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Sample records for proximity relations toddlers

  1. Depressive symptoms and compromised parenting in low-income mothers of infants and toddlers: distal and proximal risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeber, Linda S; Schwartz, Todd A; Martinez, Maria I; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Bledsoe, Sarah E; Canuso, Regina; Lewis, Virginia S

    2014-08-01

    Low-income mothers develop depressive symptoms at higher rates than the general population, adding to the existing risk that economic hardship places on their infants and toddlers. Emphasizing a few key intervention targets, an approach that is especially relevant to mothers when depressive symptoms compromise their energy and concentration, can improve interventions with populations facing adversity. The goal of this study was to identify contextual risk factors that significantly contributed to depressive symptoms and that, in combination with depressive symptoms, were associated with compromised parenting. Using baseline data from 251 ethnically diverse mothers from six Early Head Start programs in the Northeastern and Southeastern US, who were recruited for a clinical trial of an in-home intervention, Belsky's ecological framework of distal to proximal levels of influence was used to organize risk factors for depressive symptoms in hierarchical regression models. Under stress, mothers of toddlers reported more severe depressive symptoms than mothers of infants, supporting the need for depressive symptom screening and monitoring past the immediate postpartum period. Multivariate models revealed intervention targets that can focus depression prevention and intervention efforts, including helping mothers reduce chronic day-to-day stressors and conflicts with significant others, and to effectively handle challenging toddler behaviors, especially in the face of regional disciplinary norms. Presence of a live-in partner was linked to more effective parenting, regardless of participants' depressive symptom severity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Development of sensory system s related with postural - locomotor function in toddler ́s age, possibilities of assessmen

    OpenAIRE

    Blažková, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis "Development of sensory systems related with postural-locomotor function in toddler's age, possibilities of assessment" summarizes function of visual, vestibular and somatosensory system and maturation of these systems in toddler's age. Next part describes the development of postural- locomotor function related to maturation of sensory systems. The last part of the work deals with the issue of assessment in toddler's age. Three toddlers are described in the practical part of...

  3. Separation and Relating in a Parent-Toddler Group Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navridi, Evanthia; Navridis, Klimis; Midgley, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Parent-toddler groups constitute a primary intervention programme whose target is to support and encourage the parent-toddler relationship. Toddlerhood is a developmental period when major, crucial changes take place regarding how children function, as well as their relationship to their parents (especially to their mother). The present paper…

  4. The relations among maternal depressive disorder, maternal Expressed Emotion, and toddler behavior problems and attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (maternal depression); the Five Minute Speech Sample (EE); the Child Behavior Checklist (toddler behavior prob...

  5. Opportunities knock: Mediation of peer-relations during meal-time in toddler groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Os

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available According to socio-cultural perspectives, adults are seen as mediators of cultural believes, values and practices. Qualitative analyses of teachers’ mediation of peer relations based on video-recordings in 9 toddler-groups indicate that meal-time represents opportunities for teachers to facilitate togetherness and peer-relations between toddlers. The teachers might facilitate sharing, passing food, routinized practices such as singing, and conversations. The results indicate variations between child- and group-oriented approaches, and accomplishing meals in an effective way. The child- and group-oriented approaches are marked by encouragement of toddlers’ initiatives and teachers supporting peer-interactions. Raising teachers’ consciousness about their contributions to children’s development of peer-relations and togetherness in group settings might contribute to enhance reflected practices in working with toddlers in groups.

  6. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  7. Toddler development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, E R; Dworkin, P H

    1997-08-01

    The toddler years are ones of exciting and challenging changes in cognitive, affective, and physical growth. Physical growth is particularly remarkable for the child's increasing skills and ability to navigate the environment. Affective development is marked by the push for autonomy and independence and the highly visible nature of the child's temperament or behavioral style. The toddler also enters the wonderful years of imagination and pretend play. Perhaps most noteworthy is the child's dramatic increase in ability to communicate with others through speech and language, as evidence of the progression to symbolic thinking. The dynamic changes in children's development during the toddler years have important implications for child health supervision. Familiarity with toddler development will enable the pediatrician to monitor children's development effectively and to address common, stage-related behaviors with families during anticipatory guidance.

  8. Cultural Influences on Toddlers' Prosocial Behavior: How Maternal Task Assignment Relates to Helping Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Moritz; Cavalcante, Lilia; Vera Cruz de Carvalho, Rafael; Dôgo Resende, Briseida; Kärtner, Joscha

    2016-01-01

    This cross-cultural study investigates how maternal task assignment relates to toddlers' requested behavior and helping between 18 and 30 months. One hundred seven mother-child dyads were assessed in three different cultural contexts (rural Brazil, urban Germany, and urban Brazil). Brazilian mothers showed assertive scaffolding (serious and…

  9. The Relations among Maternal Depressive Disorder, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Toddler Behavior Problems and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments…

  10. It's all relative: The role of object weight in toddlers' gravity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hast, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Work over the past 20 years has demonstrated a gravity bias in toddlers; when an object is dropped into a curved tube, they will frequently search at a point immediately beneath the entry of the tube rather than in the object's actual location. The current study tested 2- to 3½-year-olds' (N = 88) gravity bias under consideration of object weight. They were tested with either a heavy or light ball, and they had information about either one of the balls only or both balls. Evaluating their first search behavior showed that participants generally displayed the same age trends as other studies had demonstrated, with older toddlers passing more advanced task levels by being able to locate objects in the correct location. Object weight appeared to have no particular impact on the direction of these trends. However, where weight was accessible as relative information, toddlers were younger at passing levels and older at failing levels, although significantly so only from around 3 years of age onward. When they failed levels, toddlers made significantly more gravity errors with the heavy ball when they had information about both balls and made more correct choices with the light ball. As a whole, the findings suggest that nonvisual object variables, such as weight, affect young children's search behaviors in the gravity task, but only if these variables are presented in relation to other objects. This relational information has the potential to enhance or diminish the gravity bias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relative Validity of a 24-h Recall in Assessing Intake of Key Nutrients in a Cohort of Australian Toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Beaton, Elizabeth; Wright, Janine; Devenish, Gemma; Do, Loc; Scott, Jane

    2018-01-01

    There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR) in measuring the intake of five nutrients in a cohort of Australian toddlers compared to a combined 24HR and 2-day estimated food record (2...

  12. Marital conflict and parental responses to infant negative emotions: Relations with toddler emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal Encouragement to Approach Novelty: A Curvilinear Relation to Change in Anxiety for Inhibited Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Premo, Julie E; Buss, Kristin A

    2016-04-01

    Various parenting behaviors (e.g., protection, intrusiveness, sensitivity) have been shown to impact young children's anxiety development, particularly for temperamentally inhibited children. These behaviors have sometimes predicted both increases and decreases in anxiety in inhibited children, suggesting that linear relations may not adequately model their influence. In the current study, we proposed the dimension of encouragement to approach novelty to characterize parenting behavior ranging from very little encouragement (i.e., protective behavior) to very strong encouragement (i.e., intrusiveness), with gentle encouragement residing in the middle. In a sample of 110 toddlers (48 female, 62 male) and their mothers, the linear and curvilinear effects of this parenting dimension were investigated in relation to change in child separation anxiety and shyness from age 2 to age 3. Inhibited temperament was also investigated as a moderator. Encouragement to approach novelty displayed the hypothesized curvilinear relation to change in separation anxiety, but not shyness, at extreme levels of inhibited temperament. Toddlers increased in separation anxiety when mothers' encouragement resided at either extreme end of the continuum, with lower child anxiety occurring when mothers displayed behavior closer to the middle of the continuum. Implications for the study of parenting outcomes for inhibited toddlers are discussed.

  14. Maternal Expectations for Toddlers' Reactions to Novelty: Relations of Maternal Internalizing Symptoms and Parenting Dimensions to Expectations and Accuracy of Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A

    2010-07-03

    OBJECTIVE: Although maternal internalizing symptoms and parenting dimensions have been linked to reports and perceptions of children's behavior, it remains relatively unknown whether these characteristics relate to expectations or the accuracy of expectations for toddlers' responses to novel situations. DESIGN: A community sample of 117 mother-toddler dyads participated in a laboratory visit and questionnaire completion. At the laboratory, mothers were interviewed about their expectations for their toddlers' behaviors in a variety of novel tasks; toddlers then participated in these activities, and trained coders scored their behaviors. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing demographics, depressive and worry symptoms, and parenting dimensions. RESULTS: Mothers who reported more worry expected their toddlers to display more fearful behavior during the laboratory tasks, but worry did not moderate how accurately maternal expectations predicted toddlers' observed behavior. When also reporting a low level of authoritative-responsive parenting, maternal depressive symptoms moderated the association between maternal expectations and observed toddler behavior, such that, as depressive symptoms increased, maternal expectations related less strongly to toddler behavior. CONCLUSIONS: When mothers were asked about their expectations for their toddlers' behavior in the same novel situations from which experimenters observe this behavior, symptoms and parenting had minimal effect on the accuracy of mothers' expectations. When in the context of low authoritative-responsive parenting, however, depressive symptoms related to less accurate predictions of their toddlers' fearful behavior.

  15. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire for identifying the dietary patterns of toddlers in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Virginia C; Skidmore, Paula M L; Watson, Emily O; Taylor, Rachael W; Fleming, Elizabeth A; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2015-04-01

    Dietary patterns provide insight into relationships between diet and disease. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) can identify dietary patterns in adults, but similar analyses have not been performed for toddlers. The aim of the Eating Assessment in Toddlers study was to evaluate the relative validity and reproducibility of dietary patterns from an FFQ developed for toddlers aged 12 to 24 months. Participants were 160 toddlers aged 12 to 24 months and their primary caregiver who completed an FFQ twice, approximately 5 weeks apart (FFQ1 and FFQ2). A 5-day weighed food record was collected on nonconsecutive days between FFQ administrations. Principal component analysis identified three major dietary patterns similar across FFQ1, FFQ2, and the 5-day weighted food record. The sweet foods and fries pattern was characterized by high intakes of sweet foods, fries and roast potato and kumara (sweet potato), butter and margarines, processed meat, sweet drinks, and fruit or milk drinks. The vegetables and meat pattern was characterized by high intakes of vegetables, meat, eggs and beans, and fruit. The milk and fruit pattern was characterized by high intakes of milk and milk products and fruit, and low intakes of breastmilk and infant and follow-up formula. The FFQ (FFQ1) correctly classified 43.1% to 51.0% of toddlers into the same quartile of pattern score as the 5-day weighted food record, and Pearson correlations ranged from 0.56 to 0.68 for the three patterns. Reliability coefficients ranged from 0.71 to 0.72 for all three dietary patterns. the Eating Assessment in Toddlers study FFQ shows acceptable relative validity and high reproducibility for identifying dietary patterns in toddlers. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antecedents of Toddler Aggression: Dysfunctional Parenting in Mother-Toddler Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Tamara; O'Leary, Susan G.

    2006-01-01

    Aggression is stable as early as 2 years of age and predicts many negative adult outcomes. Although longitudinal predictors of child aggression have been identified, information is lacking regarding the proximal precursors of toddlers' aggression. During a 30-min interaction, 54 mother-toddler dyads were observed. Toddlers were categorized as…

  17. MR imaging of proximal femur: age-related changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Heon; Jeon, Woo Jin; Sohn, Cheol Ho; Park, Mi Ok; Lee, Seong Mun; Joo, Yang Gu; Suh, Soo Jhi; Pyun, Young Sik

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate MR patterns of signal intensity of proximal femur in normal subjects according to the age distribution. T1-weighted MR images of the proximal femur in 125 subjects, aged 13 days to 25 years, were retrospectively analyzed. Age distribution was classified to 4 groups; below 4 months, 5 months to 4 years, 5 years to 14 years, and 15 years to 25 years. By the age of 4 months, the non-ossified femoral epiphysis was seen as intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage. At 5 months-4 years, the ossified femoral capital epiphysis was seen within intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage and appeared as decreased or increased signal-intensity red or yellow marrow surrounded by a rim of low-signal-intensity cortical bone. At 5-14 years, the ossified femoral capital and greater trochanteric epiphysis were seen within the intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage and appeared as decreased or increased signal-intensity red or yellow marrow. At 15-25 years, the proximal metaphyseal marrow showed increased signal intensity. Four patterns of the metaphyseal marrow were recognized by Ricci et al. The frequency of pattern 1 a progressively decreased with age. Pattern 2 and 3 were visible in the 15-25 years age group. An understanding of the spectrum of normal age-related change of the proximal femoral cartilage and marrow patterns serves as the foundation for interpretation of proximal femur pathologies

  18. Relative Validity of a 24-h Recall in Assessing Intake of Key Nutrients in a Cohort of Australian Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Beaton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR in measuring the intake of five nutrients in a cohort of Australian toddlers compared to a combined 24HR and 2-day estimated food record (2DFR. A single 24HR and a 2DFR were collected from a cohort of Australian toddlers (n = 699 at approximately 12 months of age as part of the Study of Mothers’ and Infants’ Life Events affecting oral health (SMILE project. Relative validity of one day of dietary data (24HR in assessing intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars was tested against three days of dietary data (24HR + 2DFR using paired t-tests, Bland–Altman analysis, cross-classification, and weighted Kappa statistic. Classification analysis found good agreement between the 24HR and 24HR + 2DFR for all nutrients with the percentage classified in the same tertile at 57.9% and above. The weighted Kappa statistic found acceptable agreement for all nutrients. This study suggests that a 24HR is a valid assessment tool for estimating the relative intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars among Australian toddlers at the individual level.

  19. Relative Validity of a 24-h Recall in Assessing Intake of Key Nutrients in a Cohort of Australian Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Elizabeth; Wright, Janine; Devenish, Gemma; Do, Loc; Scott, Jane

    2018-01-12

    There is limited information concerning the dietary intake of toddlers in Australia. Consequently, there is a need for studies investigating toddler intake that use dietary assessment measures that are valid and place a low participant burden on caregivers. The aim of this study was to determine the relative validity of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR) in measuring the intake of five nutrients in a cohort of Australian toddlers compared to a combined 24HR and 2-day estimated food record (2DFR). A single 24HR and a 2DFR were collected from a cohort of Australian toddlers ( n = 699) at approximately 12 months of age as part of the Study of Mothers' and Infants' Life Events affecting oral health (SMILE) project. Relative validity of one day of dietary data (24HR) in assessing intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars was tested against three days of dietary data (24HR + 2DFR) using paired t -tests, Bland-Altman analysis, cross-classification, and weighted Kappa statistic. Classification analysis found good agreement between the 24HR and 24HR + 2DFR for all nutrients with the percentage classified in the same tertile at 57.9% and above. The weighted Kappa statistic found acceptable agreement for all nutrients. This study suggests that a 24HR is a valid assessment tool for estimating the relative intake of energy, protein, calcium, iron, and added sugars among Australian toddlers at the individual level.

  20. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition of small catfish, Mystus bleekeri, from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan was investigated and fluctuation in relation to body size and condition factor was carried out. Mean percentages for water, fat, protein and ash contents in the whole wet body weight of wild M. bleekeri were 77.87, 3.26, 15.01 and ...

  1. Impact of Relational Proximity on Distress from Infidelity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Maryanne; Geher, Glenn; Cox, Anthony; Tran, Ulrich S.; Hoben, Ashley; Arrabaca, Andrew; Chaize, Corinna; Dietrich, Robert; Voracek, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Men are generally more distressed by a partner's sexual infidelity whereas women are generally more distressed by a partner's emotional infidelity. The importance of the identity of the interloper, however, has been neglected. We explored the influence of relational proximity (i.e., the degree of

  2. The concept Conduct of Everyday Life in relation to toddlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Pernille

    , they are involved in preventive interventions. I conducted participatory observations with the children in their everyday life. Overall, the study stresses that even small children must be perceived as active participants who act upon and struggle with different conditions and meaning making processes across......In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed...... contexts (home, day care, part-time foster family) and in relation to other co-participants....

  3. Impact of Relational Proximity on Distress from Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryanne Fisher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Men are generally more distressed by a partner's sexual infidelity whereas women are generally more distressed by a partner's emotional infidelity. The importance of the identity of the interloper, however, has been neglected. We explored the influence of relational proximity (i.e., the degree of genetic relatedness on distress about infidelity. In Study 1, participants were most distressed when the imagined infidelity occurred between their current mate and close kin. In Study 2, relational proximity mattered more than the type of sexual behavior, the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted disease, and the likelihood of the infidelity leading to a damaged reputation. Together, the results indicate that identity matters, especially if the interloper is someone with whom we have familial bonds.

  4. Toddler Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child visits are important to your toddler's health. Toddlers will get their recommended immunizations during these visits. Routine exams and screenings help you and your kids prevent and treat health problems as well as chart their growth and development.

  5. Relatively Inexact Proximal Point Algorithm and Linear Convergence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram U. Verma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a notion of relatively maximal (m-relaxed monotonicity, the approximation solvability of a general class of inclusion problems is discussed, while generalizing Rockafellar's theorem (1976 on linear convergence using the proximal point algorithm in a real Hilbert space setting. Convergence analysis, based on this new model, is simpler and compact than that of the celebrated technique of Rockafellar in which the Lipschitz continuity at 0 of the inverse of the set-valued mapping is applied. Furthermore, it can be used to generalize the Yosida approximation, which, in turn, can be applied to first-order evolution equations as well as evolution inclusions.

  6. Genetic and epigenetic transgenerational implications related to omega-3 fatty acids. Part II: maternal FADS2 rs174575 genotype and DNA methylation predict toddler cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Carol L; Lupu, Daniel S; Niculescu, Mihai D

    2015-11-01

    Maternal transfer of fatty acids is important to fetal brain development. The prenatal environment may differentially affect the substrates supporting declarative memory abilities, as the level of fatty acids transferred across the placenta may be affected by the maternal fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) rs174575 single nucleotide polymorphism. In this study, we hypothesized that toddler and maternal rs174575 genotype and FADS2 promoter methylation would be related to the toddlers' declarative memory performance. Seventy-one 16-month-old toddlers participated in an imitation paradigm designed to test immediate and long-term declarative memory abilities. FADS2 rs174575 genotype was determined and FADS2 promoter methylation was quantified from blood by bisulfite pyrosequencing for the toddlers and their natural mothers. Toddlers of GG mothers at the FADS2 rs174575 single nucleotide polymorphism did not perform as well on memory assessments as toddlers of CC or CG mothers when controlling for plasma α-linolenic acid and child genotype. Toddler methylation status was related to immediate memory performance, whereas maternal methylation status was related to delayed memory performance. Thus, prenatal experience and maternal FADS2 status have a pervasive, long-lasting influence on the brain development of the offspring, but as the postnatal environment becomes more primary, the offsprings' own biology begins to have an effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations between toddlers' and parents' BMI, in relation to family socio-demography: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindkvist, Marie; Ivarsson, Anneli; Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Eurenius, Eva

    2015-12-17

    It is well established that the pregnancy and the first years of life are important for future childhood health and body weight. Even though current evidence suggests that both parents are important for childhood health, the influence that parents' BMI and socio-demography has on toddlers' BMI has so far received little attention. This study aimed to increase our knowledge on the association between toddlers' and parents' BMI, in relation to family socio-demography. Further, the aim was to investigate the interaction between the mothers' and fathers' BMI in relation to their child's BMI. A total of 697 children with a median age of 18 months (range 16-24 months) participated in the study along with their mothers (n = 697) and fathers (n = 674). As regards representability, our parental sample had a lower proportion of immigrants and the parents were more gainfully employed compared to parents in the rest of Sweden (when the child was 18 months old). The parents completed a questionnaire on parental and child health. Data on parental weight, height, and socio-demographics were recorded along with the child's weight and height measured at an ordinary child health care visit. We used the thresholds for children's BMI that were recommended for surveillance by the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health in 2012 based on the WHO reference population. Among the toddlers, 33 % had a BMI above the WHO 85(th) percentile and 14 % had a BMI above the WHO 95(th) percentile. The probability of a toddler having a BMI above the WHO 95(th) percentile was significantly increased if either the mother or father was overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)). Furthermore, we found a positive synergistic effect between the mother and father being overweight and their child having a BMI above the WHO 85(th) percentile. No associations were found between the toddlers' BMI and the family's socio-demographics, but there were associations between the parents' BMI and the family

  8. Design of relative trajectories for in orbit proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opromolla, Roberto; Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to design relative trajectories suitable for close-proximity operations in orbit, by assigning high-level constraints regarding their stability, shape and orientation. Specifically, this work is relevant to space mission scenarios, e.g. formation flying, on-orbit servicing, and active debris removal, which involve either the presence of two spacecraft carrying out coordinated maneuvers, or a servicing/recovery spacecraft (chaser) performing monitoring, rendezvous and docking with respect to another space object (target). In the above-mentioned scenarios, an important aspect is the capability of reducing collision risks and of providing robust and accurate relative navigation solutions. To this aim, the proposed approach exploits a relative motion model relevant to two-satellite formations, and developed in mean orbit parameters, which takes the perturbation effect due to secular Earth oblateness, as well as the motion of the target along a small-eccentricity orbit, into account. This model is used to design trajectories which ensure safe relative motion, to minimize collision risks and relax control requirements, providing at the same time favorable conditions, in terms of target-chaser relative observation geometry for pose determination and relative navigation with passive or active electro-optical sensors on board the chaser. Specifically, three design strategies are proposed in the context of a space target monitoring scenario, considering as design cases both operational spacecraft and debris, characterized by highly variable shape, size and absolute rotational dynamics. The effectiveness of the proposed design approach in providing favorable observation conditions for target-chaser relative pose estimation is demonstrated within a simulation environment which reproduces the designed target-chaser relative trajectory, the operation of an active LIDAR installed on board the chaser, and pose estimation algorithms.

  9. Development and Relative Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Intakes of Total and Free Sugars in Australian Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenish, Gemma; Mukhtar, Aqif; Begley, Andrea; Do, Loc; Scott, Jane

    2017-11-08

    Background : Dental research into early childhood caries is hindered by a lack of suitable dietary assessment tools that have been developed and validated for the population and outcomes of interest. The aim of this study was to develop and investigate the relative validity and reproducibility of the Study of Mothers' and Infants' Life Events Food Frequency Questionnaire (SMILE-FFQ), to assess the total and free sugars intakes of Australian toddlers. Methods : The SMILE-FFQ was designed to capture the leading dietary contributors to dental caries risk in toddlers aged 18-30 months via a proxy report. Ninety-five parents of Australian toddlers completed the questionnaire online before and after providing three 24-h recalls (24HR), collected on non-consecutive days using the multipass method. Total and free sugars were compared between the two SMILE-FFQ administrations and between each SMILE-FFQ and the 24HR using multiple statistical tests and standardised validity criteria. Correlation (Pearson), mean difference (Wilcoxon rank test) and Bland Altman analyses were conducted to compare absolute values, with cross-classification (Chi-Square and Weighted Kappa) used to compare agreement across tertiles. Results : All reproducibility tests showed good agreement except weighted kappa, which showed acceptable agreement. Relative validity tests revealed a mix of good and acceptable agreement, with total sugars performing better at the individual level than free sugars. Compared to the 24HR, the SMILE-FFQ tended to underestimate absolute values at lower levels and overestimate them at higher levels. Conclusions : The combined findings of the various tests indicate that the SMILE-FFQ performs comparably to the 24HR for assessing both total and free sugars among individuals, is most effective for ranking participants rather than determining absolute intakes, and is therefore suitable for use in observational studies of Australian toddlers.

  10. Toddler Reading Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Keep Toddlers Active Toddlers: Learning by Playing Music and Your Toddler Safe Exploring for Toddlers View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  11. Development of Body-Part Vocabulary in Toddlers in Relation to Self-Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Whitney E.; Brownell, Celia A.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand young children's ability to communicate about their bodies, toddlers' comprehension and production of 27 common body-part words was assessed using parental report at 20 and 30 months (n?=?64), and self-awareness was assessed using mirror self-recognition. Children at both ages comprehended more body-part words that referred to…

  12. Empathy-Related Responding in Chinese Toddlers: Factorial Structure and Cognitive Contributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heqing; Su, Yanjie; Jin, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The critical role of the second year of life in the development of empathy is well accepted by psychologists. However, the developmental trends of the different components of empathy and the potential factors underlying these components during this critical period remain unclear. Eighty-four Chinese toddlers in the second year of life participated…

  13. Toddler Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is exciting to watch your toddler learn new skills. The normal development of children aged 1-3 includes several areas: Gross motor - walking, running, climbing Fine motor - feeding themselves, drawing Sensory - seeing, hearing, tasting, ...

  14. Toddler development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a secure place. Keep toddlers away from the kitchen with a safety gate. Place them in a ... development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics . 7th ed. Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  15. Prenatal maternal stress in relation to the effects of prenatal lead exposure on toddler cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Jinsong; Yan, Chonghuai; Lin, Yanfen; Jia, Yinan; Hu, Wenjing

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of maternal lead exposure during pregnancy on toddler cognitive development and the potential effect modification by maternal stress. We conducted a prospective birth-cohort study in Shanghai from 2010 to 2012 and investigated 225 mother-infant pairs. The mothers were recruited in mid-to-late pregnancy and children were followed up until 24-36 months old. A self-administered Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale (SCL-90-R) was used to assess maternal emotional stress during pregnancy. Maternal whole blood lead levels were measured during gestational weeks 28-36. The toddlers' cognitive levels were assessed using the Gesell Development Scale. Multiple linear regression models were established to explore the main effects of prenatal lead exposure on toddlers' cognitive abilities and the modifying effects of maternal stress. Covariate information was collected through interviews, questionnaires and medical records. The mean maternal blood lead concentration was 3.30 (95%CI: 3.05, 3.57) μg/dL. After adjusting for relevant confounders, no significant associations of maternal blood lead concentrations with toddlers' cognitive levels were observed in all five domains of the Gesell scale (P>0.05). However, the interaction between prenatal maternal blood lead and stress was significant in the domains of adaptive behavior, language and social behavior. When stratified by maternal stress levels, compared with non-significant associations (P>0.05) among low (P1-P75) prenatal stress group, adverse associations between maternal blood lead concentrations (log10-transformed) and toddlers' cognitive levels were observed among high (P75-P100) prenatal stress group in the domains of language (β=-33.82, 95%CI: -60.04, -7.59), social behavior (β=-41.00, 95%CI: -63.11, -18.89) and adaptive behavior (β=-17.93, 95%CI: -35.83, -0.03). Prenatal maternal stress may exacerbate the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to lead on toddler cognitive development

  16. Relation between infants'/toddlers' developmental status and their levels of object play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of introduced study was to establish the connection between the highest achieved levels of infant' and toddler's object play and their developmental status. 23 Slovenian infants and toddlers were included in the sample. They were engaged in solitary play with standard toys. Global and partial quotients were established using the early childhood development scale RT-R. The levels of child's solitary play were estimated using assesment scale designed by Belsky and Most. The results showed some statisticaly significant correlations between children's developmental qoutients (global and partial and their highest achieved levels of object play. As the basis for the interpretation of results I used the theories which explain the development of child's language, cognition and play.

  17. The relation between family meals and health of infants and toddlers: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhage, Chantal L; Gillebaart, Marleen; van der Veek, Shelley M C; Vereijken, Carolus M J L

    2018-04-11

    Family meals are associated with multiple health benefits in children and adolescents including evidence that eating together as a family may play a role in reducing childhood obesity. The current review aims to investigate whether the beneficial health effects of the family meal also apply to infants and toddlers. PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and PsycInfo were searched and 14 empirical studies were identified. The findings were discussed according to frequency of having a family meal and parental perception, associations between the family meal and health aspects (e.g., eating behaviors and diet quality) and causal influences of these associations. Descriptive data showed that mothers offer food at a structured mealtime, but that eating together as a family was not always upheld. The frequency of family meals was positively associated with more nutrient-dense food intake and a more balanced diet. Different advantages (e.g., social importance, practical considerations) and obstacles (e.g., planning, possible mess) of the family meal were mentioned by parents. Further, having structured mealtimes and family meals was associated with more food enjoyment and less fussy and emotional eating. Finally, no causal studies were identified. The limited number of studies suggests that the pattern of positive associations between family meal and child health which has been shown in older children may also exist in infants and toddlers. More specific research is needed to examine the causality of the associations between the family meal and health of the infant and toddler. The associations between the family meal and less fussiness and emotional eating, more food enjoyment and better nutrient intake suggest that the family meal is a valuable moment to promote healthy eating in toddlers and infants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Toddlers' bias to look at average versus obese figures relates to maternal anti-fat prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; O'Brien, Kerry S; Taumoepeau, Mele; Latner, Janet D; Hunter, John A

    2016-02-01

    Anti-fat prejudice (weight bias, obesity stigma) is strong, prevalent, and increasing in adults and is associated with negative outcomes for those with obesity. However, it is unknown how early in life this prejudice forms and the reasons for its development. We examined whether infants and toddlers might display an anti-fat bias and, if so, whether it was influenced by maternal anti-fat attitudes through a process of social learning. Mother-child dyads (N=70) split into four age groups participated in a preferential looking paradigm whereby children were presented with 10 pairs of average and obese human figures in random order, and their viewing times (preferential looking) for the figures were measured. Mothers' anti-fat prejudice and education were measured along with mothers' and fathers' body mass index (BMI) and children's television viewing time. We found that older infants (M=11months) had a bias for looking at the obese figures, whereas older toddlers (M=32months) instead preferred looking at the average-sized figures. Furthermore, older toddlers' preferential looking was correlated significantly with maternal anti-fat attitudes. Parental BMI, education, and children's television viewing time were unrelated to preferential looking. Looking times might signal a precursor to explicit fat prejudice socialized via maternal anti-fat attitudes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. TODDLERS (1 - 5 YEARS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    to atopic dermatitis, but apart from this, the toddler years are a relatively quiet period dermatologically ... in addition to sessional work as a consultant at Johannesburg .... The rash fades rapidly within hours to a few days, and there is no desqua ...

  20. Infant attachment and toddlers' sleep assessed by maternal reports and actigraphy: different measurement methods yield different relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Valérie; Bernier, Annie; Bélanger, Marie-Ève; Carrier, Julie

    2013-06-01

    To investigate relations between children's attachment and sleep, using objective and subjective sleep measures. Secondarily, to identify the most accurate actigraphy algorithm for toddlers. 55 mother-child dyads took part in the Strange Situation Procedure (18 months) to assess attachment. At 2 years, children wore an Actiwatch for a 72-hr period, and their mothers completed a sleep diary. The high sensitivity (80) and smoothed actigraphy algorithms provided the most plausible sleep data. Maternal diaries yielded longer estimated sleep duration and shorter wake duration at night and showed poor agreement with actigraphy. More resistant attachment behavior was not associated with actigraphy-assessed sleep, but was associated with longer nocturnal wake duration as estimated by mothers, and with a reduced actigraphy-diary discrepancy. Mothers of children with resistant attachment are more aware of their child's nocturnal awakenings. Researchers and clinicians should select the best sleep measurement method for their specific needs.

  1. Nonlocal thermoelectric symmetry relations in ferromagnet-superconductor proximity structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machon, Peter; Belzig, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Eschrig, Matthias [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham Hill, EGHAM, TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The symmetries of thermal and electric transport coefficients in quantum coherent structures are related to fundamental thermodynamic principles by the Onsager reciprocity. We generalize Onsager's symmetry relation to nonlocal thermoelectric currents in a three terminal ferromagnet-superconductor heterostructure including spin-dependent crossed Andreev reflection and direct electron transfer processes. We proof this general symmetry by applying spin-dependent boundary conditions for quasi-classical Green's functions in both the clean and the dirty limit. We predict an anomalously large local thermopower and a nonlocal Seebeck effect, which can be explained by the spin-dependent spectral properties.

  2. Poor relation between biomechanical and clinical studies for the proximal femoral locking compression plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viberg, Bjarke; Voergård Rasmussen, Katrine Marie; Overgaard, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — The proximal femur locking compression plate (PF-LCP) is a new concept in the treatment of hip fractures. When releasing new implants onto the market, biomechanical studies are conducted to evaluate performance of the implant. We investigated the relation between biomecha......Background and purpose — The proximal femur locking compression plate (PF-LCP) is a new concept in the treatment of hip fractures. When releasing new implants onto the market, biomechanical studies are conducted to evaluate performance of the implant. We investigated the relation between...

  3. Snacks for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Snacks for Toddlers KidsHealth / For Parents / Snacks for Toddlers ... overdoing it at snack time. Stick to a Snack Schedule Kids do better with a routine, so ...

  4. Toddlers Watching TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2007-01-01

    In recent studies on children and electronic media, children are acknowledged as active users, interpreting TV-texts in various meaningful ways, according to their previously constructed knowledge of narratives and relating the texts to their everyday lives. Still, there is a tendency that toddlers......' (ages 1 to 3) viewing is neglected, and seen as mere fascinations of patterns, bright colours and movements without focusing on the social uses or uses in which television narratives come to play an important part in small children's experimenting with building identity and self-image. This article...... of children's media use, the way both parents, media and market set up the frames of children's reception....

  5. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers' eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach

    OpenAIRE

    van der Horst, Klazine; Sleddens, Ester F. C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Toddlers? eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. Methods An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardian...

  6. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers' eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Sleddens, Ester F C

    2017-01-01

    Toddlers' eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices) and by reported child eating styles. An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians) with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles. A three cluster solution of parenting style was found and clusters were labelled as overprotective/supervising, authoritarian, and authoritative. The clusters differed in terms of general parenting behaviors. Both overprotective and authoritative clusters showed high scores on structure, behavioral control, and nurturance. The overprotective cluster scored high on overprotection. The 'authoritarian' cluster showed lowest levels of nurturance, structure and behavioral control. Overprotective and authoritative parents showed very similar patterns in the use of food parenting practices, e.g. monitoring food intake, modeling, and promoting healthy food intake and availability at home. Overprotective parents also reported higher use of pressure to eat and involvement. Authoritarian parents reported high use of giving the child control over their food behaviors, emotion regulation, using food as a reward, and controlling food intake for weight control. Children's eating styles did not largely vary by parenting cluster. This study showed that a relatively new parenting style of overprotection is relevant for children's eating behaviors. Overprotective parents reported food parenting practices that are known to be beneficial for children's food intake, such as modelling healthy food intake, as well as

  7. Parenting styles, feeding styles and food-related parenting practices in relation to toddlers' eating styles: A cluster-analytic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klazine van der Horst

    Full Text Available Toddlers' eating behaviors are influenced by the way parents interact with their children. The objective of this study was to explore how five major constructs of general parenting behavior cluster in parents of toddlers. These parenting clusters were further explored to see how they differed in the use of feeding strategies (i.e. feeding styles and food parenting practices and by reported child eating styles.An online survey with 1005 mothers/caregivers (legal guardians with at least one child between 12 and 36 months old was conducted in the United States in 2012, assessing general parenting behavior, feeding style, food parenting practices and the child eating styles.A three cluster solution of parenting style was found and clusters were labelled as overprotective/supervising, authoritarian, and authoritative. The clusters differed in terms of general parenting behaviors. Both overprotective and authoritative clusters showed high scores on structure, behavioral control, and nurturance. The overprotective cluster scored high on overprotection. The 'authoritarian' cluster showed lowest levels of nurturance, structure and behavioral control. Overprotective and authoritative parents showed very similar patterns in the use of food parenting practices, e.g. monitoring food intake, modeling, and promoting healthy food intake and availability at home. Overprotective parents also reported higher use of pressure to eat and involvement. Authoritarian parents reported high use of giving the child control over their food behaviors, emotion regulation, using food as a reward, and controlling food intake for weight control. Children's eating styles did not largely vary by parenting cluster.This study showed that a relatively new parenting style of overprotection is relevant for children's eating behaviors. Overprotective parents reported food parenting practices that are known to be beneficial for children's food intake, such as modelling healthy food

  8. Proximity to traffic, ambient air pollution, and community noise in relation to incident rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, Anneclaire J; Koehoorn, Mieke; Tamburic, Lillian; Davies, Hugh W; Brauer, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with living near traffic; however, there is evidence suggesting that air pollution may not be responsible for this association. Noise, another traffic-generated exposure, has not been studied as a risk factor for RA. We investigated proximity to traffic, ambient air pollution, and community noise in relation to RA in the Vancouver and Victoria regions of British Columbia, Canada. Cases and controls were identified in a cohort of adults that was assembled using health insurance registration records. Incident RA cases from 1999 through 2002 were identified by diagnostic codes in combination with prescriptions and type of physician (e.g., rheumatologist). Controls were matched to RA cases by age and sex. Environmental exposures were assigned to each member of the study population by their residential postal code(s). We estimated relative risks using conditional logistic regression, with additional adjustment for median income at the postal code. RA incidence was increased with proximity to traffic, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.68) for residence ≤ 50 m from a highway compared with residence > 150 m away. We found no association with traffic-related exposures such as PM2.5, nitrogen oxides, or noise. Ground-level ozone, which was highest in suburban areas, was associated with an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.36 per interquartile range increase). Our study confirms a previously observed association of RA risk with proximity to traffic and suggests that neither noise levels nor traffic-related air pollutants are responsible for this relationship. Additional investigation of neighborhood and individual correlates of residence near roadways may provide new insight into risk factors for RA.

  9. Proximate Context of HIV-Related Stigma and Women's Use of Skilled Childbirth Services in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Courtney K; Tsai, Alexander C

    2017-01-01

    HIV-related stigma compromises both HIV prevention and treatment and has recently been described as a barrier to utilization of skilled childbirth services in sub-Saharan Africa. This study uses the 2011 Uganda Demographic Health Survey to estimate the associations between HIV-related stigma, measured both at the individual and community level, and use of facility delivery among women. Consistent with theoretical predictions, higher levels of stigma are associated with reduced likelihood of facility delivery. The negative relationship between stigma and facility delivery is especially pronounced when stigma is measured at the community level, highlighting the importance of understanding the proximate context of HIV-related stigma and its potential effects on behavior. Reducing the stigma of HIV will be critical to achieving the twin goals of reducing overall maternal mortality and preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission.

  10. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth / For Parents / Nutrition Guide ... español Guía de nutrición para sus hijos pequeños Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  11. Toddler Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the AAP Schedule of Well-Child Care Visits . ​​ Toddler Growth & Development Physical Skills Walks alone Pulls toys behind when ... 18 to 23 Month Old Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents ... Physical Appearance and Growth: Your 1 Year Old Physical Appearance and Growth: ...

  12. Incidence of childhood leukemia in relation to proximity and general characteristics of different environmental exposure sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sermage-Faure, C.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the environment in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia (AL) is currently investigated. In this context, the aim of the present work is to study the association between the incidence of AL and the proximity of nuclear power plants (NPP) and to high voltage overhead power lines (HV OLs). At first, the geographical variations of AL have been studied at the Departement level. The cases included in the studies are all cases of AL of the French National Registry of Childhood Haemopatopoietic Malignancies on the studied periods: 1990-2004 for the study of incidence on Departements and 2002-2007 for the studies of association between incidence of AL and environmental exposure factors. Concerning those latter studies, a case-control approach has been used. The control sample, representative of the French pediatric population, contains 30,000 subjects and has been drawn by the INSEE. The precise localization of addresses of subjects and of exposure sources in relation with the type of sources is essential to build indicators of exposure reflecting the probability and intensity of exposure. * The study of AL by Departement has highlighted neither trend nor spatial structure in the incidence at this geographical level globally as well as by age, gender and subtype of leukemia.* On 2002-2007, on the contrary of on previous periods, the incidence of AL at less than 5 km from a NPP was nearly twice higher than expected, with the case-control study as well as with the incidence approach. This result was not specific to any age group, NPP, a type of NPP and was not associated with the geographic zoning of gaseous discharges of NPPs. * The study of the proximity to HV OLs highlighted an association between the incidence of AL and the close proximity (≤ 50 m) of lines of more than 225 kV, association which was restricted to children of less than 5 y.o. or living in non-urban areas; but not with the proximity to lines of less than 150 kV. (author)

  13. Exploring the Relationship between Global Quality and Group Engagement in Toddler Child Care Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Alison; Hallam, Rena

    2017-01-01

    Toddlers' engagement with their social and physical environment is an important aspect of their experience in early care and education programs. The purpose of this research study was to examine how global quality relates to children's engagement in toddler child care classrooms. Additionally, this study explored how toddlers' group engagement…

  14. Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles KidsHealth / For Parents / Toddlers at the Table: ... common concerns into opportunities to teach healthy eating habits. Most Toddlers Are Picky Eaters Many toddlers express ...

  15. Lexical and grammatical skills in toddlers on the autism spectrum compared to late talking toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis Weismer, Susan; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Stronach, Sheri; Karasinski, Courtney; Eernisse, Elizabeth R; Venker, Courtney E; Sindberg, Heidi

    2011-08-01

    This study compared language development in 30-month-old toddlers on the autism spectrum and 25- month-old late talking toddlers without autism. Groups were matched on overall productive vocabulary (and nonverbal cognition was controlled) in order to compare language acquisition patterns related to vocabulary composition and early lexical–grammatical relationships. Findings revealed that semantic categories of words— including psychological state terms—used by toddlers on the autism spectrum were very similar to those of late talkers. Both groups were equivalent with respect to grammatical complexity and proportion of toddlers combining words, though late talkers displayed a relatively stronger association between lexical–grammatical abilities. These tentative findings are consistent with a dimensional account of early, core linguistic abilities across different populations of children with language delay.

  16. Raptor nest-site use in relation to the proximity of coalbed methane development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, J.D.; Sanders, Lindsey E.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Gerow, K.G.

    2018-01-01

    Raptor nest–site use in relation to the proximity of coalbed–methane development. Energy development such as coalbed–methane (CBM) extraction is a major land use with largely unknown consequences for many animal species. Some raptor species may be especially vulnerable to habitat changes due to energy development given their ecological requirements and population trajectories. Using 12,977 observations of 3,074 nests of 12 raptor species across nine years (2003–2011) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, we evaluated relationships between raptor nest–site use and CBM development. Our objectives were to determine temporal trends in nest–use rates, and whether nest–site use was related to the proximity of CBM development. Across the study area, nest–use rates varied across species and years in a non–linear fashion. We developed a novel randomization test to assess differences in use between nests at developed and undeveloped sites, while controlling for annual variation in nest–site use. Red–tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia), and long–eared owls (Asio otus) used nests in undeveloped areas more than nests in developed areas (i.e. nests near CBM development). Differences between development groups were equivocal for the remaining nine species; however, we caution that we likely had lower statistical power to detect differences for rarer species. Our findings suggest potential avoidance of nesting in areas near CBM development by some species and reveal that CBM effects may be fairly consistent across distances between 400–2,415 m from wells. Future work should consider habitat preferences and fitness outcomes, and control for other key factors such as local prey availability, raptor densities, and weather.

  17. Development of Sex-Typed Play Behavior in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Marion; Huston, Aletha C.

    1985-01-01

    Observed play of 52 toddlers with a set of socially stereotyped masculine, feminine, and neutral toys in a day care setting over 14 months to (1) determine the age at which toddlers consistently exhibit sex-stereotyped toy choices in a natural setting and (2) investigate relation of parents' expectations and the children's own knowledge of gender…

  18. The Emergence of Gender Segregation in Toddler Playgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, Lisa A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A naturalistic study of toddler playgroups examined factors that might encourage gender segregation. Results revealed that play in same-sex contexts facilitates social interaction, whereas in mixed-sex contexts, play leads to passive social relations. Toddlers who segregated were more behaviorally sex-typed. Preferences for sex-typed toys did not…

  19. Toddlers: Learning by Playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... so mastering physical skills should be fun and games for them. Parents should give toddlers many opportunities ...

  20. Relation of Bicuspid Aortic Valve Morphology to the Dilatation Pattern of the Proximal Aorta: Focus on the Transvalvular Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Girdauskas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether the dilatation of proximal aorta in patients with bicuspid aortic valve is secondary to hemodynamic effects related to the abnormal aortic valve or a primary manifestation of the genetic disorder remains controversial. We discuss in this paper the recent data on the BAV function and transvalvular flow patterns in relation with the dilatation type of the proximal aorta. Different morphological forms of bicuspid aortic valve in relation with the specific transvalvular blood flow patterns are focus of the first paragraph of this paper. In the second part of this paper we present the pathogenetic insight into the different clinically observed phenotypes of bicuspid aortic valve disease (i.e., association of proximal aortic shapes with the specific cusp fusion patterns, based on the data from recent rheological studies.

  1. Babies, Toddlers and the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that America's babies and toddlers live in a world full of television sets, VCRs, computers, videogames, and interactive…

  2. Innovations: Infant and Toddler Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Kay; Miller, Linda G.

    This book provides teachers of infants and toddlers with an in-depth guide to infant and toddler development, theories of growth and development, and best practices in early childhood education. The chapters are: (1) "Innovations: Infant and Toddler Development," looking at the underlying principles of developmental and interactional…

  3. Toddlers Help a Peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepach, Robert; Kante, Nadine; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Toddlers are remarkably prosocial toward adults, yet little is known about their helping behavior toward peers. In the present study with 18- and 30-month-old toddlers (n = 192, 48 dyads per age group), one child needed help reaching an object to continue a task that was engaging for both children. The object was within reach of the second child who helped significantly more often compared to a no-need control condition. The helper also fulfilled the peer's need when the task was engaging only for the child needing help. These findings suggest that toddlers' skills and motivations of helping do not depend on having a competent and helpful recipient, such as an adult, but rather they are much more flexible and general. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Effects of parent drug use and personality on toddler adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, J S; Whiteman, M; Shapiro, J; Cohen, P

    1996-03-01

    The interrelation between parental drug use and parental personality and the effects on 18-month-old children's adjustment were examined. Data on the parents were available at four points in time: Time 1 at mean age 6.1 years, Time 2 at mean age 13.7 years, Time 3 at mean age 16.4 years, and at Time 4 at mean age 22.2 years. Data on their toddlers at 18 months of age were also available. Structured interviews were used to assess personality and drug use and the toddlers' adjustment. Time 3 parental personality traits were related to Time 4 personality traits, which in turn were related to toddler adjustment. The influence of parental alcohol involvement (Time 3) on toddler adjustment was mediated by parental personality (Times 3 and 4) and parental alcohol problems (Time 4). Interactive effects demonstrated that protective parental personality traits (nondrug conducive) enhanced the effects of low parental drug use, resulting in the highest amounts of toddler adjustment. There are significant pathways between parental personality and drug use and toddler adjustment. Parental protective factors enhance the effect of parental low drug use on toddler adjustment.

  5. Development of independent walking in toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanenko, Yuri P; Dominici, Nadia; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    Surprisingly, despite millions of years of bipedal walking evolution, the gravity-related pendulum mechanism of walking does not seem to be implemented at the onset of independent walking, requiring each toddler to develop it. We discuss the precursor of the mature locomotor pattern in infants as an

  6. Failure to thrive and cognitive development in toddlers with infantile anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatoor, Irene; Surles, Jaclyn; Ganiban, Jody; Beker, Leila; Paez, Laura McWade; Kerzner, Benny

    2004-05-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relative contributions of growth deficiency and psychosocial factors to cognitive development in toddlers with infantile anorexia. Eighty-eight toddlers, ranging in age from 12 to 33 months, were enrolled in this study. Toddlers were evaluated by 2 child psychiatrists and placed into 1 of 3 groups: infantile anorexia, picky eater, and healthy eater. All 3 groups were matched for age, race, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). Toddlers underwent nutritional evaluations and cognitive assessments with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Toddlers and their mothers were also videotaped during feeding and play interactions, which later were rated independently by 2 observers. On average, toddlers with infantile anorexia performed within the normal range of cognitive development. However, the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) scores of the healthy eater group (MDI = 110) were significantly higher than those of the infantile anorexia (MDI = 99) and picky eater (MDI = 96) groups. Within the infantile anorexia group, correlations between MDI scores and the toddlers' percentage of ideal body weight approached statistical significance (r =.32). Across all groups, the toddlers' MDI scores were associated with the quality of mother-child interactions, SES level, and maternal education level. Collectively, these variables explained 22% of the variance in MDI scores. This study demonstrated that psychosocial factors, such as mother-toddler interactions, maternal education level, and SES level, are related to the cognitive development of toddlers with feeding problems and explain more unique variance in MDI scores than nutritional status.

