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Sample records for proximity measures based

  1. Image based weighted center of proximity versus directly measured knee contact location during simulated gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongsheng; Chen, Tony; Koff, Matthew F; Hutchinson, Ian D; Gilbert, Susannah; Choi, Dan; Warren, Russell F; Rodeo, Scott A; Maher, Suzanne A

    2014-07-18

    To understand the mechanical consequences of knee injury requires a detailed analysis of the effect of that injury on joint contact mechanics during activities of daily living. Three-dimensional (3D) knee joint geometric models have been combined with knee joint kinematics to dynamically estimate the location of joint contact during physiological activities-using a weighted center of proximity (WCoP) method. However, the relationship between the estimated WCoP and the actual location of contact has not been defined. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between knee joint contact location as estimated using the image-based WCoP method, and a directly measured weighted center of contact (WCoC) method during simulated walking. To achieve this goal, we created knee specific models of six human cadaveric knees from magnetic resonance imaging. All knees were then subjected to physiological loads on a knee simulator intended to mimic gait. Knee joint motion was captured using a motion capture system. Knee joint contact stresses were synchronously recorded using a thin electronic sensor throughout gait, and used to compute WCoC for the medial and lateral plateaus of each knee. WCoP was calculated by combining knee kinematics with the MRI-based knee specific model. Both metrics were compared throughout gait using linear regression. The anteroposterior (AP) location of WCoP was significantly correlated with that of WCoC on both tibial plateaus in all specimens (p0), but the correlation was not significant in the mediolateral (ML) direction for 4/6 knees (p>0.05). Our study demonstrates that while the location of joint contact obtained from 3D knee joint contact model, using the WCoP method, is significantly correlated with the location of actual contact stresses in the AP direction, that relationship is less certain in the ML direction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Can defensible estimates of canopy proximity be obtained based on single point eddy covariance measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdebise, Quentin; Heinesch, Bernard; De Ligne, Anne; Vincke, Caroline; Aubinet, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Understanding if and how the spatial and temporal variability of the surrounding environment affects turbulence is essential for long-term eddy covariance measurements above growing and heterogeneous ecosystems. It requires characterizing the surrounding environment. One way to achieve this is to analyse the canopy aerodynamic distance, which is the difference between measurement height (z) and displacement height (d). In this study, twenty years of eddy covariance measurements from the Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory, a site located in a mixed temperate forest, were used. Canopy aerodynamic distance (z-d) estimates were obtained using two micrometeorological methods: the first one, which is original so far as we know, was based on analysing sensible heat cospectra; the second one was derived from the wind speed profile equation. Canopy height estimates based on inventories were used to validate both methods. The micrometeorological methods allowed the z-d variations due to changes in canopy or measurement height to be detected. In addition, the results obtained using the two methods were well correlated, spatially and temporally, with the z-d derived from canopy height measurements. The micrometeorological approaches used could therefore be a promising tool for investigating z-d variability at a high directional and temporal resolution. Questions remain, however, particularly with regard to the variability observed that cannot be explained by canopy or measurement height variation. Forest management practices and the non-fulfilment of similarity relationships were suspected to be the main explanatory factors.

  3. Measuring implementation of a school-based violence prevention program : Fidelity and teachers' responsiveness as predictors of proximal outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultes, Marie Therese; Stefanek, Elisabeth; van de Schoot, Rens|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    When school-based prevention programs are put into practice, evaluation studies commonly only consider one indicator of program implementation. The present study investigates how two different aspects of program implementation - fidelity and participant responsiveness - jointly influence proximal

  4. Finite Element Modelling of a Field-Sensed Magnetic Suspended System for Accurate Proximity Measurement Based on a Sensor Fusion Algorithm with Unscented Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Amor; Sarjaš, Andrej

    2016-09-15

    The presented paper describes accurate distance measurement for a field-sensed magnetic suspension system. The proximity measurement is based on a Hall effect sensor. The proximity sensor is installed directly on the lower surface of the electro-magnet, which means that it is very sensitive to external magnetic influences and disturbances. External disturbances interfere with the information signal and reduce the usability and reliability of the proximity measurements and, consequently, the whole application operation. A sensor fusion algorithm is deployed for the aforementioned reasons. The sensor fusion algorithm is based on the Unscented Kalman Filter, where a nonlinear dynamic model was derived with the Finite Element Modelling approach. The advantage of such modelling is a more accurate dynamic model parameter estimation, especially in the case when the real structure, materials and dimensions of the real-time application are known. The novelty of the paper is the design of a compact electro-magnetic actuator with a built-in low cost proximity sensor for accurate proximity measurement of the magnetic object. The paper successively presents a modelling procedure with the finite element method, design and parameter settings of a sensor fusion algorithm with Unscented Kalman Filter and, finally, the implementation procedure and results of real-time operation.

  5. Finite Element Modelling of a Field-Sensed Magnetic Suspended System for Accurate Proximity Measurement Based on a Sensor Fusion Algorithm with Unscented Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Amor; Sarjaš, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    The presented paper describes accurate distance measurement for a field-sensed magnetic suspension system. The proximity measurement is based on a Hall effect sensor. The proximity sensor is installed directly on the lower surface of the electro-magnet, which means that it is very sensitive to external magnetic influences and disturbances. External disturbances interfere with the information signal and reduce the usability and reliability of the proximity measurements and, consequently, the whole application operation. A sensor fusion algorithm is deployed for the aforementioned reasons. The sensor fusion algorithm is based on the Unscented Kalman Filter, where a nonlinear dynamic model was derived with the Finite Element Modelling approach. The advantage of such modelling is a more accurate dynamic model parameter estimation, especially in the case when the real structure, materials and dimensions of the real-time application are known. The novelty of the paper is the design of a compact electro-magnetic actuator with a built-in low cost proximity sensor for accurate proximity measurement of the magnetic object. The paper successively presents a modelling procedure with the finite element method, design and parameter settings of a sensor fusion algorithm with Unscented Kalman Filter and, finally, the implementation procedure and results of real-time operation. PMID:27649197

  6. Technology, Proximity, and Measures of Kin Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwak, Eugene; Kulis, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Advances proposition that many current measures of kinship strength may paradoxically indicate inadequate or weakened kinship structures. Presents nonproximity indicators of kinship contact and service delivery that can measure strength of kinship bonds. States principles for assessing at what distance kin can deliver which services. (Author/NB)

  7. Scintillation proximity assay for measurement of RNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew R; Zarubica, Tamara; Wright, H Tonie; Rife, Jason P

    2009-03-01

    Methylation of RNA by methyltransferases is a phylogenetically ubiquitous post-transcriptional modification that occurs most extensively in transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Biochemical characterization of RNA methyltransferase enzymes and their methylated product RNA or RNA-protein complexes is usually done by measuring the incorporation of radiolabeled methyl groups into the product over time. This has traditionally required the separation of radiolabeled product from radiolabeled methyl donor through a filter binding assay. We have adapted and optimized a scintillation proximity assay (SPA) to replace the more costly, wasteful and cumbersome filter binding assay and demonstrate its utility in studies of three distinct methyltransferases, RmtA, KsgA and ErmC'. In vitro, RmtA and KsgA methylate different bases in 16S rRNA in 30S ribosomal particles, while ErmC' most efficiently methylates protein-depleted or protein-free 23S rRNA. This assay does not utilize engineered affinity tags that are often required in SPA, and is capable of detecting either radiolabeled RNA or RNA-protein complex. We show that this method is suitable for quantitating extent of RNA methylation or active RNA methyltransferase, and for testing RNA-methyltransferase inhibitors. This assay can be carried out with techniques routinely used in a typical biochemistry laboratory or could be easily adapted for a high throughput screening format.

  8. Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie D; de Waal, Frans B M

    2002-02-01

    There is disagreement in the literature about the exact nature of the phenomenon of empathy. There are emotional, cognitive, and conditioning views, applying in varying degrees across species. An adequate description of the ultimate and proximate mechanism can integrate these views. Proximately, the perception of an object's state activates the subject's corresponding representations, which in turn activate somatic and autonomic responses. This mechanism supports basic behaviors (e.g., alarm, social facilitation, vicariousness of emotions, mother-infant responsiveness, and the modeling of competitors and predators) that are crucial for the reproductive success of animals living in groups. The Perception-Action Model (PAM), together with an understanding of how representations change with experience, can explain the major empirical effects in the literature (similarity, familiarity, past experience, explicit teaching, and salience). It can also predict a variety of empathy disorders. The interaction between the PAM and prefrontal functioning can also explain different levels of empathy across species and age groups. This view can advance our evolutionary understanding of empathy beyond inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism and can explain different levels of empathy across individuals, species, stages of development, and situations.

  9. Method to measure tone of axial and proximal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Victor S; Cacciatore, Timothy W; Cordo, Paul J; Horak, Fay B

    2011-12-14

    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention.

  10. Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Victor S.; Cacciatore, Timothy W.; Cordo, Paul J.; Horak, Fay B.

    2011-01-01

    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs1, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention. PMID:22214974

  11. Correction of Misclassifications Using a Proximity-Based Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulevich Ilya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimation method for correcting misclassifications in signal and image processing is presented. The method is based on the use of context-based (temporal or spatial information in a sliding-window fashion. The classes can be purely nominal, that is, an ordering of the classes is not required. The method employs nonlinear operations based on class proximities defined by a proximity matrix. Two case studies are presented. In the first, the proposed method is applied to one-dimensional signals for processing data that are obtained by a musical key-finding algorithm. In the second, the estimation method is applied to two-dimensional signals for correction of misclassifications in images. In the first case study, the proximity matrix employed by the estimation method follows directly from music perception studies, whereas in the second case study, the optimal proximity matrix is obtained with genetic algorithms as the learning rule in a training-based optimization framework. Simulation results are presented in both case studies and the degree of improvement in classification accuracy that is obtained by the proposed method is assessed statistically using Kappa analysis.

  12. Rare diseases knowledge management: the contribution of proximity measurements in OntoOrpha and OMIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimé, X; Charlet, J; Furst, F; Kuntz, P; Trichet, F; Dhombres, F

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an application of Proxima and define a new measure of proximity between two concepts present in an ontology. The approach is based on the three dimensions of a conceptualization: intention with relations between concepts, expression with terms denoting concepts, and extension with instances of concepts. This preliminary work, in the field of rare diseases, involved the Orphanet Ontology of Rare Diseases (OntoOrpha) and corpus of texts extracted from Online Inheritance in Man (OMIM). The proximity measurements are consistent with an appropriate representation of groups of diseases in the ontology, which are derived from the Orphanet classifications of rare diseases. Other semantic relations are explored and new perspectives in medical knowledge curation are proposed.

  13. Synostosis of proximal phalangeal bases for loss of distal metacarpal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Jindal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A finger rendered unstable due to loss of metacarpal head can be stabilized by creating a synostosis at the base of the proximal phalanx of the affected finger with the adjacent normal finger. A cortico cancellous graft bridges the two adjacent proximal phalanges at their bases which are temporarily stabilized with an external fixator. The procedure can be done for, recurrence of giant cell tumor of metacarpal and for traumatic metacarpal loss. The procedure and long term follow up of one patient is presented who had giant cell tumor. This option should be considered before offering ray amputation. There is no micro vascular surgery involved, nor is there any donor site morbidity. The graft heals well without any absorption. The affected finger shows excellent function in the long term followup.

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of the Proximal-Based Parallel Decomposition Methods

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    Feng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal-based parallel decomposition methods were recently proposed to solve structured convex optimization problems. These algorithms are eligible for parallel computation and can be used efficiently for solving large-scale separable problems. In this paper, compared with the previous theoretical results, we show that the range of the involved parameters can be enlarged while the convergence can be still established. Preliminary numerical tests on stable principal component pursuit problem testify to the advantages of the enlargement.

  15. The prediction of cyclic proximal humerus fracture fixation failure by various bone density measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Peter; Grünwald, Leonard; Windolf, Markus

    2018-02-22

    Fixation of osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures has remained challenging, but may be improved by careful pre-operative planning. The aim of this study was to investigate how well the failure of locking plate fixation of osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures can be predicted by bone density measures assessed with currently available clinical imaging (realistic case) and a higher resolution and quality modality (theoretical best-case). Various density measures were correlated to experimentally assessed number of cycles to construct failure of plated unstable low-density proximal humerus fractures (N = 18). The influence of density evaluation technique was investigated by comparing local (peri-implant) versus global evaluation regions; HR-pQCT-based versus clinical QCT-based image data; ipsilateral versus contralateral side; and bone mineral content (BMC) versus bone mineral density (BMD). All investigated density measures were significantly correlated with the experimental cycles to failure. The best performing clinically feasible parameter was the QCT-based BMC of the contralateral articular cap region, providing significantly better correlation (R 2  = 0.53) compared to a previously proposed clinical density measure (R 2  = 0.30). BMC had consistently, but not significantly stronger correlations with failure than BMD. The overall best results were obtained with the ipsilateral HR-pQCT-based local BMC (R 2  = 0.74) that may be used for implant optimization. Strong correlations were found between the corresponding density measures of the two CT image sources, as well as between the two sides. Future studies should investigate if BMC of the contralateral articular cap region could provide improved prediction of clinical fixation failure compared to previously proposed measures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Catchment model regionalization approach based on spatial proximity: Does a neighbor catchment-based rainfall input strengthen the method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Drogue

    2016-12-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Results show that when streamflow is known at the outlet of a catchment, optimal rainfall input for a lumped catchment model is mostly computed with a subset of raingages. When streamflow is unkown at the outlet of a catchment, a regionalisation approach of model parameter values based on spatial proximity is not able to take advantage of a neighbor-catchment based knowledge of optimal rainfall input. This report encourages to search for a catchment model regionalization approach based on spatial proximity which makes no explicit use of measured rainfall to estimate streamflow at an ungauged location.

