBS-BISQ, higher score reflects more recommended behaviors). Toddler weight/length were measured; obesity defined as ≥95th percentile weight-for-length. Measures of obesogenic behaviors: physical activity [accelerometry, minutes/day in Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA)] and diet quality [24-hour recall, Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005)]. Bivariate and adjusted multivariable models examined associations between nighttime sleep behaviors/duration and obesogenic behaviors/obesity. Sample included 240 toddlers (mean age = 20.2 months), 55% male, 69% black, 59% urban. Toddlers spent 55.4 minutes/day in MVPA, mean HEI-2005 score was 55.4, 13% were obese. Mean sleep duration was 9.1 hours, with 35% endorsing 5-6 recommended sleep behaviors (TSBS-BISQ). In multivariable models, MVPA was positively related to sleep duration; obese toddlers had a shorter nighttime sleep duration than healthy weight toddlers [odds ratio = 0.69, p = 0.014]. Nighttime sleep duration was associated with high TSBS-BISQ scores, F = 6.1, p = 0.003. Toddlers with a shorter nighttime sleep duration are at higher risk for obesity and inactivity. Interventions to promote healthy sleep behaviors among toddlers from low-income families may improve nighttime sleep duration and reduce obesogenic behaviors/obesity.

  3. Differential ethnic associations between maternal flexibility and play sophistication in toddlers born very low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Montague, Erica Q.; Maclean, Peggy C.; Bancroft, Mary E.; Lowe, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Children born very low birth weight (Play is an important developmental outcome to the extent that child’s play and social communication are related to later development of self-regulation and effective functional skills, and play serves as an important avenue of early intervention. The current study investigated associations between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication in Caucasian, Spanish speaking Hispanic, English speaking Hispanic, and Native American toddlers (18-22 months adjusted age) in a cross-sectional cohort of 73 toddlers born VLBW and their mothers. We found that the association between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication differed by ethnicity (F(3,65) = 3.34, p = .02). In particular, Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads evidenced a significant positive association between maternal flexibility and play sophistication of medium effect size. Results for Native Americans were parallel to those of Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads: the relationship between flexibility and play sophistication was positive and of small-medium effect size. Findings indicate that for Caucasians and English speaking Hispanics, flexibility evidenced a non-significant (negative and small effect size) association with toddler play sophistication. Significant follow-up contrasts revealed that the associations for Caucasian and English speaking Hispanic dyads were significantly different from those of the other two ethnic groups. Results remained unchanged after adjusting for the amount of maternal language, an index of maternal engagement and stimulation; and after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, test age, cognitive ability, as well maternal age, education, and income. Our results provide preliminary evidence that ethnicity and acculturation may mediate the association between maternal interactive behavior such as flexibility and toddler developmental outcomes, as indexed by play sophistication. Addressing these association

  4. Early vocabulary, parental education, and the frequency of shared reading as predictors of toddler's vocabulary and grammar at age 2;7: a Slovenian longitudinal CDI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovič-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Sočan, Gregor

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study, carried out on a sample of Slovenian-speaking toddlers, was to analyze developmental changes and stability in early vocabulary development; to establish relations between toddler's vocabulary and grammar; and to analyze the effects of parental education and the frequency of shared reading on toddlers' vocabulary and grammar. The sample included fifty-one toddlers, aged 1;4 at the time of the first, and 2;7 at the time of the last, assessment. Toddlers' vocabulary and grammar were assessed six times during a 15-month period using the Slovenian adaptation of the CDI. Our findings suggest great individual differences in both size and rate of toddlers' vocabulary development. Toddlers' vocabulary scores remained relatively stable across a 3-month period. Early vocabulary at 1;7 predicted vocabulary, sentence complexity, and mean length of utterance (MLU) at 2;7, while the frequency of shared reading mediated the effect of parental education on toddlers' vocabulary and grammar at 2;7.

  5. Not Extent of Telecommuting, But Job Characteristics as Proximal Predictors of Work-Related Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Elst, Tinne; Verhoogen, Ronny; Sercu, Maarten; Van den Broeck, Anja; Baillien, Elfi; Godderis, Lode

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the curvilinear relationship between extent of telecommuting and work-related well-being (ie, burnout, work engagement, and cognitive stress complaints), as well as to test whether job characteristics act as explanatory mechanisms underlying this relationship. A sample of 878 employees from an international telecommunication company with a long history of telecommuting participated in a survey on psychosocial risk factors and well-being at work. Mediation path analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses. Social support from colleagues, participation in decision-making, task autonomy, and work-to-family conflict, but not extent of telecommuting, were directly related to work-related well-being. Extent of telecommuting was indirectly related to well-being via social support. Employers should invest in creating good work environments in general, among both telecommuters and nontelecommuters.

  6. "¿Cómo Estas?" "I'm Good." Conversational Code-Switching Is Related to Profiles of Expressive and Receptive Proficiency in Spanish-English Bilingual Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Krystal M.; Hoff, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Relations between bilingual children's patterns of conversational code-switching (responding to one language with another), the balance of their dual language input, and their expressive and receptive proficiency in two languages were examined in 115 2½-year-old simultaneous Spanish-English bilinguals in the U.S. Children were more likely to…

  7. Early Language Patterns of Toddlers on the Autism Spectrum Compared to Toddlers with Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis Weismer, Susan; Lord, Catherine; Esler, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This study characterized early language abilities in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (n = 257) using multiple measures of language development, compared to toddlers with non-spectrum developmental delay (DD, n = 69). Findings indicated moderate to high degrees of agreement among three assessment measures (one parent report and two direct…

  8. Links between mothers' coping styles, toddler reactivity, and sensitivity to toddler's negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundson, Jessica A; Leerkes, Esther M

    2012-02-01

    The extent to which engaged maternal coping styles moderate the association between toddler's temperamental reactivity and mothers' sensitivity to children's negative emotions was examined in 89 mother-child dyads. Primiparous mothers completed a measure of coping styles prenatally. When toddlers were 16 months old, mothers completed a measure of perceived toddler temperament and a self-report of how they respond to toddler negative emotions, and maternal sensitivity and temperamental reactivity were observed during emotionally arousing tasks in the laboratory. Mothers' disengaged coping style was positively associated with self-reported insensitive responses to children's negative emotions. Engaged coping moderated the association between toddler temperamental reactivity and both self-reported insensitive responses and observed maternal sensitivity, such that temperamental reactivity was more strongly linked with less sensitive maternal behavior when engaged coping was low. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Structured Task versus Free Play: The Influence of Social Context on Parenting Quality, Toddlers' Engagement with Parents and Play Behaviors, and Parent-Toddler Language Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Bingham, Gary; Lewsader, Joellen; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Elicker, James

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little empirical research examines relations among the quality of both mothers' and fathers' social emotional and linguistic support of toddlers across multiple parent-child interaction contexts. Objective: The current study investigated the influence of parent gender (mother vs. father) and activity setting (structured task vs. free…

  10. The Role of Inhibitory Control in Behavioral and Physiological Expressions of Toddler Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2010-01-01

    Eighty-one toddlers (ranging from 24 to 27 months) participated in a biobehavioral investigation of inhibitory control. Maternal-report measures of inhibitory control were related to laboratory tasks assessing inhibitory abilities under conditions of conflict, delay, and compliance challenge as well as toddler verbal ability. Additionally, unique variance in inhibitory control was explained by task-related changes in brain electrical activity at lateral frontal scalp sites as well as concurrent inhibitory task performance. Implications regarding neural correlates of executive function in early development and a central, organizing role of inhibitory processing in toddlerhood are discussed. PMID:20719337

  11. Vowels, consonants, and lexical tones: Sensitivity to phonological variation in monolingual Mandarin and bilingual English-Mandarin toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewalaarachchi, Thilanga D; Wong, Liang Hui; Singh, Leher

    2017-07-01

    Although bilingual learners represent the linguistic majority, much less is known about their lexical processing in comparison with monolingual learners. In the current study, bilingual and monolingual toddlers were compared on their ability to recognize familiar words. Children were presented with correct pronunciations and mispronunciations, with the latter involving a vowel, consonant, or tone substitution. A robust ability to recognize words when their labels were correctly pronounced was observed in both groups. Both groups also exhibited a robust ability to reject vowel, tone, and consonant mispronunciations as possible labels for familiar words. However, time course analyses revealed processing differences based on language background; relative to Mandarin monolinguals, Mandarin-English bilingual toddlers demonstrated reduced efficiency in recognizing correctly pronounced words. With respect to mispronunciations, Mandarin-English bilingual learners demonstrated reduced sensitivity to tone mispronunciations relative to Mandarin monolingual toddlers. Moreover, the relative cost of mispronunciations differed for monolingual and bilingual toddlers. Monolingual toddlers demonstrated least sensitivity to consonants followed by vowels and tones, whereas bilingual toddlers demonstrated least sensitivity to tone, followed by consonants and then by vowels. Time course analyses revealed that both groups were sensitive to vowel and consonant variation. Results reveal both similarities and differences in monolingual and bilingual learners' processing of familiar words in Mandarin Chinese. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Age-related structural changes in the myenteric nervous plexus ganglion along the anterior wall of the proximal human duodenum: A morphometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Predrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Aging is one of the most complex biological processes which probably affect structure and function of the enteric nerve system. However, there is not much available information on this topic, particularly in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of aging on the structure of the myenteric ganglia in the anterior wall of the human proximal duodenum. Methods. We examined the myenteric ganglia in the proximal duodenal anterior wall specimens obtained from 30 cadaver persons aged from 20 to 84 years. Tissue samples were classified into three age groups: 20-44, 45-64 and 65-84 years. After standard histological preparation, specimens were stained with HE, Cresyl Violet and AgNO3. Morphometric analysis of all the specimens, using a multipurpose test system M42, was performed. The data were subjected to the ttest. Results. The myenteric ganglia of very old humans contains an empty space, i.e. the respective parts of ganglia show a decreased number of neuron as compared to younger population. The average number of neuron per cm2 of the duodenum in the youngest people (20-44 years was 69,370 ± 1,750.00, in the people aged 45-64 years 69,211 ± 1,573.33, and in the oldest persons (65-84 years 57,951 ± 1,291.52. The loss of neurons in the oldest persons was 16.46%. The applied statistic test demonstrated a significant difference between the observed groups (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. Aging does not induce changes in size and surface of neurons in the ganglia, but it decreases the number of neurons. The nerve structures in the elderly are partly emptied of bodies of nerve cells (“empty ganglions”, which indicates the existence of changed myenteric ganglia in the duodenum. These changes could be related to the duodenum motility disorder associated with aging.

  13. Two-year survival rates of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment restorations in relation to glass ionomer cements and postrestoration meals consumed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; Opinya, G.N.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Mwalili, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of 3 glass ionomer cement (GIC) brands and the postrestoration meal consumed on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. Methods: A total of 804 proximal restorations were placed in primary

  14. Quality not quantity of television viewing is associated with bilingual toddlers' vocabulary scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Tamara M; Fennell, Christopher T; Hoftyzer, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    Previous research examining the relationship between television viewing and vocabulary has produced mixed findings that indicate the quality of television exposure may impact language development more than quantity. However, few infant or toddler studies have included both quality and quantity measures and no study has done so with bilinguals. Caregivers of monolingual English, monolingual French, and English-French bilingual infants and toddlers from the same geographical area completed questionnaires regarding television exposure and vocabulary. Factor analysis of the questionnaire data confirmed that quantity and quality of viewing should be assessed separately. Quantity of television viewing was not correlated with language outcomes in any group. Poor quality viewing (television unintended for children, background television, solitary viewing, and earlier age of viewing) was related to lower vocabulary scores overall, but especially the English vocabulary scores of bilingual toddlers. Possible reasons for this finding are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Milestone achievement and neurodevelopment of rural Amazonian toddlers (12 to 24 months) with different methylmercury and ethylmercury exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; Marques, Rejane C; Abreu, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Neurological outcomes (Gesell development schedules [GDS]), age of walking, and age of talking were studied in 299 toddlers (12 to 24 mo) in relation to environmental (fish consumption and tin mining) exposure. Exposure to fish methylmercury (MeHg) consumption and iatrogenic ethylmercury (EtHg) in Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV) was quantified in toddlers from two rural villages (n = 91, Itapuã; n = 218, Bom Futuro) respectively populated by fishers and cassiterite miners. Median total hair Hg (HHg) concentrations of infants from Itapuã (3.5 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of infants from Bom Futuro (2.2 μg/g). Median EtHg exposure from TCV was also significantly higher in toddlers from Itapuã (137.5 μg) than in those from Bom Futuro (112.5 μg). There were no significant differences between groups for any of the Gesell schedules; however, there were proportionally more compromised toddlers (GDS Futuro. Median age of talking was not statistically different but median age of walking was significantly higher in Bom Futuro. In toddlers from both villages, of fishers and miners, HHg concentrations were significantly correlated with family fish consumption. A logistic regression model was applied to all infants after classification into two groups: above or below the median Gesell schedules. Overall, there was no distinctive pattern of neurodevelopment associated with either HHg or EtHg exposure; however, nutritional status was significantly associated with GDS. In conclusion, milestone achievement was delayed in toddlers from tin-ore mining communities. Despite significantly higher exposure to both forms of organic Hg (MeHg from maternal fish consumption, and EtHg from TCV) in toddlers from the fishing village, significant differences were seen only among the proportions of most severely affected toddlers (GDS < 70).

  16. Mother-toddler interaction and the development of self-regulation in a limit-setting context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuyer-Maus, Elizabeth A; Houck, Gail M

    2002-06-01

    The Prohibition Coding Scheme was used to longitudinally assess observations of maternal and toddler limit-setting interactions at 12, 24, and 36 months. The final sample consisted of 126 mother-toddler dyads. Toddler behavior in a limit-setting context exemplified progressing skill in self-regulation from 12 to 36 months. Specifically, toddlers exhibited less persistence, increasing autonomy, and increasing ability to inhibit their behavior, with half of the toddlers classified as "autonomous-compliant" by 36 months of age. As a group, mothers also adapted their socializing behavior during toddlerhood, decreasing their use of directive structure and distractions, and using more cognitive strategies. A maternal "teaching-based", limit-setting pattern was associated with more competent toddler response-to-limits patterns at each age, and more mothers used a teaching-based limit-setting style by 36 months of age. These findings provide validity for the Prohibition Coding Scheme and extend our knowledge base for guiding parents in their socializing strategies relative to developing self-regulation. Clinical implications and areas for further research are addressed. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  17. Emotional flooding and hostile discipline in the families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mence, Melanie; Hawes, David J; Wedgwood, Lucinda; Morgan, Susan; Barnett, Bryanne; Kohlhoff, Jane; Hunt, Caroline

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between negative parenting practices and dysfunction in parents' cognitive processing of child affect cues in families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems. This dysfunction comprised a bias toward the misclassification of child affect as anger (affect appraisal bias) and parents' proneness to emotional flooding (Gottman, 1991, 1993). Participants were families of toddlers (n = 82; 53% male; aged 18-48 months) referred to a tertiary-level health service for the treatment of disruptive behavior problems. Affect appraisal bias was indexed in terms of the discrepancy between rates of child anger coded from video recordings of parent-child interactions and rates of child anger estimated by parents immediately after these interactions. Parenting practices and emotional flooding were assessed using the Parenting Scale and the Parental Flooding Scale. Both hostile and overreactive discipline were positively associated with severity of disruptive behavior problems, however only hostile discipline was associated with the biased appraisal of child affect and emotional flooding. Emotional flooding was found to be a unique predictor of hostile discipline, independent of covariates including the severity of disruptive behavior problems. Variance in hostile discipline was further explained by the interaction between emotional flooding and affect appraisal bias. Emotional flooding appears to be particularly proximal to hostile discipline in the families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems, consistent with evidence previously reported for nonclinical families.

  18. Teaching, caring, and altruistic behaviors in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Kiyobumi; Takai-Kawakami, Kiyoko

    2015-11-01

    Peer-directed behaviors of toddlers were longitudinally recorded in a naturalistic preschool setting. An observer (O, the first author) recorded children's behaviors during play sessions with an IC recorder. One-year-old children (N=13) and children under the age of 12 months (N=8) were observed for 15 min, 6 times in a year. Their teaching, caring, and altruistic behaviors were analyzed in detail. Results indicated that peer-directed behaviors of one-year-olds increased dramatically. It is concluded that toddlers are sophisticated social being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The 'Displacing Foods of Modern Commerce' Are the Primary and Proximate Cause of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Unifying Singular Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobbe, Chris A; Stojanoska, Marija

    2017-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss and blindness in developed nations. AMD is anticipated to affect 196 million people worldwide, by 2020. However, the etiology of this disease remains unknown. Aging, genetic, and environmental influences have generally been implicated as major etiologic factors. We sought to examine the hypothesis that consumption of the 'displacing foods of modern commerce,' which equate to processed, nutrient-deficient and potentially toxic foods, may be the primary and proximate cause of AMD. To evaluate this hypothesis, we ran correlative AMD prevalence data against well-known proxy markers of processed food consumption, namely, sugar and vegetable oils, in 25 nations. In twenty-one nations, published studies provided AMD prevalence data and in four Pacific Island nations, practicing ophthalmologists in the regions completed retrospective chart analyses to estimate AMD prevalence in their respective regions. To estimate AMD prevalence historically, an extensive review of published papers and ophthalmic literature was completed. This review indicates that, between the years 1851 and 1930, AMD was a medical rarity worldwide, which then rose modestly in prevalence in the 1930s in the U.S. and U.K, finally elevating to epidemic proportions by 1975 in the U.S. Numerous developed nations have followed suit in recent decades. Simultaneously, between approximately 1880 and 2009, processed, nutrient-deficient foods gradually supplanted and displaced whole, unprocessed, nutrient-dense foods in developed nations, such that by 2009, 63 percent of the American diet was made up of nutrient-deficient foods in the form of refined white flour, added sugars, vegetable oils, and artificially created trans fats. The correlative data in 25 nations shows that increasing sugar and polyunsaturated vegetable oil consumption is invariably associated with new onset or rising prevalence of AMD, generally within about

  20. Treatment of proximal hamstring tendinopathy-related sciatic nerve entrapment: presentation of an ultrasound-guided “Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis” application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiussi, Gabriele; Moreno, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy-related Sciatic Nerve Entrapment (PHTrSNE) is a neuropathy caused by fibrosis interposed between the semimembranosus tendon and the sciatic nerve, at the level of the ischial tuberosity. Methods Ultrasound-guided Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis (US-guided EPI) involves galvanic current transfer within the treatment target tissue (fibrosis) via a needle 0.30 to 0.33 mm in diameter. The galvanic current in a saline solution instantly develops the chemical process of electrolysis, which in turn induces electrochemical ablation of fibrosis. In this article, the interventional procedure is presented in detail, and both the strengths and limits of the technique are discussed. Results US-guided EPI eliminates the fibrotic accumulation that causes PHTrSNE, without the semimembranosus tendon or the sciatic nerve being directly involved during the procedure. The technique is however of limited use in cases of compression neuropathy. Conclusion US-guided EPI is a technique that is quick to perform, minimally invasive and does not force the patient to suspend their activities (work or sports) to make the treatment effective. This, coupled to the fact that the technique is generally well-tolerated by patients, supports use of US-guided EPI in the treatment of PHTrSNE. PMID:27900300

  1. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for acute proximal humeral fractures in the geriatric patient: results, health-related quality of life and complication rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopiz, Yaiza; García-Coiradas, Javier; Serrano-Mateo, Laura; García-Fernández, Carlos; Marco, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) in fractures is especially indicated in patients of advanced age, although the influence of age on functional outcomes, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and complication rate is unknown. We hypothesized that complication rate would decrease in the geriatric population because of their reduced activity, improving the perceived HRQoL. Retrospective study of 42 patients with proximal humeral fractures treated with RSA, divided into two groups: Patients in the ≥80y group had a lower total CMS, 33 vs 64 (p = 0.027). Mean active range of motion at 24 months 80y group was the most affected. The "pain/discomfort" item was lower for the two age groups than for the reference population. There were 9.5 % complications: one prosthesis dislocation, one periprosthetic fracture and two surgical wound haematoma. Our results indicate that age is a critical factor for RSA success. Lower functional outcomes have been obtained in patients older than 80y, although the EQ-5D results in our sample were similar or even better than the referred population. Level III.

  2. Mothers, Fathers, and Toddlers: Parental Psychosocial Functioning as a Context for Young Children's Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Annie; Bélanger, Marie-Ève; Bordeleau, Stéphanie; Carrier, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prospective relations between parental psychosocial functioning and toddlers' sleep consolidation. Investigators met with 85 families 3 times, when children were 15 months (Time 1 [T1]), 18 months (T2), and 2 years of age (T3). Mothers and fathers completed questionnaires pertaining to their parenting…

  3. Diurnal cortisol rhythm and cognitive functioning in toddlers : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saridjan, N.S.; Henrichs, J.; Schenk, J.J.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Kirschbaum, C.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between diurnal cortisol secretion patterns and cognitive function early in life. This population-based study examined whether diurnal cortisol rhythms and cognitive functioning in toddlers are related. Within the Generation R Study, parents of 364 infants

  4. Rethinking Attachment: Fostering Positive Relationships between Infants, Toddlers and Their Primary Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis of current theory and research in relation to attachment between infants/toddlers and their caregivers. Worldwide statistics show that there are a significant number of women working in the global labour market. In Australia, recent research also found that over 300,000 children aged 0-5 years are currently…

  5. Parent-Reported Repetitive Behavior in Toddlers on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, Hannah H.; Odom, Samuel L.; Baggett, Baggett M.; Sideris, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were assessed on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), which we found to have acceptable internal consistency. Stereotypical subscale scores showed a negligible association with cognitive level, but correlated more strongly with adaptive and social indicators. Relative to earlier reported RBS-R…

  6. Teens Parenting: The Challenge of Babies and Toddlers. Student Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jeanne Warren

    Discussion questions, writing assignments, and project ideas are included in this parenting guide for teenage parents of infants and toddlers. Topics addressed in the guide include pregnancy, breast and bottle feeding, child proofing the home, money problems, discipline, developmental stages of young children, and problems related to single…

  7. Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for Complex Stones in a Toddler with Congenital Renal Anomalies: Technical Details

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Can Kiremit

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report herein the management of a challenging case due to anatomic and stone-related complications in a 37-month-old Caucasian toddler with megacalycosis and complex stone in the left kidney and duplicated ureter on the right side.

  8. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  9. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  10. Contextual influences on concordance between maternal report and laboratory observation of toddler fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Hummel, Alexandra C

    2017-03-01

    Emotion and temperament researchers have faced an enduring issue of how to best measure children's tendencies to express specific emotions. Inconsistencies between laboratory observation and parental report have made it challenging for researchers to determine the utility of these different forms of measurement. The current study examined the effect of laboratory episode characteristics (i.e., threat level of the episode, maternal involvement) on concordance between maternal report and laboratory observation of toddler fear. The sample included 111 mother-toddler dyads who participated in a laboratory assessment when toddlers were approximately 24 months old. Toddler fear was assessed both via maternal report and observation from a number of laboratory episodes that varied in their level of threat and whether mothers were free or constrained in their involvement in the task. Results indicated that maternal report related to the observed fear composites for low threat, but not high threat episodes. On the contrary, maternal involvement in the laboratory episodes did not moderate the relation between maternal report and laboratory observation of fear. These results suggest that the threat level of laboratory episodes designed to elicit fear, but not maternal involvement in these episodes, may be important to take into consideration when assessing their relation to maternal report of fear and fearful temperament. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Expected accuracy of proximal and distal temperature estimated by wireless sensors, in relation to their number and position on the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longato, Enrico; Garrido, Maria; Saccardo, Desy; Montesinos Guevara, Camila; Mani, Ali R; Bolognesi, Massimo; Amodio, Piero; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni; Montagnese, Sara

    2017-01-01

    A popular method to estimate proximal/distal temperature (TPROX and TDIST) consists in calculating a weighted average of nine wireless sensors placed on pre-defined skin locations. Specifically, TPROX is derived from five sensors placed on the infra-clavicular and mid-thigh area (left and right) and abdomen, and TDIST from four sensors located on the hands and feet. In clinical practice, the loss/removal of one or more sensors is a common occurrence, but limited information is available on how this affects the accuracy of temperature estimates. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of temperature estimates in relation to number/position of sensors removed. Thirteen healthy subjects wore all nine sensors for 24 hours and reference TPROX and TDIST time-courses were calculated using all sensors. Then, all possible combinations of reduced subsets of sensors were simulated and suitable weights for each sensor calculated. The accuracy of TPROX and TDIST estimates resulting from the reduced subsets of sensors, compared to reference values, was assessed by the mean squared error, the mean absolute error (MAE), the cross-validation error and the 25th and 75th percentiles of the reconstruction error. Tables of the accuracy and sensor weights for all possible combinations of sensors are provided. For instance, in relation to TPROX, a subset of three sensors placed in any combination of three non-homologous areas (abdominal, right or left infra-clavicular, right or left mid-thigh) produced an error of 0.13°C MAE, while the loss/removal of the abdominal sensor resulted in an error of 0.25°C MAE, with the greater impact on the quality of the reconstruction. This information may help researchers/clinicians: i) evaluate the expected goodness of their TPROX and TDIST estimates based on the number of available sensors; ii) select the most appropriate subset of sensors, depending on goals and operational constraints.

  12. Encouraging Healthy Eating Behaviors in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Larra; Henk, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Young children's eating behaviors have a direct link to their future health and attitudes regarding food. Similarly, positive nutrition during the toddler years leads to increased brain development and thus children are generally healthier (Weaver, More, & Harris, 2008). This makes eating behaviors extremely important. During the toddler…

  13. Fostering Early Language with Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2014-01-01

    This articles describes the learning process of infants and toddlers and provides tips that parents and caregivers can use to promote the development of rich language skills, as well as an abiding passion for learning. From the earliest days, talking with babies encourages their knowledge of words. Singing and reading books increases their…

  14. Fractures in infants and toddlers with rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Teresa; Done, Stephen [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Sugar, Naomi; Feldman, Kenneth [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Children' s Protection Program, Seattle, WA (United States); Marasigan, Joanne; Wambold, Nicolle [University of Washington, College of Arts and Sciences, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Rickets affects young infants and toddlers. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding the types of fractures that occur in rachitic patients. To evaluate the age of patients at which radiographically evident rickets occurs, and to characterize the age incidence and fractures that are observed in infants and toddlers with radiographically evident rickets. A retrospective study of children younger than 24 months was performed. Clinical data and radiographs were reviewed. Radiographs obtained within 1 month of the diagnosis were evaluated for the presence or absence of osteopenia, presence or absence of fraying-cupping, and presence and characterization of fractures. After exclusion criteria were applied, 45 children were included in the study. Children with rickets evident by radiograph were in the age range of 2-24 months. Fractures were present in 17.5% of the study group, exclusively in mobile infants and toddlers. Fracture types included transverse long bone fractures, anterior and anterior-lateral rib fractures, and metaphyseal fractures. All fractures occurred exclusively in patients with severe, overtly evident rickets. Fractures occur in older infants and toddlers with overt rickets and can be seen by radiograph. Fractures do not resemble high-risk non-accidental trauma fractures. (orig.)

  15. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)…

  16. Adaptation to Novel Accents by Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine S.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    Word recognition is a balancing act: listeners must be sensitive to phonetic detail to avoid confusing similar words, yet, at the same time, be flexible enough to adapt to phonetically variable pronunciations, such as those produced by speakers of different dialects or by non-native speakers. Recent work has demonstrated that young toddlers are…

  17. Toddler drinks, formulas, and milks: Labeling practices and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Romo Palafox, Maria J; Harris, Jennifer L

    2018-01-12

    Toddler drinks are a growing category of drinks marketed for young children 9-36 months old. Medical experts do not recommend them, and public health experts raise concerns about misleading labeling practices. In the U.S., the toddler drink category includes two types of products: transition formulas, marketed for infants and toddlers 9-24 months; and toddler milks, for children 12-36 months old. The objective of this study was to evaluate toddler drink labeling practices in light of U.S. food labeling policy and international labeling recommendations. In January 2017, we conducted legal research on U.S. food label laws and regulations; collected and evaluated toddler drink packages, including nutrition labels and claims; and compared toddler drink labels with the same brand's infant formula labels. We found that the U.S. has a regulatory structure for food labels and distinct policies for infant formula, but no laws specific to toddler drinks. Toddler drink labels utilized various terms and images to identify products and intended users; made multiple health and nutrition claims; and some stated there was scientific or expert support for the product. Compared to the same manufacturer's infant formula labels, most toddler drink labels utilized similar colors, branding, logos, and graphics. Toddler drink labels may confuse consumers about their nutrition and health benefits and the appropriateness of these products for young children. To support healthy toddler diets and well-informed decision-making by caregivers, the FDA can provide guidance or propose regulations clarifying permissible toddler drink labels and manufacturers should end inappropriate labeling practices. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Emotional arousal in cocaine exposed toddlers: prediction of behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M; Fahy, Thomas; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) may be associated with alterations in children's developing emotional arousal and regulation systems. We examined emotional responses to a frustrating task and subsequent behavior problems in 225 2 1/2 year olds (129 Prenatally Cocaine and Other Drug Exposed [PCE], 30 Non Cocaine but other drug Exposed [NCE], 66 Non Drug Exposed [NDE]). Children's behaviors in a frustrating toy wait task at age 2 1/2 were coded for emotional arousal and regulation behaviors. Findings indicated a trend for PCE toddlers to show greater agitated emotional arousal than NCE and NDE toddlers. Further, PCE boys made more references to their caregivers in the task than NDE boys. Higher agitated arousal at age 2 1/2 years was related to greater decreases in externalizing behaviors through age 5 1/2 years. Findings suggest a link between cocaine exposure and emotional arousal and regulation and highlight the need to understand complex relations between emotion and risk for later psychopathology in exposed youth.