  7. Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived proximity to mobile phone base stations and powerlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolte John

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence about a possible causal relationship between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF emitted by sources such as mobile phone base stations (BS and powerlines is insufficient. So far little epidemiological research has been published on the contribution of psychological components to the occurrence of EMF-related NSPS. The prior objective of the current study is to explore the relative importance of actual and perceived proximity to base stations and psychological components as determinants of NSPS, adjusting for demographic, residency and area characteristics. Methods Analysis was performed on data obtained in a cross-sectional study on environment and health in 2006 in the Netherlands. In the current study, 3611 adult respondents (response rate: 37% in twenty-two Dutch residential areas completed a questionnaire. Self-reported instruments included a symptom checklist and assessment of environmental and psychological characteristics. The computation of the distance between household addresses and location of base stations and powerlines was based on geo-coding. Multilevel regression models were used to test the hypotheses regarding the determinants related to the occurrence of NSPS. Results After adjustment for demographic and residential characteristics, analyses yielded a number of statistically significant associations: Increased report of NSPS was predominantly predicted by higher levels of self-reported environmental sensitivity; perceived proximity to base stations and powerlines, lower perceived control and increased avoidance (coping behavior were also associated with NSPS. A trend towards a moderator effect of perceived environmental sensitivity on the relation between perceived proximity to BS and NSPS was verified (p = 0.055. There was no significant association between symptom occurrence and actual distance to BS or powerlines. Conclusions Perceived proximity to BS

  8. Maternal depressive symptoms, toddler emotion regulation, and subsequent emotion socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Correlates and consequences of toddler cortisol reactivity to fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Kalomiris, Anne E

    2016-02-01

    Cortisol reactivity to fear-eliciting stimuli during toddlerhood may represent an indicator of risk for anxiety spectrum problems and other maladjustment. Thus, it is important to understand factors that may contribute to cortisol reactivity as well as those that determine its predictive relation to early emerging anxiety. In this vein, the current study investigated maternal comforting behaviors, both solicited and unsolicited by the toddler, as correlates of cortisol reactivity at 2years of age. Furthermore, we investigated maternal comforting behaviors and behavioral indicators of fear in both a low-threat and a high-threat context as moderators of the relation between cortisol reactivity at age 2 and change in anxiety from age 2 to age 3. The sample comprised 99 2-year-old toddlers and their mothers. Toddlers provided saliva samples at baseline and after a fear-eliciting stimulus that were assayed for cortisol. Mothers were observed for comforting behavior while interacting with their toddlers in laboratory tasks and completed questionnaires about their toddlers' anxiety. Results indicated that unsolicited (spontaneous) comforting behavior related to toddler cortisol reactivity above and beyond solicited comforting and the level of fear toddlers displayed in the same task. Moreover, fear in a low-threat context, but not in a high-threat context, moderated the relation between cortisol reactivity and change in anxiety, such that cortisol reactivity had a positive relation to anxiety at extreme levels of low-threat fear. Results suggest the importance of considering the caregiving environment and context-specific fear in understanding the nature of cortisol reactivity during the toddler years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Motor development of blind toddler

    OpenAIRE

    Likar, Petra

    2013-01-01

    For blind toddlers, development of motor skills enables possibilities for learning and exploring the environment. The purpose of this graduation thesis is to systematically mark the milestones in development of motor skills in blind toddlers, to establish different factors which affect this development, and to discover different ways for teachers for visually impaired and parents to encourage development of motor skills. It is typical of blind toddlers that they do not experience a wide varie...

  11. Brain region's relative proximity as marker for Alzheimer's disease based on structural MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge Emil; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, incurable neurodegenerative disease and the most common type of dementia. It cannot be prevented, cured or drastically slowed, even though AD research has increased in the past 5-10 years. Instead of focusing on the brain volume or on the single...... brain structures like hippocampus, this paper investigates the relationship and proximity between regions in the brain and uses this information as a novel way of classifying normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and AD subjects.METHODS:A longitudinal cohort of 528 subjects (170 NC, 240...... to whole brain and hippocampus volume.RESULTS:We found that both our markers was able to significantly classify the subjects. The surface connectivity marker showed the best results with an area under the curve (AUC) at 0.877 (p...

  12. Maternal Accuracy in Predicting Toddlers' Behaviors and Associations with Toddlers' Fearful Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2006-01-01

    Past research provides associations between maternal parenting behaviors and characteristics such as depression and toddlers' fearful temperament. Less is known about how maternal cognitive characteristics and normal personality relate to fearful temperament. This study examined associations among the maternal cognitive characteristic of accuracy,…

  13. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  14. Age- and gender-related distribution of bone mineral density and mechanical properties of the proximal humerus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lill, H.; Hepp, P.; Korner, J.; Josten, C.; Gowin, W.; Oestmann, J.W.; Haas, N.P.; Duda, G.N.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate age- and gender-related mechanical properties and bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal humerus at different levels and regions. Materials and methods: Mechanical indentation testing, DXA, QCT, pQCT and the radiogrammetry (Cortical Index, CI) were carried out in 70 freshly harvested humeri from 46 human cadavers (23 females, 23-males; median age 70.5 years). Results: In the female group, a high correlation between age and BMD was found (ρ=0.62 to -0.70, p [de

  15. Positive and negative expressions of shyness in toddlers: are they related to anxiety in the same way?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colonnesi, C.; Napoleone, E.; Bögels, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Shyness has generally been investigated as a negative and unpleasant emotional state, strongly related to social anxiety and loneliness. However, recent evidence suggests that shyness may have a positive and socially adaptive form. We examined whether the positive expression of shyness differs from

  16. Proximal Humerus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diercks, Ron L.; Bain, Gregory; Itoi, Eiji; Di Giacomo, Giovanni; Sugaya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the bony structures of the proximal humerus. The proximal humerus is often regarded as consisting of four parts, which assists in understanding function and, more specially, describes the essential parts in reconstruction after fracture or in joint replacement. These are the

  17. Systematic development and validation of a theory-based questionnaire to assess toddler feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kristen M; Pepper, M Reese; Candelaria, Margo; Wang, Yan; Caulfield, Laura E; Latta, Laura; Hager, Erin R; Black, Maureen M

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a 27-item caregiver-reported questionnaire on toddler feeding. The development of the Toddler Feeding Behavior Questionnaire was based on a theory of interactive feeding that incorporates caregivers' responses to concerns about their children's dietary intake, appetite, size, and behaviors rather than relying exclusively on caregiver actions. Content validity included review by an expert panel (n = 7) and testing in a pilot sample (n = 105) of low-income mothers of toddlers. Construct validity and reliability were assessed among a second sample of low-income mothers of predominately African-American (70%) toddlers aged 12-32 mo (n = 297) participating in the baseline evaluation of a toddler overweight prevention study. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α: 0.64-0.87) and test-retest (0.57-0.88) reliability were acceptable for most constructs. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed 5 theoretically derived constructs of feeding: responsive, forceful/pressuring, restrictive, indulgent, and uninvolved (root mean square error of approximation = 0.047, comparative fit index = 0.90, standardized root mean square residual = 0.06). Statistically significant (P feeding behaviors, toddler overweight status, perceived toddler fussiness, and maternal mental health. The Toddler Feeding Behavior Questionnaire adds to the field by providing a brief instrument that can be administered in 5 min to examine how caregiver-reported feeding behaviors relate to toddler health and behavior.

  18. Systematic Development and Validation of a Theory-Based Questionnaire to Assess Toddler Feeding12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kristen M.; Pepper, M. Reese; Candelaria, Margo; Wang, Yan; Caulfield, Laura E.; Latta, Laura; Hager, Erin R.; Black, Maureen M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a 27-item caregiver-reported questionnaire on toddler feeding. The development of the Toddler Feeding Behavior Questionnaire was based on a theory of interactive feeding that incorporates caregivers’ responses to concerns about their children’s dietary intake, appetite, size, and behaviors rather than relying exclusively on caregiver actions. Content validity included review by an expert panel (n = 7) and testing in a pilot sample (n = 105) of low-income mothers of toddlers. Construct validity and reliability were assessed among a second sample of low-income mothers of predominately African-American (70%) toddlers aged 12–32 mo (n = 297) participating in the baseline evaluation of a toddler overweight prevention study. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α: 0.64–0.87) and test-retest (0.57–0.88) reliability were acceptable for most constructs. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed 5 theoretically derived constructs of feeding: responsive, forceful/pressuring, restrictive, indulgent, and uninvolved (root mean square error of approximation = 0.047, comparative fit index = 0.90, standardized root mean square residual = 0.06). Statistically significant (P feeding behaviors, toddler overweight status, perceived toddler fussiness, and maternal mental health. The Toddler Feeding Behavior Questionnaire adds to the field by providing a brief instrument that can be administered in 5 min to examine how caregiver-reported feeding behaviors relate to toddler health and behavior. PMID:24068792

  19. The discontent degree in relations with the proximal social environment and adolescent personality features in Timis County, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Cristina; Vlaicu, Brigitha

    2015-01-01

    In our study we investigated whether there is a relation between the degree of discontent in relations with the proximal social environment (family and peer groups) and adolescent personality features. The study was conducted on a statistical representative and homogenous sample consisting of 2908 teenagers (51.5% girls and 48.5 % boys, aged between 15 and 19 years). It was an observational (case) study and it consisted in 2 questionnaires applying: Freiburg Personality Inventory (212 items) and CORT 2004 questionnaire (116 items, 6 referring to the discontent levels created by proximal social environment). Cronbach's alpha index was 0.802 for FPI and 0,910 for CORT 2004. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 program applying Chi square (χ2) and gamma (γ) correlation. Depression and Emotional lability correlated positively and powerfully with q15 (discontent degree of relations with present friend-peers) (γ = 0.471, Sig. 0.000, and γ = 0.383, Sig. 0.000, respectively) and q5 (discontent degree of the relation with parents) (γ = 0.380, Sig. 0.000, and γ = 0.337, Sig. 0.000, respectively). Sociability and calm correlated negative with q5 (γ = -0.14, Sig. 0.000, and γ = -0.35, Sig. 0.000, respectively), q15 (γ = -0.33, Sig. 000 and γ = -0.18, Sig. 000, respectively). In conclusion, there is direct proportional relation between the discontent degree of relations with friend-peers and parents and depression and emotional lability, and inverse proportional relation of friend-peers and parents with sociability and calm.

  20. Cannula has lip seal movingly coupled to proximal section, to facilitate relative movement of instrument shaft between seal and proximal section and to maintain sealing engagement between shaft and proximal portion

    OpenAIRE

    Bonadio, Frank; Vaugh, Trevor

    2007-01-01

    The cannula (1) has an instrument insertion section (3) and a tube (2) with an access channel (7) for extension of an instrument. A lip seal (4) movingly couples to a proximal section to engage with an instrument shaft (5). The seal facilitates a lateral movement of the instrument, and maintains the sealing engagement between the seal and the instrument shaft. A coupling portion made of gelatinous elastomeric material with plasticizer consisting of naturally derived oils, synthetic oils and l...

  1. Parental goals and talk with toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Meredith Lee; Casillas, Allison

    2010-01-01

    Myriad studies support a relation between parental beliefs and behaviours. This study adds to the literature by focusing on the specific relationship between parental goals and their communication with toddlers. Do parents with different goals talk about different topics with their children? Parents’ goals for their 30-month olds were gathered using semi-structured interviews with 47 primary caregivers, whereas the topics of conversations that took place during interactio...

  2. Using continuous sampling to examine the distribution of traffic related air pollution in proximity to a major road

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Kim; Steer, Peter; Perrotta, Kim

    2011-04-01

    A study to characterize the distribution of vehicle related air pollution in proximity to a major arterial road was undertaken to inform local land use planning and policy regarding separation distances that could help reduce exposure for new sensitive land use development. Measurements of criteria air contaminants were made at ground level, 10 m, 30 m, and 60 m from curb side, and at 9 m height, 10 m from curb side along a traffic corridor carrying over 34,000 vehicles per day. Pollutant decay with distance or height was not statistically significant for O 3, CO, or SO 2. No clear distance decay pattern emerged for PM 2.5. Compared to concentrations at ground level 30 m from curb side, concentrations at 10 m, 60 m, and 10 m at 9 m height were 83%, 45% and 54% higher, respectively. For NO, NO 2, and NO x, however, there was a statistically significant decline in concentrations with distance with the decay most apparent from 30 m to 60 m from the road. Concentrations at 10 m from curb side at 9 m height were equivalent to (all wind conditions) or less than (downwind conditions) those at 30 m and ground level. These findings suggest that for protection of public health in the near road environment, vertical distance is an important determinant of exposure to pollutants that are key indicators of traffic related air pollution. This has implications for sensitive land use development in proximity to high volume traffic corridors.

  3. Early Vocabulary, Parental Education, and the Frequency of Shared Reading as Predictors of Toddler's Vocabulary and Grammar at Age 2;7: A Slovenian Longitudinal CDI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Socan, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study, carried out on a sample of Slovenian-speaking toddlers, was to analyze developmental changes and stability in early vocabulary development; to establish relations between toddler's vocabulary and grammar; and to analyze the effects of parental education and the frequency of shared reading on toddlers' vocabulary…

  4. Associations among Context-Specific Maternal Protective Behavior, Toddlers' Fearful Temperament, and Maternal Accuracy and Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal protective responses to temperamentally fearful toddlers have previously been found to relate to increased risk for children's development of anxiety-spectrum problems. Not all protective behavior is "overprotective", and not all mothers respond to toddlers' fear with protection. Therefore, the current study aimed to identify conditions…

  5. How Yellow Is Your Banana? Toddlers' Language-Mediated Visual Search in Referent-Present Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Nivedita; Johnson, Elizabeth; McQueen, James M.; Huettig, Falk

    2013-01-01

    What is the relative salience of different aspects of word meaning in the developing lexicon? The current study examines the time-course of retrieval of semantic and color knowledge associated with words during toddler word recognition: At what point do toddlers orient toward an image of a yellow cup upon hearing color-matching words such as…

  6. Look at That! Video Chat and Joint Visual Attention Development among Babies and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Elisabeth R.; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E.; Holochwost, Steven J.; Parrott, W. G.; Barr, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Although many relatives use video chat to keep in touch with toddlers, key features of adult-toddler interaction like joint visual attention (JVA) may be compromised in this context. In this study, 25 families with a child between 6 and 24 months were observed using video chat at home with geographically separated grandparents. We define two types…

  7. Parent-reported feeding and feeding problems in a sample of Dutch toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with

  8. The Interactive Effects of Temperament and Maternal Parenting on Toddlers' Externalizing Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aken, C.; Junger, M.; Verhoeven, M.; van Aken, M. A. G.; Dekovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the potential moderating effects of temperamental traits on the relation between parenting and toddlers' externalizing behaviours. For that purpose, this study examined the interplay between temperament and maternal parenting behaviours in predicting the level as well as the development of toddlers'…

  9. Assessing Toddler Language Competence: Agreement of Parents' and Preschool Teachers' Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja, Urska; Podlesek, Anja; Kranjc, Simona

    2011-01-01

    According to the findings of several studies, parents' assessments of their toddler's language are valid and reliable evaluations of children's language competence, especially at early development stages. This study examined whether preschool teachers, who spend a relatively great deal of time with toddlers in various preschool activities and…

  10. The Role of Mothers' and Fathers' Parental Control and Coparenting in Toddlers' Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Elicker, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the unique and relative contributions of mothers' and fathers' parental control and coparenting to toddlers' committed compliance with parents in both dyadic parent-child and triadic family play contexts. Sixty-eight mostly middle-class, 2-parent families with toddlers (16-37 months) were observed in a…

  11. The Interplay of Maternal Sensitivity and Toddler Engagement of Mother in Predicting Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispa, Jean M.; Su-Russell, Chang; Palermo, Francisco; Carlo, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, a cross-lag mediation model was tested to examine longitudinal relations among low-income mothers' sensitivity; toddlers' engagement of their mothers; and toddler's self-regulation at ages 1, 2, and 3 years (N = 2,958). Age 1 maternal sensitivity predicted self-regulation at…

  12. Parent Socialization, Family Economic Well-Being, and Toddlers' Cognitive Development in Rural Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta; Park, Kyung-Eun; Bayley, Bruce; Christensen, Matthew; Leavitt, Spencer; Merrill, Junius; Taylor, Denise; George, Anne Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the specific factors relative to healthy socialization and economic well-being that predicted toddler mental development in rural Paraguay. Thirty toddlers and their primary caregivers were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) to…

  13. [Assessment of the impact of psycho-social environment on toddlers' physical and neuropsychic development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrariu, F D; Gavăt, Viorica; Amarandei, Magda Elena

    2007-01-01

    Psycho-social environment is influencing directly toddler's development, with a major impact in the first three years of life. Family is the first social environment for the infant, and later for toddler, and depending to the quality of this relation will evolve the adult. To assess the impact of psycho-social environment on the toddler's development. We have analyzed by using a questionnaire a number of 200 families, in order to assess their level of environmental risk and to correlate it with the toddlers' development. The highest risk scores were obtained by families who sent the toddler in a foster home, followed by the families who use a day care center, and at last by the families where toddler remains in the family's home till he is 3 years old. 51.66% of the toddlers who goes in a day care center and 85% of the toddlers who are sent to foster home are exposed to a relative risk lower by 2.7 times to be retarded compared to the situation of remaining in the natural home. On the other hand, in family environment with a mild risk there are significant more disharmonic children than in the families with a lower risk score (p = 0.0452). The toddler's chances to evolve, by physical perspective, negatively in institutional environment are significantly higher if he comes from a family with mild risk score than in a family with a lower risk score (p = 0.0157). In every life environment where lives a toddler, confronted with specific problems, should take immediate action the general practitioner, the child development specialist and the environmental health expert, in a coordinate manner, to identify and correct all the aspects who may disturb the normal evolution of the toddler's growth and development.

  14. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedir, Abdu; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n=5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  15. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seid, Abdu K.; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n = 5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  16. Dose-response relations for stricture in the proximal oesophagus from head and neck radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alevronta, Eleftheria; Ahlberg, Alexander; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Al-Abany, Massoud; Friesland, Signe; Tilikidis, Aris; Laurell, Goeran; Lind, Bengt K.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Determination of the dose-response relations for oesophageal stricture after radiotherapy of the head and neck. Material and methods: In this study 33 patients who developed oesophageal stricture and 39 patients as controls are included. The patients received radiation therapy for head and neck cancer at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. For each patient the 3D dose distribution delivered to the upper 5 cm of the oesophagus was analysed. The analysis was conducted for two periods, 1992-2000 and 2001-2005, due to the different irradiation techniques used. The fitting has been done using the relative seriality model. Results: For the treatment period 1992-2005, the mean doses were 49.8 and 33.4 Gy, respectively, for the cases and the controls. For the period 1992-2000, the mean doses for the cases and the controls were 49.9 and 45.9 Gy and for the period 2001-2005 were 49.8 and 21.4 Gy. For the period 2001-2005 the best estimates of the dose-response parameters are D 50 = 61.5 Gy (52.9-84.9 Gy), γ = 1.4 (0.8-2.6) and s = 0.1 (0.01-0.3). Conclusions: Radiation-induced strictures were found to have a dose response relation and volume dependence (low relative seriality) for the treatment period 2001-2005. However, no dose response relation was found for the complete material.

  17. Electronic Media Exposure and Use among Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Park, Eun-Jin; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Jee Won; Shin, Yunmi

    2018-05-24

    These days, young children are exposed to a wide range of smart devices and their usage of smart devices is rapidly increasing worldwide. However, the use of smart devices by young children has not been studied in detail yet because smart device is relatively recent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the exposure status of smart devices among 2-5 years old children in Korea. Four hundred parents of 2- to 5-year-old children were invited to enroll. Data on demographic information and the frequency of media use, time of media use, age at first use of media was self-reported. Among 390 toddlers, 39.3% watched TV almost every day, while 12.0% of children used smartphone on a daily basis. During weekdays, 48% of the children watched TV for over an hour. On weekends, 63.1% of the children watched TV for over an hour. On weekends, 23.4% of children use their smartphones for over an hour. Children using smartphones before 24 months of age were 31.3%. Research has shown that TV and smartphones are the most popular digital devices used by toddlers. Most toddlers began using smart devices at 12-24 months. This study provides comprehensive information on children's contemporary use of media.

  18. Adaptive nonlinear robust relative pose control of spacecraft autonomous rendezvous and proximity operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Huo, Wei; Jiao, Zongxia

    2017-03-01

    This paper studies relative pose control for a rigid spacecraft with parametric uncertainties approaching to an unknown tumbling target in disturbed space environment. State feedback controllers for relative translation and relative rotation are designed in an adaptive nonlinear robust control framework. The element-wise and norm-wise adaptive laws are utilized to compensate the parametric uncertainties of chaser and target spacecraft, respectively. External disturbances acting on two spacecraft are treated as a lumped and bounded perturbation input for system. To achieve the prescribed disturbance attenuation performance index, feedback gains of controllers are designed by solving linear matrix inequality problems so that lumped disturbance attenuation with respect to the controlled output is ensured in the L 2 -gain sense. Moreover, in the absence of lumped disturbance input, asymptotical convergence of relative pose are proved by using the Lyapunov method. Numerical simulations are performed to show that position tracking and attitude synchronization are accomplished in spite of the presence of couplings and uncertainties. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Proximity alert! Distance related cuneus activation in military veterans with anger and aggression problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesink, Lieke; Edward Gladwin, Thomas; Terburg, David; van Honk, Jack; Kleber, Rolf; Geuze, Elbert

    2017-01-01

    Problems involving anger and aggression are common after military deployment, and may involve abnormal responses to threat. This study therefore investigated effects on neural activation related to threat and escapability among veterans with deployment experience. Twenty-seven male veterans with

  20. Age-related weakness of proximal muscle studied with motor cortical mapping: a TMS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ela B Plow

    Full Text Available Aging-related weakness is due in part to degeneration within the central nervous system. However, it is unknown how changes to the representation of corticospinal output in the primary motor cortex (M1 relate to such weakness. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a noninvasive method of cortical stimulation that can map representation of corticospinal output devoted to a muscle. Using TMS, we examined age-related alterations in maps devoted to biceps brachii muscle to determine whether they predicted its age-induced weakness. Forty-seven right-handed subjects participated: 20 young (22.6 ± 0.90 years and 27 old (74.96 ± 1.35 years. We measured strength as force of elbow flexion and electromyographic activation of biceps brachii during maximum voluntary contraction. Mapping variables included: 1 center of gravity or weighted mean location of corticospinal output, 2 size of map, 3 volume or excitation of corticospinal output, and 4 response density or corticospinal excitation per unit area. Center of gravity was more anterior in old than in young (p<0.001, though there was no significant difference in strength between the age groups. Map size, volume, and response density showed no significant difference between groups. Regardless of age, center of gravity significantly predicted strength (β = -0.34, p = 0.005, while volume adjacent to the core of map predicted voluntary activation of biceps (β = 0.32, p = 0.008. Overall, the anterior shift of the map in older adults may reflect an adaptive change that allowed for the maintenance of strength. Laterally located center of gravity and higher excitation in the region adjacent to the core in weaker individuals could reflect compensatory recruitment of synergistic muscles. Thus, our study substantiates the role of M1 in adapting to aging-related weakness and subtending strength and muscle activation across age groups. Mapping from M1 may offer foundation for an examination of mechanisms that

  1. Invertebrate communities of Arctic tundra ponds as related to proximity to drill site reserve pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byron, E.; Williams, N.; Hoffman, R.; Elder, B.

    1994-01-01

    Aquatic invertebrate communities were assessed for diversity and abundance in North Slope tundra ponds of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska during the summer of 1992 as part of an evaluation of potential effects of exposure to petroleum drill site reserve pits (previously used for storing drill site wastes). The invertebrate communities of these shallow, tundra ponds provide abundant food for migratory, aquatic birds that use this area during the summer breeding season. The study was designed to compare abundance and diversity estimates of invertebrates in ponds surrounding the drill sites that differed in distance (and presumed exposure) to drill site reserve pits. The pits, themselves, were not sampled as part of this study. Invertebrate abundance and diversity estimates, assessed as standard biological criteria, were evaluated relative to water chemistry of the ponds, distance to the gravel pads or reserve pits, and pond morphometry. The results indicated the importance of pond morphometry in determining the structure of the invertebrate community. Shallow, exposed ponds tended to be dominated by different invertebrate communities than deeper, narrow ponds at the margins of frost polygons. In contrast, pond chemistry and relative exposure to drill sites were not predictive of invertebrate abundance or diversity

  2. Toddler Nutrition: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cardiometabolic Risk. Article: Bringing babies and breasts into workplaces: Support for breastfeeding mothers... Toddler Nutrition -- see more articles Reference Desk Toddler Nutrition and Health Resource List (Department of Agriculture) - PDF Find an ...

  3. Relation between lower extremity alignment and proximal femur anatomy. Parameters during total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, M; Parratte, S; Lecoz, L; Flecher, X; Argenson, J-N

    2013-09-01

    Lower extremity alignment correlates with native femoral offset. Eventual impact of the change in femoral offset induced by total hip arthroplasty (THA) on lower extremity alignment has not been documented. THA significantly changes lower extremity alignment, and the change correlates with the change in femoral offset. We conducted a prospective study of 200 patients with primary hip osteoarthritis or avascular femoral head necrosis who underwent cementless THA. Pre-operative computed-tomography templating was performed and the femoral component was then custom-manufactured to replicate the native femoral anatomy. Mean age was 58 years (range, 28-83 years). Before and at least two years after THA, two observers who were not involved in the surgical procedures used standing antero-posterior long-leg radiographs to determine the mechanical axis of the lower-limb (hip-knee-ankle [HKA] angle), femoral offset, neck-shaft angle (NSA), and lower-limb length discrepancy (LLLD). Mean values pre-operatively and at last follow-up were as follows: HKA angle, 179.2° ± 3.9° (range, 170.5° to 190.5°) and 177.7° ± 3.5°(range, 173° to 187°); LLLD, -0.7 mm (range, -30 mm to +25 mm) and +5.1 mm (range, -7 mm to +21 mm); NSA, 134° ± 7.5° (range, 100° to 124°) and 135° ± 4.2° (range, 124° to 146°); and femoral offset, 42 ± 7.8 mm (range, 24 mm to 68 mm) and 49 ± 7.5 mm (range, 33 mm to 70 mm). Although THA significantly altered lower-limb alignment, univariate and multivariate analyses showed no significant association between the change in HKA angle and the change in femoral offset. Lower-limb alignment was significantly affected by THA, although the HKA angle changes were small. The small impact of THA on HKA angle values may be ascribable to efforts aimed at replicating the native femoral offset during arthroplasty, as well as to the limited sample size and to potential measurement errors related to the small size of the changes. Our results suggest that

  4. Toddler inhibited temperament, maternal cortisol reactivity and embarrassment, and intrusive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A

    2013-06-01

    The relevance of parenting behavior to toddlers' development necessitates a better understanding of the influences on parents during parent-child interactions. Toddlers' inhibited temperament may relate to parenting behaviors, such as intrusiveness, that predict outcomes later in childhood. The conditions under which inhibited temperament relates to intrusiveness, however, remain understudied. A multimethod approach would acknowledge that several levels of processes determine mothers' experiences during situations in which they witness their toddlers interacting with novelty. As such, the current study examined maternal cortisol reactivity and embarrassment about shyness as moderators of the relation between toddlers' inhibited temperament and maternal intrusive behavior. Participants included 92 24-month-old toddlers and their mothers. Toddlers' inhibited temperament and maternal intrusiveness were measured observationally in the laboratory. Mothers supplied saliva samples at the beginning of the laboratory visit and 20 minutes after observation. Maternal cortisol reactivity interacted with inhibited temperament in relation to intrusive behavior, such that mothers with higher levels of cortisol reactivity were observed to be more intrusive with more highly inhibited toddlers. Embarrassment related to intrusive behavior as a main effect. These results highlight the importance of considering child characteristics and psychobiological processes in relation to parenting behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Proband Mental Health Difficulties and Parental Stress Predict Mental Health in Toddlers at High-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Katherine; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Hudry, Kristelle

    2016-10-01

    Family-related predictors of mental health problems were investigated among 30 toddlers at familial high-risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 28 controls followed from age 2- to 3-years. Parents completed the self-report Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the parent-report Behavior Assessment System for Children. High-risk toddlers were assessed for ASD at 3-years. Parent stress and proband mental health difficulties predicted concurrent toddler mental health difficulties at 2-years, but only baseline proband internalising problems continued to predict toddler internalising problems at 3-years; high-risk status did not confer additional risk. Baseline toddler mental health difficulties robustly predicted later difficulties, while high-risk status and diagnostic outcome conferred no additional risk. A family systems perspective may be useful for understanding toddler mental health difficulties.

  6. Associations among mothers' representations of their relationship with their toddlers, maternal parenting stress, and toddlers' internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Shulman, Cory; Cohen, Esther

    2018-02-01

    This study examined the array of associations among the emotional valence and the coherence of mothers' representations of their relationship with their toddlers, mothers' reported parenting stress, and toddlers' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. To evaluate maternal representations, 55 mothers were interviewed using the Five Minute Speech Sample procedure (FMSS; Magaña et al., 1986), which was coded for criticism and positive comments (Magaňa-Amato, 1993), as well as coherence (Sher-Censor & Yates, 2015). Mothers also completed the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form (PSI; Abidin, 1997) to evaluate their parenting stress and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) to assess their toddlers' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Results indicated that parenting stress was associated with maternal criticism and fewer positive comments in the FMSS, but not with the coherence of mothers' FMSS. Parenting stress, criticism, and lower coherence in the FMSS were associated with maternal reports of externalizing behaviors. Only parenting stress and lower coherence in the FMSS were related to mothers' reports of internalizing behaviors of the child. Thus, the emotional valence and the coherence of mothers' representations of their relationship with their child and parenting stress may each constitute a distinct aspect of parenting and contribute to the understanding of individual differences in toddlers' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Implications for research and practice with families of toddlers are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Linear trend and climate response of five-needle pines in the western United States related to treeline proximity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipfmueller, K.F. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Geography; Salzer, M.W. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research

    2010-01-15

    This study investigated sixty-six 5-needle pine growth chronologies from 1896 to their end years in order to identify potential patterns related to linear trends in ring width. Individual chronology responses to climate were also evaluated by comparing the chronologies with seasonal temperature and precipitation data from 1896 to the present date. Chronologies exhibiting similar patterns of climate response were grouped in order to examine the role of treeline proximity on climate-growth relationships. Ring width measurements for pine sites located in the western United States were obtained from the International Tree Ring Data Bank. Growth indices were compared among all sites in order to assess the relative strength of common signals with increasing distance. Pearson correlations were used to calculate linear trends for each chronology. A cluster analysis of climate response patterns indicated that most chronologies positively associated with temperatures were located near upper treeline and contained significant positive linear trends. The study suggested that 5-needle pine treeline chronologies may be used as predictors in temperature reconstructions. However, care must be taken to determine that collection sites have not been impacted by disturbances such as fire or insect outbreaks. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. Toddlers Selectively Help Fair Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Surian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that infants and toddlers are inclined to help prosocial agents and assign a positive valence to fair distributions. Also, they expect that positive and negative actions directed toward distributors will conform to reciprocity principles. This study investigates whether toddlers are selective in helping others, as a function of others’ previous distributive actions. Toddlers were presented with real-life events in which two actresses distributed resources either equally or unequally between two puppets. Then, they played together with a ball that accidentally fell to the ground and asked participants to help them to retrieve it. Participants preferred to help the actress who performed equal distributions. This finding suggests that by the second year children’s prosocial actions are modulated by their emerging sense of fairness.HighlightsToddlers (mean age = 25 months are selective in helping distributors.Toddlers prefer helping a fair rather than an unfair distributor.Toddlers’ selective helping provides evidence for an early sense of fairness.

  9. Models for cooperative games with fuzzy relations among the agents fuzzy communication, proximity relation and fuzzy permission

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez-Losada, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive introduction to cooperative game theory and a practice-oriented reference guide to new models and tools for studying bilateral fuzzy relations among several agents or players. It introduces the reader to several fuzzy models, each of which is first analyzed in the context of classical games (crisp games) and subsequently in the context of fuzzy games. Special emphasis is given to the value of Shapley, which is presented for the first time in the context of fuzzy games. Students and researchers will find here a self-contained reference guide to cooperative fuzzy games, characterized by a wealth of examples, descriptions of a wide range of possible situations, step-by-step explanations of the basic mathematical concepts involved, and easy-to-follow information on axioms and properties.

  10. Mother-Child Interactions of Preterm Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Akman, İpek; Kuşçu Orhan, Şebnem; Kuşçu, Kemal; Altuncu, Emel; Karabekiroğlu, Aytül; Yüce, Murat

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the mother-toddler relationship in preterm toddlers. The sample consisted of 18 mothers and their preterm toddlers (group 1) and 20 mothers and their fullterm toddlers (group 2). Anxiety and depressive symptom levels, attachment pattern, and parental attitudes of mothers and social-emotional problems and developmental level of the toddlers were explored to assess possible confounding factors in the mother-toddler relationship. Two researchers rated the Parent Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scales (PIRGAS). Both the mothers in group 1 and group 2 had similar Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores. However, the mothers who gave birth before 32 weeks of gestation had higher trait anxiety scores than others (46±2.4 vs. 42.3±5.4, p=0.01). The groups had similar Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Scale (BITSEA) problem and competency scores. The parenting style of group 1 revealed that they had higher scores on the Parenting Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) subscale 5 (excessive discipline) (39.6 vs. 32.1; p=0.02). Mother-toddler interaction and attachment security were found to be similar in fullterm and moderately preterm healthy toddlers. Our findings suggest that not the preterm birth itself but the medical, developmental, and/or neurological consequences of prematurity may affect the mother-toddler interaction. To explore the independent effect of prematurity in mother-toddler dyadic relationship, longitudinally designed studies are warranted.

  11. Proximal Region of the Gene Encoding Cytadherence-Related Protein Permits Molecular Typing of Mycoplasma genitalium Clinical Strains by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatovova, Oxana; Herrera, Caleb; Baseman, Joel B.

    2006-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR-amplified proximal region of the gene encoding cytadherence accessory protein P110 (MG192) revealed DNA sequence divergences among 54 Mycoplasma genitalium clinical strains isolated from the genitourinary tracts of women attending a sexually transmitted disease-related health clinic, plus one from the respiratory tract and one from synovial fluid. Seven of 56 (12.5%) strains exhibited RFLPs following digestion of the proximal region with restriction endonuclease MboI or RsaI, or both. No sequence variability was detected in the distal portion of the gene. PMID:16455921

  12. Measuring the Multifaceted Nature of Infant and Toddler Care Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Peter L.; Kriener-Althen, Kerry; Marcella, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The quality of group care infants and toddlers experience relates to their concurrent and later development. Recent quality improvement initiatives point to the need for ecologically valid measures that assess the multifaceted nature of child care quality. In this article, we present the psychometric properties of an infant and…

  13. Mothering, Fathering, and Externalizing Behavior in Toddler Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reported maternal and paternal support, psychological control, and spanking on externalizing behavior of toddler boys. Questionnaires were administered to both parents of 104 two-parent families with a 3-year-old son. Both maternal and paternal psychological control was related to boys' externalizing behavior.…

  14. Lexical characteristics of expressive vocabulary in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2014-08-01

    Vocabulary is a domain of particular challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has drawn attention to ways in which lexical characteristics relate to vocabulary acquisition. The current study tested the hypothesis that lexical characteristics account for variability in vocabulary size of young children with ASD, applying the extended statistical learning theory of vocabulary delay in late talkers (Stokes, Kern, & Dos Santos, 2012) to toddlers with ASD. Parents reported the words produced by toddlers with ASD (n = 57; age 21-37 months) or toddlers without ASD (n = 41; age 22-26 months) on the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories. The average phonological neighborhood density, word frequency, and word length of each toddler's lexicon were calculated. These lexical characteristics served as predictors of vocabulary size. Findings differed for toddlers with and without ASD and according to subsamples. Word length was the most consistent predictor of vocabulary size for toddlers with ASD. Distinct relationships between lexical characteristics and vocabulary size were observed for toddlers with and without ASD. Experimental studies on distributional cues to vocabulary acquisition are needed to inform what is known about mechanisms of learning in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  15. Proband Mental Health Difficulties and Parental Stress Predict Mental Health in Toddlers at High-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Katherine; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Hudry, Kristelle

    2016-01-01

    Family-related predictors of mental health problems were investigated among 30 toddlers at familial high-risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 28 controls followed from age 2- to 3-years. Parents completed the self-report Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the parent-report Behavior Assessment System for Children. High-risk toddlers were…

  16. Feature network models for proximity data : statistical inference, model selection, network representations and links with related models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, Laurence Emmanuelle

    2006-01-01

    Feature Network Models (FNM) are graphical structures that represent proximity data in a discrete space with the use of features. A statistical inference theory is introduced, based on the additivity properties of networks and the linear regression framework. Considering features as predictor

  17. Personal and related kinds of proximity driving collaborations : a multi-case study of Dutch nanotechnology researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werker, C.; Ooms, Ward; Caniëls, Marjolein C J

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigating proximity and collaboration have not clarified personal elements, such as working or communication style. Here, we show that personal proximity—close similarity in terms of personal traits and behavioral patterns—substantially affects the whole life cycle of

  18. Coffee consumption and CYP1A2 genotype in relation to bone mineral density of the proximal femur in elderly men and women: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Lars

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drinking coffee has been linked to reduced calcium conservation, but it is less clear whether it leads to sustained bone mineral loss and if individual predisposition for caffeine metabolism might be important in this context. Therefore, the relation between consumption of coffee and bone mineral density (BMD at the proximal femur in men and women was studied, taking into account, for the first time, genotypes for cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2 associated with metabolism of caffeine. Methods Dietary intakes of 359 men and 358 women (aged 72 years, participants of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS, were assessed by a 7-day food diary. Two years later, BMD for total proximal femur, femoral neck and trochanteric regions of the proximal femur were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Genotypes of CYP1A2 were determined. Adjusted means of BMD for each category of coffee consumption were calculated. Results Men consuming 4 cups of coffee or more per day had 4% lower BMD at the proximal femur (p = 0.04 compared with low or non-consumers of coffee. This difference was not observed in women. In high consumers of coffee, those with rapid metabolism of caffeine (C/C genotype had lower BMD at the femoral neck (p = 0.01 and at the trochanter (p = 0.03 than slow metabolizers (T/T and C/T genotypes. Calcium intake did not modify the relation between coffee and BMD. Conclusion High consumption of coffee seems to contribute to a reduction in BMD of the proximal femur in elderly men, but not in women. BMD was lower in high consumers of coffee with rapid metabolism of caffeine, suggesting that rapid metabolizers of caffeine may constitute a risk group for bone loss induced by coffee.

  19. Coffee consumption and CYP1A2 genotype in relation to bone mineral density of the proximal femur in elderly men and women: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Helena; Melhus, Håkan; Glynn, Anders; Lind, Lars; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2010-02-22

    Drinking coffee has been linked to reduced calcium conservation, but it is less clear whether it leads to sustained bone mineral loss and if individual predisposition for caffeine metabolism might be important in this context. Therefore, the relation between consumption of coffee and bone mineral density (BMD) at the proximal femur in men and women was studied, taking into account, for the first time, genotypes for cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) associated with metabolism of caffeine. Dietary intakes of 359 men and 358 women (aged 72 years), participants of the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), were assessed by a 7-day food diary. Two years later, BMD for total proximal femur, femoral neck and trochanteric regions of the proximal femur were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Genotypes of CYP1A2 were determined. Adjusted means of BMD for each category of coffee consumption were calculated. Men consuming 4 cups of coffee or more per day had 4% lower BMD at the proximal femur (p = 0.04) compared with low or non-consumers of coffee. This difference was not observed in women. In high consumers of coffee, those with rapid metabolism of caffeine (C/C genotype) had lower BMD at the femoral neck (p = 0.01) and at the trochanter (p = 0.03) than slow metabolizers (T/T and C/T genotypes). Calcium intake did not modify the relation between coffee and BMD. High consumption of coffee seems to contribute to a reduction in BMD of the proximal femur in elderly men, but not in women. BMD was lower in high consumers of coffee with rapid metabolism of caffeine, suggesting that rapid metabolizers of caffeine may constitute a risk group for bone loss induced by coffee.

  20. The relative use of proximity, shape similarity, and orientation as visual perceptual grouping cues in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinozzi, Giovanna; De Lillo, Carlo; Truppa, Valentina; Castorina, Giulia

    2009-02-01

    Recent experimental results suggest that human and nonhuman primates differ in how they process visual information to assemble component parts into global shapes. To assess whether some of the observed differences in perceptual grouping could be accounted for by the prevalence of different grouping factors in different species, we carried out 2 experiments designed to evaluate the relative use of proximity, similarity of shape, and orientation as grouping cues in humans (Homo sapiens) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Both species showed similarly high levels of accuracy using proximity as a cue. Moreover, for both species, grouping by orientation similarity produced a lower level of performance than grouping by proximity. Differences emerged with respect to the use of shape similarity as a cue. In humans, grouping by shape similarity also proved less effective than grouping by proximity but the same was not observed in capuchins. These results suggest that there may be subtle differences between humans and capuchin monkeys in the weighting assigned to different grouping cues that may affect the way in which they combine local features into global shapes. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Cognitive Development of Toddlers: Does Parental Stimulation Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Prahbhjot; Menon, Jagadeesh; Bharti, Bhavneet; Sidhu, Manjit

    2018-02-01

    To examine the impact of quality of early stimulation on cognitive functioning of toddlers living in a developing country. The developmental functioning of 150 toddlers in the age range of 12-30 mo (53% boys; Mean = 1.76 y, SD = 0.48) was assessed by the mental developmental index of the Developmental Assessment Scale for Indian Infants (DASII). The StimQ questionnaire- toddler version was used to measure cognitive stimulation at home. The questionnaire consists of four subscales including availability of learning materials (ALM), reading activities (READ), parent involvement in developmental activities (PIDA), and parent verbal responsivity (PVR). Multivariate regression analysis was used to predict cognitive scores using demographic (age of child), socio-economic status (SES) (income, parental education), and home environment (subscale scores of StimQ) as independent variables. Mean Mental Development Index (MDI) score was 91.5 (SD = 13.41), nearly one-fifth (17.3%) of the toddlers had MDI scores less than 80 (cognitive delay). Children with cognitive delay, relative to typically developing (TD, MDI score ≥ 80) cohort of toddlers, had significantly lower scores on all the subscales of StimQ and the total StimQ score. Despite the overall paucity of learning materials available to toddlers, typical developing toddlers were significantly more likely to have access to symbolic toys (P = 0.004), art materials (P = 0.032), adaptive/fine motor toys (P = 0.018), and life size toys (P = 0.036). Multivariate regression analysis results indicated that controlling for confounding socio-economic status variables, higher parental involvement in developmental activities (PIDA score) and higher parental verbal responsivity (PVR score) emerged as significant predictors of higher MDI scores and explained 34% of variance in MDI scores (F = 23.66, P = 0.001). Disparities in child development emerge fairly early and these differences are not

  2. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Toddler Emotion Regulation, and Subsequent Emotion Socialization

    OpenAIRE

    Premo, Julie E.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between...

  3. Age-related proximal femur bone mineral loss in South Indian women: a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anburajan, M; Rethinasabapathi, C; Korath, M P; Ponnappa, B G; Kumar, K S; Panicker, T M; Govindan, A; Jagadeesan, G N

    2001-04-01

    i) To collect normative data for proximal femur bone mineral density (BMD) in South Indian women using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and ii) to study the rate and significance of hip bone mineral loss with advancing age in this population. Forty five women, whose age ranged from 16 to 84 years were studied. This sample was drawn randomly from general medical practice at KJ Hospital, Chennai, South India during November, 1997 to April, 1998. Of these 45 cases, 21 were pre-menopausal (mean +/- SD age = 30.9+/-8.8 years) and 24 post-menopausal (mean +/- SD age = 62.1+/-11.0 years). Subjects with secondary bone diseases were excluded. Also excluded were those taking any drugs known to affect calcium metabolism e.g., thiazide diuretics, oestrogen and calcium. Subjects were divided into seven decadal age groups from 15-24 years to 75-84 years. BMD of the right proximal femur was evaluated using a QDR-1000 DXA bone densitometer (Hologic Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts, USA). Data analysis was done with SPSS/PC statistical software package. Linear regression analysis showed significant (p India women have been evaluated and it may prove useful for diagnosing osteoporosis in the women of South India.

  4. Studying psychosocial adaptation to end-stage renal disease: the proximal-distal model of health-related outcomes as a base model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ramony; Brooks, Robert; Erlich, Jonathan; Gallagher, Martin; Snelling, Paul; Chow, Josephine; Suranyi, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Studying psychosocial adaptation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasingly important, as it may explain the variability in health outcomes unaccounted for by clinical factors. The Brenner et al. proximal-distal model of health-related outcomes provides a theoretical foundation for understanding psychosocial adaptation and integrating health outcomes, clinical, and psychosocial factors (Brenner MH, Curbow B, Legro MW. The proximal-distal continuum of multiple health outcome measures: the case of cataract surgery. Med Care. 1995;33(4 Suppl):AS236-44). This study aims to empirically validate the proximal-distal model in the dialysis population and examine the impact of psychosocial factors on the model. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted with a sample of long-term dialysis patients (n=201). Eleven factors: quality of life (QoL), depression, positive affect, comorbidity, symptoms, physical functioning, disease accommodation, loss, self-efficacy, illness acceptance, and social support were measured by standardized psychometric scales. A three-month average of hemoglobin was used. Latent composite structural equation modeling was used to examine the models. The proximal-distal model with slight modification was supported by fit statistics [χ(2)=16.04, df=13, P=.25, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)=0.024], indicating that the impact of clinical factors on QoL is mediated through a range of functional and psychological factors, except for hemoglobin which impacts directly on QoL. The model with additional psychosocial factors was also supported by fit statistics (χ(2)=43.59, df=41, P=.36, RMSEA=0.018). These additional factors mainly impact on symptom status, psychological states, and QoL components of the model. The present study supported the proximal-distal model in the dialysis population and demonstrated the considerable impact of psychosocial factors on the model. The proximal-distal model plus psychosocial factors as a

  5. PROXIMAL JUNCTIONAL KYPHOSIS IN ADULT RECONSTRUCTIVE SPINE SURGERY RESULTS FROM INCOMPLETE RESTORATION OF THE LUMBAR LORDOSIS RELATIVE TO THE MAGNITUDE OF THE THORACIC KYPHOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Lattes, Sergio; Ries, Zachary; Gao, Yubo; Weinstein, Stuart L

    2011-01-01

    Proximal junctional kyphosis developed in those patients where the thoracic kyphosis remained greater in magnitude relative to the lumbar lordosis, and where the sagittal balance seemed corrected, but part of thise correction was secondary to pelvic retroversion. Level of Evidence Prognostic case-control study – Level III. PMID:22096442

  6. Dynamic measures of RSA predict distress and regulation in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J; Buss, Kristin A

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we examined a new method for quantifying individual variability using dynamic measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). This method incorporated temporal variation into the measurement of RSA and provided information beyond that offered by more traditional quantifications such as difference scores. Dynamic and static measures of change in RSA were tested in relation to displays of emotion and affective behaviors during a fear-eliciting episode in a sample of 88 typically developing and high-fear toddlers during a laboratory visit at age 24 months. Dynamic measures of RSA contributed information that was unique from traditionally employed, static change scores in predicting high-fear toddlers' displays of shyness during a fear-eliciting episode. In contrast, RSA change scores offered information related to boldness in nonhigh-fear children. In addition, several associations included estimates of nonlinear change in RSA. Implications for the study of individual differences in RSA and relations with emotion and emotion regulation are discussed.