  17. Research on Proximity Magnetic Field Influence in Measuring Error of Active Electronic Current Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Weijiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of the active electronic current transformer (ECT are introduced, and the mechanism of how a proximity magnetic field can influence the measuring of errors is analyzed from the perspective of the sensor section of the ECT. The impacts on active ECTs created by three-phase proximity magnetic field with invariable distance and variable distance are simulated and analyzed. The theory and simulated analysis indicate that the active ECTs are sensitive to proximity magnetic field under certain conditions. According to simulated analysis, a product structural design and the location of transformers at substation sites are suggested for manufacturers and administration of power supply, respectively.

  18. Proximity graphs based multi-scale image segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skurikhin, Alexei N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel multi-scale image segmentation approach based on irregular triangular and polygonal tessellations produced by proximity graphs. Our approach consists of two separate stages: polygonal seeds generation followed by an iterative bottom-up polygon agglomeration into larger chunks. We employ constrained Delaunay triangulation combined with the principles known from the visual perception to extract an initial ,irregular polygonal tessellation of the image. These initial polygons are built upon a triangular mesh composed of irregular sized triangles and their shapes are ad'apted to the image content. We then represent the image as a graph with vertices corresponding to the polygons and edges reflecting polygon relations. The segmentation problem is then formulated as Minimum Spanning Tree extraction. We build a successive fine-to-coarse hierarchy of irregular polygonal grids by an iterative graph contraction constructing Minimum Spanning Tree. The contraction uses local information and merges the polygons bottom-up based on local region-and edge-based characteristics.

  19. A device for in vivo measurements of quantitative ultrasound variables at the human proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkmann, Reinhard; Laugier, Pascal; Moser, Urs; Dencks, Stefanie; Klausner, Michael; Padilla, Frédéric; Haïat, Guilleaume; Glüer, Claus-C

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the calcaneus has similar power as a bone mineral density (BMD)- measurement using DXA for the prediction of osteoporotic fracture risk. Ultrasound equipment is less expensive than DXA and free of ionizing radiation. As a mechanical wave, QUS has the potential of measuring different bone properties than dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA,) which depends on X-ray attenuation and might be developed into a tool of comprehensive assessment of bone strength. However, site-specific DXA at the proximal femur shows best performance in the prediction of hip fractures. To combine the potential of QUS with measurements directly at the femur, we developed a device for in vivo QUS measurements at this site. Methods comprise ultrasound transmission through the bone, reflection from the bone surface, and backscatter from the inner trabecular structure. The complete area of the proximal femur can be scanned except at the femoral head, which interferes with the ilium. To avoid edge artifacts, a subregion of the proximal femur in the trochanteric region was selected as measurement region. First, in vivo measurements demonstrate a good signal to noise ratio and proper depiction of the proximal femur on an attenuation image. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo measurements. Further improvements can be expected by refinement of the scanning technique and data evaluation method to enhance the potential of the new method for the estimation of bone strength.

  20. Capturing knowledge integration through collaborations: measures of the diversity and coherence in multiple proximity dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, F.; Rafols, I.; Hopkins, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to determine changes that occur as a result of collaborations that is intended to support knowledge integration. The approach combines and applies indicators of proximity, diversity, coherence and has potential applications in the study and evaluation of research collaborations. The scientometric literature has been exploring the topic of knowledge integration and interdisciplinarity for more than a decade (Bordons, 2004; Zitt, 2005; Rafols, 2014). The paper builds on the line of research that seeks to develop measures of knowledge integration, namely diversity and coherence (Rafols, 2014). Successful exchange and integration of knowledge through collaboration not only requires disciplinary or cognitive diversity, as previously studied in the scientometric literature (Rafols & Meyer, 2009; Rafols, 2014) but also other dimensions linked to the social, cultural background of the individuals involved. Economic geographers have developed a framework, the proximity framework (Boschma, 2005), identifying five features that may be important for collaborative learning which are: cognitive, social, geographical, institutional, and organisational proximities. The paper therefore proposes to use the diversity and coherence measures to not only look at diversity from a cognitive standpoint, but also apply it to the other proximities proposed in the Boschma framework. These indicators will capture the relationship occurring betweenindividuals taking part in the research and the categories (proximity dimensions) that they are associated to. This paper reviews and integrates concepts from economic geography with the scientometric literature on interdisciplinarity to form a conceptual framework that the paper applies to an illustrative case study. In order to apply the framework, the paper develops indicators for diversity and coherence that can be applied to each of Boschma’s five proximities. The illustrative case study looks at

  1. Cloud-based data-proximate visualization and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ward

    2017-04-01

    The rise in cloud computing, coupled with the growth of "Big Data", has lead to a migration away from local scientific data storage. The increasing size of remote scientific data sets increase, however, makes it difficult for scientists to subject them to large-scale analysis and visualization. These large datasets can take an inordinate amount of time to download; subsetting is a potential solution, but subsetting services are not yet ubiquitous. Data providers may also pay steep prices, as many cloud providers meter data based on how much data leaves their cloud service. The solution to this problem is a deceptively simple one; move data analysis and visualization tools to the cloud, so that scientists may perform data-proximate analysis and visualization. This results in increased transfer speeds, while egress costs are lowered or completely eliminated. The challenge now becomes creating tools which are cloud-ready. The solution to this challenge is provided by Application Streaming. This technology allows a program to run entirely on a remote virtual machine while still allowing for interactivity and dynamic visualizations. When coupled with containerization technology such as Docker, we are able to easily deploy legacy analysis and visualization software to the cloud whilst retaining access via a desktop, netbook, a smartphone, or the next generation of hardware, whatever it may be. Unidata has harnessed Application Streaming to provide a cloud-capable version of our visualization software, the Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). This work will examine the challenges associated with adapting the IDV to an application streaming platform, and include a brief discussion of the underlying technologies involved.

  2. Proximity focusing RICH detector based on multilayer silica aerogel radiator

    CERN Document Server

    De Leo, R; Bellunato, T; Calvi, M; Cisbani, E; Cusanno, F; Garibaldi, F; Lagamba, L; Marra, M; Marrone, S; Matteuzzi, C; Musico, P; Nappi, E; Perego, D L; Torrioli, S; Vilardi, I

    2010-01-01

    The performance of a proximity focusing Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector equipped with a radiator of silica aerogel is presented. The aerogel tile used is a monolith with variable index of refraction. Cherenkov photons are detected with high granularity by eight Hamamatsu H9500 flat panel multi anode phototubes.

  3. Radiographic technique and brackets affect measurements of proximal enamel thickness on mandibular incisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ang, Amy Giok Phing; Steegmans, Pauline Antoinette Josephine; Kerdijk, Wouter; Livas, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of radiographic film and tube positioning, the presence and the size of brackets on in vitro measurements of proximal enamel thickness of mandibular incisors on periapical radiographs aimed to aid planning of interproximal enamel reduction procedures in

  4. Proximity detector circuits: an attractive alternative to tunnel diode oscillators for contactless measurements in pulsed magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altarawneh, Moaz M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mielke, Charles H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    A new radio frequency oscillator circuit based on a proximity detector integrated circuit is described as an alternative for the traditional tunnel diode oscillator used for pulsed magnetic field measurements at low temperatures. The new circuit has been successfully applied to measure the superconducting upper critical field in Ba{sub 0.55}K{sub 0.45}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystfl.ls up to 60 T. The new circuit design avoids many of the problems associated with tunnel diode circuits while keeping the advantages of contact less measurements in pulsed magnets.

  5. A Tissue Propagation Model for Validating Close-Proximity Biomedical Radiometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Q.; Herzig, P.; Weller, T.

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of thermally-generated electromagnetic emissions through stratified human tissue is studied herein using a non-coherent mathematical model. The model is developed to complement subsurface body temperature measurements performed using a close proximity microwave radiometer. The model takes into account losses and reflections as thermal emissions propagate through the body, before being emitted at the skin surface. The derivation is presented in four stages and applied to the human core phantom, a physical representation of a stomach volume of skin, muscle, and blood-fatty tissue. A drop in core body temperature is simulated via the human core phantom and the response of the propagation model is correlated to the radiometric measurement. The results are comparable, with differences on the order of 1.5 - 3%. Hence the plausibility of core body temperature extraction via close proximity radiometry is demonstrated, given that the electromagnetic characteristics of the stratified tissue layers are known.

  6. Effects of the proximity of groundwater level on short and long normal logging measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Myung Jin; Hwang, Seho

    2010-05-01

    Resistivity logging instruments were designed to measure electrical resistivity of formation, which can be directly interpreted to provide water-saturation profile. Using short and long normal logging, Korea institute of geosciences and mineral resources (KIGAM) has monitored seawater intrusion in a coastal aquifer, Yeonggwang, Jeonnam, Korea, and groundwater distribution in Korea including Jeju Island. Short and long normal logging measurements are made under groundwater level. In some investigation sites, groundwater level reaches to a depth of a few hundred meters. It has come to attention that the proximity of groundwater level might distort short and long normal logging readings, when the measurements are made near groundwater level, owing to the proximity of an insulating air. In this study, to investigate the effects of the proximity of groundwater level (and also the proximity of earth surface) on short and long normal logging measurements, we simulate normal logging measurements near groundwater level. In the simulation, we consider all the details of real logging situation, i.e., the presence of wellbore including casing, the tool mandrel with current and monitoring electrodes, and current return and reference potential electrodes. We also model the air to include the earth's surface in the simulation rather than the customary choice of imposing a boundary condition. To compute the voltage at a monitoring electrode, we subtract the potential at a reference potential electrode from the potential at the monitoring electrode. Note that the actual tool also measures the voltage, i.e., the difference of potential at a monitoring electrode with respect to the potential at the reference potential electrode. The simulation is challenging since we have large contrast in dimension (the large computation domain, which can be several kilometers, and small size of an electrode, which is several centimeters) and in resistivity (the resistivity of conductive electrode

  7. QCT of the proximal femur--which parameters should be measured to discriminate hip fracture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museyko, O; Bousson, V; Adams, J; Laredo, J -D; Engelke, K

    2016-03-01

    For quantitative computed tomography (QCT), most relevant variables to discriminate hip fractures were determined. A multivariate analysis showed that trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) of the trochanter with "cortical" thickness of the neck provided better fracture discrimination than total hip integral BMD. A slice-by-slice analysis of the neck or the inclusion of strength-based parameters did not improve fracture discrimination. For QCT of the proximal femur, a large variety of analysis parameters describing bone mineral density, geometry, or strength has been considered. However, in each given study, generally just a small subset was used. The aim of this study was to start with a comprehensive set and then select a best subset of QCT parameters for discrimination of subjects with and without acute osteoporotic hip fractures. The analysis was performed using the population of the European Femur Fracture (EFFECT) study (Bousson et al. J Bone Min Res: Off J Am Soc Bone Min Res 26:881-893, 2011). Fifty-six female control subjects (age 73.2 ± 9.3 years) were compared with 46 female patients (age 80.9 ± 11.1 years) with acute hip fractures. The QCT analysis software MIAF-Femur was used to virtually dissect the proximal femur and analyze more than 1000 parameters, predominantly in the femoral neck. A multivariate best-subset analysis was used to extract the parameters best discriminating hip fractures. All results were adjusted for age, height, and weight differences between the two groups. For the discrimination of all proximal hip fractures as well as for cervical fractures alone, the measurement of neck parameters suffices (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.84). Parameters characterizing bone strength are discriminators of hip fractures; however, in multivariate models, only "cortical" cross-sectional area in the neck center remained as a significant contributor. The combination of one BMD parameter, trabecular BMD of the trochanter, and one geometry

  8. Model-based estimation of quantitative ultrasound variables at the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencks, Stefanie; Barkmann, Reinhard; Padilla, Frédéric; Laugier, Pascal; Schmitz, Georg; Glüer, Claus-C

    2008-01-01

    To improve the prediction of the osteoporotic fracture risk at the proximal femur we are developing a scanner for quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements at this site. Due to multipath transmission in this complex shaped bone, conventional signal processing techniques developed for QUS measurements at peripheral sites frequently fail. Therefore, we propose a model-based estimation of the QUS variables and analyze the performance of the new algorithm. Applying the proposed method to QUS scans of excised proximal femurs increased the fraction of evaluable signals from approx. 60% (using conventional algorithms) to 97%. The correlation of the standard QUS variables broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) with the established variable bone mineral density (BMD) reported in previous studies is maintained (BUA/BMD: r(2) = 0.69; SOS/BMD: r(2) = 0.71; SOS+BUA/BMD: r(2) = 0.88). Additionally, different wave types could be clearly detected and characterized in the trochanteric region. The ability to separate superimposed signals with this approach opens up further diagnostic potential for evaluating waves of different sound paths and wave types through bone tissue.

