WorldWideScience

Sample records for proximity recording sliders

  1. Silicon nitride gradient film as the underlayer of ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon overcoat for magnetic recording slider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guigen, E-mail: wanggghit@yahoo.com [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Kuang Xuping; Zhang Huayu; Zhu Can [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Han Jiecai [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Zuo Hongbo [Center for Composite Materials, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Ma Hongtao [SAE Technologies Development (Dongguan) Co., Ltd., Dongguan 523087 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ultra-thin carbon films with different silicon nitride (Si-N) film underlayers were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It highlighted the influences of Si-N underlayers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbon films with Si-N underlayers obtained by nitriding especially at the substrate bias of -150 V, can exhibit better corrosion protection properties - Abstract: There are higher technical requirements for protection overcoat of magnetic recording slider used in high-density storage fields for the future. In this study, silicon nitride (Si-N) composition-gradient films were firstly prepared by nitriding of silicon thin films pre-sputtered on silicon wafers and magnetic recording sliders, using microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source. The ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films were then deposited on the Si-N films by filtered cathodic vacuum arc method. Compared with amorphous carbon overcoats with conventional silicon underlayers, the overcoats with Si-N underlayers obtained by plasma nitriding especially at the substrate bias of -150 V, can provide better corrosion protection for high-density magnetic recording sliders.

  2. Silicon nitride gradient film as the underlayer of ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon overcoat for magnetic recording slider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guigen; Kuang Xuping; Zhang Huayu; Zhu Can; Han Jiecai; Zuo Hongbo; Ma Hongtao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The ultra-thin carbon films with different silicon nitride (Si-N) film underlayers were prepared. ► It highlighted the influences of Si-N underlayers. ► The carbon films with Si-N underlayers obtained by nitriding especially at the substrate bias of −150 V, can exhibit better corrosion protection properties - Abstract: There are higher technical requirements for protection overcoat of magnetic recording slider used in high-density storage fields for the future. In this study, silicon nitride (Si-N) composition-gradient films were firstly prepared by nitriding of silicon thin films pre-sputtered on silicon wafers and magnetic recording sliders, using microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source. The ultra-thin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films were then deposited on the Si-N films by filtered cathodic vacuum arc method. Compared with amorphous carbon overcoats with conventional silicon underlayers, the overcoats with Si-N underlayers obtained by plasma nitriding especially at the substrate bias of −150 V, can provide better corrosion protection for high-density magnetic recording sliders.

  3. Nanoscale roughness contact in a slider-disk interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei; Liu, Bo; Yu, Shengkai; Zhou, Weidong

    2009-07-15

    The nanoscale roughness contact between molecularly smooth surfaces of a slider-disk interface in a hard disk drive is analyzed, and the lubricant behavior at very high shear rate is presented. A new contact model is developed to study the nanoscale roughness contact behavior by classifying various forms of contact into slider-lubricant contact, slider-disk elastic contact and plastic contact. The contact pressure and the contact probabilities of the three types of contact are investigated. The new contact model is employed to explain and provide insight to an interesting experimental result found in a thermal protrusion slider. The protrusion budget for head surfing in the lubricant, which is the ideal state for contact recording, is also discussed.

  4. Nanoscale roughness contact in a slider-disk interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Wei; Liu Bo; Yu Shengkai; Zhou Weidong

    2009-01-01

    The nanoscale roughness contact between molecularly smooth surfaces of a slider-disk interface in a hard disk drive is analyzed, and the lubricant behavior at very high shear rate is presented. A new contact model is developed to study the nanoscale roughness contact behavior by classifying various forms of contact into slider-lubricant contact, slider-disk elastic contact and plastic contact. The contact pressure and the contact probabilities of the three types of contact are investigated. The new contact model is employed to explain and provide insight to an interesting experimental result found in a thermal protrusion slider. The protrusion budget for head surfing in the lubricant, which is the ideal state for contact recording, is also discussed.

  5. Fundamental study on a thin-film ae sensor for measurement of behavior of a multi-pad contact slider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imai, S.; Burger, G.J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    To study the fundamental dynamic characteristics of a multi-pad slider for contact recording, we developed a thin-film piezoelectric acoustic emission array sensor on an Si-suspension with an array pattern similar to that of contact pads. Experiments showed that the sensitivity of the sensor is

  6. Evaluation of rebound tonometry in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cherlene; Mans, Christoph; McLellan, Gillian J; Bentley, Ellison; Sladky, Kurt K; Miller, Paul E

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate feasibility and accuracy of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement by rebound tonometry in adult red-eared slider turtles and determine the effects of manual and chemical restraint on IOP. Seventeen adult red-eared slider turtles. Intraocular pressure was measured with TonoLab® and TonoVet® tonometers in conscious, unrestrained turtles. To evaluate the effects of manual restraint, turtles were restrained by digital pressure on the rostral head or proximal neck. The effect of two chemical restraint protocols (dexmedetomidine, ketamine, midazolam [DKM] and dexmedetomidine, ketamine [DK] subcutaneously) on IOP was evaluated. Triplicate TonoLab® and TonoVet® readings were compared with direct manometry in three ex vivo turtle eyes. TonoLab® correlated better with manometry at IOPs < 45 mmHg than TonoVet® (linear regression slopes of 0.89 and 0.30, respectively). Mean (±SD) IOP in unrestrained conscious turtles was significantly lower (P < 0.01) with TonoLab® (10.02 ± 0.66 mmHg) than with TonoVet® (11.32 ± 1.57 mmHg). Manual neck restraint caused a significant increase in IOP (+6.31 ± 5.59 mmHg), while manual rostral head restraint did not. Both chemical restraint protocols significantly reduced IOP (DKM: −1.0 ± 0.76 mmHg; DK: −1.79 ± 1.17) compared with measurements in conscious unrestrained turtles. Chemical and manual neck restraint affected IOP. Rostral head restraint had no significant effect on IOP and is, therefore, recommended as the appropriate restraint technique in red-eared slider turtles. TonoLab® measurements estimated actual IOP more accurately, within physiologic range, than measurements obtained using the TonoVet®. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Characterization of sliders for efficient force generation of electrostatically controlled linear actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T A; Konishi, S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the characterization of sliders for efficient force generation of an electrostatically controlled linear actuator (ECLIA) is investigated. The ECLIA consists of a piezoactuator (PZT), driving and holding electrodes, multiple sliders and a guide structure. The stepping motion of the sliders is driven by the PZT actuator via an electrostatic clutch mechanism. Thus, multiple sliders can achieve parallel, independent, precise motion, and a large stroke. Previous studies have indicated that the Si bulk slider and Si electrode created an air gap owing to the deformation of the Si electrode. Thus, the Si slider generated a low pushing force. In this study, we propose a fishbone structure mounted on a flexible slider to enhance the pushing force of the slider. The flexible slider, that can deform and fit into the Si electrode to reduce the air gap, results in highly efficient electrostatic-force generation. The fishbone structure improves the longitudinal stiffness of the flexible slider for high pushing-force generation. The results show that the pushing force created by the fishbone slider was three times greater than that of the conventional Si slider. The fishbone and flexible sliders exhibited a high performance for the ECLIA. (paper)

  8. Reliability of lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics during different paces of barefoot racewalking on a treadmill using a motion recorder (MVP-RF8-BC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhao; Huo, Ming; An, Xiangde; Li, Yong; Onoda, Ko; Li, Desheng; Huang, Qiuchen; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the changes in lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics, and reliability of measurement during different paces of barefoot racewalking on treadmill. [Subjects] Eleven junior racewalking men participated in this study. [Methods] To identify changes in lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics, during different paces of barefoot racewalking on a treadmill, a wireless motion recorder (MVP-RF8-BC) was used. Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC 1, 2) were used to estimate reliability. [Results] There were significant differences in the lower leg proximal end and forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotations at a pace of 9 km/h compared with those at a pace of 5 km/h pace. The intra-examiner reliability estimates ranged from 0.82 and 0.89 to 0.87 and 0.93 for lower leg proximal end inversion/eversion rotation and medial/lateral rotation, and from 0.92 and 0.84 to 0.93 and 0.91 for forefoot inversion/eversion rotation and medial/lateral rotation. [Conclusion] We conclude that the lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics of barefoot racewalking on a treadmill are influenced by different paces and that assessment of lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics by means of the wireless motion recorder (MVP-RF8-BC) is adequately reliable. This information may be useful for determining exercise prescriptions.

  9. Comparison of Gastrografin to barium sulfate as a gastrointestinal contrast agent in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Charles Tyler; Page, Richard B; Howard, Antwain M; McKeon, Gabriel P; Felt, Stephen A

    2010-01-01

    Red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) commonly develop intestinal obstruction. The gastrointestinal transit time in turtles tends to be longer than in other animals, making a rapid diagnosis of obstruction difficult. Fifteen red-eared sliders were given either Gastrografin or 30% w/v barium sulfate orally to compare ease of administration, transit time, and image quality. Each contrast medium was easy to administer but barium sulfate had to be administered more slowly (mean = 40s) than Gastrografin (mean = 20s) to prevent regurgitation. The mean transit and emptying time of Gastrografin was at least 9 h faster than barium sulfate at all time points except gastric transit. Both contrast media had a smooth, uniform appearance that outlined the mucosa with well-defined margins within the stomach and proximal small intestine. Dilution of Gastrografin occurred as it progressed through the intestines, resulting in decreased opacity in the distal small intestine and colon. Pre-administration packed cell volume and total serum protein levels of four turtles receiving Gastrografin were compared with levels at 24-, 96-, and 168-hours postadministration as well as to four control turtles not receiving contrast medium. Packed cell volume and total serum protein levels did not significantly differ among the Gastrografin and control group. From a clinical perspective, administration of Gastrografin allows for quicker results with only minor hematologic changes in red-eared sliders, but visualization of this contrast medium in the lower gastrointestinal tract may be insufficient for an accurate diagnosis.

  10. Sliders Versus Storyboards - Investigating Interaction Design for Mobile Video Browsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hürst, Wolfgang|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313710589; Hoet, Miklas

    2015-01-01

    We present a comparative study of two different interfaces for mobile video browsing on tablet devices following two basic concepts - storyboard designs representing a video’s content in a grid-like arrangement of static images extracted from the file, and slider interfaces enabling users to

  11. Predicting vibration-induced displacement for a resonant friction slider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fidlin, A.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model is set up to quantify vibration-induced motions of a slider, sandwiched between friction layers with different coefficients of friction, and equipped with an imbedded resonator that oscillates at high frequency and small amplitude. This model is highly nonlinear, involving non...

  12. A Study of Static Performance of Fixed Inclined Slider Bearings – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    A Study of Static Performance of Fixed Inclined Slider Bearings – A Power Law Model. 1OLADEINDE, M H; 2EDOKPIA, R O; ... Keyword: power law, slider bearing, finite element, load capacity, pressure. Traditionally, most lubricants are .... The volumetric flow rate per unit width is computed by using the expression shown in ...

  13. Generation of Silicic Melts in the Early Izu-Bonin Arc Recorded by Detrital Zircons in Proximal Arc Volcaniclastic Rocks From the Philippine Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A. P.; Tani, K.; Meffre, S.; Wooden, J. L.; Coble, M. A.; Arculus, R. J.; Ishizuka, O.; Shukle, J. T.

    2017-10-01

    A 1.2 km thick Paleogene volcaniclastic section at International Ocean Discovery Program Site 351-U1438 preserves the deep-marine, proximal record of Izu-Bonin oceanic arc initiation, and volcano evolution along the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR). Pb/U ages and trace element compositions of zircons recovered from volcaniclastic sandstones preserve a remarkable temporal record of juvenile island arc evolution. Pb/U ages ranging from 43 to 27 Ma are compatible with provenance in one or more active arc edifices of the northern KPR. The abundances of selected trace elements with high concentrations provide insight into the genesis of U1438 detrital zircon host melts, and represent useful indicators of both short and long-term variations in melt compositions in arc settings. The Site U1438 zircons span the compositional range between zircons from mid-ocean ridge gabbros and zircons from relatively enriched continental arcs, as predicted for melts in a primitive oceanic arc setting derived from a highly depleted mantle source. Melt zircon saturation temperatures and Ti-in-zircon thermometry suggest a provenance in relatively cool and silicic melts that evolved toward more Th and U-rich compositions with time. Th, U, and light rare earth element enrichments beginning about 35 Ma are consistent with detrital zircons recording development of regional arc asymmetry and selective trace element-enriched rear arc silicic melts as the juvenile Izu-Bonin arc evolved.

  14. Performance of Infinitely Wide Parabolic and Inclined Slider Bearings Lubricated with Couple Stress or Magnetic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeinde, Mobolaji Humphrey; Akpobi, John Ajokpaoghene

    2011-10-01

    The hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) lubrication problem of infinitely wide inclined and parabolic slider bearings is solved numerically using the finite element method. The bearing configurations are discretized into three-node isoparametric quadratic elements. Stiffness integrals obtained from the weak form of the governing equations are solved using Gauss quadrature to obtain a finite number of stiffness matrices. The global system of equations obtained from enforcing nodal continuity of pressure for the bearings are solved using the Gauss-Seidel iterative scheme with a convergence criterion of 10-10. Numerical computations reveal that, when compared for similar profile and couple stress parameters, greater pressure builds up in a parabolic slider compared to an inclined slider, indicating a greater wedge effect in the parabolic slider. The parabolic slider bearing is also shown to develop a greater load capacity when lubricated with magnetic fluids. The superior performance of parabolic slider bearing is more pronounced at greater Hartmann numbers for identical bearing structural parameters. It is also shown that when load carrying capacity is the yardstick for comparison, the parabolic slider bearings are superior to the inclined bearings when lubricated with couple stress or magnetic lubricants.

  15. Proximal Humerus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diercks, Ron L.; Bain, Gregory; Itoi, Eiji; Di Giacomo, Giovanni; Sugaya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the bony structures of the proximal humerus. The proximal humerus is often regarded as consisting of four parts, which assists in understanding function and, more specially, describes the essential parts in reconstruction after fracture or in joint replacement. These are the

  16. Entropy generation in non-Newtonian fluid flow in a slider bearing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, entropy production in flow fields due to slider bearings is formulated. The rate of entropy generation is computed for different fluid properties and geometric configurations of the slider bearing. In order to account for the non-Newtonian effect, a special type of third-grade fluid is considered. It is found that ...

  17. Evaluation of plasma fibrinogen concentration as a diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A Russell; Allender, Matthew C; Mitchell, Mark A; MacNeill, Amy L

    2015-01-15

    To critically evaluate plasma fibrinogen concentration as a diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). Prospective induced-disease model and prospective cross-sectional study. Plasma samples from 12 purpose-bred red-eared sliders and 153 farm-raised red-eared sliders. A modification of the Jacobsson method was developed to measure fibrinogen concentration in platelet-poor plasma from red-eared sliders. Purpose-bred turtles had been inoculated with a ranavirus (n = 4) or sterile PBS solution (8) as part of another study. Farm-raised red-eared sliders were categorized as healthy (n = 138) or overtly ill (15) on the basis of physical examination findings at the time of blood sample collection. Samples from 124 of the 138 healthy red-eared sliders were used to establish a fibrinogen concentration reference interval as measured by the modified Jacobsson method. Fibrinogen concentrations in ranavirus-infected and physically ill turtles were compared with those of healthy turtles to determine whether fibrinogen concentration would be a useful diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders. The modified Jacobsson method was reliably used to measure fibrinogen concentration. The fibrinogen concentration reference interval from healthy reproductively active female red-eared sliders was right skewed. Fibrinogen concentration did not differ significantly between healthy red-eared sliders and ranavirus-infected or overtly ill red-eared sliders. A reference interval for red-eared slider plasma fibrinogen concentration was established and partitioned by sex to account for considerable right skewing observed for females. Fibrinogen concentration was not a useful indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders with ranavirus infection or other overt illnesses.

  18. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  19. Intramuscular administration of alfaxalone in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans)--effects of dose and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kischinovsky, Michelle; Duse, Anna; Wang, Tobias; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2013-01-01

    To characterise the effects of alfaxalone by intramuscular (i.m.) injection in red-eared slider turtles and the influence of body temperature on anaesthetic duration and depth. Prospective, randomised part-blinded experimental trial. Ten healthy adult female red-eared sliders. Each turtle was anaesthetized four times with 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) alfaxalone at 20 and 35°C respectively. Time to maximal effect and plateau and recovery periods were recorded. Skeletal muscle tone, presence of various reflexes, response to noxious stimuli, and heart rate were assessed. Results are given for protocols 10 mg kg(-1) 20°C; 20 mg kg(-1) 20°C; 10 mg kg(-1) 35°C and 20 mg kg(-1) 35°C, respectively: mean time (±SD) to maximal effect was 16±8, 19±6, 5±2 and 7±5 minutes; duration of the plateau phase was 13±12, 28±13, 8±5 and 8±5 minutes and recovery time was 76±20, 126±17, 28±9 and 41±20 minutes. Endotracheal intubation was successful in 80%, 100%, 0% and 30% of turtles, respectively. At 35°C, all animals retained nociceptive sensation in the front limbs, hind limbs and vent, whereas at 20°C a few turtles lost peripheral nociceptive sensation. Corneal and tap reflexes were retained in all trials. Mean heart rates were 30±2 and 66±4 beats minute(-1) at 20 and 35°C, respectively. Alfaxalone administered i.m. in red-eared sliders provided smooth, rapid induction and uneventful recovery. At 35°C either dosage provided only short (5-10 minutes) and light sedation. At 20°C, 10 mg kg(-1) provided sedation suitable for short non-invasive procedures. About 20 mg kg(-1) provided anaesthesia of approximately 20 minutes duration, appropriate for induction of inhalational anaesthesia or for brief surgical procedures with supplemental analgesia. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  20. Quantitative genetics of plastron shape in slider turtles (Trachemys scripta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Erin M; Janzen, Fredric J; Adams, Dean C; Tucker, John K

    2006-03-01

    Shape variation is widespread in nature and embodies both a response to and a source for evolution and natural selection. To detect patterns of shape evolution, one must assess the quantitative genetic underpinnings of shape variation as well as the selective environment that the organisms have experienced. Here we used geometric morphometrics to assess variation in plastron shell shape in 1314 neonatal slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) from 162 clutches of laboratory-incubated eggs from two nesting areas. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that nesting area has a limited role in describing plastron shape variation among clutches, whereas differences between individual clutches were highly significant, suggesting a prominent clutch effect. The covariation between plastron shape and several possible maternal effect variables (yolk hormone levels and egg dimensions) was assessed for a subset of clutches and found to be negligible. We subsequently employed several recently proposed methods for estimating heritability from shape variables, and generalized a univariate approach to accommodate unequal sample sizes. Univariate estimates of shape heritability based on Procrustes distances yielded large values for both nesting populations (h2 approximately 0.86), and multivariate estimates of maximal additive heritability were also large for both nesting populations (h2max approximately 0.57). We also estimated the dominant trend in heritable shape change for each nesting population and found that the direction of shape evolution was not the same for the two sites. Therefore, although the magnitude of shape evolution was similar between nesting populations, the manner in which plastron shape is evolving is not. We conclude that the univariate approach for assessing quantitative genetic parameters from geometric morphometric data has limited utility, because it is unable to accurately describe how shape is evolving.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the yellow-bellied slider turtle Trachemys scripta scripta and anoxia tolerant red-eared slider Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Danna; Fang, Xindong; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Yongpu; Zhang, Jiayong

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of the yellow-bellied slider (Trachemys scripta scripta) and anoxia tolerant red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) turtles were sequenced to analyze gene arrangement. The complete mt genomes of T. s. scripta and elegans were circular molecules of 16,791 bp and 16,810 bp in length, respectively, and included an A + 1 frameshift insertion in ND3 and ND4L genes. The AT content of the overall base composition of scripta and elegans was 61.2%. Nucleotide sequence divergence of the mt-genome (p distance) between scripta and elegans was 0.4%. A detailed comparison between the mitochondrial genomes of the two subspecies is shown.

  2. A piezoelectric linear ultrasonic motor with the structure of a circular cylindrical stator and slider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Dongming; Wang, Sheng; Sakurai, Junpei; Hata, Seiichi; Choi, Kee-Bong; Shimokohbe, Akira

    2010-01-01

    A piezoelectric linear ultrasonic motor is proposed, with a cylindrical stator and slider structure. The length and diameter of the motor are about 10 and 1.5 mm, respectively. The stator consists of two piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) tubes connected by a thin film metallic glass (TFMG) pipe. The stator is designed based on theoretical analyses and finite element method (FEM) simulation. The traveling wave propagation is obtained in the FEM simulation under the proper geometrical sizes, suitable boundary conditions and driving voltage signals. The trajectories of particles on the TFMG pipe are elliptical motion. In the experiment, a 25 µm thick TFMG pipe is fabricated using the rotating magnetron sputtering technique and the vibration characteristics of the stator are measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) system. Bidirectional motion of the slider is observed around 600 kHz, the maximum velocity is near to 40 mm s −1 at 50 Vp–p for the loose slider and the maximum output force is 6 mN at 70 Vp–p for the tight slider

  3. A self-running standing wave-type bidirectional slider for the ultrasonically levitated thin linear stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Daisuke; Takei, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Kentaro; Ueha, Sadayuki

    2008-08-01

    A slider for a self-running standing wave-type, ultrasonically levitated, thin linear stage is discussed. The slider can be levitated and moved using acoustic radiation force and acoustic streaming. The slider has a simple configuration and consists of an aluminum vibrating plate and a piezoelectric zirconate titanate (PZT) element. The large asymmetric vibration distribution for the high thrust and levitation performance was obtained by adjusting the configuration determined by finite elemental analysis (FEA). As a preliminary step, the computed results of the sound pressure distribution in the 1-mm air gap by FEA was com pared with experimental results obtained using a fiber optic probe. The direction of the total driving force for the acoustic streaming in the small air gap was estimated by the sound pressure distribution calculated by FEA, and it was found that the direction of the acoustic streaming could be altered by controlling the vibration mode of the slider. The flexural standing wave could be generated along the vibrating plate near the frequencies predicted based on the FEA results. The slider could be levitated by the acoustic radiation force radiated from its own vibrating plate at several frequencies. The slider could be moved in the negative and positive directions at 68 kHz and 69 kHz, which correspond to the results computed by FEA, with the asymmetric vibration distribution of the slider's vibrating plate. Larger thrust could be obtained with the smaller levitation distance, and the maximum thrust was 19 mN.

  4. Five-DOF innovative linear MagLev slider to account for pitch, tilt and load uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yi-Ming; Tsai, Nan-Chyuan; Chiu, Hsin-Lin

    2017-02-01

    This paper is focused at position deviation regulation upon a slider by Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (FSMC). Five Degrees Of Freedom (DOF) of position deviation are required to be regulated except for the direction (i.e., X-axis) in which the slider moves forward and backward. Totally 8 sets of Magnetic Actuators (MAs) and an Electro-Pneumatic Transducer (EPT) are employed to drive the slider carrying loads under the commands of FSMC. EPT is applied to adjust the pressure of compressed air to counterbalance the weight of slider itself. At first, the system dynamic model of slider, including load uncertainty and load position uncertainty, is established. Intensive computer simulations are undertaken to verify the validity of proposed control strategy. Finally, a prototype of realistic slider position deviation regulation system is successfully built up. According to the experiments by cooperation of pneumatic and magnetic control, the actual linear position deviations of slider can be regulated within ±8 μm and angular position deviations within ±1 mini-degrees. From the viewpoint of energy consumption, the applied currents to 8 sets of MAs are all below 1.2 A. To sum up, the closed-loop levitation system by cooperation of pneumatic and magnetic control is capable to account for load uncertainty and uncertainty of the standing position of load to be carried.

  5. Application Value of Slider-Crank Mechanism in Pick-and-Place Operation of Delta Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe QIN

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By absorbing the advantages of the rotary-driven Delta robot and linear-driven Delta robot, a Delta robot for pick-and-place operation that forms a crank-slider at the drive joint is designed.To take the most common gate shaped curve in Cartesian space as the motion trail of robotic pick-and-place operation, according to the kinematics inverse solution theory of Delta robot, this thesis mainly solves the output angular velocity of robot-driven joint. Establishing the static transfer mathematical model and solving the forced condition of driving joint. The simulation analysis show that after the upper slider-crank mechanism is connected to the driving joint, the angular velocity of the driving joint changes suddenly, which caused a rigid impact on the robot in the picking and releasing operation, though the force of the driving joint can be made smaller.

  6. Finding and Exploring Health Information with a Slider-Based User Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Patrick Cheong-Iao; Verspoor, Karin; Pearce, Jon; Chang, Shanton

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that search engines are the primary channel to access online health information, there are better ways to find and explore health information on the web. Search engines are prone to problems when they are used to find health information. For instance, users have difficulties in expressing health scenarios with appropriate search keywords, search results are not optimised for medical queries, and the search process does not account for users' literacy levels and reading preferences. In this paper, we describe our approach to addressing these problems by introducing a novel design using a slider-based user interface for discovering health information without the need for precise search keywords. The user evaluation suggests that the interface is easy to use and able to assist users in the process of discovering new information. This study demonstrates the potential value of adopting slider controls in the user interface of health websites for navigation and information discovery.

  7. Optimal design of planar slider-crank mechanism using teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Kailash; Chaudhary, Himanshu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a two stage optimization technique is presented for optimum design of planar slider-crank mechanism. The slider crank mechanism needs to be dynamically balanced to reduce vibrations and noise in the engine and to improve the vehicle performance. For dynamic balancing, minimization of the shaking force and the shaking moment is achieved by finding optimum mass distribution of crank and connecting rod using the equipemental system of point-masses in the first stage of the optimization. In the second stage, their shapes are synthesized systematically by closed parametric curve, i.e., cubic B-spline curve corresponding to the optimum inertial parameters found in the first stage. The multi-objective optimization problem to minimize both the shaking force and the shaking moment is solved using Teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm (TLBO) and its computational performance is compared with Genetic algorithm (GA).

  8. Optimal design of planar slider-crank mechanism using teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Kailash; Chaudhary, Himanshu [Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur (Malaysia)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, a two stage optimization technique is presented for optimum design of planar slider-crank mechanism. The slider crank mechanism needs to be dynamically balanced to reduce vibrations and noise in the engine and to improve the vehicle performance. For dynamic balancing, minimization of the shaking force and the shaking moment is achieved by finding optimum mass distribution of crank and connecting rod using the equipemental system of point-masses in the first stage of the optimization. In the second stage, their shapes are synthesized systematically by closed parametric curve, i.e., cubic B-spline curve corresponding to the optimum inertial parameters found in the first stage. The multi-objective optimization problem to minimize both the shaking force and the shaking moment is solved using Teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm (TLBO) and its computational performance is compared with Genetic algorithm (GA).

  9. Normal echoanatomy of the red-eared slider terrapin (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, J; Espada, Y; Ruiz de Gopegui, R

    2004-10-02

    Thirty red-eared slider terrapins (Trachemys scripta elegans) were examined by ultrasound to establish the normal ultrasonographic appearance of their coelomic structures. They were not sedated, and owing to their small size they were examined through the inguinal window of the carapace. High resolution transducers (7.5 and 11 MHz) enhanced the ultrasonographic imaging of the bowel, urinary bladder, liver, gall bladder, heart, kidney and gonads, but the pancreas, adrenal glands, thyroid glands and spleen could not be visualised.

  10. Morphology and conservation of the mesoamerican slider (Trachemys venusta, Emydidae) from the Atrato River Basin, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceballos, Claudia P; Brand, William A

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the mesoamerican slider, Trachemys venusta that inhabits the Atrato River Basin of Colombia have been controversial as three different names have been proposed during the last 12 years: T. v. venusta, T. v. uhrigi, and T. ornate venusta. Using a group of sliders that was confiscated by the regional authority we compared the morphology of T venusta distributed in the Atrato River with the morphology of the subspecies putatively distributed in Colombia. We found that the Colombian mesoamerican slider has an overall smaller size, different plastral inter-scute seam formula, and different head, carapace and plastron coloration patterns. In addition, we also report the poor health condition of these individuals that have endured this illegal trade. We underscore an urgent need for further studies of individuals indigenous to Colombia to better understand the phylogenetic relationships of T. venusta throughout its distributional range, along with a more effective control of the illegal turtle trade in the Uraba Region of Colombia.

  11. Desain dan Optimasi Injection Mold Sistem Slider pada Produk Stick T15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfi Khoirul Miftakhul Ni'am

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of injection molding is the initial process to produce a large-scale product of plastic material which heated and injected into the mold. Design of the preform mold using the plastic material polyethylene terephthalate with the construction of the slider, so that the products which was made have undercut and can’t be made in the core section and cavity. The purpose of this design is to design the slider on the product preform. The software which used for this design using CATIA V5R19 and simulation software production using Autodesk Moldflow Insight 2016. The step on designing a unit injection mold in the preform includes several steps. The first step is identify the product, the calculation of the cooling and input the data calculation result to an moldflow. The second step is design construction slider and determine the mold material as well as calculating the construction mold. The third step is pour the results of the design in figure 2D. Based on the analysis results from moldflow obtained cooling optimal.i.e. the type of cooling series type 2, and if can be concluded construction of the mold said to be safe if the stress, the style and the determination  of material which occurs under the stress and style of permit.

  12. Melanin deposition ruled out as cause of color changes in the red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dainan; Gong, Shiping; Yang, Jiangbo; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Wei, Yufeng

    2018-03-01

    Animal coloration primarily depends on the presence of pigments and the mixing ratio of eumelanin and pheomelanin. The color of red-eared slider's carapace varies with age, from an olive green to a yellow green, and then to a yellow brown in juveniles, generally. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether this color change is related to the difference in melanin expression. Melanin deposition levels were examined in the carapace, skin, eye and muscle of the three color-types using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Moreover, the full-length coding sequence (CDS) of red-eared slider turtle melanin biosynthesis regulatory genes TYR, TYRP1, MITF and SLC24A5 were cloned, sequenced and quantitatively analyzed. Both histological view of melanin deposition and quantitative real-time PCR test of melanin-regulated gene expressions showed that there are significant differences among different tissues of red-eared slider, but no significant difference among different color-types, indicating that melanin deposition is not associated with ontogenetic color change in the carapace of red-eared slider. This study initially explore the melanin deposition and the mRNA expression of melanin biosynthesis regulatory genes in red-eared slider, which serve as a foundation for further insight into the pigmentation patterns and the mechanism of body color change in turtles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Helminth fauna of a turtle species introduced in Japan, the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, M; Araki, J; Matsumoto, J; Nogami, S

    2012-10-01

    The red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) was intentionally introduced from the United States to Japan as a pet in the 1950s and has become established throughout much of the country. We examined red-eared slider turtles from two localities in Japan for foreign parasitic helminths. Consequently, a total of seven species of helminths were found: two monogeneans (Neopolystoma exhamatum and Polystomoides japonicum), three digeneans (Spirorchisartericola, Spi.elegans and Telorchis clemmydis) and two nematodes (Serpinema microcephalum and Falcaustra wardi). Of these, three helminths are alien to Japan-Spi.artericola, Spi. elegans and F. wardi-which represent the first report of their presence in the red-eared slider turtle from Japan. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Magnetohydrodynamic Couple Stresses on Dynamic Characteristics of Exponential Slider Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Naduvinamani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of couple stresses on static and dynamic characteristics of exponential slider bearing in the presence of magnetic field considering squeeze action is theoretically analyzed in this paper. The modified magnetohydrodynamic couple stress Reynolds type equation is derived on the basis of Stokes couple stress model and closed form expressions are obtained for static and dynamic character coefficients. Comparing with bearing lubricated with non-conducting Newtonian lubricants, the magnetohydrodynamic couple stress lubrication provides the higher steady load carrying capacity, dynamic stiffness and damping coefficient. The exponential bearing shows higher efficiency for small film thickness at higher value of couple stress parameter and Hartmann number.

  15. Haemangioma in the oesophagus of a red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, János; Jakab, Csaba; Szabó, Zoltán; Pazár, Péter; Psáder, Roland; Roeber, Florian; Hegyi, Arpád; Lefler, Kinga Katalin; Farkas, Balázs; Mándoki, Míra

    2009-12-01

    A haemangioma developing in the wall of the oesophagus and protruding into its cavity is reported for the first time from a Red-eared Slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). As the tumour mechanically hampered swallowing, the animal was unable to eat and consequently developed a poor condition. Histopathology of the tumour revealed all characteristics of a haemangioma: the blood-filled blood-vessels having an irregular cross-section were lined with endothelial cells. Claudin-5 immunohistochemical antibodies were employed for characterising the tumour, and this examination confirmed our initial diagnosis of a haemangioma.

  16. Dynamic Performance Characteristics of a Curved Slider Bearing Operating with Ferrofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya P. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present theoretical investigation, the effect of ferrofluid on the dynamic characteristics of curved slider bearings is presented using Shliomis model which accounts for the rotation of magnetic particles, their magnetic moments, and the volume concentration in the fluid. The modified Reynolds equation for the dynamic state of the bearing is obtained. The results of dynamic stiffness and damping characteristics are presented. It is observed that the effect of rotation of magnetic particles improves the stiffness and damping capacities of the bearings.

  17. First description of papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland of a red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, János; Csikó, György; Pásztor, István; Bölcskey-Molnár, Antal; Albert, Mihály

    2010-03-01

    Postmortem examination of the carcass of an approximately 10-year-old male Red-eared slider ( Trachemys scripta elegans ) was performed. The thyroid gland was enlarged, showed follicular structure, and shifted the base of the heart caudally. Histology revealed differently shaped and sized follicles in the thyroid gland. Based on the macroscopic appearance and histopathological changes of the thyroid gland, the pathological process was established as a papillary-cystic carcinoma. Neoplasia of the endocrine organs, especially of the thyroid gland, is rare in reptiles. The current case seems to be the first report of thyroid carcinoma in a Red-eared slider.

  18. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria associated with the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dandan; Wilson, Cailin; Hearlson, Jodie; Singleton, Jennifer; Thomas, R Brent; Crupper, Scott S

    2013-09-01

    Free-ranging Red-eared Sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) were captured from farm ponds located in the Flint Hills of Kansas and a zoo pond in Emporia, Kansas, USA, to evaluate their enteric bacterial flora and associated antibiotic resistance. Bacteria obtained from cloacal swabs were composed of six different Gram-negative genera. Although antibiotic resistance was present in turtles captured from both locations, 40 and 49% of bacteria demonstrated multiple antibiotic resistance to four of the antibiotics tested from the zoo captured and Flint Hills ponds turtles, respectively. These data illustrate environmental antibiotic resistance is widespread in the bacterial flora obtained from Red-eared Sliders in east central Kansas.

  19. Dynamic Head-Disk Interface Instabilities With Friction for Light Contact (Surfing) Recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vakis, Antonis I.; Lee, Sung-Chang; Polycarpou, Andreas A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in hard-disk drive technology involve the use of a thermal fly-height control (TFC) pole tip protrusion to bring the read/write recording elements of the slider closer to the disk surface and thus achieve Terabit per square inch recording densities. A dynamic, contact mechanics-based

  20. A Generic Friction Model for Radial Slider Bearing Simulation Considering Elastic and Plastic Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Offner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of component dynamics is one of the main tasks of internal combustion engine (ICE simulation. This prediction is important in order to understand complex loading conditions, which happen in a running ICE. Due to the need for fuel saving, mechanical friction, in particular in radial slider bearings, is one important investigation target. A generic friction modeling approach for radial slider bearings, which can be applied to lubricated contact regimes, will be presented in this paper. Besides viscous friction, the approach considers in particular boundary friction. The parameterization of the friction model is done using surface material and surface roughness measurement data. Furthermore, fluid properties depending on the applied oil additives are being considered. The application of the model will be demonstrated for a typical engineering task of a connecting rod big end study to outline the effects of contact surface texture. AlSn-based and polymer coated bearing shells will be analyzed and compared with respect to friction reduction effects, running-in behavior and thermal load capabilities.

  1. Antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine and hydromorphone in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Christoph; Lahner, Lesanna L; Baker, Bridget B; Johnson, Stephen M; Sladky, Kurt K

    2012-09-01

    Despite the frequent clinical use of buprenorphine in reptiles, its antinociceptive efficacy is not known. In a randomized, complete cross-over study, the antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine (0.2 mg/kg s.c.) was compared with hydromorphone (0.5 mg/kg s.c.), and saline (0.9% s.c. equivalent volume) in 11 healthy red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). Additionally, buprenorphine at 0.1 and 1 mg/kg was compared with saline in six turtles. Hindlimb withdrawal latencies were measured after exposure to a focal, thermal noxious stimulus before and between 3 hr and up to 96 hr after drug administration. Buprenorphine did not significantly increase hindlimb withdrawal latencies at any time point compared with saline. In contrast, hydromorphone administration at 0.5 mg/kg significantly increased hindlimb withdrawal latencies for up to 24 hr. These results show that hydromorphone, but not buprenorphine, provides thermal antinociception in red-eared slider turtles.

  2. Effects of Structural Deformations of the Crank-Slider Mechanism on the Estimation of the Instantaneous Engine Friction Torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHALHOUB, N. G.; NEHME, H.; HENEIN, N. A.; BRYZIK, W.

    1999-07-01

    The focus on the current study is to assess the effects of structural deformations of the crankshaft/connecting-rod/piston mechanism on the computation of the instantaneous engine friction torque. This study is performed in a fully controlled environment in order to isolate the effects of structural deformations from those of measurement errors or noise interference. Therefore, a detailed model, accounting for the rigid and flexible motions of the crank-slider mechanism and including engine component friction formulations, is considered in this study. The model is used as a test bed to generate the engine friction torque,Tfa, and to predict the rigid and flexible motions of the system in response to the cylinder gas pressure. The torsional vibrations and the rigid body angular velocity of the crankshaft, as predicted by the detailed model of the crank-slider mechanism, are used along with the engine load torque and the cylinder gas pressure in the (P-ω) method to estimate the engine friction torque,Tfe. This method is well suited for the purpose of this study because its formulation is based on the rigid body model of the crank-slider mechanism. The digital simulation results demonstrate that the exclusion of the structural deformations of the crank-slider mechanism from the formulation of the (P-ω) method leads to an overestimation of the engine friction torque near the top-dead-center (TDC) position of the piston under firing conditions. Moreover, for the remainder of the engine cycle, the estimated friction torque exhibits large oscillations and takes on positive numerical values as if it is inducing energy into the system. Thus, the adverse effects of structural deformations of the crank-slider mechanism on the estimation of the engine friction torque greatly differ in their nature from one phase of the engine cycle to another.

  3. Proximity credentials: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, L.J.

    1987-04-01

    Credentials as a means of identifying individuals have traditionally been a photo badge and more recently, the coded credential. Another type of badge, the proximity credential, is making inroads in the personnel identification field. This badge can be read from a distance instead of being veiewed by a guard or inserted into a reading device. This report reviews proximity credentials, identifies the companies marketing or developing proximity credentials, and describes their respective credentials. 3 tabs

  4. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  5. Enterobacterial colonization in captive red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia-Di Chiacchio, Rosely; Penido Júnior, Gilberto Nogueira; De Souza, Claudia Almeida Igayara; Prioste, Fabiola Eloisa Setim; Prado, Miriam Siqueira; Knöbl, Terezinha; Menão, Marcia Cristina; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2014-12-01

    The handling of turtles and other reptiles can be associated with risk of pathogenic enterobacteria transmission, mainly Salmonella spp. The aim of this study was to identify the enterobacteria in cloacal swabs of 39 red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). Cloacal swabs from 39 captive individuals were analyzed. After sample enrichment in brain-heart infusion broth and 1% peptone water, bacterial isolation was performed through cultivation in blood, MacConkey and xylose lysine desoxycholate agar. Bacterial identification was achieved through conventional tests and automated turbidity analysis. The results indicated the growth of Kluyvera ascorbata (38/39), Leclercia adecarboxylata (37/39), Raoultella planticola (30/39), Citrobacter freundii (20/39), Proteus spp. (15/39), and Escherichia coli (5/39). Salmonella spp. were not detected. The intestinal enterobacteria identified inthis study differed from that reported in the literature for other reptiles.

  6. Study on Different Treatment Ways of Slider Joint for Solid-webbed Telescopic Jib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Gening

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to greater distortion of local stress calculated in the slider joint for solid-webbed telescopic jib caused by previous simplified way, this paper puts forward to 3×2 kinds of different treatment ways: three kinds of ways dealing with fixed junction surfaces namely the coplanar way, MPC Algorithm and node coupling, two kinds of ways dealing with the corresponding sliding contact surfaces such as linear node coupling and contact nonlinear analysis. Regard the structure of solid-webbed telescopic jib with elliptical cross section as research object; analyze its feasibility and rationality of six kinds of treatment ways comparatively combining results by means of FEA software ANSYS and strength calculation theory in the overlapping and non-overlapping zones on simplification basis of the actual conditions of jib. It is found that the model’s FEA results with the coplanar way in the fixed junction surfaces occur serious distortion phenomenon through the whole analysis and comparison, which the degree of distortion reaches 354.5%, indicating that this treatment way has failed; The FEA results of model which sliding contact surfaces are disposed of contact nonlinear analysis are greater than the results of model which sliding contact surfaces are disposed of linear node coupling, there is no stress concentration phenomenon in this kind of treatment way, the simulation results are safer than before, and it is more consistent with the actual contact condition. Due to the contact analysis is a kind of nonlinear analysis behaviour which needs more computer resource. Therefore, the actual calculation results can be obtained more actually and economically if the node coupling is adapted to the slider joint while computer resource is nervous.

  7. The Affective Slider: A Digital Self-Assessment Scale for the Measurement of Human Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Betella

    Full Text Available Self-assessment methods are broadly employed in emotion research for the collection of subjective affective ratings. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM, a pictorial scale developed in the eighties for the measurement of pleasure, arousal, and dominance, is still among the most popular self-reporting tools, despite having been conceived upon design principles which are today obsolete. By leveraging on state-of-the-art user interfaces and metacommunicative pictorial representations, we developed the Affective Slider (AS, a digital self-reporting tool composed of two slider controls for the quick assessment of pleasure and arousal. To empirically validate the AS, we conducted a systematic comparison between AS and SAM in a task involving the emotional assessment of a series of images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS, a database composed of pictures representing a wide range of semantic categories often used as a benchmark in psychological studies. Our results show that the AS is equivalent to SAM in the self-assessment of pleasure and arousal, with two added advantages: the AS does not require written instructions and it can be easily reproduced in latest-generation digital devices, including smartphones and tablets. Moreover, we compared new and normative IAPS ratings and found a general drop in reported arousal of pictorial stimuli. Not only do our results demonstrate that legacy scales for the self-report of affect can be replaced with new measurement tools developed in accordance to modern design principles, but also that standardized sets of stimuli which are widely adopted in research on human emotion are not as effective as they were in the past due to a general desensitization towards highly arousing content.

  8. The Affective Slider: A Digital Self-Assessment Scale for the Measurement of Human Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betella, Alberto; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2016-01-01

    Self-assessment methods are broadly employed in emotion research for the collection of subjective affective ratings. The Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM), a pictorial scale developed in the eighties for the measurement of pleasure, arousal, and dominance, is still among the most popular self-reporting tools, despite having been conceived upon design principles which are today obsolete. By leveraging on state-of-the-art user interfaces and metacommunicative pictorial representations, we developed the Affective Slider (AS), a digital self-reporting tool composed of two slider controls for the quick assessment of pleasure and arousal. To empirically validate the AS, we conducted a systematic comparison between AS and SAM in a task involving the emotional assessment of a series of images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), a database composed of pictures representing a wide range of semantic categories often used as a benchmark in psychological studies. Our results show that the AS is equivalent to SAM in the self-assessment of pleasure and arousal, with two added advantages: the AS does not require written instructions and it can be easily reproduced in latest-generation digital devices, including smartphones and tablets. Moreover, we compared new and normative IAPS ratings and found a general drop in reported arousal of pictorial stimuli. Not only do our results demonstrate that legacy scales for the self-report of affect can be replaced with new measurement tools developed in accordance to modern design principles, but also that standardized sets of stimuli which are widely adopted in research on human emotion are not as effective as they were in the past due to a general desensitization towards highly arousing content.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging measurements of organs within the coelomic cavity of red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans), yellow-bellied sliders (Trachemys scripta scripta), Coastal plain cooters (Pseudemys concinna floridana), and hieroglyphic river cooters (Pseudemys concinna hieroglyphica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Karina A; Schnack, Marcus; Rohn, Karl; Fehr, Michael

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine anatomic reference points for 4 turtle species and to evaluate data on relative anatomic dimensions, signal intensities (SIs), and position of selected organs within the coelomic cavity by use of MRI. ANIMALS 3 turtle cadavers (1 red-eared slider [Trachemys scripta elegans], 1 yellow-bellied slider [Trachemys scripta scripta], and 1 Coastal plain cooter [Pseudemys concinna floridana]) and 63 live adult turtles (30 red-eared sliders, 20 yellow-bellied sliders, 5 Coastal plain cooters, and 8 hieroglyphic river cooters [Pseudemys concinna hieroglyphica]). PROCEDURES MRI and necropsy were performed on the 3 turtle cadavers. Physical examination, hematologic evaluation, and whole-body radiography were performed on the 63 live turtles. Turtles were sedated, and MRI in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes was used to measure organ dimensions, position within the coelomic cavity, and SIs. Body positioning after sedation was standardized with the head, neck, limbs, and tail positioned in maximum extension. RESULTS Measurements of the heart, liver, gallbladder, and kidneys in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes; relative position of those organs within the coelom; and SIs of the kidneys and liver were obtained with MRI and provided anatomic data for these 4 turtle species. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE MRI was a valuable tool for determining the position, dimensions, and SIs of selected organs. Measurement of organs in freshwater chelonians was achievable with MRI. Further studies are needed to establish reference values for anatomic structures in turtles. Results reported here may serve as guidelines and aid in clinical interpretation of MRI images for these 4 species.

  10. Removal of nonnative slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) and effects on native Sonora mud turtles (Kinosternon sonoriense) at Montezuma Well, Yavapai County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Charles A.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Madrak, Sheila V.; Monatesti, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) estimates that 234 national parks contain nonnative, invasive animal species that are of management concern (National Park Service, 2004). Understanding and controlling invasive species is thus an important priority within the NPS (National Park Service, 1996). The slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) is one such invasive species. Native to the Southeastern United States (Ernst and Lovich, 2009), as well as Mexico, Central America, and portions of South America (Ernst and Barbour, 1989), the slider turtle has become established throughout the continental United States and in other locations around the world (Burke and others, 2000). Slider turtle introductions have been suspected to be a threat to native turtles (Holland 1994; da Silva and Blasco, 1995), however, there has not been serious study of their effects until recently. Cadi and Joly (2003) found that slider turtles outcompeted European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) for preferred basking sites under controlled experimental conditions, demonstrating for the first time direct competition for resources between a native and an exotic turtle species. Similarly, Spinks and others (2003) suggested that competition for basking sites between slider turtles and Pacific pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata) was partly responsible for the decline of Pacific pond turtles observed at their study site in California. They concluded that the impact of introduced slider turtles was 'almost certainly negative' for the western pond turtle. In the most recent critical study to assess the effects of introduced slider turtles on native turtles, Cadi and Joly (2004) demonstrated that European pond turtles that were kept under experimentally controlled conditions with slider turtles lost body weight and exhibited higher rates of mortality than in control groups of turtles comprised of the same species, demonstrating potential population-level effects on native species. Slider turtles are not native to

  11. Pancreatitis associated with the helminth serpinema microcephalus (Nematoda: Camallanidae) in exotic red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans)

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo-Vila, J.; Martínez-Silvestre, A.; Ribas, A.; Casanova, J.C.; Pérez-Santigosa, N.; Díaz-Paniagua, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatitis associated with the helminth Serpinema microcephalus was found in three of 19 free-ranging red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) captured between March 2003 and September 2004 in southern Spain. Microscopic changes were associated with parasite migrations and were characterized by central areas of necrosis surrounded by leukocytes and resulted in destruction of exocrine tissue. The blood profile of one of the three female turtles revealed eosinophilia and hyperglyc...

  12. A rule-based phase control methodology for a slider-crank wave energy converter power take-off system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, Yuanrui; Karayaka, H. Bora; Yan, Yanjun; Zhang, James Z.; Bogucki, Darek; Yu, Yi-Hsiang

    2017-09-01

    The slider crank is a proven mechanical linkage system with a long history of successful applications, and the slider-crank ocean wave energy converter (WEC) is a type of WEC that converts linear motion into rotation. This paper presents a control algorithm for a slider-crank WEC. In this study, a time-domain hydrodynamic analysis is adopted, and an AC synchronous machine is used in the power take-off system to achieve relatively high system performance. Also, a rule-based phase control strategy is applied to maximize energy extraction, making the system suitable for not only regular sinusoidal waves but also irregular waves. Simulations are carried out under regular sinusoidal wave and synthetically produced irregular wave conditions; performance validations are also presented with high-precision, real ocean wave surface elevation data. The influences of significant wave height, and peak period upon energy extraction of the system are studied. Energy extraction results using the proposed method are compared to those of the passive loading and complex conjugate control strategies; results show that the level of energy extraction is between those of the passive loading and complex conjugate control strategies, and the suboptimal nature of this control strategy is verified.