  7. Toddlers' Duration of Attention toward Putative Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk of developing anxious behavior, toddlers' attention toward a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined…

  8. Structured parenting of toddlers at high versus low genetic risk: two pathways to child problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Ge, Xiaojia; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel; Scaramella, Laura V; Reiss, David

    2009-11-01

    Little is known about how parenting might offset genetic risk to prevent the onset of child problems during toddlerhood. We used a prospective adoption design to separate genetic and environmental influences and test whether associations between structured parenting and toddler behavior problems were conditioned by genetic risk for psychopathology. The sample included 290 linked sets of adoptive families and birth mothers and 95 linked birth fathers. Genetic risk was assessed via birth mother and birth father psychopathology (anxiety, depression, antisociality, and drug use). Structured parenting was assessed via microsocial coding of adoptive mothers' behavior during a cleanup task. Toddler behavior problems were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist. Controlling for temperamental risk at 9 months, there was an interaction between birth mother psychopathology and adoptive mothers' parenting on toddler behavior problems at 18 months. The interaction indicated two pathways to child problems: structured parenting was beneficial for toddlers at high genetic risk but was related to behavior problems for toddlers at low genetic risk. This crossover interaction pattern was replicated with birth father psychopathology as the index of genetic risk. The effects of structured parenting on toddler behavior problems varied as a function of genetic risk. Children at genetic risk might benefit from parenting interventions during toddlerhood that enhance structured parenting.

  9. Explaining variation in adult Anopheles indoor resting abundance: the relative effects of larval habitat proximity and insecticide-treated bed net use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Robert S; Messina, Joseph P; MacFarlane, David W; Bayoh, M Nabie; Gimnig, John E; Giorgi, Emanuele; Walker, Edward D

    2017-07-17

    Spatial determinants of malaria risk within communities are associated with heterogeneity of exposure to vector mosquitoes. The abundance of adult malaria vectors inside people's houses, where most transmission takes place, should be associated with several factors: proximity of houses to larval habitats, structural characteristics of houses, indoor use of vector control tools containing insecticides, and human behavioural and environmental factors in and near houses. While most previous studies have assessed the association of larval habitat proximity in landscapes with relatively low densities of larval habitats, in this study these relationships were analysed in a region of rural, lowland western Kenya with high larval habitat density. 525 houses were sampled for indoor-resting mosquitoes across an 8 by 8 km study area using the pyrethrum spray catch method. A predictive model of larval habitat location in this landscape, previously verified, provided derivations of indices of larval habitat proximity to houses. Using geostatistical regression models, the association of larval habitat proximity, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) use, house structural characteristics (wall type, roof type), and peridomestic variables (cooking in the house, cattle near the house, number of people sleeping in the house) with mosquito abundance in houses was quantified. Vector abundance was low (mean, 1.1 adult Anopheles per house). Proximity of larval habitats was a strong predictor of Anopheles abundance. Houses without an LLIN had more female Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus than houses where some people used an LLIN (rate ratios, 95% CI 0.87, 0.85-0.89; 0.84, 0.82-0.86; 0.38, 0.37-0.40) and houses where everyone used an LLIN (RR, 95% CI 0.49, 0.48-0.50; 0.39, 0.39-0.40; 0.60, 0.58-0.61). Cooking in the house also reduced Anopheles abundance across all species. The number of people sleeping in the house, presence of cattle near the house

  10. Infant and toddler educare: A challenge to neoliberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Sims

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We contend that the conventions, practices and philosophies underpinning working with infants and toddlers provide an alternative way of viewing early childhood work, and such a perspective may well help to challenge the ‘wicked problem’ of neoliberalism. It is in this context that we propose that a deeper understanding of the perspectives of those professionals working with our youngest children in a range of different countries may inform a wider resistance to neoliberalism across all of early childhood. We seek, in this article, to share the voices of early childhood professionals reflecting on the manner in which they understand work with infants and toddlers, and how this relates to their understanding of issues related to education and care. We hope this exploration will lead us into further refining our argument that infant and toddler pedagogy has the potential to challenge the hegemony of neoliberalism in early childhood. Our dream is to steer early childhood away from the tyranny of standardisation, accountability and economic rationality into a space where children are valued for being, where individuality and diversity flourish, where learning academics is one (relatively unimportant element amongst many others and where relationships and participation (and dare we say, happiness reign supreme.

  11. The Healthy Toddlers Trial Protocol: An Intervention to Reduce Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in Economically and Educationally Disadvantaged Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auld Garry

    2011-07-01

    , attitudes, self-efficacy, feeding style related to child feeding; b provision of a more positive mealtime physical environment (turning off the TV; and c creation of a more positive mealtime social environment (sitting down together for meals. Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes are that the intervention will be effective in helping toddlers develop healthy eating skills that contribute to improve overall health and development and to the prevention of obesity. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ACTRN12610000981022

  12. T1ρ and T2 mapping of the proximal tibiofibular joint in relation to aging and cartilage degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Jun; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Eiichi; Oniki, Yasunari; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Mizuta, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of aging and cartilage degeneration of the proximal tibiofibular- and femorotibial joint (PTFJ, FTJ) on the cartilage of the PTFJ using T 1 ρ and T 2 mapping. Materials and methods: We performed sagittal T 1 ρ and T 2 mapping of the PTFJ and FTJ on 55 subjects with knee disorders. We placed 3 regions of interest (ROIs) on images of the cartilage in the PTFJ, medial femoral condyle (MFC), and medial tibia plateau (MTP). Correlation analysis was performed for the T 1 ρ and T 2 values of each ROI and the patient age and the osteoarthritic grade of the PTFJ and FTJ. Results: The T 1 ρ and T 2 values of the PTFJ were affected neither by aging nor the osteoarthritic grade of the FTJ. Values of the FTJ normalized to PTFJ values were correlated with the osteoarthritic grade of the FTJ in the MFC (r = 0.851 and 0.779, respectively) and the MTP (r = 0.635 and 0.762, respectively). There was a significant difference in the T 1 ρ but not the T 2 value of the PTFJ and MFC between normal and mildly osteoarthritic cartilage of each joint. Conclusion: We document that the T 1 ρ and T 2 values of PTFJ cartilage were not affected by aging or cartilage degeneration in the FTJ. The T 1 ρ value of the PTFJ may represent a useful internal standard reference for evaluating early degeneration of the FTJ

  13. Quantum Proximity Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that at long wavelengths λ an s-wave scatterer can have a scattering cross section σ on the order of λ 2 , much larger than its physical size, as measured by the range of its potential. Very interesting phenomena can arise when two or more identical scatterers are placed close together, well within one wavelength. We show that, for a pair of identical scatterers, an extremely narrow p-wave open-quote open-quote proximity close-quote close-quote resonance develops from a broader s-wave resonance of the individual scatterers. A new s-wave resonance of the pair also appears. The relation of these proximity resonances (so called because they appear when the scatterers are close together) to the Thomas and Efimov effects is discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Racing performance in Standardbred trotting horses with proximal palmar/plantar first phalangeal fragments relative to the timing of surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, J L; Borg, H; Näslund, H; Waldner, C

    2015-07-01

    Proximal palmar/plantar osteochondral fragmentation of the first phalanx is a frequent radiographic finding in Standardbred horses. These lesions are routinely removed prior to the onset of a racing career with no evidence to support the timing of this surgical intervention. To determine whether horses racing before surgery slowed as they approached surgery date and whether they speeded up after surgery. To investigate the factors affecting whether a horse raced after surgery and compare the performance of horses that did and did not race before surgery. A retrospective study using 193 Swedish Standardbred trotters. Medical records and radiographs of each horse were examined. Racing data were retrieved from official online records. Generalising estimating equations were used to examine presurgery racing performance and determine whether this differed between horses that raced before surgery and those that had not. Multivariable regression was used to examine career earnings and number of career races. Horses racing before surgery neither slowed as they approached surgery, nor speeded up after surgery. Race speed of horses raced before surgery was not different from those that only raced after surgery. Racing before surgery was not associated with whether horses raced following surgery. Only horses with 3 affected legs had slower race speeds than other horses. No other horse level variables affected race speed, number of career races, career earnings or top speed. There was no significant difference in race speed between horses that raced before surgery and those that did not. Horses did not slow down prior to surgery. Horses with 3 affected legs ran slower than those with only a single or 2 affected limbs. There was no association between timing of surgery and race speed or career longevity. The potential benefits of surgical intervention should be critically examined. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Sociodemographic Variation of Caries Risk Factors in Toddlers and Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Eckert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease, with numerous identified risk factors. Risk factor differences could indicate the need to target caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies based on population and/or individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries risk factors differences by race/ethnicity, income, and education. Methods. We enrolled 396 caregiver-toddler pairs and administered a 105-item questionnaire addressing demographics, access to care, oral bacteria transmission, caregiver's/toddler's dental and medical health practices, caregiver's dental beliefs, and caregiver's/toddler's snacking/drinking habits. Logistic regressions and ANOVAs were used to evaluate the associations of questionnaire responses with caregiver's race/ethnicity, income, and education. Results. Caregivers self-identified as Non-Hispanic African-American (44%, Non-Hispanic White (36%, Hispanic (19%, and “other” (1%. Differences related to race/ethnicity, income, and education were found in all risk factor categories. Conclusions. Planning of caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies should be undertaken with these caries risk factor differences kept in mind.

  16. Guided participation in cultural activity by toddlers and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoff, B; Mistry, J; Göncü, A; Mosier, C

    1993-01-01

    In this Monograph, we examine how toddlers and their caregivers from four cultural communities collaborate in shared activities. We focus both on similarities across communities in processes of guided participation--structuring children's participation and bridging between their understanding and that of their caregivers--and on differences in how guided participation occurs. We examine the idea that a key cultural difference entails who is responsible for learning--whether adults take this responsibility by structuring teaching situations or whether children take responsibility for learning through observation and through participating in adult activities with caregivers' support. We speculate that these two patterns relate to cultural variation in the segregation of children from adult activities of their community and in emphasis on formal schooling. The four communities of our study vary along these lines as well as in other ways: a Mayan Indian town in Guatemala, a middle-class urban group in the United States, a tribal village in India, and a middle-class urban neighborhood in Turkey. In each community, we visited the families of 14 toddlers (aged 12-24 months) for an interview that was focused on child-rearing practices, which included observations of caregivers helping the toddlers operate novel objects spontaneously during adult activities. Results are based on systematic analysis of patterns of communication and attention in each family in each community, combining the tools of ethnographic description, graphic analysis, and statistics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Maternal characteristics and toddler temperament in infantile anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatoor, I; Ganiban, J; Hirsch, R; Borman-Spurrell, E; Mrazek, D A

    2000-06-01

    To explore the association between specific maternal characteristics, maternal perceptions of toddler temperament, and infantile anorexia. Three groups of toddlers (aged 12-37 months) participated in this study: toddlers with infantile anorexia (n = 34), picky eaters (n = 34), and healthy eaters (n = 34). Mothers completed questionnaires that assessed their own eating attitudes, marital satisfaction, and their toddlers' temperament, and an interview that explored their attachment representations. Mothers and toddlers were videotaped during a feeding session, and toddlers were weighed and measured. Temperament ratings differentiated between infantile anorexics and healthy eaters (p anorexia.

  18. Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... you to spend lots of time playing with, reading to, and talking with your infant or toddler. ...

  19. Generalized Habituation of Concept Stimuli in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkender, Patricia J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of selective generalization of habituation on the basis of meaningful categories of stimuli. Also explored are the sex differences in conceptual generalization of habituation. Subjects were 36 toddlers with a mean age of 40 months. (SDH)

  20. Healthy Family 2009: Protecting Toddlers and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Protecting Toddlers and Teens Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... virus that causes a rash, cough, runny nose, eye irritation, and fever Mumps, a virus causing fever, ...

  1. Neural correlates of feedback processing in toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, M.; Bekkering, H.; Janssen, D.J.C.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de; Hunnius, S.

    2014-01-01

    External feedback provides essential information for successful learning. Feedback is especially important for learning in early childhood, as toddlers strongly rely on external signals to determine the consequences of their actions. In adults, many electrophysiological studies have elucidated

  2. Feeding Vegetarian and Vegan Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vegan eating patterns are healthy for infants and toddlers. Time and attention are necessary to help young children, vegetarian or not, get all the nutrients they need for normal growth and development. For the first six months, all babies do ...

  3. Computer-aided joint space analysis of the metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint: normative age-related and gender-specific data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeil, Alexander; Boettcher, Joachim; Seidl, Bettina E.; Heyne, Jens-Peter; Petrovitch, Alexander; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Kaiser, Werner A.; Eidner, Torsten; Wolf, Gunter; Hein, Gert

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide reference data for computer-aided joint space analysis based on a semi-automated and computer-aided diagnostic system for the measurement of metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint widths; additionally, the determination of sex differences and the investigation of changes in joint width with age were evaluated. Eighty hundred and sixty-nine patients (351 female and 518 male) received radiographs of the hand for trauma and were screened for a host of conditions known to affect the joint spaces. All participants underwent measurements of joint space distances at the metacarpal-phalangeal articulation (JSD-MCP) from the thumb to the small finger and at the proximal-interphalangeal articulation (JSD-PIP) from the index finger to the small finger using computer-aided diagnosis technology with semi-automated edge detection. The study revealed an annual narrowing of the JSD of 0.6% for the JSD-MCP and for the JSD-PIP. Furthermore, the data demonstrated a notable age-related decrease in JSD, including an accentuated age-related joint space narrowing in women for both articulations. Additionally, males showed a significantly wider JSD-MCP (+11.1%) and JSD-PIP (+15.4%) compared with the female cohort in all age groups. Our data presented gender-specific and age-related normative reference values for computer-aided joint space analysis of the JSD-MCP and JSD-PIP that could be used to identify disease-related joint space narrowing, particularly in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis commonly involving the peripheral small hand joints. (orig.)

  4. Not Extent of Telecommuting, But Job Characteristics as Proximal Predictors of Work-Related Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Elst, Tinne; Verhoogen, Ronny; Sercu, Maarten; Van den Broeck, Anja; Baillien, Elfi; Godderis, Lode

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the curvilinear relationship between extent of telecommuting and work-related well-being (ie, burnout, work engagement, and cognitive stress complaints), as well as to test whether job characteristics act as explanatory mechanisms underlying this relationship. A sample of 878 employees from an international telecommunication company with a long history of telecommuting participated in a survey on psychosocial risk factors and well-being at work. Mediation path analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses. Social support from colleagues, participation in decision-making, task autonomy, and work-to-family conflict, but not extent of telecommuting, were directly related to work-related well-being. Extent of telecommuting was indirectly related to well-being via social support. Employers should invest in creating good work environments in general, among both telecommuters and nontelecommuters.

  5. Proximity friction reexamined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krappe, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    The contribution of inelastic excitations to radial and tangential friction form-factors in heavy-ion collisions is investigated in the frame-work of perturbation theory. The dependence of the form factors on the essential geometrical and level-density parameters of the scattering system is exhibited in a rather closed form. The conditions for the existence of time-local friction coefficients are discussed. Results are compared to form factors from other models, in particular the transfer-related proximity friction. For the radial friction coefficient the inelastic excitation mechanism seems to be the dominant contribution in peripheral collisions. (orig.)

  6. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F; Fox, Mary Kay; Briefel, Ronette R; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dwyer, Johanna T; Deming, Denise M; Reidy, Kathleen C

    2010-12-01

    To assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS conducted in 2002 and 2008. The FITS 2008 is a cross-sectional survey of a national random sample of US children from birth through age 47 months. Usual nutrient intakes derived from foods, beverages, and supplements were ascertained using a telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-hour dietary recall. Infants aged birth to 5 months (n=382) and 6 to 11 months (n=505), toddlers aged 12 to 23 months (n=925), and preschoolers aged 24 to 47 months (n=1,461) were surveyed. All primary caregivers completed one 24-hour dietary recall and a random subsample (n=701) completed a second 24-hour dietary recall. The personal computer version of the Software for Intake Distribution Estimation was used to estimate the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles, as well as the proportions below and above cutoff values defined by the Dietary Reference Intakes or the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Usual nutrient intakes met or exceeded energy and protein requirements with minimal risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. The usual intakes of antioxidants, B vitamins, bone-related nutrients, and other micronutrients were adequate relative to the Adequate Intakes or Estimated Average Requirements, except for iron and zinc in a small subset of older infants, and vitamin E and potassium in toddlers and preschoolers. Intakes of synthetic folate, preformed vitamin A, zinc, and sodium exceeded Tolerable Upper Intake Level in a significant proportion of toddlers and preschoolers. Macronutrient distributions were within acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges, except for dietary fat, in some toddlers and preschoolers. Dietary fiber was low in the vast majority of toddlers and preschoolers, and saturated fat intakes exceeded

  7. Structured Task versus Free Play: The Influence of Social Context on Parenting Quality, Toddlers' Engagement with Parents and Play Behaviors, and Parent-Toddler Language Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Bingham, Gary; Lewsader, Joellen; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Elicker, James

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little empirical research examines relations among the quality of both mothers' and fathers' social emotional and linguistic support of toddlers across multiple parent-child interaction contexts. Objective: The current study investigated the influence of parent gender (mother vs. father) and activity setting (structured task vs. free…

  8. Cytogenetic instability in populations with residential proximity to open-pit coal mine in Northern Colombia in relation to PM10 and PM2.5 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; da Silva, Juliana; Espitia-Pérez, Pedro; Brango, Hugo; Salcedo-Arteaga, Shirley; Hoyos-Giraldo, Luz Stella; de Souza, Claudia T; Dias, Johnny F; Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana; Valdés Toscano, Ana; Gómez-Pérez, Miguel; Henriques, João A P

    2018-02-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that living in proximity to coal mines is correlated with numerous diseases including cancer, and that exposure to PM 10 and PM 2.5 components could be associated with this phenomenon. However, the understanding of the mechanisms by which PM exerts its adverse effects is still incomplete and comes mainly from studies in occupationally exposed populations. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate DNA damage in lymphocytes assessing the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay (CBMN-cyt) parameters; (2) identify aneugenic or clastogenic effects in lymphocytes of exposed populations using CREST immunostaining for micronuclei; (3) evaluate multi-elemental composition of atmospheric particulate matter; and (4) verify relation between the DNA damage and PM 2.5 and PM 10 levels around the mining area. Analysis revealed a significant increase in micronuclei frequency in binucleated (MNBN) and mononucleated (MNMONO) cells of individuals with residential proximity to open-pit coal mines compared to residents from non-mining areas. Correlation analysis demonstrated a highly significant association between PM 2.5 levels, MNBN frequencies and CREST+ micronuclei induction in exposed residents. These results suggest that PM 2.5 fraction generated in coal mining activities may induce whole chromosome loss (aneuploidy) preferentially, although there are also chromosome breaks. Analysis of the chemical composition of PM 2.5 by PIXE demonstrated that Si, S, K and Cr concentrations varied significantly between coal mining and reference areas. Enrichment factor values (EF) showed that S, Cr and Cu were highly enriched in the coal mining areas. Compared to reference area, mining regions had also higher concentrations of extractable organic matter (EOM) related to nonpolar and polar compounds. Our results demonstrate that PM 2.5 fraction represents the most important health risk for residents living near open-pit mines, underscoring the need for

  9. Background Noise Degrades Central Auditory Processing in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemitalo-Haapola, Elina; Haapala, Sini; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Kujala, Teija

    2015-01-01

    Noise, as an unwanted sound, has become one of modern society's environmental conundrums, and many children are exposed to higher noise levels than previously assumed. However, the effects of background noise on central auditory processing of toddlers, who are still acquiring language skills, have so far not been determined. The authors evaluated the effects of background noise on toddlers' speech-sound processing by recording event-related brain potentials. The hypothesis was that background noise modulates neural speech-sound encoding and degrades speech-sound discrimination. Obligatory P1 and N2 responses for standard syllables and the mismatch negativity (MMN) response for five different syllable deviants presented in a linguistic multifeature paradigm were recorded in silent and background noise conditions. The participants were 18 typically developing 22- to 26-month-old monolingual children with healthy ears. The results showed that the P1 amplitude was smaller and the N2 amplitude larger in the noisy conditions compared with the silent conditions. In the noisy condition, the MMN was absent for the intensity and vowel changes and diminished for the consonant, frequency, and vowel duration changes embedded in speech syllables. Furthermore, the frontal MMN component was attenuated in the noisy condition. However, noise had no effect on P1, N2, or MMN latencies. The results from this study suggest multiple effects of background noise on the central auditory processing of toddlers. It modulates the early stages of sound encoding and dampens neural discrimination vital for accurate speech perception. These results imply that speech processing of toddlers, who may spend long periods of daytime in noisy conditions, is vulnerable to background noise. In noisy conditions, toddlers' neural representations of some speech sounds might be weakened. Thus, special attention should be paid to acoustic conditions and background noise levels in children's daily environments

  10. Nonlocal thermoelectric effects and nonlocal Onsager relations in a three-terminal proximity-coupled superconductor-ferromagnet device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machon, Peter; Belzig, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Eschrig, Matthias [SEPnet and Hubbard Theory Consortium, Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    We study thermal and charge transport in a three-terminal setup consisting of a superconducting and two ferromagnetic contacts. We predict that the simultaneous presence of spin-filtering and of spin-dependent scattering phase shifts at each of the two interfaces will lead to very large nonlocal thermoelectric effects both in clean and in disordered systems. The symmetries of thermal and electric transport coefficients are related to fundamental thermodynamic principles by the Onsager reciprocity. Our results show that a nonlocal version of the Onsager relations for thermoelectric currents holds in a three terminal quantum coherent ferromagnet-superconductor heterostructure including spin-dependent crossed Andreev reflection and coherent electron transfer processes.

  11. Attention and Word Learning in Toddlers Who Are Late Talkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Montemarano, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine attention allocation in toddlers who were late talkers and toddlers with typical language development while they were engaged in a word-learning task in order to determine if differences exist. Two-year-olds who were late talkers (11) and typically developing toddlers (11) were taught twelve novel…

  12. Echosonography with proximity sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaisiam, W; Laithong, T; Meekhun, S; Chaiwathyothin, N; Thanlarp, P; Danworaphong, S

    2013-01-01

    We propose the use of a commercial ultrasonic proximity sensor kit for profiling an altitude-varying surface by employing echosonography. The proximity sensor kit, two identical transducers together with its dedicated operating circuit, is used as a profiler for the construction of an image. Ultrasonic pulses are emitted from one of the transducers and received by the other. The time duration between the pulses allows us to determine the traveling distance of each pulse. In the experiment, the circuit is used with the addition of two copper wires for directing the outgoing and incoming signals to an oscilloscope. The time of flight of ultrasonic pulses can thus be determined. Square grids of 5 × 5 cm 2 are made from fishing lines, forming pixels in the image. The grids are designed to hold the detection unit in place, about 30 cm above a flat surface. The surface to be imaged is constructed to be height varying and placed on the flat surface underneath the grids. Our result shows that an image of the profiled surface can be created by varying the location of the detection unit along the grid. We also investigate the deviation in relation to the time of flight of the ultrasonic pulse. Such an experiment should be valuable for conveying the concept of ultrasonic imaging to physical and medical science undergraduate students. Due to its simplicity, the setup could be made in any undergraduate laboratory relatively inexpensively and it requires no complex parts. The results illustrate the concept of echosonography. (paper)

  13. Age-related structural changes in the myenteric nervous plexus ganglion along the anterior wall of the proximal human duodenum: A morphometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Predrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Aging is one of the most complex biological processes which probably affect structure and function of the enteric nerve system. However, there is not much available information on this topic, particularly in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of aging on the structure of the myenteric ganglia in the anterior wall of the human proximal duodenum. Methods. We examined the myenteric ganglia in the proximal duodenal anterior wall specimens obtained from 30 cadaver persons aged from 20 to 84 years. Tissue samples were classified into three age groups: 20-44, 45-64 and 65-84 years. After standard histological preparation, specimens were stained with HE, Cresyl Violet and AgNO3. Morphometric analysis of all the specimens, using a multipurpose test system M42, was performed. The data were subjected to the ttest. Results. The myenteric ganglia of very old humans contains an empty space, i.e. the respective parts of ganglia show a decreased number of neuron as compared to younger population. The average number of neuron per cm2 of the duodenum in the youngest people (20-44 years was 69,370 ± 1,750.00, in the people aged 45-64 years 69,211 ± 1,573.33, and in the oldest persons (65-84 years 57,951 ± 1,291.52. The loss of neurons in the oldest persons was 16.46%. The applied statistic test demonstrated a significant difference between the observed groups (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. Aging does not induce changes in size and surface of neurons in the ganglia, but it decreases the number of neurons. The nerve structures in the elderly are partly emptied of bodies of nerve cells (“empty ganglions”, which indicates the existence of changed myenteric ganglia in the duodenum. These changes could be related to the duodenum motility disorder associated with aging.

  14. Two-year survival rates of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment restorations in relation to glass ionomer cements and postrestoration meals consumed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; Opinya, G.N.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Mwalili, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of 3 glass ionomer cement (GIC) brands and the postrestoration meal consumed on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. Methods: A total of 804 proximal restorations were placed in primary

  15. Modification of Heat-Related Mortality in an Elderly Urban Population by Vegetation (Urban Green) and Proximity to Water (Urban Blue): Evidence from Lisbon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Meier, Fred; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Canário, Paulo; Alcoforado, Maria João; Scherer, Dieter; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2016-07-01

    Urban populations are highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of heat, with heat-related mortality showing intra-urban variations that are likely due to differences in urban characteristics and socioeconomic status. We investigated the influence of urban green and urban blue, that is, urban vegetation and water bodies, on heat-related excess mortality in the elderly > 65 years old in Lisbon, Portugal, between 1998 and 2008. We used remotely sensed data and geographic information to determine the amount of urban vegetation and the distance to bodies of water (the Atlantic Ocean and the Tagus Estuary). Poisson generalized additive models were fitted, allowing for the interaction between equivalent temperature [universal thermal climate index (UTCI)] and quartiles of urban greenness [classified using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)] and proximity to water (≤ 4 km vs. > 4 km), while adjusting for potential confounders. The association between mortality and a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile (24.8°C) was stronger for areas in the lowest NDVI quartile (14.7% higher; 95% CI: 1.9, 17.5%) than for areas in the highest quartile (3.0%; 95% CI: 2.0, 4.0%). In areas > 4 km from water, a 1°C increase in UTCI above the 99th percentile was associated with a 7.1% increase in mortality (95% CI: 6.2, 8.1%), whereas in areas ≤ 4 km from water, the estimated increase in mortality was only 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2, 3.0%). Urban green and blue appeared to have a mitigating effect on heat-related mortality in the elderly population in Lisbon. Increasing the amount of vegetation may be a good strategy to counteract the adverse effects of heat in urban areas. Our findings also suggest potential benefits of urban blue that may be present several kilometers from a body of water. Burkart K, Meier F, Schneider A, Breitner S, Canário P, Alcoforado MJ, Scherer D, Endlicher W. 2016. Modification of heat-related mortality in an elderly urban population by

  16. Sensory Processing Difficulties in Toddlers With Nonorganic Failure-to-Thrive and Feeding Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sook-Hee; Joung, Yoo-Sook; Choe, Yon Ho; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2015-06-01

    Failure-to-thrive is defined as an abnormally low weight and/or height for age. The term "nonorganic failure-to-thrive" (NOFT) has been used to describe "failure-to-thrive" without an obvious cause underlying the growth failure. The purpose of the present study was to compare sensory processing abilities between toddlers with NOFT and feeding problems and age-matched controls. Toddlers with NOFT and feeding problems (N = 16) were recruited from the pediatric feeding clinic in a tertiary university hospital, and age-matched controls (N = 16) were recruited from community volunteers. They were evaluated for sensory processing ability using an Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP), and for development of cognition, motor skills, and language using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II and Sequenced Language Scale for Infants. Behavior at mealtime was evaluated using the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale. In the NOFT with feeding problems group, atypical performances were more frequently observed in 3 of 5 ITSP section items (tactile, vestibular, and oral) compared with those in the control group. Significant delayed development of cognition, motor skills, and language was observed in the NOFT with feeding problems group compared with that in the control group. In addition, children who showed 1 or more atypical performances in ITSP had delayed development in cognition, motor skills, and language. Sensory processing problems were more commonly observed in toddlers with feeding problems and growth deficiency. The present study could provide a preliminary evidence for a possible impact of the sensory processing problems on the feeding difficulties in toddlers with NOFT. Future large studies should be conducted to clarify the relation between sensory processing difficulties and feeding problems in toddlers.

  17. Proximity credentials: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, L.J.

    1987-04-01

    Credentials as a means of identifying individuals have traditionally been a photo badge and more recently, the coded credential. Another type of badge, the proximity credential, is making inroads in the personnel identification field. This badge can be read from a distance instead of being veiewed by a guard or inserted into a reading device. This report reviews proximity credentials, identifies the companies marketing or developing proximity credentials, and describes their respective credentials. 3 tabs

  18. Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for Complex Stones in a Toddler with Congenital Renal Anomalies: Technical Details

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Can Kiremit

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report herein the management of a challenging case due to anatomic and stone-related complications in a 37-month-old Caucasian toddler with megacalycosis and complex stone in the left kidney and duplicated ureter on the right side.

  19. Rethinking Attachment: Fostering Positive Relationships between Infants, Toddlers and Their Primary Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis of current theory and research in relation to attachment between infants/toddlers and their caregivers. Worldwide statistics show that there are a significant number of women working in the global labour market. In Australia, recent research also found that over 300,000 children aged 0-5 years are currently…

  20. Attachment Predicts College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Skills for Working with Infants, Toddlers, and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, Claire D.; Torquati, Julia; Ispa, Jean; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Henk, Jennifer; Fusaro, Maria; Peterson, Carla A.; Roggman, Lori A.; Stacks, Ann M.; Cook, Gina; Brophy-Herb, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Adults' attitudes about attachment relationships are central to how they perceive and respond to children. However, little is known about how attachment styles are related to teachers' attitudes toward and interactions with infants and toddlers. From a survey of 207 students taking early childhood (EC) courses at 4 U.S.…

  1. To Watch or Not to Watch: Infants and Toddlers in a Brave New Electronic World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courage, Mary L.; Howe, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    For some time now, questions have been asked about the impact of television and video materials on the cognitive and social development of preschoolers and older children. More recently, these same questions have been asked in relation to the extensive exposure to these media that infants and toddlers are currently experiencing. To answer these…

  2. Electrophysiology of Perception and Processing of Phonological Information as Indices of Toddlers' Language Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Vanessa; Preston, Jonathan; Grela, Bernard; Roy, Dooti; Harold, Olivia; Turcios, Jacqueline; Andrada, Kiyomi; Landi, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The toddler years are a critical period for language development and growth. We investigated how event-related potentials (ERPs) to repeated and novel nonwords are associated with clinical assessments of language in young children. In addition, nonword repetition (NWR) was used to measure phonological working memory to determine the…

  3. Joint Attention in Infant-Toddler Early Childhood Programs: Its Dynamics and Potential for Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degotardi, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how joint attention episodes constitute a core feature of relational pedagogy for infants and toddlers. It draws on social interactionist approaches to language and cognitive development to propose that joint attention may afford significant current and future potential for young children's learning. However, most joint…

  4. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  5. An objective assessment of toddlers' physical activity and sedentary levels: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderloo, Leigh M; Tucker, Patricia

    2015-09-26

    Little evidence exists on the physical activity and sedentary time of Canadian toddlers; this study objectively measured such behaviors and compared participants' activity levels to national guidelines. Levels of screen-viewing among toddlers were also explored. Forty toddlers (mean age = 25.7 months) wore Actical accelerometers for seven consecutive days (15 s epoch). Parents/guardians completed a wear-time log and a demographic and screen-viewing questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were used to determine participants' levels of physical activity and sedentary time, to identify whether toddlers were meeting physical activity/sedentary guidelines, and to explore demographic variables. T-tests were used to assess whether toddlers' activity levels differed based on cut-points applied and various demographic and screen-related variables. Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between toddlers' sedentary time and screen-viewing levels. Toddlers engaged in 37.27 (SD = 3.79) to 49.40 (SD = 3.29) mins/hr of sedentary time, 9.79 (SD = 2.90) to 18.78 (SD = 3.22) mins/hr of light-intensity physical activity (LPA), 0.82 (SD = 0.72) to 3.95 (SD = 1.93) mins/hr of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), and 10.60 (SD =3.29) to 22.73 (SD = 3.97) mins/hr of total physical activity (TPA), based on the Trost et al. and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) cut-points respectively; these rates were significantly different (p physical activity guidelines. No statistically significant differences in sedentary time or physical activity (all intensities) based on sex were reported (p sedentary behavior guidelines on weekdays and weekend days, respectively. The implications of this work suggest that a greater understanding of toddlers' activity patterns is needed; additional mechanisms of promoting active behaviors among this group should be explored.

  6. The 'Displacing Foods of Modern Commerce' Are the Primary and Proximate Cause of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Unifying Singular Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobbe, Chris A; Stojanoska, Marija

    2017-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss and blindness in developed nations. AMD is anticipated to affect 196 million people worldwide, by 2020. However, the etiology of this disease remains unknown. Aging, genetic, and environmental influences have generally been implicated as major etiologic factors. We sought to examine the hypothesis that consumption of the 'displacing foods of modern commerce,' which equate to processed, nutrient-deficient and potentially toxic foods, may be the primary and proximate cause of AMD. To evaluate this hypothesis, we ran correlative AMD prevalence data against well-known proxy markers of processed food consumption, namely, sugar and vegetable oils, in 25 nations. In twenty-one nations, published studies provided AMD prevalence data and in four Pacific Island nations, practicing ophthalmologists in the regions completed retrospective chart analyses to estimate AMD prevalence in their respective regions. To estimate AMD prevalence historically, an extensive review of published papers and ophthalmic literature was completed. This review indicates that, between the years 1851 and 1930, AMD was a medical rarity worldwide, which then rose modestly in prevalence in the 1930s in the U.S. and U.K, finally elevating to epidemic proportions by 1975 in the U.S. Numerous developed nations have followed suit in recent decades. Simultaneously, between approximately 1880 and 2009, processed, nutrient-deficient foods gradually supplanted and displaced whole, unprocessed, nutrient-dense foods in developed nations, such that by 2009, 63 percent of the American diet was made up of nutrient-deficient foods in the form of refined white flour, added sugars, vegetable oils, and artificially created trans fats. The correlative data in 25 nations shows that increasing sugar and polyunsaturated vegetable oil consumption is invariably associated with new onset or rising prevalence of AMD, generally within about

  7. Down-regulation of human topoisomerase IIα expression correlates with relative amounts of specificity factors Sp1 and Sp3 bound at proximal and distal promoter regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaacs Richard J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topoisomerase IIα has been shown to be down-regulated in doxorubicin-resistant cell lines. The specificity proteins Sp1 and Sp3 have been implicated in regulation of topoisomerase IIα transcription, although the mechanism by which they regulate expression is not fully understood. Sp1 has been shown to bind specifically to both proximal and distal GC elements of the human topoisomerase IIα promoter in vitro, while Sp3 binds only to the distal GC element unless additional flanking sequences are included. While Sp1 is thought to be an activator of human topoisomerase IIα, the functional significance of Sp3 binding is not known. Therefore, we sought to determine the functional relationship between Sp1 and Sp3 binding to the topoisomerase IIα promoter in vivo. We investigated endogenous levels of Sp1, Sp3 and topoisomerase IIα as well as binding of both Sp1 and Sp3 to the GC boxes of the topoisomerase IIα promoter in breast cancer cell lines in vivo after short term doxorubicin exposure. Results Functional effects of Sp1 and Sp3 were studied using transient cotransfection assays using a topoisomerase IIα promoter reporter construct. The in vivo interactions of Sp1 and Sp3 with the GC elements of the topoisomerase IIα promoter were studied in doxorubicin-treated breast cancer cell lines using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Relative amounts of endogenous proteins were measured using immunoblotting. In vivo DNA looping mediated by proteins bound at the GC1 and GC2 elements was studied using the chromatin conformation capture assay. Both Sp1 and Sp3 bound to the GC1 and GC2 regions. Sp1 and Sp3 were transcriptional activators and repressors respectively, with Sp3 repression being dominant over Sp1-mediated activation. The GC1 and GC2 elements are linked in vivo to form a loop, thus bringing distal regulatory elements and their cognate transcription factors into close proximity with the transcription start site

  8. Contextual Influences on Concordance between Maternal Report and Laboratory Observation of Toddler Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Hummel, Alexandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Emotion and temperament researchers have faced an enduring issue of how to best measure children’s tendencies to express specific emotions. Inconsistencies between laboratory observation and parental report have made it challenging for researchers to determine the utility of these different forms of measurement. The current study examined the effect of laboratory episode characteristics (i.e., threat-level of the episode, maternal involvement) on concordance between maternal report and laboratory observation of toddler fear. The sample included 111 mother-toddler dyads who participated in a laboratory assessment when toddlers were approximately 24-months-old. Toddler fear was assessed both via maternal report and observation from a number of laboratory episodes that varied in their level of threat and whether mothers were free or constrained in their involvement in the task. Results indicated that maternal report related to the observed fear composites for low-threat, but not high-threat episodes. On the other hand, maternal involvement in the laboratory episodes did not moderate the relation between maternal report and laboratory observation of fear. These results suggest that the threat-level of laboratory episodes designed to elicit fear, but not maternal involvement in these episodes, may be important to take into consideration when assessing their relation to maternal report of fear and fearful temperament. PMID:27606826

  9. Food Texture Preferences in Infants Versus Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Brenda; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Compared food texture preferences during infancy and toddlerhood. Found that infants displayed more negative expressions and head and body movements in response to complex textures than to simple textures. Toddlers displayed more positive head and body movements and more eagerness in response to complex than to simple textures. Experience with…

  10. Fractures in infants and toddlers with rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Teresa; Done, Stephen [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Sugar, Naomi; Feldman, Kenneth [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Children' s Protection Program, Seattle, WA (United States); Marasigan, Joanne; Wambold, Nicolle [University of Washington, College of Arts and Sciences, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Rickets affects young infants and toddlers. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding the types of fractures that occur in rachitic patients. To evaluate the age of patients at which radiographically evident rickets occurs, and to characterize the age incidence and fractures that are observed in infants and toddlers with radiographically evident rickets. A retrospective study of children younger than 24 months was performed. Clinical data and radiographs were reviewed. Radiographs obtained within 1 month of the diagnosis were evaluated for the presence or absence of osteopenia, presence or absence of fraying-cupping, and presence and characterization of fractures. After exclusion criteria were applied, 45 children were included in the study. Children with rickets evident by radiograph were in the age range of 2-24 months. Fractures were present in 17.5% of the study group, exclusively in mobile infants and toddlers. Fracture types included transverse long bone fractures, anterior and anterior-lateral rib fractures, and metaphyseal fractures. All fractures occurred exclusively in patients with severe, overtly evident rickets. Fractures occur in older infants and toddlers with overt rickets and can be seen by radiograph. Fractures do not resemble high-risk non-accidental trauma fractures. (orig.)

  11. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)…

  12. Encouraging Healthy Eating Behaviors in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Larra; Henk, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Young children's eating behaviors have a direct link to their future health and attitudes regarding food. Similarly, positive nutrition during the toddler years leads to increased brain development and thus children are generally healthier (Weaver, More, & Harris, 2008). This makes eating behaviors extremely important. During the toddler…

  13. [A healthy life style for toddlers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinneburg, Iris

    2014-04-01

    The first years of life are important for the development of a healthy life style. Therefore, parents should pay attention to nutrition and activity when caring for their toddlers. Current recommendations give advice about these issues and also address topics as vegan nutrition and food allergies.

  14. Toddler socioemotional behavior in a northern plains Indian tribe: associations with maternal psychosocial well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Karen A; Croy, Calvin D; Kubicek, Lorraine F; Emde, Robert N; Mitchell, Christina M; Spicer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    M.C. Sarche, C.D. Croy, C. Big Crow, C. Mitchell, and P. Spicer (2009) provided first-ever information relating the socioemotional development of American Indian toddlers to the immediate context of their mothers' lives. The current study sought to replicate and build on their earlier work by examining the impact of additional maternal risk factors, identified in previous research with non-American Indian populations, on the development of American Indian toddlers: maternal depression, negative social influences, and mother's feelings of isolation. At 27 months, American Indian mothers (N = 110) completed the Parent Demographic Questionnaire, which measured maternal psychosocial characteristics (e.g., depressed affect, social support, drug and alcohol use, isolation) and demographics. Mothers also completed the Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (A.S. Carter & M.J. Briggs-Gowan, 2006) and the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale of the Parenting Stress Index (R.R. Abidin, 1995, 1997). Some results replicated the original study, but others did not. Reports of a dysfunctional mother-child relationship related to externalizing and internalizing problems, replicating the earlier study. This study also found associations between a dysfunctional mother-child relationship and socioemotional competence as well as dysregulation. The previous finding of a relationship between American Indian identity and socioemotional competence was supported. Adding the effects of maternal depressed affect and isolation significantly increased prediction of toddler behavior problems. © 2013 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. Variant at serotonin transporter gene predicts increased imitation in toddlers: relevance to the human capacity for cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Kari Britt; Asherson, Philip; Blake, Peter R; Fenstermacher, Susan K; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2016-04-01

    Cumulative culture ostensibly arises from a set of sociocognitive processes which includes high-fidelity production imitation, prosociality and group identification. The latter processes are facilitated by unconscious imitation or social mimicry. The proximate mechanisms of individual variation in imitation may thus shed light on the evolutionary history of the human capacity for cumulative culture. In humans, a genetic component to variation in the propensity for imitation is likely. A functional length polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene, the short allele at 5HTTLPR, is associated with heightened responsiveness to the social environment as well as anatomical and activational differences in the brain's imitation circuity. Here, we evaluate whether this polymorphism contributes to variation in production imitation and social mimicry. Toddlers with the short allele at 5HTTLPR exhibit increased social mimicry and increased fidelity of demonstrated novel object manipulations. Thus, the short allele is associated with two forms of imitation that may underlie the human capacity for cumulative culture. The short allele spread relatively recently, possibly due to selection, and its frequency varies dramatically on a global scale. Diverse observations can be unified via conceptualization of 5HTTLPR as influencing the propensity to experience others' emotions, actions and sensations, potentially through the mirror mechanism. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Geospatial analysis of residential proximity to open-pit coal mining areas in relation to micronuclei frequency, particulate matter concentration, and elemental enrichment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Arteaga-Pertuz, Marcia; Soto, José Salvador; Espitia-Pérez, Pedro; Salcedo-Arteaga, Shirley; Pastor-Sierra, Karina; Galeano-Páez, Claudia; Brango, Hugo; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João A P

    2018-05-03

    During coal surface mining, several activities such as drilling, blasting, loading, and transport produce large quantities of particulate matter (PM) that is directly emitted into the atmosphere. Occupational exposure to this PM has been associated with an increase of DNA damage, but there is a scarcity of data examining the impact of these industrial operations in cytogenetic endpoints frequency and cancer risk of potentially exposed surrounding populations. In this study, we used a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach and Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) methods to perform a spatial and statistical analysis to explore whether exposure to PM 2.5 and PM 10 pollution, and additional factors, including the enrichment of the PM with inorganic elements, contribute to cytogenetic damage in residents living in proximity to an open-pit coal mining area. Results showed a spatial relationship between exposure to elevated concentrations of PM 2.5, PM 10 and micronuclei frequency in binucleated (MNBN) and mononucleated (MNMONO) cells. Active pits, disposal, and storage areas could be identified as the possible emission sources of combustion elements. Mining activities were also correlated with increased concentrations of highly enriched elements like S, Cu and Cr in the atmosphere, corroborating its role in the inorganic elements pollution around coal mines. Elements enriched in the PM 2.5 fraction contributed to increasing of MNBN but seems to be more related to increased MNMONO frequencies and DNA damage accumulated in vivo. The combined use of GIS and IDW methods could represent an important tool for monitoring potential cancer risk associated to dynamically distributed variables like the PM. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Morphology and morphometry of the ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle in relation to median nerve compression at the proximal forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, I A; Altinel, L; Gayretli, O; Akgul, T; Uzun, I; Dikici, F

    2016-12-01

    The pronator syndrome is a rare compression neuropathy of the median nerve. Ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle may cause compression at proximal forearm. Detailed morphologic and morphometric studies on the anatomy of the ulnar head of pronator teres is scarce. We dissected 112 forearms of fresh cadavers. We evaluated the morphology and morphometry of the ulnar head of pronator teres muscle. The average ulnar head width was 16.3±8.2mm. The median nerve passed anterior to the ulnar head at a distance of 50.4±10.7mm from the interepicondylar line. We classified the morphology of the ulnar head into 5 types. In type 1, the ulnar head was fibromuscular in 60 forearms (53.6%). In type 2, it was muscular in 23 forearms (20.5%). In type 3, it was just a fibrotic band in 18 forearms (16.1%). In type 4, it was absent in 9 forearms (8%). In type 5, the ulnar head had two arches in 2 forearms (1.8%). In 80 forearms (71.5%: types 1, 3, and 5), the ulnar head was either fibromuscular or a fibrotic band. Although the pronator syndrome is a rare compression syndrome, the ulnar head of pronator teres is reported as the major cause of entrapment in the majority of the cases. The location of the compression of the median nerve in relation to the ulnar head of pronator teres muscle and the morphology of the ulnar head is important for open or minimally-invasive surgical treatment. Sectional study. Basic science study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Protein energy malnutrition associates with different types of hearing impairments in toddlers: Anemia increases cochlear dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Terez Boshra; Deraz, Tharwat Ezzat; Elkabarity, Rasha H; Ahmed, Rasha K

    2016-06-01

    This work aimed to highlight a challenging asymptomatic problem which is early detection of hearing impairment in toddlers with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) as a neuro-cognitive effect of PEM on developing brain in relation to hemoglobin level. 100 toddlers, aged 6-24 months, fifty with moderate/severe PEM and fifty healthy children, were included in study. Both TEOAEs and ABR testing were used to assess auditory function. Study reported an association between malnutrition and hearing impairment, 26% of cases had conductive deafness secondary to otitis media with effusion using tympanometry; 84.6% showed type B and 15.4% type C which may suggest developing or resolving otitis media. Their ABR showed 46% mild and 53% moderate impairment. 32% of PEM cases had sensory neural hearing loss and with type (A) tympanometry. Those were assessed using ABR; 58% had mild, 34% moderate and 8% profound impairment. 10% of PEM cases had mixed hearing loss with 50% type B and 50% type C tympanometry and their ABR showed moderate to profound impairment. TEOAEs latencies at different frequencies correlate negatively with hemoglobin level. Toddlers with moderate/severe PEM had hearing impairments of different types and degrees. Neuro-physiological methods could be early and safe detectors of auditory disorders especially in high-risk toddlers. Anemia increases risk for auditory dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The phenomenon of "picky eater": a behavioral marker in eating patterns of toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, B R; Skinner, J; Houck, K; Moran, J; Coletta, F; Ott, D

    1998-04-01

    To determine if toddlers who were considered "picky eaters" had lower dietary scores than non-picky eaters, and if family environment and socioeconomic status were significantly related to picky eater status and dietary scores. An incomplete block design provided two interviews at randomly assigned times (24, 28, 32, or 36 months) of Caucasian mothers from upper socioeconomic (n=74) and lower socioeconomic status (n=44). Using trained interviewers, 6 days of food intake, two administrations of a questionnaire about toddler's eating behavior, and one administration of the Family Environment Scales were collected in the home. MANOVA, discriminant function analysis, and logistic regression procedures were used to determine significant differences between picky and non-picky eater groups. Picky eaters had lower dietary variety (p=.03) and diversity scores (p=.009) than non-picky eaters. Mothers of picky eaters compared to those of non-picky eaters used persuasion (p=.0001) and ranked their child's eating behaviors as more problematic (p=.0001). Toddlers perceived by their mothers as picky eaters had significantly lower dietary variety and diversity scores. Parents need information and strategies to increase the number of foods acceptable to their toddlers and to develop a sound feeding plan.