  9. Correspondence of perceived vs. objective proximity to parks and their relationship to park-based physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczynski Andrew T

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parks are key environmental resources for encouraging population-level physical activity (PA. In measuring availability of parks, studies have employed both self-reported and objective indicators of proximity, with little correspondence observed between these two types of measures. However, little research has examined how the degree of correspondence between self-reported and objectively-measured distance to parks is influenced by individual, neighborhood, and park-related variables, or which type of measure is more strongly related to physical activity outcomes. Methods We used data from 574 respondents who reported the distance to their closest park and compared this with objective measurements of proximity to the closest park. Both indicators were dichotomized as having or not having a park within 750 m. Audits of all park features within this distance were also conducted and other personal characteristics and neighborhood context variables (safety, connectedness, aesthetics were gleaned from participants' survey responses. Participants also completed detailed seven-day PA log booklets from which measures of neighborhood-based and park-based PA were derived. Results Agreement was poor in that only 18% of respondents achieved a match between perceived and objective proximity to the closest park (kappa = 0.01. Agreement was higher among certain subgroups, especially those who reported engaging in at least some park-based PA. As well, respondents with a greater number of parks nearby, whose closest park had more features, and whose closest park contained a playground or wooded area were more likely to achieve a match. Having a ball diamond or soccer field in the closest park was negatively related to achieving a match between perceived and objective proximity. Finally, engaging in at least some park-based PA was not related to either perceived or objective proximity to a park, but was more likely when a match between and

  10. Thickness of extensor tendons at the proximal intersection: sonographic measurements in asymptomatic volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaanse, Ernst; Jager, Tjeerd; Lenchik, Leon; Buls, Nico; Van Hedent, Eddy; De Maeseneer, Michel

    2014-12-01

    An important sign of proximal intersection syndrome is thickening of the tendons at the area where the first extensor compartment tendons cross over the second compartment. Normal values for the thickness of the tendons have not been reported. Our purpose was to measure the thickness of the tendons with sonography at the level of the intersection in healthy volunteers and assess differences between men and women, dominant and nondominant sides, and different tendons. Forty-one asymptomatic volunteers (25 women and 16 men) were examined by 2 radiologists experienced in musculoskeletal sonography. The thickness of the tendons in the first and second compartments was measured at their intersection at standardized proximal and distal levels. Descriptive statistics were obtained. Differences between men and women, dominant and nondominant sides, and different tendons were evaluated by a Student t test. The 95% confidence intervals for measurements of superimposed tendon groups varied between 0.30 and 0.40 cm in women and between 0.36 and 0.48 cm in men. There were no statistically significant differences in comparisons of the different tendon groups (P > .05). There were statistically significant differences (P measurement) and extensor carpi radialis brevis + extensor pollicis brevis (distal measurement). On comparison of dominant and nondominant sides, there were no statistically significant differences. Normal tendon thickness should be between 0.30 and 0.40 cm in women and 0.36 and 0.48 cm in men. A comparison between asymptomatic and symptomatic sides and proximal and distal measurements is recommended. © 2013 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. A Line-Search-Based Partial Proximal Alternating Directions Method for Separable Convex Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-hua Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an appealing line-search-based partial proximal alternating directions (LSPPAD method for solving a class of separable convex optimization problems. These problems under consideration are common in practice. The proposed method solves two subproblems at each iteration: one is solved by a proximal point method, while the proximal term is absent from the other. Both subproblems admit inexact solutions. A line search technique is used to guarantee the convergence. The convergence of the LSPPAD method is established under some suitable conditions. The advantage of the proposed method is that it provides the tractability of the subproblem in which the proximal term is absent. Numerical tests show that the LSPPAD method has better performance compared with the existing alternating projection based prediction-correction (APBPC method if both are employed to solve the described problem.

  12. In vivo measurements of ultrasound transmission through the human proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkmann, Reinhard; Laugier, Pascal; Moser, Urs; Dencks, Stefanie; Klausner, Michael; Padilla, Frédéric; Haiat, Guillaume; Heller, Martin; Glüer, Claus-C

    2008-07-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements can be used to estimate osteoporotic fracture risk. The commonly used variables are the speed of sound (SOS) and the frequency dependent sound attenuation (broadband ultrasound attenuation, [BUA]) of a wave propagating through the bone, preferably the calcaneus. The technology, so far, is less suitable for direct measurement in vivo at the spine or the femur for prediction of bone mineral density (BMD) or fracture risk at the main osteoporotic fracture sites. To improve the clinical performance of QUS, we built a device for direct QUS measurements at the human femur in vivo. In vivo images of ultrasound transmission at one of the main fracture sites, the proximal femur, could be acquired. The estimated precision of SOS measurements of 0.5% achieved at the femur is comparable with the precision of peripheral QUS devices.

  13. Participation of osteoporosis in femoral neck fracture; Bone mineral measurement of proximal femur using quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Naoto (Gifu Prefectural Tajimi Hospital (Japan))

    1989-10-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was used to measure bone mineral contents of the proximal femur. First, 62 specimens of cancellous bones of the proximal femur obtained at operation were burnt for mineral determination after preoperative QCT measurement to evaluate the relationship between QCT values and ash weight. The findings indicated that QCT measurement of proximal femur was as useful as that of the lumbar spine. Next, 10 groups of 50 men and 50 women ranging in age from the 5th to the 9th decade were tested to define the control mean and range of QCT mineral content of proximal femur, to compare with 32 cases of femoral neck fracture. In women with femoral neck fracture, QCT values of the femoral neck were less than those of the same normal age group except for cases of medial fracture in the 9th decade. This measurement might provide an index for fracture risk. (author).

  14. Context-Aware Community Construction in Proximity-Based Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensor-equipped mobile devices have allowed users to participate in various social networking services. We focus on proximity-based mobile social networking environments where users can share information obtained from different places via their mobile devices when they are in proximity. Since people are more likely to share information if they can benefit from the sharing or if they think the information is of interest to others, there might exist community structures where users who share information more often are grouped together. Communities in proximity-based mobile networks represent social groups where connections are built when people are in proximity. We consider information influence (i.e., specify who shares information with whom as the connection and the space and time related to the shared information as the contexts. To model the potential information influences, we construct an influence graph by integrating the space and time contexts into the proximity-based contacts of mobile users. Further, we propose a two-phase strategy to detect and track context-aware communities based on the influence graph and show how the context-aware community structure improves the performance of two types of mobile social applications.

  15. Proximity effect on the general base catalysed hydrolysis of amide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A constant value of absorbance could not be achieved even after 3 days. However, independent measurements. (by mixing the corresponding amines, salicylic acid and. NaOH, I = 0.5 mol dm. −3) showed that a reaction mix- ture for the complete hydrolysis of the amides (I–IV) to the corresponding amines and salicylate had ...

  16. Measurement of hepatic insulin sensitivity early after the bypass of the proximal small bowel in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miras, A D; Herring, R; Vusirikala, A; Shojaee-Moradi, F; Jackson, N C; Chandaria, S; Jackson, S N; Goldstone, A P; Hakim, N; Patel, A G; Umpleby, A M; Le Roux, C W

    2017-03-01

    Unlike gastric banding or sleeve gastrectomy procedures, intestinal bypass procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in particular, lead to rapid improvements in glycaemia early after surgery. The bypass of the proximal small bowel may have weight loss and even caloric restriction-independent glucose-lowering properties on hepatic insulin sensitivity. In this first human mechanistic study, we examined this hypothesis by investigating the early effects of the duodeno-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL; GI Dynamics, USA) on the hepatic insulin sensitivity by using the gold standard euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp methodology. Seven patients with obesity underwent measurement of hepatic insulin sensitivity at baseline, 1 week after a low-calorie liquid diet and after a further 1 week following insertion of the DJBL whilst on the same diet. Duodeno-jejunal bypass liner did not improve the insulin sensitivity of hepatic glucose production beyond the improvements achieved with caloric restriction. Caloric restriction may be the predominant driver of early increases in hepatic insulin sensitivity after the endoscopic bypass of the proximal small bowel. The same mechanism may be at play after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and explain, at least in part, the rapid improvements in glycaemia.

  17. A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor based on cooperative sensing for robot skin applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Cai, Xia; Kan, Wenqing; Qiu, Shihua; Guo, Xiaohui; Liu, Caixia; Liu, Ping

    2017-08-01

    A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor has been designed and implemented, which is capable of combining capacitive-resistive detection in this paper. The capacitive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-C, and the resistive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-R. The characteristics of the proximity sensor are as follows: (1) the theoretical mode is developed which indicates that this proximity sensor can reflect proximity information accurately; (2) both sensing modes are vertically integrated into a sandwich-like chip with an 8 mm × 12 mm unit area. The thickness of a mode-R sensing material (graphene nanoplatelets) and mode-C dielectric (the mixture of carbon black and silicone rubber) is 1 mm and 2.5 mm, respectively; (3) for mode-R, the linearity of temperature-resistance curve can achieve 0.998 in the temperature range from 25°C to 65°C. And for mode-C, various materials can be successfully detected with fast response and high reversibility. Meanwhile, the study compensated the influence of object temperature to ensure mode-C properly works. A cooperative sensing test shows that R-C dual modes sense effectively which can enlarge the sensing distance compared with the single mode proximity sensor. The fabrication of this sensor is convenient, and the integrity of a flexible sandwich-like structure based on dual modes is beneficial to form arrays, which is suitable to be used in skin-like sensing applications.

  18. A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor based on cooperative sensing for robot skin applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Cai, Xia; Kan, Wenqing; Qiu, Shihua; Guo, Xiaohui; Liu, Caixia; Liu, Ping

    2017-08-01

    A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor has been designed and implemented, which is capable of combining capacitive-resistive detection in this paper. The capacitive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-C, and the resistive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-R. The characteristics of the proximity sensor are as follows: (1) the theoretical mode is developed which indicates that this proximity sensor can reflect proximity information accurately; (2) both sensing modes are vertically integrated into a sandwich-like chip with an 8 mm × 12 mm unit area. The thickness of a mode-R sensing material (graphene nanoplatelets) and mode-C dielectric (the mixture of carbon black and silicone rubber) is 1 mm and 2.5 mm, respectively; (3) for mode-R, the linearity of temperature-resistance curve can achieve 0.998 in the temperature range from 25  ° C to 65  ° C. And for mode-C, various materials can be successfully detected with fast response and high reversibility. Meanwhile, the study compensated the influence of object temperature to ensure mode-C properly works. A cooperative sensing test shows that R-C dual modes sense effectively which can enlarge the sensing distance compared with the single mode proximity sensor. The fabrication of this sensor is convenient, and the integrity of a flexible sandwich-like structure based on dual modes is beneficial to form arrays, which is suitable to be used in skin-like sensing applications.