  13. Response of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway to oxygen deprivation in the red eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Saumya; Biggar, Kyle K; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-11-15

    The red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans, is a model organism commonly used to study the environmental stress of anoxia. It exhibits multiple biochemical adaptations to ensure its survival during the winter months where quantities of oxygen are largely depleted. We proposed that JAK-STAT signaling would display stress responsive regulation to mediate the survival of the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans, during anoxic stress. Importantly, the JAK-STAT signaling pathway is involved in transmitting extracellular signals to the nucleus resulting in the expression of select genes that aid cell survival and growth. Immunoblotting was used to compare the relative phosphorylation levels of JAK proteins, STAT proteins, and two of its inhibitors, SOCS and PIAS, in response to anoxia. A clear activation of the JAK-STAT pathway was observed in the liver tissue while no significant changes were found in the skeletal muscle. To further support our findings we also found an increase in mRNA transcripts of downstream targets of STATs, namely bcl-xL and bcl-2, using PCR analysis in the liver tissues. These findings suggest an important role for the JAK-STAT pathway in exhibiting natural anoxia tolerance by the red-eared slider turtle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The efficacy of intracoelomic fospropofol in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Carrie A; Johnson, Rebecca A

    2013-12-01

    Intravenous anesthetic delivery in reptiles can be challenging. Current injectable techniques have varied induction/recovery times and anesthetic quality. This study hypothesized that intracoelomic administration of a new anesthetic, fospropofol, in turtles would result in dose-dependent anesthesia and respiratory depression. A two-part prospective trial using adult red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) weighing 764 +/- 17 g was conducted to determine an effective anesthetic dose and to evaluate the anesthetic quality, duration, and respiratory effects of an efficacious dose. In part 1, six turtles were randomly administered 25-mg/ kg (low-dose [LD]) and 50-mg/kg (high-dose [HD]) fospropofol in a crossover design. Respiratory rate, immobility, and muscle relaxation scores were evaluated for 180 min. In part 2, eight turtles were administered HD fospropofol. Immobility and muscle relaxation (front and hind limb) scores and time to endotracheal intubation/extubation were evaluated until scores returned to baseline. In part 1, the LD group had significantly lower immobility and muscle relaxation scores versus the HD group over time (both P 0.05), respiratory rate was significantly decreased from baseline from 10 to 120 min (all P < 0.05). In part 2, HD fospropofol decreased respiratory rate from 21.5 +/- 2.9 breaths/min to 0.1 +/- 0.1 breaths/min, similar to the results in part 1. Maximal reductions in mobility and front and hind limb motor tone occurred at 39.0 +/- 4.1, 30.8 +/- 3.6, and 24.0 +/- 3.6 min, respectively. Intubation in 7/8 turtles occurred at 45.7 +/- 5.4 min and extubation at 147.0 +/- 23.2 min. However, 2/8 turtles showed prolonged anesthetic effects, requiring resuscitative efforts for recovery. Due to the unpredictable quality and duration of anesthesia with intracoelomic fospropofol, it should be used with caution for general anesthesia in red-eared sliders at the doses and administration route investigated.

  15. Daily and seasonal rhythms in the respiratory sensitivity of red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Catalina; Milsom, William K

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the daily and seasonal changes in ventilation and breathing pattern previously documented in red-eared sliders resulted solely from daily and seasonal oscillations in metabolism or also from changes in chemoreflex sensitivity. Turtles were exposed to natural environmental conditions over a one year period. In each season, oxygen consumption, ventilation and breathing pattern were measured continuously for 24 h while turtles were breathing air and for 24 h while they were breathing a hypoxic-hypercapnic gas mixture (H-H). We found that oxygen consumption was reduced equally during the day and night under H-H in all seasons except spring. Ventilation was stimulated by H-H but the magnitude of the response was always less at night. On average, it was also less in the winter and greater in the reproductive season. The data indicate that the day-night differences in ventilation and breathing pattern seen previously resulted from daily changes in chemoreflex sensitivity whereas the seasonal changes were strictly due to changes in metabolism. Regardless of mechanism, the changes resulted in longer apneas at night and in the winter at any given level of total ventilation, facilitating longer submergence at times of the day and year when turtles are most vulnerable.

  16. Diagnosis and management of oviductal disease in three red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, C; Sladky, K K

    2012-04-01

    Three mature, female, red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) were individually, and separately, diagnosed with different forms of oviductal disease. Case 1 presented with acute cloacal bleeding and was diagnosed with acute oviductal rupture and ectopic eggs in the coelom. Case 2 presented for repeated scratching in the direction of the cloaca and was diagnosed with chronic oviductal impaction and coelomitis. Both cases were treated successfully by endoscopy-assisted complete ovariosalpingectomy via a bilateral prefemoral approach. Case 3 presented with a reduced appetite and signs of nesting behaviour and was diagnosed with obstructive dystocia associated with bacterial salpingitis. Successful treatment consisted of transcloacal egg removal and systemic antibiotics. Complete recovery was achieved in all three turtles, which remained disease-free 23 to 33 months later. Oviductal disease can present with a variety of clinical signs, and an accurate diagnosis can be made based on a thorough history, physical examination and appropriate diagnostic techniques. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  17. Dielectric elastomer actuators using Slide-Ring Material® with increased permittivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchitani, Shigeki; Miki, Hirofumi; Sunahara, Tokiharu

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of high permittivity nanoparticles in elastomeric materials for dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) is one promising method to achieve large strain at relatively low applied voltages. However, the addition of these nanoparticles tends to increase the stiffness of the elastomer and disturbs the actuation of the DEA. This is attributed to restriction of the chain motion in the elastomer by the nanoparticles. Slide-Ring Material ® (SRM) is a cross-linked polymeric material with freely movable cross-linking sites. The internal stresses in this structure are dramatically homogenized by the pulley effect; therefore, the restriction of chain motion due to the nanoparticles is expected to be significantly reduced. We have employed SRM as a host elastomer for a DEA with the addition of ferroelectric BaTiO 3 (BT) nanoparticles. The effects of BT addition on the permittivity, stiffness and viscosity of the SRM–BT nanocomposites, and the actuation strain of DEAs using SRM were evaluated. The permittivity of the nanocomposites increased linearly with the concentration of BT and reached 3.6 times that for pure SRM at 50 wt%. The elastic modulus and the viscosity remained almost constant up to 20 wt% and then decreased above this concentration. The actuation strain of a planar actuator using SRM and 50 wt% BT was four times larger than that of the DEA with pure SRM. (paper)

  18. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  19. Proximal collagenous gastroenteritides:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Riis, Lene Buhl; Danese, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: While collagenous colitis represents the most common form of the collagenous gastroenteritides, the collagenous entities affecting the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract are much less recognized and possibly overlooked. The aim was to summarize the latest information through a syste...

  20. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  1. Effects of ranavirus infection of red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) on plasma proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A Russell; Allender, Matthew C; MacNeill, Amy L

    2014-06-01

    Ranavirus is an emerging disease that infects fish, amphibians, and reptiles. Ranavirus induces an inflammatory response leading to death in many susceptible species. Red-eared sliders (RES; Trachemys scripta elegans) are vulnerable to ranavirus infection and are economically significant chelonians kept in the pet trade and utilized in research. Early identification of RES with inflammatory diseases would allow for isolation of affected individuals and subsequent disease investigation, including molecular testing for ranavirus. Validation of an inexpensive, clinically relevant, and reproducible diagnostic test that detects inflammation in turtles is needed. Although commonly used, plasma protein electrophoresis to detect an inflammatory acute-phase protein response has not been evaluated in a controlled environment in turtles with experimentally induced inflammatory disease. The objective of this study was to measure plasma protein fractions by electrophoresis to determine if an acute-phase protein response occurs in RES during infection with a frog virus 3-like ranavirus (FV3-like virus) isolated from a chelonian. A Bradford assay and agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) were performed using plasma collected during a study of the effect of temperature on the pathogenesis of ranavirus in RES. In RES at the time of viremia, total albumin (ALB(mg/ml)) and albumin to globulin ratio were significantly lower and beta-globulin percentage was significantly higher in RES exposed to ranavirus (n = 4) as compared to matched, uninfected RES (n = 8). In the last sample collected prior to death, total protein (TP(mg/ml)), ALB(mg/ml), alpha-globulin percentage, and total alpha-globulin (alpha(mg/ml)) were significantly lower in RES exposed to ranavirus (n = 4) than control individuals (n = 8). In summary, FV3-like virus induces a decrease in plasma albumin concentration at the onset ofviremia and decreases in TP(mg/ml, ALB(mg/ml), and alpha(mg/ml) concentrations prior to death in

  2. Spectral sensitivity of the photointrinsic iris in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Grayson O; Dearworth, James R; Selvarajah, Brian P; Blaum, Justin F; Littlefield, Tory E; Fink, Deborah A; Casey, Corinne N; McDougal, David H

    2011-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to examine the red-eared slider turtle for a photomechanical response (PMR) and define its spectral sensitivity. Pupils of enucleated eyes constricted to light by ∼11%, which was one-third the response measured in alert behaving turtles at ∼33%. Rates of constriction in enucleated eyes that were measured by time constants (1.44-3.70 min) were similar to those measured in turtles at 1.97 min. Dilation recovery rates during dark adaptation for enucleated eyes were predicted using line equations and computed times for reaching maximum sizes between 26 and 44 min. Times were comparable to the measures in turtles where maximum pupil size occurred within 40 min and possessed a time constant of 12.78 min. Hill equations were used to derive irradiance threshold values from enucleated hemisected eyes and then plot a spectral sensitivity curve. The analysis of the slopes and maximum responses revealed contribution from at least two different photopigments, one with a peak at 410 nm and another with a peak at 480 nm. Fits by template equations suggest that contractions are triggered by multiple photopigments in the iris including an opsin-based visual pigment and some other novel photopigment, or a cryptochrome with an absorbance spectrum significantly different from that used in our model. In addition to being regulated by retinal feedback via parasympathetic nervous pathways, the results support that the iris musculature is photointrinsically responsive. In the turtle, the control of its direct pupillary light response (dPLR) includes photoreceptive mechanisms occurring both in its iris and in its retina. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pancreatitis associated with the helminth Serpinema microcephalus (Nematoda: Camallanidae) in exotic red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Vila, Judit; Martínez-Silvestre, Albert; Ribas, Alexis; Casanova, Joan Carles; Pérez-Santigosa, Natividad; Díaz-Paniagua, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatitis associated with the helminth Serpinema microcephalus was found in three of 19 free-ranging red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) captured between March 2003 and September 2004 in southern Spain. Microscopic changes were associated with parasite migrations and were characterized by central areas of necrosis surrounded by leukocytes and resulted in destruction of exocrine tissue. The blood profile of one of the three female turtles revealed eosinophilia and hyperglycemia, common in helminth infections and pancreatic disorders respectively. These are the first reported cases of pancreatitis caused by the nematode S. microcephalus in the exotic and newly colonized host T. s. elegans.

  4. BIOINFORMATICS MODEL OF THE CARAPACE SCUTE PATTERN OF THE RED-EARED SLIDER TRACHEMYS SCRIPTA ELEGANS (WIED-NEUWIED, 1839

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Kiladze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The scutes located on the carapace of the red-eared slider Trachemys scripta elegans (Wied-Neuwied, 1839 have been modeled. Bioinformatics modeling of carapace’s scutes were carried out by utilizing the Voronoi decomposition and Delaunay triangulation method. These two geometric techniques allow the patterns of vertebral and costal scutes to be recreated. The proposed model may have a certain value for taxonomy as well as for estimating the symmetry of the morphological structures, which is important for the purposes of biomimetics.

  5. Quantum Proximity Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that at long wavelengths λ an s-wave scatterer can have a scattering cross section σ on the order of λ 2 , much larger than its physical size, as measured by the range of its potential. Very interesting phenomena can arise when two or more identical scatterers are placed close together, well within one wavelength. We show that, for a pair of identical scatterers, an extremely narrow p-wave open-quote open-quote proximity close-quote close-quote resonance develops from a broader s-wave resonance of the individual scatterers. A new s-wave resonance of the pair also appears. The relation of these proximity resonances (so called because they appear when the scatterers are close together) to the Thomas and Efimov effects is discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2017-09-20

    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  7. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 synthesis in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Mitchell, Mark A; Roundtree, Marlana K; Zachariah, Trevor T

    2006-12-01

    To determine whether there are increased concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitaminn D(3) in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) after exposure to UV radiation. 12 yearling turtles recently removed from aestivation. Turtles were randomly allocated to 2 groups (6 turtles/group). An initial blood sample was collected from all turtles for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) concentrations. Turtles of 1 group were then provided no supplemental lighting, whereas turtles of the other group were exposed to full-spectrum coil bulbs at a distance of 22.86 cm. The UV-A and UV-B radiation generated by the supplemental lighting was measured by use of a radiometer-photometer at weekly intervals. Measurements were collected 2.54 and 22.86 cm from the bulb surface. The study was continued for a 4-week period. At the end of the study, a second blood sample was collected from all turtles for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3). Mean +/- SD 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) concentrations differed significantly between turtles provided supplemental UV radiation (71.7 +/- 46.9 nmol/L) and those not provided UV radiation (31.4 +/- 13.2 nmol/L). Appropriate husbandry recommendations for raising and maintaining red-eared slider turtles should include use of sunlight that is unobstructed by UV-B filtering material or provision of an artificial source of UV-B radiation.

  8. Proximity friction reexamined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krappe, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    The contribution of inelastic excitations to radial and tangential friction form-factors in heavy-ion collisions is investigated in the frame-work of perturbation theory. The dependence of the form factors on the essential geometrical and level-density parameters of the scattering system is exhibited in a rather closed form. The conditions for the existence of time-local friction coefficients are discussed. Results are compared to form factors from other models, in particular the transfer-related proximity friction. For the radial friction coefficient the inelastic excitation mechanism seems to be the dominant contribution in peripheral collisions. (orig.)

  9. Proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Lawrence X

    2002-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal femur include fractures of the head, neck, intertrochanteric, and subtrochanteric regions. Head fractures commonly accompany dislocations. Neck fractures and intertrochanteric fractures occur with greatest frequency in elderly patients with a low bone mineral density and are produced by low-energy mechanisms. Subtrochanteric fractures occur in a predominantly strong cortical osseous region which is exposed to large compressive stresses. Implants used to address these fractures must be able to accommodate significant loads while the fractures consolidate. Complications secondary to these injuries produce significant morbidity and include infection, nonunion, malunion, decubitus ulcers, fat emboli, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, stroke, and death.

  10. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies

  11. The mechanism of PTFE and PE friction deposition: a combined scanning electron and scanning force microscopy study on highly oriented polymeric sliders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönherr, Holger; Schaeben, H.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism of friction deposition of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyethylene (PE) was studied by scanning electron (SEM) and scanning force microscopy (SFM) on the worn surfaces of PTFE and PE sliders that were used in friction deposition on glass substrates. These surfaces exhibited a

  12. Echosonography with proximity sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaisiam, W; Laithong, T; Meekhun, S; Chaiwathyothin, N; Thanlarp, P; Danworaphong, S

    2013-01-01

    We propose the use of a commercial ultrasonic proximity sensor kit for profiling an altitude-varying surface by employing echosonography. The proximity sensor kit, two identical transducers together with its dedicated operating circuit, is used as a profiler for the construction of an image. Ultrasonic pulses are emitted from one of the transducers and received by the other. The time duration between the pulses allows us to determine the traveling distance of each pulse. In the experiment, the circuit is used with the addition of two copper wires for directing the outgoing and incoming signals to an oscilloscope. The time of flight of ultrasonic pulses can thus be determined. Square grids of 5 × 5 cm 2 are made from fishing lines, forming pixels in the image. The grids are designed to hold the detection unit in place, about 30 cm above a flat surface. The surface to be imaged is constructed to be height varying and placed on the flat surface underneath the grids. Our result shows that an image of the profiled surface can be created by varying the location of the detection unit along the grid. We also investigate the deviation in relation to the time of flight of the ultrasonic pulse. Such an experiment should be valuable for conveying the concept of ultrasonic imaging to physical and medical science undergraduate students. Due to its simplicity, the setup could be made in any undergraduate laboratory relatively inexpensively and it requires no complex parts. The results illustrate the concept of echosonography. (paper)

  13. Unusual population attributes of invasive red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) in Japan: do they have a performance advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Mari; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Mine, Kanako; Ueno, Shintaro; Kamezaki, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    The slider turtle (Trachemys scripta Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) is native to the USA and Mexico. Due to the popularity of their colorful hatchlings as pets, they have been exported worldwide and are now present on all continents, except Antarctica. Slider turtles are well-established in Japan and occupy aquatic habitats in urban and agricultural areas, to the detriment of native turtles with which they compete. We asked the overall question, do slider turtles in Japan have a performance advantage because they are liberated from the numerous competing turtle species in their native range and released from many of their natural predators? Traits compared included various measures of adult body size (mean, maximum), female size at maturity as measured by size of gravid females, clutch size, population density and biomass, sex ratio, and sexual size dimorphism, the latter two a partial reflection of growth and maturity differences between the sexes. We sampled slider turtle populations in three habitats in Japan and compared population attributes with published data for the species from throughout its native range in the USA. Mean male body sizes were at the lower end of values from the USA suggesting that males in Japan may mature at smaller body sizes. The smallest gravid females in Japan mature at smaller body sizes but have mean clutch sizes larger than some populations in the USA. Compared to most populations in the USA, slider turtles achieve higher densities and biomasses in Japanese wetlands, especially the lotic system we sampled. Sex ratios were female-biased, the opposite of what is reported for many populations in protected areas of the USA. Sexual size dimorphism was enhanced relative to native populations with females as the larger sex. The enhanced dimorphism is likely a result of earlier size of maturity in Japanese males and the large size of mature (gravid) Japanese females. Slider turtles appear to have a performance advantage over native turtles in

  14. Effect of age on proximal esophageal response to swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira Dantas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I, 27 aged 31-50 years (group II, and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III. We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05. The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001. There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.

  15. Children's proximal societal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    2018-01-01

    that is above or outside the institutional setting or the children’s everyday life, but something that is represented through societal structures and actual persons participating (in political ways) within the institutional settings, in ways that has meaning to children’s possibilities to participate, learn...... and develop. Understanding school or kindergarten as (part of) the children’s proximal societal conditions for development and learning, means for instance that considerations about an inclusive agenda are no longer simply thoughts about the school – for economic reasons – having space for as many pupils...... as possible (schools for all). Such thoughts can be supplemented by reflections about which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to present our children with, and which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to set up as the condition for children’s participation and development. The point is to clarify or sharpen...

  16. Proximity detection system underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Kent [Mine Site Technologies (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Mine Site Technologies (MST) with the support ACARP and Xstrata Coal NSW, as well as assistance from Centennial Coal, has developed a Proximity Detection System to proof of concept stage as per plan. The basic aim of the project was to develop a system to reduce the risk of the people coming into contact with vehicles in an uncontrolled manner (i.e. being 'run over'). The potential to extend the developed technology into other areas, such as controls for vehicle-vehicle collisions and restricting access of vehicle or people into certain zones (e.g. non FLP vehicles into Hazardous Zones/ERZ) was also assessed. The project leveraged off MST's existing Intellectual Property and experience gained with our ImPact TRACKER tagging technology, allowing the development to be fast tracked. The basic concept developed uses active RFID Tags worn by miners underground to be detected by vehicle mounted Readers. These Readers in turn provide outputs that can be used to alert a driver (e.g. by light and/or audible alarm) that a person (Tag) approaching within their vicinity. The prototype/test kit developed proved the concept and technology, the four main components being: Active RFID Tags to send out signals for detection by vehicle mounted receivers; Receiver electronics to detect RFID Tags approaching within the vicinity of the unit to create a long range detection system (60 m to 120 m); A transmitting/exciter device to enable inner detection zone (within 5 m to 20 m); and A software/hardware device to process & log incoming Tags reads and create certain outputs. Tests undertaken in the laboratory and at a number of mine sites, confirmed the technology path taken could form the basis of a reliable Proximity Detection/Alert System.

  17. Embryonic treatment with xenobiotics disrupts steroid hormone profiles in hatchling red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, E; Rhen, T; Sakata, J T; Crews, D

    2000-01-01

    Many compounds in the environment capable of acting as endocrine disruptors have been assayed for their developmental effects on morphogenesis; however, few studies have addressed how such xenobiotics affect physiology. In the current study we examine the effects of three endocrine-disrupting compounds, chlordane, trans-nonachlor, and the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1242, on the steroid hormone concentrations of red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) hatchlings treated in ovo. Basal steroid concentrations and steroid concentrations in response to follicle-stimulating hormone were examined in both male and female turtles treated with each of the three compounds. Treated male turtles exposed to Aroclor 1242 or chlordane exhibited significantly lower testosterone concentrations than controls, whereas chlordane-treated females had significantly lower progesterone, testosterone, and 5[alpha]-dihydrotestosterone concentrations relative to controls. The effects of these endocrine disruptors extend beyond embryonic development, altering sex-steroid physiology in exposed animals. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753091

  18. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) after single intravenous and intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uney, K; Altan, F; Cetin, G; Aboubakr, M; Dik, B; Sayın, Z; Er, A; Elmas, M

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome (CFQ) following single intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) injections of 2 mg/kg body weight in red-eared slider turtles. Plasma concentrations of CFQ were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed using noncompartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic parameters following IV injection were as follows: elimination half-life (t 1/2λz ) 21.73 ± 4.95 hr, volume of distribution at steady-state (V dss ) 0.37 ± 0.11 L/kg, area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC 0-∞ ) 163 ± 32 μg hr -1  ml -1 , and total body clearance (Cl T ) 12.66 ± 2.51 ml hr -1  kg -1 . The pharmacokinetic parameters after IM injection were as follows: peak plasma concentration (C max ) 3.94 ± 0.84 μg/ml, time to peak concentration (T max ) 3 hr, t 1/2λz 26.90 ± 4.33 hr, and AUC 0-∞ 145 ± 48 μg hr -1  ml -1 . The bioavailability after IM injection was 88%. Data suggest that CFQ has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with a long half-life and a high bioavailability in red-eared slider turtles. Further studies are needed to establish a multiple dosage regimen and evaluate clinical efficacy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Pathogenicity of frog virus 3-like virus in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) at two environmental temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, M C; Mitchell, M A; Torres, T; Sekowska, J; Driskell, E A

    2013-01-01

    Ranaviral disease has affected several species of reptiles, but disease progression and mortality in relation to environmental temperature has yet to be determined. In this study, two separate trials challenged adult female red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) with a ranavirus (frog virus 3-like virus; FV3) isolate at environmental temperatures of 22 °C (n = 4) and 28 °C (n = 4). The mortality rates in the turtles in the 22 °C and 28 °C trials were 100% and 50%, respectively. Median survival time for turtles exposed to FV3 at 22 °C was 24 days, while it was 30 days in the group kept at 28 °C. Consistent microscopical lesions were observed only in the group inoculated at 22 °C and included fibrinoid necrosis of vessels in the spleen, vascular and sinusoidal thrombi in the liver, necrotizing myositis and a mild heterophilic interstitial pneumonia. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, targeting a conserved portion of the major capsid protein, was able to detect virus copies in whole blood, oral and cloacal swabs, tongue, skeletal muscle, lung, heart, liver, spleen, ovary and kidney. Viral copy number in ante-mortem clinical samples was non-significantly highest in whole blood, while kidney had the highest viral copy number in post-mortem samples. All samples had higher virus copy number in turtles exposed to FV3 at 22 °C compared with 28 °C. This study determined that environmental temperature affects the survival and disease progression in ranavirus-infected red-eared slider turtles, which will aid in managing animals in a clinical or free-ranging setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxicity of glyphosate as Glypro and LI700 to red-eared slider (trachemys scripta elegans) embryos and early hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, Donald W; Matson, Cole; Bickham, John; Doelling-Brown, Paige

    2006-10-01

    More than 8.2 billion ha of cropland, gardens, and forests are treated with the herbicide glyphosate each year. Whereas the toxicity of glyphosate and associated adjuvants has been measured in other vertebrates, few, if any, studies have looked at their effects in reptiles. In some instances, management of turtle habitat requires control of successional stages through application of herbicides. Adults and juvenile turtles may be exposed directly, whereas embryos may contact the chemicals through the soil. In the present study, we exposed eggs of red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) to single applications of herbicide ranging from 0 to 11,206 ppm wet weight of glyphosate in Glypro and 0 to 678 ppm of the surfactant, LI700. Hatching success at the highest concentration was significantly lower (73%) than in other treatments (80-100%). At hatch, turtles at the highest concentration weighed less than those at other concentrations. During a 14-d holding period, we observed dose-response relationships in the ability of hatchlings to right themselves when turned on their backs. At the end of the holding period, hatchlings at the highest dose level were still lighter, and somatic indices were lower, than those in other treatments. Genetic damage, as measured by flow cytometry, increased with treatment concentration except for the highest dose. We conclude that because of the high concentrations needed to produce effects and the protection offered by several centimeters of soil or sediment, glyphosate with LI700 poses low levels of risk to red-eared slider embryos under normal field operations with regards to the endpoints measured in the present study. Carelessness in handling glyphosate or failure to follow label directions may produce adverse effects. There also is a risk that the health of turtle embryos may be affected in ways not measured in the present study.

  2. SU-F-T-104: Determining the NTCP Parameters of Pharyngeal Constrictors and Proximal Esophagus for Radiation Induced Swallowing Problems Recorded Six Months After Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavroidis, P; Price, A; Kostich, M; Green, R; Das, S; Marks, L; Chera, B [University North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Amdur, R; Mendenhall, W [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sheets, N [University of North Carolina, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate the radiobiological parameters of four NTCP models that describe the dose-response relations of pharyngeal constrictors and proximal esophagus regarding the severity of patient reported swallowing problems 6 months post chemo-radiotherapy. To identify the section/structure that best correlates with the manifestation of the clinical endpoints. Finally, to compare the goodness-of-fit of those models. Methods: Forty-three patients were treated on a prospective multi-institutional phase II study for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. All the patients received 60 Gy IMRT and they reported symptoms using the novel patient reported outcome version of the CTCAE. We derived the individual patient dosimetric data of superior, medium and inferior sections of pharyngeal constrictors (SPC, MPC and IPC), superior and inferior sections of esophagus (SES and IES) as separate structures as well as combinations. The Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB), Relative Seriality (RS), Logit and Relative Logit (RL) NTCP models were used to fit the patient data. The fitting of the different models was assessed through the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the Odds Ratio methods. Results: The AUC values were highest for the SPC for Grade ≥ 2 (0.719 for the RS and RL models, and 0.716 for LKB and Logit). For Grade ≥ 1, the respective values were 0.699 for RS, LKB and Logit and 0.676 for RL. For MPC the AUC values varied between 0.463–0.477, for IPC between 0.396–0.458, for SES between 0.556–0.613 and for IES between 0.410–0.519. The Odds Ratio for the SPC was 15.6 (1.7–146.4) for RS, LKB and Logit for NTCP of 55%. Conclusion: All the examined NTCP models could fit the clinical data with similar accuracy. The SPC appear to correlate best with the clinical endpoints of swallowing problems. A prospective study could establish the use of NTCP values of SPC as a constraint in treatment planning.

  3. Transition from Plinian to unstable eruption conditions recorded in fine-grained proximal ash layers of the Middle Laacher See Tephra (12,900 a BP), East Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zernack, Anke Verena

    The 12,900 a BP eruption of Laacher See Volcano is a classic example of a complex, multi-phase Plinian eruption and one of the largest known of the Northern Hemisphere during the Late Quaternary. The wide range of primary and reworked pyroclastic deposits produced record drastically changing...... internal and external conditions during the course of the eruption. Here we focus on the so-called “Hauptbritzbank” (HBB), which marks a significant change in the eruptive style of Laacher See Volcano following the initial Plinian phase. The interval is characterised by a series of thin ash beds...... to assess their eruptive mechanism, transport processes and depositional conditions. Correlation between the Eastern and Southern fan proved difficult with dispersal axes of deposits pointing to two different locations within the Laacher See basin and some not intersecting the basin at all. In addition...

  4. ProxImaL: efficient image optimization using proximal algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix; Diamond, Steven; Nieß ner, Matthias; Ragan-Kelley, Jonathan; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Wetzstein, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    domain-specific language and compiler for image optimization problems that makes it easy to experiment with different problem formulations and algorithm choices. The language uses proximal operators as the fundamental building blocks of a variety

  5. A proximal point algorithm with generalized proximal distances to BEPs

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, G. C.; Neto, J. X. Cruz; Lopes, J. O.; Soares Jr, P. A.; Soubeyran, A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a bilevel problem involving two monotone equilibrium bifunctions and we show that this problem can be solved by a proximal point method with generalized proximal distances. We propose a framework for the convergence analysis of the sequences generated by the algorithm. This class of problems is very interesting because it covers mathematical programs and optimization problems under equilibrium constraints. As an application, we consider the problem of the stability and change dyna...

  6. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis...

  7. An electro-thermally activated rotary micro-positioner for slider-level dual-stage positioning in hard disk drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Gih Keong; Chong, Nyok Boon; Yang, Jiaping; Tan, Cheng Peng

    2016-01-01

    Slider-level micro-positioners are useful to assist a voice coil motor to perform fine head positioning over a Tb/in 2 magnetic disk. Recently, a new kind of slider-level micro-positioner was developed using the thermal unimorph of the Si/SU8 composite. It has the advantages of a very small footprint and high mechanical resonant frequency, but its stroke generation is inadequate, with a 50 nm dynamic stroke at 1 kHz. There is a need for a larger thermally induced stroke. This paper presents a rotary design of an electrothermal micro-positioner to address the stroke requirements without consuming more power or decreasing the mechanical resonant frequency. Experimental studies show the present rotary design can produce a six-fold larger displacement, as compared to the previous lateral design, while possessing a 35 kHz resonant frequency. In addition, simple analytical models were developed to estimate: (i) the rotational stiffness and system’s natural frequency, (ii) thermal unimorph bending and stage rotation, and (iii) the system’s thermal time constant for this rotary electro-thermal micro-positioner. This study found that this rotary electro-thermal micro-positioner can meet the basic stroke requirement and high mechanical resonant frequency for a moving slider, but its thermal cut-off frequency needs to be increased further. (paper)

  8. Periodic-impact motions and bifurcations in dynamics of a plastic impact oscillator with a frictional slider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, G.W.; Lv, X.H.; Ma, L.

    2008-01-01

    A two-degree-of-freedom plastic impact oscillator with a frictional slider is considered. Dynamics of the plastic impact oscillator are analyzed by a three-dimensional map, which describes free flight and sticking solutions of two masses of the system, between impacts, supplemented by transition conditions at the instants of impacts. Piecewise property and singularity are found to exist in the impact Poincare map. The piecewise property of the map is caused by the transitions of free flight and sticking motions of two masses immediately after the impact, and the singularity of the map is generated via the grazing contact of two masses immediately before the impact. These properties of the map have been shown to exhibit particular types of sliding and grazing bifurcations of periodic-impact motions under parameter variation. The influence of piecewise property, grazing singularity and parameter variation on dynamics of the vibro-impact system is analyzed. The global bifurcation diagrams of before-impact velocity as a function of the excitation frequency are plotted to predict much of the qualitative behavior of the system. The global bifurcations of period-N single-impact motions of the plastic impact oscillator are found to exhibit extensive and systematic characteristics. Dynamics of the impact oscillator, in the elastic impact case, is also analyzed. This type of impact is modelled by using the conditions of conservation of momentum and an instantaneous coefficient of restitution rule. The differences in periodic-impact motions and bifurcations are found by making a comparison between dynamic behaviors of the plastic and elastic impact oscillators with a frictional slider. The best progression of the plastic impact oscillator is found to occur in period-1 single-impact sticking motion with large impact velocity. The largest progression of the elastic impact oscillator occurs in period-1 multi-impact motion. The simulative results show that the plastic impact

  9. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) after single intravenous and intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uney, Kamil; Altan, Feray; Aboubakr, Mohammed; Cetin, Gul; Dik, Burak

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after single IV and IM injections in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). ANIMALS 8 healthy red-eared slider turtles. PROCEDURES Turtles received 1 dose of meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg) IV or IM (4 turtles/route), a 30-day washout period was provided, and then turtles received the same dose by the opposite route. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for measurement of plasma meloxicam concentration. Pharmacokinetic values for each administration route were determined with a 2-compartment open model approach. RESULTS For IV administration, mean ± SD values of major pharmacokinetic variables were 1.02 ± 0.41 hours for distribution half-life, 9.78 ± 2.23 hours for elimination half-life, 215 ± 32 mL/kg for volume of distribution at steady state, 11.27 ± 1.44 μg•h/mL for area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, and 18.00 ± 2.32 mL/h/kg for total body clearance. For IM administration, mean values were 0.35 ± 0.06 hours for absorption half-life, 0.72 ± 0.06 μg/mL for peak plasma concentration, 1.5 ± 0.0 hours for time to peak concentration, 3.73 ± 2.41 hours for distribution half-life, 13.53 ± 1.95 hours for elimination half-life, 11.33 ± 0.92 μg•h/mL for area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, and 101 ± 6% for bioavailability. No adverse reactions were detected. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Long half-life, high bioavailability, and lack of immediate adverse reactions of meloxicam administered IM at 0.2 mg/kg suggested the possibility of safe and effective clinical use in turtles. Additional studies are needed to establish appropriate administration frequency and clinical efficacy.

  10. Unified law of evolution of experimental gouge-filled fault for fast and slow slip events at slider frictional experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapchuk, Alexey; Saltykov, Nikolay

    2017-04-01

    Excessive tectonic stresses accumulated in the area of rock discontinuity are released while a process of slip along preexisting faults. Spectrum of slip modes includes not only creeps and regular earthquakes but also some transitional regimes - slow-slip events, low-frequency and very low-frequency earthquakes. However, there is still no agreement in Geophysics community if such fast and slow events have mutual nature [Peng, Gomberg, 2010] or they present different physical phenomena [Ide et al., 2007]. Models of nucleation and evolution of fault slip events could be evolved by laboratory experiments in which regularities of shear deformation of gouge-filled fault are investigated. In the course of the work we studied deformation regularities of experimental fault by slider frictional experiments for development of unified law of evolution of fault and revelation of its parameters responsible for deformation mode realization. The experiments were conducted as a classic slider-model experiment, in which block under normal and shear stresses moves along interface. The volume between two rough surfaces was filled by thin layer of granular matter. Shear force was applied by a spring which deformed with a constant rate. In such experiments elastic energy was accumulated in the spring, and regularities of its releases were determined by regularities of frictional behaviour of experimental fault. A full spectrum of slip modes was simulated in laboratory experiments. Slight change of gouge characteristics (granule shape, content of clay), viscosity of interstitial fluid and level of normal stress make it possible to obtained gradual transformation of the slip modes from steady sliding and slow slip to regular stick-slip, with various amplitude of 'coseismic' displacement. Using method of asymptotic analogies we have shown that different slip modes can be specified in term of single formalism and preparation of different slip modes have uniform evolution law. It is shown

  11. Varying hydric conditions during incubation influence egg water exchange and hatchling phenotype in the red-eared slider turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Virginie; Bonnet, Xavier; Girondot, Marc; Prévot-Julliard, Anne-Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Environmental conditions within the nest, notably temperature and moisture of substrate, exert a powerful influence during embryogenesis in oviparous reptiles. The influence of fluctuating nest temperatures has been experimentally examined in different reptile species; however, similar experiments using moisture as the key variable are lacking. In this article, we examine the effect of various substrate moisture regimes during incubation on different traits (egg mass, incubation length, and hatchling mass) in a chelonian species with flexible-shelled eggs, the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans). Our results show that the rate of water uptake by the eggs was higher in wet than in dry substrate and varied across development. More important, during the first third of development, the egg mass changes were relatively independent of the soil moisture level; they became very sensitive to moisture levels during the other two-thirds. Moreover, hydric conditions exerted a strong influence on the eggs' long-term sensitivity to the moisture of the substrate. Even short-term episodes of high or low levels of moisture modified permanently their water sensitivity, notably through modification of eggshell shape and volume, and in turn entailed significant effects on hatchling mass (and hence offspring quality). Such complex influences of fluctuating moisture levels at various incubation stages on hatchling phenotype better reflect the natural situation, compared to experiments based on stable, albeit different, moisture levels.

  12. Sympathetic influence on the pupillary light response in three red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearworth, James R; Cooper, Lori J

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of phenylephrine and its combination with vecuronium bromide on the iris of turtles to determine if the pupillary light response is affected by sympathetic innervation. Three red-eared slider turtles, Trachemys scripta elegans. Diameters of light-adapted pupils were tracked before and after topical application of drugs to eyes. Phenylephrine was applied independently; in a second group of trials, vecuronium bromide was applied with phenylephrine. Rates of pupil dilation in response to drugs were quantified by fitting data with time constant (tau) equations. Phenylephrine dilated the pupil 24%, tau = 29 min. Combination of phenylephrine with vecuronium bromide increased the pupil size 35%, and dilation was more rapid, tau = 14 min. We also were able to predict these time constants by performing different mathematical operations with an equation developed from a prior study using only vecuronium bromide. When this equation was subtracted from the equation for eyes treated with both vecuronium bromide and phenylephrine, the difference gave the observed tau for phenylephrine; when added to phenylephrine, the sum closely matched the tau for eyes treated with vecuronium bromide and phenylephrine. Further, the tau for vecuronium bromide treated eyes was predicted by subtracting the equation for phenylephrine from that of eyes treated with both vecuronium bromide and phenylephrine. Our results suggest that sympathetic innervation interacts with the parasympathetic pathway to control the pupillary light response in turtles.

  13. Thermal and substrate color-induced melanization in laboratory reared red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, John W; Clark, David L; Mortensen, Rebecca A; Commissaris, Carolyn V; Wittle, Lawrence W; Tucker, John K

    2016-10-01

    Color and pigmentation patterns of the integument can facilitate crypsis, thermoregulation, and social signaling. According to the "thermal melanism hypothesis", cold environmental temperature should increase the quantity of melanin that is deposited in the integument thereby facilitating radiative warming. We studied the influences of water temperature (26°C or 31°C) and substrate color (black or white) on the degree of melanization in the red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta elegans, under laboratory conditions. Turtles reared on a black substrate, or in 26°C water, for 120 days were darker than those reared on a white substrate or in 31°C water. A potential tradeoff between the fitness benefits of crypsis and the benefits of radiative warming through melanism was detected because turtles reared in 26°C water and on a white substrate were darker than those reared on a white substrate and in 31°C water. Low temperatures limited metabolic processes because turtles reared in 26°C water grew more slowly than those reared in 31°C water. However, histological analyses revealed that melanization was a dynamic process in all treatments confirming that the degree of melanization in the cool water treatment was not influenced by the initial and relatively dark hatchling coloration in individuals that grew relatively slowly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution and characteristics of endogenous digestive enzymes in the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Yi; Du, Jie; Qian, Li-Chun; Jing, Ming-Yan; Weng, Xiao-Yan

    2007-08-01

    Distribution and properties of the main digestive enzymes including protease and amylase, from stomach, pancreas and the anterior, middle and posterior intestine of the adult red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta elegans were studied at various pHs and temperatures. The optimum temperature and pH for protease in stomach, pancreas and the anterior, middle and posterior intestine were 40 degrees C, 2.5; 50 degrees C, 8.0; 50 degrees C, 7.0; 50 degrees C, 8.0; and 50 degrees C, 8.5; respectively. The optimum temperature and pH for amylase in stomach, pancreas and anterior, middle and posterior intestine were 40 degrees C, 8.0; 30 degrees C, 7.5; 40 degrees C, 7.0; 50 degrees C, 8.0; and 50 degrees C, 8.0; respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the order of protease activity from high to low was of pancreas, stomach and the anterior, posterior and middle intestine; the activity of amylase in descending order was of anterior intestine, pancreas, posterior intestine, middle intestine and stomach.

  15. Structural determination and histochemical localization of ghrelin in the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Sakata, Ichiro; Kojima, Masayasu; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Takafumi; Kangawa, Kenji

    2004-08-01

    We purified ghrelin peptide and determined the cDNA sequence encoding the precursor protein from the stomach of the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans. The Trachemys ghrelin is comprised of 25-amino acids and has the sequence GSSFLSPEYQNTQQRKDPKKHTKLN. The third serine residue was modified by n-octanoic (C8:0), decanoic (C10:0) or unsaturated decanoic acid (C10:1). The carboxyl-terminal end of the peptide was not amidated, as seen in the ghrelins of other land vertebrates. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed high levels of gene expression in the stomach and moderate levels in the large intestine and pancreas. Histochemical studies of turtle stomach revealed that ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells, which were small and round, were observed in the mucosal layer of the stomach but not in the myenteric plexus, and ghrelin-mRNA-expressing (ghrelin-ex) cells detected by in situ hybridization were scattered in a similar distribution as ghrelin-ip cells. These results indicate that ghrelin is present in reptiles.

  16. Interactive Smart Fashion Using User-Oriented Visible Light Communication: The Case of Modular Strapped Cuffs and Zipper Slider Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai-Eun Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because LEDs offer flexible expressions such as brightness, color control, and various patterns, they are popularly used in multidevice interactions. Moreover, LEDs have excellent physical characteristics. However, existing LED light-based wearable interactions are designed for interest and attention. So, LED can be used in fashion as it can give new look to our style and at the same time also as an interaction device. Therefore, in this paper, we present the design guideline for regulating the technical implementation, design strategies, and directions of interactive LED devices. The technology and design concepts are demonstrated through a case study (analysis of an existing LED light-based wearable interaction. We also design a scenario-based iterative collaborative design process model. Finally, we develop a smart fashion of modular strapped cuffs and zipper slider types that can be attached and detached according to the user’s preference as the interactive smart fashion using user-oriented visible light communication, ultimately pursuing a visual-MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output product through stepwise strategy.

  17. Preliminary study on leadership proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinea Valentina Mihaela

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, it is agreed that effective leadership requires a certain degree of proximity, either physical or mental, which enables leaders to maintain control over their followers and communicate their vision. Although we agree with the leadership proximity principles which states that leaders are able to efficiently serve only those people with whom they interact frequently, in this article we focus instead on the disadvantages of being too close and the way in which close proximity can actually hurt the effectiveness of leadership. The main effects that we discuss regard the way in which proximity and familiarity allow followers to see the weaknesses and faults of the leader much more easily and thus diminish the leader’s heroic aura, and the emotional bias that results from a leader being too familiar with his followers which will impede the process of rational decision making. As a result, we argue that there exists a functional proximity which allows the leader the necessary space in which to perform effective identity work and to hide the backstage aspects of leadership, while also allowing him an emotional buffer zone which will enable him to maintain the ability to see clearly and make rational decisions.

  18. Dietary exposure of BDE-47 and BDE-99 and effects on behavior, bioenergetics, and thyroid function in juvenile red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) and common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenreich, Karen M; Rowe, Christopher L

    2014-12-01

    Juvenile red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) and snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were fed food dosed with brominated diphenyl ether-47 (BDE-47) or BDE-99 for 6 mo beginning approximately 9 mo posthatch. During the exposure period, measurements of growth, bioenergetics, and behavior were made; thyroid function and accumulation were quantified postexposure. Whole-body concentrations of both congeners were lower in red-eared sliders compared with snapping turtles after 6 mo of exposure. Snapping turtles receiving BDE-47 had significantly elevated standard metabolic rates after 3 mo and 4 mo of exposure (p = 0.014 and p = 0.019, respectively). When exposed to BDE-99, red-eared sliders were slower to right themselves after having been inverted (p < 0.0001). Total glandular thyroxine concentrations were significantly reduced in red-eared sliders exposed to BDE-47 (mean control, 8080 ng/g; mean BDE-47, 5126 ng/g; p = 0.034). These results demonstrate that dietary exposure to BDE-47 and BDE-99 can elicit a suite of responses in 2 species of turtles, but that the red-eared slider appears to be a more sensitive species to the measured end points. © 2014 SETAC.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine after single-dose subcutaneous administration in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummrow, Maya S; Tseng, Florina; Hesse, Leah; Court, Michael

    2008-12-01

    Buprenorphine, a mu opioid receptor agonist, is expected to be a suitable analgesic drug for use in reptiles. However, to date, dosage recommendations have been based on anecdotal observations. The aim of this study was to provide baseline pharmacokinetic data in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) targeting a plasma level of 1 ng/ml reported effective for analgesia in humans. Serial blood samples were taken after subcutaneous injection of buprenorphine, and plasma buprenorphine levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Pharmacokinetic parameters of a lower dose (0.02 mg/kg) injected into the forelimb were compared with a higher dose (0.05 mg/kg) given in the same forelimb as well as a lower dose (0.02 mg/kg) given in the hind limb of the same animals with 2 wk between studies. After administration of 0.05 mg/kg in the front limb, 85% of animals maintained the minimum effective plasma level for 24 hr, while only 43% of animals maintained this level after 0.02 mg/kg. After hind limb injection at 0.02 mg/kg, maximum plasma concentrations and areas under the buprenorphine concentration-time curve were less than 20% and 70%, respectively, of values after forelimb injection, consistent with substantial first pass extraction by the liver. Furthermore, a secondary rise in the buprenorphine level was found after having only a hind limb injection, probably from enterohepatic recirculation of glucuronidated drug. In conclusion, buprenorphine dosages of at least 0.075 mg/kg s.i.d. should be appropriate for evaluation of analgesia efficacy, and front limb administration may be preferable to hind limb administration for optimal drug exposure.

  20. Proximal sensing for soil carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Jacqueline R.; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A.

    2018-05-01

    Maintaining or increasing soil organic carbon (C) is vital for securing food production and for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, climate change, and land degradation. Some land management practices in cropping, grazing, horticultural, and mixed farming systems can be used to increase organic C in soil, but to assess their effectiveness, we need accurate and cost-efficient methods for measuring and monitoring the change. To determine the stock of organic C in soil, one requires measurements of soil organic C concentration, bulk density, and gravel content, but using conventional laboratory-based analytical methods is expensive. Our aim here is to review the current state of proximal sensing for the development of new soil C accounting methods for emissions reporting and in emissions reduction schemes. We evaluated sensing techniques in terms of their rapidity, cost, accuracy, safety, readiness, and their state of development. The most suitable method for measuring soil organic C concentrations appears to be visible-near-infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy and, for bulk density, active gamma-ray attenuation. Sensors for measuring gravel have not been developed, but an interim solution with rapid wet sieving and automated measurement appears useful. Field-deployable, multi-sensor systems are needed for cost-efficient soil C accounting. Proximal sensing can be used for soil organic C accounting, but the methods need to be standardized and procedural guidelines need to be developed to ensure proficient measurement and accurate reporting and verification. These are particularly important if the schemes use financial incentives for landholders to adopt management practices to sequester soil organic C. We list and discuss requirements for developing new soil C accounting methods based on proximal sensing, including requirements for recording, verification, and auditing.

  1. Effects of body position and extension of the neck and extremities on lung volume measured via computed tomography in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Christoph; Drees, Randi; Sladky, Kurt K; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Kircher, Patrick R

    2013-10-15

    To determine the effects of body position and extension of the neck and extremities on CT measurements of ventilated lung volume in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). Prospective crossover-design study. 14 adult red-eared slider turtles. CT was performed on turtles in horizontal ventral recumbent and vertical left lateral recumbent, right lateral recumbent, and caudal recumbent body positions. In sedated turtles, evaluations were performed in horizontal ventral recumbent body position with and without extension of the neck and extremities. Lung volumes were estimated from helical CT images with commercial software. Effects of body position, extremity and neck extension, sedation, body weight, and sex on lung volume were analyzed. Mean ± SD volume of dependent lung tissue was significantly decreased in vertical left lateral (18.97 ± 14.65 mL), right lateral (24.59 ± 19.16 mL), and caudal (9.23 ± 12.13 mL) recumbent positions, compared with the same region for turtles in horizontal ventral recumbency (48.52 ± 20.08 mL, 50.66 ± 18.08 mL, and 31.95 ± 15.69 mL, respectively). Total lung volume did not differ among positions because of compensatory increases in nondependent lung tissue. Extension of the extremities and neck significantly increased total lung volume (127.94 ± 35.53 mL), compared with that in turtles with the head, neck, and extremities withdrawn into the shell (103.24 ± 40.13 mL). Vertical positioning of red-eared sliders significantly affected lung volumes and could potentially affect interpretation of radiographs obtained in these positions. Extension of the extremities and neck resulted in the greatest total lung volume.

  2. Does performance status influence the outcome of Nd:YAG laser therapy of proximal esophageal tumors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, G. L.; Wang, K. K.; Ahlquist, D. A.; Viggiano, T. R.; Gostout, C. J.; Balm, R.