  20. Using an adoption design to separate genetic, prenatal, and temperament influences on toddler executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; DeGarmo, David S; Bridgett, David J; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Harold, Gordon T; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2013-06-01

    Poor executive functioning has been implicated in children's concurrent and future behavioral difficulties, making work aimed at understanding processes related to the development of early executive function (EF) critical for models of developmental psychopathology. Deficits in EF have been associated with adverse prenatal experiences, genetic influences, and temperament characteristics. However, our ability to disentangle the predictive and independent effects of these influences has been limited by a dearth of genetically informed research designs that also consider prenatal influences. The present study examined EF and language development in a sample of 361 toddlers who were adopted at birth and reared in nonrelative adoptive families. Predictors included genetic influences (as inherited from birth mothers), prenatal risk, and growth in child negative emotionality. Structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of prenatal risk on toddler effortful attention at age 27 months became nonsignificant once genetic influences were considered in the model. In addition, genetic influences had unique effects on toddler effortful attention. Latent growth modeling indicated that increases in toddler negative emotionality from 9 to 27 months were associated with poorer delay of gratification and poorer language development. Similar results were obtained in models incorporating birth father data. Mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of EF deficits are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Maternal DHA levels and Toddler Free-Play Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Kannass, Kathleen N.; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels at birth and toddler free-play attention in the second year. Toddler free-play attention was assessed at 12 and 18 months, and maternal erythrocyte (red-blood cell; RBC) phospholipid DHA (percentage of total fatty acids) was measured from mothers at delivery. Overall, higher maternal DHA status at birth was associated with enhanced attentional functioning during the second year. Toddlers whose mothers had high...

  2. "Should I or shouldn't I?" Imitation of undesired versus allowed actions from peer and adult models by 18- and 24-month-old toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehagen, Sabine; Schneider, Silvia; Miebach, Kristin; Frigge, Katharina; Zmyj, Norbert

    2017-11-01

    Imitation is a common way of acquiring novel behaviors in toddlers. However, little is known about toddlers' imitation of undesired actions. Here we investigated 18- and 24-month-olds' (N=110) imitation of undesired and allowed actions from televised peer and adult models. Permissiveness of the demonstrated actions was indicated by the experimenter's response to their execution (angry or neutral). Analyses revealed that toddlers' imitation scores were higher after demonstrations of allowed versus undesired actions, regardless of the age of the model. In agreement with prior research, these results suggest that third-party reactions to a model's actions can be a powerful cue for toddlers to engage in or refrain from imitation. In the context of the present study, third-party reactions were more influential on imitation than the model's age. Considering the relative influence of different social cues for imitation can help to gain a fuller understanding of early observational learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Parent-Toddler Behavior and Language Differ When Reading Electronic and Print Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouse, Gabrielle A; Ganea, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the language and behaviors that typically occur when adults read electronic books with infants and toddlers, and which are supportive of learning. In this study, we report differences in parent and child behavior and language when reading print versus electronic versions of the same books, and investigate links between behavior and vocabulary learning. Parents of 102 toddlers aged 17-26 months were randomly assigned to read two commercially available electronic books or two print format books with identical content with their toddler. After reading, children were asked to identify an animal labeled in one of the books in both two-dimensional (pictures) and three-dimensional (replica objects) formats. Toddlers who were read the electronic books paid more attention, made themselves more available for reading, displayed more positive affect, participated in more page turns, and produced more content-related comments during reading than those who were read the print versions of the books. Toddlers also correctly identified a novel animal labeled in the book more often when they had read the electronic than the traditional print books. Availability for reading and attention to the book acted as mediators in predicting children's animal choice at test, suggesting that electronic books supported children's learning by way of increasing their engagement and attention. In contrast to prior studies conducted with older children, there was no difference between conditions in behavioral or off-topic talk for either parents or children. More research is needed to determine the potential hazards and benefits of new media formats for very young children.

  4. Parent–Toddler Behavior and Language Differ When Reading Electronic and Print Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Ganea, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the language and behaviors that typically occur when adults read electronic books with infants and toddlers, and which are supportive of learning. In this study, we report differences in parent and child behavior and language when reading print versus electronic versions of the same books, and investigate links between behavior and vocabulary learning. Parents of 102 toddlers aged 17–26 months were randomly assigned to read two commercially available electronic books or two print format books with identical content with their toddler. After reading, children were asked to identify an animal labeled in one of the books in both two-dimensional (pictures) and three-dimensional (replica objects) formats. Toddlers who were read the electronic books paid more attention, made themselves more available for reading, displayed more positive affect, participated in more page turns, and produced more content-related comments during reading than those who were read the print versions of the books. Toddlers also correctly identified a novel animal labeled in the book more often when they had read the electronic than the traditional print books. Availability for reading and attention to the book acted as mediators in predicting children’s animal choice at test, suggesting that electronic books supported children’s learning by way of increasing their engagement and attention. In contrast to prior studies conducted with older children, there was no difference between conditions in behavioral or off-topic talk for either parents or children. More research is needed to determine the potential hazards and benefits of new media formats for very young children. PMID:28559858

  5. Parent–Toddler Behavior and Language Differ When Reading Electronic and Print Picture Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle A. Strouse

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the language and behaviors that typically occur when adults read electronic books with infants and toddlers, and which are supportive of learning. In this study, we report differences in parent and child behavior and language when reading print versus electronic versions of the same books, and investigate links between behavior and vocabulary learning. Parents of 102 toddlers aged 17–26 months were randomly assigned to read two commercially available electronic books or two print format books with identical content with their toddler. After reading, children were asked to identify an animal labeled in one of the books in both two-dimensional (pictures and three-dimensional (replica objects formats. Toddlers who were read the electronic books paid more attention, made themselves more available for reading, displayed more positive affect, participated in more page turns, and produced more content-related comments during reading than those who were read the print versions of the books. Toddlers also correctly identified a novel animal labeled in the book more often when they had read the electronic than the traditional print books. Availability for reading and attention to the book acted as mediators in predicting children’s animal choice at test, suggesting that electronic books supported children’s learning by way of increasing their engagement and attention. In contrast to prior studies conducted with older children, there was no difference between conditions in behavioral or off-topic talk for either parents or children. More research is needed to determine the potential hazards and benefits of new media formats for very young children.

  6. Iron requirements of infants and toddlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domellöf, Magnus; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide and young children are a special risk group since their rapid growth leads to high iron requirements. Risk factors associated with a higher prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) include low birth weight, high cow's milk.......There is no evidence that iron supplementation of pregnant women improves iron status in their offspring in a European setting. Delayed cord clamping reduces the risk of iron deficiency. There is insufficient evidence to support general iron supplementation of healthy, European infants and toddlers of normal birth...... intake, low intake of iron-rich complementary foods, low socioeconomic status and immigrant status.The aim of this position paper is to review the field and provide recommendations regarding iron requirements in infants and toddlers, including those of moderately or marginally low birth weight...

  7. Blunt cardiac rupture in a toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peep Talving

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Blunt cardiac rupture is typically a fatal injury with overall mortality exceeding 90%. Most of the patients never reach the hospital alive. In pediatric patients, only 0.03% of cases following blunt trauma admissions have a cardiac injury. This report presents a rare survivor of 16-months old toddler injured in a domestic accident suffering a right atrial rupture repaired through a median sternotomy. To the best of our knowledge this is the youngest case reported in the literature.

  8. Feeding infants and toddlers study: What foods are infants and toddlers eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary Kay; Pac, Susan; Devaney, Barbara; Jankowski, Linda

    2004-01-01

    To describe the food consumption patterns of US infants and toddlers, 4 to 24 months of age. Descriptive analysis of data collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers study based on telephone interviews and 24-hour dietary recalls. A national random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers age 4 to 24 months. The percentage of infants and toddlers consuming foods from specific food groups was estimated for six age groups, using a single 24-hour recall. Infants as young as 7 months of age showed food patterns that have been observed in older children and adults. From 18% to 33% of infants and toddlers between ages 7 and 24 months consumed no discrete servings of vegetables, and 23% to 33% consumed no fruits. French fries were one of the three most common vegetables consumed by infants 9 to 11 months of age. By 15 to 18 months, french fries were the most common vegetable. Almost half (46%) of 7- to 8-month-olds consumed some type of dessert, sweet, or sweetened beverage, and this percentage increased as age increased. By 19 to 24 months, 62% of toddlers consumed a baked dessert, 20% consumed candy, and 44% consumed a sweetened beverage. Parents and caregivers should be encouraged to offer a wide variety of vegetables and fruits daily, with emphasis on dark green, leafy, and deep yellow vegetables and colorful fruits. They should offer desserts, sweets, sweetened beverages, and salty snacks only occasionally, offering nutrient-dense, age-appropriate foods as alternatives (eg, fruit, cheese, yogurt, and cereals). Water, milk, and 100% fruit juices should be offered as alternative beverages. Because family food choices influence what foods are offered to children, family-based approaches to developing healthy eating habits may be helpful.

  9. Comparative Study of Raw and Boiled Silver Pomfret Fish from Coastal Area and Retail Market in Relation to Trace Metals and Proximate Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huque, Roksana; Munshi, M. Kamruzzaman; Khatun, Afifa; Islam, Mahfuza; Hossain, Afzal; Hossain, Arzina; Akter, Shirin; Kabir, Jamiul; Nahar Jolly, Yeasmin; Islam, Ashraful

    2014-01-01

    Trace metals concentration and proximate composition of raw and boiled silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) from coastal area and retail market were determined to gain the knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with indiscriminate consumption of marine fishes. The effects of cooking (boiling) on trace metal and proximate composition of silver pomfret fish were also investigated. Trace element results were determined by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer wherein fish samples from both areas exceeded the standard limits set by FAO/WHO for manganese, lead, cadmiumm and chromium and boiling has no significant effects on these three metal concentrations. Long-term intake of these contaminated fish samples can pose a health risk to humans who consume them. PMID:26904650

  10. Comparative Study of Raw and Boiled Silver Pomfret Fish from Coastal Area and Retail Market in Relation to Trace Metals and Proximate Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Huque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace metals concentration and proximate composition of raw and boiled silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus from coastal area and retail market were determined to gain the knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with indiscriminate consumption of marine fishes. The effects of cooking (boiling on trace metal and proximate composition of silver pomfret fish were also investigated. Trace element results were determined by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF Spectrometer wherein fish samples from both areas exceeded the standard limits set by FAO/WHO for manganese, lead, cadmiumm and chromium and boiling has no significant effects on these three metal concentrations. Long-term intake of these contaminated fish samples can pose a health risk to humans who consume them.

  11. Proximal thoracic aorta dimensions after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device implantation: Longitudinal changes and relation to aortic valve insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Nowell M; Park, Soon J; Stulak, John M; Topilsky, Yan; Daly, Richard C; Joyce, Lyle D; Pereira, Naveen L; Schirger, John A; Edwards, Brooks S; Lin, Grace; Kushwaha, Sudhir S

    2016-04-01

    In this study we examined the impact of continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) support on proximal thoracic aorta dimensions. Aortic root and ascending aorta diameter were measured from serial echocardiograms before and after CF-LVAD implantation in patients with ≥6 months of support, and correlated with the development of >mild aortic valve insufficiency (AI). Of 162 patients included, mean age was 58 ± 11 years and 128 (79%) were male. Seventy-nine (63%) were destination therapy patients. Mean aortic root and ascending aorta diameters at baseline, 1 month, 6 months, 12 months and long-term follow-up (mean 2.0 ± 1.4 years) were 3.5 ± 0.4, 3.5 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2 and 4.0 ± 0.3, and 3.3 ± 0.2, 3.3 ± 0.3, 3.6 ± 0.2, 3.6 ± 0.3 and 3.6 ± 0.3 cm, respectively. Only change in aortic root diameter from 1-month to 6-month follow-up reached statistical significance (p = 0.03). Nine (6%) patients had accelerated proximal thoracic aorta expansion (>0.5 cm/year), occurring predominantly in the first 6 months after implantation. These patients were older and more likely to have hypertension and baseline proximal thoracic aorta dilation. Forty-five (28%) patients developed >mild AI at long-term follow-up, including 7 of 9 (78%) of those with accelerated proximal thoracic aorta expansion. All 7 had aortic valves that remained closed throughout the cardiac cycle, and this, along with duration of CF-LVAD support and increase in aortic root diameter, were significantly associated with developing >mild AI. CF-LVAD patients have small increases in proximal thoracic aorta dimensions that predominantly occur within the first 6 months after implantation and then stabilize. Increasing aortic root diameter was associated with AI development. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  13. Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

  14. The Effects of Discipline Responses in Delaying Toddler Misbehavior Recurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, Robert E.; Schneider, William N.; Larson, David B.; Pike, Patricia L.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the effectiveness of maternal punishment (time out, spanking), reasoning, and a combination of the two. Results based on mothers' (N=40) structured diaries of toddler fighting and disobedience indicate that mild punishment, combined with reasoning, is an effective discipline response to toddler misbehavior in terms of recurrence of…

  15. The Role of Elicited Verbal Imitation in Toddlers' Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Rosemary; Munro, Natalie; Baker, Elise; McGregor, Karla; Docking, Kimberley; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    This study is about the role of elicited verbal imitation in toddler word learning. Forty-eight toddlers were taught eight nonwords linked to referents. During training, they were asked to imitate the nonwords. Naming of the referents was tested at three intervals (one minute later [uncued], five minutes, and 1-7 days later [cued]) and recognition…

  16. Development and validation of a toddler silhouette scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; McGill, Adrienne E; Black, Maureen M

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a toddler silhouette scale. A seven-point scale was developed by an artist based on photographs of 15 toddlers (6 males, 9 females) varying in race/ethnicity and body size, and a list of phenotypic descriptions of toddlers of varying body sizes. Content validity, age-appropriateness, and gender and race/ethnicity neutrality were assessed among 180 pediatric health professionals and 129 parents of toddlers. Inter- and intrarater reliability and concurrent validity were assessed by having 138 pediatric health professionals match the silhouettes with photographs of toddlers. Assessments of content validity revealed that most health professionals (74.6%) and parents of toddlers (63.6%) ordered all seven silhouettes correctly, and interobserver agreement for weight status classification was high (kappa = 0.710, r = 0.827, P gender (68.5%) and race/ethnicity (77.3%) neutral. The inter-rater reliability, based on matching silhouettes with photographs, was 0.787 (Cronbach's alpha) and the intrarater reliability was 0.855 (P parents' perception of and satisfaction with their toddler's body size. Interventions can be targeted toward parents who have inaccurate perceptions of or are dissatisfied with their toddler's body size.

  17. The Influence of Phonotactic Probability on Word Recognition in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Marton, Klara

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of phonotactic probability on word recognition in English-speaking toddlers. Typically developing toddlers completed a preferential looking paradigm using familiar words, which consisted of either high or low phonotactic probability sound sequences. The participants' looking behavior was recorded in response to…

  18. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…

  19. 34 CFR 303.16 - Infants and toddlers with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... more of the following areas: (i) Cognitive development. (ii) Physical development, including vision and... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infants and toddlers with disabilities. 303.16 Section... INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.16...

  20. A Content Analysis of Infant and Toddler Food Advertisements in Taiwanese Popular Pregnancy and Early Parenting Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Chang, Jung-Su; Gong, Yu-Tang

    2015-08-01

    Mothers who are exposed to formula advertisements (ads) are less likely to initiate breastfeeding and more likely to breastfeed for a shorter duration than other mothers. The purpose of this study was to examine infant and toddler food ads in pregnancy and early parenting magazines. A content analysis of infant and toddler food ads printed in 12 issues of 4 magazines published in 2011 was performed. Coding categories of ads included product category, advertisement category, marketing information, and advertising appeal. The target age and health-related message of each product were coded. The researchers identified 756 infant and toddler food ads in the magazines. Compared with complementary food ads, formula product ads used more marketing strategies such as antenatal classes and baby contests to influence consumers and promote products. Nutritional quality and child health benefits were the two most frequently used advertising appeals. In addition, this study identified 794 formula products and 400 complementary food products; 42.8% of the complementary food products were intended for 4-month-old infants. Furthermore, 91.9% of the ads for formula products and 81% of the ads for complementary food products contained claims concerning health function or nutrient content. Taiwanese pregnancy and early parenting magazines contain numerous infant and toddler food ads. These ads generally use health-related claims regarding specific nutrient content and health functions to promote infant and toddler foods. Health professionals should provide more information to parents on the differences between breast milk and formula milk, and they should be aware of the potential effect of infant and toddler food ads on parents' infant feeding decisions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. [Effects of an infant/toddler health program on parenting knowledge, behavior, confidence, and home environment in low-income mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; Yang, Soo; Jang, Mi Heui; Yeom, Mijung

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a mother/infant-toddler health program developed to enhance parenting knowledge, behavior and confidence in low income mothers and home environment. A one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used. Sixty-nine dyads of mothers and infant-toddlers (aged 0-36 months) were provided with weekly intervention for seven session. Each session consisted of three parts; first, educating to increase integrated knowledge related to the development of the infant/toddler including nutrition, first aid and home environment; second, counseling to share parenting experience among the mothers and to increase their nurturing confidence; third, playing with the infant/toddler to facilitate attachment-based parenting behavior for the mothers. Following the programs, there were significant increases in parenting knowledge on nutrition and first aid. A significant improvement was found in attachment-based parenting behavior, but not in home safety practice. Nurturing confidence was not significantly increased. The program led to more positive home environment for infant/toddler's health and development. The findings provide evidence for mother-infant/toddler health program to improve parenting knowledge, attachment-based parenting behavior and better home environment in low income mothers. Study of the long term effectiveness of this program is recommended for future research.

  2. Proximal Hamstring Tendinosis and Partial Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Startzman, Ashley N; Fowler, Oliver; Carreira, Dominic

    2017-07-01

    Proximal hamstring tendinosis and partial hamstring origin ruptures are painful conditions of the proximal thigh and hip that may occur in the acute, chronic, or acute on chronic setting. Few publications exist related to their diagnosis and management. This systematic review discusses the incidence, treatment, and prognosis of proximal hamstring tendinosis and partial hamstring ruptures. Conservative treatment measures include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, rest, and ice. If these measures fail, platelet-rich plasma or shockwave therapy may be considered. When refractory to conservative management, these injuries may be treated with surgical debridement and hamstring reattachment. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e574-e582.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Are one or two dangerous? Phenothiazine exposure in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey N; Smith, Jacqueline A; Simmons, Rachel

    2006-07-01

    Traditionally, pediatric phenothiazine exposures are considered dangerous even at low doses. The actual risk of exposure to 1-2 tablets is unclear. In an attempt to determine this risk, the authors performed a literature search, review of the American Association of Poison Control Center data, and evaluation of related resources (e.g., textbooks, bibliographies of relevant papers). This review reveals only sparse data from case reports regarding morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population despite years of clinical experience. Serious toxicity from exposure to low doses is rare and nearly always the result of chlorpromazine ingestion. Although the risk to the toddler ingesting 1-2 tablets seems to be extremely low, several factors should be considered when determining the need for triage to a health care facility.

  4. Proximal collagenous gastroenteritides:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Riis, Lene Buhl; Danese, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: While collagenous colitis represents the most common form of the collagenous gastroenteritides, the collagenous entities affecting the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract are much less recognized and possibly overlooked. The aim was to summarize the latest information through a syste...

  5. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  6. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  7. Sleep phenotypes in infants and toddlers with neurogenetic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Emily A; Tonnsen, Bridgette L

    2017-10-01

    Although sleep problems are well characterized in preschool- and school-age children with neurogenetic syndromes, little is known regarding the early emergence of these problems in infancy and toddlerhood. To inform syndrome-specific profiles and targets for intervention, we compared parent-reported sleep problems in infants and toddlers with Angelman syndrome (AS), Williams syndrome (WS), and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) with patterns observed among same-aged typically developing (TD) controls. Mothers of 80 children (18 AS, 19 WS, 19 PWS, and 24 TD) completed the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Primary dependent variables included (1) sleep onset latency, (2) total sleep duration, (3) daytime and nighttime sleep duration, and (4) sleep problem severity, as measured by both maternal impression and National Sleep Foundation guidelines. Sleep problems are relatively common in children with neurogenetic syndromes, with 41% of mothers reporting problematic sleep and 29% of children exhibiting abnormal sleep durations as per national guidelines. Across genetic subgroups, problems are most severe in children with AS and WS, particularly in relation to nighttime sleep duration. Although atypical sleep is characteristically reported in each syndrome later in development, infants and toddlers with PWS exhibited largely typical patterns, potentially indicating delayed onset of sleep problems in concordance with other medical features of PWS. Our findings suggest that sleep problems in neurogenetic syndromes emerge as early as infancy and toddlerhood, with variable profiles across genetic subgroups. This work underscores the importance of early sleep screenings as part of routine medical care of neurosyndromic populations and the need for targeted, syndrome-sensitive treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Motor Skill Abilities in Toddlers with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill C.; Hess, Julie A.; Neal, Daniene

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills were assessed in 397 toddlers, and it was demonstrated that atypically developing toddlers exhibited significantly greater motor skill abilities than toddlers with autistic disorder. No significant difference on gross or fine motor skill abilities were found between atypically developing toddlers and toddlers with pervasive…

  9. Are bi-axial proximal sesamoid bone fractures in the British Thoroughbred racehorse a bone fatigue related fracture? A histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, M; Hetzel, U; Parkin, T D H; Singer, E R

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether microfractures and alterations in the trabecular bone area are associated with catastrophic bi-axial proximal sesamoid bone fractures (PSBF). Proximal sesamoid bones (PSB) from 10 racehorses with PSBF and from 10 control racehorses without musculoskeletal injury were examined using the bulk basic fuchsin method. Bone histomorphometric and microfracture analysis was performed, and cases and controls compared using two-sample t-test, paired t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test. There was no significant difference in the microfracture density and the trabecular bone area between bones from case and control horses, and between fractured and non-fractured bones in case horses. Microfracture density was low in the areas of the PSB examined. Microfracture density was not significantly different between groups, indicating that propagation of micro-cracks is an unlikely predisposing pathologic alteration in PSBF in British racehorses. There was no significant difference in the bone surface area between groups, which one would expect if modelling, adaptation and an increase in bone density were associated with PSBF fracture in the case horses. Therefore, PSBF in the British racehorse does not appear to be associated with microfractures of the trabecular bone of the PSB. The PSB fractures might represent an acute monotonic fracture; however, the aetiology of the fractures remains unknown with additional research required.

  10. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Mother-Child Interactions in Families of Multiple and Singleton Preterm Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Kristin F.; Burnson, Cynthia; Hane, Amanda; Samuelson, Anne; Maleck, Sarah; Poehlmann, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated family support as a buffer of stress in 153 mothers and preterm toddlers. Data were collected regarding maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and family support; infant health; and videotaped mother-child interactions. Although more parenting stress related to less optimal child play, only information support…

  11. Mathematical Skills and Motor Life Skills in Toddlers: Do Differences in Mathematical Skills Reflect Differences in Motor Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reikerås, Elin; Moser, Thomas; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

    2017-01-01

    This study examines possible relations between early mathematical skills and motor life skills in 450 toddlers aged two years and nine months. The study employs baseline data from the longitudinal Stavanger Project--The Learning Child. The children's mathematical skills and motor life skills were assessed by structured observation in the natural…

  12. Socio-demographic and the lifestyle determinants of 'Western-like' and 'Health conscious' dietary patterns in toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Bleeker, S.E.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, M.K.; Raat, H.; Moll, H.

    2013-01-01

    Determinants of a child's diet shortly after weaning and lactation have been relatively understudied. The aim of the present study was hence to identify common dietary patterns in toddlers and to explore parental and child indicators of these dietary patterns. The study was a population-based,

  13. Experimental type II diabetes and related models of impaired glucose metabolism differentially regulate glucose transporters at the proximal tubule brush border membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichger, Havovi; Cleasby, Mark E; Srai, Surjit K; Unwin, Robert J; Debnam, Edward S; Marks, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? Although SGLT2 inhibitors represent a promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy, the influence of metabolic disruption on the expression and function of glucose transporters is largely unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? In vivo models of metabolic disruption (Goto-Kakizaki type II diabetic rat and junk-food diet) demonstrate increased expression of SGLT1, SGLT2 and GLUT2 in the proximal tubule brush border. In the type II diabetic model, this is accompanied by increased SGLT- and GLUT-mediated glucose uptake. A fasted model of metabolic disruption (high-fat diet) demonstrated increased GLUT2 expression only. The differential alterations of glucose transporters in response to varying metabolic stress offer insight into the therapeutic value of inhibitors. SGLT2 inhibitors are now in clinical use to reduce hyperglycaemia in type II diabetes. However, renal glucose reabsorption across the brush border membrane (BBM) is not completely understood in diabetes. Increased consumption of a Western diet is strongly linked to type II diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the adaptations that occur in renal glucose transporters in response to experimental models of diet-induced insulin resistance. The study used Goto-Kakizaki type II diabetic rats and normal rats rendered insulin resistant using junk-food or high-fat diets. Levels of protein kinase C-βI (PKC-βI), GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2 were determined by Western blotting of purified renal BBM. GLUT- and SGLT-mediated d-[(3) H]glucose uptake by BBM vesicles was measured in the presence and absence of the SGLT inhibitor phlorizin. GLUT- and SGLT-mediated glucose transport was elevated in type II diabetic rats, accompanied by increased expression of GLUT2, its upstream regulator PKC-βI and SGLT1 protein. Junk-food and high-fat diet feeding also caused higher membrane expression of GLUT2 and its upstream regulator PKC

  14. Early lexical characteristics of toddlers with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin-Jones, Mary; Chapman, Kathy L

    2014-11-01

    Objective : To examine development of early expressive lexicons in toddlers with cleft palate to determine whether they differ from those of noncleft toddlers in terms of size and lexical selectivity. Design : Retrospective. Patients : A total of 37 toddlers with cleft palate and 22 noncleft toddlers. Main Outcome Measures : The groups were compared for size of expressive lexicon reported on the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory and the percentage of words beginning with obstruents and sonorants produced in a language sample. Differences between groups in the percentage of word initial consonants correct on the language sample were also examined. Results : Although expressive vocabulary was comparable at 13 months of age for both groups, size of the lexicon for the cleft group was significantly smaller than that for the noncleft group at 21 and 27 months of age. Toddlers with cleft palate produced significantly more words beginning with sonorants and fewer words beginning with obstruents in their spontaneous speech samples. They were also less accurate when producing word initial obstruents compared with the noncleft group. Conclusions : Toddlers with cleft palate demonstrate a slower rate of lexical development compared with their noncleft peers. The preference that toddlers with cleft palate demonstrate for words beginning with sonorants could suggest they are selecting words that begin with consonants that are easier for them to produce. An alternative explanation might be that because these children are less accurate in the production of obstruent consonants, listeners may not always identify obstruents when they occur.

  15. Newly reported lupus and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to deployment within proximity to a documented open-air burn pit in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly A; Smith, Besa; Granado, Nisara S; Boyko, Edward J; Gackstetter, Gary D; Ryan, Margaret A K; Phillips, Christopher J; Smith, Tyler C

    2012-06-01

    To assess the relationship between possible exposure to smoke from documented open-air burn pits and newly reported lupus and rheumatoid arthritis among Millennium Cohort participants who have deployed in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Prospectively assessed self-reported lupus and rheumatoid arthritis among deployers who completed both 2004-2006 and 2007-2008 questionnaires. After exclusions, more than 18,000 participants were deployed, including more than 3000 participants deployed within a 3-mile radius of a documented burn pit. After adjustment, proximity within 3 miles of a burn pit was not significantly associated with rheumatoid arthritis or lupus in general; however, one location was associated with lupus, although few cases were at this site (n = 2). Results indicate deployers potentially exposed to documented burn pits in the combined three-camp analysis were not at an elevated risk of lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. Analytical traceability of melon (Cucumis melo var reticulatus): proximate composition, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in relation to cultivar, plant physiology state, and seasonal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maietti, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Paola; Stagno, Caterina; Bordiga, Matteo; Travaglia, Fabiano; Locatelli, Monica; Arlorio, Marco; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Two morphologically different cultivars of Italian melons (Baggio and Giusto) were characterized considering samples harvested in different times, at the beginning (BPP) and at the end of the physiological plant production period (EPP). Proximate composition, protein, minerals, pH, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, condensed tannins, and flavonoids were measured, showing a significant decrease in EPP samples (phenolics, antioxidant capacity, condensed tannins, and flavonoids); ascorbic acid decreased in Giusto cv, carotenoids in Baggio cv. Mineral content increased in either the cultivars (EPP samples). Year-to-year difference was significantly highlighted; the plant growing cycle significantly affected the chemotype. Despite these effects, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) permitted the discrimination of Baggio from Giusto cv, and the discrimination of BPP from EPP samples as well. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. A possible role of the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile in screening for autism: a proof-of-concept study in the specific sample of prematurely born children with birth weights <1,500 g

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beranová, Š.; Stoklasa, J.; Dudová, I.; Marková, D.; Kašparová, M.; Zemánková, J.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Talášek, T.; Luukka, P.; Hrdlička, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, January (2017), s. 191-200 ISSN 1178-2021 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : autism spectrum disorders * preterm children * screening * Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers * Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist * Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 2.198, year: 2016 https://www.dovepress.com/a-possible-role-of-the-infanttoddler-sensory-profile-in-screening-for--peer-reviewed-article-NDT

  18. Social interactions and play patterns of parents and toddlers with feminine, masculine, and neutral toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldera, Y M; Huston, A C; O'Brien, M

    1989-02-01

    Children as young as 18 months display sex-stereotyped toy choices. The present study was designed to determine whether parents encourage involvement with sex-stereotyped toys or avoidance of cross-sex-stereotyped toys and to determine whether masculine and feminine toys lead to different patterns of parent-child interaction, regardless of gender. 40 parent-toddler dyads were videotaped while playing with 6 different sets of sex-stereotyped toys. Equal numbers of boys and girls were observed with mothers and fathers. The children showed greater involvement when playing with same-sex-typed toys than with cross-sex toys even when statistically controlling for parents' behaviors. Parents' verbal behaviors, involvement, and proximity to the child differed across toy groups, regardless of the parent's or child's gender. Parents' initial nonverbal responses to the toys, however, were more positive when the toys were stereotyped for the child's and parent's gender than when they were not.

  19. MR findings of bowlegs in toddlers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasawa, Tae; Inaba, Yutaka; Kameshita, Kikuo; Nishimura, Gen; Aida, Noriko; Matsubara, Sho

    1999-01-01

    Background. Toddlers with severe physiologic tibial bowing are considered to be at risk for the development of Blount's disease. Objective. To correlate MR findings of the knee with the clinical outcome in toddlers with severe physiological tibial bowing. Materials and methods. MR findings were evaluated in 22 affected legs of 14 children with severe tibial bowing (mean age 1.9 years). In 18 affected legs, MR findings were compared with the transition of the tibial metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle (MDA) and tibiofemoral angle (TFA) measured serially between 2 and 3 years of age. Results. MR findings of severe tibial bowing comprised undulation of the posteromedial physis of the tibia (3/22), signal alterations in the medial tibial metaphysis (10/22), T2 prolongation in the posteromedial tibial epiphyseal cartilage (14/22) and signal changes in the medial menisci (18/22). The decrease in the TFA was different in the legs with and without increased signal in the epiphyseal cartilage, and the decrease in the MDA was different in the legs with and without physeal undulation. Conclusion. MR imaging findings can predict the retarded resolution of tibial bowing, which may be a risk factor for the development of Blount's disease. (orig.)

  20. Proximity functions for general right cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Distributions of distances between pairs of points within geometrical objects, or the closely related proximity functions and geometric reduction factors, have applications to dosimetric and microdosimetric calculations. For convex bodies these functions are linked to the chord-length distributions that result from random intersections by straight lines. A synopsis of the most important relations is given. The proximity functions and related functions are derived for right cylinders with arbitrary cross sections. The solution utilizes the fact that the squares of the distances between two random points are sums of independently distributed squares of distances parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. Analogous formulas are derived for the proximity functions or geometric reduction factors for a cylinder relative to a point. This requires only a minor modification of the solution

  1. Cross-situational statistically based word learning intervention for late-talking toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Oglivie, Trianna; Nicholas, Katrina; Arizmendi, Genesis

    2014-01-01

    To explore the efficacy of a word learning intervention for late-talking toddlers that is based on principles of cross-situational statistical learning. Four late-talking toddlers were individually provided with 7-10 weeks of bi-weekly word learning intervention that incorporated principles of cross-situational statistical learning. Treatment was input-based meaning that, aside from initial probes, children were not asked to produce any language during the sessions. Pre-intervention data included parent-reported measures of productive vocabulary and language samples. Data collected during intervention included production on probes, spontaneous production during treatment, and parent report of words used spontaneously at home. Data were analyzed for number of target words learned relative to control words, effect sizes, and pre-post treatment vocabulary measures. All children learned more target words than control words and, on average, showed a large treatment effect size. Children made pre-post vocabulary gains, increasing their percentile scores on the MCDI, and demonstrated a rate of word learning that was faster than rates found in the literature. Cross-situational statistically based word learning intervention has the potential to improve vocabulary learning in late-talking toddlers. Limitations on interpretation are also discussed. Readers will describe what cross-situational learning is and how it might apply to treatment. They will identify how including lexical and contextual variability in a word learning intervention for toddlers affected treatment outcomes. They will also recognize evidence of improved rate of vocabulary learning following treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. PERAN IBU DALAM TOILET TRAINING PADA ANAK USIA TODDLER DI KECAMATAN KEMLAGI KABUPATEN MOJOKERTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veryudha Eka Prameswari1

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Toilet training in children was an effort to train children to be able to control the conduct defecation and urination. Exercise of defecation and urination in children need preparation, both physically, psychologically and intellectually, through this preparation expected that child was able to control defecation and urination independently. Objective : Purpose of this research to describe the role of mother in toilet training on children toddler olds in the Mojodadi village Kemlagi District of Mojokerto. Methods : Design of research was used descriptive research design. The method of sampling used total sampling (nonprobability sampling. Sample was taken all respondents as many as 82 respondents who have a toddler old of children in the Mojodadi village Kemlagi District of Mojokerto in June 2015. Data was collected by questionnaire instrument and then the data though as editing, coding, scoring, tabulating and was analyzed by T score then the results presented with Frequency Distribution Table. Results : The results was showed that the discribe role of mother in the toilet training on children toddler olds in the Mojodadi village Kemlagi District of Mojokerto as the respondents who had a negative role as much as 44 respondents (53.7% while having a positive role as much as 38 respondents (46.3% . Conclusions : A negative role due to the lack of information on how to train toilet training and the role of mother is also influenced their knowledge, education, age and occupation held by the respondents related to toilet training.

  3. Levels of lead in foods from the first French total diet study on infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Thierry; Le Calvez, Emilie; Zinck, Julie; Bemrah, Nawel; Sirot, Véronique; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Chekri, Rachida; Hulin, Marion; Noël, Laurent

    2017-12-15

    Infants and toddlers are highly vulnerable to exposure to lead due to its higher absorption in small children than in adults. This study describes the optimisation and validation of a very sensitive method for the determination of low levels of lead in foods mostly consumed by infants and toddlers. This method, based on inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with a programmable temperature cyclonic spray chamber, attained a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.6 or 0.9µgPbkg -1 for a liquid or a solid sample, that was improved by a factor 5.6-8.3 compared to the previous method (LOQ: 5µgkg -1 ). The analytical method was then applied to 291 food samples from the first French total diet study on infants and toddlers. Lead was detected in most samples at relatively low concentrations (range 0.0-16µgkg -1 ). The highest lead concentrations were mainly found in processed food products (e.g. products containing chocolate). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The personality structure of toddlers and pre-school children as perceived by their kindergarten teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to analyse the personality structure of children aged one to seven, as perceived by their kindergarten teachers. In addition, gender differences were examined to determine whether kindergarten teachers perceived the personality characteristics of toddler and pre-school girls differently than those of boys. 508 randomly-selected Slovenian children were assessed by their kindergarten teachers using adapted Flemish Big-Five Bipolar Rating Scales. Four-factor structures that explained more than two-thirds of the variance emerged for teachers' personality ratings of children in each of the three age groups: toddlers, three- to five-year-olds and five- to seven-year-olds. However, five of the twenty-five scales, four of them referring to the Conscientiousness dimension, did not appear to be relevant when assessing individual differences in the toddlerhood. Intellect/Openness, as observed for the toddler sample, and the combined Conscientiousness-Intellect/Openness factor, extracted for each of the two older age groups, accounted for the greatest part of the variance. Extroversion was obtained as a second factor in each of the three age groups, while Emotional Stability showed relatively less stability across these groups. Agreeableness was clearly differentiated only in the oldest age group, emerging there for the first time as an independent factor. A few gender differences were found to be significant within the two groups of pre-school children, with girls consistently being rated higher in terms of Conscientiousness-Intellect/Openness.

  5. Adaptive Behavior and Development of Infants and Toddlers with Williams Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Kirchner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes deficits in adaptive behavior, difficulties eating and sleeping, cognitive delays, and delayed development. Although researchers have conducted characterizations of children and adults with WS, less is known about young children with this disorder. This study characterizes the developmental and adaptive behavior features of 16 infants and toddlers with WS aged 3 months - 5 years. Data for this project was obtained from 2007-2014, and includes parent report data and standardized developmental testing. Thirty-one percent (31.3% of parents reported that their infant/toddler with WS had sleeping problems and 58.3% reported feeding difficulties. Levels of adaptive behavior were in the Mildly Delayed range as measured by the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition. Self care skills such as feeding or dressing oneself were significantly weaker than skills needed to function in the community, such as recognizing his/her home or throwing away trash. The difficulty with self-care skills is hypothesized to be related to the reported difficulties with eating and sleeping. Motor skills were significantly lower than both cognitive and language skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. The current study highlights the need for early intervention in these young children across all areas of development, particularly in self-care skills.

  6. Toddler physical activity study: laboratory and community studies to evaluate accelerometer validity and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin R. Hager

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toddlerhood is an important age for physical activity (PA promotion to prevent obesity and support a physically active lifestyle throughout childhood. Accurate assessment of PA is needed to determine trends/correlates of PA, time spent in sedentary, light, or moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA, and the effectiveness of PA promotion programs. Due to the limited availability of objective measures that have been validated and evaluated for feasibility in community studies, it is unclear which subgroups of toddlers are at the highest risk for inactivity. Using Actical ankle accelerometry, the objectives of this study are to develop valid thresholds, examine feasibility, and examine demographic/ anthropometric PA correlates of MVPA among toddlers from low-income families. Methods Two studies were conducted with toddlers (12–36 months. Laboratory Study (n = 24- Two Actical accelerometers were placed on the ankle. PA was observed using the Child Activity Rating Scale (CARS, prescribed activities. Analyses included device equivalence reliability (correlation: activity counts of two Acticals, criterion-related validity (correlation: activity counts and CARS ratings, and sensitivity/specificity for thresholds. Community Study (n = 277, low-income mother-toddler dyads recruited- An Actical was worn on the ankle for > 7 days (goal >5, 24-h days. Height/weight was measured. Mothers reported demographics. Analyses included frequencies (feasibility and stepwise multiple linear regression (sMLR. Results Laboratory Study- Acticals demonstrated reliability (r = 0.980 and validity (r = 0.75. Thresholds demonstrated sensitivity (86 % and specificity (88 %. Community Study- 86 % wore accelerometer, 69 % had valid data (mean = 5.2 days. Primary reasons for missing/invalid data: refusal (14 % and wear-time ≤2 days (11 %. The MVPA threshold (>2200 cpm yielded 54 min/day. In sMLR, MVPA was associated with age (older

  7. Maternal DHA levels and toddler free-play attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannass, Kathleen N; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels at birth and toddler free-play attention in the second year. Toddler free-play attention was assessed at 12 and 18 months, and maternal erythrocyte (red-blood cell; RBC) phospholipid DHA (percentage of total fatty acids) was measured from mothers at delivery. Overall, higher maternal DHA status at birth was associated with enhanced attentional functioning during the second year. Toddlers whose mothers had high DHA at birth exhibited more total looking and fewer episodes of inattention during free-play than did toddlers whose mothers had low DHA at birth. Analyses also provided further information on changes in attention during toddlerhood. These findings are consistent with evidence suggesting a link between DHA and cognitive development in infancy and early childhood.

  8. Screening for autism in older and younger toddlers with the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Juhi; Verbalis, Alyssa; Robins, Diana L; Boorstein, Hilary; Klin, A M I; Babitz, Tammy; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Volkmar, Fred; Green, James; Barton, Marianne; Fein, Deborah

    2008-09-01

    The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) was used to screen younger (16-23 months) versus older (24-30 months) high- and low-risk toddlers. Refusal rates for follow-up interview showed no group differences, but parents of younger/low-risk children were more likely to refuse evaluation than parents of high-risk children. PPP for an ASD diagnosis was: younger/high-risk 0.79, older/high-risk 0.74, younger/low-risk 0.28, and older/low-risk 0.61, with PPP differing by age within the low-risk group. Most of the children in all groups, however, were diagnosed with a developmental disorder. Symptom severity generally did not differ among groups. Cognitive and adaptive measures showed minimal group differences. Therefore, older and younger toddlers had similar symptomatology and developmental delays; PPP for ASD is better at 24 than 18 months for low-risk children; however, these children are still highly likely to show a developmental disorder. Clinical decision making should balance early identification against the lower specificity of M-CHAT screening for the younger/low-risk group.

  9. Proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Lawrence X

    2002-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal femur include fractures of the head, neck, intertrochanteric, and subtrochanteric regions. Head fractures commonly accompany dislocations. Neck fractures and intertrochanteric fractures occur with greatest frequency in elderly patients with a low bone mineral density and are produced by low-energy mechanisms. Subtrochanteric fractures occur in a predominantly strong cortical osseous region which is exposed to large compressive stresses. Implants used to address these fractures must be able to accommodate significant loads while the fractures consolidate. Complications secondary to these injuries produce significant morbidity and include infection, nonunion, malunion, decubitus ulcers, fat emboli, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, stroke, and death.

  10. Cholelithiasis in a toddler with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinasi, Dana Aronson; Mistry, Rakesh D; Mistry, Rakesh

    2011-06-01

    Cholelithiasis is rarely seen in toddlers and school-aged children, even in the setting of sickle cell anemia. In addition to more common etiologies, such as gastroenteritis, constipation, and urinary tract infection, the differential diagnoses of acute abdominal pain in young children with sickle cell disease include vaso-occlusive pain crisis and splenic sequestration. We describe a case of a toddler with sickle cell disease initially presenting with abdominal pain who was found to have symptomatic cholelithiasis.

  11. Quality of caregiver-child play interactions with toddlers born preterm and full term: Antecedents and language outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Elizabeth C; Vaca, Kelsey E C; Ashland, Melanie D; Marchman, Virginia A; Fernald, Anne; Feldman, Heidi M

    2017-12-01

    Preterm birth may leave long-term effects on the interactions between caregivers and children. Language skills are sensitive to the quality of caregiver-child interactions. Compare the quality of caregiver-child play interactions in toddlers born preterm (PT) and full term (FT) at age 22months (corrected for degree of prematurity) and evaluate the degree of association between caregiver-child interactions, antecedent demographic and language factors, and subsequent language skill. A longitudinal descriptive cohort study. 39 PT and 39 FT toddlers individually matched on sex and socioeconomic status (SES). The outcome measures were dimensions of caregiver-child interactions, rated from a videotaped play session at age 22months in relation to receptive language assessments at ages 18 and 36months. Caregiver intrusiveness was greater in the PT than FT group. A composite score of child interactional behaviors was associated with a composite score of caregiver interactional behaviors. The caregiver composite measure was associated with later receptive vocabulary at 36months. PT-FT group membership did not moderate the association between caregiver interactional behavior and later receptive vocabulary. The quality of caregiver interactional behavior had similar associations with concurrent child interactional behavior and subsequent language outcome in the PT and FT groups. Greater caregiver sensitivity/responsiveness, verbal elaboration, and less intrusiveness support receptive language development in typically developing toddlers and toddlers at risk for language difficulty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Marital, parental, and whole-family predictors of toddlers' emotion regulation: The role of parental emotional withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Martin I; Murphy, Sarah E; Benner, Aprile D; Jacobvitz, Deborah B; Hazen, Nancy L

    2017-04-01

    The present study aims to address how dyadic and triadic family interactions across the transition to parenthood contribute to the later development of toddlers' adaptive emotion regulation using structural equation modeling methods. Specifically, we examined the interrelations of observed marital negative affect before childbirth, parents' emotional withdrawal during parent-infant interactions at 8 months, and coparenting conflict at 24 months as predictors of toddlers' adaptive emotion regulation at 24 months. Data for the present study were drawn from a longitudinal dataset in which 125 families were observed across the transition to parenthood. Results suggested that prenatal marital negativity predicted mothers' and fathers' emotional withdrawal toward their infants at 8 months postbirth as well as coparenting conflict at 24 months postbirth. Coparenting conflict and father-infant emotional withdrawal were negatively associated with toddlers' adaptive emotion regulation; however, mother-infant emotional withdrawal was not related. The implications of our study extend family systems research to demonstrate how multiple levels of detrimental family functioning over the first 2 years of parenthood influence toddlers' emotion regulation and highlight the importance of fathers' emotional involvement with their infants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Young toddlers' word comprehension is flexible and efficient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elika Bergelson

    Full Text Available Much of what is known about word recognition in toddlers comes from eyetracking studies. Here we show that the speed and facility with which children recognize words, as revealed in such studies, cannot be attributed to a task-specific, closed-set strategy; rather, children's gaze to referents of spoken nouns reflects successful search of the lexicon. Toddlers' spoken word comprehension was examined in the context of pictures that had two possible names (such as a cup of juice which could be called "cup" or "juice" and pictures that had only one likely name for toddlers (such as "apple", using a visual world eye-tracking task and a picture-labeling task (n = 77, mean age, 21 months. Toddlers were just as fast and accurate in fixating named pictures with two likely names as pictures with one. If toddlers do name pictures to themselves, the name provides no apparent benefit in word recognition, because there is no cost to understanding an alternative lexical construal of the picture. In toddlers, as in adults, spoken words rapidly evoke their referents.

  14. Transient, but not persistent, adult food insecurity influences toddler development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Jacknowitz, Alison

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we examined characteristics associated with experiencing persistent and transitional adult food insecurity and how persistent and transitional adult food insecurity influences toddler cognitive and motor development, along with toddler's weight and health status. Using the first 2 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, 4 mutually exclusive variables capturing persistent and transitional adult food insecurity were created to capture those adults that experience adult food insecurity in the following: both waves, in 1 wave (at 9 or 24 mo after birth), and never experience food insecurity. We used logistic regression models to estimate characteristics associated with the likelihood of experiencing persistent and transitional adult food insecurity. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to estimate how persistent and transitional adult food insecurity influences toddler development. Similar factors influenced one's likelihood of experiencing adult transitional and persistent food insecurity; individuals who experienced any food insecurity were more economically disadvantaged. Thus, outreach efforts do not need to vary by duration of food insecurity. Whereas negative effects of food insecurity on school-aged children are found in the literature, it appears toddlers are buffered from the effects of persistent adult food insecurity. Our findings suggest that toddlers residing with a temporarily food-insecure adult compared with a never food-insecure adult experienced immediate, but small, negative effects on their development. Hence, outreach and assistance may lessen immediate impacts of food insecurity on toddler development.