  19. Prognosis-Based Shoulder Hemiarthroplasty After Resection of Proximal Humeral Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ming; Wu, Po-Kuei; Tsai, Shang-Wen; Chen, Cheng-Fong; Chen, Wei-Ming

    2017-07-19

    After wide excision of proximal humeral bony malignancy, prognosis-based reconstruction was performed at Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Bone prosthesis composite (BPC) was carried out among patients with a favored prognosis, while cement-spacer prosthesis composite (CSPC) was preserved for patients with poor prognosis. The aim of our study is to compare the clinical outcomes between the BPC and CSPC reconstruction procedures. From January 2000 to December 2014, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of 34 patients who underwent shoulder hemiarthroplasty following wide excision of a malignant lesion of the proximal humerus, 15 of whom were treated with a BPC reconstruction and 19 cases were treated with a CSPC reconstruction. The mean postoperative follow-up was 51.9 months for the BPC group and 29.0 months for the CSPC group. At the end of the study, four patients (two in the BPC group and two in the CSPC group) developed local recurrence. Thirteen patients (1 in the BPC group and 12 in the CSPC group) had died of disease progression. The postoperative visual analogue scale score of BPC and CSPC groups was similar (P = 0.262). Functional outcome, measured using the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score and shoulder range of motion, favored the BPC procedure (P BPC procedure (P BPC procedure, the CSPC procedure continues to be a safe and cost-effective shoulder hemiarthroplasty procedure for patients with low-demanding activities and when a poor disease prognosis is expected. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Performance of scintillation proximity assay (SPA) to measure the level of VEGFR 1 protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEE, So-Young; LIM, Jae-Cheong; KIM, Jin-Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Scintillation proximity assay is a one of radioimmunoassay and can be assayed without the washing or filtration procedures normally used to separate bound from free fractions. Due to its simplicity and high-throughput protocol, it is broadly applicable to immunology, receptor binding, monitoring receptor-ligand interactions and enzyme reactions. Briefly, an antibody or receptor is coated on SPA beads. When a radiolabeled antigen or ligand binds to the beads, the SPA beads stimulate to emit short range electrons. The {sup 3}H and {sup 125}I are commonly used for radiolabeling and the produced photons are detectable with a liquid scintillation counter (LSC). A binding affinity of unlabeled ligands can be determined by competitive reaction of the radiolabeled ligands. Bevacizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody, and can stop or delay growth of tumors by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Bevacizumab was approved by FDA for metastatic cancer such as colorectal cancers, ovarian cancers, breast cancers and glioblastoma multiform of the brain. Recently, Dan G. duda et al. was reported that the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) in plasma may potentially be used as a negative selection biomarker. In this study, we describe a method using scintillation proximity assay to detect the amounts of VEGFR-1 protein. This method is successfully used to measure the concentration of VEGFR-1 protein in human cell extracts. In summary, a simple and sensitive assay is developed for measuring the amount of VEGFR 1 protein in cancer cell lysate using SPA beads. The antibody coating on the beads and antigen binding are achieved in one mixing step.

  1. Proximally Based Anterolateral-Thigh (ALT) Flap for Knee Reconstruction: An Advancement Propeller Perforator Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenelli, Pierfrancesco; Bordoni, Daniele; Radaelli, Stefano; Marchesi, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Adequate coverage of the knee region is often challenging for plastic and orthopedic surgeons. In the last decade, among several reconstructive techniques, local perforator flaps have become useful reconstructive units. After a wide resection for soft-tissue sarcoma, the knee vascular web may be reasonably damaged and, consequently, perforator flaps based on a local pedicle [such as the distally based anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap] are not reliable. Thus, we harvested a proximally based ALT for knee coverage. A 52-year-old man underwent local radiation therapy and a wide resection of a soft-tissue sarcoma on the anterior-lateral aspect of the left knee, which resulted in a 15 × 10 cm defect. The defect was covered with a proximally based ALT, through an advancement and propeller relocation of its skin paddle. All margins were tumor free. After 5 days, the donor site was closed primarily because of edema. Neither necrosis of the flap nor dehiscence of the wound was detected. No local relapses were detected at 6-month follow-up. In case of soft-tissue defects of the knee region, with likely involvement of the local vascular web, a local perforator solution is the advancement and propeller proximally based ALT flap. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  2. Measuring substrate binding and affinity of purified membrane transport proteins using the scintillation proximity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Daniel; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2012-09-01

    The scintillation proximity assay (SPA) is a rapid radioligand binding assay. Upon binding of radioactively labeled ligands (here L-[(3)H]arginine or D-[(3)H]glucose) to acceptor proteins immobilized on fluoromicrospheres (containing the scintillant), a light signal is stimulated and measured. The application of SPA to purified, detergent-solubilized membrane transport proteins allows substrate-binding properties to be assessed (e.g., substrate specificity and affinity), usually within 1 d. Notably, the SPA makes it possible to study specific transporters without interference from other cellular components, such as endogenous transporters. Reconstitution of the target transporter into proteoliposomes is not required. The SPA procedure allows high sample throughput and simple sample handling without the need for washing or separation steps: components are mixed in one well and the signal is measured directly after incubation. Therefore, the SPA is an excellent tool for high-throughput screening experiments, e.g., to search for substrates and inhibitors, and it has also recently become an attractive tool for drug discovery.

  3. Optimization-based non-cooperative spacecraft pose estimation using stereo cameras during proximity operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limin; Zhu, Feng; Hao, Yingming; Pan, Wang

    2017-05-20

    Pose estimation for spacecraft is widely recognized as an important technology for space applications. Many space missions require accurate relative pose between the chaser and the target spacecraft. Stereo-vision is a usual mean to estimate the pose of non-cooperative targets during proximity operations. However, the uncertainty of stereo-vision measurement is still an outstanding issue that needs to be solved. With binocular structure and the geometric structure of the object, we present a robust pose estimation method for non-cooperative spacecraft. Because the solar panel can provide strict geometry constraints, our approach takes the corner points of which as features. After stereo matching, an optimization-based method is proposed to estimate the relative pose between the two spacecraft. Simulation results show that our method improves the precision and robustness of pose estimation. Our system improves the performance with maximum 3D localization error less than 5% and relative rotation angle error less than 1°. Our laboratory experiments further validate the method.

  4. Self-perceptions of proximal stability as measured by the functional movement screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Thomas G; Howell, Dana M; Mattacola, Carl G; Viele, Kert

    2013-08-01

    This mixed method study was designed to investigate self-perceptions before and after experiencing an activity that dynamically and statically challenges proximal stability of the pelvis, spine, and trunk. Twenty-eight, healthy Division II female soccer and volleyball collegiate players (17 soccer, 11 volleyball) completed a self-reported Tegner activity scale, pretest questionnaire and posttest interview. A self-perceived numeric rating of the athletes' proximal stability and performance on a functional movement screen (FMS) were recorded. A guided interview was used to examine the self-perceptions of proximal stability after the FMS testing session. Differences and correlations between the pretest and posttest ratings of proximal stability and FMS scores were analyzed using a 1-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Spearman's rank order correlation test, respectively. Residual standard error from a 1-way analysis of variance was used to explore the association between variables. Qualitative data were recorded and transcribed. There were significant differences between the pretest (3.4 ± 0.63) and posttest ratings (3.1 ± 0.49) of proximal stability (p = 0.01). The relationship between the pretest proximal stability ratings and the FMS scores was low (r = 0.19, p = 0.33), whereas posttest rating and FMS scores had a moderately high (r = 0.68, p = 0.00) correlation. There was a smaller residual standard error for the posttest ratings (1.7) when compared with the pretest ratings (3.2) with the FMS. Four qualitative themes emerged: (a) wanting to do well, (b) expectations of performance, (c) focused mental mindset, and (d) body control. Self-perceptions of proximal stability in female athletes were influenced by undergoing a test that stressed the proximal stabilizers. Combining assessments of self-perceptions and proximal stability may assist clinicians and athletes in targeting components of training.

  5. European Proximity Operations Simulator 2.0 (EPOS - A Robotic-Based Rendezvous and Docking Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Benninghoff

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Proximity Operations Simulator (EPOS 2.0 located at the German Space Operations Center (GSOC in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, is a robotic based test facility of the German Aerospace Center (DLR used for simulation of rendezvous and docking (RvD processes. Hardware such as rendezvous sensors (cameras, laser scanners or docking tools, as well as software (e.g. for navigation and control can be tested and verified. The facility consists of two robotic manipulators with each six degrees of freedom, a linear slide of 25m length on which one robot can be moved in the laboratory, and a computer-based monitoring and control system. EPOS 2.0 allows for real-time simulations of the rendezvous and docking process during the most critical phase (separation from 25m to 0m of proximity and docking/berthing operations.

  6. European Proximity Operations Simulator 2.0 (EPOS) - A Robotic-Based Rendezvous and Docking Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Heike Benninghoff; Florian Rems; Eicke-Alexander Risse; Christian Mietner

    2017-01-01

    The European Proximity Operations Simulator (EPOS) 2.0 located at the German Space Operations Center (GSOC) in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, is a robotic based test facility of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) used for simulation of rendezvous and docking (RvD) processes. Hardware such as rendezvous sensors (cameras, laser scanners) or docking tools, as well as software (e.g. for navigation and control) can be tested and verified. The facility consists of two robotic manipulators with each six ...

  7. A new scintillation proximity assay-based approach for the detection of KRAS mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So-Young; Lim, Jae-Cheong; Cho, Eun-Ha; Jung, Sung-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Radioisotope Research Div.

    2016-04-01

    KRAS is very commonly mutated resulting in a constitutively activated protein, which is independent of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand binding and resistant to anti-EGFR therapy. Although KRAS is frequently studied, there is still no uniform standard for detecting of KRAS mutations. In this report, a new scintillation proximity assay-based approach is described that determines the relative affinities of wild-type and mutated KRAS to the anti-KRAS antibody. We performed in vitro experiments using normal human colonic cells (CCD18Co), KRAS wild type (Caco-2) and KRAS mutant (HCT 116) cell lines to determine the relative affinities of wild type or mutated KRAS toward an anti-KRAS monoclonal antibody. The process consists of two primary steps: immunoprecipitation from cell lysate to enrich the KRAS protein and the scintillation proximity assay of the immunoprecipitant to determine the relative affinity against the antibody. A fixed concentration of cell lysates was purified by the immunoprecipitation method. The expressions of the KRAS protein in all cell lines was quantitatively confirmed by western blot analysis. For the scintillation proximity assay, the KRAS standard protein was radiolabeled with {sup 125}I by a simple mixing process in the iodogen tube immediately at room temperature immediately before use. The obtained CPM (count per minute) values of were used to calculate the KRAS concentration using purified KRAS as the standard. The calculated relative affinities of 7 μg of Caco-2 and HCT 116 immunoprecipitants for the anti-KRAS antibody were 77 and 0%, respectively. The newly developed scintillation proximity assay-based strategy determines the relative affinities of wild-type or mutated KRAS towards the anti-KRAS monoclonal antibody. This determination can help distinguish mutated KRAS from the wild type protein. The new SPA based approach for detecting KRAS mutations is applicable to many other cancer-related mutations.

  8. Comparison of diagnostic ability of storage phosphor plate in detecting proximal caries with direct measurement by stereomicroscope: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velayudhannair Vivek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiography plays an important role in detection of interproximal caries. The aim of study is to compare diagnostic ability of photo stimulable phosphor (PSP with direct measurement using stereomicroscope in detecting proximal caries. Hundred proximal surfaces of 50 extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed with dental X-ray unit. The image receptors used was storage phosphor plate Vista scan (size 2, (time of exposure 0.4 s. Radiographs were interpreted and caries lesions were classified on a 4-point scale suggested by Abesi et al. The teeth were sectioned with diamond disc and were examined under a stereomicroscope with 20x magnification. Diagnostic accuracy of digital image is similar to that observed with stereomicroscope. The PSP plate digital X ray system can effectively be employed for detecting proximal caries as compared to direct observation by stereomicroscope. Further study with more number of observer/evaluator and large sample size is recommended.

  9. Comparison of Diagnostic Ability of Storage Phosphor Plate in Detecting Proximal Caries with Direct Measurement by Stereomicroscope: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Velayudhannair; Thomas, Sunila; Nair, Bindu J; Vineet, Alex Daniel; Thomas, Jincy; Ranimol, Prasanna; Vijayan, Aswathy K

    2015-09-28

    Radiography plays an important role in detection of interproximal caries. The aim of study is to compare diagnostic ability of photo stimulable phosphor (PSP) with direct measurement using stereomicroscope in detecting proximal caries. Hundred proximal surfaces of 50 extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed with dental X-ray unit. The image receptors used was storage phosphor plate Vista scan (size 2), (time of exposure 0.4 s). Radiographs were interpreted and caries lesions were classified on a 4-point scale suggested by Abesi et al. The teeth were sectioned with diamond disc and were examined under a stereomicroscope with 20x magnification. Diagnostic accuracy of digital image is similar to that observed with stereomicroscope. The PSP plate digital X ray system can effectively be employed for detecting proximal caries as compared to direct observation by stereomicro-scope. Further study with more number of observer/evaluator and large sample size is recommended.

  10. Bringing Technology to Students’ Proximity: A Sociocultural Account of Technology-Based Learning Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evode Mukama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper depicts a study carried out in Rwanda concerning university students who participated in a contest to produce short documentary films. The purpose of this research is to conceptualize these kinds of technology-based learning projects (TBLPs through a sociocultural perspective. The methodology included focus-group discussions and field notes to collect empirical data. The findings reveal that the more educational technologies capture objects of learning positioned in the students’ sociocultural proximity, the more focused the learners’ attention is on these objects. The study shows also that a change in learning projects may depend to a large extent on whether the technology relates to the students’ sociocultural proximity, that is, taking into consideration students’ physical, cultural, and contextual real world. The study recommends a community of learning/inquiry embedded in a collaborative, problem-solving dynamic involving cognitive support from peers, teachers, external specialists, and the wider community.