  19. Morphology and morphometry of the ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle in relation to median nerve compression at the proximal forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, I A; Altinel, L; Gayretli, O; Akgul, T; Uzun, I; Dikici, F

    2016-12-01

    The pronator syndrome is a rare compression neuropathy of the median nerve. Ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle may cause compression at proximal forearm. Detailed morphologic and morphometric studies on the anatomy of the ulnar head of pronator teres is scarce. We dissected 112 forearms of fresh cadavers. We evaluated the morphology and morphometry of the ulnar head of pronator teres muscle. The average ulnar head width was 16.3±8.2mm. The median nerve passed anterior to the ulnar head at a distance of 50.4±10.7mm from the interepicondylar line. We classified the morphology of the ulnar head into 5 types. In type 1, the ulnar head was fibromuscular in 60 forearms (53.6%). In type 2, it was muscular in 23 forearms (20.5%). In type 3, it was just a fibrotic band in 18 forearms (16.1%). In type 4, it was absent in 9 forearms (8%). In type 5, the ulnar head had two arches in 2 forearms (1.8%). In 80 forearms (71.5%: types 1, 3, and 5), the ulnar head was either fibromuscular or a fibrotic band. Although the pronator syndrome is a rare compression syndrome, the ulnar head of pronator teres is reported as the major cause of entrapment in the majority of the cases. The location of the compression of the median nerve in relation to the ulnar head of pronator teres muscle and the morphology of the ulnar head is important for open or minimally-invasive surgical treatment. Sectional study. Basic science study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Infant and Toddler Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salardi, Silvana; Porta, Massimo; Maltoni, Giulio; Rubbi, Flavia; Rovere, Silvia; Cerutti, Franco; Iafusco, Dario; Tumini, Stefano; Cauvin, Vittoria

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the effect of the prepubertal duration of diabetes on the occurrence of complications in two groups of patients after the same number of years of the disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This multicenter study enrolled 105 patients aged 16–40.3 years; 53 were prepubertal at diagnosis (aged 0–3) and 52 were pubertal (Tanner stage) and aged 9–14.9. The mean duration of disease was 19.8 and 19.5 years for prepubertal and pubertal patients, respectively. In all patients, retinal photographs were taken and centrally graded. Urinary albumin excretion (UAE; 86 case subjects), blood pressure (BP; 89 case subjects), and lifetime HbA1c (72 case subjects) were also evaluated. RESULTS The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was higher in pubertal than in prepubertal patients, both for any grade DR (71 vs. 40%, P = 0.002) and for mild or more severe DR (P = 0.005). The prevalence of abnormal UAE was not different in the two groups. Hypertension was found only in three patients, all pubertal at diagnosis. In the small group with moderate-to-severe DR, lifetime HbA1c levels, as percentages above the upper normal reference value, were higher (P < 0.01) in prepubertal than in pubertal patients. CONCLUSIONS If diabetes is diagnosed in infants or toddlers and the prepubertal duration of diabetes is very long, the patients seem to be protected against DR. This protection disappears if lifetime metabolic control is bad. Instead, when onset is at puberty, the DR risk is higher and less dependent on metabolic control and may be influenced by age-related factors, such as BP. PMID:22323415

  1. Using an adoption design to separate genetic, prenatal, and temperament influences on toddler executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; DeGarmo, David S; Bridgett, David J; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Harold, Gordon T; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2013-06-01

    Poor executive functioning has been implicated in children's concurrent and future behavioral difficulties, making work aimed at understanding processes related to the development of early executive function (EF) critical for models of developmental psychopathology. Deficits in EF have been associated with adverse prenatal experiences, genetic influences, and temperament characteristics. However, our ability to disentangle the predictive and independent effects of these influences has been limited by a dearth of genetically informed research designs that also consider prenatal influences. The present study examined EF and language development in a sample of 361 toddlers who were adopted at birth and reared in nonrelative adoptive families. Predictors included genetic influences (as inherited from birth mothers), prenatal risk, and growth in child negative emotionality. Structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of prenatal risk on toddler effortful attention at age 27 months became nonsignificant once genetic influences were considered in the model. In addition, genetic influences had unique effects on toddler effortful attention. Latent growth modeling indicated that increases in toddler negative emotionality from 9 to 27 months were associated with poorer delay of gratification and poorer language development. Similar results were obtained in models incorporating birth father data. Mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of EF deficits are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Protein energy malnutrition associates with different types of hearing impairments in toddlers: Anemia increases cochlear dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Terez Boshra; Deraz, Tharwat Ezzat; Elkabarity, Rasha H; Ahmed, Rasha K

    2016-06-01

    This work aimed to highlight a challenging asymptomatic problem which is early detection of hearing impairment in toddlers with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) as a neuro-cognitive effect of PEM on developing brain in relation to hemoglobin level. 100 toddlers, aged 6-24 months, fifty with moderate/severe PEM and fifty healthy children, were included in study. Both TEOAEs and ABR testing were used to assess auditory function. Study reported an association between malnutrition and hearing impairment, 26% of cases had conductive deafness secondary to otitis media with effusion using tympanometry; 84.6% showed type B and 15.4% type C which may suggest developing or resolving otitis media. Their ABR showed 46% mild and 53% moderate impairment. 32% of PEM cases had sensory neural hearing loss and with type (A) tympanometry. Those were assessed using ABR; 58% had mild, 34% moderate and 8% profound impairment. 10% of PEM cases had mixed hearing loss with 50% type B and 50% type C tympanometry and their ABR showed moderate to profound impairment. TEOAEs latencies at different frequencies correlate negatively with hemoglobin level. Toddlers with moderate/severe PEM had hearing impairments of different types and degrees. Neuro-physiological methods could be early and safe detectors of auditory disorders especially in high-risk toddlers. Anemia increases risk for auditory dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sleep and Social-Emotional Development in Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jodi A; Leichman, Erin S; DuMond, Courtney; Sadeh, Avi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships among variables related to sleep patterns and both social-emotional problems (i.e., internalizing, externalizing, and dysregulation) and healthy social development (i.e., social competence). Assessments were completed at 6, 12, and 18 months across 5 cohorts of children for a total of 117 mother-child dyads. Mothers completed the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire at 6, 12, and 18 months, as well as the Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment at 12 and 18 months. Later bedtimes and less total sleep across the 24-hr period predicted higher internalizing problem scores, which includes indices of depression/withdrawal, general anxiety, separation distress, and inhibition. In contrast, sleep fragmentation was minimally associated with decreased social competence but not with any negative social-emotional outcomes. These results indicate that sleep patterns, primarily later bedtimes and less total sleep, appear to be associated with and predictive of social-emotional problem areas, namely, internalizing issues, in infants and toddlers. These findings add to the growing literature on the role of sleep in early social-emotional development and suggest that sleep schedule and duration should be addressed in clinical assessment and interventions for infant sleep.

  4. Pupillometry registers toddlers' sensitivity to degrees of mispronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamási, Katalin; McKean, Cristina; Gafos, Adamantios; Fritzsche, Tom; Höhle, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces a method ideally suited for investigating toddlers' ability to detect mispronunciations in lexical representations: pupillometry. Previous research has established that the magnitude of pupil dilation reflects differing levels of cognitive effort. Building on those findings, we use pupil dilation to study the level of detail encoded in lexical representations with 30-month-old children whose lexicons allow for a featurally balanced stimulus set. In each trial, we present a picture followed by a corresponding auditory label. By systematically manipulating the number of feature changes in the onset of the label (e.g., baby∼daby∼faby∼shaby), we tested whether featural distance predicts the degree of pupil dilation. Our findings support the existence of a relationship between featural distance and pupil dilation. First, mispronounced words are associated with a larger degree of dilation than correct forms. Second, words that deviate more from the correct form are related to a larger dilation than words that deviate less. This pattern indicates that toddlers are sensitive to the degree of mispronunciation, and as such it corroborates previous work that found word recognition modulated by sub-segmental detail and by the degree of mismatch. Thus, we establish that pupillometry provides a viable alternative to paradigms that require overt behavioral response in increasing our understanding of the development of lexical representations. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 27882 - Safety Standard for Toddler Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1217 RIN 3041-AC79 Safety Standard for Toddler Beds Correction In rule document 2011...)(6)(iii), 1217.2(c)(6)(iv), and 1217.2(c)(7), which should read: (iii) 8.4.4 Toddler beds that... complete requirements for full-size cribs. (iv) 8.4.5 Any toddler bed that can convert from a full-size...

  6. Maternal DHA levels and Toddler Free-Play Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Kannass, Kathleen N.; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels at birth and toddler free-play attention in the second year. Toddler free-play attention was assessed at 12 and 18 months, and maternal erythrocyte (red-blood cell; RBC) phospholipid DHA (percentage of total fatty acids) was measured from mothers at delivery. Overall, higher maternal DHA status at birth was associated with enhanced attentional functioning during the second year. Toddlers whose mothers had high...

  7. Transient, but not persistent, adult food insecurity influences toddler development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Jacknowitz, Alison

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined characteristics associated with experiencing persistent and transitional adult food insecurity and how persistent and transitional adult food insecurity influences toddler...

  8. Maternal psychological absence and toddlers' social-emotional development: interpretations from the perspective of boundary ambiguity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocknek, Erika L; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Fitzgerald, Hiram; Burns-Jager, Kathleen; Carolan, Marsha T

    2012-12-01

    The current study tests a novel latent construct reflecting psychological absence and examines its relations with maternal depression, mother-toddler interactions, and toddlers' social-emotional outcomes in a low-income sample (N = 2,632). Structural equation modeling confirmed a psychological absence construct and revealed that psychological absence, measured at the child's 36-month birthday-related assessment, is a significant predictor of children's social-emotional development at 36 months, mediated by mother-child interaction. Results are interpreted within a boundary ambiguity framework. © FPI, Inc.

  9. Parent-Toddler Behavior and Language Differ When Reading Electronic and Print Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouse, Gabrielle A; Ganea, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the language and behaviors that typically occur when adults read electronic books with infants and toddlers, and which are supportive of learning. In this study, we report differences in parent and child behavior and language when reading print versus electronic versions of the same books, and investigate links between behavior and vocabulary learning. Parents of 102 toddlers aged 17-26 months were randomly assigned to read two commercially available electronic books or two print format books with identical content with their toddler. After reading, children were asked to identify an animal labeled in one of the books in both two-dimensional (pictures) and three-dimensional (replica objects) formats. Toddlers who were read the electronic books paid more attention, made themselves more available for reading, displayed more positive affect, participated in more page turns, and produced more content-related comments during reading than those who were read the print versions of the books. Toddlers also correctly identified a novel animal labeled in the book more often when they had read the electronic than the traditional print books. Availability for reading and attention to the book acted as mediators in predicting children's animal choice at test, suggesting that electronic books supported children's learning by way of increasing their engagement and attention. In contrast to prior studies conducted with older children, there was no difference between conditions in behavioral or off-topic talk for either parents or children. More research is needed to determine the potential hazards and benefits of new media formats for very young children.

  10. Parent–Toddler Behavior and Language Differ When Reading Electronic and Print Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Ganea, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the language and behaviors that typically occur when adults read electronic books with infants and toddlers, and which are supportive of learning. In this study, we report differences in parent and child behavior and language when reading print versus electronic versions of the same books, and investigate links between behavior and vocabulary learning. Parents of 102 toddlers aged 17–26 months were randomly assigned to read two commercially available electronic books or two print format books with identical content with their toddler. After reading, children were asked to identify an animal labeled in one of the books in both two-dimensional (pictures) and three-dimensional (replica objects) formats. Toddlers who were read the electronic books paid more attention, made themselves more available for reading, displayed more positive affect, participated in more page turns, and produced more content-related comments during reading than those who were read the print versions of the books. Toddlers also correctly identified a novel animal labeled in the book more often when they had read the electronic than the traditional print books. Availability for reading and attention to the book acted as mediators in predicting children’s animal choice at test, suggesting that electronic books supported children’s learning by way of increasing their engagement and attention. In contrast to prior studies conducted with older children, there was no difference between conditions in behavioral or off-topic talk for either parents or children. More research is needed to determine the potential hazards and benefits of new media formats for very young children. PMID:28559858

  11. Parent–Toddler Behavior and Language Differ When Reading Electronic and Print Picture Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle A. Strouse

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the language and behaviors that typically occur when adults read electronic books with infants and toddlers, and which are supportive of learning. In this study, we report differences in parent and child behavior and language when reading print versus electronic versions of the same books, and investigate links between behavior and vocabulary learning. Parents of 102 toddlers aged 17–26 months were randomly assigned to read two commercially available electronic books or two print format books with identical content with their toddler. After reading, children were asked to identify an animal labeled in one of the books in both two-dimensional (pictures and three-dimensional (replica objects formats. Toddlers who were read the electronic books paid more attention, made themselves more available for reading, displayed more positive affect, participated in more page turns, and produced more content-related comments during reading than those who were read the print versions of the books. Toddlers also correctly identified a novel animal labeled in the book more often when they had read the electronic than the traditional print books. Availability for reading and attention to the book acted as mediators in predicting children’s animal choice at test, suggesting that electronic books supported children’s learning by way of increasing their engagement and attention. In contrast to prior studies conducted with older children, there was no difference between conditions in behavioral or off-topic talk for either parents or children. More research is needed to determine the potential hazards and benefits of new media formats for very young children.

  12. General practitioners' accounts of how to facilitate consultations with toddlers - an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golsäter, Marie; Johansson, Lars-Olof; Harder, Maria

    2017-03-01

    To describe general practitioners' (GPs') accounts of how to facilitate consultations with children aged 1-2 years. A qualitative study based on focus group interviews. Five focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 25 GPs at Swedish primary health care (PHC) centres. The GPs regularly invited toddlers to consultations. The GPs' accounts of how to facilitate consultations with toddlers revealed descriptions of making efforts to instil confidence in the situation to enable the consultation. Toddlers in need of health care always visit the GP with adults such as their parents, guardians or other relatives. Therefore, the GP directs efforts towards the adults and the child more or less simultaneously, as they both need to rely on the GP. The GPs describe how they instil confidence in the adults by establishing a mutual understanding that the consultation is necessary to secure the child's health. Regarding the child, the GP instils confidence by establishing a relationship in order to approach the child and accomplish bodily examinations. The result shows that GPs' encounters with children in consultations are two-sided. The GP needs to conduct bodily examinations to secure the child's health and development, but to do so he/she needs to establish purposeful relationships with the adults and the child by instilling confidence. This indicates that establishing relationships in the consultation is significant, and a way to achieve a child-centred consultation. KEY POINTS Research regarding GPs' encounters with toddlers in consultation is limited, even though toddlers frequently visit PHC. • GPs make efforts to instil confidence by establishing mutual understanding with parents and a relationship with the child. • Establishing purposeful relationships with both the child and parent is significant in enabling the consultation. • Establishing a relationship with the child overrides conducting the bodily examination, to promote the child's feeling of

  13. Iron requirements of infants and toddlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domellöf, Magnus; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide and young children are a special risk group since their rapid growth leads to high iron requirements. Risk factors associated with a higher prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) include low birth weight, high cow's milk...... intake, low intake of iron-rich complementary foods, low socioeconomic status and immigrant status.The aim of this position paper is to review the field and provide recommendations regarding iron requirements in infants and toddlers, including those of moderately or marginally low birth weight.......There is no evidence that iron supplementation of pregnant women improves iron status in their offspring in a European setting. Delayed cord clamping reduces the risk of iron deficiency. There is insufficient evidence to support general iron supplementation of healthy, European infants and toddlers of normal birth...

  14. Childhood Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Neonate/Toddler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, Marc A; Faure, Christophe; Hyman, Paul E; St James Roberts, Ian; Schechter, Neil L; Nurko, Samuel

    2016-02-15

    In 2006, a consensus concerning functional gastrointestinal intestinal disorders (FGIDs) in infants and toddlers was described. At that time little evidence regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic work-up, treatment strategies and follow-up was available. Consequently the criteria for the clinical entities were more experience than evidence based. In the past decade, new insights have been gained in the different FGIDs in these age groups. Based on those, further revisions have been made to the criteria. The description of infant colic has been expanded to include criteria for the general pediatrician and specific criteria for researchers. The greatest change was the addition of a paragraph regarding the neurobiology of pain in infants and toddlers, including the understanding of the neurodevelopment of nociception and of the wide array of factors that may impact the pain experience. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental type II diabetes and related models of impaired glucose metabolism differentially regulate glucose transporters at the proximal tubule brush border membrane.

    OpenAIRE

    Chichger, Havovi; Cleasby, Mark E.; Srai, Surjit K.; Unwin, Robert J.; Debnam, Edward S.; Marks, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Although SGLT2 inhibitors represent a promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy, the influence of metabolic disruption on the expression and function of glucose transporters is largely unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? In vivo models of metabolic disruption (Goto-Kakizaki type II diabetic rat and junk-food diet) demonstrate increased expression of SGLT1, SGLT2 and GLUT2 in the proximal tubule brush bord...

  16. Blunt cardiac rupture in a toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peep Talving

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Blunt cardiac rupture is typically a fatal injury with overall mortality exceeding 90%. Most of the patients never reach the hospital alive. In pediatric patients, only 0.03% of cases following blunt trauma admissions have a cardiac injury. This report presents a rare survivor of 16-months old toddler injured in a domestic accident suffering a right atrial rupture repaired through a median sternotomy. To the best of our knowledge this is the youngest case reported in the literature.

  17. Grouping by Proximity in Haptic Contour Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Wagemans, Johan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection. PMID:23762364

  18. Toddlers' recognition of noise-vocoded speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rochelle; Chatterjee, Monita

    2013-01-01

    Despite their remarkable clinical success, cochlear-implant listeners today still receive spectrally degraded information. Much research has examined normally hearing adult listeners' ability to interpret spectrally degraded signals, primarily using noise-vocoded speech to simulate cochlear implant processing. Far less research has explored infants' and toddlers' ability to interpret spectrally degraded signals, despite the fact that children in this age range are frequently implanted. This study examines 27-month-old typically developing toddlers' recognition of noise-vocoded speech in a language-guided looking study. Children saw two images on each trial and heard a voice instructing them to look at one item (“Find the cat!”). Full-spectrum sentences or their noise-vocoded versions were presented with varying numbers of spectral channels. Toddlers showed equivalent proportions of looking to the target object with full-speech and 24- or 8-channel noise-vocoded speech; they failed to look appropriately with 2-channel noise-vocoded speech and showed variable performance with 4-channel noise-vocoded speech. Despite accurate looking performance for speech with at least eight channels, children were slower to respond appropriately as the number of channels decreased. These results indicate that 2-yr-olds have developed the ability to interpret vocoded speech, even without practice, but that doing so requires additional processing. These findings have important implications for pediatric cochlear implantation. PMID:23297920

  19. Compartment syndrome in infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Alexander; Schur, Mathew D; Arkader, Alexandre; Flynn, John; Gornitzky, Alex; Choi, Paul D

    2016-10-01

    To study the cause, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of acute compartment syndrome in infants and toddlers aged compartment syndrome were identified from two large pediatric trauma centers over a fifteen-year period. All children underwent fasciotomy. The mechanism of injury, time of injury, time to diagnosis, compartment pressures, time to fasciotomy, and outcome at the time of the latest follow-up were recorded. Nine (60 %) of fifteen patients developed compartment syndrome secondary to trauma, four (4/15, 27 %) due to infection, and two (2/15, 13 %) due to intravenous infiltration. The average time from injury or hospital admission to fasciotomy was 31.8 h (range 2.9-136.3 h). In general, the functional outcome was excellent at the latest follow-up with thirteen (13/15, 87 %) patients having an excellent outcome. No cases of Volkmann's ischemia were noted at the time of fasciotomy, even when performed as late as 5 days after injury. Compared to the general pediatric population, the diagnosis of compartment syndrome in infants and toddlers may be further delayed, i.e., >24 h after injury. Despite delays in diagnosis and time to treatment, the present study shows that outcomes in infants and toddlers remain favorable even when fasciotomy is performed 48-72 h after injury. Case series, level IV.

  20. [Tooth brushing in babies and toddlers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot-Nievaart, M A; Veerkamp, J S J

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tooth brushing in toddlers and children younger than 4 years of age and the experiences of their parents. This study was performed in 3 towns in the middle of the Netherlands at the Office for Parent and Childcare. 99.4% of the children were brushed at least once a day during 0.5-1 minute. Tooth brushing is considered as a part of daily health care. Most children are cooperative and their parents enjoy brushing the teeth of their children. 17.5% of all parents experience problems with brushing teeth of their toddler or young child; 46% of them would like more information. But as the total number of children in a family increases, the parents' pleasure in brushing decreases. The Office for Parent and Childcare in the Netherlands has an important place in providing information on oral healthcare and especially tooth brushing for toddlers and children younger than 4 years of age. It would be useful to investigate how these healthcare workers get their dental information.

  1. Self-Efficacy in 18-Month-Old Toddlers of Depressed and Nondepressed Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Kay Donahue; Abrew, Amy J.

    2004-01-01

    Low self-efficacy is a key component of depression. Toddlers of depressed mothers may be at risk for impaired development of self-efficacy because of maternal modeling, diminished encouragement of toddlers' efforts, and/or biological contributions. We examined emerging self-efficacy in 70 toddlers of depressed mothers and 62 toddlers of…

  2. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…

  3. Toddler-Caregiver Interaction: The Effect of Temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joanna; Kowalski, Helen

    1999-01-01

    Examined effect of toddler temperament on caregiver-toddler interaction in child care. Found that children classified as difficult attracted significantly more attention, not necessarily positive, from caregivers. Children rated as easy were overlooked more often than others. Children's sociability/withdrawal made little difference to caregiver…

  4. Language Learning from Inconsistent Input: Bilingual and Monolingual Toddlers Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, Elise; Verhagen, Josje; Kerkhoff, Annemarie; Doedens, Willemijn; Unsworth, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    This study examines novel language learning from inconsistent input in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. We predicted an advantage for the bilingual toddlers on the basis of the structural sensitivity hypothesis. Monolingual and bilingual 24-month-olds performed two novel language learning experiments. The first contained consistent input, and…

  5. Pragmatic Functions of Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Kaufman, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    Toddlers who are "late talkers" demonstrate reduced expressive vocabulary in the absence of physical, social, cognitive, or sensory impairment; they are usually identified at age 2, when they produce fewer than 50 words and do not combine words (Rescorla, 1989). This study analyzed spontaneous language samples of 10 late talking toddlers and 11…

  6. Language learning from inconsistent input: Bilingual and monolingual toddlers compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bree, E.; Verhagen, J.; Kerkhoff, A.O.; Doedens, W.; Unsworth, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines novel language learning from inconsistent input in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. We predicted an advantage for the bilingual toddlers on the basis of the structural sensitivity hypothesis. Monolingual and bilingual 24-month-olds performed two novel language learning

  7. Transitory Moments in Infant/Toddler Play: Agentic Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Avis; Li, Liang; Quiñones, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Studying relationships in infant/toddler play, using visual narrative methodology to identify transitory moments, supports our current research on babies and toddlers. We use Vygotsky's theorisation of play to understand children's affective and intellectual aspirations in play. The theoretical discussion, using cultural-historical concepts,…

  8. The Influence of Phonotactic Probability on Word Recognition in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Marton, Klara

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of phonotactic probability on word recognition in English-speaking toddlers. Typically developing toddlers completed a preferential looking paradigm using familiar words, which consisted of either high or low phonotactic probability sound sequences. The participants' looking behavior was recorded in response to…

  9. The Effects of Discipline Responses in Delaying Toddler Misbehavior Recurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, Robert E.; Schneider, William N.; Larson, David B.; Pike, Patricia L.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the effectiveness of maternal punishment (time out, spanking), reasoning, and a combination of the two. Results based on mothers' (N=40) structured diaries of toddler fighting and disobedience indicate that mild punishment, combined with reasoning, is an effective discipline response to toddler misbehavior in terms of recurrence of…

  10. Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

  11. Capacitive proximity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  12. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  13. A Content Analysis of Infant and Toddler Food Advertisements in Taiwanese Popular Pregnancy and Early Parenting Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Chang, Jung-Su; Gong, Yu-Tang

    2015-08-01

    Mothers who are exposed to formula advertisements (ads) are less likely to initiate breastfeeding and more likely to breastfeed for a shorter duration than other mothers. The purpose of this study was to examine infant and toddler food ads in pregnancy and early parenting magazines. A content analysis of infant and toddler food ads printed in 12 issues of 4 magazines published in 2011 was performed. Coding categories of ads included product category, advertisement category, marketing information, and advertising appeal. The target age and health-related message of each product were coded. The researchers identified 756 infant and toddler food ads in the magazines. Compared with complementary food ads, formula product ads used more marketing strategies such as antenatal classes and baby contests to influence consumers and promote products. Nutritional quality and child health benefits were the two most frequently used advertising appeals. In addition, this study identified 794 formula products and 400 complementary food products; 42.8% of the complementary food products were intended for 4-month-old infants. Furthermore, 91.9% of the ads for formula products and 81% of the ads for complementary food products contained claims concerning health function or nutrient content. Taiwanese pregnancy and early parenting magazines contain numerous infant and toddler food ads. These ads generally use health-related claims regarding specific nutrient content and health functions to promote infant and toddler foods. Health professionals should provide more information to parents on the differences between breast milk and formula milk, and they should be aware of the potential effect of infant and toddler food ads on parents' infant feeding decisions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Sensory Features of Toddlers at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott-Robinson, Kelsey; Lane, Alison E; Harpster, Karen

    2016-01-01

    We observed sensory features in toddlers ages 12-24 mo with risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explored their relationship to general development and early signs of ASD. Participants (N = 46) included toddlers with higher risk for ASD. All participants were administered standardized assessments of sensory features, early signs of ASD, and general development at a single study visit. Sensory features in toddlers were characterized as either adaptive or reactive. Toddlers with more difficulties in oral sensory processing displayed more early signs of ASD. Typical oral and auditory processing were associated with higher cognitive function, and toddlers with fewer sensory features overall had more mature language skills. Specific sensory features were associated with both early signs of ASD and less mature general development. Replication of this preliminary study is required. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  15. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1962-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  16. [Social-emotional competences in deaf and hard-of-hearing toddlers – results from an empirical study with two current parent questionnaires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintermair, Manfred; Sarimski, Klaus; Lang, Markus

    2017-03-01

    Hearing loss in the deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) is associated with an elevated risk of problems in socio-emotional development. Early assessment is necessary to start timely interventions. The present study tested two parent questionnaires that allow evaluation of the socio-emotional development of toddlers from a competence perspective. 128 parents with DHH toddlers aged 18 to 36 months were asked to evaluate the development of their children and their own educational competences using two preliminary German adaptations of internationally well-known social-emotional assessment measures. In addition to a series of results within the normal range, the data also reveal some specific problems in the socio-emotional development of children with hearing loss. DHH toddlers in particular show more problems developing empathic competences and maintaining relations with peers. DHH toddlers with additional handicaps have a higher risk of developing socio-emotional problems. Parental responsivity proves to be important regarding the development of socio-emotional competences in toddlers. The presented data strongly confirm results available from deaf research regarding the development and promotion of DHH children. The two questionnaires used in this study provide the opportunity to evaluate socio-emotional competences in DHH toddlers and to start appropriate interventions very early.

  17. [Effects of an infant/toddler health program on parenting knowledge, behavior, confidence, and home environment in low-income mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; Yang, Soo; Jang, Mi Heui; Yeom, Mijung

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a mother/infant-toddler health program developed to enhance parenting knowledge, behavior and confidence in low income mothers and home environment. A one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used. Sixty-nine dyads of mothers and infant-toddlers (aged 0-36 months) were provided with weekly intervention for seven session. Each session consisted of three parts; first, educating to increase integrated knowledge related to the development of the infant/toddler including nutrition, first aid and home environment; second, counseling to share parenting experience among the mothers and to increase their nurturing confidence; third, playing with the infant/toddler to facilitate attachment-based parenting behavior for the mothers. Following the programs, there were significant increases in parenting knowledge on nutrition and first aid. A significant improvement was found in attachment-based parenting behavior, but not in home safety practice. Nurturing confidence was not significantly increased. The program led to more positive home environment for infant/toddler's health and development. The findings provide evidence for mother-infant/toddler health program to improve parenting knowledge, attachment-based parenting behavior and better home environment in low income mothers. Study of the long term effectiveness of this program is recommended for future research.

  18. Quantitative genetic analysis of injury liability in infants and toddlers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, K.; Matheny, A.P. Jr. [Univ. of Louisville Medical School, KY (United States)

    1995-02-27

    A threshold model of latent liability was applied to infant and toddler twin data on total count of injuries sustained during the interval from birth to 36 months of age. A quantitative genetic analysis of estimated twin correlations in injury liability indicated strong genetic dominance effects, but no additive genetic variance was detected. Because interpretations involving overdominance have little research support, the results may be due to low order epistasis or other interaction effects. Boys had more injuries than girls, but this effect was found only for groups whose parents were prompted and questioned in detail about their children`s injuries. Activity and impulsivity are two behavioral predictors of childhood injury, and the results are discussed in relation to animal research on infant and adult activity levels, and impulsivity in adult humans. Genetic epidemiological approaches to childhood injury should aid in targeting higher risk children for preventive intervention. 30 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Literacy Events in Toddler Groups: Preschool Educators' Talk about Their Work with Literacy among Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvit, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The present study originates in an interest in toddlers' spontaneous literacy activities and Swedish preschool practice. The curriculum for Swedish preschool (National Agency for Education, 2011b) clearly states that preschools should work on the basis of a holistic view of the child and that activities should be both enjoyable and based on…

  20. Are bi-axial proximal sesamoid bone fractures in the British Thoroughbred racehorse a bone fatigue related fracture? A histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, M; Hetzel, U; Parkin, T D H; Singer, E R

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether microfractures and alterations in the trabecular bone area are associated with catastrophic bi-axial proximal sesamoid bone fractures (PSBF). Proximal sesamoid bones (PSB) from 10 racehorses with PSBF and from 10 control racehorses without musculoskeletal injury were examined using the bulk basic fuchsin method. Bone histomorphometric and microfracture analysis was performed, and cases and controls compared using two-sample t-test, paired t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test. There was no significant difference in the microfracture density and the trabecular bone area between bones from case and control horses, and between fractured and non-fractured bones in case horses. Microfracture density was low in the areas of the PSB examined. Microfracture density was not significantly different between groups, indicating that propagation of micro-cracks is an unlikely predisposing pathologic alteration in PSBF in British racehorses. There was no significant difference in the bone surface area between groups, which one would expect if modelling, adaptation and an increase in bone density were associated with PSBF fracture in the case horses. Therefore, PSBF in the British racehorse does not appear to be associated with microfractures of the trabecular bone of the PSB. The PSB fractures might represent an acute monotonic fracture; however, the aetiology of the fractures remains unknown with additional research required.