    1994-01-01

    The value of endoscopic palliative therapy for malignant obstruction in the proximal esophagus has been questioned. To assess the importance of pre-treatment performance status on treatment outcome, we reviewed the records of patients with tumors of the proximal esophagus undergoing endoscopic laser

  3. ProxImaL: efficient image optimization using proximal algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2016-07-11

    Computational photography systems are becoming increasingly diverse, while computational resources-for example on mobile platforms-are rapidly increasing. As diverse as these camera systems may be, slightly different variants of the underlying image processing tasks, such as demosaicking, deconvolution, denoising, inpainting, image fusion, and alignment, are shared between all of these systems. Formal optimization methods have recently been demonstrated to achieve state-of-the-art quality for many of these applications. Unfortunately, different combinations of natural image priors and optimization algorithms may be optimal for different problems, and implementing and testing each combination is currently a time-consuming and error-prone process. ProxImaL is a domain-specific language and compiler for image optimization problems that makes it easy to experiment with different problem formulations and algorithm choices. The language uses proximal operators as the fundamental building blocks of a variety of linear and nonlinear image formation models and cost functions, advanced image priors, and noise models. The compiler intelligently chooses the best way to translate a problem formulation and choice of optimization algorithm into an efficient solver implementation. In applications to the image processing pipeline, deconvolution in the presence of Poisson-distributed shot noise, and burst denoising, we show that a few lines of ProxImaL code can generate highly efficient solvers that achieve state-of-the-art results. We also show applications to the nonlinear and nonconvex problem of phase retrieval.

  4. Electromagnetic properties of proximity systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresin, Vladimir Z.

    1985-07-01

    Magnetic screening in the proximity system Sα-Mβ, where Mβ is a normal metal N, semiconductor (semimetal), or a superconductor, is studied. Main attention is paid to the low-temperature region where nonlocality plays an important role. The thermodynamic Green's-function method is employed in order to describe the behavior of the proximity system in an external field. The temperature and thickness dependences of the penetration depth λ are obtained. The dependence λ(T) differs in a striking way from the dependence in usual superconductors. The strong-coupling effect is taken into account. A special case of screening in a superconducting film backed by a size-quantizing semimetal film is considered. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data.

  5. Electromagnetic properties of proximity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresin, V.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic screening in the proximity system S/sub α/-M/sub β/, where M/sub β/ is a normal metal N, semiconductor (semimetal), or a superconductor, is studied. Main attention is paid to the low-temperature region where nonlocality plays an important role. The thermodynamic Green's-function method is employed in order to describe the behavior of the proximity system in an external field. The temperature and thickness dependences of the penetration depth lambda are obtained. The dependence lambda(T) differs in a striking way from the dependence in usual superconductors. The strong-coupling effect is taken into account. A special case of screening in a superconducting film backed by a size-quantizing semimetal film is considered. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data

  6. Proximity effect at Millikelvin temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Proximity effects have been studied extensively for the past 25 years. Typically, they are in films several thousand angstroms thick at temperatures not so far below T/sub CNS/, the transition temperature of the NS system. Interesting is, however, the proximity effect at temperatures much lower than T/sub CNS/. In this case, the Cooper-pair amplitudes are not small and very long pair penetration lengths into the normal metal can be expected. Thus, we have observed pair penetration lengths. For these investigations very suitable specimens are commercial wires of one filament of NbTi or Nb embedded in a copper matrix. The reasons are the high transmission coefficient at the interface between the copper and the superconductor and the fact that the copper in these commercial wires is rather clean with electron free paths between 5 to 10 μm long. In this paper, the magnetic properties of thick proximity systems in the range of temperatures between T/sub CNS/ and 5 x 10/sup -4/ T/sub CNS/ in both low and high magnetic fields are discussed

  7. Inability to induce tympanic squamous metaplasia using organochlorine compounds in vitamin A-deficient red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenlein, Karl R; Sleeman, Jonathan M; Holladay, Steven D; Joyner, Priscilla H; Brown, Justin D; Griffin, Mark; Saunders, Geoffrey; Smith, Stephen A

    2008-07-01

    Previously, we reported that wild eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) with aural abscesses contained higher body burdens of organochlorine (OC) compounds than those without the lesion. This lesion in captive chelonians is associated with turtles that are fed diets deficient in vitamin A. To examine the pathophysiology of this lesion and evaluate the relationship between OC burdens and vitamin A metabolism, we maintained red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) under different conditions of OC exposure and dietary vitamin A concentrations from August 2005 to February 2006. Dietary vitamin A concentration (0 or 5 international units/g in the diet) and OC exposure (no OC compound or the mixture of 2 mg/kg chlordane, 0.25 mg/kg aroclor, and 1 mg/kg lindane) did not affect histologic score based on degree of squamous metaplasia of the tympanic epithelium or levels of plasma or liver vitamin A among the study groups. The results of this study suggest that 6 mo of exposure to the selected OC compounds, or similar duration of reduced dietary vitamin A concentrations do not influence the formation of squamous metaplasia and aural abscesses in red-eared sliders. Further studies are required to determine whether the duration of the experiment was insufficient, the OC compounds selected were inappropriate, the dosing was incorrect, and whether there are other unknown mechanisms causing the reported association between OC exposure and aural abscesses seen in eastern box turtles.

  8. Comparative effects of in ovo exposure to sodium perchlorate on development, growth, metabolism, and thyroid function in the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenreich, Karen M; Dean, Karen M; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Rowe, Christopher L

    2012-11-01

    Perchlorate is a surface and groundwater contaminant found in areas associated with munitions and rocket manufacturing and use. It is a thyroid-inhibiting compound, preventing uptake of iodide by the thyroid gland, ultimately reducing thyroid hormone production. As thyroid hormones influence metabolism, growth, and development, perchlorate exposure during the embryonic period may impact embryonic traits that ultimately influence hatchling performance. We topically exposed eggs of red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta) and snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) to 200 and 177 μg/g of perchlorate (as NaClO(4)), respectively, to determine impacts on glandular thyroxine concentrations, embryonic growth and development, and metabolic rates of hatchlings for a period of 2 months post-hatching. In red-eared sliders, in ovo perchlorate exposure delayed hatching, increased external yolk size at hatching, increased hatchling mortality, and reduced total glandular thyroxine concentrations in hatchlings. In snapping turtles, hatching success and standard metabolic rates were reduced, liver and thyroid sizes were increased, and total glandular thyroxine concentrations in hatchlings were reduced after exposure to perchlorate. While both species were negatively affected by exposure, impacts on red-eared sliders were most severe, suggesting that the slider may be a more sensitive sentinel species for studying effects of perchlorate exposure to turtles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-01-01

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors)

  10. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-12-31

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  11. Physical Proximity and Spreading in Dynamic Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Pentland, Alex Sandy; Lehmann, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Most infectious diseases spread on a dynamic network of human interactions. Recent studies of social dynamics have provided evidence that spreading patterns may depend strongly on detailed micro-dynamics of the social system. We have recorded every single interaction within a large population, mapping out---for the first time at scale---the complete proximity network for a densely-connected system. Here we show the striking impact of interaction-distance on the network structure and dynamics ...

  12. Pharmacodynamics of alfaxalone after single-dose intramuscular administration in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans): a comparison of two different doses at two different ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Molly K; Divers, Stephen; Braun, Christina; Hofmeister, Erik H

    2013-11-01

    This study compares the pharmacodynamics of two different doses of alfaxalone administered intramuscularly (IM) to red-eared sliders at two ambient temperatures. Prospective blinded crossover experimental study. Nine adult female sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). Following a 2-week acclimation at 22-25 °C, nine sliders were randomly assigned to receive alfaxalone, 10 mg kg(-1) (W10), or 20 mg kg(-1) (W20) IM. Each turtle received each dose, with a minimum 7-day washout period. A blinded observer evaluated heart rate (HR), palpebral and corneal reflexes, muscle relaxation, handling, and response to toe pinch at the following points: pre-injection, and 5, 12, 20, 30, 45, 60, and 120 minutes post-injection. Turtles then acclimated to 18-20 °C for 63 days, and the experiment was repeated in this lower-temperature environment, with treatment groups C10 (alfaxalone 10 mg kg(-1)) and C20 (alfaxalone 20 mg kg(-1)) subjected to the same crossover design. C10 and C20 groups had significantly lower intraanesthetic HR than W10 or W20, respectively. C10 and W20 were significantly more relaxed and easier to handle than W10. No significant differences were observed in palpebral reflex, nor responsiveness to the toe pinch stimulus. None of the turtles lost corneal reflex. W20 and C20 had prolonged recoveries, compared to low-dose groups within the same temperature environment. Recovery was also longer at C20 and C10 compared to W10. Turtles given 10 mg kg(-1) were more relaxed and easier to handle in cold than warm conditions. Warm turtles were more relaxed and easier to handle when given 20 mg kg(-1) than those given 10 mg kg(-1). Cold conditions correlated with lower HR and longer recovery time for each dose category. The turtles had dose-dependent and inconsistent responses to alfaxalone. Lower ambient temperature augmented the behavioral effects of this drug. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  13. A Nanoscale Plasma Etching Process for Pole Tip Recession of Perpendicular Recording Magnetic Head

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, Shoubin; HE, Dayao

    2017-01-01

    The pole tip of perpendicular recording head is constructed in a stacked structure with materials of NiCoFe, NiFe, Al2O3 and AlTiC. The surfaces of different materials are set at different heights below the air-bearing surface of slider. This paper presented a plasma dry etching process for Pole Tip Recession (PTR) based on an ion beam etching system. Ar and O2 mixed plasma at small incident angles have a high removal rate to the nonmagnetic material. It was utilised to etch the reference sur...

  14. Treatment of Unstable Trochanteric Femur Fractures: Proximal Femur Nail Versus Proximal Femur Locking Compression Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Narsaria, Nidi; G R, Arun; Srivastava, Vivek

    Unstable trochanteric femur fractures are common fractures that are difficult to manage. We conducted a prospective study to compare functional outcomes and complications of 2 different implant designs, proximal femur nail (PFN) and proximal femur locking compression plate (PFLCP), used in internal fixation of unstable trochanteric femur fractures. On hospital admission, 48 patients with unstable trochanteric fractures were randomly assigned (using a sealed envelope method) to treatment with either PFN (24 patients) or PFLCP (24 patients). Perioperative data and complications were recorded. All cases were followed up for 2 years. The groups did not differ significantly (P > .05) in operative time, reduction quality, complications, hospital length of stay, union rate, or time to union. Compared with the PFLCP group, the PFN group had shorter incisions and less blood loss. Regarding functional outcomes, there was no significant difference in mean Harris Hip Score (P = .48) or Palmer and Parker mobility score (P = .58). Both PFN and PFLCP are effective in internal fixation of unstable trochanteric femur fractures.

  15. Realities of proximity facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMott, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Numerous commercial nuclear power plant sites have 2 to 3 reactors located together, and a group of Facilities with capabilities for fuel fabrication, a nuclear reactor, a storage area for spent fuel, and a maintenance area for contaminated equipment and radioactive waste storage are being designed and constructed in the US. The proximity of these facilities to each other provides that the ordinary flow of materials remain within a limited area. Interactions between the various facilities include shared resources such as communication, fire protection, security, medical services, transportation, water, electrical, personnel, emergency planning, transport of hazardous material between facilities, and common safety and radiological requirements between facilities. This paper will explore the advantages and disadvantages of multiple facilities at one site. Problem areas are identified, and recommendations for planning and coordination are discussed

  16. Steroid signaling system responds differently to temperature and hormone manipulation in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M; Crews, D

    2007-01-01

    Many reptiles, including the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Temperature determines gonadal sex during the middle of embryogenesis, or the temperature-sensitive period (TSP), when gonadal sex is labile to both temperature and hormones--particularly estrogen. The biological actions of steroid hormones are mediated by their receptors as defined here as the classic transcriptional regulation of target genes. To elucidate estrogen action during sex determination, we examined estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1, hereafter referred to as ERalpha), estrogen receptor beta (Esr2, hereafter referred to as ERbeta), and androgen receptor (Ar, hereafter referred to as AR) expression in slider turtle gonads before, during and after the TSP, as well as following sex reversal via temperature or steroid hormone manipulation. ERalpha and AR levels spike at the female-producing temperature while ovarian sex is determined, but none of the receptors exhibited sexually dimorphic localization within the gonad prior to morphological differentiation. All three receptors respond differentially to sex-reversing treatments. When shifted to female-producing temperatures, embryos maintain ERalpha and AR expression while ERbeta is reduced. When shifted to male-producing temperatures, medullary expression of all three receptors is reduced. Feminization via estradiol (E(2)) treatment at a male-producing temperature profoundly changed the expression patterns for all three receptors. ERalpha and ERbeta redirected to the cortex in E(2)-created ovaries, while AR medullary expression was transiently reduced. Although warmer incubation temperature and estrogen result in the same endpoint (ovarian development), our results indicate different steroid signaling patterns between temperature- and estrogen-induced feminization. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Gonadal expression of Sf1 and aromatase during sex determination in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta), a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Mary; Shoemaker, Christina; Crews, David

    2007-12-01

    Many egg-laying reptiles have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), where the offspring sex is determined by incubation temperature during a temperature-sensitive period (TSP) in the middle third of development. The underlying mechanism transducing a temperature cue into an ovary or testis is unknown, but it is known that steroid hormones play an important role. During the TSP, exogenous application of estrogen can override a temperature cue and produce females, while blocking the activity of aromatase (Cyp19a1), the enzyme that converts testosterone to estradiol, produces males from a female-biased temperature. The production of estrogen is a key step in ovarian differentiation for many vertebrates, including TSD reptiles, and temperature-based differences in aromatase expression during the TSP may be a critical step in ovarian determination. Steroidogenic factor-1 (Sf1) is a key gene in vertebrate sex determination and regulates many steroidogenic enzymes, including aromatase. We find that Sf1 and aromatase are differentially expressed during sex determination in the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans. Sf1 is expressed at higher levels during testis development while aromatase expression increases during ovary determination. We also assayed Sf1 and aromatase response to sex-reversing treatments via temperature or the modulation of estrogen availability. Sf1 expression was redirected to low-level female-specific patterns with feminizing temperature shift or exogenous estradiol application and redirected to more intense male-specific patterns with male-producing temperature shift or inhibition of aromatase activity. Conversely, aromatase expression was redirected to more intense female-specific patterns with female-producing treatment and redirected toward diffuse low-level male-specific patterns with masculinizing sex reversal. Our data do not lend support to a role for Sf1 in the regulation of aromatase expression during slider turtle sex

  18. Proximal alveolar bone loss in a longitudinal radiographic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavstvedt, S.; Bolin, A.; Henrikson, C.O.; Carstensen, J.

    1986-01-01

    A longitudinal radiographic investigation was made of the progression of the proximal alveolar bone loss over a 10-year period (1970-1980). The material was unselected and consisted of 669 individuals in the county of Stockholm. 61 individuals were randomly selected for evaluation of a recording system using alternative methods of measurement, and 90% of the measurement sites could then be assessed. The correlations between some of the methods were high, such as between measurement of alveolar bone height and root length and between aleveolar bone height and tooth length. To reduce the number of measurements, a partial recording was made, giving a high correlation coefficient between the partial recording and total recording. When five measurement sites were used, the correlation coefficient was 0.96, and a slight increase of the coefficient was obtained when using additional sites

  19. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Comparative, proximate composition, antioxidant vitamins, honey. INTRODUCTION ... solution of inverted sugars and complex mixture of other saccharides ... enzymatic browning in apple slices and grape juice. (Khan, 1985).

  20. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Keywords: Dioscorea dumetorum, proximate composition, mineral analysis, phytochemical screening ... were analyzed using atomic absorption ... determined using a Hack Dr/200 Spectrophotometer. ... Lead Acetate. +. +. + .... cosmetics.

  1. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  2. Transverse and Longitudinal proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, Pryianka; Chand, Hum; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2018-04-01

    With close pairs (˜1.5arcmin) of quasars (QSOs), absorption in the spectra of a background quasar in the vicinity of a foreground quasar can be used to study the environment of the latter quasar at kpc-Mpc scales. For this we used a sample of 205 quasar pairs from the Sloan Digital Sky-Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12) in the redshift range of 2.5 to 3.5 by studying their H I Ly-α absorption. We study the environment of QSOs both in the longitudinal as well as in the transverse direction by carrying out a statistical comparison of the Ly-α absorption lines in the quasar vicinity to that of the absorption lines caused by the inter-galactic medium (IGM). This comparison was done with IGM, matched in absorption redshift and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to that of the proximity region. In contrast to the measurements along the line-of-sight, the regions transverse to the quasars exhibit enhanced H I Ly-α absorption. This discrepancy can either be interpreted as due to an anisotropic emission from the quasars or as a consequence of their finite lifetime.

  3. Biomechanical Strength of Retrograde Fixation in Proximal Third Scaphoid Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Charles A; Boden, Allison L; Hutton, William C; Gottschalk, Michael B

    2018-04-01

    Current techniques for fixation of proximal pole scaphoid fractures utilize antegrade fixation via a dorsal approach endangering the delicate vascular supply of the dorsal scaphoid. Volar and dorsal approaches demonstrate equivalent clinical outcomes in scaphoid wrist fractures, but no study has evaluated the biomechanical strength for fractures of the proximal pole. This study compares biomechanical strength of antegrade and retrograde fixation for fractures of the proximal pole of the scaphoid. A simulated proximal pole scaphoid fracture was produced in 22 matched cadaveric scaphoids, which were then assigned randomly to either antegrade or retrograde fixation with a cannulated headless compression screw. Cyclic loading and load to failure testing were performed and screw length, number of cycles, and maximum load sustained were recorded. There were no significant differences in average screw length (25.5 mm vs 25.6 mm, P = .934), average number of cyclic loading cycles (3738 vs 3847, P = .552), average load to failure (348 N vs 371 N, P = .357), and number of catastrophic failures observed between the antegrade and retrograde fixation groups (3 in each). Practical equivalence between the 2 groups was calculated and the 2 groups were demonstrated to be practically equivalent (upper threshold P = .010). For this model of proximal pole scaphoid wrist fractures, antegrade and retrograde screw configuration have been proven to be equivalent in terms of biomechanical strength. With further clinical study, we hope surgeons will be able to make their decision for fixation technique based on approaches to bone grafting, concern for tenuous blood supply, and surgeon preference without fear of poor biomechanical properties.

  4. Quality of life in old patients with proximal femoral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Raskina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study quality of life in Kemerovo old patients with proximal femoral fractures. Patients and methods. Quality of life in osteoporotic fractures was analyzed in 219 patients (173 women and 46 men who had sustained the injury in January 2004 to December 2008. Results. In the patients with hip fractures, the lowest (41.94+31.16 scores values were recorded by the physical functioning scale reflecting the degree to which their health limited the performance of physical exercises (self-service, walking, going upstairs, weight carriage, etc.. The role functioning and life activity scales showed the highest values (50.96+19.04 and 51.44+26.51 scores, respectively. The mean value of the physical component scale was 46.42+28.26 scores. That of the psychological component scale was 49.56+19.55 scores. Conclusion. The patients with proximal femoral fractures were found to have lower scores on all SF-36 dimensions.

  5. Proximity Displays for Access Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    other documents using the internet. My name is Kami and this is Veda - we are both students at Carnegie Mellon University. I will be moderating today...and Veda will be taking notes. This session will be audio recorded for latter review. Please try and stay on topic during the discussion and try not to

  6. Proximal Participation: A Pathway into Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Selena

    2013-01-01

    In a longitudinal case study of apprentices, the term proximal participation was coined to describe the entry process of young people, with unclear career destinations, into the trade of baking. This article unravels the significance of proximal participation in the decision-making processes of young people who enter a trade through initial…

  7. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  8. Radiographic and Computed Tomographic Configuration of Incomplete Proximal Fractures of the Proximal Phalanx in Horses Not Used for Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brünisholz, Hervé P; Hagen, Regine; Fürst, Anton E; Kuemmerle, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    To characterize the configuration of incomplete proximal fractures of the proximal phalanx (P1) in horses not used for racing and compare radiographic with computed tomography (CT) findings. Historical cohort. Twenty-four horses with incomplete fractures of P1. Medical records of horses not used for racing diagnosed with an incomplete proximal fracture of P1 based on clinical and radiographic examination and confirmed by CT between 2008 and 2013 were retrieved. Radiographs and CT studies of these horses were analyzed using a subjective grading system and by measuring variables that characterized fracture configuration. Twenty-four horses were included (20 Warmbloods) with a mean age of 9.5 years and mean body weight of 574 kg. Fourteen forelimbs and 10 hind limbs were affected. Mean duration of lameness was 8.7 weeks. Computed tomography was superior to radiography in both identifying the fracture and determining fracture size and location. On CT, 92% of fractures were located in the mid-sagittal plane. Mean proximodistal length of the fracture was 13 mm. Fractures were frequently not bicortical. Fractures in forelimbs were located significantly more dorsally than fractures in hind limbs. A distinct fracture pattern with 2 subchondral lines running parallel in close proximity to each other was identified in 54% of cases. Incomplete proximal fractures of P1 have significant variation in their configurations, especially their dorsopalmar/-plantar location. Computed tomography examination allowed clear identification of the fracture configurations and was superior to radiography. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  9. Experimental exposure of eggs to polybrominated diphenyl ethers BDE-47 and BDE-99 in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) and snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) and possible species-specific differences in debromination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenreich, Karen M; Rowe, Christopher L

    2013-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a bioaccumulative, persistent, and toxic class of flame retardants that can potentially impact turtles in natural habitats via exposure through maternal transfer. To simulate maternal transfer in the present study, PBDE congeners BDE-47 and BDE-99 were topically applied to the eggshell and were allowed to diffuse into the egg contents of the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) and snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina). Eggs were topically dosed over 8 d to achieve a target concentration of 40 ng/g in the egg contents. Transfer efficiency was higher for BDE-47 than for BDE-99 in the red-eared sliders (25.8 ± 1.9% vs 9.9 ± 1.1%) and snapping turtles (31.3 ± 1.6% vs 12.5 ± 1.4%), resulting in greater BDE-47 and lower BDE-99 egg content concentrations relative to the 40 ng/g target. However, only 25.8 and 31.3% of the total BDE-47 and 9.9 and 12.5% of the total BDE-99 dose applied could be accounted for in the red-eared slider and snapping turtle egg contents, respectively. Additionally, increased BDE-47 in red-eared slider egg contents dosed with only BDE-99 indicate that BDE-99 might have been debrominated to BDE-47. The efficacy of topical dosing for administering desired embryonic exposures is clearly affected by the chemical properties of the applied compounds and was more successful for BDE-47 in both species. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  10. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  11. Morphology and conservation of the mesoamerican slider (Trachemys venusta, Emydidae) from the Atrato River Basin, Colombia; Morfologia y conservacion de la tortuga Hicotea Mesoamericana (Trachemys venusta, Emydidae) del Rio Atrato, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceballos, Claudia P; Brand, William A

    2014-07-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the mesoamerican slider, Trachemys venusta that inhabits the Atrato River Basin of Colombia have been controversial as three different names have been proposed during the last 12 years: T. v. venusta, T. v. uhrigi, and T. ornate venusta. Using a group of sliders that was confiscated by the regional authority we compared the morphology of T venusta distributed in the Atrato River with the morphology of the subspecies putatively distributed in Colombia. We found that the Colombian mesoamerican slider has an overall smaller size, different plastral inter-scute seam formula, and different head, carapace and plastron coloration patterns. In addition, we also report the poor health condition of these individuals that have endured this illegal trade. We underscore an urgent need for further studies of individuals indigenous to Colombia to better understand the phylogenetic relationships of T. venusta throughout its distributional range, along with a more effective control of the illegal turtle trade in the Uraba Region of Colombia.

  12. Caries status and proximal lesion behaviour during a 6-year period in young adult Danes: an epidemiological investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, Stefania; Chavarría, Nathaly; Ekstrand, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Studies have indicated that many initial proximal caries lesions progress and are eventually restored even if the patients have been under comprehensive preventive programmes. The objectives of the study were (1) to describe the 1996-year baseline caries status of male Danish conscripts and (2......) to assess their early proximal lesions 6-year behaviour. In 1996, all 20-year-old conscripts at Central Barrack Birkerød (n = 115) went through an oral examination, including visual surface-level fillings' recording and a radiographic examination with bitewing radiographs that assessed the proximal......-surface caries and restoration patterns. After 6 years, the behaviour of proximal lesions was studied in 73 of these subjects, and oral health habits were assessed through a questionnaire. Mean number of filled surfaces was 7.5, of which 23% were posterior proximal. Radiographically, the mean number of proximal...

  13. Proximal Hamstring Tendinosis and Partial Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Startzman, Ashley N; Fowler, Oliver; Carreira, Dominic

    2017-07-01

    Proximal hamstring tendinosis and partial hamstring origin ruptures are painful conditions of the proximal thigh and hip that may occur in the acute, chronic, or acute on chronic setting. Few publications exist related to their diagnosis and management. This systematic review discusses the incidence, treatment, and prognosis of proximal hamstring tendinosis and partial hamstring ruptures. Conservative treatment measures include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, rest, and ice. If these measures fail, platelet-rich plasma or shockwave therapy may be considered. When refractory to conservative management, these injuries may be treated with surgical debridement and hamstring reattachment. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e574-e582.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Proximal patellar tendinosis and abnormalities of patellar tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.M.; Tauro, P.G.; Ostlere, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To assess whether an association exists between patellar tendinosis and abnormal patellar tracking. Design and patients. The MRI examinations of 630 patients (i.e. 860 knees) referred with anterior knee pain over a 4-year period were assessed in retrospect for the presence of patellar tendinosis and abnormal patellar tracking. The images of the patients with patellar tendinosis were reviewed and the location within the patellar tendon was recorded. Results. There were 44 knees with proximal patellar tendinosis. Twenty-four of these were considered to have normal patellar tracking and 20 to have abnormal patellar tracking. In the group of 816 knees without proximal patellar tendinosis, 581 were considered to have normal patellar tracking and 235 knees to have abnormal patellar tracking. When the two groups were compared there was a statistically significant difference in the ratio of patients with and without abnormal tracking. Conclusion. In patients referred with anterior knee pain or suspected abnormal patellar tracking there is a significant association between proximal patellar tendinosis and abnormal patellar tracking. (orig.)

  15. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  16. THE PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN BUSH MANGO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    Information regarding previous studies on these physico-chemical ... This behaviour may be attributed to its high myristic acid ... The authors express deep appreciation to the. Heads of ... of a typical rural processing method on the proximate ...

  17. Proximate composition and nutritional characterization of Chia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dairy product associated with several beneficial nutritional and health effects. ... The results for amino acids showed that the essential and non-essential amino ... proximate composition and nutritional (amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals ...

  18. Proximal focal femoral deficiency: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD is a rare congenital anomaly resulting in limb shortening and disability in young. The exact cause of the disease is not known and it may present as varying grades of affection involving the proximal femur and the acetabulum. Recognition of this rare abnormality on radiographs can help manage these cases better since early institution of therapy may help in achieving adequate growth of the femur.

  19. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, D.C.; Pigoski, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors

  20. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  1. Honest sexual signaling in turtles: experimental evidence of a trade-off between immune response and coloration in red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Polo-Cavia, Nuria; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2014-10-01

    Sexual signals can be evolutionarily stable if they are honest and condition dependent or costly to the signaler. One possible cost is the existence of a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. This hypothesis has been experimentally tested in some groups of animals but not in others such as turtles. We experimentally challenged the immune system of female red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) without pathogenic effects to explore whether the immune activation affected visual colorful ornaments of the head. The LPS injection altered the reflectance patterns of color ornaments. In comparison to the control animals, the yellow chin stripes of injected animals exhibited (1) reduced brightness, (2) lower long wavelength (>470 nm) reflectance, and (3) lower values for carotenoid chroma. The postorbital patches of injected individuals also showed reduced very long wavelength (>570 nm) reflectance but did not change in carotenoid chroma. Thus, experimental turtles showed darker and less "yellowish" chin stripes and less "reddish" postorbital patches at the end of the experiment, whereas control turtles did not change their coloration. This is the first experimental evidence supporting the existence of a trade-off between the immune system and the expression of visual ornaments in turtles. We suggest that this trade-off may allow turtles to honestly signal individual quality via characteristics of coloration, which may have an important role in intersexual selection processes.

  2. Identification and localization of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) orthologs in the hypothalamus of the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Iwakoshi-Ukena, Eiko; Osugi, Tomohiro; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was discovered in 2000 as a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibited gonadotropin release in the Japanese quail. GnIH and its orthologs have a common C-terminal LPXRFamide (X=L or Q) motif, and have been identified in vertebrates from agnathans to humans, apart from reptiles. In the present study, we characterized a cDNA encoding GnIH orthologs in the brain of the red-eared slider turtle. The deduced precursor protein consisted of 205 amino-acid residues, encoding three putative peptide sequences that included the LPXRFamide motif at their C-termini. In addition, the precursor sequence was most similar to those of avian species. Immunoaffinity purification combined with mass spectrometry confirmed that three mature peptides were produced in the brain. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that turtle GnIH-containing cells were restricted to the periventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Immunoreactive fibers were densely distributed in the median eminence. Thus, GnIH and related peptides may act on the pituitary to regulate pituitary hormone release in turtles as well as other vertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Honest sexual signaling in turtles: experimental evidence of a trade-off between immune response and coloration in red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Polo-Cavia, Nuria; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2014-10-01

    Sexual signals can be evolutionarily stable if they are honest and condition dependent or costly to the signaler. One possible cost is the existence of a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. This hypothesis has been experimentally tested in some groups of animals but not in others such as turtles. We experimentally challenged the immune system of female red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) without pathogenic effects to explore whether the immune activation affected visual colorful ornaments of the head. The LPS injection altered the reflectance patterns of color ornaments. In comparison to the control animals, the yellow chin stripes of injected animals exhibited (1) reduced brightness, (2) lower long wavelength (>470 nm) reflectance, and (3) lower values for carotenoid chroma. The postorbital patches of injected individuals also showed reduced very long wavelength (>570 nm) reflectance but did not change in carotenoid chroma. Thus, experimental turtles showed darker and less "yellowish" chin stripes and less "reddish" postorbital patches at the end of the experiment, whereas control turtles did not change their coloration. This is the first experimental evidence supporting the existence of a trade-off between the immune system and the expression of visual ornaments in turtles. We suggest that this trade-off may allow turtles to honestly signal individual quality via characteristics of coloration, which may have an important role in intersexual selection processes.

  4. Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic findings in healthy non-sedated red-eared slider terrapins (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, H; Russello, G; Zanella, A; Bellini, L; Gelli, D

    2011-12-01

    Echocardiographic evaluation was performed in six healthy young adult non-sedated terrapins (Trachemys scripta elegans). The best imaging quality was obtained through the right cervical window. Base-apex inflow and outflow views were recorded, ventricular size, ventricular wall thickness and ventricular outflow tract were measured, and fractional shortening was calculated. Pulsed-wave Doppler interrogation enabled the diastolic biphasic atrio-ventricular flow and the systolic ventricular outflow patterns to be recorded. The following Doppler-derived functional parameters were calculated: early diastolic (E) and late diastolic (A) wave peak velocities, E/A ratio, ventricular outflow systolic peak and mean velocities and gradients, Velocity-Time Integral, acceleration and deceleration times, and Ejection Time. For each parameter the mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval were calculated. Echocardiography resulted as a useful and easy-to-perform diagnostic tool in this poorly known species that presents difficulties during evaluation.

  5. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  6. Giant proximity effect in ferromagnetic bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Silvia; Charlton, Tim; Quintanilla, Jorge; Suter, Andreas; Moodera, Jagadeesh; Prokscha, Thomas; Salman, Zaher; Forgan, Ted

    2013-03-01

    The proximity effect is a phenomenon where an ordered state leaks from a material into an adjacent one over some finite distance, ξ. For superconductors, this distance is ~ the coherence length. Nevertheless much longer-range, ``giant'' proximity effects have been observed in cuprate junctions. This surprising effect can be understood as a consequence of critical opalescence. Since this occurs near all second order phase transitions, giant proximity effects should be very general and, in particular, they should be present in magnetic systems. The ferromagnetic proximity effect has the advantage that its order parameter (magnetization) can be observed directly. We investigate the above phenomenon in Co/EuS bilayer films, where both materials undergo ferromagnetic transitions but at rather different temperatures (bulk TC of 1400K for Co and 16.6K for EuS). A dramatic increase in the range of the proximity effect is expected near the TC of EuS. We present the results of our measurements of the magnetization profiles as a function of temperature, carried out using the complementary techniques of low energy muon rotation and polarized neutron reflectivity. Work supported by EPSRC, STFC and ONR grant N00014-09-1-0177 and NSF grant DMR 0504158.

  7. Proximity operations concept design study, task 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. N.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of using optical technology to perform the mission of the proximity operations communications subsystem on Space Station Freedom was determined. Proximity operations mission requirements are determined and the relationship to the overall operational environment of the space station is defined. From this information, the design requirements of the communication subsystem are derived. Based on these requirements, a preliminary design is developed and the feasibility of implementation determined. To support the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and National Space Transportation System, the optical system development is straightforward. The requirements on extra-vehicular activity are such as to allow large fields of uncertainty, thus exacerbating the acquisition problem; however, an approach is given that could mitigate this problem. In general, it is found that such a system could indeed perform the proximity operations mission requirement, with some development required to support extra-vehicular activity.

  8. Endomedullar nail of metacarpal and proximal phalanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Olaya, Francisco Javier; Sanchez Mesa, Pedro Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Prospective study, series of cases; it included patients with diaphysis fractures and union diaphysis-neck or union diaphysis-base of metacarpal and proximal phalanges, in whom was practiced anterograde intramedullary nailing previous closed reduction of the fracture, using prevent intramedullary nail of 1.6 mm. (cem 16) for the metacarpal fractures, and two nail prevent of 1.0 mm. (cem 10) for the proximal phalangeal fractures. Indications: transverse and oblique short fractures, spiral and with comminuting bicortical. Pursuit average is 5.7 months. Frequency surgical intervened patient: 2.2 each month, using this surgical technique a total of 20 (twenty) patients have been operated, 21 (twenty one) fractures; 16 (sixteen) metacarcal fractures and 5 (five) proximal phalangeal fractures, all of them tested using clinical and radiological parameters. Results: good 82%, regular 18%, and bad 0% obtaining bony consolidation and early rehabilitation with incorporation to their habitual works

  9. Evaluation and Management of Proximal Humerus Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Khmelnitskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal humerus fractures are common injuries, especially among older osteoporotic women. Restoration of function requires a thorough understanding of the neurovascular, musculotendinous, and bony anatomy. This paper addresses the relevant anatomy and highlights various management options, including indication for arthroplasty. In the vast majority of cases, proximal humerus fractures may be treated nonoperatively. In the case of displaced fractures, when surgical intervention may be pursued, numerous constructs have been investigated. Of these, the proximal humerus locking plate is the most widely used. Arthroplasty is generally reserved for comminuted 4-part fractures, head-split fractures, or fractures with significant underlying arthritic changes. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is reserved for patients with a deficient rotator cuff, or highly comminuted tuberosities.

  10. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...... more when the road safety is low; the emergency service is not properly organized, and the nearest hospital has lower quality standards....

  11. Proximity functions for general right cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Distributions of distances between pairs of points within geometrical objects, or the closely related proximity functions and geometric reduction factors, have applications to dosimetric and microdosimetric calculations. For convex bodies these functions are linked to the chord-length distributions that result from random intersections by straight lines. A synopsis of the most important relations is given. The proximity functions and related functions are derived for right cylinders with arbitrary cross sections. The solution utilizes the fact that the squares of the distances between two random points are sums of independently distributed squares of distances parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. Analogous formulas are derived for the proximity functions or geometric reduction factors for a cylinder relative to a point. This requires only a minor modification of the solution

  12. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming

    2016-04-14

    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  13. Oxygenation and EMG in the proximal and distal vastus lateralis during submaximal isometric knee extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crenshaw, Albert G.; Bronee, Lars; Krag, Ida

    2010-01-01

    /or (2) fatigue development. Nine males performed 2-min sustained isometric knee extensions at 15% and 30% maximum voluntary contraction during which oxygenation and EMG were recorded simultaneously from proximal and distal locations of the vastus lateralis muscle. Near infrared spectroscopy variables...

  14. [Partial replantation following proximal limb injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, T; Malikov, S A; Dinh, A; Kupatadze, D D; Oberlin, C; Alnot, J Y; Nabokov, B B

    2000-11-01

    Proximal replantation is a technically feasible but life-threatening procedure. Indications must be restricted to patients in good condition with a good functional prognosis. The goal of replantation must be focused not only on reimplanting the amputated limb but also on achieving a good functional outcome. For the lower limb, simple terminalization remains the best choice in many cases. When a proximal amputation is not suitable for replantation, the main aim of the surgical procedure must be to reconstruct a stump long enough to permit fitting a prosthesis preserving the function of the adjacent joint. If the proximal stump beyond the last joint is very short, it may be possible to restore some length by partial replantation of spared tissues from the amputated part. We present here the results we obtained following this policy. This series included 16 cases of partial replantations, 14 involving the lower limb and 2 the upper limb. All were osteocutaneous microsurgical transfers. For the lower limb, all transfers recovered protective sensitivity following tibial nerve repair. The functional calcaeoplantar unit was used in 13 cases. The transfer of this specialized weight bearing tissue provided a stable distal surface making higher support unnecessary. In one case, we raised a 13-cm vascularized tibial segment covered with foot skin for additional length. For the upper limb, the osteocutaneous transfer, based on the radial artery, was not reinnervated, but this lack of sensitivity did not impair prosthesis fitting. One vascular failure was finally amputated. This was the only unsuccessful result. For all other patients, the surgical procedure facilitated prosthesis fitting and preserved the proximal joint function despite an initially very proximal amputation. The advantages of partial replantation are obvious compared with simple terminalization or secondary reconstruction. There is no secondary donor site and, because there is no major muscle mass in the

  15. Proximity effects in ferromagnet/superconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H.L.; Sun, G.Y.; Yang, L.Y.; Xing, D.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The Nambu spinor Green's function approach is applied to study proximity effects in ferromagnet/superconductor (FM/SC) structures. They include the induced superconducting order parameter and density of states (DOS) with superconducting feature on the FM side, and spin-dependent DOS within the energy gap on the SC side. The latter indicates an appearance of gapless superconductivity and a coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in a small regime near the interface. The influence of exchange energy in FM and barrier strength at interface on the proximity effects is discussed

  16. Ultimate and proximate explanations of strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, Jack

    2017-08-23

    Strong reciprocity (SR) has recently been subject to heated debate. In this debate, the "West camp" (West et al. in Evol Hum Behav 32(4):231-262, 2011), which is critical of the case for SR, and the "Laland camp" (Laland et al. in Science, 334(6062):1512-1516, 2011, Biol Philos 28(5):719-745, 2013), which is sympathetic to the case of SR, seem to take diametrically opposed positions. The West camp criticizes advocates of SR for conflating proximate and ultimate causation. SR is said to be a proximate mechanism that is put forward by its advocates as an ultimate explanation of human cooperation. The West camp thus accuses advocates of SR for not heeding Mayr's original distinction between ultimate and proximate causation. The Laland camp praises advocates of SR for revising Mayr's distinction. Advocates of SR are said to replace Mayr's uni-directional view on the relation between ultimate and proximate causes by the bi-directional one of reciprocal causation. The paper argues that both the West camp and the Laland camp misrepresent what advocates of SR are up to. The West camp is right that SR is a proximate cause of human cooperation. But rather than putting forward SR as an ultimate explanation, as the West camp argues, advocates of SR believe that SR itself is in need of ultimate explanation. Advocates of SR tend to take gene-culture co-evolutionary theory as the correct meta-theoretical framework for advancing ultimate explanations of SR. Appearances notwithstanding, gene-culture coevolutionary theory does not imply Laland et al.'s notion of reciprocal causation. "Reciprocal causation" suggests that proximate and ultimate causes interact simultaneously, while advocates of SR assume that they interact sequentially. I end by arguing that the best way to understand the debate is by disambiguating Mayr's ultimate-proximate distinction. I propose to reserve "ultimate" and "proximate" for different sorts of explanations, and to use other terms for distinguishing

  17. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB-BASED PROXIMITY BASED MEDIA SHARING APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Erol Ozan

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the development of Vissou, which is a location based web application that enables media recording and sharing among users who are in close proximity to each other. The application facilitates the automated hand-over of the recorded media files from one user to another. There are many social networking applications and web sites that provide digital media sharing and editing functionalities. What differentiates Vissou from other similar applications is the functions and us...

  19. Exploiting Proximity-Based Mobile Apps for Large-Scale Location Privacy Probing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximity-based apps have been changing the way people interact with each other in the physical world. To help people extend their social networks, proximity-based nearby-stranger (NS apps that encourage people to make friends with nearby strangers have gained popularity recently. As another typical type of proximity-based apps, some ridesharing (RS apps allowing drivers to search nearby passengers and get their ridesharing requests also become popular due to their contribution to economy and emission reduction. In this paper, we concentrate on the location privacy of proximity-based mobile apps. By analyzing the communication mechanism, we find that many apps of this type are vulnerable to large-scale location spoofing attack (LLSA. We accordingly propose three approaches to performing LLSA. To evaluate the threat of LLSA posed to proximity-based mobile apps, we perform real-world case studies against an NS app named Weibo and an RS app called Didi. The results show that our approaches can effectively and automatically collect a huge volume of users’ locations or travel records, thereby demonstrating the severity of LLSA. We apply the LLSA approaches against nine popular proximity-based apps with millions of installations to evaluate the defense strength. We finally suggest possible countermeasures for the proposed attacks.

  20. The shape of the hominoid proximal femur: a geometric morphometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Elizabeth H

    2007-01-01

    As part of the hip joint, the proximal femur is an integral locomotor component. Although a link between locomotion and the morphology of some aspects of the proximal femur has been identified, inclusive shapes of this element have not been compared among behaviourally heterogeneous hominoids. Previous analyses have partitioned complex proximal femoral morphology into discrete features (e.g. head, neck, greater trochanter) to facilitate conventional linear measurements. In this study, three-dimensional geometric morphometrics are used to examine the shape of the proximal femur in hominoids to determine whether femoral shape co-varies with locomotor category. Fourteen landmarks are recorded on adult femora of Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo and Hylobates. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) is used to adjust for position, orientation and scale among landmark configurations. Principal components analysis is used to collapse and compare variation in residuals from GPA, and thin-plate spline analysis is used to visualize shape change among taxa. The results indicate that knucklewalking African apes are similar to one another in femoral shape, whereas the more suspensory Asian apes diverge from the African ape pattern. The shape of the human and orangutan proximal femur converge, a result that is best explained in terms of the distinct requirements for locomotion in each group. These findings suggest that the shape of the proximal femur is brought about primarily by locomotor behaviour. PMID:17310545

  1. Exploration of low temperature microRNA function in an anoxia tolerant vertebrate ectotherm, the red eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggar, Kyle K; Storey, Kenneth B

    2017-08-01

    As a model for vertebrate long-term survival in oxygen-restricted environments, the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) can adapt at the biochemical level to survive in oxygen-free (anoxic) cold water (<10°C). This impressive ability is enabled through a coordinated suppression of energy-expensive, non-essential, cell processes. This study explored the anoxia-responsive expression of several microRNA species (miR-1a, -133, -17, -107, -148a, -21, -103, -210, -20a, -365 and -29b) in adult turtles exposed to 5h and 20h anoxia (at 5±1°C). Furthermore, since microRNA target binding is regularly defined only by microRNA-mRNA interactions at 37°C, the possibility of unique low temperature-selective microRNA targeting interactions with mRNA was explored in this ectotherm. Approximately twice as many microRNA-mRNA interactions were predicted at 5°C versus 37°C with particular enrichment of mRNA targets involved in biological processes known to be part of the stress response. Hence, the results suggest that the influence of temperature should be considered for the prediction of microRNA targets (and their follow-up) in poikilothermic animals and that interacting effects of low body temperature and anoxia on microRNA expression could potentially be important to achieve the profound metabolic rate depression that characterizes turtle hibernation underwater during the winter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Temperature experienced during incubation affects antioxidant capacity but not oxidative damage in hatchling red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treidel, L A; Carter, A W; Bowden, R M

    2016-02-01

    Our understanding of how oxidative stress resistance phenotypes are affected by the developmental environment is limited. One component of the developmental environment, which is likely central to early life oxidative stress among ectothermic and oviparous species, is that of temperature. We investigated how incubation temperature manipulations affect oxidative damage and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) hatchlings. First, to determine whether temperature fluctuations elicit oxidative stress, eggs from clutches were randomly assigned to either a constant (29.5 °C) or daily fluctuating temperature incubation (28.7 ± 3 °C) treatment. Second, to assess the effect of temperature fluctuation frequency on oxidative stress, eggs were incubated in one of three fluctuating incubation regimes: 28.7 ± 3 °C fluctuations every 12 h (hyper), 24 h (normal) or 48 h (hypo). Third, we tested the influence of average incubation temperature by incubating eggs in a daily fluctuating incubation temperature regime with a mean temperature of 26.5 °C (low), 27.1 °C (medium) or 27.7 °C (high). Although the accumulation of oxidative damage in hatchlings was unaffected by any thermal manipulation, TAC was affected by both temperature fluctuation frequency and average incubation temperature. Individuals incubated with a low frequency of temperature fluctuations had reduced TAC, while incubation at a lower average temperature was associated with enhanced TAC. These results indicate that although sufficient to prevent oxidative damage, TAC is influenced by developmental thermal environments, potentially because of temperature-mediated changes in metabolic rate. The observed differences in TAC may have important future consequences for hatchling fitness and overwinter survival. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Experimental transmission and induction of ranaviral disease in Western Ornate box turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata) and red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A J; Pessier, A P; Jacobson, E R

    2007-05-01

    An experimental transmission study was designed to determine whether a causal relationship exists between a Ranavirus (BSTRV) isolated from a Burmese star tortoise that died and the lesions observed in that tortoise. A pilot study was performed with 3 box turtles (Terrapene ornata ornata) and 3 red-eared sliders (RESs; Trachemys scripta elegans) to assess their suitability in a larger study. Based on the outcome of this study, RESs were selected, and 2 groups of 4 RESs received either an oral (PO) or intramuscular (IM) inoculum containing10(5) 50% Tissue Culture Infecting Dose (TCID(50)) of a BSTRV-infected cell lysate. One turtle each was mock inoculated PO or IM with the same volume of uninfected cell lysate. Three of four IM-inoculated RESs developed clinical signs (nasal and ocular discharge [3 of 3], oral plaques [1 of 3], conjunctivitis and hyphema [1 of 3] and extreme lethargy [3 of 3]). A Ranavirus was isolated from kidney homogenates of 3 euthanatized turtles; DNA sequences of a portion of the major capsid protein gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Consistent histologic lesions were observed only in IM-inoculated turtles and included fibrinoid vasculitis centered on splenic ellipsoids, multifocal hepatic necrosis, and multicentric fibrin thrombi in a variety of locations, including hepatic sinusoids, glomerular capillary loops, and pulmonary capillaries. Virions compatible with Ranavirus were observed within necrotic cells of the spleen of 1 IM-inoculated turtle using transmission electron microscopy. This study fulfills Koch's postulates, confirming a causal relationship between BSTRV and the clinical and histologic changes in chelonians infected with this virus.

  4. Myxidium scripta n. sp. identified in urinary and biliary tract of Louisiana-farmed red-eared slider turtles Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, John F; Whipps, Christopher M; Bartholomew, Jerri L; Schneider, Lynda; Jacobson, Elliott R

    2008-08-07

    During a necropsy investigation of a mortality event occurring at a turtle farm in Assumption Parish, Louisiana, spores of a myxozoan were identified in the renal tubules in 3 of 6, the gall bladder lumen in 2 of 6, and the bile ductule in 1 of 6 red eared slider turtles Trachemys scripta elegans. In total, myxozoa were identified in 4 of 6 turtles. In 1 turtle, renal tubules contained numerous mature spores, had epithelial hyperplasia, granulomatous transformation, compression of adjacent tubules and interstitial lymphocytic nephritis. The genus of myxozoan was Myxidium, based on spore morphology in cytological preparations, in histologic section, and by electron microscopy. In cytological preparation the spores had mean dimensions of 18.8 x 5.1 microm and a mean polar capsule dimension of 6.6 x 3.5 microm. Electron microscopy showed renal tubules contained plasmodia with disporoblasts with spores in various stages of maturation. Ultrastructure of mature spores demonstrated a capsule containing 2 asymmetrical overlapping valves and polar capsules containing a polar filament coiled 6 to 8 times and surrounded by a membrane composed of a double layer wall. The small subunit rDNA gene sequence was distinct from all other Myxidium species for which sequences are available. Additionally, this is the first Myxidium species recovered from a North American chelonian to receive genetic analysis. Although T. s. elegans is listed as a host for Myxidium chelonarum, this newly described species of Myxidium possessed larger spores with tapered ends; thus, we described it as a new species, Myxidium scripta n. sp. This report documents a clinically significant nephropathy and genetic sequence from a Myxidium parasite affecting a freshwater turtle species in North America.