  11. First principles based proximity effect of superconductor-normal metal heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csire, Gábor; Cserti, József; Újfalussy, Balázs

    2016-12-14

    In this paper we study the proximity effect in superconductor-normal metal heterostructures based on first principles calculations with treating the pairing potential as an adjustable parameter. The superconducting order parameter (anomalous density) is obtained from the Green-function by solving the Kohn-Sham-Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations with the Screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method. The results are interpreted for an Au/Nb(0 0 1) system. The layer resolved anomalous spectral function is also obtained which is closely related to the superconducting order parameter. We find that the anomalous spectral function has the fingerprint of the Andreev scattering process and it is connected to the electron-hole ratio of the quasiparticle states. We also show that the proximity effect can be understood via the anomalous spectral function.

  12. Proximal Remote Sensing Buggies and Potential Applications for Field-Based Phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Deery

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The achievements made in genomic technology in recent decades are yet to be matched by fast and accurate crop phenotyping methods. Such crop phenotyping methods are required for crop improvement efforts to meet expected demand for food and fibre in the future. This review evaluates the role of proximal remote sensing buggies for field-based phenotyping with a particular focus on the application of currently available sensor technology for large-scale field phenotyping. To illustrate the potential for the development of high throughput phenotyping techniques, a case study is presented with sample data sets obtained from a ground-based proximal remote sensing buggy mounted with the following sensors: LiDAR, RGB camera, thermal infra-red camera and imaging spectroradiometer. The development of such techniques for routine deployment in commercial-scale breeding and pre-breeding operations will require a multidisciplinary approach to leverage the recent technological advances realised in computer science, image analysis, proximal remote sensing and robotics.

  13. Capacitive proximity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  14. Predicting ischemic stroke after carotid artery stenting based on proximal calcification and the jellyfish sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Nobuhiko; Hama, Seiji; Tsuji, Toshio; Soh, Zu; Hayashi, Hideaki; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Okazaki, Takahito; Ishii, Daizo; Shinagawa, Katsuhiro; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2017-07-07

    OBJECTIVE Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has been considered to prevent ischemic strokes caused by stenosis of the cervical carotid artery. The most common complication of CAS is new cerebral infarction. The authors have previously reported that the jellyfish sign-the rise and fall of the mobile component of the carotid plaque surface detected by carotid ultrasonography-suggests thinning and rupture of the fibrous cap over the unstable plaque content, such as the lipid-rich necrotic core or internal plaque hemorrhage. The authors' aim in the present study was to evaluate the risk of a new ischemic lesion after CAS by using many risk factors including calcification (size and location) and the jellyfish sign. METHODS Eighty-six lesions (77 patients) were treated with CAS. The presence of ischemic stroke was determined using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Risk factors included calcification of the plaque (classified into 5 groups for size and 3 groups for location) and the jellyfish sign, among others. Multiple linear regression analysis (stepwise analysis and partial least squares [PLS] analysis) was conducted, followed by a machine learning analysis using an artificial neural network (ANN) based on the log-linearized gaussian mixture network (LLGMN). The additive effects of the jellyfish sign and calcification on ischemic stroke after CAS were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Steel-Dwass test. RESULTS The stepwise analysis selected the jellyfish sign, proximal calcification (proximal Ca), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and patient age for the prediction model to predict new DWI lesions. The PLS analysis revealed the same top 3 variables (jellyfish sign, proximal Ca, and LDL cholesterol) according to the variable importance in projection scores. The ANN was then used, showing that these 3 variables remained. The accuracy of the ANN improved; areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the stepwise analysis, the PLS

  15. [Accuracy of computer aided measurement for detecting dental proximal caries lesions in images of cone-beam computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z L; Li, J P; Li, G; Ma, X C

    2017-02-09

    Objective: To establish and validate a computer program used to aid the detection of dental proximal caries in the images cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Methods: According to the characteristics of caries lesions in X-ray images, a computer aided detection program for proximal caries was established with Matlab and Visual C++. The whole process for caries lesion detection included image import and preprocessing, measuring average gray value of air area, choosing region of interest and calculating gray value, defining the caries areas. The program was used to examine 90 proximal surfaces from 45 extracted human teeth collected from Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. The teeth were then scanned with a CBCT scanner (Promax 3D). The proximal surfaces of the teeth were respectively detected by caries detection program and scored by human observer for the extent of lesions with 6-level-scale. With histologic examination serving as the reference standard, the caries detection program and the human observer performances were assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Student t -test was used to analyze the areas under the ROC curves (AUC) for the differences between caries detection program and human observer. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to analyze the detection accuracy of caries depth. Results: For the diagnosis of proximal caries in CBCT images, the AUC values of human observers and caries detection program were 0.632 and 0.703, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the AUC values ( P= 0.023). The correlation between program performance and gold standard (correlation coefficient r (s)=0.525) was higher than that of observer performance and gold standard ( r (s)=0.457) and there was a statistically significant difference between the correlation coefficients ( P= 0.000). Conclusions: The program that automatically detects dental proximal caries lesions could improve the

  16. The risk assessment of pathological fracture in the proximal femur using a CT-based finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yusuke; Matsuo, Kosuke; Nezu, Yutaka; Kamiishi, Takayuki; Inaba, Yutaka; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2017-09-01

    Patients who have lytic bone lesions in their proximal femurs are at risk for pathological fracture. Lesions with high fracture risk are surgically treated using prophylactic osteosynthesis, whereas low-risk lesions are treated conservatively. However, it is difficult to discriminate between high- and low-risk lesions based on clinical and radiographic findings. The computed tomography (CT)-based finite element (FE) models are useful for predicting the fracture load on proximal femoral lytic lesions. FE models were constructed from the quantitative CT scans of the femurs using software that created individual bone shapes and density distributions. Three independent observers measured the lesion size, Mirels' score, and thickness of the proximal femur along the horizontal plane. The predictive risk values of the proximal femur measured using the CT-based FE analysis were statistically compared. The patients were divided into two groups (high and low risk). The mean fracture load was significantly higher in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group (5395 ± 525 N, 2622 ± 364 N, respectively, p = 0.0003). No significant differences in age, body weight, lesion size or Mirels' score were observed between groups. However, the thickness of the medial cortex in the high-risk group according to the FE analysis was significantly thinner than that in the low-risk group. Furthermore, the medial cortex thickness was positively correlated with the predicted fracture load. An optimal cut-off value of 3.67 mm for the thickness of the inner cortex resulted in 100% sensitivity and 75.1% specificity values for classifying the patients based on their fracture risk. Our findings indicate that the FE method is useful for the prediction of the pathological fracture. This method shows a versatile potential for the prediction of pathological fracture and might aid in judging the optimal treatment to prevent fracture. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association

  17. NMR-based urine analysis in rats: prediction of proximal tubule kidney toxicity and phospholipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Kai; Plötz, Thomas; Pestel, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    The aim of safety pharmacology is early detection of compound-induced side-effects. NMR-based urine analysis followed by multivariate data analysis (metabonomics) identifies efficiently differences between toxic and non-toxic compounds; but in most cases multiple administrations of the test compound are necessary. We tested the feasibility of detecting proximal tubule kidney toxicity and phospholipidosis with metabonomics techniques after single compound administration as an early safety pharmacology approach. Rats were treated orally, intravenously, inhalatively or intraperitoneally with different test compounds. Urine was collected at 0-8 h and 8-24 h after compound administration, and (1)H NMR-patterns were recorded from the samples. Variation of post-processing and feature extraction methods led to different views on the data. Support Vector Machines were trained on these different data sets and then aggregated as experts in an Ensemble. Finally, validity was monitored with a cross-validation study using a training, validation, and test data set. Proximal tubule kidney toxicity could be predicted with reasonable total classification accuracy (85%), specificity (88%) and sensitivity (78%). In comparison to alternative histological studies, results were obtained quicker, compound need was reduced, and very importantly fewer animals were needed. In contrast, the induction of phospholipidosis by the test compounds could not be predicted using NMR-based urine analysis or the previously published biomarker PAG. NMR-based urine analysis was shown to effectively predict proximal tubule kidney toxicity after single compound administration in rats. Thus, this experimental design allows early detection of toxicity risks with relatively low amounts of compound in a reasonably short period of time.

  18. On the convergence of a linesearch based proximal-gradient method for nonconvex optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonettini, S.; Loris, I.; Porta, F.; Prato, M.; Rebegoldi, S.

    2017-05-01

    We consider a variable metric linesearch based proximal gradient method for the minimization of the sum of a smooth, possibly nonconvex function plus a convex, possibly nonsmooth term. We prove convergence of this iterative algorithm to a critical point if the objective function satisfies the Kurdyka-Łojasiewicz property at each point of its domain, under the assumption that a limit point exists. The proposed method is applied to a wide collection of image processing problems and our numerical tests show that our algorithm results to be flexible, robust and competitive when compared to recently proposed approaches able to address the optimization problems arising in the considered applications.

  19. 'Timid encounters': a case study in the use of proximity-based technologies.

    OpenAIRE

    Licoppe, C; Inada, Yoriko

    2012-01-01

    We report a comparative ethnographic study of a proximity-based mobile “video game” (Dragon Quest 9) in Japan: the Nintendo DS game terminals may ‘recognize’ one another and allow players to exchange game resources when they are close to one another. Because different communication infrastructures are available, situations of encounter are shown to be potentially seamful and to support multi-layered participation frames. Our observations show a variety of encounter formats, among whom ‘timid’...

  20. Automated Solid-Phase Subcloning Based on Beads Brought into Proximity by Magnetic Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Elton P.; Nikoshkov, Andrej; Uhlén, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    and the gene are immobilized to separate paramagnetic beads and brought into proximity by magnetic force. Ligation events were directly evaluated using fluorescent-based microscopy and flow cytometry. The highest ligation efficiencies were obtained when gene- and vector-coated beads were brought into close...... contact by application of a magnet during the ligation step. An automated procedure was developed using a laboratory workstation to transfer genes into various expression vectors and more than 95% correct clones were obtained in a number of various applications. The method presented here is suitable...

  1. Clinical patterns in asthma based on proximal and distal airway nitric oxide categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aledia Anna S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exhaled nitric oxide (eNO signal is a marker of inflammation, and can be partitioned into proximal [J'awNO (nl/s, maximum airway flux] and distal contributions [CANO (ppb, distal airway/alveolar NO concentration]. We hypothesized that J'awNO and CANO are selectively elevated in asthmatics, permitting identification of four inflammatory categories with distinct clinical features. Methods In 200 consecutive children with asthma, and 21 non-asthmatic, non-atopic controls, we measured baseline spirometry, bronchodilator response, asthma control and morbidity, atopic status, use of inhaled corticosteroids, and eNO at multiple flows (50, 100, and 200 ml/s in a cross-sectional study design. A trumpet-shaped axial diffusion model of NO exchange was used to characterize J'awNO and CANO. Results J'awNO was not correlated with CANO, and thus asthmatic subjects were grouped into four eNO categories based on upper limit thresholds of non-asthmatics for J'awNO (≥ 1.5 nl/s and CANO (≥ 2.3 ppb: Type I (normal J'awNO and CANO, Type II (elevated J'awNO and normal CANO, Type III (elevated J'awNO and CANO and Type IV (normal J'awNO and elevated CANO. The rate of inhaled corticosteroid use (lowest in Type III and atopy (highest in Type II varied significantly amongst the categories influencing J'awNO, but was not related to CANO, asthma control or morbidity. All categories demonstrated normal to near-normal baseline spirometry; however, only eNO categories with increased CANO (III and IV had significantly worse asthma control and morbidity when compared to categories I and II. Conclusions J'awNO and CANO reveal inflammatory categories in children with asthma that have distinct clinical features including sensitivity to inhaled corticosteroids and atopy. Only categories with increase CANO were related to poor asthma control and morbidity independent of baseline spirometry, bronchodilator response, atopic status, or use of inhaled

  2. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid is measured in an apparatus comprising a variable wavelength coherent light source (16), a sample chamber (12), a wavelength controller (24), a light sensor (20), a data recorder (26) and a computation apparatus (28), by - directing...

  3. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...

  4. Roles of Renal Proximal Tubule Transport in Acid/Base Balance and Blood Pressure Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motonobu Nakamura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium-coupled bicarbonate absorption from renal proximal tubules (PTs plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of systemic acid/base balance. Indeed, mutations in the Na+-HCO3- cotransporter NBCe1, which mediates a majority of bicarbonate exit from PTs, cause severe proximal renal tubular acidosis associated with ocular and other extrarenal abnormalities. Sodium transport in PTs also plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure. For example, PT transport stimulation by insulin may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension associated with insulin resistance. Type 1 angiotensin (Ang II receptors in PT are critical for blood pressure homeostasis. Paradoxically, the effects of Ang II on PT transport are known to be biphasic. Unlike in other species, however, Ang II is recently shown to dose-dependently stimulate human PT transport via nitric oxide/cGMP/ERK pathway, which may represent a novel therapeutic target in human hypertension. In this paper, we will review the physiological and pathophysiological roles of PT transport.