  1. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N

    1992-01-01

    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  2. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  3. Motor Skill Abilities in Toddlers with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill C.; Hess, Julie A.; Neal, Daniene

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills were assessed in 397 toddlers, and it was demonstrated that atypically developing toddlers exhibited significantly greater motor skill abilities than toddlers with autistic disorder. No significant difference on gross or fine motor skill abilities were found between atypically developing toddlers and toddlers with pervasive…

  4. The Prevalence, Abundance, and Density of Pseudoterranova sp. (p Larvae in the Flesh of Cod (Gadus morhua Relative to Proximity of Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus Colonies on the Coast off Drangar, Northwest Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlingur Hauksson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available About 300 cod (Gadus morhua were sampled on three different sites of different proximity to grey seals (Halichoerus grypus, which are the most important final host for Pseudoterranova krabbei, off Drangar, Northwest Iceland, in the summer of 2004. Cod caught at each station were grouped into four sizes: (1 40–54 cm, (2 55–59 cm, (3 60–69 cm and, (4 >70 cm. Difference in prevalence between catch-sites were analyzed by a binary logistic regression model. Abundance, and density were investigated with multiple regressions. As expected prevalence, abundance and density of Pseudoterranova larvae were highest in the fish caught closest to shore, which was also in closest proximity to grey seal colonies and in the shallowest waters. In the closest proximity to grey seal colonies and in the shallowest water, the prevalence and abundance of sealworm larvae increased with increased length of fish. Finally, the density of Pseudoterranova larvae in cod declined exponentially with depth: 50% at 65 meters and almost zero at 210 meters. In the paper these observations were discussed in relation to sealworm eggs dispersal, depth gradient off the coast, temperature tolerance of the sealworm ovum, and behavioral types of Icelandic cod.

  5. Experimental type II diabetes and related models of impaired glucose metabolism differentially regulate glucose transporters at the proximal tubule brush border membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichger, Havovi; Cleasby, Mark E; Srai, Surjit K; Unwin, Robert J; Debnam, Edward S; Marks, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? Although SGLT2 inhibitors represent a promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy, the influence of metabolic disruption on the expression and function of glucose transporters is largely unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? In vivo models of metabolic disruption (Goto-Kakizaki type II diabetic rat and junk-food diet) demonstrate increased expression of SGLT1, SGLT2 and GLUT2 in the proximal tubule brush border. In the type II diabetic model, this is accompanied by increased SGLT- and GLUT-mediated glucose uptake. A fasted model of metabolic disruption (high-fat diet) demonstrated increased GLUT2 expression only. The differential alterations of glucose transporters in response to varying metabolic stress offer insight into the therapeutic value of inhibitors. SGLT2 inhibitors are now in clinical use to reduce hyperglycaemia in type II diabetes. However, renal glucose reabsorption across the brush border membrane (BBM) is not completely understood in diabetes. Increased consumption of a Western diet is strongly linked to type II diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the adaptations that occur in renal glucose transporters in response to experimental models of diet-induced insulin resistance. The study used Goto-Kakizaki type II diabetic rats and normal rats rendered insulin resistant using junk-food or high-fat diets. Levels of protein kinase C-βI (PKC-βI), GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2 were determined by Western blotting of purified renal BBM. GLUT- and SGLT-mediated d-[(3) H]glucose uptake by BBM vesicles was measured in the presence and absence of the SGLT inhibitor phlorizin. GLUT- and SGLT-mediated glucose transport was elevated in type II diabetic rats, accompanied by increased expression of GLUT2, its upstream regulator PKC-βI and SGLT1 protein. Junk-food and high-fat diet feeding also caused higher membrane expression of GLUT2 and its upstream regulator PKC

  6. Mathematical Skills and Motor Life Skills in Toddlers: Do Differences in Mathematical Skills Reflect Differences in Motor Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reikerås, Elin; Moser, Thomas; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

    2017-01-01

    This study examines possible relations between early mathematical skills and motor life skills in 450 toddlers aged two years and nine months. The study employs baseline data from the longitudinal Stavanger Project--The Learning Child. The children's mathematical skills and motor life skills were assessed by structured observation in the natural…

  7. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Mother-Child Interactions in Families of Multiple and Singleton Preterm Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Kristin F.; Burnson, Cynthia; Hane, Amanda; Samuelson, Anne; Maleck, Sarah; Poehlmann, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated family support as a buffer of stress in 153 mothers and preterm toddlers. Data were collected regarding maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and family support; infant health; and videotaped mother-child interactions. Although more parenting stress related to less optimal child play, only information support…

  8. Socio-demographic and the lifestyle determinants of 'Western-like' and 'Health conscious' dietary patterns in toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Bleeker, S.E.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, M.K.; Raat, H.; Moll, H.

    2013-01-01

    Determinants of a child's diet shortly after weaning and lactation have been relatively understudied. The aim of the present study was hence to identify common dietary patterns in toddlers and to explore parental and child indicators of these dietary patterns. The study was a population-based,

  9. Phrasal prosody constrains syntactic analysis in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Alex; Dautriche, Isabelle; Lin, Isabelle; Christophe, Anne

    2017-06-01

    This study examined whether phrasal prosody can impact toddlers' syntactic analysis. French noun-verb homophones were used to create locally ambiguous test sentences (e.g., using the homophone as a noun: [le bébésouris] [a bien mangé] - [the baby mouse] [ate well] or using it as a verb: [le bébé] [sourità sa maman] - [the baby] [smiles to his mother], where brackets indicate prosodic phrase boundaries). Although both sentences start with the same words (le-bebe-/suʁi/), they can be disambiguated by the prosodic boundary that either directly precedes the critical word /suʁi/ when it is a verb, or directly follows it when it is a noun. Across two experiments using an intermodal preferential looking procedure, 28-month-olds (Exp. 1 and 2) and 20-month-olds (Exp. 2) listened to the beginnings of these test sentences while watching two images displayed side-by-side on a TV-screen: one associated with the noun interpretation of the ambiguous word (e.g., a mouse) and the other with the verb interpretation (e.g., a baby smiling). The results show that upon hearing the first words of these sentences, toddlers were able to correctly exploit prosodic information to access the syntactic structure of sentences, which in turn helped them to determine the syntactic category of the ambiguous word and to correctly identify its intended meaning: participants switched their eye-gaze toward the correct image based on the prosodic condition in which they heard the ambiguous target word. This provides evidence that during the first steps of language acquisition, toddlers are already able to exploit the prosodic structure of sentences to recover their syntactic structure and predict the syntactic category of upcoming words, an ability which would be extremely useful to discover the meaning of novel words. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Three-dimensional analyses of proximal humeral fractures using computed tomography with multiplanar reconstruction: early stability of fixation after osteosynthesis in relation to preoperative bone quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Koki; Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamashita, Akihisa; Harada, Takashi; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Shirasawa, Kenzo

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the bone quality of the humeral head measured by CT multiplanar reconstruction images (MPR) and the stability of nail or plate fixation and to compare the clinical outcomes of these procedures in patients with proximal humeral fractures. Thirty-six consecutive patients (nail group: n = 18, plate group: n = 18) were investigated. In nail group, 14 cases were classified as two-part fractures, three cases were classified as three-part fractures and one case was classified as four-part fractures. In plate group, three cases were classified as two-part fractures, nine cases were classified as three-part fractures and six cases were classified as four-part fractures. Both clinical and radiological outcomes were assessed. In addition, the percentage of trabecular bone volume of the humeral head was calculated using preoperative CT-MPR images. Three patients in the nail group underwent reoperation. In contrast, no patients in the plate group underwent reoperation. In nail group, six of 18 (33%) patients demonstrated poor results (three underwent reoperation, and three had varus displacements >10º) and had bone volume percentages (axial image) that were significantly lower than those observed in the patients with good results. The cutoff point of trabecular bone volume required to obtain satisfactory results after surgical treatment using intramedullary nail was 78%. The results of this study suggest that the bone volume of the humeral head calculated using CT-MPR images provides useful information, in addition to the type of fracture, when selecting fixation devices for osteosynthesis of proximal humeral fracture.

  11. Emerging self-regulation in toddlers born preterm or low birth weight: Differential susceptibility to parenting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    POEHLMANN, JULIE; SCHWICHTENBERG, A. J. M.; SHLAFER, REBECCA J.; HAHN, EMILY; BIANCHI, JON-PAUL; WARNER, RACHAEL

    2012-01-01

    The differential susceptibility to parenting model was examined in relation to toddler self-regulation in a prospective longitudinal study of infants born preterm or low birth weight. We followed 153 mother–infant dyads across five time points between the infant’s Neonatal Intensive Care Unit stay and 24 months postterm. Assessments of infant temperament, quality of early parenting interactions, contextual variables, and toddler effortful control and behavior problems were conducted. Results supported differential susceptibility and dual risk models in addition to documenting main effects of early parenting on children’s emerging self-regulation. Our data suggested that preterm or low birth weight infants who were prone to distress or rated by mothers as more difficult were particularly susceptible to the effects of early negative parenting. PMID:21262047

  12. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, L L; Simon, E E

    1990-01-01

    The transport of ammonia in the proximal tubule is a complex interaction of a number of processes. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule is clearly bidirectional; ammonia is secreted into the early proximal tubule lumen, but later in the proximal tubule, efflux out of the lumen may result in net ammonia reabsorption. Two mechanisms of ammonia transport have clearly been established: NH3 diffusion and NH4+ transport on the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. The relative contribution of these pathways to ammonia transport is still unsettled. Other pathways for ammonia transport, particularly NH4+ efflux out of the lumen, may be important as well. A variety of factors may modulate ammonia transport: plasma, cell and luminal pH, luminal flow rate, luminal potassium, and angiotensin II. Each of these factors also alters ammonia production rates and in most circumstances, ammonia transport appears to follow ammonia production rates.

  13. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  14. Transformations through Proximity Flying: A Phenomenological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmbom, Maria; Brymer, Eric; Schweitzer, Robert D.

    2017-01-01

    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants’ perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity. PMID:29104552

  15. Infant and toddler oral- and manual-motor skills predict later speech fluency in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Sauer, Eve A; Geye, Heather M; Schweigert, Emily K; Hill Goldsmith, H

    2008-01-01

    Spoken and gestural communication proficiency varies greatly among autistic individuals. Three studies examined the role of oral- and manual-motor skill in predicting autistic children's speech development. Study 1 investigated whether infant and toddler oral- and manual-motor skills predict middle childhood and teenage speech fluency; Study 2 verified those early infant and toddler predictions with historical home video; and Study 3 assessed the relation between autistic children's current-day oral-motor skill and their speech fluency. Infant and toddler oral-motor and manual-motor skills inter-correlated significantly, distinguished autistic children (N = 115) from typically developing children (N = 44), and distinguished autistic children whose current-day speech was minimally fluent (N = 33), moderately fluent (N = 39), and highly fluent (N = 39). These results were corroborated by analysis of historical home video (N = 32) and verified with current-day assessment (N = 40). The prominent associations among early oral- and manual-motor skills and later speech fluency bear implications for understanding communication in autism. For instance, these associations challenge the common assumption (made even in diagnostic criteria) that manual modes of communication are available to autistic individuals - if simply they choose to use them. These associations also highlight a potential confound from manual-motor skills when assessing autistic cognition, receptive language, and 'nonverbal' social communication.

  16. Dutch and English toddlers' use of linguistic cues in predicting upcoming turn transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imme eLammertink

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adults achieve successful coordination during conversation by using prosodic and lexicosyntactic cues to predict upcoming changes in speakership. We examined the relative weight of these linguistic cues in the prediction of upcoming turn structure by toddlers learning Dutch (Experiment 1; N = 21 and British English (Experiment 2; N = 20 and adult control participants (Dutch: N = 16; English: N = 20. We tracked participants’ anticipatory eye movements as they watched videos of dyadic puppet conversation. We controlled the prosodic and lexicosyntactic cues to turn completion for a subset of the utterances in each conversation to create four types of target utterances (fully incomplete, incomplete syntax, incomplete prosody, and fully complete. All participants (Dutch and English toddlers and adults used both prosodic and lexicosyntactic cues to anticipate upcoming speaker changes, but weighed lexicosyntactic cues over prosodic ones when the two were pitted against each other. The results suggest that Dutch and English toddlers are already nearly adult-like in their use of prosodic and lexicosyntactic cues in anticipating upcoming turn transitions.

  17. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Kirchner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months - 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007-2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3% of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills.

  18. The personality structure of toddlers and pre-school children as perceived by their kindergarten teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to analyse the personality structure of children aged one to seven, as perceived by their kindergarten teachers. In addition, gender differences were examined to determine whether kindergarten teachers perceived the personality characteristics of toddler and pre-school girls differently than those of boys. 508 randomly-selected Slovenian children were assessed by their kindergarten teachers using adapted Flemish Big-Five Bipolar Rating Scales. Four-factor structures that explained more than two-thirds of the variance emerged for teachers' personality ratings of children in each of the three age groups: toddlers, three- to five-year-olds and five- to seven-year-olds. However, five of the twenty-five scales, four of them referring to the Conscientiousness dimension, did not appear to be relevant when assessing individual differences in the toddlerhood. Intellect/Openness, as observed for the toddler sample, and the combined Conscientiousness-Intellect/Openness factor, extracted for each of the two older age groups, accounted for the greatest part of the variance. Extroversion was obtained as a second factor in each of the three age groups, while Emotional Stability showed relatively less stability across these groups. Agreeableness was clearly differentiated only in the oldest age group, emerging there for the first time as an independent factor. A few gender differences were found to be significant within the two groups of pre-school children, with girls consistently being rated higher in terms of Conscientiousness-Intellect/Openness.

  19. Toddler physical activity study: laboratory and community studies to evaluate accelerometer validity and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin R. Hager

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toddlerhood is an important age for physical activity (PA promotion to prevent obesity and support a physically active lifestyle throughout childhood. Accurate assessment of PA is needed to determine trends/correlates of PA, time spent in sedentary, light, or moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA, and the effectiveness of PA promotion programs. Due to the limited availability of objective measures that have been validated and evaluated for feasibility in community studies, it is unclear which subgroups of toddlers are at the highest risk for inactivity. Using Actical ankle accelerometry, the objectives of this study are to develop valid thresholds, examine feasibility, and examine demographic/ anthropometric PA correlates of MVPA among toddlers from low-income families. Methods Two studies were conducted with toddlers (12–36 months. Laboratory Study (n = 24- Two Actical accelerometers were placed on the ankle. PA was observed using the Child Activity Rating Scale (CARS, prescribed activities. Analyses included device equivalence reliability (correlation: activity counts of two Acticals, criterion-related validity (correlation: activity counts and CARS ratings, and sensitivity/specificity for thresholds. Community Study (n = 277, low-income mother-toddler dyads recruited- An Actical was worn on the ankle for > 7 days (goal >5, 24-h days. Height/weight was measured. Mothers reported demographics. Analyses included frequencies (feasibility and stepwise multiple linear regression (sMLR. Results Laboratory Study- Acticals demonstrated reliability (r = 0.980 and validity (r = 0.75. Thresholds demonstrated sensitivity (86 % and specificity (88 %. Community Study- 86 % wore accelerometer, 69 % had valid data (mean = 5.2 days. Primary reasons for missing/invalid data: refusal (14 % and wear-time ≤2 days (11 %. The MVPA threshold (>2200 cpm yielded 54 min/day. In sMLR, MVPA was associated with age (older

  20. Toddler physical activity study: laboratory and community studies to evaluate accelerometer validity and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; Gormley, Candice E; Latta, Laura W; Treuth, Margarita S; Caulfield, Laura E; Black, Maureen M

    2016-09-06

    Toddlerhood is an important age for physical activity (PA) promotion to prevent obesity and support a physically active lifestyle throughout childhood. Accurate assessment of PA is needed to determine trends/correlates of PA, time spent in sedentary, light, or moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA), and the effectiveness of PA promotion programs. Due to the limited availability of objective measures that have been validated and evaluated for feasibility in community studies, it is unclear which subgroups of toddlers are at the highest risk for inactivity. Using Actical ankle accelerometry, the objectives of this study are to develop valid thresholds, examine feasibility, and examine demographic/ anthropometric PA correlates of MVPA among toddlers from low-income families. Two studies were conducted with toddlers (12-36 months). Laboratory Study (n = 24)- Two Actical accelerometers were placed on the ankle. PA was observed using the Child Activity Rating Scale (CARS, prescribed activities). Analyses included device equivalence reliability (correlation: activity counts of two Acticals), criterion-related validity (correlation: activity counts and CARS ratings), and sensitivity/specificity for thresholds. Community Study (n = 277, low-income mother-toddler dyads recruited)- An Actical was worn on the ankle for > 7 days (goal >5, 24-h days). Height/weight was measured. Mothers reported demographics. Analyses included frequencies (feasibility) and stepwise multiple linear regression (sMLR). Laboratory Study- Acticals demonstrated reliability (r = 0.980) and validity (r = 0.75). Thresholds demonstrated sensitivity (86 %) and specificity (88 %). Community Study- 86 % wore accelerometer, 69 % had valid data (mean = 5.2 days). Primary reasons for missing/invalid data: refusal (14 %) and wear-time ≤2 days (11 %). The MVPA threshold (>2200 cpm) yielded 54 min/day. In sMLR, MVPA was associated with age (older > younger, β = 32.8, p

  1. Spatial Proximity and Intercompany Communication: Myths and Realities

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Anne; Lethiais, Virginie; Alain RALLET

    2015-01-01

    Spatial proximity is credited with numerous virtues in the economic literature. In particular, for a company to be located near other companies is seen as conducive to the development of business relations. Spatial proximity is also considered to contribute to the quality and efficiency of these relations by facilitating face-to-face meetings that foster the exchange of complex knowledge and, in particular, the emergence of innovation. This article explores the notion of spatial proximity in ...

  2. Maternal DHA levels and Toddler Free-Play Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannass, Kathleen N.; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels at birth and toddler free-play attention in the second year. Toddler free-play attention was assessed at 12 and 18 months, and maternal erythrocyte (red-blood cell; RBC) phospholipid DHA (percentage of total fatty acids) was measured from mothers at delivery. Overall, higher maternal DHA status at birth was associated with enhanced attentional functioning during the second year. Toddlers whose mothers had high DHA at birth exhibited more total looking and fewer episodes of inattention during free-play than did toddlers whose mothers had low DHA at birth. Analyses also provided further information on changes in attention during toddlerhood. These findings are consistent with evidence suggesting a link between DHA and cognitive development in infancy and early childhood. PMID:19267293

  3. Parent Training Interventions for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Audrée Jeanne Beaudoin; Guillaume Sébire; Mélanie Couture

    2014-01-01

    Background. Now that early identification of toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is possible, efforts are being made to develop interventions for children under three years of age. Most studies on early intervention have focused on intensive and individual interventions. However, parent training interventions that help parents interact and communicate with their toddlers with ASD might be a good alternative to promote the development of their child’s sociocommunicative skills. Object...

  4. Marital, parental, and whole-family predictors of toddlers' emotion regulation: The role of parental emotional withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Martin I; Murphy, Sarah E; Benner, Aprile D; Jacobvitz, Deborah B; Hazen, Nancy L

    2017-04-01

    The present study aims to address how dyadic and triadic family interactions across the transition to parenthood contribute to the later development of toddlers' adaptive emotion regulation using structural equation modeling methods. Specifically, we examined the interrelations of observed marital negative affect before childbirth, parents' emotional withdrawal during parent-infant interactions at 8 months, and coparenting conflict at 24 months as predictors of toddlers' adaptive emotion regulation at 24 months. Data for the present study were drawn from a longitudinal dataset in which 125 families were observed across the transition to parenthood. Results suggested that prenatal marital negativity predicted mothers' and fathers' emotional withdrawal toward their infants at 8 months postbirth as well as coparenting conflict at 24 months postbirth. Coparenting conflict and father-infant emotional withdrawal were negatively associated with toddlers' adaptive emotion regulation; however, mother-infant emotional withdrawal was not related. The implications of our study extend family systems research to demonstrate how multiple levels of detrimental family functioning over the first 2 years of parenthood influence toddlers' emotion regulation and highlight the importance of fathers' emotional involvement with their infants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Maternal cocaine use and mother-toddler aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D; Schuetze, Pamela; Colder, Craig R; Veira, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect associations between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and mother-toddler aggression in an interactive context at 2 years of child age. We hypothesized that in addition to direct effects of cocaine exposure on maternal and child aggression, the association between maternal cocaine use and mother-toddler aggression may be indirect via higher maternal psychiatric symptoms, negative affect, or poor infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Participants consisted of 220 (119 cocaine exposed, 101 non-cocaine exposed) mother-toddler dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure. Results indicated that mothers who used cocaine during pregnancy displayed higher levels of aggression toward their toddlers compared to mothers in the control group. Results from model testing indicated significant indirect associations between maternal cocaine use and maternal aggression via higher maternal negative affect as well as lower infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Although there were no direct associations between cocaine exposure and toddler aggression, there was a significant indirect effect via lower infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Results highlight the importance of including maternal aggression in predictive models of prenatal cocaine exposure examining child aggression. Results also emphasize the important role of infant regulation as a mechanism partially explaining associations between cocaine exposure and mother-toddler aggression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Young toddlers' word comprehension is flexible and efficient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elika Bergelson

    Full Text Available Much of what is known about word recognition in toddlers comes from eyetracking studies. Here we show that the speed and facility with which children recognize words, as revealed in such studies, cannot be attributed to a task-specific, closed-set strategy; rather, children's gaze to referents of spoken nouns reflects successful search of the lexicon. Toddlers' spoken word comprehension was examined in the context of pictures that had two possible names (such as a cup of juice which could be called "cup" or "juice" and pictures that had only one likely name for toddlers (such as "apple", using a visual world eye-tracking task and a picture-labeling task (n = 77, mean age, 21 months. Toddlers were just as fast and accurate in fixating named pictures with two likely names as pictures with one. If toddlers do name pictures to themselves, the name provides no apparent benefit in word recognition, because there is no cost to understanding an alternative lexical construal of the picture. In toddlers, as in adults, spoken words rapidly evoke their referents.

  7. Comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 factor structure models for toddlers with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Whitney; Swineford, Lauren B; Wetherby, Amy M; Lord, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of autism symptoms in toddlers, to aid understanding of the phenotype during the developmental period that represents the earliest manifestations of autism symptoms. This endeavor is particularly timely, given changes in symptom structure from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) to the recently released Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Factor structure was examined in a sample of toddlers between 12 and 30 months of age (mean = 20.37 months, SD = 3.32 months) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and recruited from community settings or referred for evaluation (N = 237). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted comparing the relative fit of 4 distinct, previously proposed and validated models: DSM-5, DSM-IV, 1-factor, and an alternative 3-factor model proposed by van Lang et al. Findings revealed that the 1-factor model provided the poorest fit, followed by the DSM-IV model and the van Lang et al. model. The DSM-5 model provided the best fit to the data relative to other models and good absolute fit. Indicators for the confirmatory factor analyses, drawn from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Toddler Module (ADOS-T), loaded strongly onto the DSM-5 Social Communication and Social Interaction factor and more variably onto the DSM-5 Restricted/Repetitive Language and Behavior factor. Results indicate that autism symptoms in toddlers, as measured by the ADOS-T, are separable and best deconstructed into the 2-factor DSM-5 structure, supporting the reorganization of symptoms in the DSM-5. Consistency of the present results in toddlers with previous studies in older children and adults suggests that the structure of autism symptoms may be similar throughout development. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  8. Unintentional Cannabis Intoxication in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, Isabelle; Mouvier, Sébastien; Labadie, Magali; Manin, Cécile; Michard-Lenoir, Anne-Pascale; Eyer, Didier; Dufour, Damien

    2017-09-01

    In France, cannabis consumption is illegal. The health impact of its increasing use and higher tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations is still poorly documented, particularly that of unintentional pediatric intoxications. We sought to evaluate the French national trend of admissions for unintentional cannabis intoxication in children over an 11-year period (2004-2014). A retrospective, national, multicenter, observational study of a pediatric cohort. All children aged cannabis intoxication (compatible symptoms and positive toxicological screening results) during the reference period were included. Twenty-four PEDs participated in our study; 235 children were included, and 71% of the patients were 18 months old or younger. Annual admissions increased by a factor of 13. Hashish resin was the main form ingested (72%). During the study period, the evolution was characterized by a national increase in intoxications, younger intoxicated children (1.28 ± 0.4 vs 1.7 ± 0.7 years, P = .005), and more comas (n = 38) (P = .05, odds ratio 3.5 [1.02-11.8]). Compared with other intoxications, other PED admissions, and the same age population, cannabis-related admissions were greater. There was a potential link between the increased incidence of comas and increased THC concentration in resin seized in France over the period. Children are collateral victims of changing trends in cannabis use and a prevailing THC concentration. Intoxicated children are more frequent, are younger, and have intoxications that are more severe. This raises a real issue of public health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. BCG protects toddlers during a tuberculosis outbreak.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gaensbauer, J T

    2009-05-01

    In 2007, an outbreak of tuberculosis occurred in a toddler population attending two child care centres in Cork, Ireland. Of 268 children exposed, 18 were eventually diagnosed with active tuberculosis. We present the initial clinical and radiographic characteristics of the active disease group. Mantoux testing was positive in only 66% of cases. All cases were either pulmonary or involved hilar adenopathy on chest radiograph; there were no cases of disseminated disease or meningitis. 24% of the exposed children had been previously vaccinated with BCG, and no case of active disease was found in this group (p = 0.016), suggesting a profound protective effect of BCG in this population. Our experience provides evidence supporting a protective effect of BCG against pulmonary disease in young children.

  10. Immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide CRM conjugate vaccine in infants and toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Tregnaghi

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: MenACWY-CRM vaccination regimens in infants and toddlers were immunogenic and well tolerated. No clinically meaningful effects of concomitant administration with routine infant and toddler vaccines were observed.