  5. A timecourse analysis of systemic and gonadal effects of temperature on sexual development of the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Michael; Natarajan, Anirudh; Barske, Lindsey; Looger, Loren L; Capel, Blanche

    2016-12-01

    Temperature dependent sex determination (TSD) is the process by which the environmental temperature experienced during embryogenesis influences the sex of an organism, as in the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta elegans. In accord with current paradigms of vertebrate sex determination, temperature is believed to exert its effects on sexual development in T. scripta entirely within the middle third of development, when the gonad is forming. However, whether temperature regulates the transcriptome in T. scripta early embryos in a manner that could influence secondary sex characteristics or establish a pro-male or pro-female environment has not been investigated. In addition, apart from a handful of candidate genes, very little is known about potential similarities between the expression cascade during TSD and the genetic cascade that drives mammalian sex determination. Here, we conducted an unbiased transcriptome-wide analysis of the effects of male- and female-promoting temperatures on the turtle embryo prior to gonad formation, and on the gonad during the temperature sensitive period. We found sexually dimorphic expression reflecting differences in steroidogenic enzymes and brain development prior to gonad formation. Within the gonad, we mapped a cascade of differential expression similar to the genetic cascade established in mammals. Using a Hidden Markov Model based clustering approach, we identified groups of genes that show heterochronic shifts between M. musculus and T. scripta. We propose a model in which multiple factors influenced by temperature accumulate during early gonadogenesis, and converge on the antagonistic regulation of aromatase to canalize sex determination near the end of the temperature sensitive window of development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical and histological findings of cutaneous wound healing in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) housed in unheated outdoor enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Joao; Ginel, Pedro J; Novales, Manuel; Guerra, Rafael; Mozos, Elena

    2016-10-01

    Cutaneous wounds are common in chelonians. The clinical and histological features of wound healing in these species are not well described and this prevents evaluation of new therapies. To describe clinical and histopathological features of cutaneous wound healing in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans). Twenty four healthy adult females housed in outdoor facilities with free access to water and exposed to daily variations in temperature. Full thickness 6 mm skin biopsy punch wounds were created in the rear limbs. The turtles were assigned to Group 1 (n = 12 for clinical evaluation) and Group 2 (n = 12 for microscopic study). Group 1 was photographed on Day 1 and weekly, until 28 days post wounding. Wound retraction was expressed as the percentage of perimeter reduction. For Group 2, three skin wounds were sampled at 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 60 and 135 days post wounding for histological study. The avidin-biotin-peroxidase (ABC) staining method was used to evaluate five commercial antibodies. Wound contraction was limited; crust persisted at least 28 days. Re-epithelialization was complete by Day 14 in many animals; active inflammation persisted until 28 days; connective tissue re-constitution and remodelling was achieved from 42 to 135 days. Antibodies AE1/AE3, Factor VIII, MAC 387, CD3 and NCL-MSA showed cross reactivity with the cell counterpart in turtle tissues. Second intention wound healing progressed slowly and with an indolent behaviour. Microscopically there was marked overlapping of the inflammatory and proliferative phases over a long time period. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Applicability of a particularly simple model to nonlinear elasticity of slide-ring gels with movable cross-links as revealed by unequal biaxial deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yuuki; Urayama, Kenji; Kidowaki, Masatoshi; Mayumi, Koichi; Takigawa, Toshikazu; Ito, Kohzo

    2014-10-07

    The strain energy density function (F) of the polyrotaxane-based slide-ring (SR) gels with movable cross-links along the network strands is characterized by unequal biaxial stretching which can achieve various types of deformation. The SR gels as prepared without any post-preparation complication exhibit considerably smaller values of the ratio of the stresses (σy/σx) in the stretched (x) and constrained (y) directions in planar extension than classical chemical gels with heterogeneous and nearly homogeneous network structures do. This feature of the SR gels leads to the peculiar characteristic that the strain energy density function (F) has no explicit cross term of strains in different directions, which is in contrast to F with explicit strain cross terms for most chemical gels and elastomers. The biaxial stress-strain data of the SR gels are successfully described by F of the Gent model with only two parameters (small-strain shear modulus and a parameter representing ultimate elongation), which introduces the finite extensibility effect into the neo-Hookean model with no explicit cross term of strain. The biaxial data of the deswollen SR gels examined in previous study, which underwent a considerable reduction in volume from the preparation state, are also well described by the Gent model, which is in contrast to the case of the classical chemical gels that the stress-strain relations before and after large deswelling are not described by a common type of F due to a significant degree of collapse of the network strands in the deswollen state. These intriguing features of nonlinear elasticity of the SR gels originate from a novel function of the slidable cross-links that can maximize the arrangement entropy of cross-linked and non-cross-linked cyclic molecules in the deformed networks.

  8. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening results indicate the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phytosterols and phenols. Acute toxicity study showed there was no mortality at 8000 mg/kg of the extract. The results indicate that the plant is rich in phytochemicals and is relatively safe. Key words: Phytochemicals, acute toxicity, proximate ...

  9. PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. ... and 12.75 ± 3.65% respectively. Mineral contents of white grub in terms of relative concentration .... of intracellular Ca, bone mineralization, blood coagulation, and plasma membrane potential ...

  10. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  11. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  12. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  13. Modified Koyanagi Technique in Management of Proximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xp

    Modified Koyanagi Technique in Management of Proximal Hypospadias. Adham Elsaied, Basem Saied, and Mohammed El- ... All operations were performed by the authors,using fine instruments and under 3.5X loupe ... the other needed an operation to close the fistula six months later. The case with meatal recession had ...

  14. Proximity focusing RICH with TOF capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpar, S.; Adachi, I.; Fujita, K.; Fukushima, T.; Gorisek, A.; Hayashi, D.; Iijima, T.; Ikado, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawai, H.; Kozakai, Y.; Krizan, P.; Kuratani, A.; Mazuka, Y.; Nakagawa, T.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Seki, T.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Unno, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A proximity focusing RICH counter with a multi-channel micro-channel plate (MCP) PMT was tested as a time-of-flight counter. Cherenkov photons emitted in the radiator medium as well as in the entrance window of the PMT were used for the time-of-flight measurement, and an excellent performance of the counter could be demonstrated

  15. Proximate composition and mycological characterization of peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: The aim of this work was to contribute to the food safety of Ivorian consumers by investigating the proximate composition and the toxic fungal contamination of peanut butters offered for retail sale on the different markets of Abidjan. Methodology and results: Peanut butter samples (45) ...

  16. Prosthetic replacement for proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontakis, George; Tosounidis, Theodoros; Galanakis, Ioannis; Megas, Panagiotis

    2008-12-01

    The ideal management of complex proximal humeral fractures continues to be debatable. Evolution of proximal humeral fracture management, during the past decade, led to the implementation of many innovations in surgical treatment. Even though the pendulum of treatment seems to swing towards new trends such as locked plating, hemiarthroplasty remains a valid and reliable option that serves the patient's needs well. Hemiarthroplasty is indicated for complex proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients with poor bone stock and when internal fixation is difficult or unreliable. Hemiarthroplasty provides a better result when it is performed early post-injury. Stem height, retroversion and tuberosity positioning are technical aspects of utmost importance. Additionally reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is an alternative new modality that can be used as a primary solution in selected patients with proximal humeral fracture treatment. Failed hemiarthroplasty and fracture sequelae can be successfully managed with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Individual decision-making and tailored treatment that takes into consideration the personality of the fracture and the patient's characteristics should be used.

  17. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the phytochemical screening showed that alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present, while reducing sugars, tannins, oils and acid compounds were absent. Similarly, the results of the proximate analysis of the rhizome showed that ginger ...

  18. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  19. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  20. Uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction of the proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Min

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allograft-prosthetic composite can be divided into three groups names cemented, uncemented, and partially cemented. Previous studies have mainly reported outcomes in cemented and partially cemented allograft-prosthetic composites, but have rarely focused on the uncemented allograft-prosthetic composites. The objectives of our study were to describe a surgical technique for using proximal femoral uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite and to present the radiographic and clinical results. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients who underwent uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction of the proximal femur after bone tumor resection were retrospectively evaluated at an average followup of 24.0 months. Clinical records and radiographs were evaluated. Results: In our series, union occurred in all the patients (100%; range 5-9 months. Until the most recent followup, there were no cases with infection, nonunion of the greater trochanter, junctional bone resorption, dislocation, allergic reaction, wear of acetabulum socket, recurrence, and metastasis. But there were three periprosthetic fractures which were fixed using cerclage wire during surgery. Five cases had bone resorption in and around the greater trochanter. The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS score and Harris hip score (HHS were 26.2 points (range 24-29 points and 80.6 points (range 66.2-92.7 points, respectively. Conclusions: These results showed that uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite could promote bone union through compression at the host-allograft junction and is a good choice for proximal femoral resection. Although this technology has its own merits, long term outcomes are yet not validated.

  1. Medieval and early modern approaches to fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, S.

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of complex fractures of the proximal humerus have challenged surgical practitioners and medical writers since the earliest recorded surgical texts. Current knowledge of fractures of the proximal humerus has been obtained through pathoanatomical and biomechanical studies...... within the last two centuries. However, the historical preconditions for this development have not been studied. This paper reviews written sources from the fall of the Roman Empire to the late eighteenth century. Medieval and early modern writers mainly rely on the Hippocratic writings De Fracturis...

  2. Medieval and early modern approaches to fractures of the proximal humerus: an historical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, S.

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of complex fractures of the proximal humerus have challenged surgical practitioners and medical writers since the earliest recorded surgical texts. Current knowledge of fractures of the proximal humerus has been obtained through pathoanatomical and biomechanical studies...... within the last two centuries. However, the historical preconditions for this development have not been studied. This paper reviews written sources from the fall of the Roman Empire to the late eighteenth century. Medieval and early modern writers mainly rely on the Hippocratic writings De Fracturis...

  3. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  4. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.

    1989-04-01

    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  5. Adrenal-kidney-gonad complex measurements may not predict gonad-specific changes in gene expression patterns during temperature-dependent sex determination in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Mary; Crews, David

    2007-08-01

    Many turtles, including the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) have temperature-dependent sex determination in which gonadal sex is determined by temperature during the middle third of incubation. The gonad develops as part of a heterogenous tissue complex that comprises the developing adrenal, kidney, and gonad (AKG complex). Owing to the difficulty in excising the gonad from the adjacent tissues, the AKG complex is often used as tissue source in assays examining gene expression in the developing gonad. However, the gonad is a relatively small component of the AKG, and gene expression in the adrenal-kidney (AK) compartment may interfere with the detection of gonad-specific changes in gene expression, particularly during early key phases of gonadal development and sex determination. In this study, we examine transcript levels as measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for five genes important in slider turtle sex determination and differentiation (AR, ERalpha, ERbeta, aromatase, and Sf1) in AKG, AK, and isolated gonad tissues. In all cases, gonad-specific gene expression patterns were attenuated in AKG versus gonad tissue. All five genes were expressed in the AK in addition to the gonad at all stages/temperatures. Inclusion of the AK compartment masked important changes in gonadal gene expression. In addition, AK and gonad expression patterns are not additive, and gonadal gene expression cannot be predicted from intact AKG measurements. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Isolated Proximal Tibiofibular Dislocation during Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Chiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are rarely encountered in the Emergency Department (ED. We present a case involving a man presenting to the ED with left knee pain after making a sharp left turn on the soccer field. His physical exam was only remarkable for tenderness over the lateral fibular head. His X-rays showed subtle abnormalities of the tibiofibular joint. The dislocation was reduced and the patient was discharged from the ED with orthopedic follow-up.

  7. Superconducting proximity effect in topological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeg, Christopher R.

    In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the proximity effect due to its role in the realization of topological superconductivity. In this dissertation, we discuss several results that have been obtained in the field of proximity-induced superconductivity and relate the results to the search for Majorana fermions. First, we show that repulsive electron-electron interactions can induce a non-Majorana zero-energy bound state at the interface between a conventional superconductor and a normal metal. We show that this state is very sensitive to disorder, owing to its lack of topological protection. Second, we show that Rashba spin-orbit coupling, which is one of the key ingredients in engineering a topological superconductor, induces triplet pairing in the proximity effect. When the spin-orbit coupling is strong (i.e., when the characteristic energy scale for spin-orbit coupling is comparable to the Fermi energy), the induced singlet and triplet pairing amplitudes can be comparable in magnitude. Finally, we discuss how the size of the proximity-induced gap, which appears in a low-dimensional material coupled to a superconductor, evolves as the thickness of the (quasi-)low-dimensional material is increased. We show that the induced gap can be comparable to the bulk energy gap of the underlying superconductor in materials that are much thicker than the Fermi wavelength, even in the presence of an interfacial barrier and strong Fermi surface mismatch. This result has important experimental consequences for topological superconductivity, as a sizable gap is required to isolate and detect the Majorana modes.

  8. [Proximity and breastfeeding at the maternity hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradin-Charrier, Anne-Claire

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of breastfeeding, as well as its duration, are facilitated through the proximity of the mother with her new baby. However, in maternity hospitals, breastfeeding mothers very often leave their baby in the nursery at night time. A study carried out in 2014 in several maternity hospitals put forward suggestions and highlighted areas to improve in everyday practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Proximity effects in topological insulator heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiao-Guang; Wu Guang-Fen; Zhang Gu-Feng; Culcer Dimitrie; Zhang Zhen-Yu; Chen Hua

    2013-01-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) are bulk insulators that possess robust helical conducting states along their interfaces with conventional insulators. A tremendous research effort has recently been devoted to Tl-based heterostructures, in which conventional proximity effects give rise to a series of exotic physical phenomena. This paper reviews our recent studies on the potential existence of topological proximity effects at the interface between a topological insulator and a normal insulator or other topologically trivial systems. Using first-principles approaches, we have realized the tunability of the vertical location of the topological helical state via intriguing dual-proximity effects. To further elucidate the control parameters of this effect, we have used the graphene-based heterostructures as prototypical systems to reveal a more complete phase diagram. On the application side of the topological helical states, we have presented a catalysis example, where the topological helical state plays an essential role in facilitating surface reactions by serving as an effective electron bath. These discoveries lay the foundation for accurate manipulation of the real space properties of the topological helical state in TI-based heterostructures and pave the way for realization of the salient functionality of topological insulators in future device applications. (topical review - low-dimensional nanostructures and devices)

  10. [Augmentation technique on the proximal humerus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, A; Gebhard, F; Röderer, G

    2015-09-01

    The treatment of osteoporotic fractures is still a challenge. The advantages of augmentation with respect to primary in vitro stability and the clinical use for the proximal humerus are presented in this article. In this study six paired human humeri were randomized into an augmented and a non-augmented group. Osteosynthesis was performed with a PHILOS plate (Synthes®). In the augmented group the two screws finding purchase in the weakest cancellous bone were augmented. The specimens were tested in a 3-part fracture model in a varus bending test. The augmented PHILOS plates withstood significantly more load cycles until failure. The correlation to bone mineral density (BMD) showed that augmentation could partially compensate for low BMD. The augmentation of the screws in locked plating in a proximal humerus fracture model is effective in improving the primary stability in a cyclic varus bending test. The targeted augmentation of two particular screws in a region of low bone quality within the humeral head was almost as effective as four screws with twice the amount of bone cement. Screw augmentation combined with a knowledge of the local bone quality could be more effective in enhancing the primary stability of a proximal humerus locking plate because the effect of augmentation can be exploited more effectively limiting it to the degree required. The technique of augmentation is simple and can be applied in open and minimally invasive procedures. When the correct procedure is used, complications (cement leakage into the joint) can be avoided.

  11. A proximity effect in adults' contamination intuitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Kim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Magical beliefs about contagion via contact (Rozin, Nemeroff, Wane, and Sherrod, 1989 may emerge when people overgeneralize real-world mechanisms of contamination beyond their appropriate boundaries (Lindeman and Aarnio, 2007. Do people similarly overextend knowledge of airborne contamination mechanisms? Previous work has shown that very young children believe merely being close to a contamination source can contaminate an item (Springer and Belk 1994; we asked whether this same hyper-avoidant intuition is also reflected in adults' judgments. In two studies, we measured adults' ratings of the desirability of an object that had made contact with a source of contamination, an object nearby that had made no contact with the contaminant, and an object far away that had also made no contact. Adults showed a clear proximity effect, wherein objects near the contamination source were perceived to be less desirable than those far away, even though a separate group of adults unanimously acknowledged that contaminants could not possibly have made contact with either the nearby or far-away object (Study 1. The proximity effect also remained robust when a third group of adults was explicitly told that no contaminating particles had made contact with the objects at any time (Study 2. We discuss implications of our findings for extending the scope of magical contagion effects beyond the contact principle, for understanding the persistence of intuitive theories despite broad acceptance of science-based theories, and for constraining interpretations of the developmental work on proximity beliefs.

  12. Acute and persistent effects of pre- and posthatching thermal environments on growth and metabolism in the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligon, Day B; Peterson, Charles C; Lovern, Matthew B

    2012-04-01

    Many ectotherms possess the capacity to survive a wide range of thermal conditions. Long-term exposure to temperature can induce acclimational and/or organizational effects, and the developmental stage at which temperature exposure occurs may affect the type, degree, and persistence of these effects. We incubated red-eared slider turtle embryos at three different constant temperatures (T(inc); 26.5, 28.5, 30.5°C), then divided the resulting hatchlings between two water temperatures (T(water); 25, 30°C). We calculated growth rates to assess the short- and long-term effects of thermal experience on this metabolically costly process. We also measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) at three body temperatures (T(body;) 26.5, 28.5, 30.5°C) shortly after hatching and 6 months posthatching to characterize the degree and persistence of acclimation to T(inc) and T(water) . Hatchling RMRs were affected by T(body) and T(inc) , and fit a pattern consistent with positive but incomplete metabolic compensation to T(inc) . Average growth rates over the first 11 weeks posthatching were strongly affected by T(water) but only marginally influenced by T(inc) , and only at T(water) = 30°C. Six-month RMRs exhibited strong acclimation to T(water) consistent with positive metabolic compensation. However, within each T(water) treatment, RMR fit patterns indicative of inverse metabolic compensation to T(inc) , opposite of the pattern observed in hatchlings. Average growth rates calculated over 6 months continued to show a strong effect of T(water) , and the previously weak effect of T(inc) observed within the 30°C T(water) treatment became more pronounced. Our results suggest that metabolic compensation was reversible regardless of the life stage during which exposure occurred, and therefore is more appropriately considered acclimational than organizational. © 2012 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  13. Biomechanical Evaluation of Standard Versus Extended Proximal Fixation Olecranon Plates for Fixation of Olecranon Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Allison L; Daly, Charles A; Dalwadi, Poonam P; Boden, Stephanie A; Hutton, William C; Muppavarapu, Raghuveer C; Gottschalk, Michael B

    2018-01-01

    Small olecranon fractures present a significant challenge for fixation, which has resulted in development of plates with proximal extension. Olecranon-specific plates with proximal extensions are widely thought to offer superior fixation of small proximal fragments but have distinct disadvantages: larger dissection, increased hardware prominence, and the increased possibility of impingement. Previous biomechanical studies of olecranon fracture fixation have compared methods of fracture fixation, but to date there have been no studies defining olecranon plate fixation strength for standard versus extended olecranon plates. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical utility of the extended plate for treatment of olecranon fractures. Sixteen matched pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaveric elbows were used. Of the 16, 8 matched pairs received a transverse osteotomy including 25% and 8 including 50% of the articular surface on the proximal fragment. One elbow from each pair was randomly assigned to a standard-length plate, and the other elbow in the pair received the extended-length plate, for fixation of the fracture. The ulnae were cyclically loaded and subsequently loaded to failure, with ultimate load, number of cycles, and gap formation recorded. There was no statistically significant difference between the standard and extended fixation plates in simple transverse fractures at either 25% or 50% from the proximal most portion of the articular surface of the olecranon. Standard fixation plates are sufficient for the fixation of small transverse fractures, but caution should be utilized particularly with comminution and nontransverse fracture patterns.

  14. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  15. Treatment of proximal ulna and olecranon fractures by dorsal plating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloen, Peter; Buijze, Geert A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : Anatomic reconstruction of proximal ulna and olecranon fractures allowing early mobilization and prevention of ulnohumeral arthritis. INDICATIONS : Comminuted olecranon or proximal ulna fractures (including Monteggia fractures), olecranon fractures extending distally from the coronoid

  16. Strong Proximities on Smooth Manifolds and Vorono\\" i Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, J. F.; Guadagni, C.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces strongly near smooth manifolds. The main results are (i) second countability of the strongly hit and far-miss topology on a family $\\mathcal{B}$ of subsets on the Lodato proximity space of regular open sets to which singletons are added, (ii) manifold strong proximity, (iii) strong proximity of charts in manifold atlases implies that the charts have nonempty intersection. The application of these results is given in terms of the nearness of atlases and charts of proxim...

  17. Phenological Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phenology is the scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions. The few records...

  18. Critical Proximity as a Methodological Move in Techno-Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Elgaard Jensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    proximity.’ Critical proximity offers an alternative to critical distance, especially with respect to avoiding premature references to abstract panoramas such as democratization and capitalist exploitation in the quest to conduct ‘critical’ analysis. Critical proximity implies, instead, granting the beings...

  19. 75 FR 5009 - Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... information regarding whether the use of proximity detection systems would reduce the risk of accidents where... . Information on MSHA-approved proximity detection systems is available on the Internet at http://www.msha.gov...

  20. Lubricant depletion under various laser heating conditions in Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shaomin; Wu, Haoyu; Bogy, David

    2014-09-01

    Heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) is expected to increase the storage areal density to more than 1 Tb/in2 in hard disk drives (HDDs). In this technology, a laser is used to heat the magnetic media to the Curie point (~400-600 °C) during the writing process. The lubricant on the top of a magnetic disk could evaporate and be depleted under the laser heating. The change of the lubricant can lead to instability of the flying slider and failure of the head-disk interface (HDI). In this study, a HAMR test stage is developed to study the lubricant thermal behavior. Various heating conditions are controlled for the study of the lubricant thermal depletion. The effects of laser heating repetitions and power levels on the lubricant depletion are investigated experimentally. The lubricant reflow behavior is discussed as well.

  1. Keldysh proximity action for disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigel'man, M.V.; Larkin, A.I.; Skvortsov, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We review a novel approach to the superconductive proximity effect in disordered normal-superconducting (N-S) structures. The method is based on the multicharge Keldysh action and is suitable for the treatment of interaction and fluctuation effects. As an application of the formalism, we study the subgap conductance and noise in two-dimensional N-S system in the presence of the electron-electron interaction in the Cooper channel. It is shown that singular nature of the interaction correction at large scales leads to a nonmonotonous temperature, voltage and magnetic field dependence of the Andreev conductance. (author)

  2. Phonon structure in proximity tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate, H.G.; Carbotte, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    We have iterated to convergence, for the first time, a set of four coupled real axis Eliashberg equations for the superconducting gap and renormalization functions on each side of a proximity sandwich. We find that the phenomenological procedures developed to extract the size of the normal side electron-phonon interaction from tunneling data are often reasonable but may in some cases need modifications. In all the cases considered the superconducting phonon structure reflected on the normal side, as well as other structures, shows considerable agreement with experiment as to size, shape, and variation with barrier transmission coefficient. Finally, we study the effects of depairing on these structures

  3. Proximal iliotibial band syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Guadagnini Falotico

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The overuse injuries in the hip joint occur commonly in sports practitioners and currently due to technical advances in diagnostic imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, are often misdiagnosed. Recently, a group of people were reported, all female, with pain and swelling in the pelvic region.T2-weighted MRI showed increased signal in the enthesis of the iliotibial band (ITB along the lower border of the iliac tubercle. We report a case of a 34 year old woman, non-professional runner, with pain at the iliac crest with no history of trauma and whose MRI was compatible with the proximal iliotibial band syndrome.

  4. Noise measurements on proximity effect bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, S.K.; Mercereau, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Audio frequency noise density measurements were performed on weakly superconducting proximity effect bridges on using a cooled transformer and room temperature low noise preamplifier. The noise temperature of the measuring system is approximately 4 0 K for a 0.9 Ω resistor. Noise density was measured as a function of bias current and temperature for the bridges. Excess noise above that expected from Johnson noise for a resistor equal to the dynamic resistance of the bridges was observed in the region near the critical current of the device. At high currents compared to the critical current, the noise density closely approaches that given by Johnson noise

  5. Magnetic Force Microscopy Observation of Perpendicular Recording Head Remanence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilekrojanavuti, P.; Saengkaew, K.; Cheowanish, I.; Damrongsak, B.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) was utilized to observe the magnetic write head remanence, which is the remaining out-of-plane magnetic field on magnetic write heads after a write current is turned off. This remnant field can write unwanted tracks or erase written tracks on a magnetic media. The write head remanence can also occur from device and slider fabrication, either by applying current to the write coil during the inspection or biasing the external magnetic field to magnetic recording heads. This remanence can attract magnetic nanoparticles, which is suspended in cleaning water or surrounding air, and cause device contamination. MFM images were used to examine locations of the remnant field on the surface of magnetic recording heads. Experimental results revealed that the remanence occurred mostly on the shield and is dependent on the initial direction of magnetic moments. In addition, we demonstrated a potential use of MFM imaging to investigate effects of different etching gases on the head remanence.

  6. Head-disk interface nanotribology for Tbit/inch2 recording densities: near-contact and contact recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakis, Antonis I.; Polycarpou, Andreas A.

    2010-06-01

    In the effort to achieve Tbit/inch2 recording densities, thermal fly-height control (TFC) nanotechnology was developed to effectively reduce the clearance (which is of the order of a few nanometres) at the head-disk interface (HDI) of hard-disk drives. In this work, we present a model of the HDI that can predict the dynamic flying and nanotribological contacting behaviour, allowing for accurate predictions and characterization of the operating regime as a function of TFC actuation. A geometric model for TFC is presented and an improved definition of contact at the interface is developed in the presence of nanoscale topographical roughness and dynamic microwaviness. A new methodology is proposed for the calculation of the nominal area of contact, which affects both near- and at-contact behaviour, while the stiffening of the air bearing force with TFC actuation is also accounted for. Slider behaviour is analysed by quantifying the approach, jump-to-contact, lubricant and solid contact regimes of operation and identifying the critical and optimum TFC actuations. The feasibility of near-contact, light molecularly thin lubricant contact versus solid contact recording is explored under the effect of the interfacial forces and stresses present at the HDI. The clearance and the state of vibrations are analysed and design guidelines are proposed for improved performance.

  7. Head-disk interface nanotribology for Tbit/inch2 recording densities: near-contact and contact recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakis, Antonis I; Polycarpou, Andreas A

    2010-01-01

    In the effort to achieve Tbit/inch 2 recording densities, thermal fly-height control (TFC) nanotechnology was developed to effectively reduce the clearance (which is of the order of a few nanometres) at the head-disk interface (HDI) of hard-disk drives. In this work, we present a model of the HDI that can predict the dynamic flying and nanotribological contacting behaviour, allowing for accurate predictions and characterization of the operating regime as a function of TFC actuation. A geometric model for TFC is presented and an improved definition of contact at the interface is developed in the presence of nanoscale topographical roughness and dynamic microwaviness. A new methodology is proposed for the calculation of the nominal area of contact, which affects both near- and at-contact behaviour, while the stiffening of the air bearing force with TFC actuation is also accounted for. Slider behaviour is analysed by quantifying the approach, jump-to-contact, lubricant and solid contact regimes of operation and identifying the critical and optimum TFC actuations. The feasibility of near-contact, light molecularly thin lubricant contact versus solid contact recording is explored under the effect of the interfacial forces and stresses present at the HDI. The clearance and the state of vibrations are analysed and design guidelines are proposed for improved performance.

  8. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  9. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk=0.34; 95% confidence interval=0.19, 0.63) Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

  10. Eddy current proximity measurement of perpendicular tubes from within pressure tubes in CANDU nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, P. F. D.; Underhill, P. R.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2018-04-01

    Fuel channels in CANDU® (CANada Deuterium Uranium) nuclear reactors consist of two non-concentric tubes; an inner pressure tube (PT) and a larger diameter calandria tube (CT). Up to 400 horizontally mounted fuel channels are contained within a calandria vessel, which also holds the heavy water moderator. Certain fuel channels pass perpendicularly over horizontally oriented tubes (nozzles) that are part of the reactor's liquid injection shutdown system (LISS). Due to sag, these fuel channels are at risk of coming into contact with the LISS nozzles. In the event of contact between the LISS nozzle and CT, flow-induced vibrations from within the moderator could lead to fretting and deformation of the CT. LISS nozzle proximity to CTs is currently measured optically from within the calandria vessel, but from outside the fuel channels. Measurement by an independent means would provide confidence in optical results and supplement cases where optical observations are not possible. Separation of PT and CT, known as gap, is monitored from within the PT using a transmit-receive eddy current probe. Investigation of the eddy current based gap probe as a tool to also measure proximity of LISS nozzles was carried out experimentally in this work. Eddy current response as a function of LISS-PT proximity was recorded. When PT-CT gap, PT wall thickness, PT resistivity and probe lift-off variations were not present this dependence could be used to determine the LISS-PT proximity. This method has the potential to provide LISS-CT proximity using existing gap measurement data. Obtaining LISS nozzle proximity at multiple inspection intervals could be used to provide an estimate of the time to LISS-CT contact, and thereby provide a means of optimizing maintenance schedules.

  11. RECORDS REACHING RECORDING DATA TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. L. Gresik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  12. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  13. Steroid Signaling and Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination – Reviewing the Evidence for Early Action of Estrogen during Ovarian Determination in the Red-Eared Slider Turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Mary; Crews, David

    2009-01-01

    The developmental processes underlying gonadal differentiation are conserved across vertebrates, but the triggers initiating these trajectories are extremely variable. The red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), a system where incubation temperature during a temperature-sensitive period of development determines offspring sex. However, gonadal sex is sensitive to both temperature and hormones during this period – particularly estrogen. We present a model for temperature-based differences in aromatase expression as a critical step in ovarian determination. Localized estrogen production facilitates ovarian development while inhibiting male-specific gene expression. At male-producing temperatures aromatase is not upregulated, thereby allowing testis development. PMID:18992835

  14. Promoter proximal polyadenylation sites reduce transcription activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Kjølhede; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression relies on the functional communication between mRNA processing and transcription. We previously described the negative impact of a point-mutated splice donor (SD) site on transcription. Here we demonstrate that this mutation activates an upstream cryptic polyadenylation (CpA) site......, which in turn causes reduced transcription. Functional depletion of U1 snRNP in the context of the wild-type SD triggers the same CpA event accompanied by decreased RNA levels. Thus, in accordance with recent findings, U1 snRNP can shield premature pA sites. The negative impact of unshielded pA sites...... on transcription requires promoter proximity, as demonstrated using artificial constructs and supported by a genome-wide data set. Importantly, transcription down-regulation can be recapitulated in a gene context devoid of splice sites by placing a functional bona fide pA site/transcription terminator within ∼500...

  15. Children’s proximal societal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    or the children’s everyday life, but something that is represented through societal structures and actual persons participating (in political ways) within the institutional settings, in ways that has meaning to children’s possibilities to participate, learn and develop. Understanding school or daycare as (part of......) the children’s proximal societal conditions for development and learning, means for instance that considerations about an inclusive agenda in a (Danish) welfare state with well-developed school- and daycare system, are no longer simply thoughts about the school having space for as many pupils as possible...... (schools for all). Such thoughts can or should be supplemented by reflections about which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to present our children with, and which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to set up as the condition for children’s participation and development. These questions require an ethical...

  16. Are there radiologically identifiable prodromal changes in Thoroughbred racehorses with parasagittal fractures of the proximal phalanx?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M R W; Wright, I M

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal phalanx are generally considered to result from monotonic supraphysiological loads, but radiological observations from clinical cases suggest there may be a stress-related aetiology. To determine whether there are radiologically identifiable prodromal changes in Thoroughbred racehorses with confirmed parasagittal fractures of the proximal phalanx. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Case records and radiographs of Thoroughbred racehorses with parasagittal fractures of the proximal phalanx were analysed. Thickness of the subchondral bone plate was measured in fractured and contralateral limbs, and additional radiological features consistent with prodromal fracture pathology documented. The subchondral bone plate was significantly thicker in affected than in contralateral limbs. Evidence of additional prodromal fracture pathology was observed in 15/110 (14%) limbs with parasagittal fractures, and in 4% of contralateral limbs. The results of this study are not consistent with monotonic loading as a cause of fracture in at least a proportion of cases, but suggest a stress-related aetiology. Increased thickness of the subchondral bone plate may reflect (failed) adaptive changes that precede fracture. Better understanding of the aetiology of fractures of the proximal phalanx may help develop strategies to reduce the risk of fracture. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Formation and function of a new pollen aperture pattern in angiosperms: The proximal sulcus of Tillandsia leiboldiana (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Béatrice; Matamoro-Vidal, Alexis; Raquin, Christian; Nadot, Sophie

    2010-02-01

    Pollen grains are generally surrounded by an extremely resistant wall interrupted in places by apertures that play a key role in reproduction; pollen tube growth is initiated at these sites. The shift from a proximal to distal aperture location is a striking innovation in seed plant reproduction. Reversals to proximal aperture position have only very rarely been described in angiosperms. The genus Tillandsia belongs to the Bromeliaceae family, and its aperture pattern has been described as distal monosulcate, the most widespread aperture patterns recorded in monocots and basal angiosperms. Here we report developmental and functional elements to demonstrate that the sulcate aperture in Tillandsia leiboldiana is not distal as previously described but proximal. Postmeitotic tetrad observation indicates unambiguously the proximal position of the sulcus, and in vitro germination of pollen grains confirms that the aperture is functional. This is the first report of a sulcate proximal aperture with proximal germination. The observation of microsporogenesis reveals specific features in the patterns of callose thickenings in postmeiotic tetrads.

  18. Distributed Autonomous Control of Multiple Spacecraft During Close Proximity Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCamish, Shawn B

    2007-01-01

    This research contributes to multiple spacecraft control by developing an autonomous distributed control algorithm for close proximity operations of multiple spacecraft systems, including rendezvous...

  19. Vinyl Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartmanski, Dominik; Woodward, Ian

    2018-01-01

    . This relational process means that both the material affordances and entanglements of vinyl allow us to feel, handle, experience, project, and share its iconicity. The materially mediated meanings of vinyl enabled it to retain currency in independent and collector’s markets and thus resist the planned......In this paper, we use the case of the vinyl record to show that iconic objects become meaningful via a dual process. First, they offer immersive engagements which structure user interpretations through various material experiences of handling, use, and extension. Second, they always work via...

  20. PROXIMAL DISABILITY AND SPINAL DEFORMITY INDEX IN PATIENTS WITH PROXIMAL FEMUR FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvio Mistro Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the quality of life related to the spine in patients with proximal femoral fractures. Methods : Study conducted in a tertiary public hospital in patients with proximal femoral fractures caused by low-energy trauma, through the Oswestry Disability Index questionnaire to asses complaints related to the spine at the time of life prior to the femoral fracture. The thoracic and lumbar spine of patients were also evaluated applying the radiographic index described by Gennant (Spinal Deformity Index, which assesses the number and severity of fractures. Results : Seventeen subjects completed the study. All had some degree of vertebral fracture. Patients were classified in the categories of severe and very severe disability in the questionnaire about quality of life. It was found that the higher SDI, the better the quality of life. Conclusion : There is a strong association of disability related to the spine in patients with proximal femoral fracture, and this complaint must be systematically evaluated in patients with appendicular fracture.

  1. Initial outcome and efficacy of S3 proximal humerus locking plate in the treatment of proximal humerus fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiming; Zhu Xuesong; Bao Zhaohua; Yang Huilin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to explore the initial outcome and efficacy of S 3 proximal humerus locking plate in the treatment of proximal humerus fractures. Methods: Twenty-two patients with proximal humerus fracture were treated with the S 3 proximal humerus locking plate. Most of the fractures were complex, two-part (n=4), three-part (n=11) and four-part (n=7) fractures according to the Neer classification of the proximal humerus fractures. Results: All patients were followed up for 3∼15 months. There were no complications related to the implant including loosening or breakage of the plate. Good and excellent results were documented in 17 patients fair results in 4 patients according the Neer scores of shoulder. Conclusion: New design concepts of S 3 proximal humerus plate provide the subchondral support and the internal fixation support. With the addition of the proper exercise of the shoulder joint, the outcomes would be satisfied. (authors)

  2. Dating young tephras - a distal solution to proximal controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuanyu; Blockley, Simon; Xu, Yigang; Menzies, Martin

    2017-04-01

    In-situ dating of young volcanic rocks (environmental data. Assessment of the temporal and spatial variations of such climatic events will help us better understand the dynamics of these rapid and short-lived climatic episodes. References: Broecker, W.S., 2001. Was the Medieval Warm Period Global? Science, 291(5508): 1497-1499. Chen, X.-Y., Blockley, S.P.E., Tarasov, P.E., Xu, Y.-G., McLean, D., Tomlinson, E.L., Albert, P.G., Liu, J.-Q., Müller, S., Wagner, M. and Menzies, M.A., 2016. Clarifying the distal to proximal tephrochronology of the Millennium (B-Tm) eruption, Changbaishan Volcano, northeast China. Quat. Geochronol., 33: 61-75. Ge, Q. and Wu, W., 2011. Climate during the Medieval Climate Anomaly in China. PAGES news, 19: 24-26. Sun, C., Plunkett, G., Liu, J., Zhao, H., Sigl, M., McConnell, J.R., Pilcher, J.R., Vinther, B., Steffensen, J.P. and Hall, V., 2014. Ash from Changbaishan Millennium eruption recorded in Greenland ice: Implications for determining the eruption's timing and impact. Geophys. Res. Lett., 2013GL058642.

  3. Proximal alveolar bone loss in a longitudinal radiographic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavstvedt, S.; Bolin, A.; Henrikson, C.O.

    1986-01-01

    Four hundred and six individuals from an unselected sample from the County of Stockholm aged 18 to 65 years in 1970 were examined radiographically in 1970 and 1980. The differences in proximal alveolar bone height were recorded, attention being paid to the divergences in projection between the two investigations. The mean of the alveolar bone differnce was 5.5% of the mean root length, which corresponds to an average annual bone loss of 0.09 mm. Ninety per cent of the individuals had a difference in alveolar bone height of less than 10% of the root length, that is an average bone loss of 1.6 mm or less during 10 years. By linear regression analysis it was shown that the difference in alveolar bone height is a function of the initial bone loss; that is, the greater the initial bone loss, the greater the alveolar bone loss during the 10-year period. The result of the regression analysis may facilitate predictions of alveolar bone loss

  4. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club November  Selections Just in time for the holiday season, we have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then Nov 2011. New films include the all 5 episodes of Fast and Furious, many of the most famous films starring Jean-Paul Belmondo and those of Louis de Funes and some more recent films such as The Lincoln Lawyer and, according to some critics, Woody Allen’s best film for years – Midnight in Paris. For the younger generation there is Cars 2 and Kung Fu Panda 2. New CDs include the latest releases by Adele, Coldplay and the Red Hot Chili Peppers. We have also added the new Duets II CD featuring Tony Bennett singing with some of today’s pop stars including Lady Gaga, Amy Winehouse and Willy Nelson. The Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday ...

  5. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club June Selections We have put a significant number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club and select the «Discs of the Month» button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then June 2011. New films include the latest Action, Suspense and Science Fiction film hits, general drama movies including the Oscar-winning The King’s Speech, comedies including both chapter of Bridget Jones’s Diary, seven films for children and a musical. Other highlights include the latest Harry Potter release and some movies from the past you may have missed including the first in the Terminator series. New CDs include the latest releases by Michel Sardou, Mylene Farmer, Jennifer Lopez, Zucchero and Britney Spears. There is also a hits collection from NRJ. Don’t forget that the Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtimes from 12h30 to 13h00 in Restaurant 2, Building 504. (C...

  6. Record club

    CERN Document Server

    Record club

    2010-01-01

      Bonjour a tous, Voici les 24 nouveaux DVD de Juillet disponibles depuis quelques jours, sans oublier les 5 CD Pop musique. Découvrez la saga du terroriste Carlos, la vie de Gainsbourg et les aventures de Lucky Luke; angoissez avec Paranormal Activity et évadez vous sur Pandora dans la peau d’Avatar. Toutes les nouveautés sont à découvrir directement au club. Pour en connaître la liste complète ainsi que le reste de la collection du Record Club, nous vous invitons sur notre site web: http://cern.ch/crc. Toutes les dernières nouveautés sont dans la rubrique « Discs of the Month ». Rappel : le club est ouvert les Lundis, Mercredis, Vendredis de 12h30 à 13h00 au restaurant n°2, bâtiment 504. A bientôt chers Record Clubbers.  

  7. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club Nouveautés été 2011 Le club de location de CDs et de DVDs vient d’ajouter un grand nombre de disques pour l’été 2011. Parmi eux, Le Discours d’un Roi, oscar 2011 du meilleur film et Harry Potter les reliques de la mort (1re partie). Ce n’est pas moins de 48 DVDs et 10 CDs nouveaux qui vous sont proposés à la location. Il y en a pour tous les genres. Alors n’hésitez pas à consulter notre site http://cern.ch/record.club, voir Disc Catalogue, Discs of the month pour avoir la liste complète. Le club est ouvert tous les Lundi, Mercredi, Vendredi de 12h30 à 13h dans le bâtiment du restaurent N°2 (Cf. URL: http://www.cern.ch/map/building?bno=504) A très bientôt.  

  8. Proximity Operations and Docking Sensor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Brewster, Linda L.; Lee, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been under development for the last three years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in spot mode out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. 12 Parts obsolescence issues prevent the construction of more AVGS units, and the next generation sensor was updated to allow it to support the CEV and COTS programs. The flight proven AR&D sensor has been redesigned to update parts and add additional capabilities for CEV and COTS with the development of the Next Generation AVGS at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The obsolete imager and processor are being replaced with new radiation tolerant parts. In addition, new capabilities include greater sensor range, auto ranging capability, and real-time video output. This paper presents some sensor hardware trades, use of highly integrated laser components, and addresses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It also discusses approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements

  9. Proximity coupling in superconductor-graphene heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2018-05-01

    This review discusses the electronic properties and the prospective research directions of superconductor-graphene heterostructures. The basic electronic properties of graphene are introduced to highlight the unique possibility of combining two seemingly unrelated physics, superconductivity and relativity. We then focus on graphene-based Josephson junctions, one of the most versatile superconducting quantum devices. The various theoretical methods that have been developed to describe graphene Josephson junctions are examined, together with their advantages and limitations, followed by a discussion on the advances in device fabrication and the relevant length scales. The phase-sensitive properties and phase-particle dynamics of graphene Josephson junctions are examined to provide an understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Josephson coupling via graphene. Thereafter, microscopic transport of correlated quasiparticles produced by Andreev reflections at superconducting interfaces and their phase-coherent behaviors are discussed. Quantum phase transitions studied with graphene as an electrostatically tunable 2D platform are reviewed. The interplay between proximity-induced superconductivity and the quantum-Hall phase is discussed as a possible route to study topological superconductivity and non-Abelian physics. Finally, a brief summary on the prospective future research directions is given.

  10. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, J M

    2012-10-01

    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asztalos, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need

  12. Imaging of rectus femoris proximal tendinopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesquer, Lionel; Poussange, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudiere, Benjamin; Feldis, Matthieu; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Graveleau, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The rectus femoris is the most commonly injured muscle of the anterior thigh among athletes, especially soccer players. Although the injury pattern of the muscle belly is well documented, less is known about the anatomy and specific lesions of the proximal tendons. For each head, three distinctive patterns may be encountered according to the location of the injury, which can be at the enthesis, within the tendon, or at the musculotendinous junction. In children, injuries correspond most commonly to avulsion of the anteroinferior iliac spine from the direct head and can lead to subspine impingement. Calcific tendinitis and traumatic tears may be encountered in adults. Recent studies have shown that traumatic injuries of the indirect head may be underdiagnosed and that injuries of both heads may have a surgical issue. Finally, in the case of tears, functional outcome and treatment may vary if the rupture involves one or both tendons and if the tear is partial or complete. Thus, it is mandatory for the radiologist to know the different ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of these lesions in order to provide accurate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this article is to recall the anatomy of the two heads of rectus femoris, describe a reliable method of assessment with ultrasound and MRI and know the main injury patterns, through our own experience and literature review. (orig.)

  13. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  14. Imaging of rectus femoris proximal tendinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesquer, Lionel; Poussange, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudiere, Benjamin; Feldis, Matthieu [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre d' Imagerie Osteo-articulaire, Merignac (France); Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand [Groupe Ramsay Generale de Sante - Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, Centre Orthopedique Santy, Lyon (France); Graveleau, Nicolas [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Sportive, Merignac (France)

    2016-07-15

    The rectus femoris is the most commonly injured muscle of the anterior thigh among athletes, especially soccer players. Although the injury pattern of the muscle belly is well documented, less is known about the anatomy and specific lesions of the proximal tendons. For each head, three distinctive patterns may be encountered according to the location of the injury, which can be at the enthesis, within the tendon, or at the musculotendinous junction. In children, injuries correspond most commonly to avulsion of the anteroinferior iliac spine from the direct head and can lead to subspine impingement. Calcific tendinitis and traumatic tears may be encountered in adults. Recent studies have shown that traumatic injuries of the indirect head may be underdiagnosed and that injuries of both heads may have a surgical issue. Finally, in the case of tears, functional outcome and treatment may vary if the rupture involves one or both tendons and if the tear is partial or complete. Thus, it is mandatory for the radiologist to know the different ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of these lesions in order to provide accurate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this article is to recall the anatomy of the two heads of rectus femoris, describe a reliable method of assessment with ultrasound and MRI and know the main injury patterns, through our own experience and literature review. (orig.)

  15. RECORD CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2010-01-01

    DVD James Bond – Series Complete To all Record Club Members, to start the new year, we have taken advantage of a special offer to add copies of all the James Bond movies to date, from the very first - Dr. No - to the latest - Quantum of Solace. No matter which of the successive 007s you prefer (Sean Connery, George Lazenby, Roger Moore, Timothy Dalton, Pierce Brosnan or Daniel Craig), they are all there. Or perhaps you have a favourite Bond Girl, or even perhaps a favourite villain. Take your pick. You can find the full selection listed on the club web site http://cern.ch/crc; use the panel on the left of the page “Discs of the Month” and select Jan 2010. We remind you that we are open on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 12:30 to 13:00 in Restaurant 2 (Bldg 504).

  16. Record dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robe, Dominic M.; Boettcher, Stefan; Sibani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    When quenched rapidly beyond their glass transition, colloidal suspensions fall out of equilibrium. The pace of their dynamics then slows down with the system age, i.e., with the time elapsed after the quench. This breaking of time translational invariance is associated with dynamical observables...... which depend on two time-arguments. The phenomenology is shared by a broad class of aging systems and calls for an equally broad theoretical description. The key idea is that, independent of microscopic details, aging systems progress through rare intermittent structural relaxations that are de......-facto irreversible and become increasingly harder to achieve. Thus, a progression of record-sized dynamical barriers are traversed in the approach to equilibration. Accordingly, the statistics of the events is closely described by a log-Poisson process. Originally developed for relaxation in spin glasses...

  17. Record breakers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In the sixties, CERN’s Fellows were but a handful of about 50 young experimentalists present on site to complete their training. Today, their number has increased to a record-breaking 500. They come from many different fields and are spread across CERN’s different activity areas.   “Diversifying the Fellowship programme has been the key theme in recent years,” comments James Purvis, Head of the Recruitment, Programmes and Monitoring group in the HR Department. “In particular, the 2005 five-yearly review introduced the notion of ‘senior’ and ‘junior’ Fellowships, broadening the target audience to include those with Bachelor-level qualifications.” Diversification made CERN’s Fellowship programme attractive to a wider audience but the number of Fellows on site could not have increased so much without the support of EU-funded projects, which were instrumental in the growth of the programme. ...