  15. Mothers’ Perceptions of Toddler Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Rigo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity among Australian pre-school children is a major concern with links to poor health outcomes. One contributing factor is excess energy intake. Sugar-sweetened beverages are energy-dense, nutrient-poor, readily available and have been implicated in the increasing prevalence of obesity. Furthermore, preschooler beverage consumption may develop into dietary habits that track into adulthood. There is little research on factors influencing parents’ decision-making when serving beverages to their preschoolers, or on mothers’ perceptions of preschooler’s beverages. The aim of this study was to explore mothers’ perceptions of commonly consumed preschooler beverages. Methods: The Repertory Grid Technique and the Laddering Technique methodologies were utilized in interviews with 28 mothers from Melbourne, Australia, to explore beverage perceptions. Results: A large number of diverse perceptual categories (‘constructs’ (n = 22 about beverages were elicited, demonstrating the complexity of mothers’ perceptions when making beverage choices for their preschoolers. The five most common categories were related to health, sugar, dairy, packaging, and additives. Thematic analysis of responses from the laddering method identified three major themes: concerns about the types of beverages mothers would like to provide their preschoolers, the healthiness of a beverage, and the sugar content. Conclusions: Mothers’ perceptions of beverages are sophisticated and need to be included in the design of health communication strategies by health promoters and government agencies to influence mothers’ beverage selections for their preschoolers.

  16. BCG protects toddlers during a tuberculosis outbreak.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gaensbauer, J T

    2009-05-01

    In 2007, an outbreak of tuberculosis occurred in a toddler population attending two child care centres in Cork, Ireland. Of 268 children exposed, 18 were eventually diagnosed with active tuberculosis. We present the initial clinical and radiographic characteristics of the active disease group. Mantoux testing was positive in only 66% of cases. All cases were either pulmonary or involved hilar adenopathy on chest radiograph; there were no cases of disseminated disease or meningitis. 24% of the exposed children had been previously vaccinated with BCG, and no case of active disease was found in this group (p = 0.016), suggesting a profound protective effect of BCG in this population. Our experience provides evidence supporting a protective effect of BCG against pulmonary disease in young children.

  17. Prenatal drug exposure: infant and toddler outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandstra, Emmalee S; Morrow, Connie E; Mansoor, Elana; Accornero, Veronica H

    2010-04-01

    This manuscript provides an overview of the current scientific literature on the impact of maternal drug use, specifically opioids and cocaine, during pregnancy on the acute and long-term outcomes of infants and toddlers from birth through age 3 years. Emphasis with regard to opioids is placed on heroin and opioid substitutes used to treat opioid addiction, including methadone, which has long been regarded as the standard of care in pregnancy, and buprenorphine, which is increasingly being investigated and prescribed as an alternative to methadone. Controlled studies comparing methadone at high and low doses, as well as those comparing methadone with buprenorphine, are highlighted and the diagnosis and management of neonatal abstinence syndrome is discussed. Over the past two decades, attention of the scientific and lay communities has also been focused on the potential adverse effects of cocaine and crack cocaine, especially during the height of the cocaine epidemic in the United States. Herein, the findings are summarized from prospective studies comparing cocaine-exposed with non-cocaine-exposed infants and toddlers with respect to anthropometric growth, infant neurobehavior, visual and auditory function, and cognitive, motor, and language development. The potentially stigmatizing label of the so-called "crack baby" preceded the evidence now accumulating from well-designed prospective investigations that have revealed less severe sequelae in the majority of prenatally exposed infants than originally anticipated. In contrast to opioids, which may produce neonatal abstinence syndrome and infant neurobehavioral deficits, prenatal cocaine exposure appears to be associated with what has been described as statistically significant but subtle decrements in neurobehavioral, cognitive, and language function, especially when viewed in the context of other exposures and the caregiving environment which may mediate or moderate the effects. Whether these early findings may

  18. Children's proximal societal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    2018-01-01

    that is above or outside the institutional setting or the children’s everyday life, but something that is represented through societal structures and actual persons participating (in political ways) within the institutional settings, in ways that has meaning to children’s possibilities to participate, learn...... and develop. Understanding school or kindergarten as (part of) the children’s proximal societal conditions for development and learning, means for instance that considerations about an inclusive agenda are no longer simply thoughts about the school – for economic reasons – having space for as many pupils...... as possible (schools for all). Such thoughts can be supplemented by reflections about which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to present our children with, and which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to set up as the condition for children’s participation and development. The point is to clarify or sharpen...

  19. Proximity detection system underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Kent [Mine Site Technologies (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Mine Site Technologies (MST) with the support ACARP and Xstrata Coal NSW, as well as assistance from Centennial Coal, has developed a Proximity Detection System to proof of concept stage as per plan. The basic aim of the project was to develop a system to reduce the risk of the people coming into contact with vehicles in an uncontrolled manner (i.e. being 'run over'). The potential to extend the developed technology into other areas, such as controls for vehicle-vehicle collisions and restricting access of vehicle or people into certain zones (e.g. non FLP vehicles into Hazardous Zones/ERZ) was also assessed. The project leveraged off MST's existing Intellectual Property and experience gained with our ImPact TRACKER tagging technology, allowing the development to be fast tracked. The basic concept developed uses active RFID Tags worn by miners underground to be detected by vehicle mounted Readers. These Readers in turn provide outputs that can be used to alert a driver (e.g. by light and/or audible alarm) that a person (Tag) approaching within their vicinity. The prototype/test kit developed proved the concept and technology, the four main components being: Active RFID Tags to send out signals for detection by vehicle mounted receivers; Receiver electronics to detect RFID Tags approaching within the vicinity of the unit to create a long range detection system (60 m to 120 m); A transmitting/exciter device to enable inner detection zone (within 5 m to 20 m); and A software/hardware device to process & log incoming Tags reads and create certain outputs. Tests undertaken in the laboratory and at a number of mine sites, confirmed the technology path taken could form the basis of a reliable Proximity Detection/Alert System.

  20. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  1. Strategies and suggestions for a healthy toddler diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sally; Benuck, Irwin

    2013-09-01

    Nutritional challenges for toddlers are common because their eating behaviors are inconsistent; they may eat more or less than requirements meal to meal and day to day. To help reduce parental stress, it's essential to discuss with parents/caregivers their expectations on how and what they think their toddler should be eating. It is important to remember that toddlers are not little adults; portion sizes are often distorted (too large), and portions should reflect the individual child's age and development. Parents/caregivers can help with new food acceptance by modeling good mealtime behaviors such as limiting high-energy, low-nutritional food and drinks, eating healthy foods along with their children together at the table with the television shut off, and eating appropriate portion sizes. Pediatricians should inform concerned parents/caregivers that toddlers commonly do not accept new foods; foods may need to be introduced repeatedly, up to 10 to 15 times before a child will eat them. To adhere to National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) guidelines, parents and caregivers should focus on providing balanced meals that offer a variety of foods, with at least three to four food groups for meals and one to two food groups for snacks, always including familiar foods along with new foods. It is important to reassure families that adherence to NHLBI guidelines for toddlers may be difficult at first, but with the proper education, planning ahead for meal/snack times, and education of all providers caring for the toddler (including nannies, daycares, and family members), it can be done successfully. Improving the nutrition and health of their young toddler will help prevent risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: meal and snack intakes of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Paula; Hanson, Charlotte; Ponza, Michael; Novak, Timothy; Hendricks, Kristy

    2006-01-01

    To describe meal and snack patterns of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers. A cross-sectional telephone survey in which mothers or other primary caregivers reported their infants' and toddlers' food and beverage intake for a 24-hour period. Subjects were a subset of the national random sample of children aged 4-24 months who participated in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study includes a stratified random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers aged 4-24 months. Three hundred seventy-one Hispanic and 2,637 non-Hispanic children who had 24-hour dietary recalls are included in the subset. Means+/-standard errors of daily intakes of energy, nutrients, and nutrient densities were calculated, as were percentages of children consuming foods at each eating occasion. Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers, on average, were fed seven times per day. Overall, the percentages of children who ate snacks increased with age, and more than 80% of toddlers aged 12-24 months consumed afternoon snacks, with more than 90% of Hispanic children consuming an afternoon snack. In each age group, there were significant differences between ethnic groups in nutrient intakes by eating occasion. No significant difference was seen for energy across all meal occasions. At age 6-11 months, Hispanic children had a significantly lower intake of carbohydrate at dinner and lower intake of saturated fat at afternoon snacks compared with non-Hispanic children (Pchildren's and non-Hispanic children's intakes by eating occasion is at age 12-24 months. Hispanics aged 12-24 months had significantly (Pchildren. For dinner, Hispanic toddlers had significantly (Pcomplement meals by including additional fruits, vegetables, and whole grains that are culturally appropriate rather than fruit drinks, cookies, and crackers. This will increase fiber intake and limit fat and sugar intakes. To develop healthful eating patterns, introduce toddlers to foods

  3. The Monosyllable Imitation Test for Toddlers: Influence of Stimulus Characteristics on Imitation, Compliance and Diagnostic Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Rosemary; Munro, Natalie; Baker, Elise; McGregor, Karla; Heard, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although verbal imitation can provide a valuable window into the developing language abilities of toddlers, some toddlers find verbal imitation challenging and will not comply with tests that involve elicited verbal imitation. The characteristics of stimuli that are offered to toddlers for imitation may influence how easy or hard it is…

  4. Behavior Problems in Toddlers with and without Developmental Delays: Comparison of Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Casey A.; Carrasco, Jennifer M.; Mattek, Ryan J.; Fox, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an in-home parent management program for toddlers with behavior problems and developmental delays by comparing outcomes for a group of toddlers with developmental delays (n = 27) and a group of toddlers without developmental delays (n = 27). The majority of children lived in single…

  5. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening results indicate the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phytosterols and phenols. Acute toxicity study showed there was no mortality at 8000 mg/kg of the extract. The results indicate that the plant is rich in phytochemicals and is relatively safe. Key words: Phytochemicals, acute toxicity, proximate ...

  6. PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. ... and 12.75 ± 3.65% respectively. Mineral contents of white grub in terms of relative concentration .... of intracellular Ca, bone mineralization, blood coagulation, and plasma membrane potential ...

  7. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  8. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-related

  9. East-West, Collectivist-Individualist: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Temperament in Toddlers from Chile, Poland, South Korea, and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassner, Ariye M; Gartstein, Maria A; Park, Curie; Dragan, Wojciech Ł; Lecannelier, Felipe; Putnam, Samuel P

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined toddler temperament across Chilean, South Korean, Polish, and US samples, providing an opportunity to examine both collectivist-individualist and East-West contrasts. The effect of culture on the three factor and 18 dimension scores provided by the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire were investigated. Results provide evidence of cross-cultural differences between the four samples. Chilean toddlers scored significantly higher than US, Polish, and South Korean children on the overall factor of Negative Affectivity, as well as higher than the Polish and South Korean samples on the Surgency factor. South Korean toddlers scored significantly higher on the factor of Effortful Control, and two related dimensions, than US, Polish, or Chilean samples. Results are discussed in terms of the apparent roles of individualism/collectivism and East-West distinctions in shaping temperament development.

  10. East-West, Collectivist-Individualist: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Temperament in Toddlers from Chile, Poland, South Korea, and the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassner, Ariye M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Park, Curie; Dragan, Wojciech Ł.; Lecannelier, Felipe; Putnam, Samuel P.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined toddler temperament across Chilean, South Korean, Polish, and US samples, providing an opportunity to examine both collectivist-individualist and East-West contrasts. The effect of culture on the three factor and 18 dimension scores provided by the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire were investigated. Results provide evidence of cross-cultural differences between the four samples. Chilean toddlers scored significantly higher than US, Polish, and South Korean children on the overall factor of Negative Affectivity, as well as higher than the Polish and South Korean samples on the Surgency factor. South Korean toddlers scored significantly higher on the factor of Effortful Control, and two related dimensions, than US, Polish, or Chilean samples. Results are discussed in terms of the apparent roles of individualism/collectivism and East-West distinctions in shaping temperament development. PMID:29333175

  11. Security of attachment and quality of mother-toddler social interaction in a high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D; Lambert, Brittany L; Seifer, Ronald; Ekas, Naomi V; Bauer, Charles R; Messinger, Daniel S

    2012-02-01

    The quality of children's social interactions and their attachment security with a primary caregiver are two widely studied indices of socioemotional functioning in early childhood. Although both Bowlby and Ainsworth suggested that the parent-child interactions underlying the development of attachment security could be distinguished from other aspects of parent-child interaction (e.g., play), relatively little empirical research has examined this proposition. The aim of the current study was to explore this issue by examining concurrent relations between toddler's attachment security in the Strange Situation Procedure and quality of mother-child social interaction in a high-risk sample of toddlers characterized by prenatal cocaine exposure and low levels of maternal education. Analyses of variance suggested limited relations between attachment security and quality of social interaction. Further research examining the interrelations among various components of the parent-child relationship is needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The relation between fine root density and proximity of stems in closed Douglas-fir plantations on homogen[e]ous sandy soils: implications for sampling design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsthoorn, A.F.M.; Klap, J.M.; Oude Voshaar, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Studies have been carried out in two fully stocked, fast growing Douglas-fir plantations of the Dutch ACIFORN project in three consecutive years, to obtain information on fine root densities (Olsthoorn 1991). For the present paper, data collected in early summer 1987 were used to study the relation

  13. Measuring feeding difficulties in toddlers with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Marijn; Lipke-Steenbeek, Wilma

    2018-07-01

    Early feeding problems occur frequently across the population, but have a higher incidence in children with Down syndrome (DS). Early identification can possibly be improved with the help of a valid screening instrument based on caregiver reports. In a previous study, we investigated the concurrent validity of the Dutch version of the Montreal Children's Hospital Feeding Scale (MCH-FS, SEP in Dutch) in a sample of typically developing toddlers, and we found a correlation between the score on the instrument and observed behavior during a regular meal. The current pilot study was a replication in a sample of children with DS (aged 1; 0-3; 0) and their primary caregivers (n = 32). The results showed that children in the sample did not score higher on the SEP than children in their respective norm groups. In addition, when caregivers reported more symptoms of feeding problems on the SEP, children showed more food refusal and negative affect during the observed meal. This suggests that the screening instrument is particularly associated with negative mealtime interactions. This is in contrast with earlier results, which mainly indicated a relation with eating skills. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spanking infants and toddlers: maternal belief and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolar, R R; Stein, R E

    1995-01-01

    To describe maternal beliefs and practices of spanking infants and toddlers and the relations between factors affecting these beliefs and practices. Cross-sectional survey. Site 1 was an inner-city teaching hospital pediatric clinic. Site 2 was a private pediatrician's office in a nearby suburban neighborhood. Mothers of children less than 4 years old in the waiting area. Site 1: n = 104; site 2: n = 100. Systematic sample of convenience. Mothers were interviewed using a 20-minute structured questionnaire. Measures were constructed to assess beliefs (Cronbach's alpha = .90) and practices about spanking and approach to discipline (alpha > .71). Belief in spanking correlated significantly (P children 1 to 3 years old. Forty-two percent reported that they had spanked their own child in the past week. Mothers believed more strongly in spanking for dangerous misbehaviors than for annoying ones (P disciplining very young children. The context of the spanking affects beliefs and practices. The finding that belief and practice of spanking are highly correlated suggests that belief rather than impulse largely explains spanking of children less than 4 years old. The high correlation between spanking and negative approach toward discipline raises questions about whether negative consequences of spanking are the result of spanking per se, the negative approach toward the child, or both.

  15. The effects of bilingual growth on toddlers' executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivello, Cristina; Kuzyk, Olivia; Rodrigues, Monyka; Friend, Margaret; Zesiger, Pascal; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The mastery of two languages provides bilingual speakers with cognitive benefits over monolinguals, particularly on cognitive flexibility and selective attention. However, extant research is limited to comparisons between monolinguals and bilinguals at a single point in time. This study investigated whether growth in bilingual proficiency, as shown by an increased number of translation equivalents (TEs) over a 7-month period, improves executive function. We hypothesized that bilingual toddlers with a larger increase of TEs would have more practice in switching across lexical systems, boosting executive function abilities. Expressive vocabulary and TEs were assessed at 24 and 31 months of age. A battery of tasks, including conflict, delay, and working memory tasks, was administered at 31 months. As expected, we observed a task-specific advantage in inhibitory control in bilinguals. More important, within the bilingual group, larger increases in the number of TEs predicted better performance on conflict tasks but not on delay tasks. This unique longitudinal design confirms the relation between executive function and early bilingualism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies

  17. Initial outcome and efficacy of S3 proximal humerus locking plate in the treatment of proximal humerus fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiming; Zhu Xuesong; Bao Zhaohua; Yang Huilin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to explore the initial outcome and efficacy of S 3 proximal humerus locking plate in the treatment of proximal humerus fractures. Methods: Twenty-two patients with proximal humerus fracture were treated with the S 3 proximal humerus locking plate. Most of the fractures were complex, two-part (n=4), three-part (n=11) and four-part (n=7) fractures according to the Neer classification of the proximal humerus fractures. Results: All patients were followed up for 3∼15 months. There were no complications related to the implant including loosening or breakage of the plate. Good and excellent results were documented in 17 patients fair results in 4 patients according the Neer scores of shoulder. Conclusion: New design concepts of S 3 proximal humerus plate provide the subchondral support and the internal fixation support. With the addition of the proper exercise of the shoulder joint, the outcomes would be satisfied. (authors)

  18. Toddlers' word learning and transfer from electronic and print books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouse, Gabrielle A; Ganea, Patricia A

    2017-04-01

    Transfer from symbolic media to the real world can be difficult for young children. A sample of 73 toddlers aged 17 to 23months were read either an electronic book displayed on a touchscreen device or a traditional print book in which a novel object was paired with a novel label. Toddlers in both conditions learned the label within the context of the book. However, only those who read the traditional format book generalized and transferred the label to other contexts. An older group of 28 toddlers aged 24 to 30months did generalize and transfer from the electronic book. Across ages, those children who primarily used screens to watch prerecorded video at home transferred less from the electronic book than those with more diverse home media experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Prebiotic Formula Improves the Gastrointestinal Bacterial Flora in Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ling Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the effect of enriched 3-prebiotic formula (including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and galactooligosaccharides on toddler gut health by measuring fecal microbiota. Our results revealed that the consumption of 3-prebiotic formula three times per day giving total intake of 1.8 g prebiotic ingredients significantly showed the increased number of probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. colonies and the reduced populations of both C. perfringens and total anaerobic bacteria on the fecal bacterial flora in toddlers at 18~36 months. In addition, total organic acids in the fecal samples significantly increased which improves the utilization of bifidus under acidic conditions after consumption of the 3-prebiotic formula. Therefore, using the formula enriched with prebiotic may maintain gut health in toddlers.

  20. Thoracolumbar Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Gang Lan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare uni or multisystem disorder associated with extreme production of immunoreactive Langerhans cells. Although this disorder has been reported in all age groups, spinal involvement especially thoracolumbar spine is seldom reported in toddlers. Case presentation: We present a one (1 year, four (4 months female child with a history of recurrent fever, irritability and severe anemia of one (1 month duration. CT-scan and MRI revealed a collapsed twelfth thoracic vertebra (T12 body height greater than 95% with a huge intradural soft tissue mass. T12 cortectomy via posterior thoracolumbar approach was used to decompress the soft tissue part followed by interbody fusion with titanium cage filled with autologous iliac crest bone graft, fixation using plates and screws. Conclusion: We are of the view that surgical decompression of spinal LHC lesions with interbody fusion with titanium cage filled with autologous iliac crest bone graft and fixation using plates and screws is very crucial in relieving neurological deficits. However, the patient will need repeated surgeries as she advances with age in a timely manner to avert any neurological deficit that may occur. Keywords: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH, Letterer-Siwe disease, Hand-Schüller-Christian disease, Eosinophilic granuloma

  1. Changes in proximate composition and somatic energy content for Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) from Kachemak Bay, Alaska relative to maturity and season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Anthony, Jill A.; Rose, George A.; Piatt, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Mean dry-weight energy values of adult Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus) peaked in spring and early summer (20.91 kJg−1 for males, 21.08 kJg−1 for females), then declined by about 25% during late summer and fall (15.91 kJg−1 for males, 15.74 kJg−1 for females). Late summer declines in energy density paralleled gonadal development. Gender differences in energy density (maleslance spawn in October, entering the winter with close to their minimum whole body energy content. Juvenile sand lance exhibited a relatively constant protein to lipid ratio until they reached 80 mm fork length. Thereafter, relative proportions of protein remained constant while lipid proportions increased significantly. Dry weight energy densities of juveniles increased from a minimum 16.67 kJg−1 to a maximum of 19.68 kJg−1, and (per g) are higher than adults in late summer. The seasonal food value of adult sand lance to predators varies markedly, but maximum energetic value coincides with important feeding periods for marine mammals, fish, and seabirds.

  2. Context modulates attention to social scenes in toddlers with autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Macari, Suzanne; Shic, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Background In typical development, the unfolding of social and communicative skills hinges upon the ability to allocate and sustain attention towards people, a skill present moments after birth. Deficits in social attention have been well documented in autism, though the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Methods In order to parse the factors that are responsible for limited social attention in toddlers with autism, we manipulated the context in which a person appeared in their visual field with regard to the presence of salient social (child-directed speech and eye contact) and nonsocial (distractor toys) cues for attention. Participants included 13- to 25-month-old toddlers with autism (AUT; n=54), developmental delay (DD; n=22), and typical development (TD; n=48). Their visual responses were recorded with an eye-tracker. Results In conditions devoid of eye contact and speech, the distribution of attention between key features of the social scene in toddlers with autism was comparable to that in DD and TD controls. However, when explicit dyadic cues were introduced, toddlers with autism showed decreased attention to the entire scene and, when they looked at the scene, they spent less time looking at the speaker’s face and monitoring her lip movements than the control groups. In toddlers with autism, decreased time spent exploring the entire scene was associated with increased symptom severity and lower nonverbal functioning; atypical language profiles were associated with decreased monitoring of the speaker’s face and her mouth. Conclusions While in certain contexts toddlers with autism attend to people and objects in a typical manner, they show decreased attentional response to dyadic cues for attention. Given that mechanisms supporting responsivity to dyadic cues are present shortly after birth and are highly consequential for development of social cognition and communication, these findings have important implications for the understanding of the

  3. Ultimate and proximate explanations of strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, Jack

    2017-08-23

    Strong reciprocity (SR) has recently been subject to heated debate. In this debate, the "West camp" (West et al. in Evol Hum Behav 32(4):231-262, 2011), which is critical of the case for SR, and the "Laland camp" (Laland et al. in Science, 334(6062):1512-1516, 2011, Biol Philos 28(5):719-745, 2013), which is sympathetic to the case of SR, seem to take diametrically opposed positions. The West camp criticizes advocates of SR for conflating proximate and ultimate causation. SR is said to be a proximate mechanism that is put forward by its advocates as an ultimate explanation of human cooperation. The West camp thus accuses advocates of SR for not heeding Mayr's original distinction between ultimate and proximate causation. The Laland camp praises advocates of SR for revising Mayr's distinction. Advocates of SR are said to replace Mayr's uni-directional view on the relation between ultimate and proximate causes by the bi-directional one of reciprocal causation. The paper argues that both the West camp and the Laland camp misrepresent what advocates of SR are up to. The West camp is right that SR is a proximate cause of human cooperation. But rather than putting forward SR as an ultimate explanation, as the West camp argues, advocates of SR believe that SR itself is in need of ultimate explanation. Advocates of SR tend to take gene-culture co-evolutionary theory as the correct meta-theoretical framework for advancing ultimate explanations of SR. Appearances notwithstanding, gene-culture coevolutionary theory does not imply Laland et al.'s notion of reciprocal causation. "Reciprocal causation" suggests that proximate and ultimate causes interact simultaneously, while advocates of SR assume that they interact sequentially. I end by arguing that the best way to understand the debate is by disambiguating Mayr's ultimate-proximate distinction. I propose to reserve "ultimate" and "proximate" for different sorts of explanations, and to use other terms for distinguishing

  4. Toddlers in Nordic Early Childhood Education and Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Henrik; Greve, Anne

    2018-01-01

    -called Nordic model represents a uni ed system of early childhood education and care (ECEC). This chapter underlines the distinctive shared characteristics of the Nordic approach to play and learning, and care and education, where participation, democracy, respect for other cultures and religions...... and character of the Nordic people. Here, there is a strong foundation in an ideal of freedom, democracy, equality, in uence and sustainability, but also a focus on education that emphasises the toddler as a learning being. However, toddlers in ECEC represent an area in need of more attention and new research....

  5. ProxImaL: efficient image optimization using proximal algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix; Diamond, Steven; Nieß ner, Matthias; Ragan-Kelley, Jonathan; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Wetzstein, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    domain-specific language and compiler for image optimization problems that makes it easy to experiment with different problem formulations and algorithm choices. The language uses proximal operators as the fundamental building blocks of a variety

  6. A proximal point algorithm with generalized proximal distances to BEPs

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, G. C.; Neto, J. X. Cruz; Lopes, J. O.; Soares Jr, P. A.; Soubeyran, A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a bilevel problem involving two monotone equilibrium bifunctions and we show that this problem can be solved by a proximal point method with generalized proximal distances. We propose a framework for the convergence analysis of the sequences generated by the algorithm. This class of problems is very interesting because it covers mathematical programs and optimization problems under equilibrium constraints. As an application, we consider the problem of the stability and change dyna...

  7. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis...

  8. La investigacion sobre la calidad de los programas para ninos de hasta dos anos de edad (Research on Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…

  9. Maternal mind-mindedness and toddler behavior problems: The moderating role of maternal trauma and posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M Ann; Crossman, Molly K; Caruso, Alessandra; Raskin, Maryna; Miranda-Julian, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    Maternal mind-mindedness (MM) reflects a caregiver's tendency to view a child as an individual with an independent mind. Research has linked higher MM with more favorable parenting and child adaptation. The aim of this study was to examine whether MM was associated with toddlers' behavior problems and competence, and the moderating role of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample (N = 212) of adolescent mothers and their toddlers. MM was coded from maternal utterances during free play; mothers completed the University of California at Los Angeles Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index and reported on children's behavior problems and competence using the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment. The majority of mothers (84%) experienced trauma; 45% of these mothers met criteria for partial or full PTSD. Trauma was related to greater behavior problems, and PTSD moderated MM-child functioning relations. When mothers experienced full PTSD, there was no relation between MM and behavior problems. With child competence, when compared to children of mothers with no trauma exposure, children of mothers experiencing partial PTSD symptoms were more likely to have delays in competence when mothers made more MM comments. Results are discussed in light of how MM, in the context of trauma and PTSD, may affect parenting.

  10. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coret, Catherine D; Suero, Michael B; Tierney, Neena K

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1-36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30), a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30), or a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=32) were assessed over 2 weeks. In study 2, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash and a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=33) were assessed as a regimen over 4 weeks. The wash and shampoo were used three or more times per week, but not more than once daily. Lotions were applied in the morning or after a bath. Clinicians assessed the arms, legs, torso, or scalp for erythema, dryness, peeling/flakiness (study 1 only), tactile roughness, edema (study 1 only), rash/irritation (study 2 only), and overall skin condition (study 2 only) at baseline, week 1, and weeks 2 or 4. Parents completed skin assessment questionnaires. In study 2, stratum corneum hydration was measured. Subjects were monitored for adverse events. No significant changes in clinical grading scores were observed, indicating that all products were well tolerated. By the end of each study, >90% of parents/caregivers believed each product was mild and gentle. In study 2, improvement in stratum corneum hydration was observed (+37% at week 1 and +48% at week 4, Pproduct-related adverse events. The natural baby skin-care products were well tolerated by infants and toddlers when used alone or as part of a skin-care regimen.

  11. A randomized controlled trial of a brief versus standard group parenting program for toddler aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Lucy A; Hunt, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    Physical aggression (PA) in the toddler years is common and developmentally normal, however, longitudinal research shows that frequent PA is highly stable and associated with long-term negative outcomes. Significant research has demonstrated the efficacy of parenting interventions for reducing externalizing behavior in children yet their typical length may overburden families, leading to low participation rates and high attrition rates. To increase the reach of parenting interventions and impact on the prevalence of externalizing behavior problems, brief interventions are needed. This RCT compared a standard (8 session) group Triple P to a brief (3 session) discussion group and a waitlist control for reducing toddler PA, dysfunctional parenting and related aspects of parent functioning. Sixty-nine self-referred families of toddlers with PA were randomized to the respective conditions. At post-assessment, families in the standard intervention had significantly lower levels of observed child aversive behavior, mother reports of PA and dysfunctional parenting, and higher levels of mother- and partner-rated behavioral self-efficacy than the waitlist control. Families in the standard intervention also had significantly lower levels mother-rated dysfunctional parenting than the brief intervention, and the brief intervention had significantly lower levels of mother-rated dysfunctional parenting than waitlist. There were no significant group differences at post-assessment for measures of parental negative affect or satisfaction with the partner relationship. By 6 month follow-up, families in the brief and standard intervention did not differ significantly on any measure. The implications of the findings to delivery of brief parenting interventions are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 43:291-303, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of prenatal exposure to opioids on focused attention in toddlers during free play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J W; Hans, S L

    1996-08-01

    The goals of this study were: (1) to determine if 24-month-old children exposed to opioids show decreased focused attention during free play compared with children of the same age who were not prenatally exposed; (2) to identify medical and social risk factors other than drug exposure that are related to focused attention; and (3) to determine if mothers' teaching ability had an effect on attention. Focused attention was rated during a 3-minute free play session for 30 toddlers who were methadone-exposed and for 44 comparison toddlers. The mother teaching the child to use a toy was also rated separately from the free play session. There was no difference in focused attention of 24 month olds during free play based only on prenatal exposure. Despite group differences in medical and social risk factors, only maternal IQ was significantly related to focused attention. Maternal instruction was strongly related to focused attention and mediated the effects of maternal IQ on attention.

  13. A Monitoring Tool of Infant and Toddler Movement Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitschuh, Carol A.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Dunn, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity in infancy is essential for early brain development. Development in the early years is the most rapid at any time during life. Monitoring functional movement skills of infants and toddlers frequently (3-week intervals) and quickly (minutes) produces information on whether development is on track or in need of intervention. To…

  14. Toddlers and Touch Screens: Potential for Early Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Pempek, Tiffany A.

    2013-01-01

    As interactive screens (e.g., tablet computers, smartphones) continue to enter the homes of young children, it becomes increasingly important to understand the impact of these technologies on development. Some studies suggest that while traditional television and videos hold little educational value for toddlers, young children may be able to…

  15. Promoting toddlers' vegetable consumption through interactive reading and puppetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droog, S.M. de; Nee, R.L. van; Govers, M.P.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Picture books with characters that promote healthy eating are increasingly being used to make this behavior more attractive. The first aim of this study was to investigate whether the effect of vegetable-promoting picture books on toddlers' vegetable consumption differed according to the reading

  16. Play Behavior and Attachment in Toddlers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Play helps to develop social skills. Children with autism show deviances in their play behavior that may be associated with delays in their social development. In this study, we investigated manipulative, functional and symbolic play behavior of toddlers with and without autism (mean age: 26.45, SD 5.63). The results showed that the quality of…

  17. When Your Toddler Doesn't Want to Eat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child eats. But don’t worry. Your toddler’s strange eating habits are anything but strange. Picky eating is typical toddler behavior. If your ... picky eaters. This is one area of their life where they can exert some control. By refusing ...

  18. Severe iron-deficiency anemia still an issue in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Gabrielle; Bogen, Debra L; Ritchey, A Kim

    2014-12-01

    Chronic, severe iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in the first years of life increases the risk of irreversibly compromised cognitive, affective, and motor development. While IDA in infants has decreased because of dietary changes (iron-fortified formula and delaying cow's milk), toddlers (13-36 months) are equally vulnerable to the adverse effects of IDA. We aimed to show that despite public health efforts, severe IDA remains a problem in toddlers and is associated with excess milk consumption. Retrospective chart review of children 6 to 36 months admitted to or evaluated by hematology at a children's hospital from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2010 with a severe microcytic anemia (hemoglobin [Hb] appetite, and pica were the most common symptoms, found in 43%, 29%, and 22% of patients, respectively. Only 41% of parents reported pale skin while 77% of physicians recorded it on physical exam. Daily cow's milk consumption surpassed 24 ounces for 47 of 48 children with reported intake; 11 consumed more than 64 ounces per day. Despite current screening recommendations, severe IDA continues to be a problem in toddlers and strongly correlates with excess cow's milk consumption. This reiterates the importance of screening for IDA into routine toddler care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Communication Modality Sampling for a Toddler with Angelman Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jolene Hyppa; Reichle, Joe; Dimian, Adele; Chen, Mo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Vocal, gestural, and graphic communication modes were implemented concurrently with a toddler with Angelman syndrome to identify the most efficiently learned communication mode to emphasize in an initial augmentative communication system. Method: Symbols representing preferred objects were introduced in vocal, gestural, and graphic…

  20. Neither a Toddler nor a Stick-in-the-Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea Livi

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to express the views from the "outside," from laypeople who want to go to museums, but perhaps find themselves not going very often. Adult visitors to history museums are often treated as either toddlers or sticks-in-the-mud, where they are assumed to break anything they touch, or enjoy didactic lectures. As a result,…

  1. The Interaction between Young Toddlers: Constructing and Organising "Participation Frameworks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Camilla; Pontecorvo, Clotilde

    2010-01-01

    The study aims at analyzing toddlers' sociability within an early educational context, by adopting a socio-constructivist perspective that considers "school-nursery" (Italian "nido di infanzia") as an important "natural context" that can promote their sociability development. The larger research involved 18 toddlers…

  2. 76 FR 22019 - Safety Standard for Toddler Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... need to follow the assembly instructions, and the target audience for the message would be consumers... purposes and does not signify the comment's value, or importance, or the order in which it was received... firms currently known to be marketing toddler beds and/or convertible cribs in the United States. Of...

  3. Gender Differences in Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…

  4. Using Toys to Support Infant-Toddler Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Choosing toys and activities that are suitable for infants and toddlers can challenge even the most experienced teacher. By being mindful of the basic principles of child development and the role of play, teachers can intentionally select toys to meet young children's unique needs and interests, supporting learning. It is also important to be…

  5. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hilger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps.

  6. Quality Practices for Working with Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Cheryl; Bogard, Kimber

    2016-01-01

    The science is unequivocal in showing that infants and toddlers begin learning very young, and the workforce must be equipped with the specific skills and practices to fully support this important period of development. A major conclusion in the 2015 report from the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council, "Transforming the…

  7. Mothering, fathering, and externalizing behavior in toddler boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Marcel A.G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reported maternal and paternal support, psychological control, and spanking on externalizing behavior of toddler boys. Questionnaires were administered to both parents of 104 two-parent families with a 3-year-old son. Both maternal and paternal psychological

  8. Sensitization predicts asthma development among wheezing toddlers in secondary healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Nienke A.; Meijneke, Ruud W.H.; Kelder, Johannes C.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Balemans, Walter A.F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Some wheezing toddlers develop asthma later in childhood. Sensitization is known to predict asthma in birth cohorts. However, its predictive value in secondary healthcare is uncertain. Aim: This study examines the predictive value of sensitization to inhalant allergens among wheezing

  9. Picture Book Exposure Elicits Positive Visual Preferences in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Price, Carmel; Burton, Eliza; Hickinson, Rachel; Inett, Jade; Moore, Emma; Salmon, Katherine; Shiba, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Although the relationship between "mere exposure" and attitude enhancement is well established in the adult domain, there has been little similar work with children. This article examines whether toddlers' visual attention toward pictures of foods can be enhanced by repeated visual exposure to pictures of foods in a parent-administered picture…

  10. Promoting toddlers' vegetable consumption through interactive reading and puppetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Droog, Simone M; van Nee, Roselinde; Govers, Mieke; Buijzen, Moniek

    2017-09-01

    Picture books with characters that promote healthy eating are increasingly being used to make this behavior more attractive. The first aim of this study was to investigate whether the effect of vegetable-promoting picture books on toddlers' vegetable consumption differed according to the reading style and the use of a hand puppet during reading. The second aim was to investigate whether these effects were mediated by toddlers' narrative involvement and character imitation. In a 2 (reading style: interactive vs. passive) x 2 (puppet use: with vs. without puppet) between-subjects design, 163 toddlers (2-3 years) were randomly assigned to one of the four reading conditions. The story was about a rabbit that loves to eat carrots. After the fourth reading day, the eating task was conducted in which children could eat freely from four different snacks, including carrots. The main finding was that interactive reading produced the greatest carrot consumption. The explanation for this effect was that interactive reading stimulated toddlers to imitate poses of the book characters, even more when interactive reading was supported by the use of a hand puppet. The findings underline that young children should be actively involved with health interventions in order for them to be effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using Everyday Materials To Promote Problem Solving in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segatti, Laura; Brown-DuPaul, Judy; Keyes, Tracy L.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines benefits of and skills involved in problem solving. Details how an environment rich in materials that foster cause-and-effect or trial-and-error explorations promote cognitive development among toddlers. Offers examples of problem-solving experiences and lists materials for use in curriculum planning. Describes the teacher' role as one of…

  12. Proximity correction of high-dosed frame with PROXECCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Hans; Waas, Thomas; Hartmann, Hans

    1994-05-01

    Usefulness of electron beam lithography is strongly related to the efficiency and quality of methods used for proximity correction. This paper addresses the above issue by proposing an extension to the new proximity correction program PROXECCO. The combination of a framing step with PROXECCO produces a pattern with a very high edge accuracy and still allows usage of the fast correction procedure. Making a frame with a higher dose imitates a fine resolution correction where the coarse part is disregarded. So after handling the high resolution effect by means of framing, an additional coarse correction is still needed. Higher doses have a higher contribution to the proximity effect. This additional proximity effect is taken into account with the help of the multi-dose input of PROXECCO. The dose of the frame is variable, depending on the deposited energy coming from backscattering of the proximity. Simulation proves the very high edge accuracy of the applied method.

  13. Social coordination in toddler's word learning: interacting systems of perception and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alfredo; Smith, Linda; Yu, Chen

    2008-06-01

    We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants' body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M=18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner's hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child's learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed.

  14. US consumer attitudes toward sodium in baby and toddler foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Katherine A; Cogswell, Mary E; Zhao, Lixia; Maalouf, Joyce; Gunn, Janelle P; Merritt, Robert K

    2016-08-01

    Dietary data from a nationally representative survey indicate about 80% of US toddlers aged 1-3 years consume too much dietary sodium, which can influence their preference for salty foods in later life. Information on consumer attitudes can inform strategies to reduce sodium in baby and toddler foods. Data were obtained from a 2012 online survey sent to a sample of 11636 US adults aged ≥18 years enrolled in a national probability-based consumer panel; 6378 completed the survey and had non-missing responses to the question of interest, "It is important for baby and toddler foods to be low in sodium." Prevalence of agreement was estimated. Logistic regression was used to describe associations of respondent characteristics with agreement. The majority of respondents were non-Hispanic white and had a household income ≥$60,000. About 7 in 10 (68%, 95% CI: 66%-70%) respondents agreed it is important for baby or toddler foods to be low in sodium. More than 6 of 10 respondents in most subgroups agreed. Among parents with a child currently aged <2 years (N = 390), 82% agreed (95% CI: 77%-87%); the highest agreement included parents who thought sodium was very harmful to their own health (92%, 95% CI: 85%-99%) or who were watching/reducing their own sodium intake (95%, 95% CI: 90%-100%). After adjusting for sex, age, race-ethnicity, agreement was most strongly associated with being a parent of a child <2 years, thinking sodium was harmful, and watching/reducing sodium intake (adjusted odds ratios ≥ 2.5, 95% CI's ≠1.0). The majority of respondents including most parents agreed it is important for baby and toddler foods to be low in sodium, suggesting wide consumer support for strategies to lower sodium in these foods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Proximity measuring device with backscattering radiation usable noticeably in remote handling or robotics and related data processing system. Proximetre a rayonnement retrodiffuse utilisable notamment en telemanipulation ou robotique et systeme de traitement associe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, G; Espiau, B

    1985-05-03

    The invention is aimed at a proximity measuring device whose emitter, an electroluminescent diode, is controlled by control means to emit short duration (< 10 microseconds), high intensity (> 1A) flashes with periods higher than 100 microseconds. Emetter-object distance can be precisely measured on an 0-30 cm interval with the help of data processing of the response given by the proximity device receiver. This device can be used in remote handling and robotics.

  16. Cross-site randomized control trial of the Social ABCs caregiver-mediated intervention for toddlers with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Jessica A; Smith, Isabel M; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan E

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the Social ABCs parent-mediated intervention for toddlers with suspected or confirmed autism spectrum disorder (ASD), through a cross-site randomized control trial, sixty-three parent-toddler dyads (toddler age: 16-30 months) were randomized into treatment (Social ABCs) or control (service-as-usual) conditions. Video data were obtained at three key time-points: Baseline; Post-training (PT; week 12); and Follow-Up (week 24). Analyses included 62 dyads. Treatment allocation significantly accounted for PT gains, all favouring the Treatment group, in (1) child functional vocal responsiveness to parent prompts (R 2  = 0.43, P social orienting (R 2  = 0.06, P = 0.054); gains in parent smiling significantly predicted increases in child smiling and social orienting. Parents in the treatment condition reported significant gains in self-efficacy following the intervention (P = 0.009). No differential effects emerged for performance on standardized measures. The Social ABCs is a relatively low-resource, efficacious intervention, with potential to be a cost-effective means of intervening at the first signs of possible ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1700-1711. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Clinical Trial Title: Social ABCs for Toddlers with Signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder: RCT of a Parent-Mediated Intervention http//ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02428452. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Vocalization of Emotional and Social Expressions in Korean-Speaking Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Those with Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Sook; Shin, Yee Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Lee, Gui Jong; Ryu, Jeong; Son, Oweol; Cho, Sook Whan

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the development of socializing and emotional expressions through vocalizations and joint attention (JA) behaviors in Korean-speaking children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), compared to those with developmental delay (DD). Video samples were collected from 28 toddlers with ASD and 18 age-matched toddlers with DD, and vocalizations were each coded in detail for the purpose of this retrospective research. In addition to some statistical analysis, Computerized Language Analysis was conducted to obtain the final results. Although they produced a higher number of vocalizations than the DD group, the ASD group did not engage in emotional or social interactions with their caretakers, whereas the DD group did. The children with ASD used more atypical vocalizations and socially unengaged vocalizations than the children with DD did. JA using vocalizations in the ASD group, in particular, was largely dyadic, with triadic types occurring at a significantly lower frequency than those in the DD group. Results from this study indicate the importance of assessing early vocalizations in toddlers with ASD, suggesting that some common symptoms of ASD, such as lack of typical, emotional, and social functions in early vocalizations, could be used to develop screening and intervention programs related to ASD. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  18. Preliminary study on leadership proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinea Valentina Mihaela

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, it is agreed that effective leadership requires a certain degree of proximity, either physical or mental, which enables leaders to maintain control over their followers and communicate their vision. Although we agree with the leadership proximity principles which states that leaders are able to efficiently serve only those people with whom they interact frequently, in this article we focus instead on the disadvantages of being too close and the way in which close proximity can actually hurt the effectiveness of leadership. The main effects that we discuss regard the way in which proximity and familiarity allow followers to see the weaknesses and faults of the leader much more easily and thus diminish the leader’s heroic aura, and the emotional bias that results from a leader being too familiar with his followers which will impede the process of rational decision making. As a result, we argue that there exists a functional proximity which allows the leader the necessary space in which to perform effective identity work and to hide the backstage aspects of leadership, while also allowing him an emotional buffer zone which will enable him to maintain the ability to see clearly and make rational decisions.

  19. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.

    1989-04-01

    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  20. The timing of the circadian clock and sleep differ between napping and non-napping toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Akacem, Lameese D; Simpkin, Charles T; Carskadon, Mary A; Wright, Kenneth P; Jenni, Oskar G; Achermann, Peter; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2015-01-01

    The timing of the internal circadian clock shows large inter-individual variability across the lifespan. Although the sleep-wakefulness pattern of most toddlers includes an afternoon nap, the association between napping and circadian phase in early childhood remains unexplored. This study examined differences in circadian phase and sleep between napping and non-napping toddlers. Data were collected on 20 toddlers (34.2±2.0 months; 12 females; 15 nappers). Children followed their habitual napp...

  1. Superconducting proximity effect in topological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeg, Christopher R.

    In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the proximity effect due to its role in the realization of topological superconductivity. In this dissertation, we discuss several results that have been obtained in the field of proximity-induced superconductivity and relate the results to the search for Majorana fermions. First, we show that repulsive electron-electron interactions can induce a non-Majorana zero-energy bound state at the interface between a conventional superconductor and a normal metal. We show that this state is very sensitive to disorder, owing to its lack of topological protection. Second, we show that Rashba spin-orbit coupling, which is one of the key ingredients in engineering a topological superconductor, induces triplet pairing in the proximity effect. When the spin-orbit coupling is strong (i.e., when the characteristic energy scale for spin-orbit coupling is comparable to the Fermi energy), the induced singlet and triplet pairing amplitudes can be comparable in magnitude. Finally, we discuss how the size of the proximity-induced gap, which appears in a low-dimensional material coupled to a superconductor, evolves as the thickness of the (quasi-)low-dimensional material is increased. We show that the induced gap can be comparable to the bulk energy gap of the underlying superconductor in materials that are much thicker than the Fermi wavelength, even in the presence of an interfacial barrier and strong Fermi surface mismatch. This result has important experimental consequences for topological superconductivity, as a sizable gap is required to isolate and detect the Majorana modes.

  2. Lexical selectivity in Danish toddlers with cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    . Methods: All participants were video recorded at 18 months of age during play interaction with a parent. The video recordings were transcribed according to the IPA and an individual consonant inventory was established for each participant. The video recordings were also analysed with respect to word...... productions establishing an observed productive vocabulary size for each participant. Results: At 18 months of age Danish toddlers with cleft palate showed marked lexical selectivity in their early words. The distribution of consonant classes observed at 11 months of age in a previous study of the children...... as it has been described for English speaking toddlers with and without cleft palate, even though some qualitative differences were found. Keywords: consonant inventory, lexical selectivity, early words, cleft palate....

  3. FEEDING GUIDELINES FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS (START HEALTHY PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Butte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The dietary guidelines for americans contains recommendations on diets and healthy lifestyles but it does not deal with specificities of the diet and feeding breast and small infants (to 2 years. However, parents and carecgivers need practical recommendations on feeding infants and toddlers that are necessary to ensure a normal growth and to create the basis for forming healthy food habits, which apart from other benefits might help prevent the development of obesity and other diseases in both childhood and adulthood. The feeding guidelines for infants and toddlers is aimed at providing parents and carecgivers with practical information on feeding breast and small infants. It is intendced for adding and broadening recommendations worked out by other expert groups and organizations. The article provides a substantiation of the guidelines. The methodology, results and a complete reference list used to work out the recommendations are presented in another document.Key words: infants, nutrition.