  11. The stability of the hip after the use of a proximal femoral endoprosthesis for oncological indications: analysis of variables relating to the patient and the surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, E R; Keeney, B J; Pala, E; Funovics, P T; Eward, W C; Groundland, J S; Ehrlichman, L K; Puchner, S S E; Brigman, B E; Ready, J E; Temple, H T; Ruggieri, P; Windhager, R; Letson, G D; Hornicek, F J

    2017-04-01

    Instability of the hip is the most common mode of failure after reconstruction with a proximal femoral arthroplasty (PFA) using an endoprosthesis after excision of a tumour. Small studies report improved stability with capsular repair of the hip and other techniques, but these have not been investigated in a large series of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate variables associated with the patient and the operation that affect post-operative stability. We hypothesised an association between capsular repair and stability. In a retrospective cohort study, we identified 527 adult patients who were treated with a PFA for tumours. Our data included demographics, the pathological diagnosis, the amount of resection of the abductor muscles, the techniques of reconstruction and the characteristics of the implant. We used regression analysis to compare patients with and without post-operative instability. A total of 20 patients out of 527 (4%) had instability which presented at a mean of 35 days (3 to 131) post-operatively. Capsular repair was not associated with a reduced rate of instability. Bivariate analysis showed that a posterolateral surgical approach (odds ratio (OR) 0.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02 to 0.86) and the type of implant (p = 0.046) had a significant association with reduced instability; age > 60 years predicted instability (OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.00 to 9.98). Multivariate analysis showed age > 60 years (OR 5.09, 95% CI 1.23 to 21.07), female gender (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.89), a malignant primary bone tumour (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.95), and benign condition (OR 5.56, 95% CI 1.35 to 22.90), but not metastatic disease or soft-tissue tumours, predicted instability, while a posterolateral approach (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.53) was protective against instability. No instability occurred when a synthetic graft was used in 70 patients. Stability of the hip after PFA is influenced by variables associated with the patient, the pathology, the

  12. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  13. Strategies and suggestions for a healthy toddler diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sally; Benuck, Irwin

    2013-09-01

    Nutritional challenges for toddlers are common because their eating behaviors are inconsistent; they may eat more or less than requirements meal to meal and day to day. To help reduce parental stress, it's essential to discuss with parents/caregivers their expectations on how and what they think their toddler should be eating. It is important to remember that toddlers are not little adults; portion sizes are often distorted (too large), and portions should reflect the individual child's age and development. Parents/caregivers can help with new food acceptance by modeling good mealtime behaviors such as limiting high-energy, low-nutritional food and drinks, eating healthy foods along with their children together at the table with the television shut off, and eating appropriate portion sizes. Pediatricians should inform concerned parents/caregivers that toddlers commonly do not accept new foods; foods may need to be introduced repeatedly, up to 10 to 15 times before a child will eat them. To adhere to National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) guidelines, parents and caregivers should focus on providing balanced meals that offer a variety of foods, with at least three to four food groups for meals and one to two food groups for snacks, always including familiar foods along with new foods. It is important to reassure families that adherence to NHLBI guidelines for toddlers may be difficult at first, but with the proper education, planning ahead for meal/snack times, and education of all providers caring for the toddler (including nannies, daycares, and family members), it can be done successfully. Improving the nutrition and health of their young toddler will help prevent risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  15. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  16. The Monosyllable Imitation Test for Toddlers: Influence of Stimulus Characteristics on Imitation, Compliance and Diagnostic Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Rosemary; Munro, Natalie; Baker, Elise; McGregor, Karla; Heard, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although verbal imitation can provide a valuable window into the developing language abilities of toddlers, some toddlers find verbal imitation challenging and will not comply with tests that involve elicited verbal imitation. The characteristics of stimuli that are offered to toddlers for imitation may influence how easy or hard it is…

  17. Toddlers and Child Care: A Time for Discussion, Dialogue, and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckler, Lissy; La Paro, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that many toddlers experience low to mediocre quality child care settings with limited interactions and learning opportunities available. This article uses the context of brain and development research to describe toddlers' experiences in child care. Reporting on the established connections between toddlers' experiences and…

  18. Toddler Emotion Regulation with Mothers and Fathers: Temporal Associations between Negative Affect and Behavioral Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Zentall, Shannon R.; Maxwell, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated temporal associations between putative emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in 20-month-old toddlers. Toddlers' parent-focused, self-distraction, and toy-focused strategies, as well as negative affect, were rated on a second-by-second basis during laboratory parent-toddler interactions. Longitudinal…

  19. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-related

  20. East-West, Collectivist-Individualist: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Temperament in Toddlers from Chile, Poland, South Korea, and the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassner, Ariye M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Park, Curie; Dragan, Wojciech Ł.; Lecannelier, Felipe; Putnam, Samuel P.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined toddler temperament across Chilean, South Korean, Polish, and US samples, providing an opportunity to examine both collectivist-individualist and East-West contrasts. The effect of culture on the three factor and 18 dimension scores provided by the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire were investigated. Results provide evidence of cross-cultural differences between the four samples. Chilean toddlers scored significantly higher than US, Polish, and South Korean children on the overall factor of Negative Affectivity, as well as higher than the Polish and South Korean samples on the Surgency factor. South Korean toddlers scored significantly higher on the factor of Effortful Control, and two related dimensions, than US, Polish, or Chilean samples. Results are discussed in terms of the apparent roles of individualism/collectivism and East-West distinctions in shaping temperament development. PMID:29333175

  1. The relation between fine root density and proximity of stems in closed Douglas-fir plantations on homogen[e]ous sandy soils: implications for sampling design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsthoorn, A.F.M.; Klap, J.M.; Oude Voshaar, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Studies have been carried out in two fully stocked, fast growing Douglas-fir plantations of the Dutch ACIFORN project in three consecutive years, to obtain information on fine root densities (Olsthoorn 1991). For the present paper, data collected in early summer 1987 were used to study the relation

  2. Security of attachment and quality of mother-toddler social interaction in a high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D; Lambert, Brittany L; Seifer, Ronald; Ekas, Naomi V; Bauer, Charles R; Messinger, Daniel S

    2012-02-01

    The quality of children's social interactions and their attachment security with a primary caregiver are two widely studied indices of socioemotional functioning in early childhood. Although both Bowlby and Ainsworth suggested that the parent-child interactions underlying the development of attachment security could be distinguished from other aspects of parent-child interaction (e.g., play), relatively little empirical research has examined this proposition. The aim of the current study was to explore this issue by examining concurrent relations between toddler's attachment security in the Strange Situation Procedure and quality of mother-child social interaction in a high-risk sample of toddlers characterized by prenatal cocaine exposure and low levels of maternal education. Analyses of variance suggested limited relations between attachment security and quality of social interaction. Further research examining the interrelations among various components of the parent-child relationship is needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Toddler learning from video: Effect of matched pedagogical cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauricella, Alexis R; Barr, Rachel; Calvert, Sandra L

    2016-11-01

    Toddlers learn about their social world by following visual and verbal cues from adults, but they have difficulty transferring what they see in one context to another (e.g., from a screen to real life). Therefore, it is important to understand how the use of matched pedagogical cues, specifically adult eye gaze and language, influence toddlers' imitation from live and digital presentations. Fifteen- and 18-month-old toddlers (N=123) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions or a baseline control condition. The four experimental conditions differed as a function of the interactive cues (audience gaze with interactive language or object gaze with non-interactive language) and presentation type (live or video). Results indicate that toddlers' successfully imitate a task when eye gaze was directed at the object or at the audience and equally well when the task was demonstrated live or via video. All four experimental conditions performed significantly better than the baseline control, indicating learned behavior. Additionally, results demonstrate that girls attended more to the demonstrations and outperformed the boys on the imitation task. In sum, this study demonstrates that young toddlers can learn from video when the models use matched eye gaze and verbal cues, providing additional evidence for ways in which the transfer deficit effect can be ameliorated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early communicative competences of infants and toddlers: A Slovenian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Communicative competences develop rapidly in the periods of infanthood and toddlerhood, both from the qualitative and quantitative point of view. In the following study we aimed to analyse for the first time the age differences in early communication competences of Slovenian infants and toddlers. The sample included 512 infants and toddlers, aged from 8 to 30 months; their communication competences were assessed with the Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Gestures and Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences (Marjanovič Umek, Fekonja Peklaj, Sočan, and Komidar, 2011. The obtained results suggest that in the period between 8 and 30 months of age there are significant age differences within different areas of communication competences (e.g. communicative and symbolic gestures, vocabulary, length and grammatical complexity of sentences. In addition, we found moderate to high positive correlations between different areas of infants' and toddlers' communication competences. The analysis of the effect of gender on the communication competences of infants and toddlers showed that girls and boys aged 8 to 16 months did not differ significantly in their communicative competences. Significant gender differences were found in toddlers aged from 16 to 30 months: girls expressed a more extensive vocabulary.

  5. CURCUMA AND HONEY INCREASES BODY WEIGHT OF TODDLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny F

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Toddler may have poor appetite and picky eater stage. It will influence the children food intake and thereby they loss weight. As a result they may get a growth and developmental disorder. Curcuma honey can increase appetite and influence body weight. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of giving curcuma honey in increasing body weight in toddler. Method: Quasy experimental design was used in this study. Sample was 10 toddlers and divided into two groups. Independent variable was the giving of curcuma honey and dependent variable was the increase of body weight in toddler (1–3 years. Data were collected by appetite and bodyweight observation and analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test with significance level ofα ≤ 0.05. Result: Result showed that the giving of curcuma honey had a significant effect to increase toddler’s body weight (p = 0.001. Discussion: It can be concluded that curcuma honey could increase body weight of toddler by increasing the toddler’s appetite. Honey contains high level of glucose and fructose that can help digestion proccess and curcuma contains curcuminoid and asiri oil that help the work of the bile and pancreas, that made the increasing in apetite and fi nally the increasing in body weight.

  6. The effects of bilingual growth on toddlers' executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivello, Cristina; Kuzyk, Olivia; Rodrigues, Monyka; Friend, Margaret; Zesiger, Pascal; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The mastery of two languages provides bilingual speakers with cognitive benefits over monolinguals, particularly on cognitive flexibility and selective attention. However, extant research is limited to comparisons between monolinguals and bilinguals at a single point in time. This study investigated whether growth in bilingual proficiency, as shown by an increased number of translation equivalents (TEs) over a 7-month period, improves executive function. We hypothesized that bilingual toddlers with a larger increase of TEs would have more practice in switching across lexical systems, boosting executive function abilities. Expressive vocabulary and TEs were assessed at 24 and 31 months of age. A battery of tasks, including conflict, delay, and working memory tasks, was administered at 31 months. As expected, we observed a task-specific advantage in inhibitory control in bilinguals. More important, within the bilingual group, larger increases in the number of TEs predicted better performance on conflict tasks but not on delay tasks. This unique longitudinal design confirms the relation between executive function and early bilingualism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies

  8. Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: neonate/toddler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Paul E; Milla, Peter J; Benninga, Marc A; Davidson, Geoff P; Fleisher, David F; Taminiau, Jan

    2006-04-01

    Recognizing the importance of childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders in understanding adult functional gastrointestinal disorders, and encouraging clinical and research interest, the Rome Coordinating Committee added a pediatric working team to Rome II in 1999. For Rome III, there was an increase from 1 to 2 pediatric working teams. This report summarizes the current consensus concerning functional disorders in infants and toddlers. Another report covers disorders diagnosed more often in school-aged children and adolescents. The symptoms from functional gastrointestinal disorders in children younger than 5 years depend on maturational factors in anatomy, gastrointestinal physiology, and intellectual and affective functioning. There has been little or no change for infant regurgitation, infant rumination syndrome, or infant dyschezia. Cyclic vomiting syndrome may be diagnosed after 2 rather than 3 episodes. The description of infant colic has been expanded, although there was consensus that infant colic does not reflect gastrointestinal malfunction. The greatest change was in functional constipation. Functional constipation and functional fecal retention in the 1999 report were merged into a single entity: functional constipation. Data-driven changes in diagnostic criteria for functional constipation appear to be less rigid and more inclusive than previous criteria.

  9. Thoracolumbar Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Gang Lan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare uni or multisystem disorder associated with extreme production of immunoreactive Langerhans cells. Although this disorder has been reported in all age groups, spinal involvement especially thoracolumbar spine is seldom reported in toddlers. Case presentation: We present a one (1 year, four (4 months female child with a history of recurrent fever, irritability and severe anemia of one (1 month duration. CT-scan and MRI revealed a collapsed twelfth thoracic vertebra (T12 body height greater than 95% with a huge intradural soft tissue mass. T12 cortectomy via posterior thoracolumbar approach was used to decompress the soft tissue part followed by interbody fusion with titanium cage filled with autologous iliac crest bone graft, fixation using plates and screws. Conclusion: We are of the view that surgical decompression of spinal LHC lesions with interbody fusion with titanium cage filled with autologous iliac crest bone graft and fixation using plates and screws is very crucial in relieving neurological deficits. However, the patient will need repeated surgeries as she advances with age in a timely manner to avert any neurological deficit that may occur. Keywords: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH, Letterer-Siwe disease, Hand-Schüller-Christian disease, Eosinophilic granuloma

  10. Child Care Health Consultation Improves Infant and Toddler Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rosemary; DelConte, Beth A; Ungvary, Libby; Fiene, Richard; Aronson, Susan S

    2017-08-08

    Many families enroll their infants and toddlers in early education and child care programs. The Pennsylvania Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics recruited 32 child care centers that care for infants and toddlers to be linked with a child care health consultant (CCHC). Project staff assigned the centers alternately to an immediate intervention or a 1-year delayed intervention (contrast) group. At entry into the project, and then 1 and 2 years later, an evaluator assessed center compliance with 13 standards for infants and toddler care selected from Caring for Our Children: National Health and Safety Performance Standards (3rd ed.). Project staff linked the Immediate Intervention centers with a CCHC in Year 1. In Year 2, in a crossover comparison, project staff linked Contrast centers with a CCHC. Working with a CCHC effectively improved compliance with some selected health and safety standards. Copyright © 2017 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. All rights reserved.

  11. Lexical selectivity in Danish toddlers with cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study if Danish toddlers with cleft palate display lexical selectivity in their early lexicon at 18 months of age. Design: A cross-sectional study. Participants: Thirty-four children with unilateral cleft lip and palate and 35 children without cleft palate, matched for gender and age...... productions establishing an observed productive vocabulary size for each participant. Results: At 18 months of age Danish toddlers with cleft palate showed marked lexical selectivity in their early words. The distribution of consonant classes observed at 11 months of age in a previous study of the children...... with cleft palate was almost perfectly reflected in their early lexicon at 18 months. The early lexicon of children with cleft palate differed from the early lexicon of their non cleft peers. Conclusions & Implications: Danish toddlers with cleft palate display lexical selectivity in the early lexicon...

  12. Toddlers' word learning and transfer from electronic and print books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouse, Gabrielle A; Ganea, Patricia A

    2017-04-01

    Transfer from symbolic media to the real world can be difficult for young children. A sample of 73 toddlers aged 17 to 23months were read either an electronic book displayed on a touchscreen device or a traditional print book in which a novel object was paired with a novel label. Toddlers in both conditions learned the label within the context of the book. However, only those who read the traditional format book generalized and transferred the label to other contexts. An older group of 28 toddlers aged 24 to 30months did generalize and transfer from the electronic book. Across ages, those children who primarily used screens to watch prerecorded video at home transferred less from the electronic book than those with more diverse home media experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Prebiotic Formula Improves the Gastrointestinal Bacterial Flora in Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ling Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the effect of enriched 3-prebiotic formula (including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and galactooligosaccharides on toddler gut health by measuring fecal microbiota. Our results revealed that the consumption of 3-prebiotic formula three times per day giving total intake of 1.8 g prebiotic ingredients significantly showed the increased number of probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. colonies and the reduced populations of both C. perfringens and total anaerobic bacteria on the fecal bacterial flora in toddlers at 18~36 months. In addition, total organic acids in the fecal samples significantly increased which improves the utilization of bifidus under acidic conditions after consumption of the 3-prebiotic formula. Therefore, using the formula enriched with prebiotic may maintain gut health in toddlers.

  14. Effects of Mothers’ Attitude as Breeders and Distance of Stockyard toward Diarrhea Incidence among Toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Yarmaliza - Yarmaliza; Sugito Sugito; Teuku Reza Ferasyi; Nurliana Nurliana; Razali Razali

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea is a disease with change of feces form and concentration in which feces is mushy to liquid, and the increase of poop frequency more than usual (three times or more in a day). In Aceh Province, there were diarrhea cases as many as 48/1,000 live births. In West Aceh District, there were 1,071 cases in 2014, meanwhile there were 70 cases among toddlers in Meureubo Subdistrict. This study aimed to determine relation between mothers’attitude as breeders and distance of stockyard toward...

  15. Packaged baby and toddler foods: questions of sugar and sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, C D; Conlon, M J

    2015-04-01

    Sugar and sodium levels in packaged foods is a critical consideration when it comes to the public health of Americans, yet little is known about the sugar and salt contained in packaged foods targeted at our youngest consumers. To examine the sugar and sodium content of packaged baby and toddler foods sold in the American marketplace and to evaluate them in light of current intake recommendations and the current policy context. Content analysis of baby and toddler foods (n = 240) found in nine US retail stores. Summary statistics were created for sugar and sodium; the products' per-serving sodium levels were assessed in light of the US Institute of Medicine's dietary reference intakes while the products' sugar levels were evaluated in light of American Heart Association recommendations. Fifty-eight percent of the products assessed either have a high level of sodium or >20% of calories from sugar. Sodium levels in toddler foods were of concern in certain product categories (i.e., toddler entrées) and 15% of toddler foods exceeded the 'moderate level' recommended for sodium. Sugar levels were high in 45% of the products coded, and over half of those products - 56% - were designed for babies. More than one in six products had sugar as the first or second ingredient. Baby and toddler foods are not, by definition, 'healthy' foods and some exceed normal expectations for sugar and sodium. A policy opportunity exists to consider placing limits on the allowable levels of sugar and sodium in these packaged food products. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  16. Toddler: an embryonic signal that promotes cell movement via Apelin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Andrea; Norris, Megan L; Valen, Eivind; Chew, Guo-Liang; Gagnon, James A; Zimmerman, Steven; Mitchell, Andrew; Ma, Jiao; Dubrulle, Julien; Reyon, Deepak; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Joung, J Keith; Saghatelian, Alan; Schier, Alexander F

    2014-02-14

    It has been assumed that most, if not all, signals regulating early development have been identified. Contrary to this expectation, we identified 28 candidate signaling proteins expressed during zebrafish embryogenesis, including Toddler, a short, conserved, and secreted peptide. Both absence and overproduction of Toddler reduce the movement of mesendodermal cells during zebrafish gastrulation. Local and ubiquitous production of Toddler promote cell movement, suggesting that Toddler is neither an attractant nor a repellent but acts globally as a motogen. Toddler drives internalization of G protein-coupled APJ/Apelin receptors, and activation of APJ/Apelin signaling rescues toddler mutants. These results indicate that Toddler is an activator of APJ/Apelin receptor signaling, promotes gastrulation movements, and might be the first in a series of uncharacterized developmental signals.

  17. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Mother-Child Interactions in Families of Multiple and Singleton Preterm Toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Kristin F.; Burnson, Cynthia; Hane, Amanda; Samuelson, Anne; Maleck, Sarah; Poehlmann, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated family support as a buffer of stress in 153 mothers and preterm toddlers. Data were collected regarding maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and family support; infant health; and videotaped mother-child interactions. Although more parenting stress related to less optimal child play, only information support functioned as a protective factor. Information support predicted positive play under high, but not low, maternal stress. Mothers of multiples reported mo...

  18. Vitamin d deficiency in breast-fed toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biser-Rohrbaugh, A; Hadley-Miller, N

    2001-01-01

    The evaluation of genu varum and intoeing in young toddlers is a frequent problem seen by the primary care physician and the orthopaedic surgeon. This report describes six nonwhite breast-fed toddlers with extreme genu varum. Clinical and radiographic findings were consistent with vitamin D-deficiency rickets. Within 3 to 6 months of the initiation of ergocalciferol treatment, reparative processes were evident on both radiographic and clinical examinations. Laboratory studies also showed underlying correction. With the current emphasis on the benefits of breast-feeding and the limitation of sunlight, this diagnosis must remain on the differential in the evaluation of genu varum.

  19. Limited Activity Monitoring in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shic, Frederick; Bradshaw, Jessica; Klin, Ami; Scassellati, Brian; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking to examine how 20-month old toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (N=28), typical development (TD) (N=34), and non-autistic developmental delays (DD) (N=16) monitored the activities occurring in a context of an adult-child play interaction. Toddlers with ASD, in comparison to control groups, showed less attention to the activities of others and focused more on background objects (e.g. toys). In addition, while all groups spent the same time overall looking ...

  20. La investigacion sobre la calidad de los programas para ninos de hasta dos anos de edad (Research on Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…

  1. Maternal mind-mindedness and toddler behavior problems: The moderating role of maternal trauma and posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M Ann; Crossman, Molly K; Caruso, Alessandra; Raskin, Maryna; Miranda-Julian, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    Maternal mind-mindedness (MM) reflects a caregiver's tendency to view a child as an individual with an independent mind. Research has linked higher MM with more favorable parenting and child adaptation. The aim of this study was to examine whether MM was associated with toddlers' behavior problems and competence, and the moderating role of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample (N = 212) of adolescent mothers and their toddlers. MM was coded from maternal utterances during free play; mothers completed the University of California at Los Angeles Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index and reported on children's behavior problems and competence using the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment. The majority of mothers (84%) experienced trauma; 45% of these mothers met criteria for partial or full PTSD. Trauma was related to greater behavior problems, and PTSD moderated MM-child functioning relations. When mothers experienced full PTSD, there was no relation between MM and behavior problems. With child competence, when compared to children of mothers with no trauma exposure, children of mothers experiencing partial PTSD symptoms were more likely to have delays in competence when mothers made more MM comments. Results are discussed in light of how MM, in the context of trauma and PTSD, may affect parenting.

  2. Gestalt principle use in college students, children with autism, toddlers (Homo sapiens), and cotton top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiworth, Julie J; Whillock, Katherine M; Kim, Seo Hyun; Greenberg, Julia R; Jones, Katherine B; Patel, Anushka R; Steefel-Moore, David L; Shaw, Allyson J; Rupert, Deborah D; Gauer, Jacqueline L; Kudura, Aisha G

    2014-05-01

    The use of Gestalt principles of proximity, similarity, and closure to recognize objects by configural superiority was examined in college students, low- and high-functioning children with autism, toddlers, and adult cotton top tamarin monkeys. At issue was whether the monkeys showed differences from humans in perceptual processing and whether they showed any similarities with clinical or developmental groups. The method required a pointing response to discriminate an odd item in a 4-item visual display. All subjects were trained to a high accuracy to point to the odd item before being tested with graphic stimuli that differentiated feature changes based on configural superiority. The results were that college students and high-functioning children with autism responded faster and more accurately to trials in which the odd item was easily noticed by the use of Gestalt principles and configural superiority. Toddlers also responded more accurately to the Gestalt trials, but without being faster at making the response. Low-functioning children with autism and tamarins showed no advantage to Gestalt trials but exhibited different processing styles. The implications of these findings to track the evolution of human perception and to develop a primate model for the perceptual deficits of autism are discussed. ©2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Developmental milestones in toddlers with autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder--not otherwise specified and atypical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L; Mahan, Sara; Kozlowski, Alison M; Shoemaker, Mary

    2010-01-01

    To investigate age differences in developmental milestone attainment among toddlers with Autistic Disorder, PDD-NOS and atypical development. A questionnaire was administered to caregivers of toddlers to obtain ages of onset of developmental milestones. The study included 1044 participants with 442, 112, 498 and 497 participants in first word, first phrase, crawling and walking analyses, respectively. Significant differences were found between groups on the attainment of milestones within normal limits, delayed or not yet attained. Significant differences were also found between groups in age of saying first word and onset of crawling. There were no significant differences between groups for walking or first phrase. Increased severity of autism has been noted to be related to greater deficits in a multitude of areas. With basic human motor behaviours also appearing to follow that trend, motor and speech skills should be targeted in early intervention programmes.

  4. The health and cognitive growth of Latino toddlers: at risk or immigrant paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Bridges, Margaret; Bein, Edward; Jang, Heeju; Jung, Sunyoung; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Halfon, Neal; Kuo, Alice

    2009-11-01

    Epidemiologists have shown how birth outcomes are generally robust for immigrant Latina mothers, despite often situated in poor households, advanced by their strong prenatal and nutritional practices. But little is known about (1) how these protective factors may differ among Latino subgroups, (2) the extent to which birth outcomes, ongoing maternal practices, and family supports advance Latino toddlers' health and physical growth, and (3) whether the same processes advance toddlers' early cognitive growth. We drew on a national probability sample of 8,114 infants born in 2001, including 1,450 of diverse Latino origins. Data come from birth records, maternal interviews when the child was 9 and 24 months of age, and direct assessments of health status, physical growth, and cognitive proficiencies. Descriptive analyses compared Mexican-heritage and other Latino mothers and toddlers relative to middle-class whites. Multivariate regression techniques identified predictors of child health, weight, and BMI, as well as cognitive proficiencies at 24 months. Infants of Mexican-heritage or less acculturated Latina mothers displayed robust birth outcomes, compared with other ethnic groups. The low incidence of premature births and low birthweight among these mothers continued to advance their cognitive growth through 24 months of age. Yet Latino children overall displayed smaller gains in cognitive proficiencies between 9 and 24 months, compared with middle-class populations, attributable to Latinas' lower levels of maternal education, weaker preliteracy practices, and a higher ratio of children per resident adult. Health practitioners should recognize that many Latina mothers display healthy prenatal practices and give birth to robust infants. But these early protective factors do not necessarily advance early cognitive growth. Screening practices, early interventions, and federal policy should become more sensitive to these countervailing dynamics.

  5. Poor toddler-age sleep schedules predict school-age behavioral disorders in a longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Yorifuji, Takashi; Yamakawa, Michiyo; Oka, Makio; Inoue, Sachiko; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    Behavioral problems are often associated with poor sleep habits in children. We investigated whether undesirable toddler-age sleep schedules may be related to school-age behavioral problems. We analyzed the data of a nationwide longitudinal survey with available results from 2001 to 2011. The participants were 41,890 children. The predictors were waking time and bedtime at 2years of age, and the outcomes were assessed by determining the presence or absence of three attention problems and four aggressiveness problems at 8years of age. In logistic regression models with adjustments for confounding factors, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between toddler sleep schedules and behavior during primary-school age years. The outcomes of attention problems and aggressiveness problems were observed in 1.7% and 1.2% of children, respectively, at 8years of age. The OR of an irregular or late morning waking time at 2years of age with the outcome of aggressiveness problems was 1.52 (95% CI, 1.04-2.22) in comparison to an early waking time. The OR of an irregular or late bedtime with attention problems was 1.62 (95% CI, 1.12-2.36), and the OR of an irregular or late bedtime with aggressiveness problems was 1.81 (95% CI, 1.19-2.77) in comparison to an early bedtime. Poor toddler-age sleep schedules were found to predict behavioral problems during primary-school age years. Thus, good and regular sleep habits appear to be important for young children's healthy development. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A randomized controlled trial of a brief versus standard group parenting program for toddler aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Lucy A; Hunt, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    Physical aggression (PA) in the toddler years is common and developmentally normal, however, longitudinal research shows that frequent PA is highly stable and associated with long-term negative outcomes. Significant research has demonstrated the efficacy of parenting interventions for reducing externalizing behavior in children yet their typical length may overburden families, leading to low participation rates and high attrition rates. To increase the reach of parenting interventions and impact on the prevalence of externalizing behavior problems, brief interventions are needed. This RCT compared a standard (8 session) group Triple P to a brief (3 session) discussion group and a waitlist control for reducing toddler PA, dysfunctional parenting and related aspects of parent functioning. Sixty-nine self-referred families of toddlers with PA were randomized to the respective conditions. At post-assessment, families in the standard intervention had significantly lower levels of observed child aversive behavior, mother reports of PA and dysfunctional parenting, and higher levels of mother- and partner-rated behavioral self-efficacy than the waitlist control. Families in the standard intervention also had significantly lower levels mother-rated dysfunctional parenting than the brief intervention, and the brief intervention had significantly lower levels of mother-rated dysfunctional parenting than waitlist. There were no significant group differences at post-assessment for measures of parental negative affect or satisfaction with the partner relationship. By 6 month follow-up, families in the brief and standard intervention did not differ significantly on any measure. The implications of the findings to delivery of brief parenting interventions are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 43:291-303, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  8. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2015-01-01

    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  9. “¿Cómo estas?” “I’m good.” Conversational code-switching is related to profiles of expressive and receptive proficiency in Spanish-English bilingual toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Krystal M.; Hoff, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Relations between bilingual children’s patterns of conversational code-switching (responding to one language with another), the balance of their dual language input, and their expressive and receptive proficiency in two languages were examined in 115 2½-year-old simultaneous Spanish-English bilinguals in the U.S. Children were more likely to code-switch in response to Spanish than English. Children’s expressive vocabulary scores were higher in English than in Spanish, while their English and Spanish receptive language scores were not different. Analyses of subgroups of children with different but consistent patterns of code-switching confirmed that children who code-switched to English showed greater English skills, specifically in the expressive domain. Children who did not code-switch were more balanced bilinguals in both expressive and receptive skills. Children with other code-switching patterns showed still different profiles of dual language expressive and receptive proficiency. These findings reveal that some, but not all, bilingual children show different profiles of expressive and receptive skill in their two languages and that these proficiency profiles are related to their language choices in conversation. PMID:25750468

  10. Gender Differences in Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…

  11. Unsafe storage of poisons in homes with toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirens, Tinneke M J; van Beeck, Eduard F; Dekker, Rieneke; Brug, Johannes; Raat, Hein

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the current nature and level of preventive actions that parents take to avoid unintentional poisoning among toddlers (11-18 months old). In 2004, we conducted a cross-sectional observational survey with self-administered questionnaires among parents with toddlers (n=1,722). Data were obtained on storage locations of medicines and cleaning products and supervision of children. Overall, 50.1% of the toddlers were exposed to unsafe storage of possible poisonous products in the home. Parents were more likely to store medicines safely than cleaning products, and products were most often stored unsafely in the kitchen, where children were left unattended most often (69%). Households with one child were associated with unsafe storage of both medicines and cleaning products. Lower educational level of the mother and unemployment of the mother were both associated with safe storage of medicines. Mother's ethnicity, the child's ability to walk, and the education level of the father were associated with storage of cleaning products. The results of this study are an important first step for the development of effective interventions to reduce unintentional poisoning in toddlers' homes.

  12. 76 FR 22019 - Safety Standard for Toddler Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... toddler beds and/or convertible cribs to the U.S. market. Approximately 48 suppliers are domestic... United States. Based on information from a 2005 survey conducted by the American Baby Group, CPSC staff..., Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Full-Size Baby Cribs. Additionally, the entrapment warning...

  13. Population pharmacokinetics of abacavir in infants, toddlers and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, W.; Piana, C.; Danhof, M.; Burger, D.M.; Pasqua, O. Della; Jacqz-Aigrain, E.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To characterize the pharmacokinetics of abacavir in infants, toddlers and children and to assess the influence of covariates on drug disposition across these populations. METHODS: Abacavir concentration data from three clinical studies in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children (n = 69)

  14. Functional Communication Training with Toddlers in Home Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Glen; Ester, Tera; Langhans, Sherri; Fox, Lise

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of functional communication training when used by mothers to address the serious challenging behaviors of toddlers. Multiple baseline (across home routines) designs were used with two mother-child dyads. The data showed mothers used the procedures correctly and interventions produced reductions in…

  15. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Jennifer; Goerig, Tatiana; Weber, Peter; Hoeft, Birgit; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Carvalho, Nina Costa; Goldberger, Ursula; Hoffmann, Kristina

    2015-08-18

    Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world's most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps.