  5. Estimating legal age based on fusion of The proximal humeral epiphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, María Benito; Codinha, Sónia; García, Alexandra Muñoz; Sánchez, José Antonio Sánchez

    2017-07-01

    The increasing demand which requires ascertaining the legal age of undocumented individuals who reach the various countries of the European Community means that new lines of research must be developed which help respond to questions posed by the Justice Administration. For this reason, this study has been designed on the basis of fusion times of the proximal humeral epiphysis. Moreover, the ultrasound scan has been used as the diagnostic method. It is a non-invasive technique, unlike the radiograph, which is used under current standards for the forensic diagnosis of age. Used as a study sample were the ultrasound images of the proximal humeral epiphysis among 221 individuals belonging to the Spanish population, of both genders, of ages ranging from 5 to 30 years. All of the images were classified into 6 stages of fusion based on the morphology of each. The results display differences among the six age groups proposed for each of the stages of fusion and are of great interest from the perspective of enforcing the Spanish Criminal Law Act on Minors, because Stage 4 would mean that the person being studied is under the age of 16 years in the case of males and 15 years in the case of females. These results, coupled with the use of ultrasound as a non-invasive diagnostic technique, make this study a very useful method when the use of radiographs is not possible.

  6. Tibia-based referencing for standard proximal tibial radiographs during intramedullary nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Choxi, Ankeet A; Dhulipala, Sravan C; Evans, Jason M; Mir, Hassan R

    2013-11-01

    Limited information exists to define standard tibial radiographs. The purpose of this study was to define new landmarks on the proximal tibia for standard anteroposterior and lateral radiographs. In 10 cadaveric knees, fibular head bisection was considered the anteroposterior image, and femoral condyle overlap the lateral image. In another 10 knees, a "twin peaks" anteroposterior view, showing the sharpest profile of the tibial spines, was used. The "flat plateau" lateral image was obtained by aligning the femoral condyles then applying a varus adjustment with overlap of the tibial plateaus. Medial peritendinous approaches were performed, and an entry reamer used to open the medullary canal. A priori analysis showed good to excellent intra-/inter-observer reliability with the new technique (intra-class correlation coefficient ICC 0.61-0.90). The "twin peaks" anteroposterior radiograph was externally rotated 2.7±2.1° compared to the standard radiograph with fibular head bisection. Portal position and incidence of damage to intra-articular structures did not significantly differ between groups (P>.05). The "twin peaks" anteroposterior view and "flat plateau" lateral view can safely be used for nail entry portal creation in the anatomic safe zone. Tibia-based radiographic referencing is useful for intramedullary nailing cases in which knee or proximal tibiofibular joint anatomy is altered.

  7. Identification of new cancer biomarkers based on aberrant mucin glycoforms by in situ proximity ligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Rita; Carvalho, Ana S; Conze, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Mucin glycoproteins are major secreted or membrane-bound molecules that, in cancer, show modifications in both the mucin proteins expression and in the O-glycosylation profile, generating some of the most relevant tumour markers in clinical use for decades. Thus far, the identification...... of these biomarkers has been based on the detection of either the protein or the O-glycan modifications. We therefore aimed to identify the combined mucin and O-glycan features, that is, specific glycoforms, in an attempt to increase specificity of these cancer biomarkers. Using in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA......) based on existing monoclonal antibodies directed to MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6 mucins and to cancer-associated carbohydrate antigens Tn, Sialyl-Tn (STn), T, Sialyl-Le(a) (SLe(a) ) and Sialyl-Le(x) (SLe(x) ) we screened a series of 28 mucinous adenocarcinomas from different locations (stomach, ampulla...

  8. Brain region's relative proximity as marker for Alzheimer's disease based on structural MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge Emil; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2014-01-01

    brain structures like hippocampus, this paper investigates the relationship and proximity between regions in the brain and uses this information as a novel way of classifying normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and AD subjects.METHODS:A longitudinal cohort of 528 subjects (170 NC, 240......BACKGROUND:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, incurable neurodegenerative disease and the most common type of dementia. It cannot be prevented, cured or drastically slowed, even though AD research has increased in the past 5-10 years. Instead of focusing on the brain volume or on the single...... MCI, and 114 AD) from ADNI at baseline and month 12 was studied. We investigated a marker based on Procrustes aligned center of masses and the percentile surface connectivity between regions. These markers were classified using a linear discriminant analysis in a cross validation setting and compared...

  9. Automated solid-phase subcloning based on beads brought into proximity by magnetic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Elton P; Nikoshkov, Andrej; Uhlen, Mathias; Rockberg, Johan

    2012-01-01

    In the fields of proteomics, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology there is a need for high-throughput and reliable cloning methods to facilitate construction of expression vectors and genetic pathways. Here, we describe a new approach for solid-phase cloning in which both the vector and the gene are immobilized to separate paramagnetic beads and brought into proximity by magnetic force. Ligation events were directly evaluated using fluorescent-based microscopy and flow cytometry. The highest ligation efficiencies were obtained when gene- and vector-coated beads were brought into close contact by application of a magnet during the ligation step. An automated procedure was developed using a laboratory workstation to transfer genes into various expression vectors and more than 95% correct clones were obtained in a number of various applications. The method presented here is suitable for efficient subcloning in an automated manner to rapidly generate a large number of gene constructs in various vectors intended for high throughput applications.

  10. Accuracy of Proximal Caries Depth Measurements: Comparison of Two Computed Cone Beam Tomography and Storage Phosphor Plate Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Şener

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of NewTom 9000 [cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT], Accu-I-Tomo [limited CBTC (LCBCT] and Digora Optime [storage phosphor plate (SPP] imaging systems in assessing the depths of defects with different shapes and sizes on the proximal surfaces of teeth. Materials and Methods: Thirty out of 50 incisive teeth with sound proximal surfaces were divided into three equal groups. Mechanical defects of different sizes and depths were created on their proximal surfaces and teeth were placed in acrylic blocks with approximal contacts. Radiographs of the blocks were obtained with CBCT, LCBCT and SPP systems. The depth measurements of 60 artificial defects were performed by 3 radiologists in the digital radiographs. The gold standard (true measure was defined as the mean of the 2 observers' measurements on the microscopic sections. Results from imaging systems and true depths were compared using Bland-Altman plots. The agreement was determined with intra-class correlation coefficient. Results: Maximum deviation from the true length in axial and sagittal slices of CBCT system was 2 mm [95% confidence interval (CI 2.60-0.60] and 1.5 mm (95% CI 0.30-2.30 respectively while the deviation of LCBCT was 0.66 mm (95% CI 0.53-2.22 and 0.37 mm (95% CI 0.50-2.25. The deviation from truth for SPP was 0.66 mm (95% CI 0.33-2.25. Correlation among observers was 0.487 and 0.700 respectively, for CBCT axial and sagittal slices; while it was 0.979 and 0.985 for LCBCT and 0.979 for SPP. Conclusion: Images obtained with the Accu-I-Tomo LCBCT system were more accurate than Newtom CBCT and Digora SPP system for measurement of caries lesion depth. Correlation among observers was higher for LCBCT and SPP systems compared with CBCT system.

  11. An improved Pearson's correlation proximity-based hierarchical clustering for mining biological association between genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booma, P M; Prabhakaran, S; Dhanalakshmi, R

    2014-01-01

    Microarray gene expression datasets has concerned great awareness among molecular biologist, statisticians, and computer scientists. Data mining that extracts the hidden and usual information from datasets fails to identify the most significant biological associations between genes. A search made with heuristic for standard biological process measures only the gene expression level, threshold, and response time. Heuristic search identifies and mines the best biological solution, but the association process was not efficiently addressed. To monitor higher rate of expression levels between genes, a hierarchical clustering model was proposed, where the biological association between genes is measured simultaneously using proximity measure of improved Pearson's correlation (PCPHC). Additionally, the Seed Augment algorithm adopts average linkage methods on rows and columns in order to expand a seed PCPHC model into a maximal global PCPHC (GL-PCPHC) model and to identify association between the clusters. Moreover, a GL-PCPHC applies pattern growing method to mine the PCPHC patterns. Compared to existing gene expression analysis, the PCPHC model achieves better performance. Experimental evaluations are conducted for GL-PCPHC model with standard benchmark gene expression datasets extracted from UCI repository and GenBank database in terms of execution time, size of pattern, significance level, biological association efficiency, and pattern quality.

  12. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature, a chirp in the local spatial frequency of interference fringes of an interference pattern is reduced by mathematical manipulation of the recorded light intensity...

  13. Reliability and Validity of an Observational Measure of Client Decision-Making: The Client Language Assessment - Proximal/Distal (CLA-PD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Molly; R Apodaca, Timothy; Karno, Mitchell; Gaume, Jacques; Durst, Ayla; Walthers, Justin; L Stout, Robert; DiClemente, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    The Client Language Assessment - Proximal/Distal (CLA-PD) is a language rating system for measuring client decision-making in interventions that target a specified behavior change (e.g., alcohol or other drug use). In the CLA-PD, there are five dimensions of change language (Reason, Ability, Commitment, Taking Steps, Other) adapted from the client portion of the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC). For the CLA-PD, language codes are sub-divided to discriminate statements regarding the primary, or target behavior change (distal change) from the intermediate coping activities (proximal change) that are prescribed to facilitate that target behavior change. The goal of the CLA-PD is to allow for higher specificity than existing client language measures, when process studies consider interventions that are multi-session and skill-based (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy). Three raters received 40 hours of training on the use of the CLA-PD. The data were a sample of therapy session audio-files from a completed clinical trial (N=126), which enabled examination of client language across four sessions (i.e., first three and final attended) of three evidence-based alcohol interventions (cognitive behavioral therapy, twelve-step facilitation therapy, motivational enhancement therapy). Inter-rater reliability results for summary scores showed "excellent" reliability for the measure. Specifically, two-way mixed intraclass coefficients ranged from .83 to .95. Internal consistency reliability showed alphas across sessions that ranged from "fair" to "good" (α=.74-.84). In convergent and discriminant validity analyses using data independently measured with MISC-based ratings, the pattern of results was as would be expected. Specifically, convergent correlations, by valence (i.e., change and sustain talk), between CLA-PD Distal and MISC-based language scores were moderate (r=.46-.55, planguage scores were small (r=.22-.24, p<.05). Finally, proportion Change Talk Proximal

  14. High operating temperature in V-based superconducting quantum interference proximity transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligato, Nadia; Marchegiani, Giampiero; Virtanen, Pauli; Strambini, Elia; Giazotto, Francesco

    2017-08-18

    Here we report the fabrication and characterization of fully superconducting quantum interference proximity transistors (SQUIPTs) based on the implementation of vanadium (V) in the superconducting loop. At low temperature, the devices show high flux-to-voltage (up to 0.52 mV/Φ 0 ) and flux-to-current (above 12 nA/Φ 0 ) transfer functions, with the best estimated flux sensitivity ~ 2.6 μΦ 0 /(Hz) 1/2 reached under fixed voltage bias, where Φ 0 is the flux quantum. The interferometers operate up to T bath   [Formula: see text] 2 K, with an improvement of 70% of the maximal operating temperature with respect to early SQUIPTs design. The main features of the V-based SQUIPT are described within a simplified theoretical model. Our results open the way to the realization of SQUIPTs that take advantage of the use of higher-gap superconductors for ultra-sensitive nanoscale applications that operate at temperatures well above 1 K.

  15. Vygotskian-based grouping: Utilizing the zone of proximal development in a chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggle, Justin David

    A large portion of any science major's curriculum utilizes laboratories. Many of these laboratories now incorporate cooperative learning as a result of studies attesting to its beneficial effects. However, little attention has been given to the composition of those groups, specifically at post-secondary education institutes. We have therefore investigated the effectiveness of a grouping technique based on the theories of L. S. Vygotsky and his construct of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) in the context of an undergraduate general chemistry laboratory course at The University of Texas at Austin. All students were responsible for the completion of a short, 11 question, pre-quiz. Depending on their respective classes, students were grouped either according to the ZPD-scheme, based on pre-quiz scores, or randomly, regardless of pre-quiz score. Achievement of the students in each of the two groups was compared in order to determine grouping effectiveness. This study was carried out for 3 semesters (spring 2003, spring 2004, and fall 2004) under two different instructors. Overall, results indicate that grouping according to the ZPD-scheme revealed higher student achievement versus random grouping. Moreover, students scoring low and average on pre-quizzes benefited far more from this grouping method than higher scoring students. The protocol for implementing this grouping scheme is straightforward and is discussed in detail.