  4. Toddler Developmental Delays After Extensive Hospitalization: Primary Care Practitioner Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Dana C; Sadler, Lois S

    2015-01-01

    This review investigated developmental delays toddlers may encounter after a lengthy pediatric hospitalization (30 days or greater). Physical, motor, cognitive, and psychosocial development of children aged 1 to 3 years was reviewed to raise awareness of factors associated with developmental delay after extensive hospitalization. Findings from the literature suggest that neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit (NICU/PICU) graduates are most at risk for developmental delays, but even non-critical hospital stays interrupt development to some extent. Primary care practitioners (PCPs) may be able to minimize risk for delays through the use of formal developmental screening tests and parent report surveys. References and resources are described for developmental assessment to help clinicians recognize delays and to educate families about optimal toddler development interventions. Pediatric PCPs play a leading role in coordinating health and developmental services for the young child following an extensive hospital stay.

  5. PENGGUNAAN DIAPERS MEMPERLAMBAT KESIAPAN TOILET TRAINNING PADA TODDLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Kamariyah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Toddlers should have been done the training to use the toilet, but in fact there were many mothers who did not teach about toilet training to her children because of that her children were still not able to implementation toilet training. Therefore, the research was purposed to analyze the relationship between the diapers using and the readiness of toilet training in toddler in RW 04 Keboan Anom village Gedangan district Sidoarjo regency. The design applied in this research was analytic cross sectional. The population involved 56 mothers having babies 18-36 months old in RW 04 Keboan Anom village Gedangan district Sidoarjo regency in which 49 respondents were taken as the samples by using the simple random sampling technique. The independent variable of this research is diapers using and dependent variable is the readiness of toilet training in toddler Moreover, the instruments used to collect the data were questionnaires. The collected data were then analyzed by applying Spearman’s Rank test with the level of significance α = 0,05.The results of research showed that nearly half of the 49 respondents (46.9% use the diapers for 12-24 hours / day to her children and the majority (53.1% had poor toilet training readiness. Based on result of the statistical test, it showed that ρ = 0,000 which meant that ρ < α = 0,05 so that H0 was rejected. Thus, it also proved that there was a relationship between the use of diapers and the readiness of toilet training in toddler.In conclusions, the higher frequency use of diapers can result in the bad effect for the child, they will have a lack toilet training readiness. The medics are expected to be more frequent for providing information about toilet training and for parents, they need to increase the guidance and the direction about toilet training to their children.

  6. Prevalence, symptoms and outcome of constipation in infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loening-Baucke, Vera

    2005-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of constipation in children milk of magnesia or polyethylene glycol 3350 without electrolytes, 93 children underwent follow-up examinations, and the constipation was resolved with treatment in 92% of the children. Dietary changes, corn syrup, or both resolved constipation in 25% of children, and laxatives resolved constipation in 92% of children. Both milk of magnesia and polyethylene glycol were efficient and safe in infants and toddlers.

  7. Hallmarks of opium poisoning in infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Nasim; Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein; Mostafazadeh, Babak

    2010-10-01

    Accidental opium intoxication in children is an extremely dangerous poisoning if it remains undiagnosed and untreated. The classic triad of miosis, decreased level of consciousness and bradypnea, which are the hallmarks of opiate intoxication, are used for the diagnosis of opium poisoning in adults and children. Little attention has been paid to the signs of opium intoxication in children and no published study has explored the frequency of hallmarks of this type of poisoning in the paediatric population. We conducted a study in order to evaluate the prevalence of major signs of opium poisoning in infants and toddlers. In this study, a total of 228 infants and 82 toddlers who had been admitted to Loghman Hakim Hospital as a result of opium poisoning between 2001 and 2009 were evaluated, retrospectively. The most usual sign of opium poisoning was miosis (90%) followed by a decreased level of consciousness (88.4%), bradypnea (28.4%) and seizure (10.3%). The prevalence of the triad of miosis, bradypnea and a decreased level of consciousness was 25.2%. Miosis in association with decreased level of consciousness was detected in 82.6% of our patients. Bradypnea was present in 74 infants and 14 toddlers, which shows a statistically significant difference (P = 0.01). The mean age and weight of the patients with bradypnea were significantly less than those without bradypnea (P = 0.008 and P = 0.0001, respectively). Bradypnea and seizure were significantly more common in females (36.7% versus 26%; P = 0.05 and 15.2% versus 6.5%; P = 0.01, respectively). Miosis in association with a decreased level of consciousness is the most useful indicator of opium poisoning in infants and toddlers. Furthermore, seizure is a more common feature of this type of poisoning in infants, especially in those who are less than 1 month old.

  8. Skype me! Socially Contingent Interactions Help Toddlers Learn Language

    OpenAIRE

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2013-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This paper focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24- to 30-months (N=36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and non-contingent video training (yoked video). Results sugges...

  9. ProxImaL: efficient image optimization using proximal algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2016-07-11

    Computational photography systems are becoming increasingly diverse, while computational resources-for example on mobile platforms-are rapidly increasing. As diverse as these camera systems may be, slightly different variants of the underlying image processing tasks, such as demosaicking, deconvolution, denoising, inpainting, image fusion, and alignment, are shared between all of these systems. Formal optimization methods have recently been demonstrated to achieve state-of-the-art quality for many of these applications. Unfortunately, different combinations of natural image priors and optimization algorithms may be optimal for different problems, and implementing and testing each combination is currently a time-consuming and error-prone process. ProxImaL is a domain-specific language and compiler for image optimization problems that makes it easy to experiment with different problem formulations and algorithm choices. The language uses proximal operators as the fundamental building blocks of a variety of linear and nonlinear image formation models and cost functions, advanced image priors, and noise models. The compiler intelligently chooses the best way to translate a problem formulation and choice of optimization algorithm into an efficient solver implementation. In applications to the image processing pipeline, deconvolution in the presence of Poisson-distributed shot noise, and burst denoising, we show that a few lines of ProxImaL code can generate highly efficient solvers that achieve state-of-the-art results. We also show applications to the nonlinear and nonconvex problem of phase retrieval.

  10. Parent Training Interventions for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrée Jeanne Beaudoin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Now that early identification of toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD is possible, efforts are being made to develop interventions for children under three years of age. Most studies on early intervention have focused on intensive and individual interventions. However, parent training interventions that help parents interact and communicate with their toddlers with ASD might be a good alternative to promote the development of their child’s sociocommunicative skills. Objective. This review aims to systematically examine (1 the use of parent training interventions for children with ASD under three years of age and (2 their effects on children’s development, parents’ well-being and parent-child interactions. Methods. Systematic searches were conducted to retrieve studies in which at least one parent was trained to implement ASD-specific techniques with their toddlers (0–36 months old with a diagnosis of or suspected ASD. Results. Fifteen studies, involving 484 children (mean age: 23.26 months, were included in this review. Only two of them met criteria for conclusive evidence. Results show that parents were able to implement newly learned strategies and were generally very satisfied with parent training programs. However, findings pertaining to the children’s communication and socioemotional skills, parent-child interactions, and parental well-being were inconclusive.

  11. Limping in toddlers: pelvic abscess presenting with transient synovitis picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topoz, Irina; Manole, Mioara D

    2011-12-01

    Limping is a common presenting pediatric complaint, caused by conditions originating in the lower extremities as well as in anatomical areas surrounding the hip joint. Pathologic processes presenting with limping include trauma, inflammation, infection, and malignancy. In this report, we present a case of pelvic abscess presenting with limping in a toddler. We review common conditions presenting with limping in this age group, and discuss laboratory and radiographic evaluation of limping in toddlers. A 20-month-old previously healthy boy presented for evaluation of limping and history of fever. The physical examination was suggestive of transient synovitis. Radiological evaluation revealed normal hip X-ray study, a normal complete blood count, and a moderately increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Due to the persistence of limping, tenderness over the inguinal area and subsequent development of edema over the inguinal area, magnetic resonance images of the hip and pelvis were obtained, which revealed a pelvic abscess. The patient improved after ultrasound-guided drainage of the abscess and a course of intravenous antibiotics. Although transient synovitis is the most common pathology that causes limping in toddlers, limping can also be a presentation of pelvic pathology. Thus, in this age group, a detailed physical examination of the patient with special emphasis on structures adjacent to the hip joint is extremely important. Laboratory evaluation and additional imaging help confirm the suspected diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Developmental Changes in Empathic Concern and Self-Understanding in Toddlers at Genetic Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Susan B.; Moore, Elizabeth L.; Northrup, Jessie; Brownell, Celia A.

    2017-01-01

    Toddlers with an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and low risk (LR) toddlers were observed at 22, 28, and 34 months during two empathy probes: a crying baby and an adult who pretended to hurt her finger. Toddlers with a later ASD diagnosis showed less empathic concern and self-distress at each age on both empathy probes than LR…

  13. Sodium, Sugar and Fat Content of Complimentary Infant and Toddler Foods Sold in the United States, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2012, 72% of commercial toddler meals contained >210 mg/serving of sodium and >70% of infant and toddler snacks, desserts, and juice drinks contained one or more added sugars. The objective is to update the sodium, sugar and fat values of commercial infant and toddler foods sold in the U.S. in 20...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 80 - Procedures for the Provision of Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... toddler's present levels of physical development, cognitive development, communication development, social... the development of the infant or toddler with a disability. b. A mechanism to develop, for each infant... development of procedures to ensure that services are provided to infants and toddlers with disabilities and...

  15. Electromagnetic properties of proximity systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresin, Vladimir Z.

    1985-07-01

    Magnetic screening in the proximity system Sα-Mβ, where Mβ is a normal metal N, semiconductor (semimetal), or a superconductor, is studied. Main attention is paid to the low-temperature region where nonlocality plays an important role. The thermodynamic Green's-function method is employed in order to describe the behavior of the proximity system in an external field. The temperature and thickness dependences of the penetration depth λ are obtained. The dependence λ(T) differs in a striking way from the dependence in usual superconductors. The strong-coupling effect is taken into account. A special case of screening in a superconducting film backed by a size-quantizing semimetal film is considered. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data.

  16. Electromagnetic properties of proximity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresin, V.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic screening in the proximity system S/sub α/-M/sub β/, where M/sub β/ is a normal metal N, semiconductor (semimetal), or a superconductor, is studied. Main attention is paid to the low-temperature region where nonlocality plays an important role. The thermodynamic Green's-function method is employed in order to describe the behavior of the proximity system in an external field. The temperature and thickness dependences of the penetration depth lambda are obtained. The dependence lambda(T) differs in a striking way from the dependence in usual superconductors. The strong-coupling effect is taken into account. A special case of screening in a superconducting film backed by a size-quantizing semimetal film is considered. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data

  17. Computational proximity excursions in the topology of digital images

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces computational proximity (CP) as an algorithmic approach to finding nonempty sets of points that are either close to each other or far apart. Typically in computational proximity, the book starts with some form of proximity space (topological space equipped with a proximity relation) that has an inherent geometry. In CP, two types of near sets are considered, namely, spatially near sets and descriptivelynear sets. It is shown that connectedness, boundedness, mesh nerves, convexity, shapes and shape theory are principal topics in the study of nearness and separation of physical aswell as abstract sets. CP has a hefty visual content. Applications of CP in computer vision, multimedia, brain activity, biology, social networks, and cosmology are included. The book has been derived from the lectures of the author in a graduate course on the topology of digital images taught over the past several years. Many of the students have provided important insights and valuable suggestions. The topics in ...

  18. Proximity effect at Millikelvin temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Proximity effects have been studied extensively for the past 25 years. Typically, they are in films several thousand angstroms thick at temperatures not so far below T/sub CNS/, the transition temperature of the NS system. Interesting is, however, the proximity effect at temperatures much lower than T/sub CNS/. In this case, the Cooper-pair amplitudes are not small and very long pair penetration lengths into the normal metal can be expected. Thus, we have observed pair penetration lengths. For these investigations very suitable specimens are commercial wires of one filament of NbTi or Nb embedded in a copper matrix. The reasons are the high transmission coefficient at the interface between the copper and the superconductor and the fact that the copper in these commercial wires is rather clean with electron free paths between 5 to 10 μm long. In this paper, the magnetic properties of thick proximity systems in the range of temperatures between T/sub CNS/ and 5 x 10/sup -4/ T/sub CNS/ in both low and high magnetic fields are discussed

  19. Concern for Another's Distress in Toddlers at High and Low Genetic Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Susan B.; Leezenbaum, Nina B.; Schmidt, Emily N.; Day, Taylor N.; Brownell, Celia A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined concern for others in 22-month-old toddlers with an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and low risk typically-developing toddlers with older siblings. Responses to a crying infant and an adult social partner who pretended to hurt her finger were coded. Children with a later diagnosis of ASD showed limited empathic…

  20. The Implications of Nasal Substitutions in the Early Phonology of Toddlers With Repaired Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin-Jones, Mary A; Chapman, Kathy L

    2018-01-01

    To examine the implications of nasal substitutions in the early words of toddlers with cleft palate. Retrospective. Thirty-four toddlers with nonsyndromic cleft palate and 20 noncleft toddlers, followed from ages 13 to 39 months. The groups were compared for the percentage of toddlers who produced nasal substitutions in their early words. The percentage of toddlers with repaired cleft palate who produced nasal substitutions and were later suspected of having velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) was also examined. Seventy-six percent of the toddlers in the cleft group (n = 26) and 35% of toddlers in the noncleft group (n = 7) produced nasal substitutions on one or more of their early words. Only 38% (10/26) of the toddlers with cleft palate who produced nasal substitutions in their early words were later diagnosed as having moderate-severe hypernasality and suspected VPD. The presence of nasal substitutions following palatal surgery was not always an early sign of VPD. These substitutions were present in the early lexicon of children with and without cleft palate.

  1. Early working memory and maternal communication in toddlers born very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Jean; Erickson, Sarah J; Maclean, Peggy; Duvall, Susanne W

    2009-04-01

    Early working memory is emerging as an important indicator of developmental outcome predicting later cognitive, behavioural and academic competencies. The current study compared early working memory in a sample of toddlers (18-22 months) born very low birth weight (VLBW; n = 40) and full term (n = 51) and the relationship between early working memory, mental developmental index (MDI), and maternal communication in both samples. Early working memory, measured by object permanence; Bayley mental developmental index; and maternal communication, coded during mother-toddler play interaction, were examined in 39 toddlers born VLBW and 41 toddlers born full term. Toddlers born VLBW were found to be 6.4 times less likely to demonstrate attainment of object permanence than were toddlers born full term, adjusting for age at testing. MDI and maternal communication were found to be positively associated with attainment of object permanence in the VLBW group only. The difference found in the early working memory performance of toddlers born VLBW, compared with those born full term, emphasizes the importance of assessing early working memory in at-risk populations, while the maternal communication finding highlights potential targets of intervention for improving working memory in toddlers born VLBW.

  2. Lexical Processing in Toddlers with ASD: Does Weak Central Coherence Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis Weismer, Susan; Haebig, Eileen; Edwards, Jan; Saffran, Jenny; Venker, Courtney E.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether vocabulary delays in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be explained by a cognitive style that prioritizes processing of detailed, local features of input over global contextual integration--as claimed by the weak central coherence (WCC) theory. Thirty toddlers with ASD and 30 younger,…

  3. Perceived Changes in Well-Being of Parents with a Child in a Therapeutic Toddler Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Alexander H. C.; De Moor, Jan M. H.; Oud, Johan H. L.; Savelberg, Martine M. H. W.

    2000-01-01

    Eighty-one Dutch mothers and 67 fathers completed a questionnaire developed to measure perceived changes in well-being of parents with a toddler with motor disabilities who participated in a therapeutic toddler class. Parents perceived a positive change in well-being 10 months after their child started participation. The impact was greater for…

  4. Interventions for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Evaluation of Research Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, Hannah H.; Reichow, Brian; Tan, Paulo; Vaiouli, Potheini; Yildirim, Emine

    2012-01-01

    Recently emerging intervention studies for toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were reviewed through a systematic assessment of intervention outcomes, research rigor, and intervention features. The review includes published peer-reviewed experimental studies of toddlers with high risk for or diagnosis of ASD in which the majority of…

  5. A Cross-Cultural Study of Behavioral Inhibition in Toddlers: East-West-North-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Chen, Xinyin; Hastings, Paul; Sanson, Ann; Coco, Alida Lo; Zappulla, Carla; Chung, Ock-Boon; Park, Sung-Yun; Doh, Hyun Sim; Chen, Huichang; Sun, Ling; Yoon, Chong-Hee; Cui, Liyin

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of behavioral inhibition in toddlers was examined in five cultures. Participants in this study included 110 Australian, 108 Canadian, 151 Chinese, 104 Italian, and 113 South Korean toddlers and their mothers who were observed during a structured observational laboratory session. Matched procedures were used in each country, with…

  6. Family Stress in Dutch Families with Motor Impaired Toddlers: A Survey in a Dutch Rehabilitation Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibosch, Marijke

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between family stress and child characteristics in families with motor impaired toddlers. Families of 20 children between 2 1/2 and 5 years old with motor impairments, who visit a therapeutic toddler class in a rehabilitation centre, participated. The study was carried out in the Netherlands. Family stress…

  7. Is a Pink Cow Still a Cow? Individual Differences in Toddlers' Vocabulary Knowledge and Lexical Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lynn K.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2017-01-01

    When a toddler knows a word, what does she actually know? Many categories have multiple relevant properties; for example, shape "and" color are relevant to membership in the category "banana." How do toddlers prioritize these properties when recognizing familiar words, and are there systematic differences among children? In…

  8. Low-Income, African American Adolescent Mothers and Their Toddlers Exhibit Similar Dietary Variety Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Mia A.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Quigg, Anna M.; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal and toddler dietary variety. Design: Longitudinal; maternal and toddler dietary data were collected at 13 months; anthropometry was collected at 13 and 24 months. Setting: Data were collected in homes. Participants: 109 primiparous, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and…

  9. Books and Toddlers in Child Care: Under What Conditions Are Children Most Engaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Neblett, Nicole; Holochwost, Steven J.; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Iruka, Iheoma U.; Odom, Samuel L.; Bruno, Elizabeth Pungello

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although shared book reading is seen as an effective way to support children's early literacy and language development, less is known about the factors associated with toddlers' engagement with books. Objective: The goal of the current study was to examine younger and older toddlers' engagement with books during one-on-one reading with…

  10. Social and Instrumental Interaction between Parents and Their Toddlers with Autism: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, Hannah H.; Call-Cummings, Meagan; Horn, Kathryn; Quest, Kelsey; Law, Rhiannon Steffen

    2018-01-01

    A qualitative study of three parents and their toddlers with autism was conducted to investigate the communicative functions underlying parent-toddler interactions and how the instrumental or social nature of one partner's actions influenced the other's engagement. Parent-child interaction videos collected from a separate intervention study were…

  11. The Effect of Children's Gender and Parental Education on Toddler Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, Ljubica Marjanovic; Fekonja, Urska; Kranjc, Simona; Bajc, Katja

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that children's gender and parental education exert a significant, but not equal, effect on toddler language development at different ages. This study determined the effect of children's gender and parental education on the verbal competence of toddlers between 16 and 30 months. The sample included 953 Slovenian…

  12. Antecedents of Toddler Gender Segregation: Cognitive Consonance, Gender-Typed Toy Preferences and Behavioral Compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Lora C.; Serbin, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    Possible antecedents of toddler gender separation were studied with 57 toddlers with a mean age of 35 months. There were no differences between gender-segregating and nonsegregating children regarding gender toy preferences or gender awareness, but teachers saw gender-segregating girls as more socially sensitive. (SLD)

  13. Making Agency Matter: Rethinking Infant and Toddler Agency in Educational Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhn, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This article engages critically with the concept of agency in infant and toddler educational discourse. It is argued that agency, when conceptualised with emphasis on individuality and the autonomous self, poses a conceptual "dead end" for those who are not-yet-in-language, such as babies and toddlers. In considering agency as an aspect…

  14. Early vibration assisted physiotherapy in toddlers with cerebral palsy - a randomized controlled pilot trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, C.; Herkenrath, P.; Hollmann, H.; Waltz, S.; Becker, I.; Hoebing, L.; Semler, O.; Hoyer-Kuhn, H.; Duran, I.; Hero, B.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Schoenau, E.

    OBJECTIVES: to investigate feasibility, safety and efficacy of home-based side-alternating whole body vibration (sWBV) to improve motor function in toddlers with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Randomized controlled trial including 24 toddlers with CP (mean age 19 months (SD±3.1); 13 boys).

  15. Assisting Toddlers and Caregivers during Conflict Resolutions: Interactions that Promote Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Beverly; Da Ros, Denise A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines caregiver attitudes toward toddler conflict and considers ways to facilitate conflict resolution to promote toddler growth, learning, and social development. Suggests that the ways caregivers intervene often do not promote resolution between children. Presents prevention and intervention strategies and discusses implications for practice…

  16. What's the Rush?: Slowing down Our "Hurried" Approach to Infant and Toddler Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What high expectations people place on their infants and toddlers who are just beginning to understand this great big world and all of its complexities! In an attempt to ensure that growth and learning occur, the fundamental needs of infants and toddlers are often pushed aside as people rush the young child to achieve the next developmental…

  17. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coret CD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Catherine D Coret, Michael B Suero, Neena K Tierney Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods: Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30, a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30, or a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=32 were assessed over 2 weeks. In study 2, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash and a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=33 were assessed as a regimen over 4 weeks. The wash and shampoo were used three or more times per week, but not more than once daily. Lotions were applied in the morning or after a bath. Clinicians assessed the arms, legs, torso, or scalp for erythema, dryness, peeling/flakiness (study 1 only, tactile roughness, edema (study 1 only, rash/irritation (study 2 only, and overall skin condition (study 2 only at baseline, week 1, and weeks 2 or 4. Parents completed skin assessment questionnaires. In study 2, stratum corneum hydration was measured. Subjects were monitored for adverse events. Results: No significant changes in clinical grading scores were observed, indicating that all products were well tolerated. By the end of each study, >90% of parents/caregivers believed each product was mild and gentle. In study 2, improvement in stratum corneum hydration was observed (+37% at week 1 and +48% at week 4, P<0.05 for both. In study 1, one baby experienced mild erythema on the neck and scalp after using the shampoo (possibly related to treatment. In study 2, there were no product-related adverse events. Conclusion: The natural baby skin-care products were well tolerated by infants and toddlers when used alone or as part of a skin-care regimen. Keywords: bath, cleanser, natural, infant, lotion, shampoo

  18. PROXIMAL DISABILITY AND SPINAL DEFORMITY INDEX IN PATIENTS WITH PROXIMAL FEMUR FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvio Mistro Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the quality of life related to the spine in patients with proximal femoral fractures. Methods : Study conducted in a tertiary public hospital in patients with proximal femoral fractures caused by low-energy trauma, through the Oswestry Disability Index questionnaire to asses complaints related to the spine at the time of life prior to the femoral fracture. The thoracic and lumbar spine of patients were also evaluated applying the radiographic index described by Gennant (Spinal Deformity Index, which assesses the number and severity of fractures. Results : Seventeen subjects completed the study. All had some degree of vertebral fracture. Patients were classified in the categories of severe and very severe disability in the questionnaire about quality of life. It was found that the higher SDI, the better the quality of life. Conclusion : There is a strong association of disability related to the spine in patients with proximal femoral fracture, and this complaint must be systematically evaluated in patients with appendicular fracture.

  19. Mercury in foods from the first French total diet study on infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Thierry; Chekri, Rachida; Chafey, Claude; Testu, Christian; Hulin, Marion; Noël, Laurent

    2018-01-15

    A very sensitive method using a direct mercury analyser was developed and validated according to the accuracy profile procedure to determine mercury levels in foods mainly consumed by infants and toddlers. Total mercury was not detected (LOD of 0.30µg.kg -1 fresh weight) in 92.4% of the 291 food samples analysed or at relatively low concentrations, lesser than or equal to LB/UB 0.5/1.0µg.kg -1 in all samples, except in fish samples (mean LB/UB 25µg.kg -1 with a maximum of 53µg.kg -1 ). Levels of total mercury in these foods were in all cases within permitted Regulatory limits of 500 or 1000µg.kg -1 in fishery products and muscle meat of fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PREDICTORS OF INFANT AND TODDLER BLACK BOYS' EARLY LEARNING: SEIZING OPPORTUNITIES AND MINIMIZING RISKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iruka, Iheoma U

    2017-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) data set (U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, 2001), this study examined child, family, and community factors in the early years (infant and toddler years) to predict the cognitive and language outcomes for preschool-age Black boys in relation to Black girls and White boys. Findings indicate that Black children face many challenges, with Black boys experiencing less sensitive parenting as compared to their peers. We live in a highly complex, racialized environment. While there are universal indicators that predict children's preschool outcomes such as strong social positioning and positive parenting, there are, in addition, some indicators that are more beneficial for Black boys' early development, including a stable, less urban home environment with parents engaging in "tough love." © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. What Happens Next? Follow-Up From the Children's Toddler School Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Stahmer, Aubyn C; Corsello, Christina; Mahrer, Nicole E

    2010-10-01

    This study was a follow-up of a group of 29 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders at age 2 who attended an inclusive toddler program until age 3. Children ranged in age from 4 to 12 years at the time of the parent survey and follow-up testing. The majority of children were placed in a special education (noninclusive) preschool class, but among the children who were in elementary school at the time of follow-up, 63% were in general education classroom placement. Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders remained stable, socialization skills remained a weakness, and child-related parental stress remained high despite average cognitive and language skills in the majority of children. Social skill development and support remained a service need.

  2. The sooner, the better: exercise outcome proximity and intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M Blair; Cooke, Lisa M; Murray, Robyn A; Wilson, Anne E

    2014-11-01

    Despite evidence that outcomes are highly valued when they are expected sooner rather than further into the future (Ainslie, 1975), limited research effort has been devoted to understanding the role of exercise outcome proximity. The purpose of this study was to examine how temporal proximity to positive outcomes influences exercisers' intrinsic motivation. We expected that focusing people on temporally proximal exercise outcomes would increase intrinsic motivation, especially among low-frequency exercisers. This online experimental study was completed by 135 community exercisers (Mage  = 31.11, SD = 10.29; 62% female) who reported an average of 4.86 exercise bouts per week (SD = 2.12). Participants were randomly assigned to a condition that primed temporally proximal positive exercise outcomes (i.e. experienced during or directly following an exercise bout) or temporally distal outcomes (i.e. experienced after days, months, or years of regular exercise). Participants then reported perceptions of behavioral regulation in exercise. As expected, the proximal exercise outcome condition elicited increased intrinsic regulation among those participants who exercised less frequently (i.e. 1 SD below the mean). This study reveals the importance of considering proximity as an important dimension of exercise outcomes-particularly when promoting intrinsic motivation among relatively infrequent exercisers. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  3. Topology of digital images visual pattern discovery in proximity spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2014-01-01

    This book carries forward recent work on visual patterns and structures in digital images and introduces a near set-based a topology of digital images. Visual patterns arise naturally in digital images viewed as sets of non-abstract points endowed with some form of proximity (nearness) relation. Proximity relations make it possible to construct uniform topolo- gies on the sets of points that constitute a digital image. In keeping with an interest in gaining an understanding of digital images themselves as a rich source of patterns, this book introduces the basics of digital images from a computer vision perspective. In parallel with a computer vision perspective on digital images, this book also introduces the basics of prox- imity spaces. Not only the traditional view of spatial proximity relations but also the more recent descriptive proximity relations are considered. The beauty of the descriptive proximity approach is that it is possible to discover visual set patterns among sets that are non-overlapping ...

  4. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-01-01

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors)

  5. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-12-31

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  6. Prospective Relations among Fearful Temperament, Protective Parenting, and Social Withdrawal: The Role of Maternal Accuracy in a Moderated Mediation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    Early social withdrawal and protective parenting predict a host of negative outcomes, warranting examination of their development. Mothers' accurate anticipation of their toddlers' fearfulness may facilitate transactional relations between toddler fearful temperament and protective parenting, leading to these outcomes. Currently, we followed 93…

  7. Maternal Accuracy and Behavior in Anticipating Children's Responses to Novelty: Relations to Fearful Temperament and Implications for Anxiety Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that mothers' behaviors may serve as a mechanism in the development from toddler fearful temperament to childhood anxiety. The current study examined the maternal characteristic of accuracy in predicting toddlers' distress reactions to novelty in relation to temperament, parenting, and anxiety development.…

  8. Parental behaviors and sleep outcomes in infants and toddlers: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jodi A; Sadeh, Avi; Kohyama, Jun; How, Ti Hwei

    2010-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of parental behaviors and other factors of sleep ecology and to analyze their relationships with sleep outcomes in a large sample of children ages birth to 36months in multiple countries/regions. Parents of 29,287 infants and toddlers (48% boys; Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, and Vietnam) completed an internet-based expanded version of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Overall, there is a high level of parental involvement in sleep onset and sleep maintenance for young children, with significant differences in parenting behaviors across cultural groups. For predominantly-Caucasian, the most common behavior occurring at bedtime is falling asleep independently in own crib/bed (57%), compared to just 4% of those children living in predominantly-Asian regions. Parental behaviors and sleep ecology, including parental presence at sleep onset, bedtime, and bedtime routine, significantly explain a portion of the variance in sleep patterns. Overall, parental behaviors are more highly predictive of nighttime sleep outcomes in predominantly-Caucasian regions. Finally, parental involvement in sleep onset mediates the relationship between cosleeping and sleep outcomes. Overall, the best predictors of nighttime sleep are related to parental behaviors at bedtime and during the night. Furthermore, sleep disruption and decreased total sleep associated with bed sharing and room sharing are mediated by parental presence at bedtime. These findings provide additional support for addressing parental behaviors in behavioral interventions for infant and toddler sleep problems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Toddler foods, children's foods: assessing sodium in packaged supermarket foods targeted at children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Charlene D; Conlon, Martin J

    2011-03-01

    To critically examine child-oriented packaged food products sold in Canada for their sodium content, and to assess them light of intake recommendations, the current policy context and suggested targets. Baby/toddler foods (n 186) and child-oriented packaged foods (n 354) were coded for various attributes (including sodium). Summary statistics were created for sodium, then the children's food products were compared with the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) 'targets' for sodium in packaged foods. Also assessed were the products' per-serving sodium levels were assessed in light of the US Institute of Medicine's dietary reference intakes and Canada's Food Guide. Calgary, Alberta, Canada. None. Twenty per cent of products could be classified as having high sodium levels. Certain sub-categories of food (i.e. toddler entrées, children's packaged lunches, soups and canned pastas) were problematic. Significantly, when scaled in according to Schedule M or viewed in light of the serving sizes on the Nutrition Facts table, the sodium level in various dry goods products generally fell within, and below, the Adequate Intake (AI)/Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) band for sodium. When scaled in accordance with the UK FSA targets, however, none of the (same) products met the targets. In light of AI/UL thresholds based on age and per-serving cut-offs, packaged foodstuffs for youngsters fare relatively well, with the exception of some problematic areas. 'Stealth sodium' and 'subtle sodium' are important considerations; so is use of the FSA's scaling method to evaluate sodium content, because it is highly sensitive to the difference between the reference amount and the actual real-world serving size for the product being considered.

  10. Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: the Early Start Denver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; Rogers, Sally; Munson, Jeffrey; Smith, Milani; Winter, Jamie; Greenson, Jessica; Donaldson, Amy; Varley, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    To conduct a randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), a comprehensive developmental behavioral intervention, for improving outcomes of toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Forty-eight children diagnosed with ASD between 18 and 30 months of age were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (1) ESDM intervention, which is based on developmental and applied behavioral analytic principles and delivered by trained therapists and parents for 2 years; or (2) referral to community providers for intervention commonly available in the community. Compared with children who received community-intervention, children who received ESDM showed significant improvements in IQ, adaptive behavior, and autism diagnosis. Two years after entering intervention, the ESDM group on average improved 17.6 standard score points (1 SD: 15 points) compared with 7.0 points in the comparison group relative to baseline scores. The ESDM group maintained its rate of growth in adaptive behavior compared with a normative sample of typically developing children. In contrast, over the 2-year span, the comparison group showed greater delays in adaptive behavior. Children who received ESDM also were more likely to experience a change in diagnosis from autism to pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified, than the comparison group. This is the first randomized, controlled trial to demonstrate the efficacy of a comprehensive developmental behavioral intervention for toddlers with ASD for improving cognitive and adaptive behavior and reducing severity of ASD diagnosis. Results of this study underscore the importance of early detection of and intervention in autism.

  11. Dental Caries in American Indian Toddlers after a Community-Based Beverage Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupomé, Gerardo; Karanja, Njeri; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Lutz, Tam; Aickin, Mikel; Becker, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objective/Setting The Toddler Overweight and Tooth decay prevention Study (TOTS) was an overweight and early childhood caries (ECC) project in the Pacific Northwest USA. It targeted American Indian (AI) toddlers from birth, to effect changes in breastfeeding and sweetened beverage consumption. Design/Intervention/Participants The intervention cohort was children born in three communities during 12 months; expectant mothers were identified through prenatal visits, and recruited by tribal coordinators. The local comparison cohorts were children in those communities who were 18–30 months at study start. A control longitudinal cohort consisted of annual samples of children aged 18–30 months in a fourth community, supplying secular trends. Outcome measures d1–2mfs was used to identify incident caries in intervention, comparison, and control cohorts after 18-to-30 months of follow-up in 2006. Results No missing or filled teeth were found. For d1t, all three intervention cohorts showed statistically significant downward intervention effects, decreases of between 0.300 and 0.631 in terms of the fraction of affected mouths. The results for d2t were similar but of smaller magnitudes, decreases of between 0.342 and 0.449; these results met the 0.05 level for significance in two of three cases. In light of an estimated secular increase in dental caries in the control site, all three intervention cohorts showed improvements in both d1t and d2t. Conclusions Simple interventions targeting sweetened beverage availability (in combination with related measures) reduced high tooth decay trends, and were both feasible and acceptable to the AI communities we studied. PMID:21305835

  12. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  13. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk=0.34; 95% confidence interval=0.19, 0.63) Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

  14. Validation of an instrument to assess toddler feeding practices of Latino mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidez, Virginia; Kaiser, Lucia L

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes qualitative and quantitative aspects of testing a 34-item Toddler-Feeding Questionnaire (TFQ), designed for use in Latino families, and the associations between feeding practices and toddler dietary outcomes. Qualitative methods included review by an expert panel for content validity and cognitive testing of the tool to assess face validity. Quantitative analyses included use of exploratory factor analysis for construct validity; Pearson's correlations for test-retest reliability; Cronbach's alpha (α) for internal reliability; and multivariate regression for investigating relationships between feeding practices and toddler diet and anthropometry. Interviews were conducted using a convenience sample of 94 Latino mother and toddler dyads obtained largely through the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). Data collection included household characteristics, self-reported early-infant feeding practices, the toddler's dietary intake, and anthropometric measurements. Factor analysis suggests the TFQ contains three subscales: indulgent; authoritative; and environmental influences. The TFQ demonstrated acceptable reliability for most measures. As hypothesized, indulgent practices in Latino toddlers were associated with increased energy consumption and higher intakes of total fat, saturated fat, and sweetened beverages. This tool may be useful in future research exploring the relationship of toddler feeding practices to nutritional outcomes in Latino families. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Realities of proximity facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMott, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Numerous commercial nuclear power plant sites have 2 to 3 reactors located together, and a group of Facilities with capabilities for fuel fabrication, a nuclear reactor, a storage area for spent fuel, and a maintenance area for contaminated equipment and radioactive waste storage are being designed and constructed in the US. The proximity of these facilities to each other provides that the ordinary flow of materials remain within a limited area. Interactions between the various facilities include shared resources such as communication, fire protection, security, medical services, transportation, water, electrical, personnel, emergency planning, transport of hazardous material between facilities, and common safety and radiological requirements between facilities. This paper will explore the advantages and disadvantages of multiple facilities at one site. Problem areas are identified, and recommendations for planning and coordination are discussed

  16. Arcuate Fasciculus in Autism Spectrum Disorder Toddlers with Language Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Language regression is observed in a subset of toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD as initial symptom. However, such a phenomenon has not been fully explored, partly due to the lack of definite diagnostic evaluation methods and criteria. Materials and Methods: Fifteen toddlers with ASD exhibiting language regression and fourteen age-matched typically developing (TD controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. DTI parameters including fractional anisotropy (FA, average fiber length (AFL, tract volume (TV and number of voxels (NV were analyzed by Neuro 3D in Siemens syngo workstation. Subsequently, the data were analyzed by using IBM SPSS Statistics 22. Results: Compared with TD children, a significant reduction of FA along with an increase in TV and NV was observed in ASD children with language regression. Note that there were no significant differences between ASD and TD children in AFL of the arcuate fasciculus (AF. Conclusions: These DTI changes in the AF suggest that microstructural anomalies of the AF white matter may be associated with language deficits in ASD children exhibiting language regression starting from an early age.

  17. Coparenting and toddler's interactive styles in family coalitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fivaz-Depeursinge, Elisabeth; Lopes, Francesco; Python, Maryline; Favez, Nicolas

    2009-12-01

    The current study examined the coparenting and toddler's interactive styles in family coalitions. According to structural family theory, boundaries between generations are clear in alliances, but disturbed in coalitions: the parents look to the child to regulate their conflictual relationship and the child attempts to meet this need. In a normative sample studied longitudinally during the Lausanne Trilogue Play situation (LTP, N=38), 15 coalition cases were detected. Styles of coparenting and of child's interactions were determined and compared in coalition and alliance cases at 18 months. Findings confirm the structural family model by showing the specific ways in which the coparenting and the toddler's interactive styles are associated in 3 different patterns of coalitions: binding, detouring, and triangulation. They illustrate how the child's triangular capacity, or her ability to simultaneously communicate with both parents, is used to regulate the parents' relationship. They suggest that the LTP observational paradigm is a promising assessment method of early family interactions. They point to the importance of assessing early the child's contribution to family coalitions.

  18. How much exposure to English is necessary for a bilingual toddler to perform like a monolingual peer in language tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Allegra; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Farag, Rafalla; Krott, Andrea; Arreckx, Frédérique; Dennis, Ian; Floccia, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    Bilingual children are under-referred due to an ostensible expectation that they lag behind their monolingual peers in their English acquisition. The recommendations of the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) state that bilingual children should be assessed in both the languages known by the children. However, despite these recommendations, a majority of speech and language professionals report that they assess bilingual children only in English as bilingual children come from a wide array of language backgrounds and standardized language measures are not available for the majority of these. Moreover, even when such measures do exist, they are not tailored for bilingual children. It was asked whether a cut-off exists in the proportion of exposure to English at which one should expect a bilingual toddler to perform as well as a monolingual on a test standardized for monolingual English-speaking children. Thirty-five bilingual 2;6-year-olds exposed to British English plus an additional language and 36 British monolingual toddlers were assessed on the auditory component of the Preschool Language Scale, British Picture Vocabulary Scale and an object-naming measure. All parents completed the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory (Oxford CDI) and an exposure questionnaire that assessed the proportion of English in the language input. Where the CDI existed in the bilingual's additional language, these data were also collected. Hierarchical regression analyses found the proportion of exposure to English to be the main predictor of the performance of bilingual toddlers. Bilingual toddlers who received 60% exposure to English or more performed like their monolingual peers on all measures. K-means cluster analyses and Levene variance tests confirmed the estimated English exposure cut-off at 60% for all language measures. Finally, for one additional language for which we had multiple participants, additional language CDI production scores were

  19. Phonological Priming and Cohort Effects in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Adult word recognition is influenced by prior exposure to phonologically or semantically related words ("cup" primes "cat" or "plate") compared to unrelated words ("door"), suggesting that words are organised in the adult lexicon based on their phonological and semantic properties and that word recognition implicates not just the heard word, but…

  20. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Comparative, proximate composition, antioxidant vitamins, honey. INTRODUCTION ... solution of inverted sugars and complex mixture of other saccharides ... enzymatic browning in apple slices and grape juice. (Khan, 1985).

  1. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Keywords: Dioscorea dumetorum, proximate composition, mineral analysis, phytochemical screening ... were analyzed using atomic absorption ... determined using a Hack Dr/200 Spectrophotometer. ... Lead Acetate. +. +. + .... cosmetics.

  2. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  3. True aneurysm of the proximal occipital artery: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Cannistrà, Marco; Pizzardi, Giulia; Pasqua, Rocco; Frezzotti, Francesca; Calio', Francesco G

    2018-01-01

    True aneurysms of the proximal occipital artery are rare, may cause neurological symptoms due to compression of the hypoglossal nerve and their resection may be technically demanding. The case of an aneurysm of the proximal occipital artery causing discomfort and tongue deviation by compression on the hypoglossal nerve is reported. Postoperative course after resection was followed by complete regression of symptoms. Surgical resection, as standard treatment of aneurysms of the occipital artery, with the eventual technical adjunct of intubation by the nose is effective in durably relieving symptoms and preventing aneurysm-related complication. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. True aneurysm of the proximal occipital artery: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Illuminati

    Full Text Available Introduction: True aneurysms of the proximal occipital artery are rare, may cause neurological symptoms due to compression of the hypoglossal nerve and their resection may be technically demanding. Presentation of case: The case of an aneurysm of the proximal occipital artery causing discomfort and tongue deviation by compression on the hypoglossal nerve is reported. Postoperative course after resection was followed by complete regression of symptoms. Conclusion: Surgical resection, as standard treatment of aneurysms of the occipital artery, with the eventual technical adjunct of intubation by the nose is effective in durably relieving symptoms and preventing aneurysm-related complication. Keywords: Arterial aneurysm, Occipital artery, Case report

  5. Proximal tibiofibular dislocation: a case report and review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwe Weme, R. A.; Somford, M. P.; Schepers, T.

    2014-01-01

    An isolated dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint is uncommon. The mechanism of this injury is usually sports related. We present a case where initial X-rays did not show the tibiofibular joint dislocation conclusively. It was diagnosed after comparative bilateral AP X-rays of the knees

  6. Developing survey metrics for analysing cross-border proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2018-01-01

    attempts to operationalize the varying types of proximity – in relation to CBIC – in the form of a questionnaire tested through pilot studies of two CBRs, at the Finnish–Swedish and Danish–German border, and for two contrasting service industries, namely knowledge-intensive business services and tourism...

  7. Using an index of habitat patch proximity for landscape design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; George R. Parker

    1994-01-01

    A proximity index (PX) inspired by island biogeography theory is described which quantifies the spatial context of a habitat patch in relation to its neighbors. The index distinguishes sparse distributions of small habitat patches from clusters of large patches. An evaluation of the relationship between PX and variation in the spatial characteristics of clusters of...

  8. 34 CFR 300.25 - Infant or toddler with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disability. Infant or toddler with a disability— (a) Means an individual under three years of age who needs... development, physical development, communication development, social or emotional development, and adaptive...

  9. Beyond dichotomies-(m)others' structuring and the development of toddlers' prosocial behavior across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärtner, Joscha

    2018-04-01

    Basic elements of prosociality-(pro)social cognition, motivation, and prosocial behavior-emerge during the first and second year of life. These elements are rooted in biological predispositions and the developmental system is complemented by caregivers' structuring. By structuring, (m)others integrate toddlers' unrefined (pro)social sentiments and behavioral inclinations into coherent patterns and align toddlers' experience and behavior with the population's cultural model. These cultural models specify target states for appropriate affective, motivational and behavioral responses regarding toddlers' prosociality and these target states, in turn, inform (m)others' appraisal and guide their structuring. The experiences that toddlers make in these social interactions have important implications for how the basic elements of prosociality are refined and further develop. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vocabulary development at home: A multimedia elaborated picture supporting parent-toddler interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, M.C.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Some children enter elementary school with large vocabulary delays, which negatively influence their later school performance. A rich home language environment can support vocabulary development through frequent high-quality parent-toddler interaction. Elaborated picture home activities can support

  11. Modular endoprosthetic replacement for metastatic tumours of the proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Simon R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Endoprosthetic replacements of the proximal femur are commonly required to treat destructive metastases with either impending or actual pathological fractures at this site. Modular prostheses provide an off the shelf availability and can be adapted to most reconstructive situations for proximal femoral replacements. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and functional outcomes following modular tumour prosthesis reconstruction of the proximal femur in 100 consecutive patients with metastatic tumours and to compare them with the published results of patients with modular and custom made endoprosthetic replacements. Methods 100 consecutive patients who underwent modular tumour prosthetic reconstruction of the proximal femur for metastases using the METS system from 2001 to 2007 were studied. The patient, tumour and treatment factors in relation to overall survival, local control, implant survival and complications were analysed. Functional scores were obtained from surviving patients. Results and conclusion There were 45 male and 55 female patients. The mean age was 60.2 years. The indications were metastases. Seventy five patients presented with pathological fracture or with failed fixation and 25 patients were at a high risk of developing a fracture. The mean follow up was 15.9 months [range 0–77]. Three patients died within 2 weeks following surgery. 69 patients have died and 31 are alive. Of the 69 patients who were dead 68 did not need revision surgery indicating that the implant provided single definitive treatment which outlived the patient. There were three dislocations (2/5 with THR and 1/95 with unipolar femoral heads. 6 patients had deep infections. The estimated five year implant survival (Kaplan-Meier analysis was 83.1% with revision as end point. The mean TESS score was 64% (54%–82%. We conclude that METS modular tumour prosthesis for proximal femur provides versatility; low implant related

  12. An anatomical study of the proximal aspect of the medial femoral condyle to define the proximal-distal condylar length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ming Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite its possible role in knee arthroplasty, the proximal-distal condylar length (PDCL of the femur has never been reported in the literature. We conducted an anatomic study of the proximal aspect of the medial femoral condyle to propose a method for measuring the PDCL. Materials and Methods: Inspection of dried bone specimens was carried out to assure the most proximal condylar margin (MPCM as the eligible starting point to measure the PDCL. Simulation surgery was performed on seven pairs of cadaveric knees to verify the clinical application of measuring the PDCL after locating the MPCM. Interobserver reliability of this procedure was also analyzed. Results: Observation of the bone specimens showed that the MPCM is a concavity formed by the junction of the distal end of the supracondylar ridge and the proximal margin of the medial condyle. This anatomically distinctive structure made the MPCM an unambiguous landmark. The cadaveric simulation surgical dissection demonstrated that the MPCM is easily accessed in a surgical setting, making the measurement of the PDCL plausible. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.78, indicating good interobserver reliability for this technique. Conclusion: This study has suggested that the PDCL can be measured based on the MPCM in a surgical setting. PDCL measurement might be useful in joint line position management, selection of femoral component sizes, and other applications related to the proximal-distal dimension of the knee. Further investigation is required.

  13. Concern for another’s distress in toddlers at high and low genetic risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Susan B.; Leezenbaum, Nina B.; Schmidt, Emily N.; Day, Taylor N.; Brownell, Celia A.

    2016-01-01

    We examined concern for others in 22-month-old toddlers with an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and low risk typically-developing toddlers with older siblings. Responses to a crying infant and an adult social partner who pretended to hurt her finger were coded. Children with a later diagnosis of ASD showed limited empathic concern in either context compared to low risk toddlers. High risk toddlers without a later diagnosis fell between the ASD and low risk groups. During the crying baby probe the low risk and high risk toddlers without a diagnosis engaged their parent more often than the toddlers with ASD. Low levels of empathic concern and engagement with parents may signal emerging ASD in toddlerhood. PMID:26093390

  14. Systematic Development and Validation of a Theory-Based Questionnaire to Assess Toddler Feeding12

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Kristen M.; Pepper, M. Reese; Candelaria, Margo; Wang, Yan; Caulfield, Laura E.; Latta, Laura; Hager, Erin R.; Black, Maureen M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a 27-item caregiver-reported questionnaire on toddler feeding. The development of the Toddler Feeding Behavior Questionnaire was based on a theory of interactive feeding that incorporates caregivers’ responses to concerns about their children’s dietary intake, appetite, size, and behaviors rather than relying exclusively on caregiver actions. Content validity included review by an expert panel (n = 7) and testing in a pilot sample (n = 10...

  15. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Coret, Catherine D; Suero, Michael B; Tierney, Neena K

    2014-01-01

    Catherine D Coret, Michael B Suero, Neena K Tierney Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods: Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30), a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30), or a lightly...