  16. Neither a Toddler nor a Stick-in-the-Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea Livi

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to express the views from the "outside," from laypeople who want to go to museums, but perhaps find themselves not going very often. Adult visitors to history museums are often treated as either toddlers or sticks-in-the-mud, where they are assumed to break anything they touch, or enjoy didactic lectures. As a result,…

  17. Treatment of Severe Feeding Refusal in Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Thomas; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the effectiveness of an inpatient multidisciplinary program for treatment of severe feeding refusal. Nineteen infants and toddlers recovering from medical and surgical disorders which had required non-oral feeding were studied. A modified method of rapid introduction of oral feedings resulted in conversion to…

  18. 75 FR 22291 - Safety Standard for Toddler Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... alert symbol, the word ``WARNING,'' and a description of the hazard and its consequences, so telling.... (The ASTM F 1821-09 standard addresses this hazard with a warning label. The Commission does not have information indicating whether the toddler bed involved in this death bore such a warning label.) It is...

  19. Infant and Toddler Child Care Quality Measures: Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Research Connections collection contains records for more than 1,300 instruments that have been used to conduct studies in the child care and early education field. This bibliography provides records for instruments in the collection that can be used to observe child care quality in center-based settings serving infants and toddlers. In…

  20. Rituals and Routines: Supporting Infants and Toddlers and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Linda; Petersen, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The words "routine" and "ritual" are sometimes used interchangeably. Yet there are some important differences. Routines are repeated, predictable events that provide a foundation for the daily tasks in a child's life. Teachers can create a predictable routine in early childhood settings for infants and toddlers, and they can individualize those…

  1. Communication Modality Sampling for a Toddler with Angelman Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jolene Hyppa; Reichle, Joe; Dimian, Adele; Chen, Mo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Vocal, gestural, and graphic communication modes were implemented concurrently with a toddler with Angelman syndrome to identify the most efficiently learned communication mode to emphasize in an initial augmentative communication system. Method: Symbols representing preferred objects were introduced in vocal, gestural, and graphic…

  2. Movement Planning Reflects Skill Level and Age Changes in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-ping; Keen, Rachel; Rosander, Kerstin; Von Hofsten, Claes

    2010-01-01

    Kinematic measures of children's reaching were found to reflect stable differences in skill level for planning for future actions. Thirty-five toddlers (18-21 months) were engaged in building block towers (precise task) and in placing blocks into an open container (imprecise task). Sixteen children were retested on the same tasks a year later.…

  3. When Your Toddler Doesn't Want to Eat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OTC Cough and Cold Medicines and My Child Home Prevention and Wellness Food and Nutrition When Your Toddler Doesn’t Want ... If your child shows any of the following behaviors, he or she is completely normal.Refusing a food based on color or texture.Choosing a few ...

  4. TAENIA SAGINATA INFECTION IN A 14-MONTH-OLD TODDLER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitcharungsil, Raweerat; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn

    2016-05-01

    A 14-month-old female toddler presented with a 3-day history of pass- ing gravid proglottids of Taenia saginata. Neither she nor her family members had a history of eating raw beef or other raw meat. Single doses of praziquantel and niclosamide were administered. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest described patient with T. saginata infection to date.

  5. Changing Policy to Achieve Equity for Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, Maria Victoria; Noguera, Pedro Antonio; Ray, Aisha; Maparyan, Layli; Hogan, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    ZERO TO THREE's (ZTT) mission is to ensure that all babies have a strong start in life. The mission is intentionally inclusive of "all babies," because ZTT envisions a society with the knowledge and will to support all infants and toddlers in reaching their full potential. In recognition of a "strong start," ZTT strives to…

  6. Toddlers and Touch Screens: Potential for Early Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Pempek, Tiffany A.

    2013-01-01

    As interactive screens (e.g., tablet computers, smartphones) continue to enter the homes of young children, it becomes increasingly important to understand the impact of these technologies on development. Some studies suggest that while traditional television and videos hold little educational value for toddlers, young children may be able to…

  7. Neighborhood Density and Word Frequency Predict Vocabulary Size in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Stephanie F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To document the lexical characteristics of neighborhood density (ND) and word frequency (WF) in the lexicons of a large sample of English-speaking toddlers. Method: Parents of 222 British-English-speaking children aged 27([plus or minus]3) months completed a British adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory:…

  8. Responsive Caregiving: Reducing the Stress in Infant Toddler Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetts, Kay

    2005-01-01

    The first three years of life are critical for children's development and well-being. The care of these very young children is highly specialised and challenging work. Challenges in meeting the unique and varied needs of infants and toddlers in group care are compounded by the generally poor conditions of employment experienced by staff. When…

  9. Teens Parenting: The Challenge of Babies and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jeanne Warren

    This parenting guide for teenage parents of infants and toddlers incorporates numerous comments from 61 teenage parents who chose to stay in school after the birth of their child. Specific problems confronting young parents are addressed. These problems include single parenthood, early marriage, and the advantages and disadvantages of living with…

  10. Readiness Skills That Support Toddlers' Transition into Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appl, Dolores J.; Hoffman, Brittany; Hughes, Mary-Alayne

    2017-01-01

    For families with toddlers approaching their third birthdays, parent-child playgroups provide opportunities to support children's school readiness skills and to prepare both children and parents for changes they are likely to encounter during the transition to preschool. However, all transitions are unique; they depend on families' needs and…

  11. Play behavior and attachment in toddlers with autism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, F.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; IJzendoorn, M.H. van; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Dietz, C.; Daalen, E. van; Engeland, H.M. van

    2008-01-01

    Play helps to develop social skills. Children with autism show deviances in their play behavior that may be associated with delays in their social development. In this study, we investigated manipulative, functional and symbolic play behavior of toddlers with and without autism (mean age: 26.45, SD

  12. Using Toys to Support Infant-Toddler Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Choosing toys and activities that are suitable for infants and toddlers can challenge even the most experienced teacher. By being mindful of the basic principles of child development and the role of play, teachers can intentionally select toys to meet young children's unique needs and interests, supporting learning. It is also important to be…

  13. Patterns of Developmental Trajectories in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Catherine; Luyster, Rhiannon; Guthrie, Whitney; Pickles, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to follow toddlers referred for risk of autism, using standardized observational measures administered frequently from age 18 months to age 36 months. Method: Sixty-five children who were consecutive referrals and 13 children from other research projects were seen approximately every 2 months, from age 18 months to age…

  14. Play Behavior and Attachment in Toddlers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Play helps to develop social skills. Children with autism show deviances in their play behavior that may be associated with delays in their social development. In this study, we investigated manipulative, functional and symbolic play behavior of toddlers with and without autism (mean age: 26.45, SD 5.63). The results showed that the quality of…

  15. Attachment in Toddlers with Autism and Other Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Attachment was assessed in toddlers with Autistic Disorder (n = 20), Pervasive Developmental Disorder (n = 14), Mental Retardation (n = 12), Language Development Disorder (n = 16), and a non-clinical comparison group (n = 18), using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Children in the clinical groups were more often disorganized and less often…

  16. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hilger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps.

  17. Mothering, fathering, and externalizing behavior in toddler boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Marcel A.G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reported maternal and paternal support, psychological control, and spanking on externalizing behavior of toddler boys. Questionnaires were administered to both parents of 104 two-parent families with a 3-year-old son. Both maternal and paternal psychological

  18. The Wonder and Complexity of Infant and Toddler Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmer, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Wise teachers of infants and toddlers know how concerned, helpful, empathic, cooperative, and friendly--that is, how prosocial--very young children can be. Teachers see older infants crawl or toddle over to "friends" arriving later in the morning and greet them as if they had not seen them in weeks. Teachers and families know that these young…

  19. The Development of Play in Infants, Toddlers, and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casby, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    The first of two articles on play reviews the development of play in typically developing infants, toddlers, and young children, including Piaget's observations on the development of play; developmental play research following Piaget (research by Lunzer, Sinclair, Lezine, Lowe, Rosenblatt, Uzgiris and Hunt, Fenson and others, Watson and Fischer,…

  20. The Cost of Serving Infants and Toddlers under Part C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jean L.; Brown, Susan; Chang, Chuan; Nelson, Dawna; Mrazek, Susan

    2011-01-01

    To identify the per-child cost of providing Part C services, the authors analyzed extensive statewide expenditure data in Hawai'i to determine the monthly and annual costs of providing early intervention services to infants and toddlers and their families. Identified were the costs of serving children with various numbers and percentages of delay,…

  1. Mother-father differences in screening for developmental delay in infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepanec, Maja; Lice, Karolina; Simleša, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    In most cases, caregiver questionnaires are completed by mothers and seldom by fathers. Although parents tend to have moderate to high congruence, some studies suggest that differences between the mothers' and the fathers' answers can complicate diagnostic decision-making. The aim of this study was to determine mother-father response differences on a widely used screening checklist and to describe possible clinical implications of the observed differences. The Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist, a screening and evaluation tool, is commonly used in many countries to identify developmental delays in infants and toddlers. A Croatian version of the CSBS-DP checklist was completed by 422 parents (211 mothers and 211 fathers). The mean age of children was 15.4 months (6-24 months). Inter-rater reliability and mother-father differences were calculated. An item-by-item analysis was performed, and the relationship between the parental concern and the score a child achieved was also examined. Mothers and fathers did not differ in Total Scores (p=.165). Item-by-item analysis showed that the level of congruence between mothers' and fathers' scores was, on average, 78%. However, in 10-15% of cases, the parent scores placed a child in different clinical categories (above vs. below the cut-off score). In cases of discordance, fathers placed a child below criterion level more often than mothers, and this trend was more pronounced for girls than boys. The level of parental concern was found to be relatively low and not well balanced with the scores children achieved. Our findings suggest that the level of parental concern is not a very reliable indicator of delayed or deviant childhood development. Furthermore, in 10-15% of cases, parents differ in the extent to which their responses place a child in different clinical groups. The reader will: (1) recognize the importance of early communication skills assessment in infants and

  2. Social coordination in toddler's word learning: interacting systems of perception and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alfredo; Smith, Linda; Yu, Chen

    2008-06-01

    We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants' body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M=18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner's hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child's learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed.

  3. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Cowley

    Full Text Available Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor or distal (finger flexor muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p < 0.005 in trunk lean and velocity, reduced humeral elevation (11°, p < 0.005, and increased elbow flexion (4°, p < 0.01. In contrast, distal fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p < 0.05, increased velocity of wrench movement relative to the hand (17°/s, p < 0.001, and earlier wrist extension (4%, p < 0.005. Movement variability increased at proximal joints but not distal joints after both fatigue protocols (p < 0.05. Varying movements at proximal joints may help people adapt to fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.

  4. US consumer attitudes toward sodium in baby and toddler foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Katherine A; Cogswell, Mary E; Zhao, Lixia; Maalouf, Joyce; Gunn, Janelle P; Merritt, Robert K

    2016-08-01

    Dietary data from a nationally representative survey indicate about 80% of US toddlers aged 1-3 years consume too much dietary sodium, which can influence their preference for salty foods in later life. Information on consumer attitudes can inform strategies to reduce sodium in baby and toddler foods. Data were obtained from a 2012 online survey sent to a sample of 11636 US adults aged ≥18 years enrolled in a national probability-based consumer panel; 6378 completed the survey and had non-missing responses to the question of interest, "It is important for baby and toddler foods to be low in sodium." Prevalence of agreement was estimated. Logistic regression was used to describe associations of respondent characteristics with agreement. The majority of respondents were non-Hispanic white and had a household income ≥$60,000. About 7 in 10 (68%, 95% CI: 66%-70%) respondents agreed it is important for baby or toddler foods to be low in sodium. More than 6 of 10 respondents in most subgroups agreed. Among parents with a child currently aged <2 years (N = 390), 82% agreed (95% CI: 77%-87%); the highest agreement included parents who thought sodium was very harmful to their own health (92%, 95% CI: 85%-99%) or who were watching/reducing their own sodium intake (95%, 95% CI: 90%-100%). After adjusting for sex, age, race-ethnicity, agreement was most strongly associated with being a parent of a child <2 years, thinking sodium was harmful, and watching/reducing sodium intake (adjusted odds ratios ≥ 2.5, 95% CI's ≠1.0). The majority of respondents including most parents agreed it is important for baby and toddler foods to be low in sodium, suggesting wide consumer support for strategies to lower sodium in these foods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.

    1989-04-01

    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  6. Management of Proximal Third Arm Replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Taş

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the recent success in major limb replantation achieved through the advancements in microsurgical techniques, the viability of the extremity is still relatively low at the transhumeral level following a replantation. There are no exact guidelines for deciding whether to undertake a stump repair or a replantation in such amputations at the proximal level. However, a highly motivated patient with realistic expectations and protected shoulder function can be a candidate to undergo replantation. The replanted arm may help the uninjured arm in daily activities. In this report we present the case of a 47-year-old man whose arm was amputated at proximal third level by an asphalt machine and successfully replanted together with the encountered problems and their solutions. The roadmap followed in this rare case may be a guide for hand surgeons.

  7. Perinatal mortality and residential proximity to an industrial park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarov, Batia; Bentov, Yaakov; Kordysh, Ella; Karakis, Isabella; Bolotin, Arkady; Hershkovitz, Reli; Belmaker, Ilana

    2008-01-01

    The authors' objective was to determine whether residential proximity to an industrial park (IP) is associated with increased perinatal mortality (PM). This semiecological study included 63,850 delivered births with 840 cases of PM (1995-2000). The authors categorized the study populations by ethnicity (ie, Bedouin and Jewish) and type of locality. Residential distance from the IP served as a surrogate indicator of exposure. Among Bedouin newborns, proximity to the IP was associated with increased PM rates (relative risk = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.22-1.72). The excess in PM was not related to maternal or newborn physical characteristics that the authors observed. The risk of PM and its components in the Jewish localities was not associated with IP proximity. The association between residential proximity to the IP and excess in PM among only Bedouin newborns may be related to vulnerability caused by the nomadic nature of the society.

  8. Sleep in infancy predicts gender specific social-emotional problems in toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet eSaenz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite strong evidence linking sleep to developmental outcomes, the longitudinal relationship between sleep and emotional wellbeing remains largely unknown. To address this gap in our knowledge, the current study examined sleep in infancy, measured via actigraphy, as a predictor of social-emotional problems in toddlers. A total of 47 children (29 males were included in this longitudinal study. At time one, actigraphy measures of sleep were obtained from 3- to 4-month-old infants. At time two, parents rated their 18- to 24-month-old toddler’s social-emotional wellbeing using the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment. Results indicated that boys tended to have higher levels of externalizing behaviors than did girls. Additionally, boys with longer sleep durations also showed lower sleep efficiency. In girls, sleep duration in infancy was a significant predictor of Autism Spectrum Disorder behaviors and approached significance as a predictor of externalizing problems in toddlerhood. Our findings are the first to show a relationship between sleep measured in infancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder symptomatology measured in early childhood. They suggest that the etiology of social-emotional problems may differ between genders and raise the possibility that sleep/wake cycles may be differentially related to Autism Spectrum Disorder symptoms in girls and boys.

  9. A formative evaluation of shared family mealtime for parents of toddlers and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Brian L; Fiese, Barbara H; Anderson, Barbara; Koester, Brenda D; Marlin, Diane W

    2011-10-01

    Shared family mealtime offers numerous health benefits for young children. Unfortunately, only a few studies examine the benefits and barriers to eating together as a family. The present study seeks to fill this gap in the literature by applying the health belief model to understand parents' perceptions about the challenges of preparing and executing family mealtime for toddlers and young children. Six focus groups were conducted with parents of toddlers and/or young children (n = 24). Results revealed that parents identified several benefits to shared family mealtime, including good teaching moments for their children, enhanced family connectedness, and encouraging nutritious meals. Parents also identified barriers to eating together as a family, including child behavioral issues, scheduling difficulties, and ill-prepared husbands. The risks associated with not eating together as a family were seldom mentioned; however, parents highlighted several issues related to self-efficacy, such as difficulty in selecting meals and challenges with cooking. Potential cues to action include print materials encouraging parents by emphasizing the benefits of eating together as a family. Results are discussed with an emphasis on message design strategies for health practitioners interested in advocating this important yet under-studied phenomenon.

  10. [Angle-stable intramedullary nailing of proximal humerus fractures with the PHN (proximal humeral nail)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Jochen; Hansen, Matthias; Rommens, Pol Maria

    2009-09-01

    Stable fixation of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus through minimally invasive operative technique and rapid bone healing as well as restoration of original anatomy. Early functional training with the goal of restoration of former mobility and daily activities. Unstabile two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus (AO classification: 11-A2, 11-A3, 11-B1, 11-B2, 11-B3). Subcapital nonunion of the humerus. Pathologic fractures. Pediatric fractures of the proximal humerus. Fractures of the proximal humerus types 11-C2 und 11-C3 according to the AO classification. Active local infection, e.g., after former operation. Closed reduction. Anterior acromial incision, splitting of the deltoid muscle and the rotator cuff. Opening of the medullary canal with the awl. Nail introduction. Spiral blade introduction in cannulated technique through stab incision. Distal interlocking through aiming device, angle-stable blocking of nail and blade through end cap. Postoperative fixation in Gilchrist sling until 2nd postoperative day; then physiotherapy respecting fracture type and stability, local swelling, patient's age and compliance, and concomitant injuries. 151 proximal humeral fractures were treated with a proximal humeral nail (PHN). 108 patients could be followed up 1 year postoperatively. Significant complications were perforation of the articular surface through bolts or blades (n = 8), implant-related pain (n = 10), fragment dislocation (n = 2), nonunion (n = 2), humeral head necrosis (n = 3), and superficial infection (n = 1). 1 year after the operation, the Constant-Murley Score showed a median value of 75.3 in the injured shoulder and of 89.9 in the uninjured shoulder. The DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) Score was 5.9 preoperatively and 9.3 at 1 year postoperatively. The worst results regarding the Constant-Murley Score as well as the DASH Score were found in C-type fractures.

  11. Introduction of the Utrecht Tasks for Attention in Toddlers Using Eye Tracking (UTATE): A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanneke eDe Jong; Marjolein eVerhoeven; Hooge, Ignace T.C.; Anneloes L van Baar

    2016-01-01

    Attention capacities underlie everyday functioning from an early age onwards. Little is known about attentional processes at toddler age. A feasible assessment of attention capacities at toddler age is needed to allow further study of attention development. In this study, a test battery is piloted that consists of four tasks which intend to measure the attention systems orienting, alerting, and executive attention: the Utrecht Tasks of Attention in Toddlers using Eye tracking [UTATE]. The UTA...

  12. The timing of the circadian clock and sleep differ between napping and non-napping toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Akacem, Lameese D.; Charles T. Simpkin; Carskadon, Mary A.; Wright, Kenneth P.; JENNI, OSKAR G.; Peter Achermann; Monique K LeBourgeois

    2015-01-01

    The timing of the internal circadian clock shows large inter-individual variability across the lifespan. Although the sleep-wakefulness pattern of most toddlers includes an afternoon nap, the association between napping and circadian phase in early childhood remains unexplored. This study examined differences in circadian phase and sleep between napping and non-napping toddlers. Data were collected on 20 toddlers (34.2?2.0 months; 12 females; 15 nappers). Children followed their habitual napp...

  13. Factors Related to Incidence of Pneumonia among Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapitos Sidiq

    2016-11-01

    Pneumonia merupakan salah satu masalah kesehatan global yang sangat penting pada anak bawah lima tahun (balita, khususnya pada negara-negara berkembang. Saat ini, pneumonia merupakan salah satu kasus penyebab kematian pada anak terbesar, terutama pada periode baru lahir. Di Provinsi Aceh, penyakit pneumonia merupakan penyakit urutan ke-8 dari 25 penyakit terbesar yang ditemukan di puskesmas dengan jumlah 1.112 kasus. Sedangkan besarnya kasus pneumonia pada penderita rawat jalan di Aceh mencapai 434 kasus (29,03%. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan kejadian pneumonia pada balita. Penelitian bersifat analitik dengan desain potong lintang. Sampel penelitian adalah ibu dan balita yang berjumlah 48 orang. Pengumpulan data dilaksanakan tanggal 3 – 14 Agustus 2015 dengan wawancara dan observasi. Analisis multivariat menggunakan regresi logistik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa faktor kondisi sanitasi rumah secara fisik berpengaruh terhadap kecendrungan balita menderita penyakit pneumonia dengan nilai p 0,01 < 0,05, dengan nilai OR tertinggi 6,431 dan CI 95% = 1.559 - 26.532. Disimpulkan bahwa kondisi sanitasi rumah secara fisik memiliki peluang enam kali menyebabkan terjadinya pneumonia pada balita di Desa Lambatee, Kecamatan Darul Kamal, Kabupaten Aceh Besar.

  14. SHORT COMMUNICATION PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  15. NutricheQ Questionnaire assesses the risk of dietary imbalances in toddlers from 1 through 3 years of age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morino, Giuseppe S; Cinelli, Giulia; Di Pietro, Ilaria; Papa, Vittoria; Spreghini, Nicola; Manco, Melania

    2015-01-01

    .... To investigate the accuracy and test-retest reliability of the NutricheQ Questionnaire in the identification of toddlers with the risk of inadequate intake of micro- and macronutrients in a sample of Italian toddlers...

  16. A Toddler with Bilateral Fractures of the Fibula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, Tamara Miner; Wong, Jason; Kumar, Rajendra; John, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Stress fractures are uncommon, and bilateral stress fractures are rare. The diagnosis of stress fracture can be difficult as conventional radiographs usually show evidence of the fracture repair instead of the fracture. A stress fracture must be differentiated from more serious processes, particularly osteomyelitis and bone malignancies. In young children there may be no obvious cause, and imaging can greatly facilitate the diagnosis. We present a case of a toddler referred for evaluation for a possible bone malignancy but who was diagnosed with bilateral fibular stress fractures. Only one case of bilateral fibular stress fracture has been described in a toddler. However, unlike this case, our patient lacked an apparent explanation for the injury.

  17. FEEDING GUIDELINES FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS (START HEALTHY PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Butte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The dietary guidelines for americans contains recommendations on diets and healthy lifestyles but it does not deal with specificities of the diet and feeding breast and small infants (to 2 years. However, parents and carecgivers need practical recommendations on feeding infants and toddlers that are necessary to ensure a normal growth and to create the basis for forming healthy food habits, which apart from other benefits might help prevent the development of obesity and other diseases in both childhood and adulthood. The feeding guidelines for infants and toddlers is aimed at providing parents and carecgivers with practical information on feeding breast and small infants. It is intendced for adding and broadening recommendations worked out by other expert groups and organizations. The article provides a substantiation of the guidelines. The methodology, results and a complete reference list used to work out the recommendations are presented in another document.Key words: infants, nutrition.

  18. Hemiartroplastia da extremidade proximal do úmero para o tratamento da fratura-luxação em quatro partes: grau de mobilidade obtido em relação à idade Hemiarthroplasty for treatment of four part fracture -dislocation of the proximal humerus: grade of mobility related to age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Wanderley Moral Sgarbi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As fraturas mais graves da extremidade proximal do úmero, são as fraturas - luxações em quatro partes. O tratamento clássico é a artroplastia do úmero proximal. Realizamos estudo retrospectivo de 20 pacientes submetidos à artroplastia parcial do ombro para o tratamento da fratura - luxação em quatro partes da extremidade proximal do úmero. O tempo de segmento pós operatório médio foi de 14 meses. Os pacientes foram avaliados quanto à elevação, rotação externa e rotação interna. Constituímos dois grupos: aqueles com elevação maior do que a média (grupo 1 e elevação menor do que a média (grupo 2. A elevação média obitida pelos 20 pacientes foi de 107,5 graus. Os pacientes do grupo 1, tiveram média de idade de 48,5. Os pacientes do grupo 2, tiveram média de idade de 66,3 (p=0,004. Obtivemos resultados mais favoráveis no que diz respeito à mobilidade nos pacientes dentro da faixa etária dos 50 anos. A elevação média do grupo 1 , foi de 154,38° e do grupo 2, foi de 76,25 graus p=0,0002. A rotação externa dos pacientes do grupo 1 foi de 31º e do grupo 2 foi de 9,6 graus (p=0,002. A rotação interna nos pacientes do grupo 1 foi ao nível da décima vértebra torácica enquanto nos pacientes do grupo 2 foi ao nível da quarta vértebra lombar(P=0,003.The most serious fractures of the proximal portion of the humerus is the four-part fracture- dislocation. The traditional approach is the arthroplasty of the proximal humerus. We describe a retrospective study of 20 patients submitted to partial arthroplasty of the shoulder for treating four-part fracture-dislocations of the proximal humerus. The mean postoperative follow-up time was 14 months. Patients were assessed for elevation, lateral and medial rotation. We divided the subjects into two groups: patients with higher elevation than the average (group 1 and with lower elevation than the average (group 2. The elevation average obtained for all patients was 107

  19. FEEDING GUIDELINES FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS (START HEALTHY PROGRAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Butte; Kathleen Cobb; Joanna Dwyer; Laura Graney; William Heird; Caryl Richard

    2007-01-01

    The dietary guidelines for americans contains recommendations on diets and healthy lifestyles but it does not deal with specificities of the diet and feeding breast and small infants (to 2 years). However, parents and carecgivers need practical recommendations on feeding infants and toddlers that are necessary to ensure a normal growth and to create the basis for forming healthy food habits, which apart from other benefits might help prevent the development of obesity and other diseases in bo...

  20. Hallmarks of opium poisoning in infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Nasim; Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein; Mostafazadeh, Babak

    2010-10-01

    Accidental opium intoxication in children is an extremely dangerous poisoning if it remains undiagnosed and untreated. The classic triad of miosis, decreased level of consciousness and bradypnea, which are the hallmarks of opiate intoxication, are used for the diagnosis of opium poisoning in adults and children. Little attention has been paid to the signs of opium intoxication in children and no published study has explored the frequency of hallmarks of this type of poisoning in the paediatric population. We conducted a study in order to evaluate the prevalence of major signs of opium poisoning in infants and toddlers. In this study, a total of 228 infants and 82 toddlers who had been admitted to Loghman Hakim Hospital as a result of opium poisoning between 2001 and 2009 were evaluated, retrospectively. The most usual sign of opium poisoning was miosis (90%) followed by a decreased level of consciousness (88.4%), bradypnea (28.4%) and seizure (10.3%). The prevalence of the triad of miosis, bradypnea and a decreased level of consciousness was 25.2%. Miosis in association with decreased level of consciousness was detected in 82.6% of our patients. Bradypnea was present in 74 infants and 14 toddlers, which shows a statistically significant difference (P = 0.01). The mean age and weight of the patients with bradypnea were significantly less than those without bradypnea (P = 0.008 and P = 0.0001, respectively). Bradypnea and seizure were significantly more common in females (36.7% versus 26%; P = 0.05 and 15.2% versus 6.5%; P = 0.01, respectively). Miosis in association with a decreased level of consciousness is the most useful indicator of opium poisoning in infants and toddlers. Furthermore, seizure is a more common feature of this type of poisoning in infants, especially in those who are less than 1 month old.

  1. Sodium and sugar in complementary infant and toddler foods sold in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Mary E; Gunn, Janelle P; Yuan, Keming; Park, Sohyun; Merritt, Robert

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the sodium and sugar content of US commercial infant and toddler foods. We used a 2012 nutrient database of 1074 US infant and toddler foods and drinks developed from a commercial database, manufacturer Web sites, and major grocery stores. Products were categorized on the basis of their main ingredients and the US Food and Drug Administration's reference amounts customarily consumed per eating occasion (RACC). Sodium and sugar contents and presence of added sugars were determined. All but 2 of the 657 infant vegetables, dinners, fruits, dry cereals, and ready-to-serve mixed grains and fruits were low sodium (≤140 mg/RACC). The majority of these foods did not contain added sugars; however, 41 of 79 infant mixed grains and fruits contained ≥1 added sugar, and 35 also contained >35% calories from sugar. Seventy-two percent of 72 toddler dinners were high in sodium content (>210 mg/RACC). Toddler dinners contained an average of 2295 mg of sodium per 1000 kcal (sodium 212 mg/100 g). Savory infant/toddler snacks (n = 34) contained an average of sodium 1382 mg/1000 kcal (sodium 486 mg/100 g); 1 was high sodium. Thirty-two percent of toddler dinners and the majority of toddler cereal bars/breakfast pastries, fruit, and infant/toddler snacks, desserts, and juices contained ≥1 added sugar. Commercial toddler foods and infant or toddler snacks, desserts, and juice drinks are of potential concern due to sodium or sugar content. Pediatricians should advise parents to look carefully at labels when selecting commercial toddler foods and to limit salty snacks, sweet desserts, and juice drinks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Parent Training Interventions for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Audrée Jeanne; Sébire, Guillaume; Couture, Mélanie

    2014-01-01

    Background. Now that early identification of toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is possible, efforts are being made to develop interventions for children under three years of age. Most studies on early intervention have focused on intensive and individual interventions. However, parent training interventions that help parents interact and communicate with their toddlers with ASD might be a good alternative to promote the development of their child's sociocommunicative skills. Objective. This review aims to systematically examine (1) the use of parent training interventions for children with ASD under three years of age and (2) their effects on children's development, parents' well-being and parent-child interactions. Methods. Systematic searches were conducted to retrieve studies in which at least one parent was trained to implement ASD-specific techniques with their toddlers (0–36 months old) with a diagnosis of or suspected ASD. Results. Fifteen studies, involving 484 children (mean age: 23.26 months), were included in this review. Only two of them met criteria for conclusive evidence. Results show that parents were able to implement newly learned strategies and were generally very satisfied with parent training programs. However, findings pertaining to the children's communication and socioemotional skills, parent-child interactions, and parental well-being were inconclusive. PMID:24895534

  3. Babies (and Their Families) on Board! Directors Juggle the Key Elements of Infant/Toddler Care and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Mary Benson; Apple, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood programs with infants and toddlers are bustling and alive in ways different from programs that have only preschoolers. Infants and toddlers can make group care environments more caring and family focused spaces, nurturing the well-being of all adults and children participating in the program. The number of infants and toddlers who…

  4. Research-Informed Policy Options for Infant and Toddler Early Care and Education: Research-to-Policy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    This Research-to-Policy Resource List compiles research-based policy documents published in 2010 and later on the following topics: Early learning guidelines for infants and toddlers; Program standards for settings serving infants and toddlers; Core competencies and credentials for caregivers of infants and toddlers; Use of infant/toddler…

  5. 77 FR 45242 - Revisions to Safety Standards for Durable Infant or Toddler Products: Infant Bath Seats and Full...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Parts 1215 and 1219 Revisions to Safety Standards for Durable Infant or Toddler Products... durable infant or toddler products, including infant bath seats and full-size cribs. These standards... from ASTM of an updated ASTM standard for toddler beds. However, the Commission is not accepting the...