  18. Ipsilateral proximal femur and shaft fractures treated with hip screws and a reamed retrograde intramedullary nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrum, Robert F; Tornetta, Paul; Watson, J Tracy; Christiano, Anthony; Vafek, Emily

    2014-09-01

    Although not common, proximal femoral fractures associated with ipsilateral shaft fractures present a difficult management problem. A variety of surgical options have been employed with varying results. We investigated the use of hip screws and a reamed retrograde intramedullary (IM) nail for the treatment of this combined fracture pattern in terms of postoperative alignment (malunion), nonunion, and complications. Between May 2002 and October 2011, a total of 95 proximal femoral fractures with associated shaft fractures were treated at three participating Level 1 trauma centers; all were treated with hip screw fixation (cannulated screws or sliding hip screws) and retrograde reamed IM nails. The medical records of these patients were reviewed retrospectively for alignment, malunion, nonunion, and complications. Followup was available on 92 of 95 (97%) of the patients treated with hip screws and a retrograde nail. Forty were treated with a sliding hip screw, and 52 were treated with cannulated screws. There were five proximal malunions in this series (5%). The union rate was 98% (90 of 92) for the femoral neck fractures and 91.3% (84 of 92) for the femoral shaft fractures after the initial surgery. There were two nonunions of comminuted femoral neck fractures after cannulated screw fixation. There was no difference in femoral neck union or alignment when comparing cannulated screws to a sliding hip screw. Four open comminuted femoral shaft fractures went on to nonunion and required secondary surgery to obtain union, and one patient developed symptomatic avascular necrosis. The treatment of ipsilateral proximal femoral neck and shaft fractures with hip screw fixation and a reamed retrograde nail demonstrated a high likelihood of union for the femoral neck fractures and a low risk of malunion. Comminution and initial displacement of the proximal femoral fracture may still lead to a small incidence of malunion or nonunion, and open comminuted femoral shaft fractures

  19. Proximal Opening Wedge Osteotomy Provides Satisfactory Midterm Results With a Low Complication Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravakangas, Rami; Leppilahti, Juhana; Laine, Vesa; Niinimäki, Tuukka

    2016-01-01

    Hallux valgus is one of the most common foot deformities. Proximal opening wedge osteotomy is used for the treatment of moderate and severe hallux valgus with metatarsus primus varus. However, hypermobility of the first tarsometatarsal joint can compromise the results of the operation, and a paucity of midterm results are available regarding proximal open wedge osteotomy surgery. The aim of the present study was to assess the midterm results of proximal open wedge osteotomy in a consecutive series of patients with severe hallux valgus. Thirty-one consecutive adult patients (35 feet) with severe hallux valgus underwent proximal open wedge osteotomy. Twenty patients (35.5%) and 23 feet (34.3%) were available for the final follow-up examination. The mean follow-up duration was 5.8 (range 4.6 to 7.0) years. The radiologic measurements and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux-metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scores were recorded pre- and postoperatively, and subjective questionnaires were completed and foot scan analyses performed at the end of the follow-up period. The mean hallux valgus angle decreased from 38° to 23°, and the mean intermetatarsal angle correction decreased from 17° to 10°. The mean improvement in the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal score increased from 52 to 84. Two feet (5.7%) required repeat surgery because of recurrent hallux valgus. No nonunions were identified. Proximal open wedge osteotomy provided satisfactory midterm results in the treatment of severe hallux valgus, with a low complication rate. The potential instability of the first tarsometatarsal joint does not seem to jeopardize the midterm results of the operation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proximate analysis of female population of wild feather back fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... Key words: Body composition, Notopterus notopterus, condition factor, wild fish. INTRODUCTION. Proximate body composition is the analysis of water, fat, protein and ash contents of the fish (Love, 1980). Proximate composition is a good indicator of physiology which is needed for routine analysis of ...

  1. Proximate analysis of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each of the mushroom species was separated into its stipe and pileus and used for proximate analysis. There was a highly significant difference (p<0.01) in the proximate composition of the two species. P. atroumbonata had significantly higher crude protein, crude fibre and moisture content than L. squarrosulus while the ...

  2. Proximal Focal Femoral Deficiency in Ibadan a Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cultural aversion to amputation in our environment makes it difficult to employ that option of treatment. Proximal focal femoral deficiency in Ibadan a developing country's perspective and a review of the literature. Keywords: Proximal focal femoral deficiency , congenital malformations , limb malformations , lower limb ...

  3. Proximity approach to problems in topology and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Naimpally, Somashekhar

    2009-01-01

    Dieses Buch konzentriert das aktuelle Gesamtwissen zum Proximity-Konzept und stellt es dem Leser in gut strukturierter Form dar. Hauptaugenmerk liegt auf den vielfältigen Möglichkeiten, die sich aus dem Proximity-Konzept der räumlichen Nähe und seiner Verallgemeinerung im Nearness-Konzept ergeben.

  4. Systemic calciphylaxis presenting as a painful, proximal myopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelstein, C. L.; Wickham, M. K.; Kirby, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    A renal transplant patient who presented with a painful, proximal myopathy due to systemic calciphylaxis is described. The myopathy preceded the characteristic skin and soft tissue necrosis. Systemic calciphylaxis should be considered in a dialysis or a renal transplant patient presenting with a painful proximal myopathy even in the absence of necrotic skin lesions.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: proximal 18q deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... characteristic features. Most cases of proximal 18q deletion syndrome are the result of a new (de novo) deletion and are not inherited from a ... J, Fox PT, Stratton RF, Perry B, Hale DE. Recurrent interstitial deletions of proximal 18q: a new syndrome involving expressive speech delay. Am J Med Genet ...

  6. Proximal soil sensors and data fusion for precision agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    different remote and proximal soil sensors are available today that can scan entire fields and give detailed information on various physical, chemical, mechanical and biological soil properties. The first objective of this thesis was to evaluate different proximal soil sensors available today and to

  7. Two Stages repair of proximal hypospadias: Review of 33 cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HussamHassan

    Background/Purpose: Proximal hypospadias with chordee is the most challenging variant of hypospadias to reconstruct. During the last 10 years, the approach to sever hypospadias has been controversial. Materials & Methods: During the period from June 2002 to December 2009, I performed 33 cases with proximal.

  8. A comparative biomechanical analysis of implants for the stabilization of proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füchtmeier, B; May, R; Fierlbeck, J; Hammer, J; Nerlich, M

    2006-01-01

    A new humerus nail (Sirus) has become available for the treatment of fractures of the proximal humerus. The aim of the study was the biomechanical comparison of this implant with established systems. 12 matched pairs of human humeri were employed for testing. Three randomized groups were formed (n = 4 pairs). A bending moment of 7.5 Nm and a torsional moment of 8.3 Nm were applied in a test of five loading cycles to all intact bones. Loading was consistently initiated at the distal epiphysis. The consequent deformation at the distal epiphysis was continuously recorded. Then an osteotomy with a defect of 5 mm was created to simulate an unstable subcapital humerus fracture. For paired comparison, one of each pair was stabilized with the Sirus proximal humerus nail. The other side was fixed with a reference implant. The following groups were created.: Group I: Sirus versus Proximal humerus nail (PHN) with spiral blade. Group II: Sirus versus PHILOS plate. Group III: Sirus versus 4.5 mm AO T-plate. The proximal humerus nail (Sirus) demonstrated significantly higher stiffness values than the reference implants for both bending and torsional load. The following values were recorded at a bending moment of 7.5 Nm: Sirus 14.2 mm, PHN 20.7 mm, PHILOS plate 28.1 mm, 4.5 AO T-plate 29.3 mm p model presented here. Supplementary, the Sirus Nail showed higher stiffness values than the PHN. However, the latter are gaining in importance due to the possibility of minimal invasive implantation. Whether this will be associated with functional advantages requires further clinical investigation.

  9. Proximity correction of high-dosed frame with PROXECCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Hans; Waas, Thomas; Hartmann, Hans

    1994-05-01

    Usefulness of electron beam lithography is strongly related to the efficiency and quality of methods used for proximity correction. This paper addresses the above issue by proposing an extension to the new proximity correction program PROXECCO. The combination of a framing step with PROXECCO produces a pattern with a very high edge accuracy and still allows usage of the fast correction procedure. Making a frame with a higher dose imitates a fine resolution correction where the coarse part is disregarded. So after handling the high resolution effect by means of framing, an additional coarse correction is still needed. Higher doses have a higher contribution to the proximity effect. This additional proximity effect is taken into account with the help of the multi-dose input of PROXECCO. The dose of the frame is variable, depending on the deposited energy coming from backscattering of the proximity. Simulation proves the very high edge accuracy of the applied method.

  10. Record Club

    CERN Document Server

    Record Club

    2012-01-01

      March  Selections By the time this appears, we will have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left panel of the web page and then Mar 2012. New films include recent releases such as Johnny English 2, Bad Teacher, Cowboys vs Aliens, and Super 8. We are also starting to acquire some of the classic films we missed when we initiated the DVD section of the club, such as appeared in a recent Best 100 Films published by a leading UK magazine; this month we have added Spielberg’s Jaws and Scorsese’s Goodfellas. If you have your own ideas on what we are missing, let us know. For children we have no less than 8 Tin-Tin DVDs. And if you like fast moving pop music, try the Beyonce concert DVD. New CDs include the latest releases from Paul McCartney, Rihanna and Amy Winehouse. There is a best of Mylene Farmer, a compilation from the NRJ 201...

  11. Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    An interactive graphical planning system for on-site planning of proximity operations in the congested multispacecraft environment about the space station is presented. The system shows the astronaut a bird's eye perspective of the space station, the orbital plane, and the co-orbiting spacecraft. The system operates in two operational modes: (1) a viewpoint mode, in which the astronaut is able to move the viewpoint around in the orbital plane to range in on areas of interest; and (2) a trajectory design mode, in which the trajectory is planned. Trajectory design involves the composition of a set of waypoints which result in a fuel-optimal trajectory which satisfies all operational constraints, such as departure and arrival constraints, plume impingement constraints, and structural constraints. The main purpose of the system is to present the trajectory and the constraints in an easily interpretable graphical format. Through a graphical interactive process, the trajectory waypoints are edited until all operational constraints are satisfied. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the system. Eight airline pilots with no prior background in orbital mechanics participated in the experiments. Subject training included a stand-alone training session of about 6 hours duration, in which the subjects became familiar with orbital mechanics concepts and performed a series of exercises to familiarize themselves with the control and display features of the system. They then carried out a series of production runs in which 90 different trajectory design situations were randomly addressed. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate how the planning time, planning efforts, and fuel expenditures were affected by the planning difficulty. Some results of these experiments are presented.

  12. Selective proximal vagotomy with and without pyloroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, E.

    1984-01-01

    It was the aim of the study described here to gain information relevant to the well-being of patients subjected to selective proximal vagotomy with or without pyroloplasty as soon as possible after surgery. For this purpose, particular care was taken to ascertain the frequency of recidivation and the post-operative occurrence of disturbances in the emptying of gastric contents. In 35 patients solely undergoing SPV and a further 12 individuals, where both SPV and pyroloplasty had been performed, gastric emptying was monitored using a gamma camera and computer system. All patients were given a standardised test meal consisting of 500 ml ready-made milk labeled with 2 mCi 99mTc-HSA. After the patients had been assigned to different study groups according to the gastric emptying rates established in the individual cases, it became evident that there was a correlation between gastric emptying time (T/2) and the occurrence of post-operative discomfort. In the majority of patients the gastric emptying rate was found to be increased as compared to individuals with a healthy stomach. Among a total of 8 patients showing delayed gastric emptying only one, who solely underwent SPV, reported post-operative discomfort. Markedly increased rates of gastric emptying (T/2 ≤ 5 min) were predominantly determined in patients subjected to SPV in conjunction with pyroloplasty. A dumping syndrome and diarrhea were diagnosed in every third patient. Clinical follow-up studies and questionnaires distributed among the study patients showed relapses to occur with a frequency of 6.7%, the recidivation of ulcera being confined to the group of patients merely undergoing SPV. (TRV) [de

  13. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  14. Proximally exposed A-bomb survivors. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    Methods for observing chromosomes can be chronologically divided into the era of non-differential staining technique (1962-1975) and the era of differential staining method (since 1976). This paper reviews the literature of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells found in the two eras. Findings during the era of 1962-1975 include the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells, comparison of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells and T lymphocytes, and annual variation of chromosomal aberrations. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was high in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors (90.5% and 52.6% in A-bomb survivors exposed within 500 m and at 501-1,000 m, respectively); on the contrary, it was low in those exposed far from 1,000 m (6.2% or less). The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells was lower than that in T lymphocytes (21.5% vs 27.1% in those exposed within 500 m and 14.1% vs 23% in those exposed at 501-1,000 m). Annual analysis for chromosomal aberrations has shown the somewhat dependence upon medullary hematopoiesis and virus infection. The advent of differential staining technique since 1976 has made it possible to clarify the type of chromosomal aberrations and site of breakage. Of 710 bone marrow cells taken from 13 A-bomb survivors exposed within 1,000 m, 121 cells (from 11 A-bomb survivors) exhibited chromosomal aberrations. In differential staining analysis, all 121 cells but one were found to be of stable type, such as translocation and inversion. Furthermore, the site of breakage was found to be non-randomly distributed. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells has advantages of reflecting dynamic condition of these cells and determining gradual progression into leukemia. (N.K.)

  15. Hypospadias and residential proximity to pesticide applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Wolff, Craig; Guo, Liang; Lammer, Edward J; English, Paul; Shaw, Gary M

    2013-11-01

    Experimental evidence suggests pesticides may be associated with hypospadias. Examine the association of hypospadias with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications. The study population included male infants born from 1991 to 2004 to mothers residing in 8 California counties. Cases (n = 690) were ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program; controls were selected randomly from the birth population (n = 2195). We determined early pregnancy exposure to pesticide applications within a 500-m radius of mother's residential address, using detailed data on applications and land use. Associations with exposures to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for maternal race or ethnicity and age and infant birth year. Forty-one percent of cases and controls were classified as exposed to 57 chemical groups and 292 chemicals. Despite >500 statistical comparisons, there were few elevated odds ratios with confidence intervals that excluded 1 for chemical groups or specific chemicals. Those that did were for monochlorophenoxy acid or ester herbicides; the insecticides aldicarb, dimethoate, phorate, and petroleum oils; and adjuvant polyoxyethylene sorbitol among all cases; 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides, the herbicide oxyfluorfen, and the fungicide copper sulfate among mild cases; and chloroacetanilide herbicides, polyalkyloxy compounds used as adjuvants, the insecticides aldicarb and acephate, and the adjuvant nonyl-phenoxy-poly(ethylene oxy)ethanol among moderate and severe cases. Odds ratios ranged from 1.9 to 2.9. Most pesticides were not associated with elevated hypospadias risk. For the few that were associated, results should be interpreted with caution until replicated in other study populations.

  16. Ligament augmentation for prevention of proximal junctional kyphosis and proximal junctional failure in adult spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaee, Michael M; Deviren, Vedat; Dalle Ore, Cecilia; Scheer, Justin K; Lau, Darryl; Osorio, Joseph A; Nicholls, Fred; Ames, Christopher P

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a well-recognized, yet incompletely defined, complication of adult spinal deformity surgery. There is no standardized definition for PJK, but most studies describe PJK as an increase in the proximal junctional angle (PJA) of greater than 10°-20°. Ligament augmentation is a novel strategy for PJK reduction that provides strength to the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) and adjacent segments while also reducing junctional stress at those levels. METHODS In this study, ligament augmentation was used in a consecutive series of adult spinal deformity patients at a single institution. Patient demographics, including age; sex; indication for surgery; revision surgery; surgical approach; and use of 3-column osteotomies, vertebroplasty, or hook fixation at the UIV, were collected. The PJA was measured preoperatively and at last follow-up using 36-inch radiographs. Data on change in PJA and need for revision surgery were collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with change in PJA and proximal junctional failure (PJF), defined as PJK requiring surgical correction. RESULTS A total of 200 consecutive patients were included: 100 patients before implementation of ligament augmentation and 100 patients after implementation of this technique. The mean age of the ligament augmentation cohort was 66 years, and 67% of patients were women. Over half of these cases (51%) were revision surgeries, with 38% involving a combined anterior or lateral and posterior approach. The mean change in PJA was 6° in the ligament augmentation group compared with 14° in the control group (p historical cohort, ligament augmentation is associated with a significant decrease in PJK and PJF. These data support the implementation of ligament augmentation in surgery for adult spinal deformity, particularly in patients with a high risk of developing PJK and PJF.

  17. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  18. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Siun M; Browne, Katherine; Tuite, David J; O'Shaughnessy, Michael

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Digital contrast subtraction radiography for proximal caries diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether subtraction images utilizing contrast media can improve the diagnostic performance of proximal caries diagnosis compared to conventional periapical radiographic images. Thirty-six teeth with 57 proximal surfaces were radiographied using a size no.2 RVG-ui sensor (Trophy Radiology, Marne-la-Vallee, France). The teeth immersed in water-soluble contrast media and subtraction images were taken. Each tooth was then sectioned for histologic examination. The digital radiographic images and subtraction images were examined and interpreted by three dentists for proximal caries. The results of the proximal caries diagnosis were then verified with the results of the histologic examination. The proximal caries sensitivity using digital subtraction radiography was significantly higher than simply examining a single digital radiograph. The sensitivity of the proximal dentinal carious lesion when analyzed with the subtraction radiograph and the radiograph together was higher than with the subtraction radiograph or the radiograph alone. The use of subtraction radiography with contrast media may be useful for detecting proximal dentinal carious lesions.

  20. Giant proximity effect and critical opalescence in EuS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Timothy; Ramos, Silvia; Quintanilla, Jorge; Suter, Andreas; Moodera, Jagadeesh

    2015-03-01

    The proximity effect is a type of wetting phenomenon where an ordered state, usually magnetism or superconductivity, ``leaks'' from one material into an adjacent one over some finite distance. For superconductors, the characteristic range is of the order of the coherence length, usually hundreds of nm. Nevertheless much longer, ``giant'' proximity effects have been observed in cuprate perovskite junctions. Such giant proximity effects can be understood by taking into account the divergence of the pairing susceptibility in the non-superconducting material when it is itself close to a superconducting instability: a superconducting version of critical opalescence. Since critical opalescence occurs in all second order phase transitions, giant proximity effects are expected to be general, therefor there must be a giant ferromagnetic proximity effect. Compared to its superconducting counterpart, the giant ferromagnetic proximity effect has the advantage that the order parameter (magnetization) can be observed directly. We have fabricated Co/EuS thin films and measured the magnetization profiles as a function of temperature using the complementary techniques of low energy muon relaxation and polarized neutron reflectivity. Details of the proximity effect near TCEuS will be presented.

  1. Cancer in proximity to TV towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, B.; Gordon, I.; Hatfield, G.

    1996-01-01

    Standard (AS2772.1). The few actual measurements available indicate even lower levels. The analysis shows no increased risk of brain cancer. An increased risk of childhood leukaemia is indicated in the municipalities close to the TV towers. The rate ratio for incidence is 1.6 (95% Cl: 1.08-2 41) and for mortality is 2.25 (95% Cl: 1.29-3.92), mainly due to lymphatic leukaemia (1.63 for incidence, 2.84 for mortality). An association between increased childhood leukaemia and proximity to TV towers is indicated. Further studies are needed to test this association and determine any dose-response relationship before firm conclusions may be reached

  2. Reoperations following proximal interphalangeal joint nonconstrained arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsch, Tamir; Rizzo, Marco

    2011-09-01

    To retrospectively analyze the reasons for reoperations following primary nonconstrained proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthroplasty and review clinical outcomes in this group of patients with 1 or more reoperations. Between 2001 and 2009, 294 nonconstrained (203 pyrocarbon and 91 metal-plastic) PIP joint replacements were performed in our institution. A total of 76 fingers (59 patients) required reoperation (50 pyrocarbon and 26 metal-plastic). There were 40 women and 19 men with an average age of 51 years (range, 19-83 y). Primary diagnoses included osteoarthritis in 35, posttraumatic arthritis in 24, and inflammatory arthritis in 17 patients. There were 21 index, 27 middle, 18 ring, and 10 small fingers. The average number of reoperations per PIP joint was 1.6 (range, 1-4). A total of 45 joints had 1 reoperation, 19 had 2, 11 had 3, and 1 had 4. Extensor mechanism dysfunction was the most common reason for reoperation; it involved 51 of 76 fingers and was associated with Chamay or tendon-reflecting surgical approaches. Additional etiologies included component loosening in 17, collateral ligament failure in 10, and volar plate contracture in 8 cases. Inflammatory arthritis was associated with collateral ligament failure. Six fingers were eventually amputated, 9 had PIP joint arthrodeses, and 2 had resection arthroplasties. The arthrodesis and amputation rates correlated with the increased number of reoperations per finger. Clinically, most patients had no or mild pain at the most recent follow-up, and the PIP joint range-of-motion was not significantly different from preoperative values. Pain levels improved with longer follow-up. Reoperations following primary nonconstrained PIP joint arthroplasties are common. Extensor mechanism dysfunction was the most common reason for reoperation. The average reoperation rate was 1.6, and arthrodesis and amputation are associated with an increasing number of operations. Overall clinical outcomes demonstrated no

  3. Proximal risk factors and suicide methods among suicide completers from national suicide mortality data 2004-2006 in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jeong-Soo; Choi, Soon Ho; Hong, Duho; Seo, Hwa Jeong; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine differences in proximal risk factors and suicide methods by sex and age in the national suicide mortality data in Korea. Data were collected from the National Police Agency and the National Statistical Office of Korea on suicide completers from 2004 to 2006. The 31,711 suicide case records were used to analyze suicide rates, methods, and proximal risk factors by sex and age. Suicide rate increased with age, especially in men. The most common proximal risk factor for suicide was medical illness in both sexes. The most common proximal risk factor for subjects younger than 30 years was found to be a conflict in relationships with family members, partner, or friends. Medical illness was found to increase in prevalence as a risk factor with age. Hanging/Suffocation was the most common suicide method used by both sexes. The use of drug/pesticide poisoning to suicide increased with age. A fall from height or hanging/suffocation was more popular in the younger age groups. Because proximal risk factors and suicide methods varied with sex and age, different suicide prevention measures are required after consideration of both of these parameters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Internal fixation of proximal fractures of the 2nd and 4th metacarpal and metatarsal bones using bioabsorbable screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageed, M; Steinberg, T; Drumm, N; Stubbs, N; Wegert, J; Koene, M

    2018-03-01

    Fractures involving the proximal one-third of the splint bone are relatively rare and are challenging to treat. A variety of management techniques have been reported in the literature. The aim of this retrospective case series was to describe the clinical presentation and evaluate the efficacy of bioabsorbable polylactic acid screws in internal fixation of proximal fractures of the 2nd and 4th metacarpal and metatarsal bones in horses. The medical records, diagnostic images and outcome of all horses diagnosed with a proximal fracture of the splint bones and treated with partial resection and internal fixation of the proximal stump using bioabsorbable polylactic acid screws between 2014 and 2015 were reviewed. Eight horses met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that there were no complications encountered during screw placement or postoperatively. Six horses returned to full work 3 months after the operation and two horses remained mildly lame. On follow-up radiographs 12 months postoperatively (n = 2) the screws were not completely absorbed. The screws resulted in a cone-shaped radiolucency, which was progressively replaced from the outer margins by bone sclerosis. The use of bioabsorbable screws for fixation of proximal fractures of the splint bone appears to be a safe and feasible technique and may offer several advantages over the use of traditional metallic implants. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Proximal Pole Scaphoid Nonunion Reconstruction With 1,2 Intercompartmental Supraretinacular Artery Vascularized Graft and Compression Screw Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Mark S; Zhu, Andy F; Ozer, Kagan; Lawton, Jeffrey N

    2018-02-06

    To review the incidence of union of patients with proximal pole scaphoid fracture nonunions treated using a 1,2 intercompartmental supraretinacular artery (1,2 ICSRA) vascularized graft and a small compression screw. This is a retrospective case series of 12 patients. Calculations of the size of the proximal pole fragment relative to the total scaphoid were performed using posteroanterior view scaphoid radiographs with the wrist in ulnar deviation and flat on the cassette. Analyses were repeated 3 times per subject, and the average ratio of proximal pole fragment relative to the entire scaphoid was calculated. We reviewed medical records, radiographs, and computed tomography (CT) scans of these 12 patients. The CT scans that were performed after an average of 12 weeks were ultimately used to confirm union of the scaphoid fractures. One patient was unable to have a CT so was excluded from the final calculation. All 11 (100%) scaphoid fractures that were assessed by CT were found to be healed at the 12-week assessment point. The mean proximal pole fragment size was 18% (range, 7%-27%) of the entire scaphoid. The 1,2 ICSRA vascularized graft and compression screw was an effective treatment for patients with proximal pole scaphoid fractures. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Proximal caries detection: Sirona Sidexis versus Kodak Ektaspeed Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Ludlow, John B; Caplan, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of intraoral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD) receptor for proximal caries detection. Four observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a five-point confidence scale. The actual status of each surface was determined from ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under ROC curves (Az) were assessed through a paired t-test. The performance of the CCD-based intraoral sensor was not different statistically from Ektaspeed Plus film in detecting proximal caries.

  7. [Avulsion of the Proximal Hamstring Insertion. Case Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizera, R; Harcuba, R; Kratochvíl, J

    2016-01-01

    Proximal hamstring avulsion is an uncommon muscle injury with a lack of consensus on indications and the timing and technique of surgery. Poor clinical symptoms and difficulties in the diagnostic process can lead to a false diagnosis. The authors present three cases of proximal hamstring avulsion, two complete and one partial ruptures of the biceps femoris muscle. MRI and ultrasound scans were used for optimal treatment alignment. Acute surgery reconstruction (hamstring strength. Two interesting systematic reviews published on the treatment of proximal hamstring avulsion are discussed in the final part of the paper. Key words: hamstring, rupture, avulsion.

  8. Proximity to Industrial Food Animal Production and Asthma Exacerbations in Pennsylvania, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sara G; Casey, Joan A; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Schwartz, Brian S

    2017-03-31

    The research on industrial food animal production (IFAP) and asthma exacerbations in the United States has relied on small sample sizes and/or self-reported outcomes. We assessed associations of proximity to large-scale and densely stocked swine and dairy/veal IFAP with three types of asthma exacerbations: hospitalizations, emergency encounters, and oral corticosteroid (OCS) medication orders from Geisinger Clinic in Pennsylvania. We used a diagnosis code ( International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification code 493.x) and medication orders from electronic health records to identify these exacerbations among asthma patients ( n = 35,269) from 2005-2012. We compared residential proximity to swine or dairy/veal IFAP (dichotomized as <3 miles (4.8 km) or ≥3 miles) among asthma patients with and without exacerbations and estimated odds ratios using multilevel logistic regression. In adjusted models, proximity to IFAP was associated (odds ratio (95% confidence interval)) with OCS orders (1.11 (1.04-1.19)) and hospitalizations (1.29 (1.15-1.46)), but not emergency encounters (1.12 (0.91-1.37)). This study contributes to growing evidence that IFAP may impact health, in this case clinically-documented asthma exacerbations. No prior study has evaluated the association of IFAP and clinically-documented asthma exacerbations in the United States.

  9. Locking screw-plate interface stability in carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone proximal humerus plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, David J; Fader, Ryan; Baldini, Todd; Chadayammuri, Vivek B S

    2017-09-01

    Carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) plates have recently been introduced for proximal humerus fracture treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the locking screw-plate interface stability in CFR-PEEK versus stainless steel (SS) proximal humerus plates. Locking screw mechanical stability was evaluated independently in proximal and shaft plate holes. Stiffness and load to failure were tested for three conditions: (1) on-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK versus SS plates, (2) on-axis locking screw insertion, removal, and reinsertion in CFR-PEEK plates, and (3) 10-degree off-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK plates. Cantilever bending at a rate of 1 mm/minute was produced by an Instron machine and load-displacement data recorded. Shaft locking screw load to failure was significantly greater in CFR-PEEK plates compared to SS plates (746.4 ± 89.7 N versus 596.5 ± 32.6 N, p PEEK plates (p PEEK plates. The mechanical stability of locking screws in CFR-PEEK plates is comparable or superior to locking screws in SS plates.

  10. Exploration of Hand Grasp Patterns Elicitable Through Non-Invasive Proximal Nerve Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Henry; Watkins, Zach; Hu, Xiaogang

    2017-11-29

    Various neurological conditions, such as stroke or spinal cord injury, result in an impaired control of the hand. One method of restoring this impairment is through functional electrical stimulation (FES). However, traditional FES techniques often lead to quick fatigue and unnatural ballistic movements. In this study, we sought to explore the capabilities of a non-invasive proximal nerve stimulation technique in eliciting various hand grasp patterns. The ulnar and median nerves proximal to the elbow joint were activated transcutanously using a programmable stimulator, and the resultant finger flexion joint angles were recorded using a motion capture system. The individual finger motions averaged across the three joints were analyzed using a cluster analysis, in order to classify the different hand grasp patterns. With low current intensity (grasp patterns including single finger movement and coordinated multi-finger movements. This study provides initial evidence on the feasibility of a proximal nerve stimulation technique in controlling a variety of finger movements and grasp patterns. Our approach could also be developed into a rehabilitative/assistive tool that can result in flexible movements of the fingers.

  11. Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-08-18

    Aug 18, 2010 ... transmission lines on ornamental plant growth. Zeki Demir ... The effects of proximity to power-line on specific leaf area and seedling dbh were tested .... during vegetation season is about 72% and common wind blow.

  12. Nutritive Value Assessment of Four Crop Residues by Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Grace Tona

    Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria ... Abstract. This study estimated the proximate composition and in vitro gas production parameters of rice husk, bean ... farms and industries generate large quantities.

  13. Computational proximity excursions in the topology of digital images

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces computational proximity (CP) as an algorithmic approach to finding nonempty sets of points that are either close to each other or far apart. Typically in computational proximity, the book starts with some form of proximity space (topological space equipped with a proximity relation) that has an inherent geometry. In CP, two types of near sets are considered, namely, spatially near sets and descriptivelynear sets. It is shown that connectedness, boundedness, mesh nerves, convexity, shapes and shape theory are principal topics in the study of nearness and separation of physical aswell as abstract sets. CP has a hefty visual content. Applications of CP in computer vision, multimedia, brain activity, biology, social networks, and cosmology are included. The book has been derived from the lectures of the author in a graduate course on the topology of digital images taught over the past several years. Many of the students have provided important insights and valuable suggestions. The topics in ...

  14. Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations data set combines information from a global data set developed by Declan Butler of...

  15. Proximate composition and nutrient content of some wild and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and nutrient content of some wild and cultivated ... Ca, P, K), one minor mineral (Fe) constituent and vitamin C content were determined. ... Mineral content (P and K) in the mushroom sporophores were found to be ...

  16. Effects of Fermentation and Extrusion on the Proximate Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    protein malnutrition persists as a principal health problem among children .... Proximate analysis: Moisture content ... nitrogen by a factor of 6.25. Crude fat ... Statistical analysis: The data were ..... interaction of amino acid in maillard reactions.

  17. Proximate composition and mineral contents of Pebbly fish, Alestes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    /100 g) were significantly .... Proximate analysis of A. baremoze fillets according to sample sizes in a study in. Uganda .... present in the fish tissues in trace amounts. ... The zinc contents in fish samples of ..... (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and.

  18. Effects of Planting Locations on the Proximate Compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Ash, moisture, crude fat, crude fibre, carbohydrate and protein contents were determined according ... All fruits, vegetables, legumes (beans and peas), and the grains we eat ... isolate and quantify each proximate present in the plant material.

  19. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    with an application to L1-regularized covariance selection, in which prior constraints on the sparsity pattern of the inverse covariance matrix are imposed. In the numerical experiments the proximal Newton steps are computed by an accelerated proximal gradient method, and multifrontal algorithms for positive definite...... matrices with chordal sparsity patterns are used to evaluate gradients and matrix-vector products with the Hessian of the smooth component of the objective....

  20. Hemiarthroplasty for proximal humeral fracture: restoration of the Gothic arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sumant G; Bennion, Phillip W; Reineck, John R; Burkhead, Wayne Z

    2008-10-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are the most common fractures of the shoulder girdle, and initial management of these injuries often determines final outcome. When arthroplasty is used to manage proximal humeral fractures, surgery remains technically demanding, and outcomes have been unpredictable. Recent advances in both technique and prosthetic implants have led to more successful and reproducible results. Key technical points include restoration of the Gothic arch, anatomic tuberosity reconstruction, and minimal soft tissue dissection.

  1. Augmented real-time navigation with critical structure proximity alerts for endoscopic skull base surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Benjamin J; Daly, Michael J; Chan, Harley; Vescan, Allan; Witterick, Ian J; Irish, Jonathan C

    2014-04-01

    Image-guided surgery (IGS) systems are frequently utilized during cranial base surgery to aid in orientation and facilitate targeted surgery. We wished to assess the performance of our recently developed localized intraoperative virtual endoscopy (LIVE)-IGS prototype in a preclinical setting prior to deployment in the operating room. This system combines real-time ablative instrument tracking, critical structure proximity alerts, three-dimensional virtual endoscopic views, and intraoperative cone-beam computed tomographic image updates. Randomized-controlled trial plus qualitative analysis. Skull base procedures were performed on 14 cadaver specimens by seven fellowship-trained skull base surgeons. Each subject performed two endoscopic transclival approaches; one with LIVE-IGS and one using a conventional IGS system in random order. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) scores were documented for each dissection, and a semistructured interview was recorded for qualitative assessment. The NASA-TLX scores for mental demand, effort, and frustration were significantly reduced with the LIVE-IGS system in comparison to conventional navigation (P < .05). The system interface was judged to be intuitive and most useful when there was a combination of high spatial demand, reduced or absent surface landmarks, and proximity to critical structures. The development of auditory icons for proximity alerts during the trial better informed the surgeon while limiting distraction. The LIVE-IGS system provided accurate, intuitive, and dynamic feedback to the operating surgeon. Further refinements to proximity alerts and visualization settings will enhance orientation while limiting distraction. The system is currently being deployed in a prospective clinical trial in skull base surgery. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. The sooner, the better: exercise outcome proximity and intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M Blair; Cooke, Lisa M; Murray, Robyn A; Wilson, Anne E

    2014-11-01

    Despite evidence that outcomes are highly valued when they are expected sooner rather than further into the future (Ainslie, 1975), limited research effort has been devoted to understanding the role of exercise outcome proximity. The purpose of this study was to examine how temporal proximity to positive outcomes influences exercisers' intrinsic motivation. We expected that focusing people on temporally proximal exercise outcomes would increase intrinsic motivation, especially among low-frequency exercisers. This online experimental study was completed by 135 community exercisers (Mage  = 31.11, SD = 10.29; 62% female) who reported an average of 4.86 exercise bouts per week (SD = 2.12). Participants were randomly assigned to a condition that primed temporally proximal positive exercise outcomes (i.e. experienced during or directly following an exercise bout) or temporally distal outcomes (i.e. experienced after days, months, or years of regular exercise). Participants then reported perceptions of behavioral regulation in exercise. As expected, the proximal exercise outcome condition elicited increased intrinsic regulation among those participants who exercised less frequently (i.e. 1 SD below the mean). This study reveals the importance of considering proximity as an important dimension of exercise outcomes-particularly when promoting intrinsic motivation among relatively infrequent exercisers. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  3. Psychological responses to the proximity of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügger, Adrian; Dessai, Suraje; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Morton, Thomas A.; Pidgeon, Nicholas F.

    2015-12-01

    A frequent suggestion to increase individuals' willingness to take action on climate change and to support relevant policies is to highlight its proximal consequences, that is, those that are close in space and time. But previous studies that have tested this proximizing approach have not revealed the expected positive effects on individual action and support for addressing climate change. We present three lines of psychological reasoning that provide compelling arguments as to why highlighting proximal impacts of climate change might not be as effective a way to increase individual mitigation and adaptation efforts as is often assumed. Our contextualization of the proximizing approach within established psychological research suggests that, depending on the particular theoretical perspective one takes on this issue, and on specific individual characteristics suggested by these perspectives, proximizing can bring about the intended positive effects, can have no (visible) effect or can even backfire. Thus, the effects of proximizing are much more complex than is commonly assumed. Revealing this complexity contributes to a refined theoretical understanding of the role that psychological distance plays in the context of climate change and opens up further avenues for future research and for interventions.

  4. HEMATOMA OF THE PROXIMAL NAIL FOLD. REPORT OF 41 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Patricia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proximal fold is an important part of the nail apparatus it contributes to the formation of the nail plate and through the cuticle acts as an impermeable barrier protecting it from any cause.Objective: To know the proximal nail fold hematoma caused by the use of pulse oximeter.Material and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in 41 patients with proximal nail hematoma secondary to the use of oximetry in patients hospitalized in the Intermediate and Intensive Care Unit at the Hospital General de Enfermedades from December 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010.Results: We studied 41 patients with proximal nail fold hematoma secondary to the use of oximeter, 30 (73.1% were males and 11 (26.8% females. The numbers of fingers affected by pulse oximeter were in one digit. 30 (73.1% cases, in two digits 6 (14.6%, in three digits 3 (7.3%, in 4 digits 1 (2.4% and in 5 digits 1 (2.4% case. The most affected proximal nail fold was right index: 24 (58.5%, right middle 11 (26.8%, right ring 6 (14.6%, left index 12 (29.2%, and left middle 6 (14.6% cases.Conclusions: Hematomas of the proximal nail fold may be caused by different traumatisms. The use of pulse oximeter is one of them.

  5. Records Management Directive

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Records Management Directive provides guidelines for the management of OPM records, and identifies the records management...

  6. Operative management of partial-thickness tears of the proximal hamstring muscles in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Karl F; Cohen, Steven B; Bradley, James P

    2013-06-01

    Partial tears of the hamstring muscle origin represent a challenging clinical problem to the patient and orthopaedic surgeon. Although nonoperative treatment is frequently met with limited success, there is a paucity of data on the efficacy of surgical management for partial proximal hamstring tears in the active and athletic population. To evaluate the results of an anatomic repair for partial tears of the hamstring muscle origin in athletes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. The records of 17 patients with partial tears of the proximal hamstring origin were reviewed after institutional review board approval was obtained. All patients were treated with open debridement and primary tendon repair after failure of at least 6 months of nonoperative therapy. Clinical and operative records, radiographs, and magnetic resonance images were reviewed for all patients. A patient-reported outcomes survey was completed by 14 patients that included the Lower Extremity Functional Score (LEFS), Marx activity rating scale, custom LEFS and Marx scales, and subjective patient satisfaction scores. Early and late postoperative complications were recorded. There were 3 male and 14 female patients; their average age was 43 years (range, 19-64 years) and average follow-up was 32 months (range, 12-51 months). There were 2 collegiate athletes (field hockey, track), 14 amateur athletes (distance running, waterskiing, tennis), and a professional bodybuilder. Postoperative LEFS was 73.3 ± 9.9 (range, 50-80) and custom LEFS was 66.7 ± 17.0 (range, 37-80) of a maximum 80 points. The most commonly reported difficulty was with prolonged sitting and explosive direction change while running. The average Marx score was 6.5 ± 5.3 (range, 0-16) of a maximum 16, correlating with a greater return to recreational running activities in this patient cohort than regular participation in pivoting or cutting sports. Marx custom scores were 20 of a maximum 20 in all patients, demonstrating no disability in

  7. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on superconducting proximity nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapelier, C; Vinet, M; Lefloch, F

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the local density of states (LDOS) of a normal metal (N) in good electrical contact with a superconductor (S) as a function of the distance x to the NS interface. The sample consists of a pattern of alternate L = 1 mm wide strips of Au and Nb made by UV lithography. We used a low temperature scanning tunneling microscope and a lock-in detection technique to record simultaneously dI/dV(V,x) curves and the topographic profile z(x) at 1.5 K. We scanned along lines perpendicular to the strips. All the spectra show a dip near the Fermi energy, which spectral extension decreases from the superconducting gap Δ at the NS interface to zero at distances x >> ξ N where ξ N ≅ √hD N /2Δ ≅ 53nm is the coherence length in the normal metal. Our measurements are correctly described in the framework of the quasi-classical Green's function formalism. We numerically solved the 1D Usadel equation and extracted a decoherence time in gold of 4 ps. We also investigated the LDOS of small ridges of Au deposited on the top of the Nb lines. In this case, L ≤ ξ N and the spatial variations of the spectra depend on the exact shape of the Au ridge. However, our results are consistent with a predicted minigap related to the Thouless energy. (4. mesoscopic superconductivity)

  8. Proximal humerus fractures: a comparative biomechanical analysis of intra and extramedullary implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füchtmeier, B; May, R; Hente, R; Maghsudi, M; Völk, M; Hammer, J; Nerlich, M; Prantl, L

    2007-08-01

    The biomechanical stability of a newly developed humerus nail (Sirustrade mark) for the treatment of fractures of the proximal humerus was analyzed in comparison to established systems. In total, three randomized groups were formed (n = 4 pairs) from 12 matched pairs of human cadaver humeri. All intact bones were mechanically characterized by five subsequent load cycles under bending and torsional loading. The bending moment at the osteotomy was 7.5 N m the torsional moment was 8.3 N m over the hole specimen length. Loading was consistently initiated at the distal epiphysis and the deformation at the distal epiphysis was continuously recorded. Prior to implant reinforcement, a defect of 5 mm was created to simulate an unstable subcapital humerus fracture. For paired comparison, one humerus of each pair was stabilized with the Sirus proximal humerus nail while the counterpart was stabilized by a reference implant. In detail, the following groups were created: Sirus versus Proximal humerus nail (PHN) with spiral blade (group I); Sirus versus PHILOS plate (group II); Sirus versus 4.5 mm AO T-plate (group III). The Sirus nail demonstrated significantly higher stiffness values compared to the reference implants for both bending and torsional loading. The following distal epiphyseal displacements were recorded for a bending moment of 7.5 N m at the osteotomy: Sirus I: 8.8 mm, II: 8.4 mm, III: 7.7 mm (range 6.9-10.9), PHN 21.1 mm (range 15.7-25.2) (P = 0.005), PHILOS plate 27.5 mm (range 21.6-35.8) (P model presented here. Supplementary, the Sirus Nail showed higher stiffness values than the PHN. However, the latter are gaining in importance due to the possibility of minimal invasive implantation. Whether this will be associated with functional advantages requires further clinical investigation.

  9. Objective quantification of the food proximity effect on grapes, chocolate and cracker consumption in a Swedish high school. A temporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlet, Billy; Fagerberg, Petter; Glossner, Andrew; Ioakimidis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Close food proximity leads to increased short-term energy intake, potentially contributing to the long-term development of obesity. However, its precise effects on eating behaviour are still unclear, especially with food available for extended periods of time. This study involved two similar high school student groups (15-17 years old), which had ad libitum access to grapes, chocolates and crackers during an hour-long experimental session. In the distal condition the foods were placed 6 meters away from the students (n = 24), in contrast to the proximal condition (n = 17) were the food was placed near the students. The identification of the type and the quantification of the amount of each food selected, for each individual serving, was facilitated through use of food scales and video recording. In the proximal condition individuals served themselves grapes and crackers more often and consumed more chocolate than in the distal condition. In total, participants in the proximal condition ingested significantly more energy (726 kcal vs. 504 kcal; p = 0.029), without reporting higher fullness. Food proximity also affected the temporal distribution of servings, with the first five minutes of the sessions corresponding to 53.1% and 45.6% of the total energy intake for the distal and proximal conditions, respectively. After the first five minutes, the servings in the distal condition were strongly clustered in time, with many students getting food together. In the proximal condition however, students displayed an unstructured pattern of servings over time. In conclusion, this study strengthens past evidence regarding the important role of food proximity on individual energy intake and, for the first time, it associates continuous food proximity to the emergence of unstructured eating over time. These conclusions, expanded upon by future studies, could support the creation of meaningful intervention strategies based on spatially and temporally controlled food availability.

  10. PROXIMAL: a method for Prediction of Xenobiotic Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofshahi, Mona; Manteiga, Sara; Wu, Charmian; Lee, Kyongbum; Hassoun, Soha

    2015-12-22

    Contamination of the environment with bioactive chemicals has emerged as a potential public health risk. These substances that may cause distress or disease in humans can be found in air, water and food supplies. An open question is whether these chemicals transform into potentially more active or toxic derivatives via xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes expressed in the body. We present a new prediction tool, which we call PROXIMAL (Prediction of Xenobiotic Metabolism) for identifying possible transformation products of xenobiotic chemicals in the liver. Using reaction data from DrugBank and KEGG, PROXIMAL builds look-up tables that catalog the sites and types of structural modifications performed by Phase I and Phase II enzymes. Given a compound of interest, PROXIMAL searches for substructures that match the sites cataloged in the look-up tables, applies the corresponding modifications to generate a panel of possible transformation products, and ranks the products based on the activity and abundance of the enzymes involved. PROXIMAL generates transformations that are specific for the chemical of interest by analyzing the chemical's substructures. We evaluate the accuracy of PROXIMAL's predictions through case studies on two environmental chemicals with suspected endocrine disrupting activity, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB3). Comparisons with published reports confirm 5 out of 7 and 17 out of 26 of the predicted derivatives for BPA and PCB3, respectively. We also compare biotransformation predictions generated by PROXIMAL with those generated by METEOR and Metaprint2D-react, two other prediction tools. PROXIMAL can predict transformations of chemicals that contain substructures recognizable by human liver enzymes. It also has the ability to rank the predicted metabolites based on the activity and abundance of enzymes involved in xenobiotic transformation.

  11. Review of Proximal Nail Antirotation (PFNA and PFNA-2 – Our Local Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WL Loo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA device was recently introduced as an option for intramedullary management of pertrochanteric hip fractures. We report here local results with this relatively new implant. Sixty-two patients with pertrochanteric or subtrochanteric fractures underwent intramedullary fixation with PFNA devices in our centre during the 14 month period from September 2008 to October 2009. Data for this report were retrieved from clinical case records and operative notes. We recorded the age, gender, length of stay and operative time, preoperative ambulatory status and days required to regain mobility. Fractures were classified using the AO classification (A1, A2 and A3. Complications were also identified.There were 15 male and 47 female patients and the mean age was 74.3 years. The mean surgical duration was 76.1min and the average length of hospitalisation was 14.5 days. Five cases were noted to have femoral shaft fracture and no occurrences of screw cutout. We found that 83.9% of the patients were able to regain preoperative mobility status by 6 months following surgery. We conclude that the PFNA is an effective implant for stabilisation of proximal hip fractures and that the local complication rate is similar to reports from other centres.

  12. Evaluation of a radar-based proximity warning system for off-highway dump trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Todd

    2006-01-01

    A radar-based proximity warning system was evaluated by researchers at the Spokane Research Laboratory of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to determine if the system would be effective in detecting objects in the blind spots of an off-highway dump truck. An average of five fatalities occur each year in surface mines as a result of an equipment operator not being aware of a smaller vehicle, person or change in terrain near the equipment. Sensor technology that can detect such obstacles and that also is designed for surface mining applications is rare. Researchers worked closely with the radar system manufacturer to test and modify the system on large, off-highway dump trucks at a surface mine over a period of 2 years. The final system was thoroughly evaluated by recording video images from a camera on the rear of the truck and by recording all alarms from the rear-mounted radar. Data show that the system reliably detected small vehicles, berms, people and other equipment. However, alarms from objects that posed no immediate danger were common, supporting the assertion that sensor-based systems for proximity warning should be used in combination with other devices, such as cameras, that would allow the operator to check the source of any alarm.

  13. Calculus Rules for V-Proximal Subdifferentials in Smooth Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messaoud Bounkhel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, Bounkhel et al. introduced new proximal concepts (analytic proximal subdifferential, geometric proximal subdifferential, and proximal normal cone in reflexive smooth Banach spaces. They proved, in p-uniformly convex and q-uniformly smooth Banach spaces, the density theorem for the new concepts of proximal subdifferential and various important properties for both proximal subdifferential concepts and the proximal normal cone concept. In this paper, we establish calculus rules (fuzzy sum rule and chain rule for both proximal subdifferentials and we prove the Bishop-Phelps theorem for the proximal normal cone. The limiting concept for both proximal subdifferentials and for the proximal normal cone is defined and studied. We prove that both limiting constructions coincide with the Mordukhovich constructions under some assumptions on the space. Applications to nonconvex minimisation problems and nonconvex variational inequalities are established.

  14. MR imaging of proximal femur: age-related changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Heon; Jeon, Woo Jin; Sohn, Cheol Ho; Park, Mi Ok; Lee, Seong Mun; Joo, Yang Gu; Suh, Soo Jhi; Pyun, Young Sik

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate MR patterns of signal intensity of proximal femur in normal subjects according to the age distribution. T1-weighted MR images of the proximal femur in 125 subjects, aged 13 days to 25 years, were retrospectively analyzed. Age distribution was classified to 4 groups; below 4 months, 5 months to 4 years, 5 years to 14 years, and 15 years to 25 years. By the age of 4 months, the non-ossified femoral epiphysis was seen as intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage. At 5 months-4 years, the ossified femoral capital epiphysis was seen within intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage and appeared as decreased or increased signal-intensity red or yellow marrow surrounded by a rim of low-signal-intensity cortical bone. At 5-14 years, the ossified femoral capital and greater trochanteric epiphysis were seen within the intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage and appeared as decreased or increased signal-intensity red or yellow marrow. At 15-25 years, the proximal metaphyseal marrow showed increased signal intensity. Four patterns of the metaphyseal marrow were recognized by Ricci et al. The frequency of pattern 1 a progressively decreased with age. Pattern 2 and 3 were visible in the 15-25 years age group. An understanding of the spectrum of normal age-related change of the proximal femoral cartilage and marrow patterns serves as the foundation for interpretation of proximal femur pathologies

  15. Topology of digital images visual pattern discovery in proximity spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2014-01-01

    This book carries forward recent work on visual patterns and structures in digital images and introduces a near set-based a topology of digital images. Visual patterns arise naturally in digital images viewed as sets of non-abstract points endowed with some form of proximity (nearness) relation. Proximity relations make it possible to construct uniform topolo- gies on the sets of points that constitute a digital image. In keeping with an interest in gaining an understanding of digital images themselves as a rich source of patterns, this book introduces the basics of digital images from a computer vision perspective. In parallel with a computer vision perspective on digital images, this book also introduces the basics of prox- imity spaces. Not only the traditional view of spatial proximity relations but also the more recent descriptive proximity relations are considered. The beauty of the descriptive proximity approach is that it is possible to discover visual set patterns among sets that are non-overlapping ...