  16. A proximity-based graph clustering method for the identification and application of transcription factor clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadafore, Maxwell; Najarian, Kayvan; Boyle, Alan P

    2017-11-29

    Transcription factors (TFs) form a complex regulatory network within the cell that is crucial to cell functioning and human health. While methods to establish where a TF binds to DNA are well established, these methods provide no information describing how TFs interact with one another when they do bind. TFs tend to bind the genome in clusters, and current methods to identify these clusters are either limited in scope, unable to detect relationships beyond motif similarity, or not applied to TF-TF interactions. Here, we present a proximity-based graph clustering approach to identify TF clusters using either ChIP-seq or motif search data. We use TF co-occurrence to construct a filtered, normalized adjacency matrix and use the Markov Clustering Algorithm to partition the graph while maintaining TF-cluster and cluster-cluster interactions. We then apply our graph structure beyond clustering, using it to increase the accuracy of motif-based TFBS searching for an example TF. We show that our method produces small, manageable clusters that encapsulate many known, experimentally validated transcription factor interactions and that our method is capable of capturing interactions that motif similarity methods might miss. Our graph structure is able to significantly increase the accuracy of motif TFBS searching, demonstrating that the TF-TF connections within the graph correlate with biological TF-TF interactions. The interactions identified by our method correspond to biological reality and allow for fast exploration of TF clustering and regulatory dynamics.

  17. NaCl reflection coefficients in proximal tubule apical and basolateral membrane vesicles. Measurement by induced osmosis and solvent drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, D; Verkman, A S

    1989-01-01

    Two independent methods, induced osmosis and solvent drag, were used to determine the reflection coefficients for NaCl (sigma NaCl) in brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit proximal tubule. In the induced osmosis method, vesicles loaded with sucrose were subjected to varying inward NaCl gradients in a stopped-flow apparatus. sigma NaCl was determined from the osmolality of the NaCl solution required to cause no initial osmotic water flux as measured by light scattering (null point). By this method sigma NaCl was greater than 0.92 for both apical and basolateral membranes with best estimates of 1.0. sigma NaCl was determined by the solvent drag method using the Cl-sensitive fluorescent indicator, 6-methoxy-N-[3-sulfopropyl]quinolinium (SPQ), to detect the drag of Cl into vesicles by inward osmotic water movement caused by an outward osmotic gradient. sigma NaCl was determined by comparing experimental data with theoretical curves generated using the coupled flux equations of Kedem and Katchalsky. By this method we found that sigma NaCl was greater than 0.96 for apical and greater than 0.98 for basolateral membrane vesicles, with best estimates of 1.0 for both membranes. These results demonstrate that sigma NaCl for proximal tubule apical and basolateral membranes are near unity. Taken together with previous results, these data suggest that proximal tubule water channels are long narrow pores that exclude NaCl. PMID:2765660

  18. Bringing Technology to Students’ Proximity: A Sociocultural Account of Technology-Based Learning Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evode Mukama

    2014-01-01

    ...’ sociocultural proximity, the more focused the learners’ attention is on these objects. The study shows also that a change in learning projects may depend to a large extent on whether the technology relates to the students...

  19. An assessment of envelope-based demodulation in case of proximity of carrier and modulation frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriar, Md Rifat; Borghesani, Pietro; Randall, R. B.; Tan, Andy C. C.

    2017-11-01

    Demodulation is a necessary step in the field of diagnostics to reveal faults whose signatures appear as an amplitude and/or frequency modulation. The Hilbert transform has conventionally been used for the calculation of the analytic signal required in the demodulation process. However, the carrier and modulation frequencies must meet the conditions set by the Bedrosian identity for the Hilbert transform to be applicable for demodulation. This condition, basically requiring the carrier frequency to be sufficiently higher than the frequency of the modulation harmonics, is usually satisfied in many traditional diagnostic applications (e.g. vibration analysis of gear and bearing faults) due to the order-of-magnitude ratio between the carrier and modulation frequency. However, the diversification of the diagnostic approaches and applications shows cases (e.g. electrical signature analysis-based diagnostics) where the carrier frequency is in close proximity to the modulation frequency, thus challenging the applicability of the Bedrosian theorem. This work presents an analytic study to quantify the error introduced by the Hilbert transform-based demodulation when the Bedrosian identity is not satisfied and proposes a mitigation strategy to combat the error. An experimental study is also carried out to verify the analytical results. The outcome of the error analysis sets a confidence limit on the estimated modulation (both shape and magnitude) achieved through the Hilbert transform-based demodulation in case of violated Bedrosian theorem. However, the proposed mitigation strategy is found effective in combating the demodulation error aroused in this scenario, thus extending applicability of the Hilbert transform-based demodulation.

  20. Improvement of the Threespine Stickleback Genome Using a Hi-C-Based Proximity-Guided Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichel, Catherine L; Sullivan, Shawn T; Liachko, Ivan; White, Michael A

    2017-09-01

    Scaffolding genomes into complete chromosome assemblies remains challenging even with the rapidly increasing sequence coverage generated by current next-generation sequence technologies. Even with scaffolding information, many genome assemblies remain incomplete. The genome of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a fish model system in evolutionary genetics and genomics, is not completely assembled despite scaffolding with high-density linkage maps. Here, we first test the ability of a Hi-C based proximity-guided assembly (PGA) to perform a de novo genome assembly from relatively short contigs. Using Hi-C based PGA, we generated complete chromosome assemblies from a distribution of short contigs (20-100 kb). We found that 96.40% of contigs were correctly assigned to linkage groups (LGs), with ordering nearly identical to the previous genome assembly. Using available bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences, we provide evidence that some of the few discrepancies between the Hi-C assembly and the existing assembly are due to structural variation between the populations used for the 2 assemblies or errors in the existing assembly. This Hi-C assembly also allowed us to improve the existing assembly, assigning over 60% (13.35 Mb) of the previously unassigned (~21.7 Mb) contigs to LGs. Together, our results highlight the potential of the Hi-C based PGA method to be used in combination with short read data to perform relatively inexpensive de novo genome assemblies. This approach will be particularly useful in organisms in which it is difficult to perform linkage mapping or to obtain high molecular weight DNA required for other scaffolding methods. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Quantification of spatial structure of human proximal tibial bone biopsies using 3D measures of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saparin, Peter I.; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Prohaska, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    3D data sets of human tibia bone biopsies acquired by a micro-CT scanner. In order to justify the newly proposed approach, the measures of complexity of the bone architecture were compared with the results of traditional 2D bone histomorphometry. The proposed technique is able to quantify......Changes in trabecular bone composition during development of osteoporosis are used as a model for bone loss in microgravity conditions during a space flight. Symbolic dynamics and measures of complexity are proposed and applied to assess quantitatively the structural composition of bone tissue from...

  2. Proximal Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  3. Vascular access in patients with arterial insufficiency. Construction of proximal bridge fistulae based on inflow from axillary branch arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrisak, M D; Anderson, C B

    1990-01-01

    Patients with renal failure and underlying peripheral vascular disease pose a difficult management problem in establishing long-term angioaccess for chronic hemodialysis. This report summarizes our experience with five debilitated patients who developed acute upper extremity ischemia after forearm fistula construction corrected by fistula ligation. Successful angioaccess was achieved without ischemia recurrence by construction of proximal bridge fistulae with arterial inflow based on branch arteries of the axillary artery. The relatively small size of the branch vessel was the main factor in limiting fistula flow while permitting normal distal axillary artery flow. In four patients direct fistula flow measurements ranged from 200 mL per minute to 620 mL per minute. Axillary arterial flow distal to the fistula ranged from 120 to 200 mL per minute and did not significantly change after fistula construction or during temporary occlusion of the fistula. Four of the five patients continue to dialyze uneventfully from 4 to 8.5 months. One patient died after discontinuation of dialysis 1 month after operation. Images Figs. 4A and B. PMID:2375649

  4. Anatomical and biomechanical evaluation of an intramedullary nail for fractures of proximal humerus fractures based on tuberosity fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavert, Ph; Hatzidakis, A; Boileau, P

    2016-02-01

    For unstable proximal humerus fractures, both plates and nails may be recommended. We introduce an anterograde nail designed for the treatment of 3- and 4-parts proximal humerus fractures. The aim of this study is to compare the biomechanics of this nail versus a plate and then to analyze the relationships of the screws with the axillary nerve. Our working hypotheses are as follows: (1) this nail is biomechanically equal or better to the reference plate and (2) it does not endanger the axillary nerve. Biomechanical study: using 40 sawbones, a reproducible 4-part fracture was created and fixed first with an angle-stable plate for proximal humeral fracture, then fixed with the nail using 2 posterior screws. All specimens were mounted in a custom testing apparatus. Two trails were performed needing each time 5 "normal" and 5 "osteoporotic" bones. On 20 unpaired shoulders, a nail was inserted with all screws through a superior approach (deltoid split approach). Dissection of all shoulders was done to identify the axillary nerve. The distance between each screw and the axillary nerve or its branches was measured. The proximal humerus nail demonstrated higher values than locking plate for both stiffness and load to failure. The failure mode differs in function of the type of osteosynthesis. The lowest distance between a screw and the axillary nerve was 20.13 mm. We introduce a biomechanically efficient nail without increased neurological risks to improve the pullout strength of the screws to provide more secure fixation of proximal humeral fractures. Basic Science Study, Anatomic Cadaver Study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived proximity to mobile phone base stations and powerlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolte John

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence about a possible causal relationship between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF emitted by sources such as mobile phone base stations (BS and powerlines is insufficient. So far little epidemiological research has been published on the contribution of psychological components to the occurrence of EMF-related NSPS. The prior objective of the current study is to explore the relative importance of actual and perceived proximity to base stations and psychological components as determinants of NSPS, adjusting for demographic, residency and area characteristics. Methods Analysis was performed on data obtained in a cross-sectional study on environment and health in 2006 in the Netherlands. In the current study, 3611 adult respondents (response rate: 37% in twenty-two Dutch residential areas completed a questionnaire. Self-reported instruments included a symptom checklist and assessment of environmental and psychological characteristics. The computation of the distance between household addresses and location of base stations and powerlines was based on geo-coding. Multilevel regression models were used to test the hypotheses regarding the determinants related to the occurrence of NSPS. Results After adjustment for demographic and residential characteristics, analyses yielded a number of statistically significant associations: Increased report of NSPS was predominantly predicted by higher levels of self-reported environmental sensitivity; perceived proximity to base stations and powerlines, lower perceived control and increased avoidance (coping behavior were also associated with NSPS. A trend towards a moderator effect of perceived environmental sensitivity on the relation between perceived proximity to BS and NSPS was verified (p = 0.055. There was no significant association between symptom occurrence and actual distance to BS or powerlines. Conclusions Perceived proximity to BS

  6. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...

  7. In vivo Biotinylation Based Method for the Study of Protein-Protein Proximity in Eukaryotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Kulyyassov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The spatiotemporal order plays an important role in cell functioning and is affected in many pathologies such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. One of the ultimate goals of molecular biology is reconstruction of the spatiotemporal structure of a living cell at the molecular level. This task includes determination of proximities between different molecular components in the cell and monitoring their time- and physiological state-dependent changes. In many cases, proximity between macromolecules arises due to their interactions; however, the contribution of dynamic self-organization in generation of spatiotemporal order is emerging as another viable possibility. Specifically, in proteomics, this implies that the detection of protein-protein proximity is a more general task than gaining information about physical interactions between proteins, as it could detail aspects of spatial order in vivo that are challenging to reconstitute in binding experiments in vitro. Methods: In this work, we have developed a method of monitoring protein-protein proximity in vivo. For this purpose, the BirA was fused to one of the interaction partners, whereas the BAP was modified to make the detection of its biotinylation possible by mass spectrometry. Results: Using several experimental systems, we showed that the biotinylation is interaction dependent. In addition, we demonstrated that BAP domains with different primary amino acid structures and thus with different molecular weights can be used in the same experiment, providing the possibility of multiplexing. Alternatively to the changes in primary amino acid structure, the stable isotope format can also be used, providing another way to perform multiplexing experiments. Finally, we also demonstrated that our system could help to overcome another limitation of current methodologies to detect protein-protein proximity. For example, one can follow the state of a protein of interest at a defined

  8. Application of fuzzy logic-neural network based reinforcement learning to proximity and docking operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Research Institute for Computing and Information Systems (RICIS) activity, the reinforcement learning techniques developed at Ames Research Center are being applied to proximity and docking operations using the Shuttle and Solar Max satellite simulation. This activity is carried out in the software technology laboratory utilizing the Orbital Operations Simulator (OOS). This interim report provides the status of the project and outlines the future plans.