  6. The Impact of Early Intervention on Speech and Lexical Development for Toddlers with Cleft Palate: A Retrospective Look at Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin-Jones, Mary; Chapman, Kathy L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the impact of early intervention on speech and lexical measures for toddlers with cleft palate. Method: Speech measures of ten 27-month-old toddlers with cleft palate who had been referred for therapy at 17 months of age were compared to those of 10 toddlers with cleft palate who had…

  7. Lexical, Morphological and Syntactic Development in Toddlers between 16 and 30 Months Old: A Comparison across European Portuguese and Galician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Fernanda Leopoldina; Pérez-Pereira, Miguel; Cadime, Irene; Silva, Carla; Santos, Sandra; Ribeiro, Iolanda

    2017-01-01

    The main aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between the lexical size and the emergence of morphological and syntactic markers in toddlers between the ages of 16 and 30 months and to compare these results between Galician and European Portuguese. Parents of 3012 Portuguese toddlers and those of 1081 Galician toddlers completed…

  8. Computational proximity excursions in the topology of digital images

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces computational proximity (CP) as an algorithmic approach to finding nonempty sets of points that are either close to each other or far apart. Typically in computational proximity, the book starts with some form of proximity space (topological space equipped with a proximity relation) that has an inherent geometry. In CP, two types of near sets are considered, namely, spatially near sets and descriptivelynear sets. It is shown that connectedness, boundedness, mesh nerves, convexity, shapes and shape theory are principal topics in the study of nearness and separation of physical aswell as abstract sets. CP has a hefty visual content. Applications of CP in computer vision, multimedia, brain activity, biology, social networks, and cosmology are included. The book has been derived from the lectures of the author in a graduate course on the topology of digital images taught over the past several years. Many of the students have provided important insights and valuable suggestions. The topics in ...

  9. Photoactivated In Vivo Proximity Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David B; Bonasio, Roberto

    2017-06-19

    Identification of molecular interactions is paramount to understanding how cells function. Most available technologies rely on co-purification of a protein of interest and its binding partners. Therefore, they are limited in their ability to detect low-affinity interactions and cannot be applied to proteins that localize to difficult-to-solubilize cellular compartments. In vivo proximity labeling (IPL) overcomes these obstacles by covalently tagging proteins and RNAs based on their proximity in vivo to a protein of interest. In IPL, a heterobifunctional probe comprising a photoactivatable moiety and biotin is recruited by a monomeric streptavidin tag fused to a protein of interest. Following UV irradiation, candidate interacting proteins and RNAs are covalently biotinylated with tight spatial and temporal control and subsequently recovered using biotin as an affinity handle. Here, we describe experimental protocols to discover novel protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions using IPL. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coret CD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Catherine D Coret, Michael B Suero, Neena K Tierney Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods: Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30, a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30, or a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=32 were assessed over 2 weeks. In study 2, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash and a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=33 were assessed as a regimen over 4 weeks. The wash and shampoo were used three or more times per week, but not more than once daily. Lotions were applied in the morning or after a bath. Clinicians assessed the arms, legs, torso, or scalp for erythema, dryness, peeling/flakiness (study 1 only, tactile roughness, edema (study 1 only, rash/irritation (study 2 only, and overall skin condition (study 2 only at baseline, week 1, and weeks 2 or 4. Parents completed skin assessment questionnaires. In study 2, stratum corneum hydration was measured. Subjects were monitored for adverse events. Results: No significant changes in clinical grading scores were observed, indicating that all products were well tolerated. By the end of each study, >90% of parents/caregivers believed each product was mild and gentle. In study 2, improvement in stratum corneum hydration was observed (+37% at week 1 and +48% at week 4, P<0.05 for both. In study 1, one baby experienced mild erythema on the neck and scalp after using the shampoo (possibly related to treatment. In study 2, there were no product-related adverse events. Conclusion: The natural baby skin-care products were well tolerated by infants and toddlers when used alone or as part of a skin-care regimen. Keywords: bath, cleanser, natural, infant, lotion, shampoo

  11. Exploring the Impact of Television Watching on Vocabulary Skills in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Williams, Skyler; Jones, Britney; Cochrane, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    With the rising incidence of television consumption in children, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of such habits on vocabulary skills in young children. Very little research has targeted a key cognitive skill--vocabulary--during the toddler years, which represent a critical developmental period. We recruited toddlers,…

  12. What's the Rush?: Slowing down Our "Hurried" Approach to Infant and Toddler Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What high expectations people place on their infants and toddlers who are just beginning to understand this great big world and all of its complexities! In an attempt to ensure that growth and learning occur, the fundamental needs of infants and toddlers are often pushed aside as people rush the young child to achieve the next developmental…

  13. Effects of Manual Signing on Communicative Verbalizations by Toddlers with and without Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Stricklin, Sarintha; Banajee, Meher; Reid, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of effects of manual signing on toddlers' verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors in an inclusive preschool found that teacher signing was accompanied by increases in communicative interactions by toddlers with and without disabilities. No reductive effects on communicative verbalizations were observed for either group. (Contains…

  14. An Incidental Teaching Approach to Early Intervention for Toddlers with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Gail G.; Morrier, Michael J.; Daly, Teresa

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Walden Toddler Program, a comprehensive early intervention model designed to be used for toddlers with autism in the natural environments of a child care center and children's homes. It reviews the program's philosophical foundations and describes key components of the model's incidental teaching. (Author/CR)

  15. Assessing the Early Literacy Skills of Toddlers: The Development of Four Foundational Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Martin, Sally S.; Lowman, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Several challenges arise when researchers or practitioners attempt to assess the literacy skills of toddlers, including a lack of developmentally appropriate measures, toddlers' more limited communication ability, and how literacy is defined in the years before age three. This paper describes four new measures of early literacy development and…

  16. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Developmental Apraxia of Speech in Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Barbara L.; Velleman, Shelley L.

    2000-01-01

    This article argues that the use of developmental apraxia of speech (DAS) as a label for infants and toddlers who are prelinguistic may prematurely label a young child. Diagnostic indicators are reviewed and suggestions for diagnostic therapy to pursue appropriate differential diagnoses in the infant-toddler population are proposed. (Contains…

  17. Making Agency Matter: Rethinking Infant and Toddler Agency in Educational Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhn, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This article engages critically with the concept of agency in infant and toddler educational discourse. It is argued that agency, when conceptualised with emphasis on individuality and the autonomous self, poses a conceptual "dead end" for those who are not-yet-in-language, such as babies and toddlers. In considering agency as an aspect…

  18. A Multilevel Approach to Building the Strength and Effectiveness of the Infant-Toddler Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoine, Sarah; Reschke, Kathy; Greene, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    Educators interact with more than 4 million infants and toddlers each week in the United States and can provide positive, nurturing experiences that enhance development. Tragically, the infant-toddler workforce in the United States often lacks the support and resources necessary to support their work. These urgent needs require comprehensive…

  19. Early vibration assisted physiotherapy in toddlers with cerebral palsy - a randomized controlled pilot trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, C.; Herkenrath, P.; Hollmann, H.; Waltz, S.; Becker, I.; Hoebing, L.; Semler, O.; Hoyer-Kuhn, H.; Duran, I.; Hero, B.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Schoenau, E.

    OBJECTIVES: to investigate feasibility, safety and efficacy of home-based side-alternating whole body vibration (sWBV) to improve motor function in toddlers with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Randomized controlled trial including 24 toddlers with CP (mean age 19 months (SD±3.1); 13 boys).

  20. Do Acting out Verbs with Dolls and Comparison Learning between Scenes Boost Toddlers' Verb Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Amy Louise; Van Kleeck, Anne; Maguire, Mandy J.; Abdi, Herve

    2017-01-01

    To better understand how toddlers integrate multiple learning strategies to acquire verbs, we compared sensorimotor recruitment and comparison learning because both strategies are thought to boost children's access to scene-level information. For sensorimotor recruitment, we tested having toddlers use dolls as agents and compared this strategy…

  1. The Influence of Culture in Infant-Toddler Child Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Test, Joan

    2015-01-01

    It is not only in families that young children are influenced to become members of their culture. Around the world and within individual countries, culture influences how care is provided to infants and toddlers in child care settings. In turn, infants and toddlers begin to learn how to act and think as members of their culture. From ways that…

  2. 78 FR 20511 - Safety Standard for Soft Infant and Toddler Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Parts 1112 and 1226 Safety Standard for Soft Infant and Toddler Carriers AGENCY: Consumer... the product. The Commission is proposing a safety standard for soft infant and toddler carriers in... Authority The Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA, Pub Law 110-314) was enacted on August...

  3. Social Skill in Self-Assertive Strategies of Toddlers with Depressed and Nondepressed Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Abrew, Amy J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of maternal depression on the skillfulness of toddlers' self-assertive strategies in interactions with their mother and with a female examiner. The participants were 110 mothers and their 26-month-old toddlers. Of these mothers, 57 had experienced an episode of clinical depression sometime since their child's…

  4. What Effect Does Story Time Have on Toddlers' Social and Emotional Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betawi, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of story time and reading stories on the development of toddlers' social and emotional skills between 24 and 36 months of age. A sample of 10 toddlers was randomly selected from three different classes at the laboratory nursery of The University of Jordan. A pre-test and post-test were…

  5. Toddlers' Emotional Reactions to Separation from Their Primary Caregivers: Successful Home--School Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaoying

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine toddlers' emotional reactions to separation from their primary caregivers through the observation on a group of toddlers (18-30 months old) at a university preschool classroom. Interactional ethnography with ethnographic perspective and sociolinguistic discourse analysis was used as the theoretical…

  6. 75 FR 7550 - Requirements for Consumer Registration of Durable Infant or Toddler Products; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1130 Requirements for Consumer Registration of Durable Infant or Toddler Products... toddler products to establish and maintain a system for consumers to register their products with the...

  7. Correlation between Food Schemes and Children Nutrient Status at the Toddler's Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaningsih, Tri; Lestari, Indah

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient in the meal is very important, especially for the children at the toddler's age. The aim of this research was to know the correlation between the food schemes with the children nutrient status at the toddler's age (1-3 years). The research design was cross sectional. The population for this research was all of the mothers and the…

  8. The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers: Reliability in a Diverse Rural American Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Angela; Reyes, Nuri M.; Patriquin, Michelle A.; Lorenzi, Jill; Hassenfeldt, Tyler A.; Desai, Varsha J.; Kerkering, Kathryn W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT) in a diverse rural American low-socioeconomic status (SES) sample. Four hundred and forty-seven English (n = 335) and Spanish (n = 112) speaking caregivers completed the M-CHAT during their toddler's 18- or 24-month well visit in a…

  9. A Psychometric Study of the Infant and Toddler Intervals of the Social Emotional Assessment Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Jane K.; Waddell, Misti L.; Clifford, Jantina R.; Funk, Kristin; Hoselton, Robert M.; Chen, Ching-I

    2013-01-01

    Psychometric and utility studies on Social Emotional Assessment Measure (SEAM), an innovative tool for assessing and monitoring social-emotional and behavioral development in infants and toddlers with disabilities, were conducted. The Infant and Toddler SEAM intervals were the study focus, using mixed methods, including item response theory…

  10. Measurement properties of the CLASS Toddler in ECEC in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Pauline L.; Boom, Jan; Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul P M

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the measurement properties of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) Toddler using data from 276 classrooms and 375 teachers in Dutch early childhood education and care provisions. First, confirmatory factor analyses based on the CLASS Toddler indicators

  11. Is a Pink Cow Still a Cow? Individual Differences in Toddlers' Vocabulary Knowledge and Lexical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lynn K.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2017-01-01

    When a toddler knows a word, what does she actually know? Many categories have multiple relevant properties; for example, shape "and" color are relevant to membership in the category "banana." How do toddlers prioritize these properties when recognizing familiar words, and are there systematic differences among children? In…

  12. A Statistical Estimate of Infant and Toddler Vocabulary Size from CDI Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2011-01-01

    For the last 20 years, developmental psychologists have measured the variability in lexical development of infants and toddlers using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs)--the most widely used parental report forms for assessing language and communication skills in infants and toddlers. We show that CDI reports can…

  13. Books and Toddlers in Child Care: Under What Conditions Are Children Most Engaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Neblett, Nicole; Holochwost, Steven J.; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Iruka, Iheoma U.; Odom, Samuel L.; Bruno, Elizabeth Pungello

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although shared book reading is seen as an effective way to support children's early literacy and language development, less is known about the factors associated with toddlers' engagement with books. Objective: The goal of the current study was to examine younger and older toddlers' engagement with books during one-on-one reading with…

  14. Service needs of parents with motor or multiple disabled children in Dutch therapeutic toddler classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.H.C.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Oud, J.H.L.; Franken, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine parents' service needs at the start of therapeutic toddler class treatment, to analyse determinants and to investigate received help after a period of 10 months. Subjects: Parents with motor or multiply disabled children in therapeutic toddler classes. Setting: Sixteen out of

  15. Montessori Infant and Toddler Programs: How Our Approach Meshes with Other Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Darla Ferris

    2011-01-01

    Today, Montessori infant & toddler programs around the country usually have a similar look and feel--low floor beds, floor space for movement, low shelves, natural materials, tiny wooden chairs and tables for eating, and not a highchair or swing in sight. But Montessori toddler programs seem to fall into two paradigms--one model seeming more…

  16. Prox-1 Automated Proximity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-13

    on demonstrating the functionality required to meet minimum mission success criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of...also includes deployment of LightSail-B from the P-POD, and imaging of LightSail-B for 20 minutes as it recedes from Prox-1. small satellite ; proximity...criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of all spacecraft subsystems, including flight qualification of the following new

  17. Predictors of parenting self-efficacy in mothers and fathers of toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, Phillip R; Loutzenhiser, L

    2010-03-01

    Researchers interested in child developmental outcomes have highlighted the role that parenting self-efficacy (PSE) plays in psychosocial child adjustment. PSE is a cognitive construct that can be broadly defined as an individual's appraisal of his or her competence in the parental role. PSE has emerged in the literature as an important variable when exploring variance in parenting skills. Despite this, much remains to be learned about PSE. Little is known about the predictors of PSE, with much of the existing research conducted in a piecemeal fashion that lacks a solid theoretical framework. In addition, PSE in fathers has been understudied and relatively little is known about PSE in families with toddler age children. Informed by Belsky's process model of parenting, this study explored similarities and differences in PSE and the predictors of PSE for mothers and fathers of toddlers. A total of 62 cohabiting couples whose first-born child was 18-36 months old completed self-report measures of PSE, general self-efficacy, depression, marital satisfaction, parenting stress, child difficultness and family functioning. For fathers, parenting stress and their relational functioning (i.e. marital satisfaction and family functioning) with their spouse predicted PSE scores. For mothers, general self-efficacy and relational functioning were predictive of PSE. The results of this study support the use of Belsky's process model of parenting to study the predictors of PSE. Important differences were found in the prediction models for mothers and fathers. Future studies need to clarify the nature of parental self-efficacy beliefs in fathers and continue to use comprehensive theoretical models to identify potentially relevant covariates of PSE. Limitations of the current investigation include reliance on self-report measures and the homogeneity of the sample.

  18. Toddler Emotion Regulation with Mothers and Fathers: Temporal Associations Between Negative Affect and Behavioral Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Zentall, Shannon R.; Maxwell, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated temporal associations between putative emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in 20-month-old toddlers. Toddlers’ parent-focused, self-distraction, and toy-focused strategies, as well as negative affect, were rated on a second-by-second basis during laboratory parent-toddler interactions. Longitudinal mixed-effects models were conducted to determine the degree to which behavioral strategy use predicts subsequent negative affect and negative affect predicts subsequent strategy use. Results with mother-toddler and father-toddler dyads indicated that parent-focused strategies with an unresponsive parent were followed by increases in negative affect, whereas toy-focused strategies were followed by decreases in negative affect. Results also indicated that toddler negative affect serves to regulate behavioral strategy use within both parent contexts. PMID:21552335

  19. Language and reading outcomes to age 9 in late-talking toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie

    2002-04-01

    Language and reading outcomes at 6 to 9 years of age were examined in a sample of 34 children who were late talkers as toddlers. The late talkers, who all had normal nonverbal ability and age-adequate receptive language at intake, were compared to a group of 25 typically developing children matched at intake (24 to 31 months) on age, socioeconomic status, and nonverbal ability. Late talkers performed in the average range on most language tasks by age 5. However, they had significantly poorer scores on most language measures through age 9. The groups did not differ in reading skills at age 6 or 7, but the late talkers were slightly less skilled in reading at ages 8 and 9. Findings suggest that slow early language development reflects a predisposition for slower acquisition and lower asymptotic performance in a wide range of language-related skills into middle childhood.

  20. Do late-talking toddlers turn out to have reading difficulties a decade later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, L

    2000-01-01

    Language and reading outcomes at age 13 were examined in a sample of 22 children who were late talkers as toddlers. The late talkers, all of whom had normal nonverbal ability and age-adequate receptive language at intake (24-to-31 months), were compared to a group of 14 typically developing children similar at intake on age, SES, and nonverbal ability. Late talkers had significantly poorer vocabulary, grammar, reading/spelling, and verbal memory skills at age 13, although as a group, they generally performed in the average range on most language and academic tasks. The findings suggest that slow early language development reflects a predisposition for slower acquisition and lower asymptotic performance in a wide range of language-related skills into adolescence.

  1. PREDICTORS OF INFANT AND TODDLER BLACK BOYS' EARLY LEARNING: SEIZING OPPORTUNITIES AND MINIMIZING RISKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iruka, Iheoma U

    2017-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) data set (U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, 2001), this study examined child, family, and community factors in the early years (infant and toddler years) to predict the cognitive and language outcomes for preschool-age Black boys in relation to Black girls and White boys. Findings indicate that Black children face many challenges, with Black boys experiencing less sensitive parenting as compared to their peers. We live in a highly complex, racialized environment. While there are universal indicators that predict children's preschool outcomes such as strong social positioning and positive parenting, there are, in addition, some indicators that are more beneficial for Black boys' early development, including a stable, less urban home environment with parents engaging in "tough love." © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. Biomechanics of the toddler head during low-height falls: an anthropomorphic dummy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nicole G; Margulies, Susan S

    2010-07-01

    Falls are the most common environmental setting for closed head injuries in children between 2 and 4 years of age. The authors previously found that toddlers had fewer skull fractures and scalp/facial soft-tissue injuries, and more frequent altered mental status than infants for the same low-height falls (toddler anthropometry and mechanical properties of the skull and neck, and they measured peak angular acceleration during low-height falls (1, 2, and 3 ft) onto carpet pad and concrete. They compared these results from occiput-first impacts to previously obtained values measured in a 6-week-old infant dummy. Peak angular acceleration of the toddler dummy head was largest in the sagittal and horizontal directions and increased significantly (around 2-fold) with fall height between 1 and 2 ft. Impacts onto concrete produced larger peak angular accelerations and smaller impact durations than those onto carpet pad. When compared with previously measured infant drops, toddler head accelerations were more than double those of the infant from the same height onto the same surface, likely contributing to the higher incidence of loss of consciousness reported in toddlers. Furthermore, the toddler impact forces were larger than those in the infant, but because of the thicker toddler skull, the risk of skull fracture from low-height falls is likely lower in toddlers compared with infants. If similar fracture limits and brain tissue injury thresholds between infants and toddlers are assumed, it is expected that for impact events, the toddler is likely less vulnerable to skull fracture but more vulnerable to neurological impairment compared with the infant.

  3. Parent report of the development of auditory skills in infants and toddlers who use hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Itzhak, Drorit; Greenstein, Tally; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the use of the Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS) as a measure of early auditory skill development in aided infants and toddlers with varying degrees of hearing loss. Specific goals were (1) to rate the change in IT-MAIS score as a function of change in hearing thresholds achieved through amplification; (2) to establish the hierarchy of early auditory skill development for infants who use hearing aids (HAs) relative to what is known in infants with normal hearing; and (3) to analyze background information variables that may account for differences in IT-MAIS performance, as age and duration of HAs use. The study included 106 infants and toddlers (47 girls and 59 boys) aged 7 to 36 months (mean = 19.02, SD = 7.7) with various degrees of sensorineural hearing loss (mean = 86.42 dB, SD = 22.52). Infants used bilateral digital HAs with a mean experience of 8 months. All participants attended the same early intervention program. After at least 2 months of HA use, parents were interviewed with the IT-MAIS questionnaire regarding the auditory behavior of their infants in everyday situations. The results of the present study support the following outcomes: (1) on average, every 10 dB gain in pure-tone average scores (PTA4) threshold improved the IT-MAIS score by 10%; (2) infants who were part of the same unaided hearing categories appeared to have derived different benefits from amplification; (3) when reaching the same aided category, those infants who were originally in a better unaided hearing category achieved higher IT-MAIS scores than those who belonged to a worse unaided hearing category; (4) the hierarchy of auditory development in young aided infants with hearing loss followed that of normal hearing peers; and (5) 62.9% of the variance of IT-MAIS performance was explained by aided hearing level (50.3%), unaided hearing level (6.4%), and duration of HA use (6.2)%. The present study provides important information

  4. The psychometric properties of the Quantitative-Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT) as a measure of autistic traits in a community sample of Singaporean infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, I; Goh, D A; Lim, S J; Gan, D Z Q; Leong, J C L; Allison, C; Baron-Cohen, S; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Broekman, B F P; Saw, S-M; Chong, Y-S; Kwek, K; Gluckman, P D; Lim, S B; Meaney, M J

    2015-01-01

    There is growing research evidence that subclinical autistic traits are elevated in relatives of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), continuously distributed in the general population and likely to share common etiology with ASD. A number of measures have been developed to assess autistic traits quantitatively in unselected samples. So far, the Quantitative-Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT) is one of very few measures developed for use with toddlers as young as 18 months, but little is known about its measurement properties and factor structure. The present study examined internal consistency, factor structure, test-retest stability, and convergent validity of the Q-CHAT in a sample of toddlers in Singapore whose caregivers completed the Q-CHAT at 18 (n = 368) and 24 months (n = 396). Three factors were derived accounting for 38.1 % of the variance: social/communication traits, non-social/behavioral traits, and a speech/language factor. Internal consistency was suboptimal for the total and speech/language scores, but acceptable for the social/communication and non-social/behavioral factor scores. Scores were generally stable between 18 and 24 months. Convergent validity was found with the Pervasive Developmental Disorders subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) completed by caregivers when their children were 24 months. Q-CHAT total scores in this sample were higher than those reported in other unselected samples from the UK. The Q-CHAT was found to have a three-factor structure, acceptable internal consistency for its two main factor scores (social/communication and non-social/behavioral), normally distributed scores in an unselected sample, and similar structure and measurement properties as those reported in other published studies. Findings are discussed in relation to existing literature and future directions for the validation of the Q-CHAT.

  5. Topology of digital images visual pattern discovery in proximity spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2014-01-01

    This book carries forward recent work on visual patterns and structures in digital images and introduces a near set-based a topology of digital images. Visual patterns arise naturally in digital images viewed as sets of non-abstract points endowed with some form of proximity (nearness) relation. Proximity relations make it possible to construct uniform topolo- gies on the sets of points that constitute a digital image. In keeping with an interest in gaining an understanding of digital images themselves as a rich source of patterns, this book introduces the basics of digital images from a computer vision perspective. In parallel with a computer vision perspective on digital images, this book also introduces the basics of prox- imity spaces. Not only the traditional view of spatial proximity relations but also the more recent descriptive proximity relations are considered. The beauty of the descriptive proximity approach is that it is possible to discover visual set patterns among sets that are non-overlapping ...

  6. The sooner, the better: exercise outcome proximity and intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M Blair; Cooke, Lisa M; Murray, Robyn A; Wilson, Anne E

    2014-11-01

    Despite evidence that outcomes are highly valued when they are expected sooner rather than further into the future (Ainslie, 1975), limited research effort has been devoted to understanding the role of exercise outcome proximity. The purpose of this study was to examine how temporal proximity to positive outcomes influences exercisers' intrinsic motivation. We expected that focusing people on temporally proximal exercise outcomes would increase intrinsic motivation, especially among low-frequency exercisers. This online experimental study was completed by 135 community exercisers (Mage  = 31.11, SD = 10.29; 62% female) who reported an average of 4.86 exercise bouts per week (SD = 2.12). Participants were randomly assigned to a condition that primed temporally proximal positive exercise outcomes (i.e. experienced during or directly following an exercise bout) or temporally distal outcomes (i.e. experienced after days, months, or years of regular exercise). Participants then reported perceptions of behavioral regulation in exercise. As expected, the proximal exercise outcome condition elicited increased intrinsic regulation among those participants who exercised less frequently (i.e. 1 SD below the mean). This study reveals the importance of considering proximity as an important dimension of exercise outcomes-particularly when promoting intrinsic motivation among relatively infrequent exercisers. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  7. Lactate oxidation by three segments of the rabbit proximal tubule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, P.H.; Taylor, B.B.

    1986-09-01

    Oxidation of (U/sup 14/C)lactate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was measured in vitro, in nonperfused anatomically defined segments of rabbit proximal tubule (S1, proximal convoluted, and S2 and S3, proximal straight tubules). The rate of lactate oxidation was similar in S2 and S3 segments, and within the range of lactate oxidation rates measured in vivo. In contrast, the oxidation rate of S1 segments was significantly lower than that of S2 or S3. In proximal straight tubules, lactate oxidation was inhibited by incubation at 0/sup 0/C, or by application of 1 mM ouabain. To determine if the rate of transepithelial transport affected the rate of lactate oxidation, lactate oxidation was measured in proximal straight tubules after the lumen had been opened by perfusion with Ringer's containing 10 mM polyethylene glycol. No difference in lactate oxidation rate was observed between tubules with patent lumina and nonperfused tubules. These results suggest that the various segments of the renal proximal tubule have difference metabolic characteristics, and that the rate of substrate oxidation is related to the activity of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase.

  8. PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS. 1 Alhassan, A. J. 1M .S. Sule, 1J. ... ABSTRACT. This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. Proximate ... days, before pulverized to powder and kept in plastic container.

  9. Temporal Proximity Promotes Integration of Overlapping Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R

    2017-08-01

    Events with overlapping elements can be encoded as two separate representations or linked into an integrated representation, yet we know little about the conditions that promote one form of representation over the other. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the proximity of overlapping events would increase the probability of integration. Participants first established memories for house-object and face-object pairs; half of the pairs were learned 24 hr before an fMRI session, and the other half 30 min before the session. During scanning, participants encoded object-object pairs that overlapped with the initial pairs acquired on the same or prior day. Participants were also scanned as they made inference judgments about the relationships among overlapping pairs learned on the same or different day. Participants were more accurate and faster when inferring relationships among memories learned on the same day relative to those acquired across days, suggesting that temporal proximity promotes integration. Evidence for reactivation of existing memories-as measured by a visual content classifier-was equivalent during encoding of overlapping pairs from the two temporal conditions. In contrast, evidence for integration-as measured by a mnemonic strategy classifier from an independent study [Richter, F. R., Chanales, A. J. H., & Kuhl, B. A. Predicting the integration of overlapping memories by decoding mnemonic processing states during learning. Neuroimage, 124, 323-335, 2016]-was greater for same-day overlapping events, paralleling the behavioral results. During inference itself, activation patterns further differentiated when participants were making inferences about events acquired on the same day versus across days. These findings indicate that temporal proximity of events promotes integration and further influences the neural mechanisms engaged during inference.

  10. Noncycling mappings and best proximity pair results in Hilbert and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new class of noncyclic mappings, called generalized noncyclic relatively nonexpansive, is introduced and used to study the existence of best proximity pairs in the setting of uniformly convex Banach spaces. We also obtain a weak convergence theorem for noncyclic relatively nonexpansive mappings in the setting of ...

  11. Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise; Cerepani, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Finger dislocations are common injuries that are often managed by emergency nurse practitioners. A systematic physical examination following these injuries is imperative to avoid complications. Radiographic views, including the anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views, are imperative to evaluate these finger dislocations. A dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is the most common finger dislocation type often easily reduced. A volar PIP dislocation can often be difficult to reduce and may result in finger deformity. Finger dislocations should be reduced promptly. Referral to an orthopedic hand specialist is required if the dislocation is unable to be reduced or if the finger joint is unstable following reduction attempts.