  16. Symmetry-based reciprocity: evolutionary constraints on a proximate mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campennì, Marco; Schino, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the evolution of reciprocal cooperation has attracted an enormous attention, the proximate mechanisms underlying the ability of animals to cooperate reciprocally are comparatively neglected. Symmetry-based reciprocity is a hypothetical proximate mechanism that has been suggested to be widespread among cognitively unsophisticated animals. Methods. We developed two agent-based models of symmetry-based reciprocity (one relying on an arbitrary tag and the other on interindividual proximity) and tested their ability both to reproduce significant emergent features of cooperation in group living animals and to promote the evolution of cooperation. Results. Populations formed by agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity showed differentiated "social relationships" and a positive correlation between cooperation given and received: two common aspects of animal cooperation. However, when reproduction and selection across multiple generations were added to the models, agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity were outcompeted by selfish agents that never cooperated. Discussion. In order to evolve, hypothetical proximate mechanisms must be able to stand competition from alternative strategies. While the results of our simulations require confirmation using analytical methods, we provisionally suggest symmetry-based reciprocity is to be abandoned as a possible proximate mechanism underlying the ability of animals to reciprocate cooperative interactions.

  17. Biomechanical evaluation of straight antegrade nailing in proximal humeral fractures: the rationale of the "proximal anchoring point".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Simon A; Petri, Maximilian; Venderley, Melanie B; Dornan, Grant J; Schmoelz, Werner; Turnbull, Travis Lee; Plecko, Michael; Kralinger, Franz S; Millett, Peter J

    2017-09-01

    Varus failure is one of the most common failure modes following surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures. Straight antegrade nails (SAN) theoretically provide increased stability by anchoring to the densest zone of the proximal humerus (subchondral zone) with the end of the nail. The aim of this study was to biomechanically investigate the characteristics of this "proximal anchoring point" (PAP). We hypothesized that the PAP would improve stability compared to the same construct without the PAP. Straight antegrade humeral nailing was performed in 20 matched pairs of human cadaveric humeri for a simulated unstable two-part fracture. Biomechanical testing, with stepwise increasing cyclic axial loading (50-N increments each 100 cycles) at an angle of 20° abduction revealed significantly higher median loads to failure for SAN constructs with the PAP (median, 450 N; range, 200-1.000 N) compared to those without the PAP (median, 325 N; range, 100-500 N; p = 0.009). SAN constructs with press-fit proximal extensions (endcaps) showed similar median loads to failure (median, 400 N; range, 200-650 N), when compared to the undersized, commercially available SAN endcaps (median, 450 N; range, 200-600 N; p = 0.240). The PAP provided significantly increased stability in SAN constructs compared to the same setup without this additional proximal anchoring point. Varus-displacing forces to the humeral head were superiorly reduced in this setting. This study provides biomechanical evidence for the "proximal anchoring point's" rationale. Straight antegrade humeral nailing may be beneficial for patients undergoing surgical treatment for unstable proximal humeral fractures to decrease secondary varus displacement and thus potentially reduce revision rates.

  18. Eldercare work, migrant care workers, affective care and subjective proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Kirsten; Martin, Greg

    2016-08-01

    To document and explore the experience of migrant care workers providing health and social care to the elderly in institutional care settings and in the homes of the elderly in the community in New Zealand with a particular focus on the affective components of care work. This qualitative study involved conducting face-to-face, open-ended, semi-structured interviews with 29 migrant care workers in the eldercare sector in the cities of Auckland and Wellington, New Zealand. Participants were recruited through various agencies focusing on aged care and engaged with migrant eldercare workers and snowballing through participant referral. Sample size was determined when saturation was reached. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, themes were identified and then analysed drawing on a body of theoretical work in the fields of emotional anthropology and moral geography and the international empirical literature addressing migrant eldercare workers. As with the international research in this field we found that these workers were vulnerable to exploitation, the workforce is largely feminised and stereotypical understandings of racial groups and national characteristics informed recruitment and the workplace experience. Here attributing gradients of affect to particular migrant groups in the workforce was the main mechanism employed to establish worker worth and difference. Identifying with these gradients of affect enabled these eldercare workers to demonstrate that they met the moral and ethical requirements of permanent residency and ultimately citizenship. Eldercare workers in the home were vulnerable to 'blurred emotional boundaries' and care recipient demand for greater emotional commitment. The migrant eldercare workers in this study all shared vulnerable residential status and many feared they would never obtain permanent residency or citizenship. All had family who remained in the Philippines and towards whom they had an obligation to substitute

  19. Near-Field Phase-Change Optical Recording of 1.36 Numerical Aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Isao; Kishima, Koichiro; Osato, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kuroda, Yuji; Saito, Kimihiro

    2000-02-01

    A bit density of 125 nm was demonstrated through near-field phase-change (PC) optical recording at the wavelength of 657 nm by using a supersphere solid immersion lens (SIL). The lens unit consists of a standard objective and a φ2.5 mm SIL@. Since this lens size still prevents the unit from being mounted on an air-bearing slider, we developed a one-axis positioning actuator and an active capacitance servo for precise gap control to thoroughly investigate near-field recording. An electrode was fabricated on the bottom of the SIL, and a capacitor was formed facing a disk material. This setup realized a stable air gap below 50 nm, and a new method of simulating modulation transfer function (MTF) optimized the PC disk structure at this gap height. Obtained jitter of 8.8% and a clear eye-pattern prove that our system successfully attained the designed numerical-aperture (\\mathit{NA}) of 1.36.

  20. Comparison of different proximity potentials for asymmetric colliding nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, Ishwar; Puri, Rajeev K.

    2010-01-01

    Using the different versions of phenomenological proximity potential as well as other parametrizations within the proximity concept, we perform a detailed comparative study of fusion barriers for asymmetric colliding nuclei with asymmetry parameter as high as 0.23. In all, 12 different proximity potentials are robust against the experimental data of 60 reactions. Our detailed study reveals that the surface energy coefficient as well as radius of the colliding nuclei depend significantly on the asymmetry parameter. All models are able to explain the fusion barrier heights within ±10% on the average. The potentials due to Bass 80, AW 95, and Denisov DP explain nicely the fusion cross sections at above- as well as below-barrier energies.

  1. High-throughput determination of RNA structure by proximity ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Vijay; Qiu, Ruolan; Shendure, Jay

    2015-09-01

    We present an unbiased method to globally resolve RNA structures through pairwise contact measurements between interacting regions. RNA proximity ligation (RPL) uses proximity ligation of native RNA followed by deep sequencing to yield chimeric reads with ligation junctions in the vicinity of structurally proximate bases. We apply RPL in both baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human cells and generate contact probability maps for ribosomal and other abundant RNAs, including yeast snoRNAs, the RNA subunit of the signal recognition particle and the yeast U2 spliceosomal RNA homolog. RPL measurements correlate with established secondary structures for these RNA molecules, including stem-loop structures and long-range pseudoknots. We anticipate that RPL will complement the current repertoire of computational and experimental approaches in enabling the high-throughput determination of secondary and tertiary RNA structures.

  2. Fractures of the proximal humerus involving the intertubercular groove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahovuo, J.; Paavolainen, P.; Bjoerkenheim, J.M.; Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the involvement of the gliding surface of the biceps tendon in fractures of the proximal humerus. Fifteen patients had a fracture of the proximal humerus verified with antero-posterior and axillary radiographs. Tangential radiographs of the intertubercular groove, obtained from the shoulder joint, showed involvement of the intertubercular groove in 13 patients (87%), which could not be shown with other projections. Groove radiographs revealed in 3 patients a dislocation of the fragments of the greater tuberosity large enough to require surgical treatment, but which had not been found using conventional techniques. Therefore, a groove radiograph should be used to precise fractures of the proximal humerus. (orig.)

  3. Modular endoprosthetic replacement for metastatic tumours of the proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Simon R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Endoprosthetic replacements of the proximal femur are commonly required to treat destructive metastases with either impending or actual pathological fractures at this site. Modular prostheses provide an off the shelf availability and can be adapted to most reconstructive situations for proximal femoral replacements. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and functional outcomes following modular tumour prosthesis reconstruction of the proximal femur in 100 consecutive patients with metastatic tumours and to compare them with the published results of patients with modular and custom made endoprosthetic replacements. Methods 100 consecutive patients who underwent modular tumour prosthetic reconstruction of the proximal femur for metastases using the METS system from 2001 to 2007 were studied. The patient, tumour and treatment factors in relation to overall survival, local control, implant survival and complications were analysed. Functional scores were obtained from surviving patients. Results and conclusion There were 45 male and 55 female patients. The mean age was 60.2 years. The indications were metastases. Seventy five patients presented with pathological fracture or with failed fixation and 25 patients were at a high risk of developing a fracture. The mean follow up was 15.9 months [range 0–77]. Three patients died within 2 weeks following surgery. 69 patients have died and 31 are alive. Of the 69 patients who were dead 68 did not need revision surgery indicating that the implant provided single definitive treatment which outlived the patient. There were three dislocations (2/5 with THR and 1/95 with unipolar femoral heads. 6 patients had deep infections. The estimated five year implant survival (Kaplan-Meier analysis was 83.1% with revision as end point. The mean TESS score was 64% (54%–82%. We conclude that METS modular tumour prosthesis for proximal femur provides versatility; low implant related

  4. An anatomical study of the proximal aspect of the medial femoral condyle to define the proximal-distal condylar length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ming Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite its possible role in knee arthroplasty, the proximal-distal condylar length (PDCL of the femur has never been reported in the literature. We conducted an anatomic study of the proximal aspect of the medial femoral condyle to propose a method for measuring the PDCL. Materials and Methods: Inspection of dried bone specimens was carried out to assure the most proximal condylar margin (MPCM as the eligible starting point to measure the PDCL. Simulation surgery was performed on seven pairs of cadaveric knees to verify the clinical application of measuring the PDCL after locating the MPCM. Interobserver reliability of this procedure was also analyzed. Results: Observation of the bone specimens showed that the MPCM is a concavity formed by the junction of the distal end of the supracondylar ridge and the proximal margin of the medial condyle. This anatomically distinctive structure made the MPCM an unambiguous landmark. The cadaveric simulation surgical dissection demonstrated that the MPCM is easily accessed in a surgical setting, making the measurement of the PDCL plausible. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.78, indicating good interobserver reliability for this technique. Conclusion: This study has suggested that the PDCL can be measured based on the MPCM in a surgical setting. PDCL measurement might be useful in joint line position management, selection of femoral component sizes, and other applications related to the proximal-distal dimension of the knee. Further investigation is required.

  5. Radiographic configuration and healing of 121 fractures of the proximal phalanx in 120 Thoroughbred racehorses (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M R W; Wright, I M

    2014-01-01

    Although fractures of the proximal phalanx are one of the most common long bone fractures of Thoroughbred horses in training, limited details on variations in morphology and radiological progression have been published. To describe in detail the configuration of parasagittal fractures of the proximal phalanx in a group of Thoroughbred racehorses, to report fracture distribution within this group of horses and to document radiological progression of fracture healing in cases treated by internal fixation. Restrospective case series. Case records and radiographs of Thoroughbred racehorses with parasagittal fractures of the proximal phalanx admitted to Newmarket Equine Hospital between 2007 and 2011 were analysed. One hundred and twenty-one fractures were identified in 120 Thoroughbred racehorses. Fractures were frequently more complex than was appreciated immediately following injury; a feature that has not been reported previously. There was seasonality of fractures in 2- and 3-year-old horses, but not in older horses. Fractures of the proximal phalanx may be more complex than recognised previously, although often their complexity cannot be identified radiographically immediately following injury. The seasonality observed in 2- and 3-year-old horses is most likely to be a consequence of the timing of the turf-racing season in the UK. The Summary is available in Chinese - see Supporting information. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of a combination of sodium hypochlorite and polyhexamethylene biguanide as an egg wash for red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) to suppress or eliminate Salmonella organisms on egg surfaces and in hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mark A; Adamson, Trinka W; Singleton, Charles B; Roundtree, Marlana K; Bauer, Rudy W; Acierno, Mark J

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate a combination of 2 nonantibiotic microbicide compounds, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), as a treatment to suppress or eliminate Salmonella spp from red-eared slider (RES) turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) eggs and hatchlings. 2,738 eggs from 8 turtle farms in Louisiana. Eggs were randomly sorted into 3 or, when sufficient eggs were available, 4 treatment groups as follows: control, pressure-differential egg treatment with NaOCl and gentamicin, NaOCl and PHMB bath treatment, and pressure-differential egg treatment with NaOCl and PHMB. Bacterial cultures were performed from specimens of eggs and hatchlings and evaluated for Salmonella spp. RES turtle eggs treated with NaOCl and PHMB as a bath (odds ratio [OR], 0.2 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.1 to 0.3]) or as a pressure-differential dip (OR, 0.01 [95% CI, 0.001 to 0.07]) or with gentamicin as a pressure-differential dip (OR, 0.1 [95% CI, 0.06 to 0.2]) were significantly less likely to have Salmonella-positive culture results than control-group eggs. Concern over reptile-associated salmonellosis in children in the United States is so great that federal regulations prohibit the sale of turtles that are < 10.2 cm in length. Currently, turtle farms treat eggs with gentamicin solution. Although this has reduced Salmonella shedding, it has also resulted in antimicrobial resistance. Results of our study indicate that a combination of NaOCl and PHMB may be used to suppress or eliminate Salmonella spp on RES turtle eggs and in hatchlings.

  7. Morfología femoral proximal en fracturas de cadera

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo de Mora Rebollo, María Jesús; Albareda Albareda, Jorge Cruz; Seral García, Belén; Martín Ruiz, G.; Lasierra Sanromán, José Manuel; Seral Iñigo, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    Es frecuente observar como pacientes que han sufrido una fractura de cadera, si se fracturan posteriormente la cadera contralateral, es del mismo tipo que la primera fractura. El objetivo de este trabajo es tratar de relacional la morfología femoral proximal con la producción de un tipo determinado de fractura. Para ello hemos realizado un estudio prospectivo en 50 pacientes mayores de 65 años, sin distinción de sexo, que han ingresado en nuestro servicio por fractura femoral proximal, 25 ...

  8. True aneurysm of the proximal occipital artery: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Cannistrà, Marco; Pizzardi, Giulia; Pasqua, Rocco; Frezzotti, Francesca; Calio', Francesco G

    2018-01-01

    True aneurysms of the proximal occipital artery are rare, may cause neurological symptoms due to compression of the hypoglossal nerve and their resection may be technically demanding. The case of an aneurysm of the proximal occipital artery causing discomfort and tongue deviation by compression on the hypoglossal nerve is reported. Postoperative course after resection was followed by complete regression of symptoms. Surgical resection, as standard treatment of aneurysms of the occipital artery, with the eventual technical adjunct of intubation by the nose is effective in durably relieving symptoms and preventing aneurysm-related complication. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. True aneurysm of the proximal occipital artery: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Illuminati

    Full Text Available Introduction: True aneurysms of the proximal occipital artery are rare, may cause neurological symptoms due to compression of the hypoglossal nerve and their resection may be technically demanding. Presentation of case: The case of an aneurysm of the proximal occipital artery causing discomfort and tongue deviation by compression on the hypoglossal nerve is reported. Postoperative course after resection was followed by complete regression of symptoms. Conclusion: Surgical resection, as standard treatment of aneurysms of the occipital artery, with the eventual technical adjunct of intubation by the nose is effective in durably relieving symptoms and preventing aneurysm-related complication. Keywords: Arterial aneurysm, Occipital artery, Case report

  10. Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation of the proximal humerus: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, J.B.; Meyer, Mark S.; Reith, John D.

    2007-01-01

    Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP), or Nora's lesion, is a rare lesion of bone occurring predominantly in the long bones of the hands and feet. It exists as a puzzling clinical entity of uncertain origins and high recurrence rates after surgical resection. To our knowledge, this clinical entity has not been reported in the proximal aspect of the humerus. An interesting report of a lesion occurring in the proximal humerus, which initially was misinterpreted as a parosteal osteosarcoma, is discussed outlining the clinical, radiographic and pathologic features of the BPOP lesion. (orig.)

  11. Inter-proximal enamel reduction in contemporary orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindoria, J; Fleming, P S; Sharma, P K

    2016-12-16

    Inter-proximal enamel reduction has gained increasing prominence in recent years being advocated to provide space for orthodontic alignment, to refine contact points and to potentially improve long-term stability. An array of techniques and products are available ranging from hand-held abrasive strips to handpiece mounted burs and discs. The indications for inter-proximal enamel reduction and the importance of formal space analysis, together with the various techniques and armamentarium which may be used to perform it safely in both the labial and buccal segments are outlined.

  12. Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation of the proximal humerus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, J.B.; Meyer, Mark S. [Ochsner Clinic Foundation, Department of Orthopedics, New Orleans, LA (United States); Reith, John D. [University of Florida College of Medicine, Departments of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine and Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Gainesville, Florida (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP), or Nora's lesion, is a rare lesion of bone occurring predominantly in the long bones of the hands and feet. It exists as a puzzling clinical entity of uncertain origins and high recurrence rates after surgical resection. To our knowledge, this clinical entity has not been reported in the proximal aspect of the humerus. An interesting report of a lesion occurring in the proximal humerus, which initially was misinterpreted as a parosteal osteosarcoma, is discussed outlining the clinical, radiographic and pathologic features of the BPOP lesion. (orig.)

  13. Identification of avascular necrosis in the dysplastic proximal femoral epiphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, G.A.; Harcke, H.T.; MacKenzie, W.G.; Bassett, G.S.; Scott, C.I. Jr.; Wills, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Bilateral radiographic irregularities and deformities of the proximal femoral epiphyses are features of both multiple epiphyseal dysplasia and bilateral idiopathic avascular necrosis. In the past these entities have been difficult to differentiate. This report documents radiographically the occurrence of avascular necrosis in 10 patients with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia by recognizing the superimposition of sclerosis and subchondral fissuring on pre-existing symmetrically irregular proximal femoral ossification centers. Scintigraphic (photopenia) or magnetic resonance (loss of signal) criteria of avascular necrosis confirm its added presence and help to establish an imaging scheme to identify avascular necrosis superimposed on multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. (orig.)

  14. Identification of avascular necrosis in the dysplastic proximal femoral epiphysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, G A; Harcke, H T [Alfred I. duPont Inst., Wilmington, DE (USA). Dept. of Medical Imaging; MacKenzie, W G; Bassett, G S [Alfred I. duPont Inst., Wilmington, DE (USA). Dept. of Orthopaedics; Scott, Jr, C I [Alfred I. duPont Inst., Wilmington, DE (USA). Dept. of Genetics; Wills, J S [Medical Center of Delaware, Newark, DE (USA). Dept. of Radiology

    1989-07-01

    Bilateral radiographic irregularities and deformities of the proximal femoral epiphyses are features of both multiple epiphyseal dysplasia and bilateral idiopathic avascular necrosis. In the past these entities have been difficult to differentiate. This report documents radiographically the occurrence of avascular necrosis in 10 patients with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia by recognizing the superimposition of sclerosis and subchondral fissuring on pre-existing symmetrically irregular proximal femoral ossification centers. Scintigraphic (photopenia) or magnetic resonance (loss of signal) criteria of avascular necrosis confirm its added presence and help to establish an imaging scheme to identify avascular necrosis superimposed on multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. (orig.).

  15. Superconducting proximity effect in mesoscopic superconductor/normal-metal junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Takayanagi, H; Toyoda, E

    1999-01-01

    The superconducting proximity effect is discussed in mesoscopic superconductor/normal-metal junctions. The newly-developed theory shows long-range phase-coherent effect which explaines early experimental results of giant magnetoresistance oscillations in an Andreev interferometer. The theory also shows that the proximity correction to the conductance (PCC) has a reentrant behavior as a function of energy. The reentrant behavior is systematically studied in a gated superconductor-semiconductor junction. A negative PCC is observed in the case of a weak coupling between the normal metal and the external reservoir. Phase coherent ac effect is also observed when rf is irradiated to the junction.

  16. Quality assurance records and records' system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, M.; Martinek, J.

    1980-01-01

    For nuclear power plants extensive proof of quality is required which has to be documented reliably by quality records. With respect to the paper volume it is the most comprehensive 'curriculum vitae' of the technique. Traditional methods of information and recording are unsatisfactory for meeting regulatory requirements for maintaining the QA-aspects of status reporting, completeness, traceability and retrieval. Therefore KWU has established a record (documentation) subsystem within the overall component qualification system. Examples of the general documentation requirements, the procedure and handling in accordance with this subsystem for mechanical equipment are to be described examplarily. Topics are: - National and international requirements - Definition of QA records - Modular and product orientated KWU-record subsystem - Criteria for developing records - Record control, distribution, collection, storage - New documentation techniques (microfilm, data processing) - Education and training of personnel. (orig./RW)

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of the proximal metacarpus in Quarter Horses used for cutting: Retrospective analysis of 32 horses 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, M F; Manchon, P T; Hersman, J; Kawcak, C E

    2018-03-01

    Injury to the proximal suspensory ligament is a common cause of lameness in cutting horses. Radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging of lesions responsible for lameness can provide ambiguous results. MRI provides the most comprehensive diagnostic imaging evaluation of lesions specifically affecting cutting horses. To describe the distribution and severity of bone and soft tissue lesions present in the proximal metacarpus of Quarter Horse cutting horses and to assess the impact of these lesions on return to competition. Retrospective case series. Retrospective analysis of 32 cutting horses referred for MRI of the proximal metacarpus between 2009 and 2012 with a 2-year follow-up period. MRI studies were evaluated by a board-certified veterinary radiologist; the severity of lesions was graded from 0 (absent) to 3 (severe). A total of 20 right and 24 left forelimbs (12 bilateral studies) of 32 horses were evaluated. The most common findings were: third metacarpal (McIII) sclerosis at the proximal suspensory ligament (PSL) origin (42/44), McIII resorption at the PSL origin (32/44), PSL dorsal margin fibre irregularity (30/44) and McIII bone contusion (22/39). Of the 30 horses, 22 horses successfully returned to competition, irrespective of severity of injury. Strong correlation exists between the degree of resorption in the palmar cortex of proximal McIII, degree of McIII sclerosis and severity of dorsal margin fibre irregularity. Statistical significance was limited by small study population. Further analysis of prognosis was limited by availability of comprehensive medical records. Cutting horses with proximal metacarpal pain have significant pathological change within the proximal suspensory ligament and its enthesis on the palmar cortex of McIII. Severity of lesions and degree of lameness at the time of diagnosis does not influence return to performance. Accurate diagnosis of proximal metacarpal lesions based on MRI offers clinicians the capacity to select

  18. Presidential Electronic Records Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — PERL (Presidential Electronic Records Library) used to ingest and provide internal access to the Presidential electronic Records of the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton...

  19. CMS Records Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Records Schedule provides disposition authorizations approved by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) for CMS program-related records...

  20. Flexible pressure and proximity sensor surfaces manufactured with organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fattori, M.; Cantatore, E.; Pauer, G.; Agostinelli, T.; Stadlober, B.; Gold, H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of two large-Area active matrixes on foil for pressure and proximity sensing applications. Frontend circuits based on organic thin-film transistors on foil are laminated with screen-printed PDVF-TrFE piezo and pyro sensors to create the complete flexible sensing

  1. Depressionary Effect of Proximity of Residential Properties to Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Past studies have researched these impacts using a variety of hedonic models and Marginal Implicit Pricing, however, this study takes a special focus on the resident's perspective based on the linear proximity to waste disposal sites. 260 questionnaires were distributed to residents within 1km to the site and Estate ...

  2. Proximal onychomycosis due to Malassezia furfur: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareei M

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiologic role of Malassezia furfur in onychomycosis, because of its controversial keratinolytic ability, has not been proven. The most reported cases are distal subungual onychomycosis (DSO. In our knowledge no cases of proximal onychomycosis (PO has been reported. For the first time we report proximal onychomycosis. This case report describes the isolation of Malassezia furfur from fingernails. Case presentation: An Iranian 56- year- old women had been referred to mycology lab with hyperkeratosis in proximal regions of right hand nails and clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis without paronychia in May 2012. She used several medicines for her cardiac disease, mental illness, severe stress and blood glucose fluctuation diseases. Scraping and sampling from nail lesions were done, budding yeast cells with broadband connections were observed in 15% KOH wet mounts. Also, other differentiation tests, consist of staining with methylen blue, cultures and biochemical tests were done. In order to rejecting the probable etiologic role of any dermatophytic or non-dermatophytic fungi in this case, samples were collected from other parts of the body by scotch tape and scraping with scalpel blade too, but the results of direct microscopy and culture were negative. Finally, Malassezia furfur was identified as the causative agent of onychomycosis.Conclusion: Despite failure to prove Malassezia furfur keratinolytic ability, it can be the etiologic agent of proximal onychomycosis that shows the aggressive properties of this species. Its clinical importance is the easier transmission to hospitalized patients and other people.

  3. Proximate and Cholesterol Composition of Selected Fast Foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fast foods consumption has been on the increase in Nigeria raising concerns about the nutritional and health implications. This study was carried out to determine the proximate composition and cholesterol contents of four commonly consumed fast foods (doughnut, chicken pie, roasted chicken, and Jollof rice) sold in ...

  4. Sharpening a Tool for Teaching: The Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, Rob; Golding, Clinton

    2014-01-01

    Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) provides an important understanding of learning, but its implications for teachers are often unclear or limited and could be further explored. We use conceptual analysis to sharpen the ZPD as a teaching tool, illustrated with examples from teaching critical thinking in zoology. Our conclusions are…

  5. Scaffolding Critical Thinking in the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, Rob; Harland, Tony; Mercer, Alison

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores student experiences of learning to think critically. Twenty-six zoology undergraduates took part in the study for three years of their degree at the University of Otago, New Zealand. Vygotsky's developmental model of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) provided a framework as we examined how critical thinking was developed.…

  6. Proximate and mineral elements composition of five locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition of the studied fruits were determined by the standard methods of Official Analytical Chemists, while the Mineral Elements (Ca and Mg) were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The levels of Na+ and K+ were determined using Flame photometry and the level of P was ...

  7. Effect of smoking and sun drying on proximate composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of smoking and sun drying on proximate composition of Diplotaxodon fish species (Ndunduma) from lake Malawi, Malawi. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... The fish were washed then weighed and thereafter, smoked in a traditional smoking kiln and sun dried on reed mats.

  8. Proximal tibiofibular dislocation: a case report and review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwe Weme, R. A.; Somford, M. P.; Schepers, T.

    2014-01-01

    An isolated dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint is uncommon. The mechanism of this injury is usually sports related. We present a case where initial X-rays did not show the tibiofibular joint dislocation conclusively. It was diagnosed after comparative bilateral AP X-rays of the knees

  9. Observing Complex Systems Thinking in the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Joshua; Saleh, Asmalina; Andrade, Alejandro; Bryan, Branden

    2017-01-01

    Our paper builds on the construct of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) (Vygotsky in Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1978) to analyze the relationship between students' answers and the help they receive as they construct them. We report on a secondary analysis of…

  10. Comparative physico-chemical and proximate analysis of oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In rural areas of developing countries like Burkina Faso, nutritive elements are mainly composed of vegetable source. Shea nut, seeds of Sesamum indicum, Cucumis melo and Cucurbita pepo, four species widely consumed were studied. The proximate parameters: moisture, proteins and fat were analysed. Saponification ...

  11. Proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALLSWELL

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Evaluation of the proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of three tree species was carried out at the University of Agriculture, Umudike. Mature fruits of Allanblackia floribunda,. Garcinia kola and Poga oleosa were collected from the rainforest at Umudike and Oban National Park.

  12. Better access to microcredits: does geographical proximity matter?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alimukhamedova, Nargiza

    -, 2013/2014 Winter (2014), s. 24-25 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : microcredits * geographical proximity Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.e-mfp.eu/sites/ default /files/resources/2014/02/e-MFP_Winter2013-2014_Newsletter%20.pdf

  13. Changes in proximate and phytochemical compositions of Persea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persea americana (avocado pear leaves, fruits, and seeds) is one of the medicinal herbs that has been widely utilized in treating/managing disease conditions. In this study, we investigated the changes in proximate and phytochemical compositions of avocado seeds associated with ripening using standard methods.

  14. Proximate, mineral and vitamin C composition of vegetable Gbolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbolo (Crassocephalum crepidioides and Crassocephalum rubens) is a traditional leafy vegetable highly consumed in southern and central Benin, as well as in some part of northern Benin. The nutritional potential of the two species of Gbolo were evaluated through their proximate composition, mineral and vitamin C ...

  15. Proximity effect in normal metal-multiband superconductor hybrid structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Alexander; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kupriyanov, M. Yu

    2004-01-01

    A theory of the proximity effect in normal metal¿multiband superconductor hybrid structures is formulated within the quasiclassical Green's function formalism. The quasiclassical boundary conditions for multiband hybrid structures are derived in the dirty limit. It is shown that the existence of

  16. User's proximity effects for talk mode in mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelosi, Mauro; B. Knudsen, Mikael; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    Thanks to a recent grip study, 3D CAD model of the human hand have been generated, investigating user's proximity effects for talk mode in mobile phones. The simulation results show that the human hand exhibits a major contribution in determining the total loss when compared to the phantom head...

  17. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the heavy metal content and proximate composition during the 28 day composting of cassava peels used in the cultivation of the oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 was studied. Significant dry weight variations of cellulose, hemicellulose and fat contents were observed from day 0 to 12.

  18. Proximate composition and mineral profile of eight different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... eight different sun dried date varieties; (1) Daki, (2) Aseel, (3) Coconut, (4) Khuzravi, (5) Halavi, (6) Zahidi, (7) Deglet Noor and (8) Barkavi were examined to determine their proximate composition and mineral profile. All the date varieties were found to be rich in proteins, fiber, carbohydrates and net gross energy (352.329 ...

  19. Developing survey metrics for analysing cross-border proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2018-01-01

    attempts to operationalize the varying types of proximity – in relation to CBIC – in the form of a questionnaire tested through pilot studies of two CBRs, at the Finnish–Swedish and Danish–German border, and for two contrasting service industries, namely knowledge-intensive business services and tourism...

  20. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...

  1. Correction of Misclassifications Using a Proximity-Based Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulevich Ilya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimation method for correcting misclassifications in signal and image processing is presented. The method is based on the use of context-based (temporal or spatial information in a sliding-window fashion. The classes can be purely nominal, that is, an ordering of the classes is not required. The method employs nonlinear operations based on class proximities defined by a proximity matrix. Two case studies are presented. In the first, the proposed method is applied to one-dimensional signals for processing data that are obtained by a musical key-finding algorithm. In the second, the estimation method is applied to two-dimensional signals for correction of misclassifications in images. In the first case study, the proximity matrix employed by the estimation method follows directly from music perception studies, whereas in the second case study, the optimal proximity matrix is obtained with genetic algorithms as the learning rule in a training-based optimization framework. Simulation results are presented in both case studies and the degree of improvement in classification accuracy that is obtained by the proposed method is assessed statistically using Kappa analysis.

  2. Studies on the proximate composition, functional properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study produced full fat and defatted flours from matured ackee apple arils and evaluated the proximate composition and the effect of pH and salt concentrations on some of the functional properties of the full fat flour and the defatted flour. Matured ackee apple arils were oven-dried at 60 oC and milled to obtain ...

  3. Effect of drought/irrigation on proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enset [Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman] is an important root crop serving as a carbohydrate rich food source in Ethiopia. Perennial crops, like enset, are often exposed to recurrent dry periods which could greatly affect their growth, physiology and yield. The effect of induced drought/irrigation on the proximate ...

  4. Proximate composition and amino acid profile of rice husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Native rice husk (NRH) was fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus for 7, 14 and 21 days to improve the nutritional values. The proximate composition and amino acid profiles were determined. The results showed that crude fibre (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) were ...

  5. Proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of three tree species was carried out at the University of Agriculture, Umudike. Mature fruits of Allanblackia floribunda, Garcinia kola and Poga oleosa were collected from the rainforest at Umudike and Oban National Park. The seeds were ...

  6. Microbiological, proximate analysis and sensory evaluation of baked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of making bread of good nutritional, microbiological and sensory qualities from blends of wheat-breadfruit flours was examined. Blends of wheat flour (WF) with percentages of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 of breadfruits flour (BF) were used in the production process. The proximate analysis, sensory evaluation and ...

  7. Proximate composition and phytochemistry of seed oil five cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and phytochemistry of seed oil five cultivars of Cajanus cajan in Nigeria. BA Iwalokun, OJ Adeyemi, TI Adeleke, EO Abayomi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Food Journal Vol. 24(1) 2006: 50-60. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Residential proximity to gasoline service stations and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppé, Vicky; Kestens, Yan; Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a growing public health problem potentially associated with ambient air pollution. Gasoline service stations can emit atmospheric pollutants, including volatile organic compounds potentially implicated in PTB. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between residential proximity to gasoline service stations and PTB. Singleton live births on the Island of Montreal from 1994 to 2006 were obtained (n=267,478). Gasoline service station locations, presence of heavy-traffic roads, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) were determined using a geographic information system. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between PTB and residential proximity to gasoline service stations (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 500 m), accounting for maternal covariates, neighborhood SES, and heavy-traffic roads. For all distance categories beyond 50 m, presence of service stations was associated with a greater odds of PTB. Associations were robust to adjustment for maternal covariates for distance categories of 150 and 200 m but were nullified when adjusting for neighborhood SES. In analyses accounting for the number of service stations, the likelihood of PTB within 250 m was statistically significant in unadjusted models. Associations were, however, nullified in models accounting for maternal covariates or neighborhood SES. Our results suggest that there is no clear association between residential proximity to gasoline service stations in Montreal and PTB. Given the correlation between proximity of gasoline service stations and SES, it is difficult to delineate the role of these factors in PTB.

  9. Phytochemical, Proximate and Metal Content Analysis of the Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The phytochemical analysis of Psidium guajava was carried out by using a standard procedure. Ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate and fibre contents were determined using proximate analysis while the metal contents were determined using Pearson's method. Results: The phytochemical analysis revealed the ...

  10. Proximate composition and sensory properties of freeze-dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These instant soups and the freshly prepared portions were subjected to proximate and sensory analysis using standard methods. The results of the analysis showed that instant egusi soup contained 10.89 % moisture, 16.93 % ash, 19.73 % crude protein, 15.19 % fat, 13.95 % crude fibre and 23.30 % carbohydrate; while ...

  11. Comparative analysis of the Proximate composition and Sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate analysis of the samples revealed that the protein, fat, ash, crude fibre and acid insoluble ash contents differed significantly (p<0.05) between samples. With respect to protein and fat contents, dokuwa sample from Doko had the highest values while dokuwa sample from Lapai had the lowest but the reverse was ...

  12. Heavy metal, proximate and microbial profile of some selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study on the elemental, proximate and microbial composition of fresh samples of Scomber scombrus, Gadus macrocephalus, Saclina pilchradus and Jack mackerel was determined to gain the knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with indiscriminate consumption of marine fishes. Wet digestion was done for the ...

  13. Microbiological and proximate analyses of unripened cheese 'Wara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... may be attributed to poor hygiene of the handlers and manufacturing practices. A careful appraisal of these procedures and the use of pasteurized milk is suggested to reduce the exposure of consumers to health hazard. Key words: Raw milk, Pathogens, Coliforms, Cheese, food borne pathogens, Proximate composition.

  14. Proximate Analysis And The Determination Of Some Physico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Mg (296.00-371.50 µg/g) and Ca (1165.00-1335.50 µg/g) with few exceptions. The results obtained show good agreement with literature values and provide information on the nutritional value of some of the common evaporated milks sold on Nigerian markets. Keywords: Milk, proximate analysis, physico-chemical, AAS

  15. Performance characteristics of proximity focused ultraviolet image converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. T.; Feibelman, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Performance characteristics of Bendix type BX 8025-4522 proximity focused image tubes for UV to visible light conversion are presented. Quantum efficiency, resolution, background, geometric distortion, and environmental test results are discussed. The converters use magnesium fluoride input windows with Cs-Te photocathodes and P-11 phosphors on fiber optic output windows.

  16. Proximate and mineral analysis of some wild edible mushrooms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    israelikk

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... Key words: Edible mushroom, mineral composition, proximate analysis. ... than beef, pork and chicken that contain similar nutrients. .... legumes and meat. In earlier studies, Gruen and Wong. (1982) indicated that edible mushrooms were highly nutritional and compared favourably with meat, egg and milk.

  17. Proximate analysis of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    Lentinus squarrosulus and Psathyrella atroumbonata, two mushroom species commonly found growing on dead leaves and logs, were collected from the Zaria environ and taken to the laboratory for further studies. Each of the mushroom species was separated into its stipe and pileus and used for proximate analysis.

  18. Radiation tolerant design - theory and practice for proximity sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.E.; Pater, S.L.; Cook, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a description of the radiation tolerant design process used to develop a range of proximity detectors with guaranteed total dose lifetime. It also describes some of the applications in which the detectors are being used and the benefits gained by plant operators. (authors)

  19. Leveraging Proximity Sensing to Mine the Behavior of Museum Visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martella, Claudio; Miraglia, Armando; Cattani, Marco; van Steen, Martinus Richardus

    Face-to-face proximity has been successfully leveraged to study the relationships between individuals in various contexts, from a working place, to a conference, a museum, a fair, and a date. We spend time facing the individuals with whom we chat, discuss, work, and play. However, face-to-face

  20. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition of small catfish, Mystus bleekeri, from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan was investigated and fluctuation in relation to body size and condition factor was carried out. Mean percentages for water, fat, protein and ash contents in the whole wet body weight of wild M. bleekeri were 77.87, 3.26, 15.01 and ...

  1. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of stenoses of the proximal subclavian artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, R.; Freyschmidt, J.; Walterbusch, G.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1983-01-01

    Between August 1980 and June 1982, 12 left-sided proximal subclavian stenoses were dilated with balloon catheters. The dilatation was successful in all patients. Differences in blood pressure in the arm could be demonstrated subsequently. Recurrences occurred in two patients after seven and eleven months. Follow-up of nine patients up to 24 months showed them to be symptom-free. (orig.)

  2. Effect of thermal processing methods on the proximate composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritive value of raw and thermal processed castor oil seed (Ricinus communis) was investigated using the following parameters; proximate composition, gross energy, mineral constituents and ricin content. Three thermal processing methods; toasting, boiling and soaking-and-boiling were used in the processing of the ...

  3. Pupils, Tools and the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Yasmine

    2018-01-01

    In this article, I use the Vygotskian concept of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) to examine the learning experience of two grade seven pupils as they attempted to solve an addition of fractions problem using fraction strips. The aim is to highlight how tools can facilitate the enactment of a ZPD, within which the tool provides the guidance.…

  4. Predicting Performance in Higher Education Using Proximal Predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, A Susan M; Meijer, Rob R; Tendeiro, Jorge N

    2016-01-01

    We studied the validity of two methods for predicting academic performance and student-program fit that were proximal to important study criteria. Applicants to an undergraduate psychology program participated in a selection procedure containing a trial-studying test based on a work sample approach,

  5. Phytochemical, proximate and anti-nutrient compositions of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical constituents of plants are influenced by environmental factors and fluctuations just as many other polygenic traits. Four different green leafy vegetables commonly used in the diets of South Eastern Nigeria were analyzed with a view to determine the phytochemicals, proximate and anti-nutrient compositions of ...

  6. Using an index of habitat patch proximity for landscape design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; George R. Parker

    1994-01-01

    A proximity index (PX) inspired by island biogeography theory is described which quantifies the spatial context of a habitat patch in relation to its neighbors. The index distinguishes sparse distributions of small habitat patches from clusters of large patches. An evaluation of the relationship between PX and variation in the spatial characteristics of clusters of...

  7. Affordable dual-sensing proximity sensor for touchless interactive systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.; Diaz, Marlon C.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    We report an ultra-low cost flexible proximity sensor using only off-the-shelf recyclable materials such as aluminum foil, napkin and double-sided tape. Unlike previous reports, our device structure exhibits two sensing capabilities in one platform

  8. Innervation of the renal proximal convoluted tubule of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barajas, L.; Powers, K.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental data suggest the proximal tubule as a major site of neurogenic influence on tubular function. The functional and anatomical axial heterogeneity of the proximal tubule prompted this study of the distribution of innervation sites along the early, mid, and late proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of the rat. Serial section autoradiograms, with tritiated norepinephrine serving as a marker for monoaminergic nerves, were used in this study. Freehand clay models and graphic reconstructions of proximal tubules permitted a rough estimation of the location of the innervation sites along the PCT. In the subcapsular nephrons, the early PCT (first third) was devoid of innervation sites with most of the innervation occurring in the mid (middle third) and in the late (last third) PCT. Innervation sites were found in the early PCT in nephrons located deeper in the cortex. In juxtamedullary nephrons, innervation sites could be observed on the PCT as it left the glomerulus. This gradient of PCT innervation can be explained by the different tubulovascular relationships of nephrons at different levels of the cortex. The absence of innervation sites in the early PCT of subcapsular nephrons suggests that any influence of the renal nerves on the early PCT might be due to an effect of neurotransmitter released from renal nerves reaching the early PCT via the interstitium and/or capillaries

  9. Beyond proximities : The socio-spatial dynamics of knowledge creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.P.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge creation is recognized as interaction between individuals in a social context, but geography-of-knowledge-creation research inadequately connects social context to physical place. The proximities approach reduces physical place to near-far dichotomies and territorial innovation models

  10. The use of pedicled prepucial skin flap urethroplasty for proximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of pedicled prepucial skin flap urethroplasty for proximal bulbomembraneous urethral stricture in children: an easy alternative to transpubic urethroplasty. Harshjeet S. Bal, Jujju J. Kurian and Sudipta Sen. Objective Pediatric urethral strictures are not uncommon, and a myriad of treatment options is available.

  11. Worlds largest particle physics laboratory selects Proxim Wireless Mesh

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Proxim Wireless has announced that the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the world's largest particle physics laboratory and the birthplace of the World Wide Web, is using it's ORiNOCO AP-4000 mesh access points to extend the range of the laboratory's Wi-Fi network and to provide continuous monitoring of the lab's calorimeters" (1/2 page)

  12. Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on Leyland Cypress (xCupressocyparis leylandii (Dallim. and A.B. Jacks.) Dallim) and Japanese Privet (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.) growth were examined in a private nursery located in Sakarya, Turkey. Five transect were randomly chosen in both ...

  13. Effects of fermentation and extrusion on the proximate composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of extrusion and fermentation on the proximate composition and organoleptic properties of six combinations (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50) of sorghum - soya blend were investigated. A total number of 19 microorganisms were isolated during the fermentation of sorghum-soya extrudates; these ...

  14. Phytochemical and proximate analysis of Aspillia kotschyi (Sch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical and proximate composition of Aspillia Kotschyi belonging to Compositae family which is commonly used as medicinal plant in Nigeria was determined on both the Methanolic and Petroleum spirit extracts of the plant material The Methanolic extract of the plant revealed the presence of carbohydrates, ...

  15. Effect of drying temperatures on the proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of the proximate composition showed that the nutritional qualities of the dried eggs were retained during drying thus the drying temperature did not affect the quality of eggs. The moisture contents of the dried whole egg, dried egg yolk and dried egg white at the different temperatures range from 6.25 -7.23%, ...

  16. Impact of Relational Proximity on Distress from Infidelity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Maryanne; Geher, Glenn; Cox, Anthony; Tran, Ulrich S.; Hoben, Ashley; Arrabaca, Andrew; Chaize, Corinna; Dietrich, Robert; Voracek, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Men are generally more distressed by a partner's sexual infidelity whereas women are generally more distressed by a partner's emotional infidelity. The importance of the identity of the interloper, however, has been neglected. We explored the influence of relational proximity (i.e., the degree of

  17. A security review of proximity identification based smart cards

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lefophane, S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available International Conference on Cyber warfare and Security, Mpumalanga, Kruger National Park, South Africa, 24-25 March 2015 A SECURITY REVIEW OF PROXIMITY IDENTIFICATION BASED SMART CARDS S.Lefophane, J. Van der Merwe Modelling and Digital Science: CSIR...

  18. Effect of Soaking Time on Proximate and Mineral Compositions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of soaking time on some composition of yellow maize was investigated. Yellow maize seeds (Zea mays) were soaked in deionized water for 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours respectively followed by draining, drying and milling. The unsoaked seeds were milled and served as the control. Proximate and mineral compositions ...

  19. The Grammaticalization of the Proximative in Tok Pisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses grammaticalization of "laik" in Tok Pisin, meaning "want/like/desire" (from English "like") and "klostu," meaning "near" (from English "close to") as markers of proximative. Shows although "klostu" was more generally a feature of Pacific Pidgin English and began to…

  20. Age factor and proximate compositions of the muscle of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant increases (P < 0.05) in the nitrogen free extract (NFE) of the fish muscle might have been due to the high energy demand imposed on the fish as a positive survival value under the condition of crude oil stress. Keywords: Heterobranchus bidorsalis, Age groups, Proximate composition, Bonny-light crude oil, ...

  1. Impact of Hydronephrosis on Treatment Outcome of Solitary Proximal Ureteral Stone After Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Lin Hsiao

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of hydronephrosis on the treatment outcome of patients with a solitary proximal ureteral stone after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. A total of 182 consecutive patients who underwent ESWL for a solitary proximal ureteral stone of between 5 and 20 mm in size in our institution were included in this study. The degree of hydronephrosis was defined by renal ultrasonography. Patient data, stone size, shock wave numbers and shock wave energy were also recorded. Treatment outcome was evaluated 3 months after the first session of ESWL. In multivariate analysis, only the maximal stone length (odds ratio [OR], 0.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03–0.91; p = 0.04 and the degree of hydronephrosis (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.16–0.98; p = 0.045 were significant predicting factors for stone-free status 3 months after ESWL. For stones ≤ 10 mm, the stone-free rate decreased from 80% in patients with mild hydronephrosis to 56.4% in those with moderate to severe hydro-nephrosis. For stones > 10 mm, the stone-free rate decreased further, from 65.2% in patients with mild hydronephrosis to 33.3% in those with moderate to severe hydronephrosis. In summary, patients with a solitary proximal ureteral stone and a stone > 10 mm, the treatment outcome after ESWL was not good if moderate to severe hydronephrosis was noted on ultrasonography. Alternative treatments, such as ureteroscopic lithotripsy, may be appropriate as initial treatment or after failure of one session of ESWL.

  2. Proximity to traffic, ambient air pollution, and community noise in relation to incident rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, Anneclaire J; Koehoorn, Mieke; Tamburic, Lillian; Davies, Hugh W; Brauer, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with living near traffic; however, there is evidence suggesting that air pollution may not be responsible for this association. Noise, another traffic-generated exposure, has not been studied as a risk factor for RA. We investigated proximity to traffic, ambient air pollution, and community noise in relation to RA in the Vancouver and Victoria regions of British Columbia, Canada. Cases and controls were identified in a cohort of adults that was assembled using health insurance registration records. Incident RA cases from 1999 through 2002 were identified by diagnostic codes in combination with prescriptions and type of physician (e.g., rheumatologist). Controls were matched to RA cases by age and sex. Environmental exposures were assigned to each member of the study population by their residential postal code(s). We estimated relative risks using conditional logistic regression, with additional adjustment for median income at the postal code. RA incidence was increased with proximity to traffic, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.68) for residence ≤ 50 m from a highway compared with residence > 150 m away. We found no association with traffic-related exposures such as PM2.5, nitrogen oxides, or noise. Ground-level ozone, which was highest in suburban areas, was associated with an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.36 per interquartile range increase). Our study confirms a previously observed association of RA risk with proximity to traffic and suggests that neither noise levels nor traffic-related air pollutants are responsible for this relationship. Additional investigation of neighborhood and individual correlates of residence near roadways may provide new insight into risk factors for RA.

  3. NMR-based urine analysis in rats: prediction of proximal tubule kidney toxicity and phospholipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Kai; Plötz, Thomas; Pestel, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    The aim of safety pharmacology is early detection of compound-induced side-effects. NMR-based urine analysis followed by multivariate data analysis (metabonomics) identifies efficiently differences between toxic and non-toxic compounds; but in most cases multiple administrations of the test compound are necessary. We tested the feasibility of detecting proximal tubule kidney toxicity and phospholipidosis with metabonomics techniques after single compound administration as an early safety pharmacology approach. Rats were treated orally, intravenously, inhalatively or intraperitoneally with different test compounds. Urine was collected at 0-8 h and 8-24 h after compound administration, and (1)H NMR-patterns were recorded from the samples. Variation of post-processing and feature extraction methods led to different views on the data. Support Vector Machines were trained on these different data sets and then aggregated as experts in an Ensemble. Finally, validity was monitored with a cross-validation study using a training, validation, and test data set. Proximal tubule kidney toxicity could be predicted with reasonable total classification accuracy (85%), specificity (88%) and sensitivity (78%). In comparison to alternative histological studies, results were obtained quicker, compound need was reduced, and very importantly fewer animals were needed. In contrast, the induction of phospholipidosis by the test compounds could not be predicted using NMR-based urine analysis or the previously published biomarker PAG. NMR-based urine analysis was shown to effectively predict proximal tubule kidney toxicity after single compound administration in rats. Thus, this experimental design allows early detection of toxicity risks with relatively low amounts of compound in a reasonably short period of time.