  16. Influence of semantic consistency and perceptual features on visual attention during scene viewing in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helo, Andrea; van Ommen, Sandrien; Pannasch, Sebastian; Danteny-Dordoigne, Lucile; Rämä, Pia

    2017-11-01

    Conceptual representations of everyday scenes are built in interaction with visual environment and these representations guide our visual attention. Perceptual features and object-scene semantic consistency have been found to attract our attention during scene exploration. The present study examined how visual attention in 24-month-old toddlers is attracted by semantic violations and how perceptual features (i. e. saliency, centre distance, clutter and object size) and linguistic properties (i. e. object label frequency and label length) affect gaze distribution. We compared eye movements of 24-month-old toddlers and adults while exploring everyday scenes which either contained an inconsistent (e.g., soap on a breakfast table) or consistent (e.g., soap in a bathroom) object. Perceptual features such as saliency, centre distance and clutter of the scene affected looking times in the toddler group during the whole viewing time whereas looking times in adults were affected only by centre distance during the early viewing time. Adults looked longer to inconsistent than consistent objects either if the objects had a high or a low saliency. In contrast, toddlers presented semantic consistency effect only when objects were highly salient. Additionally, toddlers with lower vocabulary skills looked longer to inconsistent objects while toddlers with higher vocabulary skills look equally long to both consistent and inconsistent objects. Our results indicate that 24-month-old children use scene context to guide visual attention when exploring the visual environment. However, perceptual features have a stronger influence in eye movement guidance in toddlers than in adults. Our results also indicate that language skills influence cognitive but not perceptual guidance of eye movements during scene perception in toddlers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Parental social anxiety disorder prospectively predicts toddlers' fear/avoidance in a social referencing paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Aktar, E.; Majdandžić, M.; De, Vente W.; Bögels, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anxiety runs in families. Observational learning of anxious behavior from parents with anxiety disorders plays an important role in the intergenerational transmission of anxiety. We investigated the link between parental anxiety (parental lifetime anxiety disorders and expressed parental anxiety) and toddler fear/avoidance during social referencing (SR) situations. Method: Toddlers (N = 117) participated with both parents (with lifetime social anxiety disorder, other nonsocial anx...

  18. Association between Prenatal and Postnatal Psychological Distress and Toddler Cognitive Development: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kingston, Dawn; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development. Methods Articles were included if: a) they ...

  19. Inattention and development of toddlers born in preterm and with low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, June-Hui; Huang, Huei-Lin; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Lin, Lung-Chang; Tseng, Hsing-I; Kao, Tsung-Jen

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of low birth weight and preterm birth on a toddler's inattention and development, including cognitive, language, motor, social-emotional and adaptive behaviors. A total of 105 toddlers enrolled for the study; they were divided into four groups: 40 full-term and normal birth weight (NBW, birth weight greater than 2500 g) toddlers, 24 moderate birth weight (MLBW, birth weight between 2499 and 1500 g) toddlers, 20 very to extremely low birth weight (V-ELBW, 12 between 1000 and 1499 g and 8 lower than 1000 g) toddlers, and 21 term toddlers who were recruited from a clinic of developmental delay as the developmental delay at risk (DDR) group. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (BSID-III) and Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-Toddler were used. The findings were as follows: (1) DDR group performed worst in BSID-III; (2) although there were no statistical differences among the NBW, MLBW, and V-ELBW groups in BSID-III, the lower the birth weight, the lower the average performance, especially in language, adaptive social behavior, and adaptive practical behavior; and (3) comparing the inattention score, the DDR group was the poorest, normal and V-ELBW groups were the best, and MLBW group was in the middle. In conclusion, low birth weight and preterm delivery affected children's inattention and development of language, adaptive social behavior, and adaptive practical behavior. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Inattention and development of toddlers born in preterm and with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June-Hui Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the impact of low birth weight and preterm birth on a toddler's inattention and development, including cognitive, language, motor, social–emotional and adaptive behaviors. A total of 105 toddlers enrolled for the study; they were divided into four groups: 40 full-term and normal birth weight (NBW, birth weight greater than 2500 g toddlers, 24 moderate birth weight (MLBW, birth weight between 2499 and 1500 g toddlers, 20 very to extremely low birth weight (V-ELBW, 12 between 1000 and 1499 g and 8 lower than 1000 g toddlers, and 21 term toddlers who were recruited from a clinic of developmental delay as the developmental delay at risk (DDR group. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development—Third Edition (BSID-III and Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale—Toddler were used. The findings were as follows: (1 DDR group performed worst in BSID-III; (2 although there were no statistical differences among the NBW, MLBW, and V-ELBW groups in BSID-III, the lower the birth weight, the lower the average performance, especially in language, adaptive social behavior, and adaptive practical behavior; and (3 comparing the inattention score, the DDR group was the poorest, normal and V-ELBW groups were the best, and MLBW group was in the middle. In conclusion, low birth weight and preterm delivery affected children's inattention and development of language, adaptive social behavior, and adaptive practical behavior.

  1. Transverse and Longitudinal proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, Pryianka; Chand, Hum; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2018-04-01

    With close pairs (˜1.5arcmin) of quasars (QSOs), absorption in the spectra of a background quasar in the vicinity of a foreground quasar can be used to study the environment of the latter quasar at kpc-Mpc scales. For this we used a sample of 205 quasar pairs from the Sloan Digital Sky-Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12) in the redshift range of 2.5 to 3.5 by studying their H I Ly-α absorption. We study the environment of QSOs both in the longitudinal as well as in the transverse direction by carrying out a statistical comparison of the Ly-α absorption lines in the quasar vicinity to that of the absorption lines caused by the inter-galactic medium (IGM). This comparison was done with IGM, matched in absorption redshift and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to that of the proximity region. In contrast to the measurements along the line-of-sight, the regions transverse to the quasars exhibit enhanced H I Ly-α absorption. This discrepancy can either be interpreted as due to an anisotropic emission from the quasars or as a consequence of their finite lifetime.

  2. Promoting first relationships: randomized trial of a relationship-based intervention for toddlers in child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Susan J; Oxford, Monica L; Kelly, Jean F; Nelson, Elizabeth M; Fleming, Charles B

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a community-based, randomized control trial with intent-to-treat analyses of Promoting First Relationships (PFR) to improve parenting and toddler outcomes for toddlers in state dependency. Toddlers (10-24 months; N = 210) with a recent placement disruption were randomized to 10-week PFR or a comparison condition. Community agency providers were trained to use PFR in the intervention for caregivers. From baseline to postintervention, observational ratings of caregiver sensitivity improved more in the PFR condition than in the comparison condition, with an effect size for the difference in adjusted means postintervention of d = .41. Caregiver understanding of toddlers' social emotional needs and caregiver reports of child competence also differed by intervention condition postintervention (d = .36 and d = .42) with caregivers in the PFR condition reporting more understanding of toddlers and child competence. Models of PFR effects on within-individual change were significant for caregiver sensitivity and understanding of toddlers. At the 6-month follow-up, only 61% of original sample dyads were still intact and there were no significant differences on caregiver or child outcomes.

  3. Proximal Participation: A Pathway into Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Selena

    2013-01-01

    In a longitudinal case study of apprentices, the term proximal participation was coined to describe the entry process of young people, with unclear career destinations, into the trade of baking. This article unravels the significance of proximal participation in the decision-making processes of young people who enter a trade through initial…

  4. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  5. Infant media exposure and toddler development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomopoulos, Suzy; Dreyer, Benard P; Berkule, Samantha; Fierman, Arthur H; Brockmeyer, Carolyn; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether duration and content of media exposure in 6-month-old infants are associated with development at age 14 months. Longitudinal analysis of 259 mother-infant dyads participating in a long-term study related to early child development, from November 23, 2005, through January 14, 2008. An urban public hospital. Mothers with low socioeconomic status and their infants. Duration and content of media exposure at age 6 months. Cognitive and language development at age 14 months. Of 259 infants, 249 (96.1%) were exposed to media at age 6 months, with mean (SD) total exposure of 152.7 (124.5) min/d. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, duration of media exposure at age 6 months was associated with lower cognitive development at age 14 months (unadjusted: r = -0.17, P development (r = -0.16, P cognitive and language development at age 14 months. No significant associations were seen with exposure to young child-oriented educational or noneducational content. This study is the first, to our knowledge, to have longitudinally assessed associations between media exposure in infancy and subsequent developmental outcomes in children from families with low socioeconomic status in the United States. Findings provide strong evidence in support of the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations of no media exposure prior to age 2 years, although further research is needed.

  6. Abscess of the medulla oblongata in a toddler: case report and technical considerations based on magnetic resonance imaging tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoglou, Vasileios; D'Angelo, Luca; Koutzoglou, Michael; Di Rocco, Concezio

    2011-08-01

    We report a unique case of a toddler (the only one reported) successfully operated on for a medulla oblongata abscess and comment on the influence of neuroimaging modalities in the preoperative planning of the surgical approach. We report a case of a 20-month-old child with a solitary medulla oblongata abscess. The abscess appeared to be in close proximity to the anterior medulla oblongata, but preoperative planning based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography motivated us to try to remove this lesion through a midline suboccipital approach. The ventral medulla oblongata abscess was surgically removed via a telovelar approach. At the anterior wall of the 4th ventricle, a fenestration was made with pus release and evacuation of the cavity. The child was discharged 1 week later with an uneventful and full recovery. Modern imaging modalities of the nervous system can be very helpful in preoperative planning. Functional visualization of the nervous system provided by modern imaging techniques, such as the DTI tractography, can alter the classic topographic concept of surgical approach. In the case presented, approaching an anterior medulla oblongata abscess based on DTI tractography data, through a suboccipital midline transventricular approach, proved to be an effective and safe technique.

  7. Amblyopia in astigmatic infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Harvey, Erin M; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Miller, Joseph M

    2010-05-01

    To determine whether reduced astigmatism-corrected acuity for vertical (V) and/or horizontal (H) gratings and/or meridional amblyopia (MA) are present before 3 years of age in children who have with-the-rule astigmatism. Subjects were 448 children, 6 months through 2 years of age with no known ocular abnormalities other than with-the-rule astigmatism, who were recruited through Women, Infants and Children clinics on the Tohono O'odham reservation. Children were classified as non-astigmats (2.00 diopters) based on right eye non-cycloplegic autorefraction measurements (Welch Allyn SureSight). Right eye astigmatism-corrected grating acuity for V and H stimuli was measured using the Teller Acuity Card procedure while children wore cross-cylinder lenses to correct their astigmatism or plano lenses if they had no astigmatism. Astigmatism-corrected acuity for both V and H gratings was significantly poorer in the astigmats than in the non-astigmats, and the reduction in acuity for astigmats was present for children in all three age groups examined (6 months to <1 year, 1 to <2 years, and 2 to <3 years). There was no significant difference in V-H grating acuity (no evidence of MA) for the astigmatic group as a whole, or when data were analyzed for each age group. Even in the youngest age group, astigmats tested with astigmatism correction showed reduced acuity for both V and H gratings, which suggests that astigmatism is having a negative influence on visual development. We found no evidence of orientation-related differences in astigmatism-corrected grating acuity, indicating either that MA does not develop before 3 years of age, or that most of the astigmatic children had a type of astigmatism, i.e., hyperopic, that has proven to be less likely than myopic or mixed astigmatism to result in MA.

  8. Skype me! Socially contingent interactions help toddlers learn language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M

    2014-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This study focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24-30 months (N = 36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and noncontingent video training (yoked video). Results suggest that children only learned novel verbs in socially contingent interactions (live interactions and video chat). This study highlights the importance of social contingency in interactions for language learning and informs the literature on learning through screen media as the first study to examine word learning through video chat technology. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Picture book exposure elicits positive visual preferences in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Price, Carmel; Burton, Eliza; Hickinson, Rachel; Inett, Jade; Moore, Emma; Salmon, Katherine; Shiba, Paula

    2009-09-01

    Although the relationship between "mere exposure" and attitude enhancement is well established in the adult domain, there has been little similar work with children. This article examines whether toddlers' visual attention toward pictures of foods can be enhanced by repeated visual exposure to pictures of foods in a parent-administered picture book. We describe three studies that explored the number and nature of exposures required to elicit positive visual preferences for stimuli and the extent to which induced preferences generalize to other similar items. Results show that positive preferences for stimuli are easily and reliably induced in children and, importantly, that this effect of exposure is not restricted to the exposed stimulus per se but also applies to new representations of the exposed item.

  10. Skype me! Socially Contingent Interactions Help Toddlers Learn Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2013-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This paper focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24- to 30-months (N=36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and non-contingent video training (yoked video). Results suggest that children only learned novel verbs in socially contingent interactions (live interactions and video chat). The current study highlights the importance of social contingency in interactions for language learning and informs the literature on learning through screen media as the first study to examine word learning through video chat technology. PMID:24112079

  11. Severe anemia in 3 toddlers with gastric lactobezoar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Franke, A; Kropshofer, G; Gassner, I; Meister, B; Salvador, C; Scholl-Bürgi, S; Mueller, T; Heinz-Erian, P

    2013-05-01

    Anemia in toddlers may result from many disorders including excessive feeding with cow's milk. Another sequel of age-inadequate cow's milk nutrition may be gastric lactobezoar (GLB), a dense lump of coagulated milk and mucus in the stomach. 3 toddlers presented with a history of excessive intake of full cream cow's milk, abdominal distension, vomiting, dehydration, fatigue, marked pallor and tachycardia. Diagnostic imaging revea-led large GLBs as the likely origin of the abdominal symptoms. Laboratory evaluation showed severe anemia with depleted iron stores and signs of protein catabolism. Non-cow's milk-induced causes of anemia including defects of erythropoiesis, hemoglobin structure, RBC-enzymes and blood coagulation, hemolysis, immune disorders, infection, inflammation, extraintestinal hemorrhage, nephropathy were - according to the available data - unlikely to cause the anemia in our patients. Thus their anemia is thought to be due to age-inadequate cow's milk nutrition leading to 1) low intake, decreased absorption/bioavailability and increased intestinal loss of iron, and 2) GLB which induced blood loss following mechanical irritation of the gastric mucosa and vomiting causing high gastric pH and decrease in duodenal iron absorption. The anemia in our patients is due to both exaggerated feeding with cow's milk and adverse effects of GLBs. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that, after erythrocyte transfusion, iron substitution, age-adapted nutrition and GLB-dissolution, the anemia did not recur. We propose to include GLB in the differential diagnosis of anemia in cow's milk fed small children. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Sensitization predicts asthma development among wheezing toddlers in secondary healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Nienke A; Meijneke, Ruud W H; Kelder, Johannes C; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Balemans, Walter A F

    2017-06-01

    Some wheezing toddlers develop asthma later in childhood. Sensitization is known to predict asthma in birth cohorts. However, its predictive value in secondary healthcare is uncertain. This study examines the predictive value of sensitization to inhalant allergens among wheezing toddlers in secondary healthcare for the development of asthma at school age (≥6 years). Preschool children (1-3 years) who presented with wheezing in secondary healthcare were screened on asthma at school age with the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. The positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV) of specific IgE to inhalant allergens (cut-off concentration 0.35 kU/L) and several non-invasive variables from a child's history (such as hospitalization, eczema, and parental atopy) were calculated. The additional predictive value of sensitization when combined with non-invasive predictors was examined in multivariate analysis and by ROC curves. Of 116 included children, 63% developed asthma at school age. Sensitization to inhalant allergens was a strong asthma predictor. The odds ratio (OR), PPV and NPV were 7.4%, 86%, and 55%, respectively. Eczema (OR 3.4) and hospital admission (OR 2.6) were significant non-invasive determinants. Adding sensitization to these non-invasive predictors in multivariate analysis resulted in a significantly better asthma prediction. The area under the ROC curve increased from 0.70 with only non-invasive predictors to 0.79 after adding sensitization. Sensitization to inhalant allergens is a strong predictor of school age asthma in secondary healthcare and has added predictive value when combined with non-invasive determinants. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:729-736. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Proximal hamstring reconstruction using semitendinosus and gracilis autograft: a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellner, Thomas; Kumar, Sandeep; Singla, Amit

    2017-01-01

    The complete proximal hamstring avulsion is relatively uncommon injury and predominantly occurs in young athletes but causes significant functional impairment. In chronic cases, the muscle mass is so much retracted that primary repair is not possible. A surgical technique for reconstruction of chronic proximal hamstring avulsion using contralateral semitendinosus and gracilis autograft is described in this case report. V.

  14. MOTORIC STIMULATION RELATED TO FINE MOTORIC DEVELOPMENT ON CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Triharini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor developmental stimulation is an activity undertaken to stimulate the children basic skills and so they can grow and develop optimally. Children who obtain a direct stimulus will grow faster than who get less stimulus. Mother’s behavior of stimulation is very important for children, it is considering as the basic needs of children and it must be fulfilled. Providing good stimulation could optimize fine motor development in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze mother’s behavior about motor stimulation with fine motor development in toddler age 4-5 years old. Method: Design have been  used in this study was cross sectional. Population were mothers and their toddler in Group A of Dharma Wanita Persatuan Driyorejo Gresik Preschool. Sample were 51 respondents recruited by using purposive sampling technique according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The independent variable was mother’s behavior about motor stimulation whereas dependent variable was fine motor development in toddler. The data were collected using questionnaire and conducting observation on fine motor development based on Denver Development Screening Test (DDST. Data then analyzed using Spearman Rho (r test to find relation between mother’s behaviors about stimulation motor on their toddler fine motor development. Result: Results  of this study showed that there were correlations between mother’s knowledge and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, between mother’s attitude and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, and between mother’s actions and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000. Analysis: In sort study found that there were relation between fine motor development and mother’s behavior. Discussion: Therefore mother’s behavior needed to be improved. Further research about stimulation motor and fine motor development aspects in toddler is required.

  15. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  16. Maternal warmth and toddler development: support for transactional models in disadvantaged families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Doyle, Orla; Tremblay, Richard E

    2017-04-01

    Studies support cognitive and social domains of development as entwined in childhood, however, there is a paucity of investigation into the nature of the mother-child relationship within an interdependence framework. Furthermore, the focus on these processes within families from impoverished communities using frequent assessments in early childhood has been limited. Our objectives were to identify (1) the directional associations between toddler's communication ability and social competence, (2) to establish whether the association between toddler's communication ability and social competence is mediated by maternal warmth, and (3) to establish support for transactional models between toddlers' outcomes and maternal warmth in disadvantaged communities in Ireland. Participants included 173 toddlers and their families enrolled in a prenatally commencing prevention programme. Toddler's communication and social competence were assessed at 12, 18, 24 and 36 months and maternal warmth at 6 and 24 months. Cross-lagged models were estimated examining multiple paths of associations simultaneously. Direct and indirect paths of maternal warmth were also examined. Bi-directional associations were found between communication ability and social competence from 12 to 24 months but not thereafter. Maternal warmth did not significantly mediate these associations, however, support of a transactional model was found with social competence. The results support early positive associations between better communication ability and social competence in the first 2 years, however, they suggest that these associations are no longer present by the third year. The role of maternal warmth in fostering social competencies is important for toddlers and equally important is toddler's level of social competence in eliciting increased maternal warmth.

  17. Differential ethnic associations between maternal flexibility and play sophistication in toddlers born very low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Montague, Erica Q.; Maclean, Peggy C.; Bancroft, Mary E.; Lowe, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Children born very low birth weight (development of self-regulation and effective functional skills, and play serves as an important avenue of early intervention. The current study investigated associations between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication in Caucasian, Spanish speaking Hispanic, English speaking Hispanic, and Native American toddlers (18-22 months adjusted age) in a cross-sectional cohort of 73 toddlers born VLBW and their mothers. We found that the association between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication differed by ethnicity (F(3,65) = 3.34, p = .02). In particular, Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads evidenced a significant positive association between maternal flexibility and play sophistication of medium effect size. Results for Native Americans were parallel to those of Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads: the relationship between flexibility and play sophistication was positive and of small-medium effect size. Findings indicate that for Caucasians and English speaking Hispanics, flexibility evidenced a non-significant (negative and small effect size) association with toddler play sophistication. Significant follow-up contrasts revealed that the associations for Caucasian and English speaking Hispanic dyads were significantly different from those of the other two ethnic groups. Results remained unchanged after adjusting for the amount of maternal language, an index of maternal engagement and stimulation; and after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, test age, cognitive ability, as well maternal age, education, and income. Our results provide preliminary evidence that ethnicity and acculturation may mediate the association between maternal interactive behavior such as flexibility and toddler developmental outcomes, as indexed by play sophistication. Addressing these association differences is particularly important in children born VLBW because interventions targeting parent interaction strategies such as

  18. A Community-Based Study of Sleep and Cognitive Development in Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanqi; Li, Shirley Xin; Jiang, Yanrui; Xu, Xiaojuan; Spruyt, Karen; Zhu, Qi; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Jiang, Fan

    2018-05-29

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of nighttime awakenings and to explore the association between sleep and cognitive development in a community sample of infants and toddlers. A total of 590 healthy infants (aged 2-11 months) and 512 toddlers (aged 12-30 months) from 8 provinces of China were assessed for their sleep and cognitive development. Data on sleep duration and nighttime awakenings were collected through the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Cognitive development was assessed by trained pediatricians using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Prevalence of no nighttime awakening, and nighttime awakening(s) for 1×/night, 2×/night, and ≥ 3×/night was 6.8%, 20.2%, 33.2%, and 39.3% in infants, and was 25.8%, 34.6%, 23.8%, and 15.8% in toddlers, respectively. Nighttime awakenings were generally associated with younger age, lower maternal education level, and being currently breastfed. In addition, nighttime awakenings were associated with being boys in toddlers. After controlling for potential confounders, infants with nighttime awakenings for 2×/night were found to have significantly higher Mental Development Index (MDI) score, as compared to those without and those with more frequent nighttime awakenings. However, toddlers with nighttime awakenings for ≥ 3×/night had significantly lower MDI, as compared to those with fewer nighttime awakenings. Total sleep duration was not associated with any developmental indices in both infants and toddlers. Frequent nighttime awakenings are associated with poor cognitive functions in toddlers. Meanwhile, a nonlinear association between nighttime awakenings and cognitive performance was found among infants. The findings provide a developmental context for the effect of sleep on cognitive abilities in young children. Further longitudinal studies and interventional studies on the effects of parent-based sleep-focused intervention on cognitive abilities among young children are warranted. Copyright © 2018

  19. Here, there and everywhere: emotion and mental state talk in different social contexts predicts empathic helping in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jesse; Paul, Elena F; Waugh, Whitney E; Hammond, Stuart I; Brownell, Celia A

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that parents socialize early-emerging prosocial behavior across varied contexts and in subtle yet powerful ways. We focus on discourse about emotions and mental states as one potential socialization mechanism given its conceptual relevance to prosocial behavior and its known positive relations with emotion understanding and social-cognitive development, as well as parents' frequent use of such discourse beginning in infancy. Specifically, we ask how parents' emotion and mental state talk (EMST) with their toddlers relates to toddlers' helping and how these associations vary by context. Children aged 18- to 30-months (n = 38) interacted with a parent during book reading and joint play with toys, two everyday contexts that afford parental discussion of emotions and mental states. Children also participated in instrumental and empathic helping tasks. Results revealed that although parents discuss mental states with their children in both contexts, the nature of their talk differs: during book reading parents labeled emotions and mental states significantly more often than during joint play, especially simple affect words (e.g., happy, sad) and explanations or elaborations of emotions; whereas they used more desire talk and mental state words (e.g., think, know) in joint play. Parents' emotion and mental state discourse related to children's empathic, emotion-based helping behavior; however, it did not relate to instrumental, action-based helping. Moreover, relations between parent talk and empathic helping varied by context: children who helped more quickly had parents who labeled emotion and mental states more often during joint play and who elicited this talk more often during book reading. As EMST both varies between contexts and exhibits context-specific associations with empathic prosocial behavior early in development, we conclude that such discourse may be a key form of socialization in emerging prosociality.

  20. Positive Affect: Phenotypic and Etiologic Associations with Prosocial Behaviors and Internalizing Problems in Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjie eWang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996, the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg, Rutter, & Richman, 1997, and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5-5 (Achenbach, 1991, respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and nonshared. In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children.

  1. Positive affect: phenotypic and etiologic associations with prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems in toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996), the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg et al., 1997), and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5–5 (Achenbach, 1991), respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and non-shared). In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children. PMID:25914668

  2. Accuracy of "Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers" ("M-CHAT") in Detecting Autism and Other Developmental Disorders in Community Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Teck-Hock; Tan, Vivian Wee-Yen; Lau, Peter Sie-Teck; Kiyu, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    This study determined the accuracy of "Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers" ("M-CHAT") in detecting toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders (DD) in community mother and child health clinics. We analysed 19,297 eligible toddlers (15-36 months) who had "M-CHAT" performed in…

  3. Increasing Toy Play among Toddlers with Multiple Disabilities in an Inclusive Classroom: A More-to-Less, Child-Directed Intervention Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Reid, Dennis H.; Stricklin, Sarintha B.

    2003-01-01

    A study evaluated a more-to-less, child-directed continuum of intervention to increase toy play among six toddlers with multiple disabilities. Toddlers were provided with repeated choices of preferred toys in a child-directed manner. Nonprompted toy play for two toddlers increased. Toy play also increased for another child after staff prompts and…

  4. Evaluation of an early detection tool for social-emotional and behavioral problems in toddlers: The Brief Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment - A cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Kruizinga (Ingrid); W. Jansen (Wilma); A.S. Carter (Alice); H. Raat (Hein)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The prevalence of social-emotional and behavioral problems is estimated to be 8 to 9% among preschool children. Effective early detection tools are needed to promote the provision of adequate care at an early stage. The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment

  5. THE PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN BUSH MANGO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    Information regarding previous studies on these physico-chemical ... This behaviour may be attributed to its high myristic acid ... The authors express deep appreciation to the. Heads of ... of a typical rural processing method on the proximate ...

  6. Proximate composition and nutritional characterization of Chia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dairy product associated with several beneficial nutritional and health effects. ... The results for amino acids showed that the essential and non-essential amino ... proximate composition and nutritional (amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals ...

  7. Proximal focal femoral deficiency: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD is a rare congenital anomaly resulting in limb shortening and disability in young. The exact cause of the disease is not known and it may present as varying grades of affection involving the proximal femur and the acetabulum. Recognition of this rare abnormality on radiographs can help manage these cases better since early institution of therapy may help in achieving adequate growth of the femur.

  8. Interruption of scheduled, automatic feeding and reduction of excess energy intake in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampolini, Mario; Brenna, J Thomas; Giannellini, Valerio; Bini, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity due to the consumption of excess calories is a severe problem in developed countries. In a previous investigation on toddlers, hospital laboratory measurements showed an association of food-demand behavior with constant lower blood glucose before meals than for scheduled meals. We hypothesize that maternal scheduling of meals for toddlers results in excess energy intake compared to feeding only on demand (previously "on request"). We tested the cross-sectional null hypothesis of no difference in energy intake between scheduled (automatic) and demanded meals (administered after evaluation) in 24 mother-toddler (21 months old at entry) pairs with chronic, nonspecific diarrhea presenting at a clinic. We tested the same hypothesis in a subset of 14 toddlers by measuring the resting (sleeping) metabolic rate 4 hours after lunch, as well as the total daily energy expenditure (TEE) in 10 toddlers. We trained mothers to recognize meal demands (as in the previous investigation) and to provide food in response, but required no blood glucose measurements before meals. Energy intake was assessed by a 10-day food diary, resting metabolic rate (RMR) by respiratory analyses (indirect calorimetry) in 14 toddlers, and TEE by doubly labeled water in 10 toddlers. Their blood parameters, anthropometry, and number of days with diarrhea were assessed before training and 50 days after training. RMR decreased from 58.6 ± 7.8 to 49.0 ± 9.1 kcal/kg/d (P kcal/kg/d (P kcal/kg/d (P < 0.001). The height Z-score increased significantly, while weight growth was normal. Toddlers entering the study over the median RMR decreased their RMR significantly more than those below the median RMR (P < 0.01). Scheduled meal suspension induces meal demand frequency to increase. Demanded meals are associated with significantly lower energy intake, RMR, and TEE than scheduled meals. Feeding on demand may be an effective skill in a strategy for reducing excess energy intake in the long term

  9. Together and Alone a Study of Interactions between Toddlers and Childcare Providers during Mealtime in Norwegian Childcare Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klette, Trine; Drugli, May Britt; Aandahl, Ann Mari

    2018-01-01

    The study investigated the quality of interactions between childcare providers and toddlers during a lunch in childcare centres. Meals in childcare centres are semi-structured adult-led situations where the children not only eat, but are also provided with opportunities for implicit learning and interactions. Participants were 13 toddlers aged…

  10. Do you do as I do? Young toddlers prefer and copy toy choices of similarly acting others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerson, S.A.; Bekkering, H.; Hunnius, S.

    2017-01-01

    Recognizing similarity between one's own and others' actions is important for identifying others with whom to affiliate and from whom to learn. In this study, 40 19-month-old toddlers recognized when a puppet chose the same toys as them. Toddlers preferred to affiliate with a puppet who chose the

  11. The Relationship between Autism Symptoms and Arousal Level in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder, as Measured by Electrodermal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Emily Barbara; Kim, Elizabeth S.; Wall, Carla Anne; Gisin, Eugenia; Goodwin, Matthew S.; Simmons, Elizabeth Schoen; Chawarska, Kaisa; Shic, Frederick

    2017-01-01

    Electrodermal activity was examined as a measure of physiological arousal within a naturalistic play context in 2-year-old toddlers (N = 27) with and without autism spectrum disorder. Toddlers with autism spectrum disorder were found to have greater increases in skin conductance level than their typical peers in response to administered play…

  12. Characteristics of Early Vocabulary and Grammar Development in Slovenian-Speaking Infants and Toddlers: A CDI-Adaptation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urska; Podlesek, Anja

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research shows that vocabulary does not develop independently of grammar, representing a better predictor of the grammatical complexity of toddlers' utterances than age. This study examines for the first time the characteristics of vocabulary and grammar development in Slovenian-speaking infants and toddlers using the Slovenian…

  13. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 57 - Procedures for the Provision of Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... developmental areas: (i) Cognitive development. (ii) Physical development, including vision and hearing. (iii... Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers With Disabilities and Their Families A Appendix A to Part 57... Appendix A to Part 57—Procedures for the Provision of Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers...

  14. Cognitive and Adaptive Skills in Toddlers Who Meet Criteria for Autism in DSM-IV but Not DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashar, Dasal Tenzin; Brennan, Laura A.; Barton, Marianne L.; Fein, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The current study compared adaptive and cognitive skills, and autism severity of toddlers with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis under DSM-IV but not DSM-5 criteria (DSM-IV only group) to those who met autism criteria under both diagnostic systems (DSM-5 group) and to those without ASD (non-ASD group). The toddlers in the DSM-IV only…

  15. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, D.C.; Pigoski, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors

  16. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  17. Super-Relaxed ( -Proximal Point Algorithms, Relaxed ( -Proximal Point Algorithms, Linear Convergence Analysis, and Nonlinear Variational Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal RaviP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We glance at recent advances to the general theory of maximal (set-valued monotone mappings and their role demonstrated to examine the convex programming and closely related field of nonlinear variational inequalities. We focus mostly on applications of the super-relaxed ( -proximal point algorithm to the context of solving a class of nonlinear variational inclusion problems, based on the notion of maximal ( -monotonicity. Investigations highlighted in this communication are greatly influenced by the celebrated work of Rockafellar (1976, while others have played a significant part as well in generalizing the proximal point algorithm considered by Rockafellar (1976 to the case of the relaxed proximal point algorithm by Eckstein and Bertsekas (1992. Even for the linear convergence analysis for the overrelaxed (or super-relaxed ( -proximal point algorithm, the fundamental model for Rockafellar's case does the job. Furthermore, we attempt to explore possibilities of generalizing the Yosida regularization/approximation in light of maximal ( -monotonicity, and then applying to first-order evolution equations/inclusions.

  18. Community food pattern and nutrition among toddlers in district of Pacitan, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, A.; Hanim, D.; Listyaningsih, E.; Supriyadi

    2017-04-01

    Aim of this study was to asses and formulate food consumption patterns among under five children in accordance with the desirable dietary pattern score and Recommended Dietary Allowances to the target of East Java’s desirable dietary pattern. Toddlers who have nutritional status less than normal are 29.44%. Toddlers with good nutritional status are 59.39% and obesity toddlers are 11.16 %. Families of respondents were able to provide the food of the crop and compound (p = 0.81; r = 0.11). The ability of the respondent’s family to buy vegetables with p = 0.06; r = 0.19. Animal side dish food spending patterns showed that the family of respondents who consume meat poultry, including eggs was 92.1%. Families fruits spending patterns of respondents was 70.8% had a habit of eating fresh fruit so that every day can be provided. The pattern of food consumption in Pacitan already reflected the pattern of nutritionally balanced food, especially in the fulfillment of carbohydrates, vegetable-sourced protein, animal-sourced protein. Nutritional status of toddlers was ideal. The main driving factor for the improvement of nutritional status of toddlers was nutrition awareness against food diversification.

  19. Prefrontal Hemodynamics in Toddlers at Rest: A Pilot Study of Developmental Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrouz A. Anderson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is a non-invasive functional neuroimaging modality. Although, it is amenable to use in infants and young children, there is a lack of fNIRS research within the toddler age range. In this study, we used fNIRS to measure cerebral hemodynamics in the prefrontal cortex (PFC in 18–36 months old toddlers (n = 29 as part of a longitudinal study that enrolled typically-developing toddlers as well as those “at risk” for language and other delays based on presence of early language delays. In these toddlers, we explored two hemodynamic response indices during periods of rest during which time audiovisual children's programming was presented. First, we investigate Lateralization Index, based on differences in oxy-hemoglobin saturation from left and right prefrontal cortex. Then, we measure oxygenation variability (OV index, based on variability in oxygen saturation at frequencies attributed to cerebral autoregulation. Preliminary findings show that lower cognitive (including language abilities are associated with fNIRS measures of both lower OV index and more extreme Lateralization index values. These preliminary findings show the feasibility of using fNIRS in toddlers, including those at risk for developmental delay, and lay the groundwork for future studies.

  20. Proximity coupling in superconductor-graphene heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2018-05-01

    This review discusses the electronic properties and the prospective research directions of superconductor-graphene heterostructures. The basic electronic properties of graphene are introduced to highlight the unique possibility of combining two seemingly unrelated physics, superconductivity and relativity. We then focus on graphene-based Josephson junctions, one of the most versatile superconducting quantum devices. The various theoretical methods that have been developed to describe graphene Josephson junctions are examined, together with their advantages and limitations, followed by a discussion on the advances in device fabrication and the relevant length scales. The phase-sensitive properties and phase-particle dynamics of graphene Josephson junctions are examined to provide an understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Josephson coupling via graphene. Thereafter, microscopic transport of correlated quasiparticles produced by Andreev reflections at superconducting interfaces and their phase-coherent behaviors are discussed. Quantum phase transitions studied with graphene as an electrostatically tunable 2D platform are reviewed. The interplay between proximity-induced superconductivity and the quantum-Hall phase is discussed as a possible route to study topological superconductivity and non-Abelian physics. Finally, a brief summary on the prospective future research directions is given.

  1. Savoring Sweet: Sugars in Infant and Toddler Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robert D

    2017-01-01

    During the first years of life, the sweetness of sugars has a capacity to hinder or to help in laying a strong nutritional foundation for food preferences that often extend over a lifetime. Aside from supplying 4 g/kcal of energy, sugars are non-nutritive. However, sugars have a powerful attribute, sweetness, which strongly influences human food preference. A child's first relationship with sweet taste begins even before birth and continues to evolve throughout complementary feeding. The sweetness of breastmilk encourages consumption and soothes the neonate. Conversely, inappropriate introduction of non-milk solids and beverages that are sweet at 0-4 months of age raises the newborn's risk for later obesity and may discourage the acceptance of other bitter or sour foods. Although cereals, fruits, 100% fruit juices, and some grains have naturally occurring sugars that impart sweet flavor notes, there is no clear role for added sugars between 6 and 12 months of age. Yet, 60% of infants are introduced to foods and beverages containing added sugars, threatening diet quality. Pairing foods with naturally occurring sugars, such as fruits, with foods that tend to be resisted initially, such as vegetables, can mask bitterness and promote acceptance. Utilizing the infants' extraordinary capacity for sensory-motor exploration is another strategy to expose them repeatedly to challenging tastes and flavors. The transitional year, as breast milk and infant formula are withdrawn, is a time when nutritional needs are high and diet quality often precarious. Rapid growth, along with brain and cognitive development, demand high-quality nutrition. Snacks are necessary both for energy and valuable nutrients. However, the selection of snack foods often exposes toddlers to items that offer concentrated energy with low nutrient value. Recent trends suggest a rapid fall in added sugars among infants and toddlers. Parenting practices that use small amounts of sugars to promote nutrient

  2. Maternal Dispositional Empathy and Electrodermal Reactivity: Interactive Contributions to Maternal Sensitivity with Toddler-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Helen T.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Groh, Ashley M.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated maternal dispositional empathy and skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity to infant emotional cues as joint predictors of maternal sensitivity. Sixty-four mother-toddler dyads (31 boys) were observed across a series of interaction tasks during a laboratory visit, and maternal sensitivity was coded from approximately 55 minutes of observation per family. In a second, mother-only laboratory visit, maternal SCL reactivity to infant cues was assessed using a cry-laugh audio paradigm. Mothers reported on their dispositional empathy via a questionnaire. As hypothesized, mothers with greater dispositional empathy exhibited more sensitive behavior at low, but not high, levels of SCL reactivity to infant cues. Analyses examining self-reported emotional reactivity to the cry-laugh audio paradigm yielded a similar finding: dispositional empathy was related to greater sensitivity when mothers reported low, but not high, negative emotional reactivity. Results provide support for Dix’s (1991) affective model of parenting that underscores the combined contribution of the parent’s empathic tendencies and his/her own emotional experience in response to child emotions. Specificity of the Empathy × Reactivity interaction is discussed with respect to the context in which reactivity was assessed (infant cry versus laugh) and the type of sensitivity examined (sensitivity to the child’s distress versus non-distress). PMID:24955589

  3. Influence of parental depressive symptoms on adopted toddler behaviors: an emerging developmental cascade of genetic and environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Caroline K; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Leve, Leslie D; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David; Ge, Xiaojia

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the developmental cascade of both genetic and environmental influences on toddlers' behavior problems through the longitudinal and multigenerational assessment of psychosocial risk. We used data from the Early Growth and Development Study, a prospective adoption study, to test the intergenerational transmission of risk through the assessment of adoptive mother, adoptive father, and biological parent depressive symptoms on toddler behavior problems. Given that depression is often chronic, we control for across-time continuity and find that in addition to associations between adoptive mother depressive symptoms and toddler externalizing problems, adoptive father depressive symptoms when the child is 9 months of age were associated with toddler problems and associated with maternal depressive symptoms. Findings also indicated that a genetic effect may indirectly influence toddler problems through prenatal pregnancy risk. These findings help to describe how multiple generations are linked through genetic (biological parent), timing (developmental age of the child), and contextual (marital partner) pathways.

  4. Social networks, geographic proximity, and firm performance in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Emma

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses panel data to assess the relative importance of social networks and geographic proximity to micro, small, and medium enterprises in Viet Nam. The results suggest that a larger social network, and hiring employees mainly through social networks, are both correlated with higher value added per worker. The number of government officials and civil servants in a firm's network emerges as particularly important. When the quality of contacts is controlled for, firms with tighter soci...

  5. How to tell the History. Proximity strategies on Argentine television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Galán Fajardo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of a television documentary Algo habrán hecho (por la historia argentina, broadcast on Telefe and Canal 13, between 2005 and 2008. The interrelationship of discursive tools and informative and evocation strategies are very relevant in this text. Its effectiveness is related to a combined use of resources that appeal to different meanings of proximity, with the objective to make accessible the history to a popular audience.

  6. Motherese, affect, and vocabulary development: dyadic communicative interactions in infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Shruti; Mastergeorge, Ann M; Olswang, Lesley B

    2018-07-01

    Responsive parental communication during an infant's first year has been positively associated with later language outcomes. This study explores responsivity in mother-infant communication by modeling how change in guiding language between 7 and 11 months influences toddler vocabulary development. In a group of 32 mother-child dyads, change in early maternal guiding language positively predicted child language outcomes measured at 18 and 24 months. In contrast, a number of other linguistic variables - including total utterances and non-guiding language - did not correlate with toddler vocabulary development, suggesting a critical role of responsive change in infant-directed communication. We further assessed whether maternal affect during early communication influenced toddler vocabulary outcomes, finding that dominant affect during early mother-infant communications correlated to lower child language outcomes. These findings provide evidence that responsive parenting should not only be assessed longitudinally, but unique contributions of language and affect should also be concurrently considered in future study.

  7. Space-based visual attention: a marker of immature selective attention in toddlers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, James; Brisson, Julie

    2014-11-01

    Various studies suggested that attentional difficulties cause toddlers' failure in some spatial search tasks. However, attention is not a unitary construct and this study investigated two attentional mechanisms: location selection (space-based attention) and object selection (object-based attention). We investigated how toddlers' attention is distributed in the visual field during a manual search task for objects moving out of sight, namely the moving boxes task. Results show that 2.5-year-olds who failed this task allocated more attention to the location of the relevant object than to the object itself. These findings suggest that in some manual search tasks the primacy of space-based attention over object-based attention could be a marker of immature selective attention in toddlers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. PROMOTING GROSS MOTOR SKILLS IN TODDLERS: THE ACTIVE BEGINNINGS PILOT CLUSTER RANDOMIZED TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Sanne L C; Okely, Anthony D; Jones, Rachel A

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a gross motor skill program for toddlers. An 8-wk. skills program in which children practiced three skills was implemented for 10 min. daily in two randomly designated childcare centers. Two other centers served as the control group. Recruitment and retention rates were collected for feasibility. Data on professional development, children's participation, program duration, and appropriateness of the lessons were collected for acceptability, and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Get Skilled, Get Active (total of 28 points) were used to look at the potential efficacy. The participants were 60 toddlers (M age=2.5 yr., SD=0.4; n=29 boys), and the retention rate was 95%. Overall participation was 76%, and educators rated 98% of the lessons as appropriate. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significantly greater improvements in motor skills (pmotor skills among toddlers.

  9. Fusobacterium necrophorum otitis and mastoiditis in infants and young toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulou, T; Walsh, T J

    2016-05-01

    There is an increased recovery of Fusobacterium necrophorum from cases of otitis media and mastoiditis in the pediatric population. These infections may be highly severe, causing local osteomyelitis, bacteremia, and Lemierre's syndrome. The severity and difficulties in providing optimal treatment for these infections may be especially difficult in this age group due to immunological immaturity and delayed presentation. In this review of literature, we present and analyze the clinical presentation, management, and outcome of otic infections caused by F. necrophorum in infants and young toddlers less than 2 years old. Search in Pubmed was conducted for reported cases in the English literature for the time period of the last 50 years. Twelve well-described cases were retrieved with F. necrophorum otitis and mastoiditis and complications reported in all cases. Treatment included both intravenously with antimicrobial agents (beta lactams plus metronidazole) and mastoidectomy. Lemierre's syndrome and Lemierre's syndrome variants developed in 60 % of the patients. Dissemination of the infection as distal osteomyelitis and septic shock were also reported. The outcome was favorable in all the cases. Otitis and mastoiditis infections in children less then 2 years old are invasive infections, and severe complications can occur.

  10. Why Do Parents with Toddlers Store Poisonous Products Safely?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinneke M. J. Beirens

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unintentional poisoning is a major cause of nonfatal injuries in children aged 0–24 months. Associations between self-reported habits on the child safe storage of medication and cleaning products and family, and psychosocial factors were assessed, using a model based on the Protection Motivation Theory. By identifying correlates of safety behavior in this manner, more insight in factors which influence this behavior is obtained. Health promotion activities in order to promote safety behavior should address these factors in order to increase the effectiveness of the health message. Data were gathered from a cross-sectional survey using self-administered questionnaires, mailed to a population sample of 2470 parents with toddlers. The results indicate that the promotion of safe storage of medication and cleaning products should address the family situation, personal cognitive factors as well as social factors. Interventions should particularly focus on parents' self-efficacy of storing poisonous products in a child safe manner and on the vulnerability of their child in their home concerning an unintentional poisoning incident.

  11. Association between neurological assessment and developmental outcome in preterm toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kodrič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in prevalence of low severity dysfunctions such as minor neurological dysfunction and cognitive deficits which consequently lead to school and behavior problems. The study presents the outcomes of a small group of preterm children with different medical complications at birth on follow-up at toddler age. In the neonatal period and at three months corrected age the neurological examination by the Amiel-Tison neurological assessment and the assessment of general movements was done. Both measures were compared with the criterion measure Bayley Scales of Infant Development - II. Results of the preterm group were compared with results of the normative group. According to results for both methods of neurological examination, children were classified into different categories meaning optimal or different degrees of non-optimal neurological results. The results of the children from different categories of neurological functioning were compared with the criterion measure. Children from the preterm group attained lower results on the developmental test compared to normative data. Children from groups with the lowest birth weight and gestational age attained the lowest results. These findings suggest that children from less optimal or non-optimal categories according to both methods of neurological examination attained lower developmental scores. The difference between groups was higher on the mental scale than on the motor scale of the developmental test.

  12. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: do vitamin and mineral supplements contribute to nutrient adequacy or excess among US infants and toddlers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette; Hanson, Charlotte; Fox, Mary Kay; Novak, Timothy; Ziegler, Paula

    2006-01-01

    To report the prevalence of dietary supplement use in a random sample of US infants 4 to 24 months of age, and to compare demographic characteristics, usual nutrient intakes, and food patterns of supplement users and nonusers. Data from 24-hour recalls collected for the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study were analyzed. Recalls included nutrient contributions from dietary supplements as well as all foods and beverages. We estimated usual energy and nutrient intakes of supplement users and nonusers, as well as the prevalence of nutrient adequacy and excess in the two groups. We also compared demographic characteristics and food patterns of supplement users and nonusers and, for supplement users, estimated the proportion of total intake provided by foods and the proportion provided by supplements. A national random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers age 4 to 24 months, including 430 vitamin and/or mineral supplement users and 2,592 nonusers. We compared means, percentile distributions, and proportions by age and supplement subgroup, and applied the Dietary Reference Intakes to assess usual nutrient intakes. We conducted regression analysis to determine which population characteristics predict the use of dietary supplements in this population. Overall, 8% of infants age 4 to 5 months received some type of dietary supplement. The prevalence of supplement use increased with age, to 19% among infants 6 to 11 months and 31% among toddlers 12 to 24 months. The vast majority of supplement users (97%) received only one type of supplement, most commonly a multivitamin and/or mineral supplement. Vitamin/mineral supplement use among infants and toddlers was associated with being a first-born child and being reported by the primary caretaker as being a picky eater. Characteristics that were independent predictors of supplement use were living in the Northeast, being male, and living in a household with fewer children. We found no significant differences between supplement

  13. Overestimation of infant and toddler energy intake by 24-h recall compared with weighed food records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jennifer O; Butte, Nancy F; Mendoza, Patricia M; Wilson, Theresa A; Hodges, Eric A; Reidy, Kathleen C; Deming, Denise

    2008-08-01

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls have been used in large surveys of infant and toddler energy intake, but the accuracy of the method for young children is not well documented. We aimed to determine the accuracy of infant and toddler energy intakes by a single, telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-h recall as compared with 3-d weighed food records. A within-subjects design was used in which a 24-h recall and 3-d weighed food records were completed within 2 wk by 157 mothers (56 non-Hispanic white, 51 non-Hispanic black, and 50 Hispanic) of 7-11-mo-old infants or 12-24-mo-old toddlers. Child and caregiver anthropometrics, child eating patterns, and caregiver demographics and social desirability were evaluated as correlates of reporting bias. Intakes based on 3-d weighed food records were within 5% of estimated energy requirements. Compared with the 3-d weighed food records, the 24-h recall overestimated energy intake by 13% among infants (740 +/- 154 and 833 +/- 255 kcal, respectively) and by 29% among toddlers (885 +/- 197 and 1140 +/- 299 kcal, respectively). Eating patterns (ie, frequency and location) did not differ appreciably between methods. Macronutrient and micronutrient intakes were higher by 24-h recall than by 3-d weighed food record. Dairy and grains contributed the most energy to the diet and accounted for 74% and 54% of the overestimation seen in infants and toddlers, respectively. Greater overestimation was associated with a greater number of food items reported by the caregiver and lower child weight-for-length z scores. The use of a single, telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-h recall may significantly overestimate infant or toddler energy and nutrient intakes because of portion size estimation errors.