  12. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-12-31

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  13. Providing Accessible Statewide Inservice Training for Practicing Professionals and Paraprofessionals Working with Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Their Families. SKI-HI Distance Education Project, Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Donald; Glover, Barbara; Parlin, Mary Ann; Johnson, Dorothy

    This final report discusses the outcomes of a project that developed, demonstrated, evaluated, and disseminated information about a specialized inservice training model to prepare early interventionists, special education teachers, and related service personnel to provide family-centered programming to infants, toddlers, and preschoolers who are…

  14. Longitudinal patterns of repetitive behavior in toddlers with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jason J; Botteron, Kelly N; Dager, Stephen R; Elison, Jed T; Estes, Annette M; Gu, Hongbin; Hazlett, Heather C; Pandey, Juhi; Paterson, Sarah J; Schultz, Robert T; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that restricted and repetitive behaviors may differentiate children who develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by late infancy. How these core symptoms manifest early in life, particularly among infants at high risk for the disorder, is not well characterized. Prospective, longitudinal parent-report data (Repetitive Behavior Scales-Revised) were collected for 190 high-risk toddlers and 60 low-risk controls from 12 to 24 months of age. Forty-one high-risk children were classified with ASD at age 2. Profiles of repetitive behavior were compared between groups using generalized estimating equations. Longitudinal profiles for children diagnosed with ASD differed significantly from high- and low-risk children without the disorder on all measures of repetitive behavior. High-risk toddlers without ASD were intermediate to low risk and ASD positive counterparts. Toddlers with ASD showed significantly higher rates of repetitive behavior across subtypes at the 12-month time point. Repetitive behaviors were significantly correlated with adaptive behavior and socialization scores among children with ASD at 24 months of age, but were largely unrelated to measures of general cognitive ability. These findings suggest that as early as 12 months of age, a broad range of repetitive behaviors are highly elevated in children who go on to develop ASD. While some degree of repetitive behavior is elemental to typical early development, the extent of these behaviors among children who develop ASD appears highly atypical. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. Dental caries in American Indian toddlers after a community-based beverage intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupomé, Gerardo; Karanja, Njeri; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Lutz, Tam; Aickin, Mikel; Becker, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The Toddler Overweight and Tooth Decay Prevention Study (TOTS) was an overweight and early childhood caries (ECC) project in the Pacific Northwest. It targeted American Indian (AI) toddlers from birth, to effect changes in breastfeeding and sweetened beverage consumption. The intervention cohort was children born in three communities during 12 months; expectant mothers were identified through prenatal visits, and recruited by tribal coordinators. The local comparison cohorts were children in those communities who were aged 18-30 months at study start. A control longitudinal cohort consisted of annual samples of children aged 18-30 months in a fourth community, supplying secular trends. d1-2mfs was used to identify incident caries in intervention, comparison, and control cohorts after 18-to-30 months of follow-up in 2006. No missing or filled teeth were found. For d1t, all three intervention cohorts showed statistically significant downward intervention effects, decreases of between 0.300 and 0.631 in terms of the fraction of affected mouths. The results for d2t were similar but of smaller magnitudes, decreases of between 0.342 and 0.449; these results met the .05 level for significance in two of three cases. In light of an estimated secular increase in dental caries in the control site, all three intervention cohorts showed improvements in both d1t and d1t. Simple interventions targeting sweetened beverage availability (in combination with related measures) reduced high tooth decay trends, and were both feasible and acceptable to the AI communities we studied.

  16. Adaptive behavior in infants and toddlers with Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Elizabeth A; Caravella, Kelly E; Hahn, Laura J; Fidler, Deborah J; Roberts, Jane E

    2018-02-05

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) experience deficits across all domains of adaptive functioning, however little is known about the emergence and age-related changes of these impairments compared to other neurogenetic disorders with similar intellectual disability impairments, such as fragile X syndrome (FXS). Adaptive behavior is key for optimal functioning in these populations. Participants aged 5-45 months comprised three age-matched groups, DS (n = 64), FXS (n = 69), and typically developing controls (TD; n = 69). Adaptive behavior was measured on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II. Regressions were used to examine adaptive behavior in a cross-sectional design across age. DS infants and toddlers evidenced deficits across all areas of adaptive behaviors compared to the age-matched TD group, with clear impairments present in the first year of life. Motor skills were the area of greatest weakness in children with DS with significant impairment evident at 12 months of age that remained low through 3 years. Compared to age-matched children with FXS, children with DS showed initially lower standard scores at 12 months of age, but slower declines in standard scores across age, resulting in less impaired functioning at 36 months. This is the first study to compare adaptive behavior in infants and toddlers with DS to FXS, and demonstrate the phenotypic specificity of adaptive profiles in this diagnostic group. These findings provide evidence that adaptive behavior should be a major target of intervention in children with FXS and DS, and that these differences are potentially driven by unique etiologies attributable to each disorder. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Parental behaviors and sleep outcomes in infants and toddlers: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jodi A; Sadeh, Avi; Kohyama, Jun; How, Ti Hwei

    2010-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of parental behaviors and other factors of sleep ecology and to analyze their relationships with sleep outcomes in a large sample of children ages birth to 36months in multiple countries/regions. Parents of 29,287 infants and toddlers (48% boys; Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, and Vietnam) completed an internet-based expanded version of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Overall, there is a high level of parental involvement in sleep onset and sleep maintenance for young children, with significant differences in parenting behaviors across cultural groups. For predominantly-Caucasian, the most common behavior occurring at bedtime is falling asleep independently in own crib/bed (57%), compared to just 4% of those children living in predominantly-Asian regions. Parental behaviors and sleep ecology, including parental presence at sleep onset, bedtime, and bedtime routine, significantly explain a portion of the variance in sleep patterns. Overall, parental behaviors are more highly predictive of nighttime sleep outcomes in predominantly-Caucasian regions. Finally, parental involvement in sleep onset mediates the relationship between cosleeping and sleep outcomes. Overall, the best predictors of nighttime sleep are related to parental behaviors at bedtime and during the night. Furthermore, sleep disruption and decreased total sleep associated with bed sharing and room sharing are mediated by parental presence at bedtime. These findings provide additional support for addressing parental behaviors in behavioral interventions for infant and toddler sleep problems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lexical selectivity in Danish toddlers with cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    . Methods: All participants were video recorded at 18 months of age during play interaction with a parent. The video recordings were transcribed according to the IPA and an individual consonant inventory was established for each participant. The video recordings were also analysed with respect to word...... productions establishing an observed productive vocabulary size for each participant. Results: At 18 months of age Danish toddlers with cleft palate showed marked lexical selectivity in their early words. The distribution of consonant classes observed at 11 months of age in a previous study of the children...

  19. A Toddler With Uncontrollable Shaking After a Minor Fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Henry; Mody, Ameer P

    2017-10-01

    A toddler with a closed head injury six days prior to admission, recently diagnosed with post-concussive syndrome and acute otitis media presented to our emergency department with complaint of uncontrollable shaking of the head and extremities. Physical examination demonstrated dancing movements of the eyes and truncal ataxia, concerning for the diagnosis of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging study was consistent with a retroperitoneal mass that was confirmed as neuroblastoma by metaiodobenzylguanidine scan and later surgical resection. We present this case, accompanied by a video of the patient, to help the emergency physician recognize this rare and often misdiagnosed syndrome.

  20. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  1. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk=0.34; 95% confidence interval=0.19, 0.63) Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

  2. Nonword Repetition in Spanish-Speaking Toddlers with and without Early Language Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodríguez, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Nonword repetition (NWR) studies with English-speaking toddlers indicate favorable diagnostic accuracy for identifying early language delays and strong associations with early vocabulary. While scarce, studies of Spanish NWR have revealed strong diagnostic accuracy with preschool- and school-age children. This study aimed to (1) establish the association between Spanish NWR and early linguistic measures, (2) compare the Spanish NWR skills of typical Spanish-speaking toddlers and those of toddlers with early language delays (ELD), and (3) establish the diagnostic accuracy of a Spanish NWR task. Sixty-five Spanish-speaking toddlers were given a NWR task and a language assessment while parents completed a vocabulary checklist and reported their child's longest utterances. NWR scores were moderately correlated with vocabulary and language. The ELD group had significantly lower NWR scores than peers, and 68% of the sample was classified correctly, with desirable sensitivity but inadequate specificity obtained. Findings from this study revealed developmental trends in Spanish-speaking toddlers' ability to repeat nonwords and that most toddlers were not able to repeat 4- and 5-syllable nonwords. Furthermore, Spanish-speaking children with ELD had more difficulties with NWR than typical peers. The diagnostic accuracy results indicated that the clinical use of a Spanish NWR task for toddlers can serve to detect early language-learning difficulties, especially if used as one of multiple diagnostic sources of information to establish ELD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Is a Pink Cow Still a Cow? Individual Differences in Toddlers' Vocabulary Knowledge and Lexical Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lynn K; Saffran, Jenny R

    2017-05-01

    When a toddler knows a word, what does she actually know? Many categories have multiple relevant properties; for example, shape and color are relevant to membership in the category banana. How do toddlers prioritize these properties when recognizing familiar words, and are there systematic differences among children? In this study, toddlers viewed pairs of objects associated with prototypical colors. On some trials, objects were typically colored (e.g., Holstein cow and pink pig); on other trials, colors were switched (e.g., pink cow and Holstein-patterned pig). On each trial, toddlers were directed to find a target object. Overall, recognition was disrupted when colors were switched, as measured by eye movements. Moreover, individual differences in vocabularies predicted recognition differences: Toddlers who say fewer shape-based words were more disrupted by color switches. "Knowing" a word may not mean the same thing for all toddlers; different toddlers prioritize different facets of familiar objects in their lexical representations. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Collaborative Mother-Toddler Communication and Theory of Mind Development at Age 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jihyun; Hsu, Hui-Chin

    2014-09-01

    Focusing on social pragmatics, this longitudinal study investigated the contribution of mother-toddler collaborative communication to theory of mind (ToM) development at age 4. At age 2½, 78 toddlers' (42 boys) and their mothers were observed during pretend play. At age 4, children were tested using 4 false belief understanding tasks. Both mothers and toddlers engaged in more collaborative ( inform , guide/request , and support/confirm ) than non-collaborative communication acts. Other-focused collaborative acts of support/confirm by mothers and toddlers predicted children's false belief understanding, even after controlling for 5 covariates. In addition, as active agents in their own ToM development, the contribution of toddlers' collaborative acts to false belief understanding was independent of their mothers. Finally, the way toddlers and their mothers co-constructing their communication mattered. Only when toddlers engaged in high levels of collaborative acts, the mothers' high levels of collaborative acts demonstrated a positive effect on children's ToM development. The applied implications of these findings were discussed.

  5. Validation of an instrument to assess toddler feeding practices of Latino mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidez, Virginia; Kaiser, Lucia L

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes qualitative and quantitative aspects of testing a 34-item Toddler-Feeding Questionnaire (TFQ), designed for use in Latino families, and the associations between feeding practices and toddler dietary outcomes. Qualitative methods included review by an expert panel for content validity and cognitive testing of the tool to assess face validity. Quantitative analyses included use of exploratory factor analysis for construct validity; Pearson's correlations for test-retest reliability; Cronbach's alpha (α) for internal reliability; and multivariate regression for investigating relationships between feeding practices and toddler diet and anthropometry. Interviews were conducted using a convenience sample of 94 Latino mother and toddler dyads obtained largely through the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). Data collection included household characteristics, self-reported early-infant feeding practices, the toddler's dietary intake, and anthropometric measurements. Factor analysis suggests the TFQ contains three subscales: indulgent; authoritative; and environmental influences. The TFQ demonstrated acceptable reliability for most measures. As hypothesized, indulgent practices in Latino toddlers were associated with increased energy consumption and higher intakes of total fat, saturated fat, and sweetened beverages. This tool may be useful in future research exploring the relationship of toddler feeding practices to nutritional outcomes in Latino families. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Multisensory Nature of Verbal Discourse in Parent-Toddler Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanda, Sumarga H; Smith, Linda B; Yu, Chen

    Toddlers learn object names in sensory rich contexts. Many argue that this multisensory experience facilitates learning. Here, we examine how toddlers' multisensory experience is linked to another aspect of their experience associated with better learning: the temporally extended nature of verbal discourse. We observed parent-toddler dyads as they played with, and as parents talked about, a set of objects. Analyses revealed links between the multisensory and extended nature of speech, highlighting inter-connections and redundancies in the environment. We discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of early discourse, multisensory communication, and how the learning environment shapes language development.

  7. Systemic activity of inhaled topical steroid in toddlers studied by knemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1993-01-01

    The short-term linear growth rate of the lower leg in toddlers was measured and evaluated in order to study the possible effect of inhaled budesonide on this factor in toddlers with mild recurrent wheezing. The short-term linear growth rate of the lower leg was measured weekly using a hand......-held knemometer. Eighteen toddlers aged 13-36 months (mean 27 months) with a history of recurrent wheezing requiring inhaled topical steroids, but without need of regular medication during the months prior to the study, were studied. The children were randomized blindly through three consecutive treatment periods...

  8. Complications in proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Restricted and repetitive behaviors in toddlers and preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders based on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Lord, Catherine

    2010-08-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) observed during the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule [ADOS: Lord et al., 2000] were examined in a longitudinal data set of 455 toddlers and preschoolers (age 8-56 months) with clinical diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; autism, n=121 and pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), n=71), a nonspectrum disorder (NS; n=90), or typical development (TD; n=173). Even in the relatively brief semi-structured observations, GEE analyses of the severity and prevalence of RRBs differentiated children with ASD from those with NS and TD across all ages. RRB total scores on the ADOS were stable over time for children with ASD and NS; however, typically developing preschoolers showed lower RRB scores than typically developing toddlers. Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was more strongly related to the prevalence of RRBs in older children with PDD-NOS, NS, and TD than younger children under 2 years and those with autism. Item analyses revealed different relationships between individual items and NVIQ, age, diagnosis, and gender. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the etiology and treatment of RRBs as well as for the framework of ASD diagnostic criteria in future diagnostic systems.

  10. Improving outcomes for patients with proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dipal; Dhillon, Amritpaul; Mulvaney, Emily; Robinson, Margaret; Weerasuriya, Namal

    2014-09-25

    A peri-operative bay was created to treat all patients with proximal femoral fractures admitted to one trauma ward at the Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham. All patients had urinary catheterisation and their fluid intake and output was recorded; patients had daily blood tests and were cared for on pressure-relieving mattresses. In addition, a study day was provided for all nursing staff on the management of patients with proximal femoral fractures. These measures resulted in a significant decrease in the incidence of acute kidney injury, reduced the length of hospital stay for patients on this ward and reduced the numbers of falls and pressure-related injuries for these patients.

  11. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  12. Using an index of habitat patch proximity for landscape design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; George R. Parker

    1994-01-01

    A proximity index (PX) inspired by island biogeography theory is described which quantifies the spatial context of a habitat patch in relation to its neighbors. The index distinguishes sparse distributions of small habitat patches from clusters of large patches. An evaluation of the relationship between PX and variation in the spatial characteristics of clusters of...

  13. Proximal tibiofibular dislocation: a case report and review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwe Weme, R. A.; Somford, M. P.; Schepers, T.

    2014-01-01

    An isolated dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint is uncommon. The mechanism of this injury is usually sports related. We present a case where initial X-rays did not show the tibiofibular joint dislocation conclusively. It was diagnosed after comparative bilateral AP X-rays of the knees

  14. Children's Attentional Processing of Mother and Proximity Seeking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bosmans

    Full Text Available Attachment expectations regarding the availability of mother as a source for support are supposed to influence distressed children's support seeking behavior. Because research is needed to better understand the mechanisms related to support seeking behavior, this study tested the hypothesis that the cognitive processing of mother-related information is linked to proximity and support seeking behavior. Uncertainty in maternal support has been shown to be characterized by a biased attentional encoding of mother, reducing the breadth of children's attentional field around her. We investigated whether this attentional bias is related to how long distressed children wait before seeking their mother's proximity. Thirty-three children (9-11 years participated in this study that consisted of experimental tasks to measure attentional breadth and to observe proximity seeking behavior and of questionnaires to measure confidence in maternal support and experienced distress. Results suggested that distressed children with a more narrow attentional field around their mother wait longer to seek her proximity. Key Message: These findings provide a first support for the hypothesis that the attentional processing of mother is related to children's attachment behavior.

  15. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  16. Demographic correlates of screen time and objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity among toddlers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Valerie; Kuzik, Nicholas

    2017-02-13

    Determining the most important demographic correlates of sedentary behavior and physical activity will help identify the groups of children that are most in need of intervention. Little is known in regards to the demographic correlates of sedentary behavior and physical activity in toddlers (aged 12-35 months), where long-term behavioral patterns may initially be formed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the associations between demographic correlates and specific types of sedentary behavior and physical activity in this age group. Findings are based on 149 toddlers (19.0 ± 1.9 months) and their parents (33.7 ± 4.7 years) recruited from immunization clinics in Edmonton, Canada as part of the Parents' Role in Establishing healthy Physical activity and Sedentary behavior habits (PREPS) project. Toddlers' and parental demographic characteristics and toddlers' television viewing, video/computer games, and overall screen time were measured via the PREPS parental questionnaire. Toddlers' objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity (light, moderate to vigorous, and total) were accelerometer-derived using Actigraph wGT3X-BT monitors. Simple and multiple linear regression models were conducted to examine associations. In the multiple linear regression models, toddlers' age, toddlers' sex (female versus male), toddlers' race/ethnicity (other versus European-Canadian/Caucasian), and household income ($50,001 to $100,000 versus > $100,000) were significantly positively associated, and main type of child care (child care center versus parental care) was significantly negatively associated with screen time. Similar findings were observed with television viewing, except null associations were observed for toddlers' sex. Toddlers' race/ethnicity (other versus European-Canadian/Caucasian) was significantly positively associated and main type of child care (child care center, day home, other versus parental care) was significantly

  17. Links Between Mothers’ Coping Styles, Toddler Reactivity, and Sensitivity to Toddler’s Negative Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundson, Jessica A.; Leerkes, Esther M.

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which engaged maternal coping styles moderate the association between toddler’s temperamental reactivity and mothers’ sensitivity to children’s negative emotions was examined in 89 mother-child dyads. Primiparous mothers completed a measure of coping styles prenatally. When toddlers were 16 months old, mothers completed a measure of perceived toddler temperament and a self-report of how they respond to toddler negative emotions, and maternal sensitivity and temperamental reactivity were observed during emotionally arousing tasks in the laboratory. Mothers’ disengaged coping style was positively associated with self-reported insensitive responses to children’s negative emotions. Engaged coping moderated the association between toddler temperamental reactivity and both self-reported insensitive responses and observed maternal sensitivity, such that temperamental reactivity was more strongly linked with less sensitive maternal behavior when engaged coping was low. PMID:21903276

  18. Vocabulary development at home: A multimedia elaborated picture supporting parent-toddler interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, M.C.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Some children enter elementary school with large vocabulary delays, which negatively influence their later school performance. A rich home language environment can support vocabulary development through frequent high-quality parent-toddler interaction. Elaborated picture home activities can support

  19. Daily touchscreen use in infants and toddlers is associated with reduced sleep and delayed sleep onset

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Celeste H M Cheung; Rachael Bedford; Irati R Saez De Urabain; Annette Karmiloff-smith; Tim J Smith

    2017-01-01

    .... With the advent of portable touchscreen devices, this association may be extending down in age to disrupt the sleep of infants and toddlers, an age when sleep is essential for cognitive development...

  20. Food insecurity works through depression, parenting, and infant feeding to influence overweight and health in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Zaslow, Martha; Capps, Randolph; Horowitz, Allison; McNamara, Michelle

    2007-09-01

    We used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort 9- and 24-mo surveys (n = 8693) and Structural Equation Modeling to examine direct and indirect associations between food insecurity and toddlers' overweight (weight for length), physical health, and length for age. There were significant effects of food insecurity on parental depression and parental depression in turn influenced physical health. There were also significant effects of food insecurity on parenting practices, which in turn were significantly associated with infant feeding and subsequently toddlers' overweight. There were no significant direct or indirect associations between food insecurity and toddlers' length for age. Our results show that food insecurity influences parenting, including both depression and parenting practices. Findings suggest parental depression is a stressor on parenting behavior that social policy should address to alleviate problematic child health outcomes. Findings underscore the importance of continuing and strengthening policy initiatives to ensure that families with infants and toddlers have sufficient, predictable, and reliable food supply.

  1. Treadmill training and overground gait: decision making for a toddler with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerchen, Victoria A; Habibi, Mohammad; Lynett, Kelly A; Konrad, Jeffrey D; Hoefakker, Heather L

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes a decision-making process that was used to progress a home-based intervention that coupled treadmill and walker stepping for a preambulatory toddler with spina bifida. The toddler in this report had an L4-L5 level lesion, and began this home-based intervention at 18 months of age when she was pulling to stand. The intervention included parameters for treadmill stepping that prepared this toddler for gait with orthotics and was progressed to overground walking with a walker using a decision-making algorithm based on data obtained from a parent log and coded video. This toddler progressed from not stepping at the start of the study to ambulating 150 m with a walker at age 23 months, after 18 weeks of this intervention. The intervention and decision-making process used in this study were family centered and may be applicable to gait intervention with other populations.

  2. Beyond dichotomies-(m)others' structuring and the development of toddlers' prosocial behavior across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärtner, Joscha

    2017-08-05

    Basic elements of prosociality-(pro)social cognition, motivation, and prosocial behavior-emerge during the first and second year of life. These elements are rooted in biological predispositions and the developmental system is complemented by caregivers' structuring. By structuring, (m)others integrate toddlers' unrefined (pro)social sentiments and behavioral inclinations into coherent patterns and align toddlers' experience and behavior with the population's cultural model. These cultural models specify target states for appropriate affective, motivational and behavioral responses regarding toddlers' prosociality and these target states, in turn, inform (m)others' appraisal and guide their structuring. The experiences that toddlers make in these social interactions have important implications for how the basic elements of prosociality are refined and further develop. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Toddler “Functionally Cured” of HIV Infection | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: NIH Research Toddler “Functionally Cured” of HIV Infection Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents Pediatric ... 18 months to a baby girl born with HIV infection. Photo: Jay Ferchaud, University of Mississippi Medical Center ...

  4. Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Kriweradechachai Suntree; Mo-suwan Ladda; Chuthapisith Jariya; Ruangdaraganon Nichara; Udomsubpayakul Umaporn; Choprapawon Chanpen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a) study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age < 2 years), (b) investigate the association between time spent on television (as recommended by the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP), < 2 hours per day) and language development in Thai 2-year-old children, and (c) explore parental perceptions on television to...

  5. Genetic and Diagnostic Biomarker Development in ASD Toddlers Using Resting State Functional MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Velligan DI, Almasy L, Carless MA, Curran JE, Williamson DE, Duggirala R, Blangero J, Glahn DC. Common genetic influences on depression , alcohol, and...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0318 TITLE: Genetic and Diagnostic Biomarker Development in ASD Toddlers Using Resting State Functional MRI PRINCIPAL...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Genetic and Diagnostic Biomarker Development in ASD Toddlers Using Resting State Functional MRI 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  6. Effect of distraction techniques in behaviour responses to pain among toddlers receiving immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    Pain and distress during immunisation of toddlers are reasons for non-immunisation of large number of toddlers. The present study was undertaken to assess the comparative effectiveness of distraction techniques in the process of immunisation i.e. toy and music. (The third group of study subjects was control group). It is concluded that distraction techniques are quite economical and safe in enhancing the magnitude of immunisation.

  7. Clinical Phenotype in a Toddler with a Novel Heterozygous Mutation of the Vitamin D Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Preneet Cheema; Dingle, Elena; Pappas, John; Raisingani, Manish

    2017-01-01

    We present the clinical phenotype of a toddler who presented with vitamin D-resistant rickets, with one of the highest initial levels of alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels reported in the literature. The toddler had novel compound heterozygous mutations in the ligand-binding site of the vitamin D receptor and had an excellent response to calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D).

  8. Mallet Finger in a Toddler: A Rare But Easily Missed Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forward, Karen E; Yazdani, Arjang; Lim, Rodrick

    2017-10-01

    A mallet finger is a flexion deformity of a finger at the distal interphalangeal joint due to an injury of the extensor mechanism at the base of the distal phalanx. Most common in middle-aged men, injuries in the pediatric population are less common and rare in toddlers. We describe a case of missed mallet finger and its subsequent treatment in a female toddler.

  9. Inattention and development of toddlers born in preterm and with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June-Hui Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the impact of low birth weight and preterm birth on a toddler's inattention and development, including cognitive, language, motor, social–emotional and adaptive behaviors. A total of 105 toddlers enrolled for the study; they were divided into four groups: 40 full-term and normal birth weight (NBW, birth weight greater than 2500 g toddlers, 24 moderate birth weight (MLBW, birth weight between 2499 and 1500 g toddlers, 20 very to extremely low birth weight (V-ELBW, 12 between 1000 and 1499 g and 8 lower than 1000 g toddlers, and 21 term toddlers who were recruited from a clinic of developmental delay as the developmental delay at risk (DDR group. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development—Third Edition (BSID-III and Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale—Toddler were used. The findings were as follows: (1 DDR group performed worst in BSID-III; (2 although there were no statistical differences among the NBW, MLBW, and V-ELBW groups in BSID-III, the lower the birth weight, the lower the average performance, especially in language, adaptive social behavior, and adaptive practical behavior; and (3 comparing the inattention score, the DDR group was the poorest, normal and V-ELBW groups were the best, and MLBW group was in the middle. In conclusion, low birth weight and preterm delivery affected children's inattention and development of language, adaptive social behavior, and adaptive practical behavior.

  10. Toddler temperament and prenatal exposure to lead and maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroustrup, Annemarie; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Svensson, Katherine; Schnaas, Lourdes; Cantoral, Alejandra; Solano González, Maritsa; Torres-Calapiz, Mariana; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Bellinger, David C; Coull, Brent A; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2016-06-16

    Temperament is a psychological construct that reflects both personality and an infant's reaction to social stimuli. It can be assessed early in life and is stable over time Temperament predicts many later life behaviors and illnesses, including impulsivity, emotional regulation and obesity. Early life exposure to neurotoxicants often results in developmental deficits in attention, social function, and IQ, but environmental predictors of infant temperament are largely unknown. We propose that prenatal exposure to both chemical and non-chemical environmental toxicants impacts the development of temperament, which can itself be used as a marker of risk for maladaptive neurobehavior in later life. In this study, we assessed associations among prenatal and early life exposure to lead, mercury, poverty, maternal depression and toddler temperament. A prospective cohort of women living in the Mexico City area were followed longitudinally beginning in the second trimester of pregnancy. Prenatal exposure to lead (blood, bone), mercury, and maternal depression were assessed repeatedly and the Toddler Temperament Scale (TTS) was completed when the child was 24 months old. The association between each measure of prenatal exposure and performance on individual TTS subscales was evaluated by multivariable linear regression. Latent profile analysis was used to classify subjects by TTS performance. Multinomial regression models were used to estimate the prospective association between prenatal exposures and TTS performance. 500 mother-child pairs completed the TTS and had complete data on exposures and covariates. Three latent profiles were identified and categorized as predominantly difficult, intermediate, or easy temperament. Prenatal exposure to maternal depression predicted increasing probability of difficult toddler temperament. Maternal bone lead, a marker of cumulative exposure, also predicted difficult temperament. Prenatal lead exposure modified this association

  11. Sweet and salty: nutritional content and analysis of baby and toddler foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Charlene D

    2011-03-01

    To critically examine baby and toddler food products sold in Canada for their sugar and sodium content, and to assess these in light of current recommendations. Baby and toddler foods (n = 186) were coded for various attributes, including 'Nutrition Facts' label data. Four 'categories' of baby/toddler foods were analyzed against their 'adult' counterparts for sugar and salt to reveal whether a 'halo effect' attributed to baby/toddler food is warranted. 63% of products have either high levels of sodium or an excessive proportion of calories coming from sugar. Over 12% of products had moderate or high levels of sodium; over 53% of products derive >20% of their calories from sugar. Baby and toddler foods were not found to be nutritionally superior-in terms of sodium or sugar-to their adult counterparts. Baby and toddler foods are currently overlooked in the public, and public policy, discussions pertaining to dietary sodium and sugar. Yet these products are clearly of concern and should be closely monitored, since they promote a taste for 'sweet' and 'salty' in our youngest consumers.

  12. Sweetened food purchases and indulgent feeding are associated with increased toddler anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidez, Virginia; McNiven, Scott; Vosti, Stephen A; Kaiser, Lucia L

    2014-01-01

    To explore the role of feeding practices and food purchases in toddler dietary intake and anthropometry. A convenience sample of Latino mother and toddler pairs were interviewed at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Data on feeding practices, toddler dietary intake, anthropometry, and food purchases were collected using the Toddler-Feeding Questionnaire; 24-hour recalls; measurements of weight, height, and/or length; and food purchase receipts. Indulgent feeding scores and high intake of sweetened beverage were associated with a 0.52 increase (P = .03) and 0.46 increase in toddler weight-for-height z-score (P = .05), respectively. Households with 10 percentage points of more sweetened food and beverage expenditures were associated with increases in weight indicator z-scores. Indulgent feeding, high intake, and purchase of sweetened beverage are associated with weight gain in Latino toddlers. Programs should target food purchasing decisions and provide concrete guidance for the division of responsibility around feeding. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Thyagarajan David; Haridas Samarth; Jones Denise; Dent Colin; Evans Richard; Williams Rhys

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system) for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years...

  14. Best Proximity Points for a New Class of Generalized Proximal Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Kamran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The best proximity points are usually used to find the optimal approximate solution of the operator equation Tx = x, when T has no fixed point. In this paper, we prove some best proximity point theorems for nonself multivalued operators, following the foot steps of Basha and Shahzad [Best proximity point theorems for generalized proximal contractions, Fixed Point Theory Appl., 2012, 2012:42].

  15. Preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the following proximate ...

  16. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  17. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Vol. 15 (1) 9 - 11. Full-text Available Online at www.bioline.org.br/ja. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms. ADEDAYO, MAJEKODUNMI RACHEL. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, P.M.B.3032, Kano. ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in.

  18. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

  19. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spigelia anthelmia is used traditionally in Southern Nigeria for the treatment of infant convulsion and epilepsy. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant effect of the methanolic extract of Spigelia anthelmia. Phytochemical evaluation and proximate analysis was carried ...