  4. A STUDY ON PROXIMAL HUMERAL FRACTURES STABILISED WITH PHILOS PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Sivakumar K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Techniques for treating complex proximal humeral fractures vary and include fixations using tension bands, percutaneous pins, bone suture, T-plates, intramedullary nails, double tubular plates, hemiarthroplasty, plant tan humerus fixator plates, Polaris nails and blade plates. Complications of these techniques include cutout or back out of the screws and plates, avascular necrosis, nonunion, malunion, nail migration, rotator cuff impairment and impingement syndromes. Insufficient anchorage from conventional implants may lead to early loosening and failure, especially in osteoporotic bones. In general, nonoperative treatment of displaced three and four-part fractures of the proximal humerus leads to poor outcome due to intraarticular nature of injury and inherent instability of the fragments. Comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus are at risk of fixation failure, screw loosening and fracture displacement. Open reduction and internal fixation with conventional plate and screws has been associated with unacceptably high incidence of screw pull out. PHILOS (the proximal humeral internal locking system plate is an internal fixation system that enables angled stabilisation with multiple interlocking screws for fractures of the proximal humerus. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 patients with proximal humerus fractures who were admitted in the Department of Orthopaedics, Government General Hospital, Kakinada, during the period November 2014 - November 2016 were taken up for study according to inclusion criteria. All patients were treated with PHILOS plate. These proximal humerus fractures were classified according to Neer’s classification. Patients were followed up at 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months’ interval. Functional outcomes for pain, range of motion and muscle power and function were assessed using the Constant-Murley scoring system. Collected data analysed with independent t-test and ANNOVA test. RESULTS The outcome of the study was 1

  5. Surgical treatment of proximal humerus fractures using PHILOS plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To evaluate functional outcome and complications of open reduction and internal fixation with proximal humeral internal locking system (PHILOS plate for proximal humerus fractures. Methods: We reviewed 51 patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation with PHILOS plate between the years 2007 to 2012. There were 35 men and 16 women with a mean age of 38 years (range 24-68. There were 41 patients in the age group of <60 years and 10 patients in the age group of >60 years. According to Neer classification system, 8, 15 and 23 patients had 2-part, 3-part, and 4-part fractures, respectively and 5 patients had 4-part fracture dislocation. All surgeries were carried out at our tertiary care trauma centre. Functional evaluation of the shoulder at final follow-up was done using Constant-Murley score. Results: The mean follow-up period was 30 months (range 12-44 months. Two patients were lost to followup. Of the remaining 49 patients, all fractures were united clinically and radiologically. The mean time for radiological union was 12 weeks (range 8-20 weeks. At the final follow-up the mean Constant-Murley score was 79 (range 50-100. The results were excellent in 25 patients, good in 13 patients, fair in 6 atients and poor in 5 patients. During the follow-up, four cases of varus malunion, one case of subacromial impingement, one case of deep infection, one case of intraarticular screw penetration and one case of failure of fi xation were noted. No cases of avascular necrosis, hardware failure, locking screw loosening or nonunion were noted. Conclusion: PHILOS provides stable fixation in proximal humerus fractures. To prevent potential complications like avascular necrosis, meticulous surgical dissection to preserve vascularity of humeral head is necessary. Key words: Proximal humerus fracture; Fracture fixation, internal; Proximal humeral internal locking system

  6. Proximal supination osteotomy of the first metatarsal for hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Toshito; Okuda, Ryuzo; Jotoku, Tsuyoshi; Shima, Hiroaki; Hida, Takashi; Neo, Masashi

    2015-06-01

    Risk factors for hallux valgus recurrence include postoperative round-shaped lateral edge of the first metatarsal head and postoperative incomplete reduction of the sesamoids. To prevent the occurrence of such conditions, we developed a proximal supination osteotomy of the first metatarsal. Our aim was to describe this novel technique and report the outcomes in this report. Sixty-six patients (83 feet) underwent a distal soft tissue procedure combined with a proximal supination osteotomy. After the proximal crescentic osteotomy, the proximal fragment was pushed medially, and the distal fragment was abducted, and then the distal fragment of the first metatarsal was manually supinated. Outcomes were assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score and radiographic examinations. The average follow-up duration was 34 (range, 25 to 52) months. The mean AOFAS score improved significantly from 58.0 points preoperatively to 93.8 points postoperatively (P hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angle decreased significantly from 38.6 and 18.0 degrees preoperatively to 11.0 and 7.9 degrees postoperatively, respectively (both, P hallux valgus, defined as a hallux valgus angle ≥ 25 degrees. The rates of occurrence of a positive round sign and incomplete reduction of the sesamoids significantly decreased postoperatively, which may have contributed to the low hallux valgus recurrence rates. We conclude that a proximal supination osteotomy was an effective procedure for correction of hallux valgus and can achieve a low rate of hallux valgus recurrence. Level IV, retrospective case series. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Super-Relaxed ( -Proximal Point Algorithms, Relaxed ( -Proximal Point Algorithms, Linear Convergence Analysis, and Nonlinear Variational Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal RaviP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We glance at recent advances to the general theory of maximal (set-valued monotone mappings and their role demonstrated to examine the convex programming and closely related field of nonlinear variational inequalities. We focus mostly on applications of the super-relaxed ( -proximal point algorithm to the context of solving a class of nonlinear variational inclusion problems, based on the notion of maximal ( -monotonicity. Investigations highlighted in this communication are greatly influenced by the celebrated work of Rockafellar (1976, while others have played a significant part as well in generalizing the proximal point algorithm considered by Rockafellar (1976 to the case of the relaxed proximal point algorithm by Eckstein and Bertsekas (1992. Even for the linear convergence analysis for the overrelaxed (or super-relaxed ( -proximal point algorithm, the fundamental model for Rockafellar's case does the job. Furthermore, we attempt to explore possibilities of generalizing the Yosida regularization/approximation in light of maximal ( -monotonicity, and then applying to first-order evolution equations/inclusions.

  8. Coffee prevents proximal colorectal adenomas in Japanese men: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tomiyo; Ishikawa, Hideki; Mutoh, Michihiro; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Kawano, Atsuko; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2016-09-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to show that coffee prevents the recurrence of colorectal tumors (adenomas, precursors of colorectal cancer, and early-stage colorectal cancers) as well as colorectal cancer. The present study included 307 patients who participated in a clinical study that required endoscopy to remove a colorectal tumor. The amount of coffee consumed by the patients at study inclusion and the frequency of colorectal tumors, as detected by colonoscopy over the subsequent 4 years, were assessed. Coffee consumption was determined using a diet survey that included 3-consecutive-day food records. The risk of colorectal tumor recurrence was significantly lower (odds ratio=0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.74) in patients who consumed more than three cups of coffee per day compared with those who consumed no coffee. No correlation was observed between the examined factors, including green tea and black tea intake and the amount of caffeine consumed. In subanalysis divided by the tumor location within the colorectum, the odds ratio of colorectal tumor recurrence in the proximal colon showed a tendency toward reduction as coffee consumption increased; however, increased coffee consumption significantly increased colorectal tumor recurrence in the distal colon. We showed that high coffee consumption reduced the overall occurrence of colorectal tumors, affected by the reduction in the proximal colon.

  9. Atypical location of osteonecrosis of the proximal femur: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez López, Alejandro; García Lorenzo, Yenima

    2016-01-01

    Background: avascular necrosis of the femoral head is an infrequent lesion, especially when it is located in other areas of the proximal femur like the femoral neck. Objective: to present the case of a patient with atypical location of avascular necrosis in the proximal femur. Clinical case: a forty-nine-year-old white female patient with a personal medical record who six months ago started presenting pain in the right hip. The intensity and duration of the pain gradually increased. It also got worse at walking and standing for long periods of time, associated with limp. A simple radiographic examination showed an osteolytic image of well-defined edges in the anteroposterior side of the right hip. To check the presence of this image, a CT scan was performed. A sliding screw fixation was placed to keep the normal anatomical structure and avoid a pathological fracture. Conclusion: the location of avascular necrosis out of the femoral head is extremely infrequent. In these cases other surgical procedures, like resection and fixation with nails and screws, are needed particularly when the location is at the level of the femoral neck and there are risks of a pathological fracture. (author)

  10. Surgical medical record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulow, S.

    2008-01-01

    A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15......A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15...

  11. Distal and proximal predictors of snacking at work: A daily-survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Pundt, Alexander; Venz, Laura

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed at examining predictors of healthy and unhealthy snacking at work. As proximal predictors we looked at food-choice motives (health motive, affect-regulation motive); as distal predictors we included organizational eating climate, emotional eating, and self-control demands at work. We collected daily survey data from 247 employees, over a period of 2 workweeks. Multilevel structural equation modeling showed that organizational eating climate predicted health as food-choice motive, whereas emotional eating and self-control demands predicted affect regulation as food-choice motive. The health motive, in turn, predicted consuming more fruits and more cereal bars and less sweet snacks; the affect-regulation motive predicted consuming more sweet snacks. Findings highlight the importance of a health-promoting eating climate within the organization and point to the potential harm of high self-control demands at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Seasonal proximate and fatty acid variations of some seaweeds from the northeastern Mediterranean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Polat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal nutritional value of red (Jania rubens, Laurencia papillosa, Spyridia filamentosa and Dasya rigidula and brown macroalgae (Padina pavonia and Stypopodium schimperi was evaluated as a dietary supplement for human and animal nutrition based on proximate and fatty acid profiles. The protein content varied from 0.80% (L. papillosa to 3.41% (J. rubens of wet weight with the highest values in winter. The highest lipid levels were recorded in S. schimperi (2.03% in spring, 2.16% in summer, the lowest in S. filamentosa (0.08% in spring. The ash content of J. rubens (46.11-51.63% was significantly higher than that of the other species (2.28-16.57%. Analysis of the fatty acid composition showed that these seaweed species are very rich in n-3 fatty acids.

  13. Long-term estradiol treatment improves VIP-mediated vasodilation in atherosclerotic proximal coronary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, T.; Mortensen, Alicja; Larsen, C. R.

    2003-01-01

    arteries. Female ovariectomized homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits were randomized to 16 weeks treatment with 17beta-estradiol or placebo. The diet was semisynthetic, thereby avoiding the influence of phytoestrogens. Artery ring segments were mounted for isometric tension recordings...... in myographs. Following precontraction, the dose-response relationships for VIP and PACAP were evaluated. Treatment with 17beta-estradiol significantly improved the maximum VIP-mediated vasodilation (E-max, percentage of precontraction) in proximal coronary arteries (45.8 +/- 9.6% vs. 24.1 +/- 3.7%, p ....05). In the same artery segment, 17β-estradiol induced a significant decrease in the relative ratio between the repeated contractile response to potassium 30 and 120 mM (100 +/- 7% vs. 132 +/- 11%, p

  14. Ooforectomia videoassistida por acesso pré-femural em targaruga-de-ouvido-vermelho (Trachemys scripta elegans Coelioscopic-assisted prefemoral oophorectomy in red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Pessoa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nas intervenções cirúrgicas em quelônios, o acesso à cavidade celomática é geralmente feito através do plastrão, por meio da remoção dos escudos córneos e placas ósseas ventrais com o auxílio de serras (osteotomia. Este acesso mostra-se desvantajoso em função do maior tempo cirúrgico e da intervenção ser bastante traumática e dolorosa para o paciente. Neste trabalho é descrita a técnica cirúrgica de acesso à cavidade celomática (celiotomia pela fossa pré-femural, permitindo a localização e a tração dos folículos ovarianos por endoscopia e a aplicação de "hemoclips" para a oclusão dos vasos sanguíneos seccionados. O tempo operatório foi reduzido em aproximadamente três horas, em relação à técnica tradicional. Conclui-se que a técnica descrita apresenta vantagens, pois o tempo despendido para o acesso à cavidade celomática, remoção dos folículos e dos ovários, e o retorno anestésico foram sensivelmente diminuídos, havendo recuperação rápida do paciente e retorno às suas atividades normais, o que demonstra ter havido redução considerável na resposta dolorosa pós-cirúrgica.The usual surgical technique for accessing the coelomic cavity of chelonians through the horny shields and bone plates of plastron by using a Dremel machine (plastron osteotomy is considered slow, traumatic, and very painful for the patient. In this paper a technique of coelioscopic-assisted prefemoral oophorectomy is described in red-eared slider. The time spent on accessing the coelomic cavity, removal of the follicles and ovaries, and anesthetic recovery was markedly decreased (three hours less in comparison with the traditional technique. The rapid return of the patient to normal activity demonstrates an important reduction in pain at post-surgical recovery. The extra cost resulting of the use of endoscopy and a specialized veterinarian service is clearly justified by the positive results described above.

  15. Surgical management of proximal splint bone fractures in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.R.; Pascoe, J.R.; Wheat, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Fractures of Metacarpal and Metatarsal II and IV (the splint bones) were treated in 283 horses over an 11 year period. In 21 cases the proximal portion of the fractured bone was stabilized with metallic implants. One or more cortical bone screws were used in 11 horses, and bone plates were applied in 11 horses. One horse received both treatments. Complications of screw fixation included bone failure, implant failure, radiographic lucency around the screws, and proliferative new bone at the ostectomy site. Only two of the horses treated with screw fixation returned to their intended use. Complications of plate fixation included partial fixation failure (backing out of screws), wound drainage, and proliferative bony response around the plate. Six of the 11 horses treated by plate fixation returned to their intended use. The authors recommend consideration of plate fixation techniques for repair of fractures in the proximal third of the splint bone

  16. Adaptive Proximal Point Algorithms for Total Variation Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Image restoration is a fundamental problem in various areas of imaging sciences. This paper presents a class of adaptive proximal point algorithms (APPA with contraction strategy for total variational image restoration. In each iteration, the proposed methods choose an adaptive proximal parameter matrix which is not necessary symmetric. In fact, there is an inner extrapolation in the prediction step, which is followed by a correction step for contraction. And the inner extrapolation is implemented by an adaptive scheme. By using the framework of contraction method, global convergence result and a convergence rate of O(1/N could be established for the proposed methods. Numerical results are reported to illustrate the efficiency of the APPA methods for solving total variation image restoration problems. Comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrate that the proposed methods are comparable and promising.

  17. Proximal Limb Weakness Reverting After CSF Diversion In Intracranial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report about two young girls who developed progressive visual failure secondary to increased intracranial pressure and had significant proximal muscle weakness of limbs. Patients with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP may present with "false localizing signs", besides having headache, vomiting and papilledema. Radicular pain as a manifestation of raised ICP is rare and motor weakness attributable to polyradiculopathy is exceptional. Two patients with increased intracranial pressure without lateralizing signs′ had singnificant muscle weakness. Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests did not disclose any other cause for weakness. Following theco-peritoneal shunt, in both patients, there was variable recovery of vision but the proximal weakness and symptoms of elevated ICP improved rapidly. Recognition of this uncommon manifestation of raised ICP may obviate the need for unnecessary investigation and reduce morbidity due to weakness by CSF diversion procedure.

  18. Automated space vehicle control for rendezvous proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    Rendezvous during the unmanned space exploration missions, such as a Mars Rover/Sample Return will require a completely automatic system from liftoff to docking. A conceptual design of an automated rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking system is being implemented and validated at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The emphasis is on the progress of the development and testing of a prototype system for control of the rendezvous vehicle during proximity operations that is currently being developed at JSC. Fuzzy sets are used to model the human capability of common sense reasoning in decision making tasks and such models are integrated with the expert systems and engineering control system technology to create a system that performs comparably to a manned system.

  19. Efficient Indoor Proximity and Separation Detection for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Treu, Georg; Ruppel, Peter

    2008-01-01

    the respective building topology. The approach applies efficient strategies to reduce the number of messages transmitted between the mobile targets and a central location server, thus saving the targets' battery power, bandwidth, and other resources. The strategies are evaluated in terms of efficiency......Detecting proximity and separation among mobile targets is a basic mechanism for many location-based services (LBSs) and requires continuous positioning and tracking. However, realizing both mechanisms for indoor usage is still a major challenge. Positioning methods like GPS cannot be applied there......, and for distance calculations the particular building topology has to be taken into account. To address these challenges, this paper presents a novel approach for indoor proximity and separation detection, which uses location fingerprinting for indoor positioning of targets and walking distances for modeling...

  20. Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handoll, Helen H G; Brorson, Stig

    2015-01-01

    supervised exercise in a swimming pool plus home exercise.Eight trials, involving 567 older participants, evaluated surgical intervention for displaced fractures. There was high quality evidence of no clinically important difference in patient-reported shoulder and upper-limb function at one- or two......BACKGROUND: Fracture of the proximal humerus, often termed shoulder fracture, is a common injury in older people. The management of these fractures varies widely. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2001 and last updated in 2012. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (benefits...... and harms) of treatment and rehabilitation interventions for proximal humeral fractures in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other databases, conference...

  1. Synostosis of proximal phalangeal bases for loss of distal metacarpal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Jindal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A finger rendered unstable due to loss of metacarpal head can be stabilized by creating a synostosis at the base of the proximal phalanx of the affected finger with the adjacent normal finger. A cortico cancellous graft bridges the two adjacent proximal phalanges at their bases which are temporarily stabilized with an external fixator. The procedure can be done for, recurrence of giant cell tumor of metacarpal and for traumatic metacarpal loss. The procedure and long term follow up of one patient is presented who had giant cell tumor. This option should be considered before offering ray amputation. There is no micro vascular surgery involved, nor is there any donor site morbidity. The graft heals well without any absorption. The affected finger shows excellent function in the long term followup.

  2. Affordable dual-sensing proximity sensor for touchless interactive systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2016-09-13

    We report an ultra-low cost flexible proximity sensor using only off-the-shelf recyclable materials such as aluminum foil, napkin and double-sided tape. Unlike previous reports, our device structure exhibits two sensing capabilities in one platform, with outstanding long detection range of 20 cm and pressure sensitivity of 0.05 kPa. This is the first ever demonstration of a low-cost, accessible, and batch manufacturing process for pressure and proximity sensing on a singular platform. The mechanical flexibility of the sensor makes it possible to mount on various irregular platforms, which is vital in many areas, such as robotics, machine automation, vehicular technology and inspection tools.

  3. Impact of Relational Proximity on Distress from Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryanne Fisher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Men are generally more distressed by a partner's sexual infidelity whereas women are generally more distressed by a partner's emotional infidelity. The importance of the identity of the interloper, however, has been neglected. We explored the influence of relational proximity (i.e., the degree of genetic relatedness on distress about infidelity. In Study 1, participants were most distressed when the imagined infidelity occurred between their current mate and close kin. In Study 2, relational proximity mattered more than the type of sexual behavior, the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted disease, and the likelihood of the infidelity leading to a damaged reputation. Together, the results indicate that identity matters, especially if the interloper is someone with whom we have familial bonds.

  4. Mutual proximity graphs for improved reachability in music recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexer, Arthur; Stevens, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the impact of hubness, a general problem of machine learning in high-dimensional spaces, on a real-world music recommendation system based on visualisation of a k-nearest neighbour (knn) graph. Due to a problem of measuring distances in high dimensions, hub objects are recommended over and over again while anti-hubs are nonexistent in recommendation lists, resulting in poor reachability of the music catalogue. We present mutual proximity graphs, which are an alternative to knn and mutual knn graphs, and are able to avoid hub vertices having abnormally high connectivity. We show that mutual proximity graphs yield much better graph connectivity resulting in improved reachability compared to knn graphs, mutual knn graphs and mutual knn graphs enhanced with minimum spanning trees, while simultaneously reducing the negative effects of hubness.

  5. Aneurysms of proximal pulmonary arteries: CT diagnosis and preoperative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iula, G.; Ziviello, R.; Del Vecchio, W.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed our experience with proximal pulmonary artery aneurysm (PPAA) to determine whether accurate preoperative evaluation (crucial to differential diagnosis and surgical planning) had been obtained on the basis of CT study alone. Three patients with PPAA were studied with contrast-enhanced CT. We evaluated the size and shape of PPAAs, their proximal and distal extent, eventual presence of intraluminal thrombi, dissection, perianeurysmal fibrosis, and rupture. The results were compared with surgical findings. In two patients the aneurysm involved the pulmonary trunk and both the right and left arteries origin. In one patient the aneurysm extended from the left artery origin to the hilum of the left lung. Contrast-enhanced CT alone allows detection of aneurysm in the pulmonary trunk, in right or left pulmonary arteries with precise preoperative evaluation of the extent, size, shape, and complications. The CT imaging was unable to establish the etiologic origin and presence of small intimal tears in PPAA. (orig.)

  6. Proximate composition analysis posterior to the cryopreservation of Chaetoceros calcitrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Salas-Leiva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of cryopreservation on the proximate composition of microalgae Chaetoceros calcitrans was evaluated. Materials and methods. C. calcitrans was cultured and cryopreserved using 5% (v/v dimethylsulfoxide as cryoprotectant. The freezing was controlled at a rate of 3°C/min, up to -60°C and then the microalgae were immersed in liquid nitrogen (-196°C. After storage in liquid nitrogen, microalgae were rapidly thawed out and subcultured. The percentage of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates was analyzed using absorption spectrophotometry and the organic matter was studied by gravimetric analysis. Results. There was no significant variation between the proximate composition of C. calcitrans cryopreserved and the controls (p>0.05. Conclusion. Our results show that, despite low cell recovery after the preservation of this organism at low temperatures, there is no apparent loss of nutritional characteristics caused by the storing process at low temperatures.

  7. Mortality Following Periprosthetic Proximal Femoral Fractures Versus Native Hip Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Matthew R; Riesgo, Aldo M; Paulino, Carl B; Slover, James D; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Egol, Kenneth A

    2018-04-04

    The number of periprosthetic proximal femoral fractures is expected to increase with the increasing prevalence of hip arthroplasties. While native hip fractures have a well-known association with mortality, there are currently limited data on this outcome among the subset of patients with periprosthetic proximal femoral fractures. Using the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System, we identified patients from 60 to 99 years old who were admitted to a hospital in the state with a periprosthetic proximal femoral fracture (n = 1,655) or a native hip (femoral neck or intertrochanteric) fracture (n = 97,231) between 2006 and 2014. Within the periprosthetic fracture cohort, the indication for the existing implant was not available in the data set. We used mixed-effects regression models to compare mortality at 1 and 6 months and 1 year for periprosthetic compared with native hip fractures. The risk of mortality for patients who sustained a periprosthetic proximal femoral fracture was no different from that for patients who sustained a native hip fracture at 1 month after injury (3.2% versus 4.6%; odds ratio [OR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 1.19; p = 0.446), but was lower at 6 months (3.8% versus 6.5%; OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.95; p = 0.020) and 1 year (9.7% versus 15.9%; OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.85; p accounting for age and comorbidities. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  8. Social networks, geographic proximity, and firm performance in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Emma

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses panel data to assess the relative importance of social networks and geographic proximity to micro, small, and medium enterprises in Viet Nam. The results suggest that a larger social network, and hiring employees mainly through social networks, are both correlated with higher value added per worker. The number of government officials and civil servants in a firm's network emerges as particularly important. When the quality of contacts is controlled for, firms with tighter soci...

  9. Proximate Composition and Mineral Content in Different ,Types of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The: concentration of protein in traditional and ... resuiis:in d;je~t types o[togwa wjth yariatiOl? in proximate comfX?sition, energy density and~mirieral content. " . ..... hi the preparation of simulated togwa l .,. "'.' .. IngredientS ,Dtj<: "\\C!~de P~o-.' Ct;ude fi-. Fat: --Ash. Caroo-. Energy matte; r tein (0/0) . ,; bee hydrate value .: (%).

  10. Advances in Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Arthroplasty: Biomechanics and Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Andy F; Rahgozar, Paymon; Chung, Kevin C

    2018-05-01

    Proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthritis is a debilitating condition. The complexity of the joint makes management particularly challenging. Treatment of PIP arthritis requires an understanding of the biomechanics of the joint. PIP joint arthroplasty is one treatment option that has evolved over time. Advances in biomaterials have improved and expanded arthroplasty design. This article reviews biomechanics and arthroplasty design of the PIP joint. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pseudoarthrosis following proximal humeral fractures: A possible mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooney, P.J.; Cockshott, W.P.

    1986-01-01

    A small series of four patients with pseudarthrosis of the proximal humeral shaft is reported. These patients all had restricted movement of the shoulder joint prior to the trauma, three as a result of rheumatoid arthritis and one due a surgical fusion of the glenohumeral joint. It is suggested that pseudarthrosis is more likely under these circumstances and that pursuit of union of the fracture in such patients may not always be necessary.

  12. Proximal Humerus Fractures: Evaluation and Management in the Elderly Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Proximal humerus fractures are common in the elderly. The evaluation and management of these injuries is often controversial. The purpose of this study is to review recent evidence and provide updated recommendations for treating proximal humerus fractures in the elderly. Methods: A literature review of peer-reviewed publications related to the evaluation and management of proximal humerus fractures in the elderly was performed. There was a focus on randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews published within the last 5 years. Results: The incidence of proximal humerus fractures is increasing. It is a common osteoporotic fracture. Bone density is a predictor of reduction quality and can be readily assessed with anteroposterior views of the shoulder. Social independence is a predictor of outcome, whereas age is not. Many fractures are minimally displaced and respond acceptably to nonoperative management. Displaced and severe fractures are most frequently treated operatively with intramedullary nails, locking plates, percutaneous techniques, or arthroplasty. Discussion: Evidence from randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews is insufficient to recommend a treatment; however, most techniques have acceptable or good outcomes. Evaluation should include an assessment of the patient’s bone quality, social independence, and surgical risk factors. With internal fixation, special attention should be paid to medial comminution, varus angulation, and restoration of the calcar. With arthroplasty, attention should be paid to anatomic restoration of the tuberosities and proper placement of the prosthesis. Conclusion: A majority of minimally displaced fractures can be treated conservatively with early physical therapy. Treatment for displaced fractures should consider the patient’s level of independence, bone quality, and surgical risk factors. Fixation with percutaneous techniques, intramedullary nails, locking plates, and arthroplasty are all

  13. Stability and the proximity theorem in Casimir actuated nano devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R.; Reyes, L.; Bárcenas, J.

    2006-10-01

    A brief description of the stability problem in micro and nano electromechanical devices (MEMS/NEMS) actuated by Casimir forces is given. To enhance the stability, we propose the use of curved surfaces and recalculate the stability conditions by means of the proximity force approximation. The use of curved surfaces changes the bifurcation point, and the radius of curvature becomes a control parameter, allowing a rescaling of the elastic restitution constant and/or of the typical dimensions of the device.

  14. How to tell the History. Proximity strategies on Argentine television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Galán Fajardo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of a television documentary Algo habrán hecho (por la historia argentina, broadcast on Telefe and Canal 13, between 2005 and 2008. The interrelationship of discursive tools and informative and evocation strategies are very relevant in this text. Its effectiveness is related to a combined use of resources that appeal to different meanings of proximity, with the objective to make accessible the history to a popular audience.

  15. Theory of the superconducting proximity effect below the transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvert, W.

    1975-01-01

    The form of the low-temperature theory of the superconducting proximity effect depends on whether the non-linear terms are assumed to depend only on the local value of the gap or on its average value over some finite range. The local assumption leads to smaller values of the gap and to unphysical results at low temperatures. The effect of non-locality is significant even in the Ginsburg-Landau regime. (author)

  16. Cyclophilin B expression in renal proximal tubules of hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainer, D B; Doris, P A

    2000-04-01

    Rat cyclophilin-like protein (Cy-LP) is a candidate hypertension gene initially identified by differential hybridization and implicated in renal mechanisms of salt retention and high blood pressure. We report the molecular characterization of rat cyclophilin B (CypB) and demonstrate, through sequence analysis and an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction primer assay, that CypB but not Cy-LP is expressed in rat kidney. CypB is an endoplasmic reticulum-localized prolyl-isomerase that interacts with elongation initiation factor 2-beta, an important regulator of protein translation and a central component of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response to hypoxia or ATP depletion. Active renal transport of sodium is increased in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), and there is evidence that this coincides with hypoxia and ATP depletion in the renal cortex. In the present studies we have examined expression of CypB in rat proximal tubules, which contributes to the increased renal sodium reabsorption in this model of hypertension. We report that CypB transcript abundance is significantly elevated in proximal convoluted tubules from SHR compared with the control Wistar-Kyoto strain. This upregulation occurs in weanling animals and precedes the development of hypertension, indicating that it is not a simple response to hypertension in SHR. Further, CypB expression is also higher in a proximal tubule cell line derived from SHR compared with a similar line derived from Wistar-Kyoto rats, indicating that this difference is genetically determined. No sequence differences were observed in the CypB cDNA from these 2 strains. These observations suggest that a genetically determined alteration in proximal tubules from SHR occurs that leads to increased expression of CypB. In view of evidence linking CypB to the regulation of elongation initiation factor-2, the upregulation of CypB may result from metabolic stress.

  17. Sensitivity Analysis of the Proximal-Based Parallel Decomposition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal-based parallel decomposition methods were recently proposed to solve structured convex optimization problems. These algorithms are eligible for parallel computation and can be used efficiently for solving large-scale separable problems. In this paper, compared with the previous theoretical results, we show that the range of the involved parameters can be enlarged while the convergence can be still established. Preliminary numerical tests on stable principal component pursuit problem testify to the advantages of the enlargement.

  18. Bilateral trampoline fracture of the proximal tibia in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico B Arkink, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Trampoline fractures are transversely oriented impaction fractures of the proximal tibia sustained by young children jumping on a trampoline. Unaware of the mechanism of this specific nontraumatic fracture, physicians may fail to detect these fractures on plain radiographs, as radiological findings may be very subtle. In this case report, we present a rare case of bilateral trampoline fractures with an explanation of the trauma mechanism.

  19. Bilateral trampoline fracture of the proximal tibia in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkink, Enrico B; van der Plas, Annelies; Sneep, Ruth W; Reijnierse, Monique

    2017-12-01

    Trampoline fractures are transversely oriented impaction fractures of the proximal tibia sustained by young children jumping on a trampoline. Unaware of the mechanism of this specific nontraumatic fracture, physicians may fail to detect these fractures on plain radiographs, as radiological findings may be very subtle. In this case report, we present a rare case of bilateral trampoline fractures with an explanation of the trauma mechanism.

  20. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Cheung,; Nalliah,Romesh; Mei,May L

    2013-01-01

    Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slo...

  1. Residential proximity to major roads and obstetrical complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Naruse, Hiroo; Kashima, Saori; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to air pollution is linked with an increased risk of preterm births. To provide further evidence on this relationship, we evaluated the association between proximity to major roads--as an index for air pollution exposure--and various obstetrical complications. Data were extracted from a database maintained by the perinatal hospital in Shizuoka, Japan. We restricted the analysis to mothers with singleton pregnancies of more than 22 weeks of gestation from 1997 to 2012 (n=19,077). Using the geocoded residential information, each mother was assigned proximity to major roads. We then estimated multivariate adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the effects of proximity to major roads on various obstetrical complications (preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, placenta abruption, placenta previa, preterm premature rupture of membrane (pPROM), preterm labor, and preterm births). We found positive associations of proximity to major roads with preeclampsia and pPROM. Living within 200 m increased the odds of preeclampsia by 1.3 times (95% CI, 1.0-1.8) and pPROM by 1.6 times (95% CI, 1.1-2.2). Furthermore, living within 200 m increased the odds of preterm births by 1.4 fold (95% CI, 1.2-1.7). Exposure to traffic-related air pollution increased the risk of preeclampsia and pPROM in this study. We propose a mechanism responsible for the association between air pollution and preterm births. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rehabilitation after proximal femur surgery in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Holečková, Kristýna

    2017-01-01

    of thesis This thesis deals with physiotherapy after proximal femur surgery in elderly people. The aim of the thesis is to show the particularities of physiotherapy for elderly people and to determine the influence of nutritional status on the progress and outcome of physiotherapy. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is focused on old age period, and changes associated with aging, geriatric physiotherapy and its components, namely classical physioth...

  3. Electromagnetic Signal Feedback Control for Proximity Detection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam K.

    Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel in the United States and remains an essential source of energy. While more than half of coal production comes from surface mining, nearly twice as many workers are employed by underground operations. One of the key pieces of equipment used in underground coal mining is the continuous mining machine. These large and powerful machines are operated in confined spaces by remote control. Since 1984, 40 mine workers in the U. S. have been killed when struck or pinned by a continuous mining machine. It is estimated that a majority of these accidents could have been prevented with the application of proximity detection systems. While proximity detection systems can significantly increase safety around a continuous mining machine, there are some system limitations. Commercially available proximity warning systems for continuous mining machines use magnetic field generators to detect workers and establish safe work areas around the machines. Several environmental factors, however, can influence and distort the magnetic fields. To minimize these effects, a control system has been developed using electromagnetic field strength and generator current to stabilize and control field drift induced by internal and external environmental factors. A laboratory test set-up was built using a ferrite-core magnetic field generator to produce a stable magnetic field. Previous work based on a field-invariant magnetic flux density model, which generically describes the electromagnetic field, is expanded upon. The analytically established transferable shell-based flux density distribution model is used to experimentally validate the control system. By controlling the current input to the ferrite-core generator, a more reliable and consistent magnetic field is produced. Implementation of this technology will improve accuracy and performance of existing commercial proximity detection systems. These research results will help reduce the risk of traumatic

  4. Proximal focal femoral deficiency: evaluation by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biko, David M.; Davidson, Richard; Pena, Andres; Jaramillo, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal development of the proximal femur. The most common radiographic classification (Aitken) does not evaluate the cartilaginous and soft-tissue abnormalities. To demonstrate MR findings of PFFD focusing on features not seen with radiographs. Nine MR examinations of the hip and femurs of seven children with PFFD were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging was quantitatively and qualitatively assessed comparing the affected limb to the contralateral limb and age-matched controls. The children were classified via the Aitken classification. All children had at least mild acetabular dysplasia, and one type D patient had no acetabulum. MR demonstrated that 4/6 children had labral hypertrophy with a decreased distance from the greater trochanter to the acetabular rim, suggesting impingement (P < 0.05). The proximal femoral physis was abnormal in all cases. The connection between the femoral head and shaft if present was fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. MRI can help in evaluation of PFFD by defining the anatomy. MR demonstrates features of the acetabulum and cartilaginous femoral epiphysis and depicts ligamentous abnormalities of the knee. (orig.)

  5. [MRI characteristic of proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    To study the MRI features of proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome for further improve the understanding of the disease. MRI imaging of 10 patients with proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome was retrospectively reviewed,including 6 males and 4 females with an average age of 41.5 years old ranging from 36 to 57. The courses of diseases ranged from 1 week to 3 months. Among them, 9 cases had clinical manifestations of sudden hip pain, 7 cases had limited ability of walking and hip movement;all patients had no obvious injury history, non of the female patients was pregnant. All patients were followed up from 3 to 12 months, the following-up were topped after MRI when the symptoms disappeared for 3 months. The MRI demonstrated diffuse bone marrow edema involving the femoral head, neck and the inter-trochanteric region, 13 hips of 10 patients with bone marrow edema included 6 cases in grade 1, 5 cases in grade 2,2 cases in grade 3; 9 hips with hip hydrarthrosis included 6 hips in grade I ,1 hip in grade II, 2 hips in grade III. After treatment for 3 to 12 months the hip symptoms of the patients disappeared and MRI images were normal. MRI is useful in defining the location and extent of proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome.

  6. [RESEARCH PROGRESS OF BIOMECHANICS OF PROXIMAL ROW CARPAL INSTABILITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinhai; Huang, Fuguo

    2015-01-01

    To review the research progress of the biomechanics of proximal row carpal instability (IPRC). The related literature concerning IPRC was extensively reviewed. The biomechanical mechanism of the surrounding soft tissue in maintaining the stability of the proximal row carpal (PRC) was analyzed, and the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of the PRC were summarized from two aspects including basic biomechanics and clinical biomechanics. The muscles and ligaments of the PRC are critical to its stability. Most scholars have reached a consensus about biomechanical mechanism of the PRC, but there are still controversial conclusions on the biomechanics mechanism of the surrounding soft tissue to stability of distal radioulnar joint when the triangular fibrocartilage complex are damaged and the biomechanics mechanism of the scapholunate ligament. At present, there is no unified standard about the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of the PRC. So, it is difficult for clinical practice. Some strides have been made in the basic biomechanical study on muscle and ligament and clinical biomechanical study on the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of PRC, but it will be needed to further study the morphology of carpal articular surface and the adjacent articular surface, the pressure of distal carpals to proximal carpal and so on.

  7. Proximal focal femoral deficiency: evaluation by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biko, David M. [National Naval Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bethesda, MD (United States); Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States); Davidson, Richard [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pena, Andres; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal development of the proximal femur. The most common radiographic classification (Aitken) does not evaluate the cartilaginous and soft-tissue abnormalities. To demonstrate MR findings of PFFD focusing on features not seen with radiographs. Nine MR examinations of the hip and femurs of seven children with PFFD were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging was quantitatively and qualitatively assessed comparing the affected limb to the contralateral limb and age-matched controls. The children were classified via the Aitken classification. All children had at least mild acetabular dysplasia, and one type D patient had no acetabulum. MR demonstrated that 4/6 children had labral hypertrophy with a decreased distance from the greater trochanter to the acetabular rim, suggesting impingement (P < 0.05). The proximal femoral physis was abnormal in all cases. The connection between the femoral head and shaft if present was fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. MRI can help in evaluation of PFFD by defining the anatomy. MR demonstrates features of the acetabulum and cartilaginous femoral epiphysis and depicts ligamentous abnormalities of the knee. (orig.)

  8. Reduced Insulin Receptor Expression Enhances Proximal Tubule Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaurav; Shankar, Kripa; Makhija, Ekta; Gaikwad, Anil; Ecelbarger, Carolyn; Mandhani, Anil; Srivastava, Aneesh; Tiwari, Swasti

    2017-02-01

    Reduced insulin receptor protein levels have been reported in the kidney cortex from diabetic humans and animals. We recently reported that, targeted deletion of insulin receptor (IR) from proximal tubules (PT) resulted in hyperglycemia in non-obese mice. To elucidate the mechanism, we examined human proximal tubule cells (hPTC) and C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD, 60% fat for 20 weeks). Immunoblotting revealed a significantly lower protein level of IR in HFD compare to normal chow diet (NCD). Furthermore, a blunted rise in p-AKT 308 levels in the kidney cortex of HFD mice was observed in response to acute insulin (0.75 IU/kg body weight, i.p) relative to NCD n = 8/group, P gluconeogenesis. Transcript levels of the gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK were significantly increased in cAMP/DEXA-stimulated hPTC cells (n = 3, P gluconeogenesis and PEPCK induction was significantly attenuated in IR (siRNA) silenced hPTC (n = 3, P gluconeogenesis. Thus reduced insulin signaling of the proximal tubule may contribute to hyperglycemia in the metabolic syndrome via elevated gluconeogenesis. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 276-285, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Links between casino proximity and gambling participation, expenditure, and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévigny, Serge; Ladouceur, Robert; Jacques, Christian; Cantinotti, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Two studies investigated the relationship between casino proximity and gambling participation, expenditure, and pathology. In Study 1, 8,842 participants were categorized into 1 of 4 driving distances from their home to the nearest casino in the province of Quebec: 0-100 km, 100.01-200 km, 200.01-300 km, or 300.01-981 km. In Study 2, 5,158 participants, who lived within a 100-km driving distance from the Montreal casino, were classified into 1 of 5 equidistant, 20-km driving distances. A survey company interviewed participants regarding their gambling habits. Results indicated a positive link between casino proximity and gambling participation (at the provincial and Montreal levels) and expenditure (at the provincial level only) but no link with the current prevalence rate of probable pathological gambling or of problem gambling. In a setting in which many types of gambling activities are available, casino proximity in itself does not appear to explain the rate of gambling-related problems. It is necessary to continue prospective research on exposure and adaptation theories as potential explanations for the development of pathological gambling. 2008 APA

  10. Multiple intramedullary nailing of proximal phalangeal fractures of hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patankar Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proximal phalangeal fractures are commonly encountered fractures in the hand. Majority of them are stable and can be treated by non-operative means. However, unstable fractures i.e. those with shortening, displacement, angulation, rotational deformity or segmental fractures need surgical intervention. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the functional outcome after surgical stabilization of these fractures with joint-sparing multiple intramedullary nailing technique. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with 35 isolated unstable proximal phalangeal shaft fractures of hand were managed by surgical stabilization with multiple intramedullary nailing technique. Fractures of the thumb were excluded. All the patients were followed up for a minimum of six months. They were assessed radiologically and clinically. The clinical evaluation was based on two criteria. 1. total active range of motion for digital functional assessment as suggested by the American Society for Surgery of Hand and 2. grip strength. Results: All the patients showed radiological union at six weeks. The overall results were excellent in all the patients. Adventitious bursitis was observed at the point of insertion of nails in one patient. Conclusion: Joint-sparing multiple intramedullary nailing of unstable proximal phalangeal fractures of hand provides satisfactory results with good functional outcome and fewer complications.

  11. Hand proximity facilitates spatial discrimination of auditory tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eTseng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hand proximity on vision and visual attention has been well documented. In this study we tested whether such effect(s would also be present in the auditory modality. With hands placed either near or away from the audio sources, participants performed an auditory-spatial discrimination (Exp 1: left or right side, pitch discrimination (Exp 2: high, med, or low tone, and spatial-plus-pitch (Exp 3: left or right; high, med, or low discrimination task. In Exp 1, when hands were away from the audio source, participants consistently responded faster with their right hand regardless of stimulus location. This right hand advantage, however, disappeared in the hands-near condition because of a significant improvement in left hand’s reaction time. No effect of hand proximity was found in Exp 2 or 3, where a choice reaction time task requiring pitch discrimination was used. Together, these results suggest that the effect of hand proximity is not exclusive to vision alone, but is also present in audition, though in a much weaker form. Most important, these findings provide evidence from auditory attention that supports the multimodal account originally raised by Reed et al. in 2006.

  12. Novel implant for peri-prosthetic proximal tibia fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ton; Chen, Bernard K; Wu, Xinhua; Pun, Chung Lun

    2018-03-01

    Repair of peri-prosthetic proximal tibia fractures is very challenging in patients with a total knee replacement or arthroplasty. The tibial component of the knee implant severely restricts the fixation points of the tibial implant to repair peri-prosthetic fractures. A novel implant has been designed with an extended flange over the anterior of tibial condyle to provide additional points of fixation, overcoming limitations of existing generic locking plates used for proximal tibia fractures. Furthermore, the screws fixed through the extended flange provide additional support to prevent the problem of subsidence of tibial component of knee implant. The design methodology involved extraction of bone data from CT scans into a flexible CAD format, implant design and structural evaluation and optimisation using FEM as well as prototype development and manufacture by selective laser melting 3D printing technology with Ti6Al4 V powder. A prototype tibia implant was developed based on a patient-specific bone structure, which was regenerated from the CT images of patient's tibia. The design is described in detail and being applied to fit up to 80% of patients, for both left and right sides based on the average dimensions and shape of the bone structure from a wide range of CT images. A novel tibial implant has been developed to repair peri-prosthetic proximal tibia fractures which overcomes significant constraints from the tibial component of existing knee implant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elevated oxidized glutathione in cystinotic proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Martijn J G; de Graaf-Hess, Adriana; Blom, Henk J; Dijkman, Henry B P M; Monnens, Leo A; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Levtchenko, Elena N

    2005-11-18

    Cystinosis, the most frequent cause of inborn Fanconi syndrome, is characterized by the lysosomal cystine accumulation, caused by mutations in the CTNS gene. To elucidate the pathogenesis of cystinosis, we cultured proximal tubular cells from urine of cystinotic patients (n = 9) and healthy controls (n = 9), followed by immortalization with human papilloma virus (HPV E6/E7). Obtained cell lines displayed basolateral polarization, alkaline phosphatase activity, and presence of aminopeptidase N (CD-13) and megalin, confirming their proximal tubular origin. Cystinotic cell lines exhibited elevated cystine levels (0.86 +/- 0.95 nmol/mg versus 0.09 +/- 0.01 nmol/mg protein in controls, p = 0.03). Oxidized glutathione was elevated in cystinotic cells (1.16 +/- 0.83 nmol/mg versus 0.29 +/- 0.18 nmol/mg protein, p = 0.04), while total glutathione, free cysteine, and ATP contents were normal in these cells. In conclusion, elevated oxidized glutathione in cystinotic proximal tubular epithelial cell lines suggests increased oxidative stress, which may contribute to tubular dysfunction in cystinosis.

  14. Distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx in distal thumb amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansü, Eren; Ünal, Mehmet Bekir; Parmaksızoğlu, Fatih; Gürcan, Serkan

    2015-01-01

    Thumb amputation is a major cause of hand dysfunction, and the treatment for distal thumb amputations remains controversial. Although finger reconstruction methods using distraction lengthening are known to restore finger length and function, we found no reports in the literature regarding phalangeal lengthening in thumb amputations. We aimed to evaluate proximal phalangeal lengthening in thumb amputations at or near the interphalangeal (IP) joint. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had undergone distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx of the thumb. All patients underwent osteotomy, either during the initial procedure or as a second-stage procedure. Distraction began 10 days after osteotomy with the use of an external fixator that remained in place until ossification of the gap occurred without bone grafting. Patients were evaluated using the QuickDASH score. Fourteen patients with a mean age of 27 years and a mean follow-up period of 7 years were enrolled. The mean phalangeal lengthening achieved was 20 mm. Ossification occurred at all distraction sites, and the fixators were maintained for a mean of 85 days. The mean healing index was 42.5 days/cm. All 14 patients achieved the desired amount of phalangeal lengthening without major complications such as nonunion, premature union, or gross infection. For reconstruction in cases of distal thumb amputations, distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx can be used to improve absolute length, web space, and grip distance. The technique is safe and effective, improves functionality/cosmesis, and offers a low complication risk.

  15. Association between proximity to major roads and sputum cell counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Julie; D’silva, Liesel; Brannan, John; Hargreave, Frederick E; Kanaroglou, Pavlos; Nair, Parameswaran

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution caused by motor vehicle emissions has been associated with exacerbations of obstructive airway diseases; however, the nature of the resulting bronchitis has not been quantified. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether proximity to major roads or highways is associated with an increase in sputum neutrophils or eosinophils, and to evaluate the effect of proximity to roads on spirometry and exacerbations in patients with asthma. METHODS: A retrospective study of 485 sputum cell counts from patients attending a tertiary chest clinic in Hamilton, Ontario, identified eosinophilic or neutrophilic bronchitis. Patients’ residences were geocoded to the street network of Hamilton using geographic information system software. Associations among bronchitis, lung function, and proximity to major roads and highways were examined using multinomial logistic and multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for patient age, smoking status and corticosteroid medications. RESULTS: Patients living within 1000 m of highways showed an increased risk of bronchitis (OR 3.8 [95% CI 1.0 to 13.7]; Proad were at increased risk for an asthma exacerbation (OR 1.9 [95% CI 1.5 to 15.5]; Proad was associated with neutrophilic bronchitis, an increased risk of asthma diagnosis, asthma exacerbations and lower lung function. PMID:21369545

  16. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  17. Mapping subsurface in proximity to newly-developed sinkhole along roadway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    MS&T acquired electrical resistivity tomography profiles in immediate proximity to a newly-developed sinkhole in Nixa Missouri : The sinkhole has closed a well-traveled municipal roadway and threatens proximal infrastructure. The intent of this inves...

  18. Proximal migration of a 5 French pancreatic stent during bile stone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-16

    Jun 16, 2013 ... proximal migration retrieval of pancreatic stent retrieval. Further studies are ... with a series of factors. The length of the ... 7 cm was associated with an increased risk for proximal migration. ... formation and chronic pancreatitis.

  19. Your Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hear medical people call these EHRs — short for electronic health records . Electronic records make it easier for all your doctors ... doctor's office is trying to protect a patient's privacy or safety. For example, they may say no ...

  20. Climate Record Books

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climate Record Books contain daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual averages, extremes, or occurrences. Most data are sequential by period of record 1871-1910,...

  1. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  2. Iraq Radiosonde Launch Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Iraqi upper air records loaned to NCDC from the Air Force 14th Weather Squadron. Scanned notebooks containing upper air radiosonde launch records and data. Launches...

  3. E4orf1 Enhances Glucose Uptake Independent of Proximal Insulin Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Ha-Na; Hegde, Vijay; Dubuisson, Olga; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired proximal insulin signaling is often present in diabetes. Hence, approaches to enhance glucose disposal independent of proximal insulin signaling are desirable. Evidence indicates that Adenovirus-derived E4orf1 protein may offer such an approach. This study determined if E4orf1 improves insulin sensitivity and downregulates proximal insulin signaling in vivo and enhances cellular glucose uptake independent of proximal insulin signaling in vitro. High fat fed mice were injected with a ...