  14. Parent report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Niss, Nete K; Pejtersen, Jan H; Julian, Megan M; Væver, Mette S

    2017-04-01

    Identifying young children at risk for socio-emotional developmental problems at an early stage, to prevent serious problems later in life, is crucial. Therefore, we need high quality measures to identify those children at risk for social-emotional problems who require further evaluation and intervention. To systematically identify parent report measures of infant and toddler (0-24 months) social-emotional development for use in primary care settings. We conducted a systematic review applying a narrative synthesis approach. We searched Medline, PsychInfo, Embase and SocIndex for articles published from 2008 through September 2015 to identify parent-report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development. Data on the characteristics of the measures, including psychometric data, were collected. Based on 3310 screened articles, we located 242 measures that were screened for eligibility. In all 18 measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development were included. Ten of the measures were developed specifically for measuring social-emotional development, and eight were measures including subscales of social-emotional development. The measures varied with respect to, e.g. the time of publication, number of items, age span, cost and amount of psychometric data available. Several measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development have been developed within the last decade. The majority of psychometric data are available through manuals, not peer-reviewed journals. Although all measures show acceptable reliability, the most comprehensive and psychometrically sound measures are the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional-2, Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment and Child Behaviour Checklist 1½-5. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide CRM conjugate vaccine in infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregnaghi, Miguel; Lopez, Pio; Stamboulian, Daniel; Graña, Gabriela; Odrljin, Tatjana; Bedell, Lisa; Dull, Peter M

    2014-09-01

    This phase III study assessed the safety and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, administered with routine vaccines starting at 2 months of age. Healthy infants received MenACWY-CRM in a two- or three-dose primary infant series plus a single toddler dose. In addition, a two-dose toddler catch-up series was evaluated. Immune responses to MenACWY-CRM were assessed for serum bactericidal activity with human complement (hSBA). Reactogenicity and safety results were collected systematically. After a full infant/toddler series or two-dose toddler catch-up series, MenACWY-CRM elicited immune responses against the four serogroups in 94-100% of subjects. Noninferiority of the two- versus three-dose MenACWY-CRM infant dosing regimen was established for geometric mean titers for all serogroups. Following the three-dose infant primary series, 89-98% of subjects achieved an hSBA ≥ 8 across all serogroups. Immune responses to concomitant routine vaccines given with MenACWY-CRM were noninferior to responses to routine vaccines alone, except for pertactin after the two-dose infant series. Noninferiority criteria were met for all concomitant antigens after the three-dose infant series. MenACWY-CRM vaccination regimens in infants and toddlers were immunogenic and well tolerated. No clinically meaningful effects of concomitant administration with routine infant and toddler vaccines were observed. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Location influences snacking behavior of US infants, toddlers and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquier, Emma F; Deming, Denise M; Eldridge, Alison L

    2018-06-13

    Compare at-home and away-from-home snacking patterns of US infants and young children. A secondary analysis was conducted using nationwide, cross-sectional dietary survey data from the US Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008. The sample included infants (6-11.9 months, n = 505), toddlers (12-23.9 months, n = 925), preschool children (24-47.9 months, n = 1461). Weighted population descriptive statistics (means and standard errors) were calculated using SAS. Significance was determined at P ≤ 0.05. The main outcome measures of the analyses were the percent of children consuming snacks by location (at home, away from home) and snacking period (morning, afternoon and evening), energy and food groups consumed during snacks. Snacking at home was more prevalent than snacking away from home (toddlers, 73% vs 27%; preschoolers, 67% vs 33%). Away-from-home snacks provided about 50 additional calories per day for toddlers (346 vs 298 kcal/day, P ≤ 0.05) and preschoolers (371 vs 326 kcal/day, P ≤ 0.05) versus snacks consumed at home. Caregivers made similar snack choices for toddlers and preschoolers (milk/milk products, fruit/juice, grains and sweets) but differed in frequency of consumption by location. Among toddlers, milk/milk products were the most frequently consumed snacks at home (66%), while sweets were the top snacks consumed away from home (69%). Among preschoolers, sweets were the top snacks both at home (60%) and away (83%). Location is an important factor influencing snacking patterns of young children and should be considered when developing feeding guidelines. This data may be of use in the upcoming development of dietary guidelines in the U.S. for the population aged 0-2 years.

  17. Feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements to assess physical activity in toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accelerometers are considered to be the most promising tool for measuring physical activity (PA in free-living young children. So far, no studies have examined the feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements in children under 3 years of age. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements in toddlers (1- to 3-year olds. Methods Forty-seven toddlers (25 boys; 20 ± 4 months wore a GT1M ActiGraph accelerometer for 6 consecutive days and parental perceptions of the acceptability of wearing the monitor were assessed to examine feasibility. To investigate the validity of the ActiGraph and the predictive validity of three ActiGraph cut points, accelerometer measurements of 31 toddlers (17 boys; 20 ± 4 months during free play at child care were compared to directly observed PA, using the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P. Validity was assessed using Pearson and Spearman correlations and predictive validity using area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC-AUC. Results The feasibility examination indicated that accelerometer measurements of 30 toddlers (63.8% could be included with a mean registration time of 564 ± 62 min during weekdays and 595 ± 83 min during weekend days. According to the parental reports, 83% perceived wearing the accelerometer as 'not unpleasant and not pleasant' and none as 'unpleasant'. The validity evaluation showed that mean ActiGraph activity counts were significantly and positively associated with mean OSRAC-P activity intensity (r = 0.66; p Conclusions The present findings suggest that ActiGraph accelerometer measurements are feasible and valid for quantifying PA in toddlers. However, further research is needed to accurately identify PA intensities in toddlers using accelerometry.

  18. Development of an estimated food record for 9-36-month-old toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, A; Drossard, C; Kersting, M; Alexy, U

    2014-08-01

    Adequacy of dietary intake in the sensitive period of toddler development is a key determinant of health in a short- and long-term perspective. Therefore, studies focussing the nutrition of toddlers are of importance. For this purpose, tailored dietary record methods are an important prerequisite. The objective of this work is to develop a toddler-specific estimated food record (EFR) in a booklet providing photographs of age-specific foods and portion sizes that should be accurate and simple. For a toddler study in Germany, a 7-day consecutive EFR was developed. Data were obtained from a sample of toddlers in Germany. The basis is an evaluation of 3-day weighing food records on food choice and portion size of the DONALD (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed) study for 227 toddlers (118 boys) aged 9-36 months from January 2004 to March 2008. In the analysed food records, a total of 15.147 eating occasions with 24.820 dishes were reported and grouped in 17 food groups. To estimate the portion size, the median consumption amounts of the 194 most frequently consumed dishes were calculated and photographed. Formula and commercial complementary food are collected separately. EFR was structured into seven eating occasions of the day: before breakfast, breakfast, mid-morning, lunch, mid-afternoon, dinner, and before bed. The EFR booklet provides a simple, feasible and validated instrument that can be used to update information on dietary habits during the transition from infant to childhood diet for families in different social classes.

  19. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  20. Giant proximity effect in ferromagnetic bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Silvia; Charlton, Tim; Quintanilla, Jorge; Suter, Andreas; Moodera, Jagadeesh; Prokscha, Thomas; Salman, Zaher; Forgan, Ted

    2013-03-01

    The proximity effect is a phenomenon where an ordered state leaks from a material into an adjacent one over some finite distance, ξ. For superconductors, this distance is ~ the coherence length. Nevertheless much longer-range, ``giant'' proximity effects have been observed in cuprate junctions. This surprising effect can be understood as a consequence of critical opalescence. Since this occurs near all second order phase transitions, giant proximity effects should be very general and, in particular, they should be present in magnetic systems. The ferromagnetic proximity effect has the advantage that its order parameter (magnetization) can be observed directly. We investigate the above phenomenon in Co/EuS bilayer films, where both materials undergo ferromagnetic transitions but at rather different temperatures (bulk TC of 1400K for Co and 16.6K for EuS). A dramatic increase in the range of the proximity effect is expected near the TC of EuS. We present the results of our measurements of the magnetization profiles as a function of temperature, carried out using the complementary techniques of low energy muon rotation and polarized neutron reflectivity. Work supported by EPSRC, STFC and ONR grant N00014-09-1-0177 and NSF grant DMR 0504158.

  1. Subtyping of Toddlers with ASD Based on Patterns of Social Attention Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0179 TITLE: “Subtyping of Toddlers with ASD Based on Patterns of Social Attention Deficits” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE “Subtyping of Toddlers with ASD Based on Patterns of Social Attention Deficits” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0179 5c...proposed project is to elucidate the factors that affect spontaneous dyadic orienting at the earliest stages when ASD can be reliably diagnosed in order

  2. Early vibration assisted physiotherapy in toddlers with cerebral palsy ? a randomized controlled pilot trial

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, C.; Herkenrath, P.; Hollmann, H.; Waltz, S.; Becker, I.; Hoebing, L.; Semler, O.; Hoyer-Kuhn, H.; Duran, I.; Hero, B.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Schoenau, E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to investigate feasibility, safety and efficacy of home-based side-alternating whole body vibration (sWBV) to improve motor function in toddlers with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Randomized controlled trial including 24 toddlers with CP (mean age 19 months (SD?3.1); 13 boys). Intervention: 14 weeks sWBV with ten 9-minute sessions weekly (non-individualized). Group A started with sWBV, followed by 14 weeks without; in group B this order was reversed. Feasibility (?70% adherence) a...

  3. Proximity operations concept design study, task 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. N.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of using optical technology to perform the mission of the proximity operations communications subsystem on Space Station Freedom was determined. Proximity operations mission requirements are determined and the relationship to the overall operational environment of the space station is defined. From this information, the design requirements of the communication subsystem are derived. Based on these requirements, a preliminary design is developed and the feasibility of implementation determined. To support the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and National Space Transportation System, the optical system development is straightforward. The requirements on extra-vehicular activity are such as to allow large fields of uncertainty, thus exacerbating the acquisition problem; however, an approach is given that could mitigate this problem. In general, it is found that such a system could indeed perform the proximity operations mission requirement, with some development required to support extra-vehicular activity.

  4. Endomedullar nail of metacarpal and proximal phalanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Olaya, Francisco Javier; Sanchez Mesa, Pedro Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Prospective study, series of cases; it included patients with diaphysis fractures and union diaphysis-neck or union diaphysis-base of metacarpal and proximal phalanges, in whom was practiced anterograde intramedullary nailing previous closed reduction of the fracture, using prevent intramedullary nail of 1.6 mm. (cem 16) for the metacarpal fractures, and two nail prevent of 1.0 mm. (cem 10) for the proximal phalangeal fractures. Indications: transverse and oblique short fractures, spiral and with comminuting bicortical. Pursuit average is 5.7 months. Frequency surgical intervened patient: 2.2 each month, using this surgical technique a total of 20 (twenty) patients have been operated, 21 (twenty one) fractures; 16 (sixteen) metacarcal fractures and 5 (five) proximal phalangeal fractures, all of them tested using clinical and radiological parameters. Results: good 82%, regular 18%, and bad 0% obtaining bony consolidation and early rehabilitation with incorporation to their habitual works

  5. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2017-09-20

    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  6. Evaluation and Management of Proximal Humerus Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Khmelnitskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal humerus fractures are common injuries, especially among older osteoporotic women. Restoration of function requires a thorough understanding of the neurovascular, musculotendinous, and bony anatomy. This paper addresses the relevant anatomy and highlights various management options, including indication for arthroplasty. In the vast majority of cases, proximal humerus fractures may be treated nonoperatively. In the case of displaced fractures, when surgical intervention may be pursued, numerous constructs have been investigated. Of these, the proximal humerus locking plate is the most widely used. Arthroplasty is generally reserved for comminuted 4-part fractures, head-split fractures, or fractures with significant underlying arthritic changes. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is reserved for patients with a deficient rotator cuff, or highly comminuted tuberosities.

  7. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...... more when the road safety is low; the emergency service is not properly organized, and the nearest hospital has lower quality standards....

  8. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming

    2016-04-14

    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  9. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2015-01-01

    Main arguments: Telemedicine offers unique opportunities to improve the accessibility of health services. It is defined as diagnosis, treatment and monitoring among doctors, nurses and patients separated by spaces, but mediated through information and communication technologies (Mort & May, 2003...... project in 2014 at four hospitals in Copenhagen in relation to 120 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary syndrome. The material embraces 1) 13 transcribed interviews with nurses and medical doctors 2) two plenary sessions with nurses across hospitals, where photos and diaries were discussed 3...... diagnostic work when patients are not physically present (275). Oudshoorn argues that nurses need to learn to calm patients and help them to see the utility of measurements (2008, 279). Langstrup & Winthereik argues that it is pivotal to offer instruction with regard to the application of the technology...

  10. [Partial replantation following proximal limb injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, T; Malikov, S A; Dinh, A; Kupatadze, D D; Oberlin, C; Alnot, J Y; Nabokov, B B

    2000-11-01

    Proximal replantation is a technically feasible but life-threatening procedure. Indications must be restricted to patients in good condition with a good functional prognosis. The goal of replantation must be focused not only on reimplanting the amputated limb but also on achieving a good functional outcome. For the lower limb, simple terminalization remains the best choice in many cases. When a proximal amputation is not suitable for replantation, the main aim of the surgical procedure must be to reconstruct a stump long enough to permit fitting a prosthesis preserving the function of the adjacent joint. If the proximal stump beyond the last joint is very short, it may be possible to restore some length by partial replantation of spared tissues from the amputated part. We present here the results we obtained following this policy. This series included 16 cases of partial replantations, 14 involving the lower limb and 2 the upper limb. All were osteocutaneous microsurgical transfers. For the lower limb, all transfers recovered protective sensitivity following tibial nerve repair. The functional calcaeoplantar unit was used in 13 cases. The transfer of this specialized weight bearing tissue provided a stable distal surface making higher support unnecessary. In one case, we raised a 13-cm vascularized tibial segment covered with foot skin for additional length. For the upper limb, the osteocutaneous transfer, based on the radial artery, was not reinnervated, but this lack of sensitivity did not impair prosthesis fitting. One vascular failure was finally amputated. This was the only unsuccessful result. For all other patients, the surgical procedure facilitated prosthesis fitting and preserved the proximal joint function despite an initially very proximal amputation. The advantages of partial replantation are obvious compared with simple terminalization or secondary reconstruction. There is no secondary donor site and, because there is no major muscle mass in the

  11. Proximity effects in ferromagnet/superconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H.L.; Sun, G.Y.; Yang, L.Y.; Xing, D.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The Nambu spinor Green's function approach is applied to study proximity effects in ferromagnet/superconductor (FM/SC) structures. They include the induced superconducting order parameter and density of states (DOS) with superconducting feature on the FM side, and spin-dependent DOS within the energy gap on the SC side. The latter indicates an appearance of gapless superconductivity and a coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in a small regime near the interface. The influence of exchange energy in FM and barrier strength at interface on the proximity effects is discussed

  12. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  13. Human toddlers' attempts to match two simple behaviors provide no evidence for an inherited, dedicated imitation mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S Jones

    Full Text Available Influential theories of imitation have proposed that humans inherit a neural mechanism - an "active intermodal matching " (AIM mechanism or a mirror neuron system - that functions from birth to automatically match sensory input from others' actions to motor programs for performing those same actions, and thus produces imitation. To test these proposals, 160 1- to 2½-year-old toddlers were asked to imitate two simple movements- bending the arm to make an elbow, and moving the bent elbow laterally. Both behaviors were almost certain to be in each child's repertoire, and the lateral movement was goal-directed (used to hit a plastic cup. Thus, one or both behaviors should have been imitable by toddlers with a functioning AIM or mirror neuron system. Each child saw the two behaviors repeated 18 times, and was encouraged to imitate. Children were also asked to locate their own elbows. Almost no children below age 2 imitated either behavior. Instead, younger children gave clear evidence of a developmental progression, from reproducing only the outcome of the models' movements (hitting the object, through trying (but failing to reproduce the model's arm posture and/or the arm-cup relations they had seen, to accurate imitation of arm bending by age 2 and of both movements by age 2½. Across age levels, almost all children who knew the word 'elbow' imitated both behaviors: very few who did not know the word imitated either behavior. The evidence is most consistent with a view of early imitation as the product of a complex system of language, cognitive, social, and motor competencies that develop in infancy. The findings do not rule out a role for an inherited neural mechanism, but they suggest that such a system would not by itself be sufficient to explain imitation at any age.

  14. Is the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Developmental Screening Test, Valid and Reliable for Persian Speaking Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Farin; Azari, Nadia; Vameghi, Roshanak; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Shahshahani, Soheila; Karimi, Hossein; Kraskian, Adis; Shahrokhi, Amin; Teymouri, Robab; Gharib, Masoud

    2016-10-01

    Advances in perinatal and neonatal care have substantially improved the survival of at-risk infants over the past two decades. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Bayley Scales of infant and toddler developmental Screening test in Persian-speaking children. This was a cross-sectional prospective study of 403 children aged 1 - 42-months. The Bayley scales screening instrument, which consists of five domains (cognitive, receptive, and expressive communication and fine and gross motor items), was used to measure infants' and toddlers' development. The psychometric properties examined included the face and content validity of the scale, in addition to cultural and linguistic modifications to the scale and its test-retest and inter-rater reliability. An expert team changed some of the test items relating to cultural and linguistic issues. In almost all the age groups, cultural or linguistic changes were made to items in the communication domains. According to Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency, the reliability of the cognitive scale was r = 0.79, and the reliability of the receptive scale was r = 0.76. The reliability for expressive communication, fine motor, and gross motor scales was r = 0.81, r = 0.80, and r = 0.81, respectively. The construct validity of the tests was confirmed using a factor analysis and comparison of the mean scores of the age groups. The intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of the Bayley Scales were good-to-excellent. The results indicated that the Bayley Scales had a high level of reliability in the present study. Thus, the scale can be used in a Persian population.

  15. Parental knowledge, beliefs and behaviours for oral health of toddlers residing in rural Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussy, M G; Waters, E B; Riggs, E M; Lo, S K; Kilpatrick, N M

    2008-03-01

    Little is known about the oral health of children under the age of four years. The determinants of early childhood caries (ECC) in this young age group are also not well understood despite a growing recognition that early interventions may deliver the greatest benefits. The aim of this study was to examine the oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and reported behaviours of parents of children aged 12-24 months living in rural areas of Victoria, Australia. A robust theoretical model was utilized to identify oral health-related behaviours and their antecedent and reinforcing conditions within the context of this specific population group. Two hundred and ninety-four parent/child dyads were recruited through their maternal and child health nurses as part of a larger intervention trial. Parents completed a self-report questionnaire. Knowledge regarding risk and protective factors amongst parents was variable and sometimes at odds with contemporary evidence. Knowledge of the role of early infection with S. mutans was very low, with high levels of behaviours that may promote early transmission reported. Tooth cleaning was reported by most parents at least sometimes, however a large proportion lacked confidence and this was significantly related to the frequency of the cleaning. Parents were confused about the fluoride status of their water supplies. Most parents believed fluoride toothpaste reduced the risk of ECC but did not know whether it should be used with toddlers. The results of this study have implications for efforts to prevent dental decay in this very young age group. Health care professionals other than dentists need support to provide information and promote confidence with regard to optimal fluoride exposure. Attention should also be given to the contribution of early contact with particular bacteria in oral health education and promotion programmes.

  16. The proximal experience of gratitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Layous

    Full Text Available Although a great deal of research has tested the longitudinal effects of regularly practicing gratitude, much less attention has been paid to the emotional landscape directly following engagement in gratitude exercises. In three studies, we explored the array of discrete emotions people experience after being prompted to express or recall gratitude. In Studies 1 and 2, two different gratitude exercises produced not only greater feelings of gratitude relative to two positive emotion control conditions (i.e., recalling relief, but also higher levels of other socially relevant states like elevation, connectedness, and indebtedness. In a third study, conducted in both the U.S. and S. Korea, we compared a gratitude exercise to another positive emotion elicitation (i.e., recalling a kind act and to a neutral task, and again found that the gratitude exercise prompted greater gratitude, elevation, indebtedness, and guilt, but no more embarrassment or shame, than the two comparison conditions. Additionally, in all three studies, emodiversity and cluster analyses revealed that gratitude exercises led to the simultaneous experience of both pleasant and unpleasant socially-relevant states. In sum, although it may seem obvious that gratitude exercises would evoke grateful, positive states, a meta-analysis of our three studies revealed that gratitude exercises actually elicit a mixed emotional experience-one that simultaneously leads individuals to feel uplifted and indebted.

  17. The proximal experience of gratitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layous, Kristin; Sweeny, Kate; Armenta, Christina; Na, Soojung; Choi, Incheol; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Although a great deal of research has tested the longitudinal effects of regularly practicing gratitude, much less attention has been paid to the emotional landscape directly following engagement in gratitude exercises. In three studies, we explored the array of discrete emotions people experience after being prompted to express or recall gratitude. In Studies 1 and 2, two different gratitude exercises produced not only greater feelings of gratitude relative to two positive emotion control conditions (i.e., recalling relief), but also higher levels of other socially relevant states like elevation, connectedness, and indebtedness. In a third study, conducted in both the U.S. and S. Korea, we compared a gratitude exercise to another positive emotion elicitation (i.e., recalling a kind act) and to a neutral task, and again found that the gratitude exercise prompted greater gratitude, elevation, indebtedness, and guilt, but no more embarrassment or shame, than the two comparison conditions. Additionally, in all three studies, emodiversity and cluster analyses revealed that gratitude exercises led to the simultaneous experience of both pleasant and unpleasant socially-relevant states. In sum, although it may seem obvious that gratitude exercises would evoke grateful, positive states, a meta-analysis of our three studies revealed that gratitude exercises actually elicit a mixed emotional experience-one that simultaneously leads individuals to feel uplifted and indebted.

  18. Vocabulary used by ethno-linguistically diverse South African toddlers: a parent report using the language development survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonasillan, A; Bornman, J; Harty, M

    2013-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to ascertain the relevance of the vocabulary of the Language Development Survey (LDS) for typically developing South African toddlers who attend ethno-linguistically diverse early childhood development centres. The need for exploration of the expressive vocabulary of this population stems from the diverse linguistic contexts to which toddlers are exposed on a day-to-day basis in South Africa. Many parents prefer English as the language of learning and teaching for their child. As a result, toddlers interact with ethno-linguistically diverse peers from a young age, usually within their early childhood development centres. An adapted version of the LDS was presented to 40 middle-class parents in Mpumalanga. Vocabulary commonly used by toddlers was determined and a comparison of parent responses made between the present study and the original American-based survey. Results revealed that nouns were used most often by toddlers, in keeping with research on vocabulary acquisition. Significant correlations between the two groups were evident in 12 of the 14 categories. Parents reported that nouns, verbs, adjectives and words from other word classes were used similarly by toddlers, despite differences in their linguistic exposure. These findings suggest that the LDS is a valuable clinical screening tool for speech-language therapists who deliver services to toddlers within the South African context.

  19. Disruption of the proximal tibiofibular joint in the setting of multi-ligament knee injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrino, Jack A. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, 4245 Roosevelt Way NE, Box 354755, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is a relatively uncommon condition when in isolation; however, instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is far more frequent in those presenting with a severe multi-ligament injury of the knee. If this joint is left unstable, repair of a co-existent injury of the posterolateral corner may fail, regardless of the proficiency of the technique. We present two patients with disruption of the proximal tibiofibular joint, including the MRI appearance, who initially presented to our hospital for management of significant polytrauma, as well as multi-ligament injury of the ipsilateral knee. (orig.)

  20. Disruption of the proximal tibiofibular joint in the setting of multi-ligament knee injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porrino, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    Instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is a relatively uncommon condition when in isolation; however, instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is far more frequent in those presenting with a severe multi-ligament injury of the knee. If this joint is left unstable, repair of a co-existent injury of the posterolateral corner may fail, regardless of the proficiency of the technique. We present two patients with disruption of the proximal tibiofibular joint, including the MRI appearance, who initially presented to our hospital for management of significant polytrauma, as well as multi-ligament injury of the ipsilateral knee. (orig.)

  1. Examining the link between women’s exposure to stressful life events prior to conception and infant and toddler health: The role of birthweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Erika R.; Park, Hyojun; Wisk, Lauren E.; Mandell, Kara C.; Wakeel, Fathima; Litzelman, Kristin; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The lifecourse perspective suggests a pathway may exist among maternal exposure to stressful life events prior to conception (PSLEs), infant birthweight, and subsequent offspring health, whereby PLSEs are part of a “chains-of-risk” that set children on a certain health pathway. No prior study has examined the link between PSLEs and offspring health in a nationally-representative sample of US mothers and their children. We used longitudinal, nationally-representative data to evaluate the relation between maternal exposure to PSLEs and subsequent measures of infant and toddler health, taking both maternal and obstetric characteristics into account. Methods We examined 6,900 mother-child dyads participating in two waves of the nationally-representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n=6,900). Infant and toddler health outcomes assessed at 9 and 24 months included overall health status, special health care needs, and severe health conditions. Adjusted path analyses examined associations between PSLEs, birthweight, and child health outcomes. Results In adjusted analyses, PSLEs increased the risk for very low birthweight (VLBW, <1,500 grams), which, in turn, predicted poor health at both 9 and 24 months of age. Path analyses demonstrated that PSLEs had small indirect effects on children’s subsequent health that operated through VLBW. Conclusion Our analysis suggests a chains-of-risk model in which women’s exposure to PSLEs increases the risk for giving birth to a VLBW infant, which, in turn, adversely affects infant and toddler health. Addressing women’s preconception health may have important downstream benefits for their children, although more research is needed to replicate these findings. PMID:26500337

  2. Cross-cultural differences in infant and toddler sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jodi A; Sadeh, Avi; Wiegand, Benjamin; How, Ti Hwei; Goh, Daniel Y T

    2010-03-01

    To characterize cross-cultural sleep patterns and sleep problems in a large sample of children ages birth to 36 months in multiple predominantly-Asian (P-A) and predominantly-Caucasian (P-C) countries. Parents of 29,287 infants and toddlers (predominantly-Asian countries/regions: China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam; predominantly-Caucasian countries: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, United States) completed an internet-based expanded version of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Overall, children from P-A countries had significantly later bedtimes, shorter total sleep times, increased parental perception of sleep problems, and were more likely to both bed-share and room-share than children from P-C countries, p<.001. Bedtimes ranged from 19:27 (New Zealand) to 22:17 (Hong Kong) and total sleep time from 11.6 (Japan) to 13.3 (New Zealand) hours, p<.0001. There were limited differences in daytime sleep. Bed-sharing with parents ranged from 5.8% in New Zealand to 83.2% in Vietnam. There was also a wide range in the percentage of parents who perceived that their child had a sleep problem (11% in Thailand to 76% in China). Overall, children from predominantly-Asian countries had significantly later bedtimes, shorter total sleep times, increased parental perception of sleep problems, and were more likely to room-share than children from predominantly-Caucasian countries/regions. These results indicate substantial differences in sleep patterns in young children across culturally diverse countries/regions. Further studies are needed to understand the basis for and impact of these interesting differences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [RESEARCH PROGRESS OF BIOMECHANICS OF PROXIMAL ROW CARPAL INSTABILITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinhai; Huang, Fuguo

    2015-01-01

    To review the research progress of the biomechanics of proximal row carpal instability (IPRC). The related literature concerning IPRC was extensively reviewed. The biomechanical mechanism of the surrounding soft tissue in maintaining the stability of the proximal row carpal (PRC) was analyzed, and the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of the PRC were summarized from two aspects including basic biomechanics and clinical biomechanics. The muscles and ligaments of the PRC are critical to its stability. Most scholars have reached a consensus about biomechanical mechanism of the PRC, but there are still controversial conclusions on the biomechanics mechanism of the surrounding soft tissue to stability of distal radioulnar joint when the triangular fibrocartilage complex are damaged and the biomechanics mechanism of the scapholunate ligament. At present, there is no unified standard about the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of the PRC. So, it is difficult for clinical practice. Some strides have been made in the basic biomechanical study on muscle and ligament and clinical biomechanical study on the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of PRC, but it will be needed to further study the morphology of carpal articular surface and the adjacent articular surface, the pressure of distal carpals to proximal carpal and so on.

  4. Reduced Insulin Receptor Expression Enhances Proximal Tubule Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaurav; Shankar, Kripa; Makhija, Ekta; Gaikwad, Anil; Ecelbarger, Carolyn; Mandhani, Anil; Srivastava, Aneesh; Tiwari, Swasti

    2017-02-01

    Reduced insulin receptor protein levels have been reported in the kidney cortex from diabetic humans and animals. We recently reported that, targeted deletion of insulin receptor (IR) from proximal tubules (PT) resulted in hyperglycemia in non-obese mice. To elucidate the mechanism, we examined human proximal tubule cells (hPTC) and C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD, 60% fat for 20 weeks). Immunoblotting revealed a significantly lower protein level of IR in HFD compare to normal chow diet (NCD). Furthermore, a blunted rise in p-AKT 308 levels in the kidney cortex of HFD mice was observed in response to acute insulin (0.75 IU/kg body weight, i.p) relative to NCD n = 8/group, P gluconeogenesis. Transcript levels of the gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK were significantly increased in cAMP/DEXA-stimulated hPTC cells (n = 3, P gluconeogenesis and PEPCK induction was significantly attenuated in IR (siRNA) silenced hPTC (n = 3, P gluconeogenesis. Thus reduced insulin signaling of the proximal tubule may contribute to hyperglycemia in the metabolic syndrome via elevated gluconeogenesis. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 276-285, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Links between casino proximity and gambling participation, expenditure, and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévigny, Serge; Ladouceur, Robert; Jacques, Christian; Cantinotti, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Two studies investigated the relationship between casino proximity and gambling participation, expenditure, and pathology. In Study 1, 8,842 participants were categorized into 1 of 4 driving distances from their home to the nearest casino in the province of Quebec: 0-100 km, 100.01-200 km, 200.01-300 km, or 300.01-981 km. In Study 2, 5,158 participants, who lived within a 100-km driving distance from the Montreal casino, were classified into 1 of 5 equidistant, 20-km driving distances. A survey company interviewed participants regarding their gambling habits. Results indicated a positive link between casino proximity and gambling participation (at the provincial and Montreal levels) and expenditure (at the provincial level only) but no link with the current prevalence rate of probable pathological gambling or of problem gambling. In a setting in which many types of gambling activities are available, casino proximity in itself does not appear to explain the rate of gambling-related problems. It is necessary to continue prospective research on exposure and adaptation theories as potential explanations for the development of pathological gambling. 2008 APA

  6. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  7. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  8. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  9. Modified Koyanagi Technique in Management of Proximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xp

    Modified Koyanagi Technique in Management of Proximal Hypospadias. Adham Elsaied, Basem Saied, and Mohammed El- ... All operations were performed by the authors,using fine instruments and under 3.5X loupe ... the other needed an operation to close the fistula six months later. The case with meatal recession had ...

  10. Proximity focusing RICH with TOF capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpar, S.; Adachi, I.; Fujita, K.; Fukushima, T.; Gorisek, A.; Hayashi, D.; Iijima, T.; Ikado, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawai, H.; Kozakai, Y.; Krizan, P.; Kuratani, A.; Mazuka, Y.; Nakagawa, T.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Seki, T.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Unno, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A proximity focusing RICH counter with a multi-channel micro-channel plate (MCP) PMT was tested as a time-of-flight counter. Cherenkov photons emitted in the radiator medium as well as in the entrance window of the PMT were used for the time-of-flight measurement, and an excellent performance of the counter could be demonstrated

  11. Proximate composition and mycological characterization of peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: The aim of this work was to contribute to the food safety of Ivorian consumers by investigating the proximate composition and the toxic fungal contamination of peanut butters offered for retail sale on the different markets of Abidjan. Methodology and results: Peanut butter samples (45) ...

  12. Prosthetic replacement for proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontakis, George; Tosounidis, Theodoros; Galanakis, Ioannis; Megas, Panagiotis

    2008-12-01

    The ideal management of complex proximal humeral fractures continues to be debatable. Evolution of proximal humeral fracture management, during the past decade, led to the implementation of many innovations in surgical treatment. Even though the pendulum of treatment seems to swing towards new trends such as locked plating, hemiarthroplasty remains a valid and reliable option that serves the patient's needs well. Hemiarthroplasty is indicated for complex proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients with poor bone stock and when internal fixation is difficult or unreliable. Hemiarthroplasty provides a better result when it is performed early post-injury. Stem height, retroversion and tuberosity positioning are technical aspects of utmost importance. Additionally reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is an alternative new modality that can be used as a primary solution in selected patients with proximal humeral fracture treatment. Failed hemiarthroplasty and fracture sequelae can be successfully managed with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Individual decision-making and tailored treatment that takes into consideration the personality of the fracture and the patient's characteristics should be used.

  13. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the phytochemical screening showed that alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present, while reducing sugars, tannins, oils and acid compounds were absent. Similarly, the results of the proximate analysis of the rhizome showed that ginger ...

  14. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  15. Sodium, sugar, and fat content of complementary infant and toddler foods sold in the United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Joyce; Cogswell, Mary E; Bates, Marlana; Yuan, Keming; Scanlon, Kelley S; Pehrsson, Pamela; Gunn, Janelle P; Merritt, Robert K

    2017-06-01

    Background: As part of a healthy diet, limiting intakes of excess sodium, added sugars, saturated fat, and trans fat has been recommended. The American Heart Association recommends that children aged sugars. Objective: We sought to determine commercial complementary infant-toddler food categories that were of potential concern because of the sodium, added sugar, saturated fat, or trans fat content. Design: Nutrition label information (e.g., serving size, sodium, saturated fat, trans fat) for 1032 infant and toddler foods was collected from manufacturers' websites and stores from May to July 2015 for 24 brands, which accounted for >95% of infant-toddler food sales. The presence of added sugars was determined from the ingredient list. Reference amount customarily consumed (RACC) categories were used to group foods and standardize serving sizes. A high sodium content was evaluated on the basis of the Upper Intake Level for children aged 1-3 y and the number of potential servings per day ([i.e., 1500 mg/7 servings (>210 mg/RACC)], a sodium amount >200 mg/100 g, or a mean sodium density >1000 mg/1000 kcal. Results: In 2015, most commercial infant-only vegetables, fruit, dinners, and cereals were low in sodium, contained no saturated fat, and did not contain added sugars. On average, toddler meals contained 2233 mg Na/1000 kcal, and 84% of the meals had >210 mg Na/RACC (170 g), whereas 69% of infant-toddler savory snacks had >200 mg Na/100 g. More than 70% of toddler meals, cereal bars and breakfast pastries, and infant-toddler grain- or dairy-based desserts contained ≥1 sources of added sugar. Approximately 70% of toddler meals contained saturated fat (mean: 1.9 g/RACC), and no commercial infant-toddler foods contained trans fats. Conclusion: Most commercial toddler meals, cereal bars and breakfast pastries, and infant-toddler snacks and desserts have high sodium contents or contain added sugars, suggesting a need for continued public health efforts to support parents

  16. Proximal Humerus Fractures: Evaluation and Management in the Elderly Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Proximal humerus fractures are common in the elderly. The evaluation and management of these injuries is often controversial. The purpose of this study is to review recent evidence and provide updated recommendations for treating proximal humerus fractures in the elderly. Methods: A literature review of peer-reviewed publications related to the evaluation and management of proximal humerus fractures in the elderly was performed. There was a focus on randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews published within the last 5 years. Results: The incidence of proximal humerus fractures is increasing. It is a common osteoporotic fracture. Bone density is a predictor of reduction quality and can be readily assessed with anteroposterior views of the shoulder. Social independence is a predictor of outcome, whereas age is not. Many fractures are minimally displaced and respond acceptably to nonoperative management. Displaced and severe fractures are most frequently treated operatively with intramedullary nails, locking plates, percutaneous techniques, or arthroplasty. Discussion: Evidence from randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews is insufficient to recommend a treatment; however, most techniques have acceptable or good outcomes. Evaluation should include an assessment of the patient’s bone quality, social independence, and surgical risk factors. With internal fixation, special attention should be paid to medial comminution, varus angulation, and restoration of the calcar. With arthroplasty, attention should be paid to anatomic restoration of the tuberosities and proper placement of the prosthesis. Conclusion: A majority of minimally displaced fractures can be treated conservatively with early physical therapy. Treatment for displaced fractures should consider the patient’s level of independence, bone quality, and surgical risk factors. Fixation with percutaneous techniques, intramedullary nails, locking plates, and arthroplasty are all

  17. Residential proximity to major roads and obstetrical complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Naruse, Hiroo; Kashima, Saori; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to air pollution is linked with an increased risk of preterm births. To provide further evidence on this relationship, we evaluated the association between proximity to major roads--as an index for air pollution exposure--and various obstetrical complications. Data were extracted from a database maintained by the perinatal hospital in Shizuoka, Japan. We restricted the analysis to mothers with singleton pregnancies of more than 22 weeks of gestation from 1997 to 2012 (n=19,077). Using the geocoded residential information, each mother was assigned proximity to major roads. We then estimated multivariate adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the effects of proximity to major roads on various obstetrical complications (preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, placenta abruption, placenta previa, preterm premature rupture of membrane (pPROM), preterm labor, and preterm births). We found positive associations of proximity to major roads with preeclampsia and pPROM. Living within 200 m increased the odds of preeclampsia by 1.3 times (95% CI, 1.0-1.8) and pPROM by 1.6 times (95% CI, 1.1-2.2). Furthermore, living within 200 m increased the odds of preterm births by 1.4 fold (95% CI, 1.2-1.7). Exposure to traffic-related air pollution increased the risk of preeclampsia and pPROM in this study. We propose a mechanism responsible for the association between air pollution and preterm births. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Singing as Language Learning Activity in Multilingual Toddler Groups in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultti, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This research focused on learning conditions in preschool that support multilingual children's linguistic development. The aim of this paper was to study singing activities through the experiences of ten multilingual children in toddler groups (one to three years of age) in eight Swedish preschools. A sociocultural theoretical approach is used to…

  19. Across the Great Divide: Bridging the Gap between Understanding of Toddlers' and Older Children's Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed 1.5- and 2.5-year-olds' problem solving and learning. Found that changes in toddlers' strategies could be assessed reliably on a trial-by-trial basis, that changes followed the basic form predicted by the overlapping waves model, and that analyses could reveal information about the qualitative and quantitative aspects of their learning.…

  20. Speech and language development in toddlers with and without cleft palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priester, G. H.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S. M.

    Objective: The effect of early palate closure on speech and language development in children with cleft palate. Design: Comparative study. Setting: University Medical Center Groningen, Cleft Palate Team (The Netherlands). Materials and methods: Forty-three toddlers with cleft palate and thirty-two

  1. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  2. Toddlers' Word Learning from Contingent and Noncontingent Video on Touch Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Choi, Koeun; Pempek, Tiffany A.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers examined whether contingent experience using a touch screen increased toddlers' ability to learn a word from video. One hundred and sixteen children (24-36 months) watched an on-screen actress label an object: (a) without interacting, (b) with instructions to touch "anywhere" on the screen, or (c) with instructions to touch a…

  3. The Ghost in the Touchscreen: Social Scaffolds Promote Learning by Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Laura; Moser, Alecia; Lee, Herietta; Gerhardstein, Peter; Barr, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a "ghost" demonstration on toddlers' imitation. In the "ghost" condition, virtual pieces moved to make a fish or boat puzzle. Fifty-two 2.5- and 3-year-olds were tested on a touchscreen (no transfer) or with 3D pieces (transfer); children tested with 3D pieces scored above a no demonstration…

  4. Information Processing in Toddlers: Continuity from Infancy and Persistence of Preterm Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2009-01-01

    The present report assesses information processing in the toddler years (24 and 36 months), using a cohort of preterms (less than 1750 g) and full-terms initially seen in infancy. The children received a battery of tasks tapping 11 specific abilities from four domains--memory, processing speed, attention, and representational competence. The same…

  5. Disturbed sleep and activity in toddlers with early signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anne Katrine F.; Asmussen, Jette; Pedersen, Nadia S.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated whether early signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in toddlers aged 2-3 years are associated with disturbed sleep and activity levels. Participants were recruited from the Odense Child Cohort, and children scoring above the 93rd percentile on the ADHD...

  6. The Effects of Sensory Processing and Behavior of Toddlers on Parent Participation: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaLomba, Elaina; Baxter, Mary Frances; Fingerhut, Patricia; O'Donnell, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Occupational therapists treat children with sensory processing and behavioral concerns, however, little information exists on how these issues affect parent participation. This pilot study examined the sensory processing and behaviors of toddlers with developmental delays and correlated these with parents' perceived ability to participate in…

  7. Music and Sign Language to Promote Infant and Toddler Communication and Enhance Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Cynthia; Memmott, Jenny; Meeker-Miller, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using music and/or sign language to promote early communication in infants and toddlers (6-20 months) and to enhance parent-child interactions. Three groups used for this study were pairs of participants (care-giver(s) and child) assigned to each group: 1) Music Alone 2) Sign Language…

  8. A mathematical learning journey of toddlers in a multilingual environment: the case of Danesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Zetra Hainul

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to present how Danesh, a toddler who moved from Indonesia to Denmark at the age of one and a half years, learned rote counting in three different languages: Indonesian, English, and Danish. Her mathematical learning journey was observed from the first time she moved to Denmark until...

  9. Kinematics in newly walking toddlers does not depend upon postural stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanenko, Yuri P; Dominici, Nadia; Cappellini, Germana; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    When a toddler starts to walk without support, gait kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity differ from those of older children and the body displays considerable oscillations due to poor equilibrium. Postural instability clearly affects motor patterns in adults, but does instability explain

  10. Early Temperament and Attachment Security with Mothers and Fathers as Predictors of Toddler Compliance and Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Ekas, Naomi V.; Zentall, Shannon R.; Oshio, Toko; Planalp, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study (n?=?106) examined associations between temperament, attachment, and styles of compliance and noncompliance. Infant negative temperamental reactivity was reported by mothers at 3, 5 and 7?months. Infant attachment was assessed (Strange Situation) at 12 (mothers) and 14?months (fathers). Toddlers' styles of…

  11. Infant-Parent Attachment and Parental and Child Behavior during Parent-Toddler Storybook Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Cynthia A.; Cox, Martha J.; Goldman, Barbara Davis

    2001-01-01

    Examined longitudinal associations between infant-parent attachment and parent/toddler behavior during storybook interaction. Found that infants with insecure-resistant attachment with mothers were less enthusiastic and focused during storybook interaction at 24 months. Mothers of insecure-resistant infants were less warm/supportive, and less…

  12. Sleep, biological stress, and health among toddlers living in socioeconomically disadvantaged homes: A research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Monica R; Sadler, Lois S; Canapari, Craig A; Jeon, Sangchoon; Redeker, Nancy S

    2017-12-01

    Healthy sleep is important to behavioral, neurobiological, and physiologic health. In older children and adults, stress biomarkers, such as cortisol and C-reactive protein, increase when they do not practice healthy sleep habits. However, little is known about the relationships among sleep health, stress, and health outcomes among very young children living with socioeconomic adversity, a group that is particularly at risk for poor future health. The NIH-funded study described in this protocol addresses this scientific gap to improve understanding of these relationships during a critical developmental period in children's lives-toddlerhood. We will use a longitudinal design with repeated measures to prospectively examine the relationships among sleep health, stress, and toddlers' health from age 12 to 24 months, to address the following aims: i) examine changes in subjective and objective sleep health measures; ii) examine changes in stress biomarkers; iii) examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between sleep health measures and stress response; and iv) examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between sleep health measures, stress biomarkers, and toddlers' behavioral health. The sample will include 113 toddlers and their caregivers. We are collecting subjective and objective data on sleep health, multi-systemic biomarkers of stress, and toddlers' behavioral health. Generalized linear models will be used in the data analyses. Results from this study will be used to support development and testing of interventions, such as those that may improve sleep, among young children at risk for toxic stress. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Interactional Quality Depicted in Infant and Toddler Videos: Where Are the Interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Susan K.; Barr, Rachel; Brey, Elizabeth; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Ryan, Maureen; Calvert, Sandra L.; Shwery, Clay E.; Linebarger, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the social-emotional content and the quality of social interactions depicted in a sample of 58 DVDs marketed towards infants and toddlers. Infant-directed videos rarely used social interactions between caregiver and child or between peers to present content. Even when videos explicitly targeted social-emotional content,…

  14. Adaptations Supporting Relationships between Parents with Physical Disabilities and Their Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshbaum, Megan

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on a disability culture-based organization's process of addressing baby care adaptation issues of parents with physical disabilities and their babies and toddlers. The author describes the role of teamwork between infant mental health specialists and occupational therapists, application in custody situations, and public policy…

  15. Vocabulary Development at Home: A Multimedia Elaborated Picture Supporting Parent-Toddler Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremmen, M. C.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Some children enter elementary school with large vocabulary delays, which negatively influence their later school performance. A rich home language environment can support vocabulary development through frequent high-quality parent-toddler interaction. Elaborated picture home activities can support this rich home language environment. This study…

  16. Parent Alcohol Problems and Peer Bullying and Victimization: Child Gender and Toddler Attachment Security as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Colder, Craig R.; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Edwards, Ellen P.; Orrange-Torchia, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between parents' alcoholism and peer bullying and victimization in middle childhood in 162 community-recruited families (80 girls and 82 boys) with and without alcohol problems. Toddler-mother attachment was assessed at 18 months of child age, and child reports of peer bullying and victimization were obtained in…

  17. Family-Level Coparenting Processes and Child Gender as Moderators of Family Stress and Toddler Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Amy M.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this multi-method study was to examine how child gender and coparenting processes influence associations between family stress and toddlers' social adjustment. The participants, 104 dual-earner couples and their 2-year-old children, were videotaped in their home during a freeplay activity. Mothers and fathers completed questionnaires…

  18. The Role of Book Familiarity and Book Type on Mothers' Reading Strategies and Toddlers' Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kathryn L.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how maternal reading strategies and book type would impact on toddlers' responsiveness as they became familiar with three books. Eleven mothers and their 2- to 3-year-olds were recorded reading the same set of three different books (i.e. word book, narrative book and no narrative book) on four…

  19. Let's Get Messy!: Exploring Sensory and Art Activities with Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Trudi; Luckenbill, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Infant/toddler teachers take a child-centered, emergent approach, meaning that they observe the children at play, ask themselves what they are interested in learning, and design developmentally appropriate curricula to meet and extend those interests. This curriculum development technique leads to "possibilities for the child to develop deeper…

  20. Predictors of Change in Stress, Interaction Styles, and Depression in Parents of Toddlers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocchio, Jennie S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of change in parental stress (including parent and child factors), depression, and interaction style in parents of toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), exposed to two types of early intervention (EI) programs, PLAY and Community Standard (CS). This study utilized secondary data of…