  20. Skype me! Socially contingent interactions help toddlers learn language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M

    2014-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This study focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24-30 months (N = 36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and noncontingent video training (yoked video). Results suggest that children only learned novel verbs in socially contingent interactions (live interactions and video chat). This study highlights the importance of social contingency in interactions for language learning and informs the literature on learning through screen media as the first study to examine word learning through video chat technology. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Lexical selectivity in danish toddlers with cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective : To study if Danish children with cleft palate display lexical selectivity in their early lexicon at 18 months of age. Design : A cross-sectional study. Participants : Thirty-four children with unilateral cleft lip and palate and 35 children without cleft palate, matched for gender...... also analyzed with respect to word productions, establishing an observed productive vocabulary size for each participant. Results : At 18 months of age Danish children with cleft palate showed marked lexical selectivity in their early words. The distribution of consonant classes observed at 11 months...... of age in a previous study of the children with cleft palate was almost perfectly reflected in their early lexicon at 18 months. The early lexicon of children with cleft palate differed from the early lexicon of their noncleft peers. Conclusions and Implications : Danish toddlers with cleft palate...

  2. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Toddler: Changing Epidemiological Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosy Aulakh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a devastating “slow virus” brain disease resulting from persistent measles virus infection of neurons. The age at presentation is usually 8 to 11 years with onset usually occurring 2–10 years after measles infection. We report a 2-and-half-year-old boy who presented with progressively increasing myoclonic jerks and subtle cognitive decline. He was diagnosed as a case of SSPE based on clinical features, typical electroencephalographic finding, and elevated cerebrospinal fluid/serum measles antibody titers. He had measles 4 months prior to onset of symptoms. This case along with review of recently published reports suggests progressively decreasing latency period between measles infection and onset of symptoms observed in cases with SSPE. Clinical implication would mean investigating for SSPE even in infants or toddlers with compatible clinical features and recent history of measles infection.

  3. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Toddler: Changing Epidemiological Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulakh, Roosy; Tiwari, Abhimanyu

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a devastating “slow virus” brain disease resulting from persistent measles virus infection of neurons. The age at presentation is usually 8 to 11 years with onset usually occurring 2–10 years after measles infection. We report a 2-and-half-year-old boy who presented with progressively increasing myoclonic jerks and subtle cognitive decline. He was diagnosed as a case of SSPE based on clinical features, typical electroencephalographic finding, and elevated cerebrospinal fluid/serum measles antibody titers. He had measles 4 months prior to onset of symptoms. This case along with review of recently published reports suggests progressively decreasing latency period between measles infection and onset of symptoms observed in cases with SSPE. Clinical implication would mean investigating for SSPE even in infants or toddlers with compatible clinical features and recent history of measles infection. PMID:24416610

  4. An Unusual Cause of Persistent Crying in a Toddler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondamudi, Noah; Chamdawala, Haamid; Monteiro, Iona

    2017-03-01

    Excessive or persistent crying is a common presentation to the pediatric emergency department, and often poses a diagnostic dilemma to emergency physicians. There are several reasons for excessive or persistent crying in children, ranging from benign causes like hunger, to life-threatening causes such as intussusception. We report an interesting case of a toddler whose cause of excess crying, with no detectable clinical clues, was eventually attributed to a foreign body in the esophagus. A brief review of diagnostic approach to excess crying and management of ingested foreign bodies is presented. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Ingested foreign body is a potential cause of persistent crying, and early recognition can result in definitive treatment and prevention of potential mortality and morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following infectious mononucleosis in a toddler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Hassan; Abu Zeinah, Ghaith Farid; Elsotouhy, Ahmed Hassan; Mohamed, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection complicated by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in a toddler is rare. Our patient is a 14 month-old boy who presented with listlessness and reduced eye movements nearly 10 days after a prodromal upper respiratory illness that was accompanied by an amoxicillin rash. On examination, the boy appeared drowsy, had a congested throat and a resolving lower extremity rash, but otherwise had a normal neurological examination. Investigation revealed lymphocytosis, mildly elevated liver enzyme and a positive EBV IgM serology. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis. Subsequent brain and spine MRI showed demyelinating disease extending from the cerebral peduncles, across the brain stem and down to the mid-thoracic spinal cord. The patient was treated as a case of ADEM and given intravenous methylprednisolone. On outpatient follow-up his symptoms resolved completely in 6 weeks. PMID:23845679

  6. Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced proximal tubular cell damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camano, Sonia; Lazaro, Alberto; Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefania; Torres, Ana M; de Lucas, Carmen; Humanes, Blanca; Lazaro, Jose A; Milagros Gomez-Gomez, M; Bosca, Lisardo; Tejedor, Alberto

    2010-08-01

    A major area in cancer therapy is the search for protective strategies against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We investigated the protective effect of cilastatin on cisplatin-induced injury to renal proximal tubular cells. Cilastatin is a specific inhibitor of renal dehydrodipeptidase I (DHP-I), which prevents hydrolysis of imipenem and its accumulation in the proximal tubule. Primary cultures of proximal cells were treated with cisplatin (1-30 microM) in the presence or absence of cilastatin (200 microg/ml). Apoptosis and mitochondrial injury were assessed by different techniques. Cisplatin uptake and DNA binding were measured by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. HeLa cells were used to control the effect of cilastatin on the tumoricidal activity of cisplatin. Cisplatin increased cell death, apoptotic-like morphology, caspase activation, and mitochondrial injury in proximal tubular cells in a dose- and time-dependent way. Concomitant treatment with cilastatin reduced cisplatin-induced changes. Cilastatin also reduced the DNA-bound platinum but did not modify cisplatin-dependent up-regulation of death receptors (Fas) or ligands (tumor necrosis factor alpha, Fas ligand). In contrast, cilastatin did not show any effects on cisplatin-treated HeLa cells. Renal DHP-I was virtually absent in HeLa cells. Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced cell death in proximal tubular cells without reducing the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin in tumor cells. Our findings suggest that the affinity of cilastatin for renal dipeptidase makes this effect specific for proximal tubular cells and may be related to a reduction in intracellular drug accumulation. Therefore, cilastatin administration might represent a novel strategy in the prevention of cisplatin-induced acute renal injury.

  7. Systematic Development and Validation of a Theory-Based Questionnaire to Assess Toddler Feeding1,2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristen M Hurley; M Reese Pepper; Margo Candelaria; Yan Wang; Laura E Caulfield; Laura Latta; Erin R Hager; Maureen M Black

    2013-01-01

    .... The development of the Toddler Feeding Behavior Questionnaire was based on a theory of interactive feeding that incorporates caregivers' responses to concerns about their children's dietary intake...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 80 - Procedures for the Provision of Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... toddler's present levels of physical development, cognitive development, communication development, social... other family members will accept or decline any early intervention service without jeopardizing the...

  9. Magnetic resonance neurography of median neuropathies proximal to the carpal tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thawait, Gaurav K. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Subhawong, Ty K.; Eng, John; Carrino, John A.; Chhabra, Avneesh [Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Thawait, Shrey K. [Yale University, Bridgeport Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bridgeport, CT (United States); Andreisek, Gustav [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Belzberg, Alan J. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-06-15

    This review provides magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) imaging appearances of median neuropathy proximal to the carpal tunnel. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and its imaging have been extensively described in the literature; however, there is a relative paucity of information on the MR imaging appearances of different pathologies of the median nerve proximal to the carpal tunnel. (orig.)

  10. Intramedullary compression device for proximal ulna fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Han, Fucai; Decruz, Joshua; Pannirselvam, Vinodhkumar; Murphy, Diarmuid

    2015-02-01

    Proximal ulna fractures account for 20% of all proximal forearm fractures. Many treatment options are available for such fractures, such as cast immobilisation, plate and screw fixation, tension band wiring and intramedullary screw fixation, depending on the fracture pattern. Due to the subcutaneous nature of the proximal forearm, it is vulnerable to open injuries over the dorsal aspect of the proximal ulna. This may in turn prove challenging, as it is critical to obtain adequate soft tissue coverage to reduce the risk of implant exposure and bony infections. We herein describe a patient with a Gustillo III-B open fracture of the proximal ulna, treated with minimally invasive intramedullary screw fixation using a 6.0-mm cannulated headless titanium compression screw (FusiFIX, Péronnas, France).

  11. Mothers' online message board questions about parenting infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Noriko; Ispa, Jean M

    2013-03-01

    To report a study conducted to explore childrearing concerns through an analysis of online parenting message boards managed by popular parenting magazines. Background.  Increasingly, mothers appear to be turning to the Web for childrearing advice and support. However, no previous studies have examined the childrearing concerns of mothers of infants and toddlers through the analysis of online message board postings. Ethnographic content analysis methods were used to analyse the online postings. A total of 120 messages posted in 2007 by mothers of 0-2 year olds on the websites of two best-selling parenting magazines in the United States were submitted to ethnographic content analysis. Each message pertained to one or more of six childrearing domains: Feeding/Eating, Sleep, Development, Discipline, Toilet-Training and Mother-Child Relationships. Questions and pleas for support were most prominently centred on feeding/eating and sleep issues. Mothers expressed concerns about when and how their children should begin to sleep and eat independently. In addition to the themes specific to particular domains, across-domain themes were identified involving mothers' parenting stress, questioning of advice from families/paediatricians and worries that children were not developing normally. Online forums have become a space where mothers can openly describe their own negative emotions towards parenting and ask questions or gain reassurance to resolve mixed messages about how one should rear infants and toddlers. Paediatric nurses should be aware that mothers are confused about conflicting messages, especially in the domains of sleeping and eating. Reviewing parenting message boards occasionally would give nurses continuing insight into common parenting concerns. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. MOTORIC STIMULATION RELATED TO FINE MOTORIC DEVELOPMENT ON CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Triharini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor developmental stimulation is an activity undertaken to stimulate the children basic skills and so they can grow and develop optimally. Children who obtain a direct stimulus will grow faster than who get less stimulus. Mother’s behavior of stimulation is very important for children, it is considering as the basic needs of children and it must be fulfilled. Providing good stimulation could optimize fine motor development in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze mother’s behavior about motor stimulation with fine motor development in toddler age 4-5 years old. Method: Design have been  used in this study was cross sectional. Population were mothers and their toddler in Group A of Dharma Wanita Persatuan Driyorejo Gresik Preschool. Sample were 51 respondents recruited by using purposive sampling technique according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The independent variable was mother’s behavior about motor stimulation whereas dependent variable was fine motor development in toddler. The data were collected using questionnaire and conducting observation on fine motor development based on Denver Development Screening Test (DDST. Data then analyzed using Spearman Rho (r test to find relation between mother’s behaviors about stimulation motor on their toddler fine motor development. Result: Results  of this study showed that there were correlations between mother’s knowledge and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, between mother’s attitude and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, and between mother’s actions and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000. Analysis: In sort study found that there were relation between fine motor development and mother’s behavior. Discussion: Therefore mother’s behavior needed to be improved. Further research about stimulation motor and fine motor development aspects in toddler is required.

  13. Proximity to coast is linked to climate change belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milfont, Taciano L; Evans, Laurel; Sibley, Chris G; Ries, Jan; Cunningham, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Psychologists have examined the many psychological barriers to both climate change belief and concern. One barrier is the belief that climate change is too uncertain, and likely to happen in distant places and times, to people unlike oneself. Related to this perceived psychological distance of climate change, studies have shown that direct experience of the effects of climate change increases climate change concern. The present study examined the relationship between physical proximity to the coastline and climate change belief, as proximity may be related to experiencing or anticipating the effects of climate change such as sea-level rise. We show, in a national probability sample of 5,815 New Zealanders, that people living in closer proximity to the shoreline expressed greater belief that climate change is real and greater support for government regulation of carbon emissions. This proximity effect held when adjusting for height above sea level and regional poverty. The model also included individual differences in respondents' sex, age, education, political orientation, and wealth. The results indicate that physical place plays a role in the psychological acceptance of climate change, perhaps because the effects of climate change become more concrete and local.

  14. Proximity to coast is linked to climate change belief.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciano L Milfont

    Full Text Available Psychologists have examined the many psychological barriers to both climate change belief and concern. One barrier is the belief that climate change is too uncertain, and likely to happen in distant places and times, to people unlike oneself. Related to this perceived psychological distance of climate change, studies have shown that direct experience of the effects of climate change increases climate change concern. The present study examined the relationship between physical proximity to the coastline and climate change belief, as proximity may be related to experiencing or anticipating the effects of climate change such as sea-level rise. We show, in a national probability sample of 5,815 New Zealanders, that people living in closer proximity to the shoreline expressed greater belief that climate change is real and greater support for government regulation of carbon emissions. This proximity effect held when adjusting for height above sea level and regional poverty. The model also included individual differences in respondents' sex, age, education, political orientation, and wealth. The results indicate that physical place plays a role in the psychological acceptance of climate change, perhaps because the effects of climate change become more concrete and local.

  15. Study protocol for a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention to promote healthy diets in toddlers: a cluster randomized trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sissel H Helland; Elling Bere; Nina Cecilie Overby

    2016-01-01

    .... This study aimed to promote a healthy and varied diet among toddlers in kindergarten. The primary objectives were to reduce food neophobia in toddlers, and promote healthy feeding practices among kindergarten staff and parents...

  16. [Multi-center study of premature thelarche and gynecomastia in Chinese infants and toddlers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Aiping; Kong, Lifang; Li, Jie; Li, Suyue; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Ruifang; Ban, Caixia; Jiang, Yanrui; Sun, Wanqi; Song, Yuanjin; Jiang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The term "premature thelarche" refers to isolated breast development before 8 years of age in female, without any other signs of sexual maturation, while "gynecomastia" is the presence of breast tissue in males. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of premature thelarche and gynecomastia in Chinese infants and toddlers, identify the potential risk factors, and explore the influence of early breast development on physical growth, mental development and psychomotor development. A total of 1 510 full term and healthy children at the age of 0-48 months were sampled by stratified cluster random sampling method from 8 provinces from 2011-2012. Weight, height and breast development were assessed by senior primary pediatricians, while Bayley Scale of Infant Development-I (BSID-I) was used to measure the mental developmental index (MDI) and psychomotor developmental index (PDI) for children aged 2-30 months. Social-demographic Questionnaires were completed by the caregivers. The combined prevalence of premature thelarche and gynecomastia was 1.6% (23/1 475), girls 2.2% (15/695), boys 1.0% (8/780), all within 2 years of age. The birth weight, feeding patterns in first 4 months, delivery mode, weaning time and social economic status were not significantly associated with the breast development. However, lower father's education level (OR = 3.632, 95%CI = 1.565-8.432) as well as smoking mother (OR = 18.960, 95%CI = 1.590-226.304) were significantly related to breast development even after adjusting for potential confounders. Lower weight (-0.479 ± 0.648 vs. 0.005 ± 0.987, P breast development group, even after adjusting for age, gender and father' education level. Neither mental development (t = -0.082, P > 0.05) nor psychomotor development (t = 1.054, P > 0.05) was associated with breast development. We showed a similar prevalence of premature thelarche with the data reported in similar studies reported from other countries. Among the 0-48 months old infants and

  17. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  18. Maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems: a fixed effects regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Ystrom, Eivind; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Torgersen, Leila

    2015-10-01

    Using data from the longitudinal Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, the aims of the current study were to examine associations between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems, taking both observed and unobserved confounding factors into account by employing fixed effects regression models. Postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use (defined as drinking alcohol 4 or more times a week, or drinking 7 units or more per alcohol use episode) and toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were assessed when the toddlers were aged 18 and 36 months. Maternal psychopathology, civil status and negative life events last year were included as time-variant covariates. Maternal heavy alcohol use was associated with toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems (p < 0.001) in the population when examined with generalized estimating equation models. The associations disappeared when observed and unobserved sources of confounding were taken into account in the fixed effects models [(p = 0.909 for externalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.021), p = 0.928 for internalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.023)], with an even further reduction of the estimates with the inclusion of time-variant confounders. No causal effect was found between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems. Increased levels of behavior problems among toddlers of heavy drinking mothers should therefore be attributed to other adverse characteristics associated with these mothers, toddlers and families. This should be taken into account when interventions aimed at at-risk families identified by maternal heavy alcohol use are planned and conducted.

  19. A transactional model of spoken vocabulary variation in toddlers with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woynaroski, Tiffany; Yoder, Paul J; Fey, Marc E; Warren, Steven F

    2014-10-01

    The authors examined (a) whether dose frequency of milieu communication teaching (MCT) affects children's canonical syllabic communication and (b) whether the relation between early canonical syllabic communication and later spoken vocabulary is mediated by parental linguistic mapping in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). The authors drew on extant data from a recent differential treatment intensity study in which 63 toddlers with ID were randomly assigned to receive either five 1-hr MCT sessions per week (i.e., daily treatment) or one 1-hr MCT session per week (i.e., weekly treatment) for 9 months. Children's early canonical syllabic communication was measured after 3 months of treatment, and later spoken vocabulary was measured at posttreatment. Midpoint parental linguistic mapping was measured after 6 months of treatment. A moderate-sized effect in favor of daily treatment was observed on canonical syllabic communication. The significant relation between canonical syllabic communication and spoken vocabulary was partially mediated by linguistic mapping. These results suggest that canonical syllabic communication may elicit parental linguistic mapping, which may in turn support spoken vocabulary development in children with ID. More frequent early intervention boosted canonical syllabic communication, which may jump-start this transactional language-learning mechanism. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed.

  20. A Transactional Model of Spoken Vocabulary Variation in Toddlers with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woynaroski, Tiffany; Yoder, Paul; Fey, Marc E.; Warren, Steven F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined whether: a) dose frequency of Milieu Communication Teaching (MCT) affects children's canonical syllabic communication, and b) the relation between early canonical syllabic communication and later spoken vocabulary is mediated by parental linguistic mapping in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). Method We drew on extant data from a recent differential treatment intensity study in which 63 toddlers with ID were randomly assigned to receive either five, 1 hour MCT sessions per week (i.e., daily treatment) or one, 1 hour MCT session per week (i.e., weekly treatment) for nine months. Children's early canonical syllabic communication was measured after three months of treatment and later spoken vocabulary was measured at post-treatment. Mid-point parental linguistic mapping was measured after 6 months of treatment. Results A moderate-sized effect in favor of daily treatment was observed on canonical syllabic communication. The significant relation between canonical syllabic communication and spoken vocabulary was partially mediated by linguistic mapping. Conclusions These results suggest that canonical syllabic communication may elicit parental linguistic mapping, which may in turn support spoken vocabulary development in children with ID. More frequent early intervention boosted canonical syllabic communication, which may jumpstart this transactional language-learning mechanism. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed. PMID:24802090

  1. Electrophysiology of Perception and Processing of Phonological Information as Indices of Toddlers' Language Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Vanessa; Preston, Jonathan; Grela, Bernard; Roy, Dooti; Harold, Olivia; Turcios, Jacqueline; Andrada, Kiyomi; Landi, Nicole

    2017-04-14

    The toddler years are a critical period for language development and growth. We investigated how event-related potentials (ERPs) to repeated and novel nonwords are associated with clinical assessments of language in young children. In addition, nonword repetition (NWR) was used to measure phonological working memory to determine the unique and collective contribution of ERP measures of phonemic discrimination and NWR as predictors of language ability. Forty children between the ages of 24-48 months participated in an ERP experiment to determine phonemic discrimination to repeated and novel nonwords in an old/new design. Participants also completed a NWR task to explore the contribution of phonological working memory in predicting language. ERP analyses revealed that faster responses to novel stimuli correlated with higher language performance on clinical assessments of language. Regression analyses revealed that an earlier component was associated with lower level phonemic sensitivity, and a later component was indexing phonological working memory skills similar to NWR. Our findings suggest that passive ERP responses indexing phonological discrimination and phonological working memory are strongly related to behavioral measures of language.

  2. Effects of a naturalistic sign intervention on expressive language of toddlers with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Courtney A; Kaiser, Ann P; Reikowsky, Dawn I; Roberts, Megan Y

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of Enhanced Milieu Teaching (EMT; Hancock & Kaiser, 2006) blended with Joint Attention, Symbolic Play, and Emotional Regulation (JASPER; Kasari, Freeman, & Paparella, 2006) to teach spoken words and manual signs (Words + Signs) to young children with Down syndrome (DS). Four toddlers (ages 23-29 months) with DS were enrolled in a study with a multiple-baseline, across-participants design. Following baseline, 20 play-based treatment sessions (20-30 min each) occurred twice weekly. Spoken words and manual signs were modeled and prompted by a therapist who used EMT/JASPER teaching strategies. The authors assessed generalization to interactions with parents at home. There was a functional relation between the therapist's implementation of EMT/JASPER Words + Signs and all 4 children's use of signs during the intervention. Gradual increases in children's use of spoken words occurred, but there was not a clear functional relation. All children generalized their use of signs to their parents at home. The infusion of manual signs with verbal models within a framework of play, joint attention, and naturalistic language teaching appears to facilitate development of expressive sign and word communication in young children with DS.

  3. Positive Affect: Phenotypic and Etiologic Associations with Prosocial Behaviors and Internalizing Problems in Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjie eWang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996, the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg, Rutter, & Richman, 1997, and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5-5 (Achenbach, 1991, respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and nonshared. In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children.

  4. Positive affect: phenotypic and etiologic associations with prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996), the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg et al., 1997), and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5-5 (Achenbach, 1991), respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and non-shared). In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children.

  5. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...

  6. Visualizing cellular interactions with a generalized proximity reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmyer, Mark A; Bronsart, Laura; Imoto, Hiroshi; Contag, Christopher H; Wandless, Thomas J; Prescher, Jennifer A

    2013-05-21

    Interactions among neighboring cells underpin many physiological processes ranging from early development to immune responses. When these interactions do not function properly, numerous pathologies, including infection and cancer, can result. Molecular imaging technologies, especially optical imaging, are uniquely suited to illuminate complex cellular interactions within the context of living tissues in the body. However, no tools yet exist that allow the detection of microscopic events, such as two cells coming into close proximity, on a global, whole-animal scale. We report here a broadly applicable, longitudinal strategy for probing interactions among cells in living subjects. This approach relies on the generation of bioluminescent light when two distinct cell populations come into close proximity, with the intensity of the optical signal correlating with relative cellular location. We demonstrate the ability of this reporter strategy to gauge cell-cell proximity in culture models in vitro and then evaluate this approach for imaging tumor-immune cell interactions using a murine breast cancer model. In these studies, our imaging strategy enabled the facile visualization of features that are otherwise difficult to observe with conventional imaging techniques, including detection of micrometastatic lesions and potential sites of tumor immunosurveillance. This proximity reporter will facilitate probing of numerous types of cell-cell interactions and will stimulate the development of similar techniques to detect rare events and pathological processes in live animals.

  7. Proximity and the evolution of collaboration networks: evidence from research and development projects within the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balland, P.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the influence of proximity on the evolution of collaboration networks. It determines empirically how organizations choose their partners according to their geographical, cognitive, organizational, institutional and social proximity. Relational databases are constructed from

  8. Accuracy of "Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers" ("M-CHAT") in Detecting Autism and Other Developmental Disorders in Community Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Teck-Hock; Tan, Vivian Wee-Yen; Lau, Peter Sie-Teck; Kiyu, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    This study determined the accuracy of "Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers" ("M-CHAT") in detecting toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders (DD) in community mother and child health clinics. We analysed 19,297 eligible toddlers (15-36 months) who had "M-CHAT" performed in…

  9. The Q-CHAT (Quantitative CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers): A Normally Distributed Quantitative Measure of Autistic Traits at 18-24 Months of Age--Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Carrie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Charman, Tony; Richler, Jennifer; Pasco, Greg; Brayne, Carol

    2008-01-01

    We report a major revision of the CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT). This "quantitative" CHAT (Q-CHAT) contains 25 items, scored on a 5 point scale (0-4). The Q-CHAT was completed by parents of n = 779 unselected toddlers (mean age 21 months) and n = 160 toddlers and preschoolers (mean age 44 months) with an Autism Spectrum…

  10. Familial factors and child characteristics as predictors of injuries in toddlers: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Grøgaard, Jens Bernard; Dyb, Grete

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify family and child characteristics that put toddlers at risk of injuries. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting This study was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Participants The study sample consisted of 26 087 children and their mothers. Outcome measures Family and child characteristics measured before or at 18 months of age were investigated as potential predictors of hospital-attended injuries that occurred between 18 and 36 months of age. Results In the multivariable analysis, younger maternal age (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.00), financial problems (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.39), maternal mental distress (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.16), having older siblings (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.39), increased gestational age at birth (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.07) and male gender (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.42) were risk factors for hospital-attended injuries. Children with impaired gross motor development had a decreased risk of injury (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.99), whereas those with impaired fine motor development had an increased risk (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.97). Shyness was a protective factor (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.98). Children with three reported attention problems had a slightly increased risk of hospital-attended injuries (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.72; p=0.035); otherwise, behaviour was not a significant risk factor. Conclusions This study demonstrated that a wide variety of factors were in play as predictors of injuries in young children. Both child-related factors (gender, gestational age at birth, child motor development, shyness and attention) and familial factors (having older siblings, maternal age, financial difficulties and maternal mental health problems) were associated with injuries in toddlers. PMID:22403343

  11. Teacher Work Environments Are Toddler Learning Environments: Teacher Professional Well-Being, Classroom Emotional Support, and Toddlers' Emotional Expressions and Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Deborah J.; King, Elizabeth K.; Wang, Yudan C.; Lower, Joanna K.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examines the professional well-being of teachers, the classroom emotional support, and the emotional experiences of toddlers in their care. Professional well-being of teachers is conceptualized to include teacher feelings about their work, autonomy in decision-making, actual wages, and perceptions of fairness of wages within the…

  12. Proximity and Collaboration in European Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.W.; Werker, C.

    2011-01-01

    Collaborations are particularly important for the development and deployment of technology. We analyze the influence of organizational, technological and geographical proximity on European nanotechnology collaborations with the help of a publication dataset and additional geographical information.

  13. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 ... Key words: Rhynchophorus phoenicis, Oryctes monoceros, proximate composition, cholesterol, heat treatment. INTRODUCTION. Insects have played ...

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITIONS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde Emmanuel

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... Fish allows for protein improved nutrition in that it has a high biological value in terms of high ... marine algae upon which the fish feed [11]. ... Proximate composition of catfish Clarias gariepinus and Tarpon atlanticus were.

  15. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity studies were carried out on the leaf extract of Cola lepidota, in accordance with established standard procedures. The proximate analysis reveals a moisture content of 27.43 ± 3.11 % w/w, total ash value 9.32 ± 0.27 % w/w, acid insoluble ash 3.12 ± 1.05 % w/w ...

  16. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was investigated using standard procedures. Proximate analysis included in g% dry weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a moisture content of 70.04 ...

  17. Painful Spastic Hip Dislocation: Proximal Femoral Resection

    OpenAIRE

    Albiñana, Javier; Gonzalez-Moran, Gaspar

    2002-01-01

    The dislocated hip in a non-ambulatory child with spastic paresis tends to be a painful interference to sleep, sitting upright, and perineal care. Proximal femoral resection-interposition arthroplasty is one method of treatment for this condition. We reviewed eight hips, two bilateral cases, with a mean follow-up of 30 months. Clinical improvement was observed in all except one case, with respect to pain relief and sitting tolerance. Some proximal migration was observed in three cases, despit...

  18. Open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures with use of the locking proximal humerus plate. Surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, G; Bayer, J; Hepp, P; Voigt, C; Oestern, H; Kääb, M; Luo, C; Plecko, M; Wendt, K; Köstler, W; Südkamp, N

    2010-03-01

    The treatment of unstable displaced proximal humeral fractures, especially in the elderly, remains controversial. The objective of the present prospective, multicenter, observational study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the complication rate after open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures with use of a locking proximal humeral plate. One hundred and eighty-seven patients (mean age, 62.9 +/- 15.7 years) with an acute proximal humeral fracture were managed with open reduction and internal fixation with a locking proximal humeral plate. At the three-month, six month,and one-year follow-up examinations, 165 (88%), 158 (84%), and 155 (83%) of the 187 patients were assessed with regard to pain, shoulder mobility, and strength. The Constant score was determined at each interval, and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score was determined for the injured and contralateral extremities at the time of the one-year follow-up. Between three months and one year, the mean range of motion and the mean Constant score for the injured shoulders improved substantially. Twelve months after surgery, the mean Constant score for the injured side was 70.6 +/- 13.7 points, corresponding to 85.1% +/- 14.0% of the score for the contralateral side. The mean DASH score at the time of the one-year follow-up was 15.2 +/- 16.8 points. Sixty-two complications were encountered in fifty-two (34%) of 155 patients at the time of the one-year follow-up. Twenty-five complications (40%) were related to incorrect surgical technique and were present at the end of the operative procedure. The most common complication, noted in twenty-one (14%) of 155 patients, was intraoperative screw perforation of the humeral head. Twenty-nine patients (19%) had an unplanned second operation within twelve months after the fracture. Surgical treatment of displaced proximal humeral fractures with use of the locking proximal humeral plate that was evaluated in the

  19. Parents' Reports of Lexical and Grammatical Aspects of Toddlers' Language in European Portuguese: Developmental Trends, Age and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla; Cadime, Irene; Ribeiro, Iolanda; Santos, Sandra; Santos, Ana Lúcia; Viana, Fernanda Leopoldina

    2017-01-01

    The results from a large-scale study on toddlers' language acquisition in European Portuguese are presented. Toddlers' lexical and grammatical competencies were assessed using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences. The results, based on 3012 reports completed by parents, indicate an increase in the lexical…

  20. Characteristics of Early Vocabulary and Grammar Development in Slovenian-Speaking Infants and Toddlers: A CDI-Adaptation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urska; Podlesek, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research shows that vocabulary does not develop independently of grammar, representing a better predictor of the grammatical complexity of toddlers' utterances than age. This study examines for the first time the characteristics of vocabulary and grammar development in Slovenian-speaking infants and toddlers using the Slovenian…