  4. Record Statistics and Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibani, Paolo; Jensen, Henrik J.

    2009-01-01

    with independent random increments. The term record dynamics covers the rather new idea that records may, in special situations, have measurable dynamical consequences. The approach applies to the aging dynamics of glasses and other systems with multiple metastable states. The basic idea is that record sizes...... fluctuations of e. g. the energy are able to push the system past some sort of ‘edge of stability’, inducing irreversible configurational changes, whose statistics then closely follows the statistics of record fluctuations....

  5. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  6. Managing electronic records

    CERN Document Server

    McLeod, Julie

    2005-01-01

    For records management courses, this book covers the theory and practice of managing electronic records as business and information assets. It focuses on the strategies, systems and procedures necessary to ensure that electronic records are appropriately created, captured, organized and retained over time to meet business and legal requirements.

  7. Economic development, place-based development strategies and the conceptualization of proximity in European urban regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogaru, Dora; van Oort, Frank; Thissen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The discussion on proximity has evolved in various theoretical, conceptual and empirical directions since the seminal contributions by Torre and Rallet (2005) and Boschma (2005). One of the main arguments for conceptualizing proximities other than physical proximities is embedded in the ever-growing

  8. Association Between Physical Activity and Proximity to Physical Activity Resources Among Low-Income, Midlife Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jilcott, Stephanie B; Evenson, Kelly R; Laraia, Barbara A; Ammerman, Alice S

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The association between levels of physical activity and perceived and objectively measured proximity to physical activity resources is unclear. Clarification is important so that future programs can intervene upon the measure with the greatest association. We examined correlations between perceived and objectively measured proximity to physical activity resources and then examined associations between both measures of proximity and objectively measured physical activity. Methods ...

  9. DO PROXIMAL AND DISTAL GASTRIC TUMOURS BEHAVE DIFFERENTLY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Laurence Bedin da; Toneto, Marcelo Garcia; Moreira, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Although the incidence of gastric (adenocarcinoma) cancer has been decreasing over time, it is still one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and proximal tumours tend to have a worse prognosis. To compare surgical outcomes and prognosis between proximal - excluding tumours of the cardia - and distal gastric cancer. Out of 293 cases reviewed - 209 with distal and 69 with proximal gastric cancer - were compared for clinical and pathological features, stage, surgical outcome, mortality and survival. Statistically, there was no significant difference between patients in both groups regarding mortality (p=0.661), adjuvant chemotherapy (p 0.661), and radiation (p=1.000). However, there was significant difference in the degree of lymph node dissection employed (p=0.002) and the number of positive lymph nodes resected (p=0.038) between the two groups. The odds of death at five years for patients who had a D0 dissection was three times greater (odds ratio 2.78; (95%CI 1.33-5.82) than that for patients who had a D2 dissection, while for patients who had a D1 dissection the odds ratio was only 1.41 (95%CI 0.71-2.83) compared to D2-dissected patients. Although no significant differences were found between proximal and distal gastric cancer, the increased risk of death in D0- and D1-dissected patients clearly suggests an important role of radical D2 lymph node dissection in survival. Embora a incidência do câncer gástrico esteja diminuindo nas últimas décadas, ele ainda aparece como uma das neoplasias malignas mais comuns, e tumores proximais tendem a ter pior prognóstico. Comparar os resultados cirúrgicos e o prognóstico entre o câncer gástrico proximal, excluindo os tumores da cárdia e junção esofagogástrica, e o distal. De 293 casos revistos - 209 distais e 69 proximais - foram comparados quanto aos achados clínicos e patológicos, estágio, resultados cirúrgicos, mortalidade e sobrevida. Estatisticamente não houve diferença entre pacientes em ambos

  10. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schausberger

    Full Text Available Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary causes and proximate (mechanistic correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life, whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our

  11. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, Peter; Patiño-Ruiz, J David; Osakabe, Masahiro; Murata, Yasumasa; Sugimoto, Naoya; Uesugi, Ryuji; Walzer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary) causes and proximate (mechanistic) correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life), whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible) Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum) Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our study provides a

  12. Clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of proximal and distal gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu X

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Xuefeng Yu,1,* Fulan Hu,2,* Chunfeng Li,1 Qiang Yao,1 Hongfeng Zhang,1 Yingwei Xue1 1Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China; 2Department of Epidemiology, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and objectives: The dismal prognosis of gastric cancer patients is a global problem. We aim to evaluate the clinicopathologic features and prognostic factors of proximal and distal gastric cancer.Materials and methods: Gastric cancer cases diagnosed and treated at the same surgical unit between 2007 and 2010 were reviewed. Follow-up data from all patients were collected for at least 5 years until 2015. A total of 964 patients were studied (distal gastric cancer [DG], n=777 and proximal gastric cancer [PG], n=187.Results: DG patients had a relatively higher percentage of females, more thorough therapy (R0 [D0/D1/D2], fewer combined organ resections, younger age, smaller tumors (<5 cm, shorter surgery durations, less blood loss during surgery, and a relatively lower percentage of nodal metastases and a TNM stage of 4 (p<0.05. A significantly higher 5-year survival rate was observed in DG patients compared to PG patients (DG: 51%, PG: 28%; p<0.001. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumor size, blood loss during surgery, surgery approach of lymph node dissection, treatment with palliative surgery, histopathologic type, TNM stage, and tumor location were independent predictors of poor outcome.Conclusion: The different characteristics and prognosis of DG and PG cases have implications for the development of guiding strategies for a surgical program and assessment of prognosis of gastric cancer patients based on tumor location. Keywords: gastric cancer, tumor location, clinicopathologic features, prognosis, distal gastric cancer, proximal gastric cancer 

  13. Calculation of nondiffused proximity functions from cloud-chamber data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.

    1987-01-01

    To a large extent the cloud chamber is an ideal microdosimetric device: by measuring the positions of ionizing events in charged-particle tracks one can generate - with a flexibility matched only by Monte-Carlo simulations-any microdosimetric quantity of interest, ranging from lineal energy spectra (in volumes of practically arbitrary shape and size) to proximity functions, that is, distributions of distances between energy transfer points in the track. Cloud-chamber data analyzed in such ways have been indeed reported for a variety of radiations. In view of these clear advantages it is certainly surprising that, within the microdosimetric community, only one group (at Harwell, UK) is actively involved in such work and that, furthermore, cloud-chamber results are used essentially only as a testing ground for Monte-Carlo calculations. It appears that this reluctance can be traced to the fact that the tracks are distorted by the diffusion of droplets during their growth. This diffusion - which is of the order of several nanometers (in unit-density material), although rather insignificant vis-a-vis conventional microdosimetry, can be a serious limitation in view of modern theories of radiation action which emphasize energy deposition events at the nanometer level. The purpose of this research activity is to show that, using a rather straight-forward mathematical procedure, one can unfold the effect of diffusion from proximity functions. Since the nondiffused proximity function can be used to calculate other microdosimetric quantities an important limitation of the cloud-chamber data can thus be avoided

  14. Percutaneous Stabilization of Impending Pathological Fracture of the Proximal Femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschamps, Frederic, E-mail: frederic.deschamps@igr.fr; Farouil, Geoffroy, E-mail: g.farouil@gmail.com; Hakime, Antoine, E-mail: thakime@yahoo.com; Teriitehau, Christophe, E-mail: cteriitehau@me.com; Barah, Ali, E-mail: ali.barah@gmail.com; Baere, Thierry de, E-mail: debaere@igr.fr [Institut Gustave Roussy, Interventional Radiology Department (France)

    2012-12-15

    Objective: Percutaneous osteosynthesis plus cementoplasty (POPC) is a minimally invasive technique that has never been reported before and that we have prospectively evaluated for patients with impending pathological fracture of the proximal femur. Methods: We performed POPC in 12 patients (3 males, 9 females) with metastasis of the proximal femur with a high risk of fracture (Mirels' score {>=}8) between February 2010 and July 2011. Patients were not candidates for standard surgical stabilization. We analyzed the feasibility, duration, and complication of the procedure, the risk of fracture, the decrease in pain (Visual Analog Scale, VAS), and length of stay in hospital. Data were prospectively collected in all patients. Results: The mean Mirels' score was 9.8 {+-} 1.2 (range, 8-11). The technical success was 100%. POPC was performed under general anesthesia (n = 6) or conscious sedation (n = 6). The mean duration was 110 {+-} 43 (range, 60-180) minutes. All patients stood up and walked the second day after the procedure. The average length of stay in the hospital was 4 {+-} 1.6 (range, 2-7) days. We experienced two hematomas in two patients and no thromboembolic complication. For symptomatic patients (n = 8), VAS decreased from 6.5/10 (range, 2-9) before treatment to 1/10 (range, 0-3) 1 month after. No fracture occurred after a median follow-up of 145 (range, 12-608) days. Conclusions: POPC for impending pathological fracture of the proximal femur seems to be a promising alternative for cancer patients who are not candidates for surgical stabilization. Further studies are required to confirm this preliminary experience.

  15. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  16. Percutaneous Stabilization of Impending Pathological Fracture of the Proximal Femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, Frederic; Farouil, Geoffroy; Hakime, Antoine; Teriitehau, Christophe; Barah, Ali; Baere, Thierry de

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Percutaneous osteosynthesis plus cementoplasty (POPC) is a minimally invasive technique that has never been reported before and that we have prospectively evaluated for patients with impending pathological fracture of the proximal femur. Methods: We performed POPC in 12 patients (3 males, 9 females) with metastasis of the proximal femur with a high risk of fracture (Mirels’ score ≥8) between February 2010 and July 2011. Patients were not candidates for standard surgical stabilization. We analyzed the feasibility, duration, and complication of the procedure, the risk of fracture, the decrease in pain (Visual Analog Scale, VAS), and length of stay in hospital. Data were prospectively collected in all patients. Results: The mean Mirels’ score was 9.8 ± 1.2 (range, 8–11). The technical success was 100%. POPC was performed under general anesthesia (n = 6) or conscious sedation (n = 6). The mean duration was 110 ± 43 (range, 60–180) minutes. All patients stood up and walked the second day after the procedure. The average length of stay in the hospital was 4 ± 1.6 (range, 2–7) days. We experienced two hematomas in two patients and no thromboembolic complication. For symptomatic patients (n = 8), VAS decreased from 6.5/10 (range, 2–9) before treatment to 1/10 (range, 0–3) 1 month after. No fracture occurred after a median follow-up of 145 (range, 12–608) days. Conclusions: POPC for impending pathological fracture of the proximal femur seems to be a promising alternative for cancer patients who are not candidates for surgical stabilization. Further studies are required to confirm this preliminary experience.

  17. Proximal Junctional Kyphosis in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Following Segmental Posterior Spinal Instrumentation and Fusion; Minimum 2 Years Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khaki Nahad

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:To evaluate proximal junctional segment changes in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis(AIS the posterior spinal fusion and also instrumentation also and finding of probable risk factors, were all considered in this study.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed radiographs of 121 consecutive patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion for AIS from T3 or below, with a mean follow-   up of 32.8 months(range,24-83. All coronal and sagittal measurements including the proximal junctional kyphosis (PJKangle recorded on standing anteroposterior and lateral radiographs preoperative, early postoperative and on follow-up radiographs.The data were analyzed using the Spss 10.0 software.Dependent(paired samples student t-test was used for analysis between the groups Results: There was PJK angle above normal for the same junctional segment preoperatively in 13 patients (10.7% and the incidence of the PJK postoperatively was   7.4% (9 patients, 7 female and 2 male, all detected until 2 years postoperation.The mean increase in the PJK angle from pre-operation until 6 weeks postoperation was 5.9° (range,0-13°(P=0.02 and until 2 years post operation was 14.3° (range, 2- 16°(p=0.000.The mean proximal junctional angle increased 1.6° until 2 years postoperation in non-PJK group(n=112.Conclusion: The prevalence of Proximal Junctional Kyphosis was low and a silent radiographic problem. In some cases is preventable with perfect pre-operative planning. There is no specific demographic or radiographic variables or instrumentation types associated with developing PJK .

  18. Treatment of Unicameral Bone Cysts of the Proximal Femur With Internal Fixation Lessens the Risk of Additional Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Benjamin; Houdek, Matthew; Rao, Rameshwar R; Caird, Michelle S; Larson, A Noelle; Milbrandt, Todd

    2017-09-01

    Little data exist to guide the treatment of unicameral bone cysts in the proximal femur. Methods of treatment include corticosteroid injections, curettage and bone grafting, and internal fixation. The authors completed a multi-institutional, retrospective review to evaluate their experience with proximal femoral unicameral bone cysts. They posed the following questions: (1) Does internal fixation reduce the risk of further procedures for the treatment of a unicameral bone cyst? (2) Is radiographic healing faster with internal fixation? Following institutional review board approval, the authors conducted a retrospective review of 36 patients treated for a unicameral bone cyst of the proximal femur at their institutions between 1974 and 2014. Medical records and radiographs were reviewed to identify patient demographics and treatment outcomes. Tumor locations included femoral neck (n=13), intertrochanteric (n=16), and subtrochanteric (n=7). Initial treatment included steroid injection (n=2), curettage and bone grafting (n=9), and internal fixation with curettage and bone grafting (n=25). Mean time was 9 months to radiographic healing and 15 months to return to full activity. The number of patients requiring additional surgeries was increased among those who did not undergo internal fixation. There was no difference in time to radiographic healing. However, time to return to normal activities was reduced if patients had received internal fixation. A significant reduction in additional procedures was observed when patients had been treated with internal fixation. Although this did not influence time to radiographic healing, patients did return to normal activities sooner. Internal fixation should be considered in the treatment of proximal femoral unicameral bone cysts. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(5):e862-e867.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Community detection in complex networks using proximate support vector clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifan; Zhang, Baihai; Chai, Senchun; Xia, Yuanqing

    2018-03-01

    Community structure, one of the most attention attracting properties in complex networks, has been a cornerstone in advances of various scientific branches. A number of tools have been involved in recent studies concentrating on the community detection algorithms. In this paper, we propose a support vector clustering method based on a proximity graph, owing to which the introduced algorithm surpasses the traditional support vector approach both in accuracy and complexity. Results of extensive experiments undertaken on computer generated networks and real world data sets illustrate competent performances in comparison with the other counterparts.

  20. Geometrical E-beam proximity correction for raster scan systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belic, Nikola; Eisenmann, Hans; Hartmann, Hans; Waas, Thomas

    1999-04-01

    High pattern fidelity is a basic requirement for the generation of masks containing sub micro structures and for direct writing. Increasing needs mainly emerging from OPC at mask level and x-ray lithography require a correction of the e-beam proximity effect. The most part of e-beam writers are raster scan system. This paper describes a new method for geometrical pattern correction in order to provide a correction solution for e-beam system that are not able to apply variable doses.

  1. Private and Flexible Proximity Detection in Mobile Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2010-01-01

    A privacy-aware proximity detection service determines if two mobile users are close to each other without requiring them to disclose their exact locations. Existing proposals for such services provide weak privacy, give low accuracy guarantees, incur high communication costs, or lack flexibility......, in contrast to related work, can be of any shape and can be flexibly changed on the fly. Encryption and blind evaluation on the server ensures strong privacy, while low communication costs are achieved by an adaptive location-update policy. Experimental results show that the flexible functionality...... of the proposed solution is provided with low communication cost....

  2. Proximal and distal adjustments of reaching behavior in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo, Aline Martins; Soares, Daniele de Almeida; Tudella, Eloisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors aimed to investigate proximal and distal adjustments of reaching behavior and grasping in 5-, 6-, and 7-month-old preterm infants. Nine low-risk preterm and 10 full-term infants participated. Both groups showed the predominance of unimanual reaching, an age-related increase in the frequency of vertical-oriented and open hand movement, and also an increase in successful grasping from 6 to 7 months. The frequency of open hand was higher in the preterm group at 6 months. Intrinsic restrictions imposed by prematurity did not seem to have impaired reaching performance of preterm infants throughout the months of age.

  3. Three-Dimensional Bone Adaptation of the Proximal Femur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Mette

    1998-01-01

    The bone remodeling of a three-dimensional model of the proximal femur is considered. The bone adaptation is numerically described as an evolution in time formulated such that the structural change goes in an optimal direction within each time step for the optimal boundary conditions. In the bone...... remodeling scheme is included the memory of past loadings to account for the delay in the bone response to the load changes. In order to get a realistic bone adaptation process, the bone structure at the onset of the remodeling needs to be realistic too. A start design is obtained by structural optimization...

  4. Tractable Algorithms for Proximity Search on Large Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Education never ends, Watson. It is a series of lessons with the greatest for the last. — Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes . 2.1 Introduction A...Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes . 5.1 Introduction In this thesis, our main goal is to design fast algorithms for proximity search in large graphs. In chapter 3...Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes . In this thesis our main focus is on investigating some useful random walk based prox- imity measures. We have started

  5. RARE PRESENTATION OF SYMPTOMATIC BILATERAL PROXIMAL POPLITEAL ARTERY ANEURYSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasikumar Ganapathy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available True Popliteal artery aneurysm is the most common of all the peripheral artery aneurysms. We present a case of proximal popliteal artery aneurysm involvement both lower limb presented with gangrene in one lower limb and incapacitating claudication pain on the other lower limb. We have successfully repaired both sides aneurysm in the same sitting with Poly Tetra Fluro Ethylene (PTFE graft, as the patient also had multiple venous perforators’ involvement on both sides, which left us only with synthetic graft repair option rather than venous graft repair.

  6. Relatively Inexact Proximal Point Algorithm and Linear Convergence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram U. Verma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a notion of relatively maximal (m-relaxed monotonicity, the approximation solvability of a general class of inclusion problems is discussed, while generalizing Rockafellar's theorem (1976 on linear convergence using the proximal point algorithm in a real Hilbert space setting. Convergence analysis, based on this new model, is simpler and compact than that of the celebrated technique of Rockafellar in which the Lipschitz continuity at 0 of the inverse of the set-valued mapping is applied. Furthermore, it can be used to generalize the Yosida approximation, which, in turn, can be applied to first-order evolution equations as well as evolution inclusions.

  7. Proximal alveolar bone loss in a longitudinal radiographic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolin, A.; Lavstedt, S.; Henrikson, C.O.; Frithiof, L.

    1986-01-01

    The difference in proximal alveolar bone height between 1970 and 1980, the ''ABD index'', has been measured longitudinally in radiographs from an unselected material. The group constitutes 406 individuals born in 1904 - 1952 in the county of Stockholm. 13 of 18 predictors determined in 1970 were significantly related to the ABD index in the simple correlation analyses. The predictor ''the alveolar bone loss 1970'' (ABL index 1970) had the strongest correlation to the ABD index. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis the predictor ABL index 1970 and three other predictors reached significant levels. These were age, number of lost teeth and Russell's Periodontal Index

  8. Computed tomography in the evaluation of plexopathies and proximal neuropathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The article describes nine patients with plexopathies or proximal mononeuropathies due to mass lesions. In four, computed tomography (CT) was the only radiological technique to show the cause of the neuropathy. In five patients, CT either unequivocally confirmed the presence of an abnormality or was superior to other imaging techniques in showing its full anatomical extent. CT scanning is a valuable aid in the assessment of lesions of the peripheral nervous system, particularly plexopathies and mononeuropathies caused by retroperitoneal, pelvic or superior pulmonary sulcus tumors

  9. Computed tomography in the evaluation of plexopathies and proximal neuropathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.D. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Neurology and Neurosurgery); Schmidt, B. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Radiology); Wee, R. (Montreal General Hospital, Quebec (Canada))

    1983-11-01

    The article describes nine patients with plexopathies or proximal mononeuropathies due to mass lesions. In four, computed tomography (CT) was the only radiological technique to show the cause of the neuropathy. In five patients, CT either unequivocally confirmed the presence of an abnormality or was superior to other imaging techniques in showing its full anatomical extent. CT scanning is a valuable aid in the assessment of lesions of the peripheral nervous system, particularly plexopathies and mononeuropathies caused by retroperitoneal, pelvic or superior pulmonary sulcus tumors.

  10. Vigostsky's formulations on ZDP - Zone of Proximal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moysés Alves

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The zone of proximal development (ZPD is, probably, the most known concept from Vygotsky's theory. And has been much discussed recently. Hoping to contribute for the understanding of this contemporary debate, we focus on recurrent themes in Vygotsky's writings. We read ten texts of his where he constructed the concept of ZPD. We have through the reading summarized his formulations about the following topics: criticism to the traditional diagnostic; explicit definitions of ZPD's concept; redefinition of imitation's concept; ZPD and pretend play; ZPD and the interaction between development and learning; ZPD and the interaction among daily and scientific concepts; practical value and theoretical value of ZPD's concept

  11. Diagnosis of false proximal anastomosis aneurysms after aortofemoral reconstructive operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovskij, A.V.; Dan, V.N.; Karazeev, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    The paper deals with the diagnostic aspects of false aneurysms of proximal anastomosis of prostheses with the aorta on the basis of examination of 9 patients aged 3-65 years after aortofemoral reconstructive operations. The periods of the occurrence of false aneurysms were 2 weeks to 6 years. The causes of anastomosis aneurysms: infection, endartectomy fro the aorta at the site of applied anastomosis, progressive underlying disease. The authors provide strong evidence for a high informative value of various examinations, including ultrasound echoscanning, computer tomography, radioopaque aortography

  12. Modelling and Analysis of Proximity Effect in IGBT Fuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The demand for protection of power electronic applications has during the last couple of years increased regarding the high-power IGBT modules. The consequences of electrical faults can be severe in special cases; not only on the equipment but also to people, if safety principles are not applied....... Even with an active protection, a high power IGBT still has a risk of exhibiting a violent rupture in the case of a fault if e.g. IGBT fuses are not protecting it. By introducing fuses into voltage source converters a better protection of IGBT's can be achieved. However, skin and proximity effects...

  13. Macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordenram, G.; Bergvist, A.; Johnson, G.; Henriksen, C.O.; Anneroth, G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries of extracted teeth from patients aged 65-95 years. Although the study conditions for macroscopic and radiographic diagnosis favored more sensitive evaluations than routine clinical conditions, there was a 24% disagreement in diagnosis. This finding indicates that under routine clinical conditions it is difficult to register with certainty all superficial root carious lesions. Even in the absence of clinically detectable root surface caries, preventive measures should be considered for elderly people with exposed root surfaces

  14. Bone mineral density of lumbar spine and proximal femur in healthy males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akin, S.; Isikli, S.; Korkusuz, F.; Ungan, M.; Senkoylu, A.

    2004-01-01

    Relationship between BMD and age at lumbar spine and proximal femur in Turkish males was investigated. Two hundred ninety healthy males (aged 20-59 years) were investigated. BMD of the lumbar spine had its peak at ages 30-39, however, the peak for the proximal femur was between the ages of 20 and 29. There was a significant decrease in BMD at proximal femur after these peak values with increasing age. There was a significant correlation between age and the proximal femoral BMD in males and age has a strong predictive power on proximal femur BMD score. (author)

  15. Surgical repair of mid-body proximal sesamoid bone fractures in 25 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschers, Evita; Richardson, Dean W; Hogan, Patricia M; Leitch, Midge

    2008-12-01

    To describe the characteristics of unilateral mid-body proximal sesamoid bone (PSB) fractures, to determine factors associated with the outcome of horses after surgical repair, and to describe a technique for arthroscopically assisted screw fixation in lag fashion. Retrospective case series. Horses (n=25) with unilateral mid-body PSB fracture. Medical records (1996-2006), radiographs, and arthroscopic videos of horses with surgically repaired unilateral mid-body PSB fractures were reviewed. Retrieved data included signalment, affected limb and PSB, fracture characteristics, and surgical technique. Outcome was established by radiographic assessment of healing and race records; categorical data were analyzed using Fisher's Exact test. Medial forelimb PSBs were most commonly affected (80%). Surgical technique and degree of reduction were significantly associated with outcome; 44% of horses with screw repair and none of the horses with wire fixation raced (P=.047). Factors that may have influenced this outcome were differences in fracture reduction (improved reduction in 22% wire repairs and 88% screw repairs, P=.002) and use of external coaptation (22% wire repair and 88% lag screw repair, P=.002). None of the horses with unimproved reduction raced after surgery. Only 28% of horses with mid-body PSB fractures raced after surgery. Compared with wire fixation, screw fixation in lag fashion resulted in good reduction and is seemingly a superior repair technique. For mid-body PSB fractures, arthroscopically assisted screw fixation in lag fashion and external coaptation for anesthesia recovery and initial support provides the best likelihood of return to athletic use.

  16. Rate of avascular necrosis and time to surgery in proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, L A; Furey, A

    2016-12-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the humeral head is a devastating complication of proximal humeral fracture (PHF) that often results in long-term morbidity for the patient. Rates of AVN depend on the number of fracture fragments and are highly variable. The literature suggests that timely stable and anatomic reduction may decrease the rate at which AVN develops after PHF. To our knowledge, there is no literature published investigating a temporal relationship between the timing of PHF fixation and rates of AVN. Operative records of one orthopedic trauma surgeon were used to identify patients that underwent open reduction internal fixation for PHF at our institution between 2007 and 2012. Radiographs at presentation were reviewed and used to classify the fractures into two, three or four parts. Date and time of the initial radiograph were recorded as were the date and time of available intra-operative fluoroscopic images. The time from presentation radiograph to operative fixation was calculated (hours). Available follow-up plain films were then reviewed and evaluated for the presence or absence of humeral head AVN. Time to surgery (less than or greater than 72 h) and patient age did not correlate with development of AVN after PHF (p > 0.26). Notably, the number of fracture fragments did influence the rate of AVN identified in patients with PHF (p = 0.002). Early operative intervention does not appear to decrease the rate of development of avascular necrosis after PHF.

  17. Association between proximity to a health center and early childhood mortality in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Kashima

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between proximity to a health center and early childhood mortality in Madagascar, and to assess the influence of household wealth, maternal educational attainment, and maternal health on the effects of distance. METHODS: From birth records of subjects in the Demographic and Health Survey, we identified 12565 singleton births from January 2004 to August 2009. After excluding 220 births that lacked global positioning system information for exposure assessment, odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs for neonatal mortality and infant mortality were estimated using multilevel logistic regression models, with 12345 subjects (level 1, nested within 584 village locations (level 2, and in turn nested within 22 regions (level 3. We additionally stratified the subjects by the birth order. We estimated predicted probabilities of each outcome by a three-level model including cross-level interactions between proximity to a health center and household wealth, maternal educational attainment, and maternal anemia. RESULTS: Compared with those who lived >1.5-3.0 km from a health center, the risks for neonatal mortality and infant mortality tended to increase among those who lived further than 5.0 km from a health center; the adjusted ORs for neonatal mortality and infant mortality for those who lived >5.0-10.0 km away from a health center were 1.36 (95% CI: 0.92-2.01 and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.06-1.90, respectively. The positive associations were more pronounced among the second or later child. The distance effects were not modified by household wealth status, maternal educational attainment, or maternal health status. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that distance from a health center is a risk factor for early childhood mortality (primarily, infant mortality in Madagascar by using a large-scale nationally representative dataset. The accessibility to health care in remote areas would be a key factor to achieve

  18. Proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma - Case report Sarcoma epitelióide tipo proximal - Relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Mendes dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Epithelioid sarcoma, first described by Enzinger in 1970, is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma typically presenting as a subcutaneous or deep dermal mass in distal portions of the extremities of adolescents and young adults. In 1997, Guillou et al. described a different type of epithelioid sarcoma, called proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma, which is found mostly in the pelvic and perineal regions and genital tracts of young to middle-aged adults. It is characterized by a proliferation of epithelioid-like cells with rhabdoid features and the absence of a granuloma-like pattern. In this paper we present a case of proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma with an aggressive clinical course, including distant metastasis and death nine months after diagnosis.O sarcoma epitelióide, primeiramente descrito por Enzinger, em 1970, é uma neoplasia de partes moles que ocorre principalmente nas extremidades distais de adolescentes e adultos jovens. Em 1997, Guillou e cols. descreveram um tipo diferente de sarcoma epitelióide, que afetava frequentemente a região pélvica, períneo e áreas genitais de pacientes de média idade, com exame histológico caracterizado pela proliferação de células com aspecto epitelióide. Neste trabalho, descreve-se caso de paciente que apresentava há três meses duas lesões na região glútea, cujo exame histológico confirmou diagnóstico de sarcoma epitelioide do tipo proximal, já com presença de metástases pulmonares e cerebrais e que foi a óbito nove meses após o diagnóstico.

  19. Proximity to the treating centre and outcomes following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Cian J; Spears, Julian; Urbach, David; Wallace, M Christopher

    2011-01-01

    In the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the potential for early complications and the centralization of limited resources often challenge the delivery of timely neurosurgical care. We sought to determine the impact of proximity to the accepting neurosurgical centre on outcomes following aneurysmal SAH. Using administrative data, we analyzed patients undergoing treatment for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage at neurosurgical centres in Ontario between 1995 and 2004. We compared mortality for patients receiving treatment at a centre in their county (in-county) versus those treated from outside counties (out-of-county). We also examined the impact of distance from the patient's residence to the treating centre. The mortality rates were significantly lower for in-county versus out-of-county patients (23.5% vs. 27.6%, p=0.009). This advantage remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders (HR=0.84, p=0.01). The relationship between distance from the treating centre and mortality was biphasic. Under 300 km, mortality increased with increasing distance. Over 300 km, a survival benefit was observed. Proximity to the treating neurosurgical centre impacts survival after aneurysmal SAH. These results have significant implications for the triage of these critically ill patients.

  20. Proximal femoral fractures: Principles of management and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Ravi; Banerjee, Sumit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to review the principles involved in the management of proximal femoral fractures as reported in the literature. Methods: A medical literature search in the MEDLINE (PubMed) and Cochrane database was undertaken to review strategies and principles in proximal femoral fracture treatment. Randomized control trials and meta analysis were given preference while case reports/small series were rejected. Results and conclusions: Early anatomical reduction and surgical fixation remains the best option to reduce the risk of complications like non-union and avascular necrosis in treating fracture neck femurs. Cancellous screws continue to be the preferred treatment for fixation of neck femur fractures in younger population until the benefit of using sliding hip screws is validated by large multicentric studies. In the geriatric age group, early prosthetic replacement brings down the mortality and morbidity associated with neck femur fractures. Sliding hip screw (DHS) is the best available option for stable inter trochanteric fractures. The use of intramedullary nails e.g. PFN is beneficial in treating inter trochanteric fractures with comminution and loss of lateral buttress. Intramedullary implants have been proven to have increased success rates in subtrochanteric fractures and should be preferred over extramedullary plate fixation systems. PMID:25983451

  1. Evaluation of the Superior Gluteal Nerve During Proximal Femoral Nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sonmez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The superior gluteal nerve may be compromised during hip surgery. We retrospectively evaluated the patients who underwent proximal femoral nailing for unstable trochanteric fractures in order to investigate the presence of superior gluteal nerve injury and its clinical findings. Material and Method: Twenty five patients (14 women, 11 men were included in the study who had femoral nailing between January 2004 and March 2010 at Hamidiye Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital Department of Orthopaedics. Two different types of nails which have similar designs and surgical techniques were used for fracture fixation. Patients who had a history of cerebrovascular disease, electromyography findings of polyneuropathy, or degenerative vertebral disease were excluded from the study. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically. Findings related to acute denervation in the gluteus medius muscle and motor unit action potential changes were accepted as signs of superior gluteal nerve injury. Results: Eight patients were using support during walking and three of these patients had positive Trendelenburg sign, but only one patient had acute denervation signs of the superior gluteal nerve. Discussion: Based on the present study the incidence of iatrogenic nerve injury is a rare complication of proximal femoral nailing. Elderly patients, regardless of whether they have nerve injury, may limp and need to use a walking support.

  2. Proximal Tubular Cannabinoid-1 Receptor Regulates Obesity-Induced CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udi, Shiran; Hinden, Liad; Earley, Brian; Drori, Adi; Reuveni, Noa; Hadar, Rivka; Cinar, Resat; Nemirovski, Alina; Tam, Joseph

    2017-12-01

    Obesity-related structural and functional changes in the kidney develop early in the course of obesity and occur independently of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Activating the renal cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB 1 R) induces nephropathy, whereas CB 1 R blockade improves kidney function. Whether these effects are mediated via a specific cell type within the kidney remains unknown. Here, we show that specific deletion of CB 1 R in the renal proximal tubule cells did not protect the mice from obesity, but markedly attenuated the obesity-induced lipid accumulation in the kidney and renal dysfunction, injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These effects associated with increased activation of liver kinase B1 and the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase, as well as enhanced fatty acid β -oxidation. Collectively, these findings indicate that renal proximal tubule cell CB 1 R contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity-induced renal lipotoxicity and nephropathy by regulating the liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  3. Two Proximal Skin Electrodes — A Respiration Rate Body Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Avbelj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new body sensor for extracting the respiration rate based on the amplitude changes in the body surface potential differences between two proximal body electrodes. The sensor could be designed as a plaster-like reusable unit that can be easily fixed onto the surface of the body. It could be equipped either with a sufficiently large memory for storing the measured data or with a low-power radio system that can transmit the measured data to a gateway for further processing. We explore the influence of the sensor’s position on the quality of the extracted results using multi-channel ECG measurements and considering all the pairs of two neighboring electrodes as potential respiration-rate sensors. The analysis of the clinical measurements, which also include reference thermistor-based respiration signals, shows that the proposed approach is a viable option for monitoring the respiration frequency and for a rough classification of breathing types. The obtained results were evaluated on a wireless prototype of a respiration body sensor. We indicate the best positions for the respiration body sensor and prove that a single sensor for body surface potential difference on proximal skin electrodes can be used for combined measurements of respiratory and cardiac activities.

  4. Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Victor S.; Cacciatore, Timothy W.; Cordo, Paul J.; Horak, Fay B.

    2011-01-01

    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs1, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention. PMID:22214974

  5. Parkinson's Disease Prevalence and Proximity to Agricultural Cultivated Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitshak Sade, Maayan; Zlotnik, Yair; Kloog, Itai; Novack, Victor; Peretz, Chava; Ifergane, Gal

    2015-01-01

    The risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) is a combination of multiple environmental and genetic factors. The Negev (Southern Israel) contains approximately 252.5 km2 of agricultural cultivated fields (ACF). We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of PD and to examine possible geographical clustering and associations with agricultural exposures. We screened all “Clalit” Health Services members in the Negev (70% of the population) between the years 2000 and 2012. Individual demographic, clinical, and medication prescription data were available. We used a refined medication tracer algorithm to identify PD patients. We used mixed Poisson models to calculate the smoothed standardized incidence rates (SIRs) for each locality. We identified ACF and calculate the size and distance of the fields from each locality. We identified 3,792 cases of PD. SIRs were higher than expected in Jewish rural localities (median SIR [95% CI]: 1.41 [1.28; 1.53] in 2001–2004, 1.62 [1.48; 1.76] in 2005–2008, and 1.57 [1.44; 1.80] in 2009–2012). Highest SIR was observed in localities located in proximity to large ACF (SIR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32; 1.79). In conclusion, in this population based study we found that PD SIRs were higher than expected in rural localities. Furthermore, it appears that proximity to ACF and the field size contribute to PD risk. PMID:26357584

  6. Temperature as a proximate factor in orientation behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, W.W.

    1977-05-01

    Temperature serves as a proximate factor (cue, guidepost, sign stimulus, or directive factor) affecting locomotor responses of fishes. Although temperature can also serve as an ultimate ecological factor, as in behavioral thermoregulation, nonthermal factors may in some cases provide the ultimate adaptive or ecological value of a temperature response; some examples are habitat selection, intraspecific size segregation, interspecific niche differentiation, isolating mechanisms, predator avoidance, prey location, escape reactions, and migrations (thermoperiodic, diel, seasonal, spawning). Conversely, nonthermal variables such as light intensity or water depth may act as accessory proximate factors in thermoregulation. In spawning migrations, thermal requirements of eggs and larvae may take precedence over the (often different) preferenda or optima of adults. Although thermal responses of fishes are largely innate and species specific, ontogenetic and other changes can occur. Since temperature can serve as an unconditioned reinforcer in operant conditioning, thermal responses are not limited to simple kineses or taxes. Nonthermal factors such as photoperiod, circadian rhythms, currents, social and biotic interactions, stresses, infections, or chemicals can affect thermal responses, and may account for some lack of conformity between laboratory preferenda and field distributions and behaviors.

  7. Acid-base transport by the renal proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Lara A; Boron, Walter F; Zhou, Yuehan

    2010-01-01

    Each day, the kidneys filter 180 L of blood plasma, equating to some 4,300 mmol of the major blood buffer, bicarbonate (HCO3-). The glomerular filtrate enters the lumen of the proximal tubule (PT), and the majority of filtered HCO3- is reclaimed along the early (S1) and convoluted (S2) portions of the PT in a manner coupled to the secretion of H+ into the lumen. The PT also uses the secreted H+ to titrate non-HCO3- buffers in the lumen, in the process creating "new HCO3-" for transport into the blood. Thus, the PT - along with more distal renal segments - is largely responsible for regulating plasma [HCO3-]. In this review we first focus on the milestone discoveries over the past 50+ years that define the mechanism and regulation of acid-base transport by the proximal tubule. Further on in the review, we will summarize research still in progress from our laboratory, work that addresses the problem of how the PT is able to finely adapt to acid-base disturbances by rapidly sensing changes in basolateral levels of HCO3- and CO2 (but not pH), and thereby to exert tight control over the acid-base composition of the blood plasma.

  8. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu CH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. Keywords: operative, practice, tunnel preparation, composite, amalgam, glass ionomer

  9. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Mei, May L; Cheung, Chloe; Nalliah, Romesh P

    2013-07-30

    The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED) and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations.

  10. Cassini at Saturn Proximal Orbits - Attitude Control Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The Cassini mission at Saturn will come to an end in the spring and summer of 2017 with a series of 22 orbits that will dip inside the rings of Saturn. These are called proximal orbits and will conclude with spacecraft disposal into the atmosphere of the ringed world on September 15, 2017. These unique orbits that cross the ring plane only a few thousand kilometers above the cloud tops of the planet present new attitude control challenges for the Cassini operations team. Crossing the ring plane so close to the inner edge of the rings means that the Cassini orientation during the crossing will be tailored to protect the sensitive electronics bus of the spacecraft. This orientation will put the sun sensors at some extra risk so this paper discusses how the team prepares for dust hazards. Periapsis is so close to the planet that spacecraft controllability with RCS thrusters needs to be evaluated because of the predicted atmospheric torque near closest approach to Saturn. Radiation during the ring plane crossings will likely trigger single event transients in some attitude control sensors. This paper discusses how the attitude control team deals with radiation hazards. The angular size and unique geometry of the rings and Saturn near periapsis means that star identification will be interrupted and this paper discusses how the safe mode attitude is selected to best deal with these large bright bodies during the proximal orbits.

  11. Optimal proximity correction: application for flash memory design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. O.; Huang, D. L.; Sung, K. T.; Chiang, J. J.; Yu, M.; Teng, F.; Chu, Lung; Rey, Juan C.; Bernard, Douglas A.; Li, Jiangwei; Li, Junling; Moroz, V.; Boksha, Victor V.

    1998-06-01

    Proximity Correction is the technology for which the most of IC manufacturers are committed already. The final intended result of correction is affected by many factors other than the optical characteristics of the mask-stepper system, such as photoresist exposure, post-exposure bake and development parameters, etch selectivity and anisotropy, and underlying topography. The most advanced industry and research groups already reported immediate need to consider wafer topography as one of the major components during a Proximity Correction procedure. In the present work we are discussing the corners rounding effect (which eventually cause electrical leakage) observed for the elements of Poly2 layer for a Flash Memory Design. It was found that the rounding originated by three- dimensional effects due to variation of photoresist thickness resulting from the non-planar substrate. Our major goal was to understand the reasons and correct corner rounding. As a result of this work highly effective layout correction methodology was demonstrated and manufacturable Depth Of Focus was achieved. Another purpose of the work was to demonstrate complete integration flow for a Flash Memory Design based on photolithography; deposition/etch; ion implantation/oxidation/diffusion; and device simulators.

  12. Group Problem Solving as a Zone of Proximal Development activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, Eric

    2006-12-01

    Vygotsky described learning as a process, intertwined with development, which is strongly influenced by social interactions with others that are at differing developmental stages.i These interactions create a Zone of Proximal Development for each member of the interaction. Vygotsky’s notion of social constructivism is not only a theory of learning, but also of development. While teaching introductory physics in an interactive format, I have found manifestations of Vygotsky’s theory in my classroom. The source of evidence is a paired problem solution. A standard mechanics problem was solved by students in two classes as a homework assignment. Students handed in the homework and then solved the same problem in small groups. The solutions to both the group and individual problem were assessed by multiple reviewers. In many cases the group score was the same as the highest individual score in the group, but in some cases, the group score was higher than any individual score. For this poster, I will analyze the individual and group scores and focus on three groups solutions and video that provide evidence of learning through membership in a Zone of Proximal Development. Endnotes i L. Vygotsky -Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (1978).

  13. The reliability and accuracy of two methods for proximal caries detection and depth on directly visible proximal surfaces: an in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Alloza, Alvaro Luna; Promisiero, L

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the reliability and accuracy of the ICDAS and radiographs in detecting and estimating the depth of proximal lesions on extracted teeth. The lesions were visible to the naked eye. Three trained examiners scored a total of 132 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 106 p...

  14. Modern recording techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, David Miles

    2013-01-01

    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  15. Short frontal plane fractures involving the dorsoproximal articular surface of the proximal phalanx: Description of the injury and a technique for repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, I M; Minshall, G J

    2018-01-01

    Chip fractures of the dorsoproximal articular margin of the proximal phalanx are common injuries in racehorses. Large fractures can extend distal to the joint capsule insertion and have been described as dorsal frontal fractures. To report the location and morphology of short frontal plane fractures involving the dorsoproximal articular surface of the proximal phalanx and describe a technique for repair under arthroscopic and radiographic guidance. Single centre retrospective case study. Case records of horses with frontal plane fractures restricted to the dorsoproximal epiphysis and metaphysis of the proximal phalanx referred to Newmarket Equine Hospital were retrieved, images reviewed and lesion morphology described. A technique for repair and the results obtained are reported. A total of 22 fractures in 21 horses commencing at the proximal articular surface exited the dorsal cortex of the proximal phalanx distal to the metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal joint capsule in 17 hind- and five forelimbs. All were in Thoroughbred racehorses. In 16 cases these were acute racing or training injuries; 20 fractures were medial, one lateral and one was midline. All were repaired with a single lag screw using arthroscopic and radiographically determined landmarks. A total of 16 horses raced after surgery with performance data similar to their preinjury levels. The study demonstrates substantial morphological similarities between individual lesions supporting a common pathophysiology, but does not identify precise causation. There are no cases managed differently that might permit assessment of the comparative efficacy of the treatment described. Short frontal plane fractures involving the dorsoproximal margin of the proximal phalanx that exit the bone distal to the metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal joint capsule have substantial morphological similarities, are amenable to minimally invasive repair and carry a good prognosis for return to training and racing.

  16. Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, Javier; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Morales-Piga, Antonio; Pardo Romaguera, Elena; Tamayo, Ibon; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. Objectives: To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject’s residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables. Results: Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5 km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03–1.67) – particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49–3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24–2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07–3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22–2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22–2.15) – , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02–1.80). Conclusions: Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia. - Highlights: • We studied proximity to both industrial and urban sites on childhood leukemia. • We conducted a case–control study in

  17. Acute proximal junctional failure in patients with preoperative sagittal imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Micah W; Annis, Prokopis; Lawrence, Brandon D; Daubs, Michael D; Brodke, Darrel S

    2015-10-01

    Proximal junctional failure (PJF) is a recognized complication of spinal deformity surgery. Acute PJF (APJF) has recently been demonstrated to be 5.6% in the adult spinal deformity (ASD) population. The incidence and rate of return to the operating room for APJF have not been specifically investigated in individuals with sagittal imbalance. The purpose of this study was to report the incidence of APJF in patients with preoperative sagittal imbalance and the rate of return to the operating room for APJF. This study is based on a retrospective review of prospectively collected database of ASD patients. One hundred seventy-three consecutive patients were included with preoperative sagittal imbalance according to one of the following common parameters: sagittal vertical axis (SVA) greater than 50 mm, global sagittal alignment greater than 45°, or pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis greater than 10°. Outcome measure was presence and/or absence of APJF defined as fracture at the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) or UIV+1, failure of UIV fixation, 15° or more proximal junctional kyphosis, or need for extension of instrumentation within 6 months of surgery. We performed radiographic measurements on X-rays at preoperative, immediate postoperative, and 6-month follow-up visits. The APJF rate was reported for the entire patient population with preoperative sagittal imbalance. Acute PJF incidence was calculated postoperatively for each of the accepted sagittal balance parameters and/or formulas. Patients with persistent postoperative sagittal imbalance were compared with the sagittally balanced group. We also assessed for threshold values. Acute PJF was observed in 60 of 173 patients (35%) and was least common in fusions with the UIV in the upper thoracic (UT) spine (p=.035). Of those who developed APJF, 21.7% required surgery. Proximal junctional kyphosis 15° or more was the most common form of APJF in fusions to the UT spine but least likely to need revision (p=.014

  18. The Proximate Unit in Chinese Handwritten Character Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Yeu eChen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O’Seaghdha, Chen, & Chen, 2010. The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten word production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target. Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous or did not share (heterogeneous the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Exp. 1: 687 ms vs. 684 ms, Exp. 2: 717 vs. 716. In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 3: 685 vs. 704, Exp. 4: 594 vs. 650. In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., 士in聲, 鼓, 穀, 款; called a logographeme. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 5: 576 vs. 625, Exp. 6: 586 vs. 620. These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit.

  19. Sciatic Nerve Injury After Proximal Hamstring Avulsion and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas J; Spinner, Robert J; Mohan, Rohith; Gibbs, Christopher M; Krych, Aaron J

    2017-07-01

    Muscle bellies of the hamstring muscles are intimately associated with the sciatic nerve, putting the sciatic nerve at risk of injury associated with proximal hamstring avulsion. There are few data informing the magnitude of this risk, identifying risk factors for neurologic injury, or determining neurologic outcomes in patients with distal sciatic symptoms after surgery. To characterize the frequency and nature of sciatic nerve injury and distal sciatic nerve-related symptoms after proximal hamstring avulsion and to characterize the influence of surgery on these symptoms. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. This was a retrospective review of patients with proximal partial or complete hamstring avulsion. The outcome of interest was neurologic symptoms referable to the sciatic nerve distribution below the knee. Neurologic symptoms in operative patients were compared pre- and postoperatively. The cohort consisted of 162 patients: 67 (41.4%) operative and 95 (58.6%) nonoperative. Sciatic nerve-related symptoms were present in 22 operative and 23 nonoperative patients, for a total of 45 (27.8%) patients (8 [4.9%] motor deficits, 11 [6.8%] sensory deficits, and 36 [22.2%] with neuropathic pain). Among the operative cohort, 3 of 3 (100.0%) patients showed improvement in their motor deficit postoperatively, 3 of 4 (75.0%) patients' sensory symptoms improved, and 17 of 19 (89.5%) patients had improvement in pain. A new or worsening deficit occurred in 5 (7.5%) patients postoperatively (2 [3.1%] motor deficits, 1 [1.5%] sensory deficit, and 3 [4.5%] with new pain). Predictors of operative intervention included lower age (odds ratio [OR], 0.952; 95% CI, 0.921-0.982; P = .001) and complete avulsion (OR, 10.292; 95% CI, 2.526-72.232; P hamstring avulsion are underrecognized. Currently, neurologic symptoms are not considered when determining whether to pursue operative intervention. Given the high likelihood of improvement with surgical treatment, neurologic symptoms should be

  20. Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Pérez, Javier, E-mail: jgarcia@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); López-Abente, Gonzalo, E-mail: glabente@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Gómez-Barroso, Diana, E-mail: dgomez@externos.isciii.es [CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Morales-Piga, Antonio, E-mail: amorales@isciii.es [Rare Disease Research Institute (IIER), Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Consortium for Biomedical Research in Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Madrid (Spain); Pardo Romaguera, Elena, E-mail: elena.pardo@uv.es [Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors (RETI-SEHOP), University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Tamayo, Ibon, E-mail: ibontama@gmail.com [Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, BIODonostia Research Institute, Department of Health of the Regional Government of the Basque Country, Donostia (Spain); Fernández-Navarro, Pablo, E-mail: pfernandezn@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); and others

    2015-07-15

    Background: Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. Objectives: To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject’s residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables. Results: Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5 km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03–1.67) – particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49–3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24–2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07–3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22–2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22–2.15) – , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02–1.80). Conclusions: Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia. - Highlights: • We studied proximity to both industrial and urban sites on childhood leukemia. • We conducted a case–control study in