  9. Radiographic assessment of proximal caries: A comparison between film-based and dexis digital imaging systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama N Kalappanavar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared Kodak Ektaspeed film and Dexis digital imaging systems for their diagnostic accuracy in detection of proximal canes in 210 proximal surfaces from 105 extracted human teeth (20 premolars and 85 molars, 129 of which were carious. Ground teeth were evaluated histologically. The images were assessed by an observer. ANOVA revealed that groups differ in scoring patterns with f-value of 26.72 and p < 0.01. The mean caries score by histologic assessment was significantly (p < 0.01 more when compared with the scores obtained by conventional and Dexis digital radiographic methods. The mean score for conventional radiographic method was slightly more than Dexis digital radiographic method, but the difference was statistically insignificant (p < 0.05. Both the radiographic methods were less accurate in detecting proximal canes confined to enamel, but as the lesion depth was increased to dentin, the rate of caries detection increased dramatically. It was concluded that both conventional and Dexis digital radiographic methods under estimated canes depth when compared with histologic method. Lastly, conventional film radiographs and Dexis digital radiographs did not perform significantly different from each other in the detection of canes.

  10. A reliable method for measuring proximal tibia and distal femur bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, Arjan J. T.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.; Rolf, Marijn P.; Roos, Jan C.; Burcksen, Jos; Knol, Dirk L.; de Groot, Sonja

    Purpose: To assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability of a standardized protocol for measuring proximal tibia and distal femur bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods: Ten able-bodied individuals (7 males) participated in this study. During one

  11. Estimation of femoral bone density from trabecular direct wave and cortical guided wave ultrasound velocities measured at the proximal femur in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkmann, Reinhard; Dencks, Stefanie; Bremer, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur is a predictor of hip fracture risk. We developed a Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) scanner for measurements at this site with similar performance (FemUS). In this study we tested if ultrasound velocities of direct waves through trabecular bone and o...

  12. Asthma exacerbation and proximity of residence to major roads: a population-based matched case-control study among the pediatric Medicaid population in Detroit, Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahl Robert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between asthma and traffic-related pollutants has received considerable attention. The use of individual-level exposure measures, such as residence location or proximity to emission sources, may avoid ecological biases. Method This study focused on the pediatric Medicaid population in Detroit, MI, a high-risk population for asthma-related events. A population-based matched case-control analysis was used to investigate associations between acute asthma outcomes and proximity of residence to major roads, including freeways. Asthma cases were identified as all children who made at least one asthma claim, including inpatient and emergency department visits, during the three-year study period, 2004-06. Individually matched controls were randomly selected from the rest of the Medicaid population on the basis of non-respiratory related illness. We used conditional logistic regression with distance as both categorical and continuous variables, and examined non-linear relationships with distance using polynomial splines. The conditional logistic regression models were then extended by considering multiple asthma states (based on the frequency of acute asthma outcomes using polychotomous conditional logistic regression. Results Asthma events were associated with proximity to primary roads with an odds ratio of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94, 0.99 for a 1 km increase in distance using conditional logistic regression, implying that asthma events are less likely as the distance between the residence and a primary road increases. Similar relationships and effect sizes were found using polychotomous conditional logistic regression. Another plausible exposure metric, a reduced form response surface model that represents atmospheric dispersion of pollutants from roads, was not associated under that exposure model. Conclusions There is moderately strong evidence of elevated risk of asthma close to major roads based on the results obtained

  13. Automated continuous quantitative measurement of proximal airways on dynamic ventilation CT: initial experience using an ex vivo porcine lung phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashiro T

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tsuneo Yamashiro,1 Maho Tsubakimoto,1 Yukihiro Nagatani,2 Hiroshi Moriya,3 Kotaro Sakuma,3 Shinsuke Tsukagoshi,4 Hiroyasu Inokawa,5 Tatsuya Kimoto,5 Ryuichi Teramoto,6 Sadayuki Murayama1 1Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa; 2Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu; 3Department of Radiology, Ohara General Hospital, Fukushima; 4CT Systems Division, 5Center for Medical Research and Development, Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Otawara; 6Corporate Manufacturing Engineering Center, Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of continuous quantitative measurement of the proximal airways, using dynamic ventilation computed tomography (CT and our research software. Methods: A porcine lung that was removed during meat processing was ventilated inside a chest phantom by a negative pressure cylinder (eight times per minute. This chest phantom with imitated respiratory movement was scanned by a 320-row area-detector CT scanner for approximately 9 seconds as dynamic ventilatory scanning. Obtained volume data were reconstructed every 0.35 seconds (total 8.4 seconds with 24 frames as three-dimensional images and stored in our research software. The software automatically traced a designated airway point in all frames and measured the cross-sectional luminal area and wall area percent (WA%. The cross-sectional luminal area and WA% of the trachea and right main bronchus (RMB were measured for this study. Two radiologists evaluated the traceability of all measurable airway points of the trachea and RMB using a three-point scale. Results: It was judged that the software satisfactorily traced airway points throughout the dynamic ventilation CT (mean score, 2.64 at the trachea and 2.84 at the RMB. From the maximum inspiratory frame to the maximum expiratory frame, the cross-sectional luminal area of

  14. Effects of Acids, Bases, and Heteroatoms on Proximal Radial Distribution Functions for Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bao Linh; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2015-04-14

    The proximal distribution of water around proteins is a convenient method of quantifying solvation. We consider the effect of charged and sulfur-containing amino acid side-chain atoms on the proximal radial distribution function (pRDF) of water molecules around proteins using side-chain analogs. The pRDF represents the relative probability of finding any solvent molecule at a distance from the closest or surface perpendicular protein atom. We consider the near-neighbor distribution. Previously, pRDFs were shown to be universal descriptors of the water molecules around C, N, and O atom types across hundreds of globular proteins. Using averaged pRDFs, a solvent density around any globular protein can be reconstructed with controllable relative error. Solvent reconstruction using the additional information from charged amino acid side-chain atom types from both small models and protein averages reveals the effects of surface charge distribution on solvent density and improves the reconstruction errors relative to simulation. Solvent density reconstructions from the small-molecule models are as effective and less computationally demanding than reconstructions from full macromolecular models in reproducing preferred hydration sites and solvent density fluctuations.

  15. Predicting admissions for childhood asthma based on proximity to major roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Patricia; Li, Jianling

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective study is an investigation of the relationship between traffic exposure and childhood asthma exacerbations in a previously unstudied geographic area. We hypothesized that, controlling for selected demographic and social factors, exposure to traffic emissions would allow the prediction of hospital utilization for children with asthma. Using hospital and emergency department (ED) records, we investigated the relationship between proximity to major roadways and admissions for asthma exacerbations in the Fort Worth metropolitan area, designated as not attaining federal air health standards. The sample included 2,357 children from 1 to 12 years of age admitted for emergency or inpatient treatment in a 288-bed, nonprofit children's medical center in Fort Worth, Texas from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2005. Data were analyzed using GIS mapping and logistic regression. Deidentification data were collected from hospital databases after IRB approval and waiver of parental permission or patient consent. Student's t test was used to compare groups with and without primary asthma diagnosis on admission in respect to distance from major roadways. Logistic regression was used to model relationships between asthma admission and patients' characteristics, exposure to traffic, and social environment. Controlling for several demographic factors, asthma occurrences were positively related to traffic exposures. On average, patients with asthma lived closer to major roadways than did patients who did not have asthma. Patients with asthma also tended to live in neighborhoods with more roads than did those who did not have asthma; 3/4 of the children admitted for asthma during the study period and less than 1/3 of the children admitted for nonasthma diagnoses lived within 1,500 meters of a major roadway (p=.0001). Controlling for other factors, every meter increase in proximity to major roadways produced 0.1% increase in likelihood of admission. Knowledge of risk

  16. Analyzing cross-reference transactions between authors by use of an asymmetric proximity measure and multidimensional unfolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2009-01-01

    The present paper explores simultaneous modelling of cross-reference activity between authors by use of asymmetric proximities and multidimensional unfolding. We thereby model and map both citing and cited relations between authors in a common space. This enables a more comprehensive comparison o...

  17. In Vitro Validation of Real-Time Three-Dimensional Color Doppler Echocardiography for Direct Measurement of Proximal Isovelocity Surface Area in Mitral Regurgitation

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Stephen H.; Igo, Stephen R.; Pirat, Bahar; McCulloch, Marti; Hartley, Craig J.; Nosé, Yukihiko; Zoghbi, William A.

    2007-01-01

    The 2-dimensional (2D) color Doppler (2D-CD) proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method assumes a hemispheric flow convergence zone to estimate transvalvular flow. Recently developed 3-dimensional (3D)-CD can directly visualize PISA shape and surface area without geometric assumptions. To validate a novel method to directly measure PISA using real-time 3D-CD echocardiography, a circulatory loop with an ultrasound imaging chamber was created to model mitral regurgitation (MR). Thirty-two ...

  18. Base fractures of the fifth proximal phalanx can be treated conservatively with buddy taping and immediate mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Lars S; Jørring, Stig; Bernt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment of base fractures in the proximal phalanx depends on the fracture type, the degree of displacement and whether fracture reduction is stable or not. Internal fixation often leads to decreased mobility of the injured finger despite exact reduction of the fracture. Our...... treatment is focused upon function and to a lesser extent on exact reposition of the fractured fifth digit. Buddy taping was used after initial, closed reduction of the fracture allowing for immediate mobilisation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective follow-up study of 53 consecutive conservatively...... managed base fractures in 53 patients with a mean age of 39 years. All fractures were treated with buddy taping to the fourth digit and immediate mobilisation. RESULTS: The subjective outcome showed high overall satisfaction, and only four patients reported mild pain at rest or work. Malrotation was noted...

  19. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N

    1992-01-01

    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  20. Humeral head circle-fit method greatly increases reliability and accuracy when measuring anterior-posterior radiographs of the proximal humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Chad S; Langston, Tanner D; Phippen, Colton M; Burkhead, Wayne Z; Skedros, John G

    2017-10-01

    Measurements made on routine A-P radiographs can predict strength/quality of the proximal humerus, as shown in terms of two easy-to-measure parameters: Cortical index (CI) and mean-combined cortical thickness (MCCT). Because of high variability inherent when using established methods to measure these parameters, we describe a new orientation system. Using digitized radiographs of 33 adult proximal humeri, five observers measured anatomical reference locations in accordance with: (i) Tingart et al. (2003) method, (ii) Mather et al. (2013) method, and (iii) our new humeral head Circle-Fit method (CFM). The Tingart and Mather methods measure CI and MCCT with respect to upper and lower edges of 20 mm tall rectangles fit to a proximal diaphyseal location where endosteal (Tingart) or periosteal (Mather) cortical margins become parallel. But high intra- and inter-observer variability occurs when placing the rectangles because of uncertainty in identifying cortical parallelism. With the CFM an adjustable circle is fit to the humeral head articular surface, which reliably and easily establishes a proximal metaphyseal landmark (M1) at the surgical neck. Distal locations are then designated at successive 10 mm increments below M1, including a second metaphyseal landmark (M2) followed by diaphyseal (D) locations (D1, D2 ⋯D6). D1 corresponds most closely to the proximal edges of the rectangles used in the other methods. Results showed minimal inter-observer variations (mean error, 1.5 ± 1.1 mm) when the CFM is used to establish diaphyseal locations for making CI and MCCT measurements when compared to each of the other methods (mean error range, 10.7 ± 5.9 to 13.3 ± 6.7 mm) (p < 0.001). © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2313-2322, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Noise of combat aircraft in proximity to air bases: Review of the possibilities of noise reduction at the source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, D.; Julliard, J.; Riou, G.

    1992-04-01

    The operations carried out by combat aircraft are a source of nuisance for the populations situated in proximity to air bases. The noise of jet aircraft constitutes the dominant source of noise in the operations in question. The authors propose to approach the question of the reduction of the corresponding sonic nuisances by utilizing experience acquired by SNECMA over the course of more than twenty years of research on the noise of civil jet turbine engines, and especially of the Concorde supersonic transport program. The important experimental database resulting from these studies has permitted the development and evaluation of preview methods and solutions in noise reduction. The different mechanisms and significant sources of noise will therefore be reviewed at the same time as the possibilities for current or future improvement.

  2. Improved prediction of higher heating value of biomass using an artificial neural network model based on proximate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Harun; Yıldız, Zeynep; Goldfarb, Jillian L; Ceylan, Selim

    2017-06-01

    As biomass becomes more integrated into our energy feedstocks, the ability to predict its combustion enthalpies from routine data such as carbon, ash, and moisture content enables rapid decisions about utilization. The present work constructs a novel artificial neural network model with a 3-3-1 tangent sigmoid architecture to predict biomasses' higher heating values from only their proximate analyses, requiring minimal specificity as compared to models based on elemental composition. The model presented has a considerably higher correlation coefficient (0.963) and lower root mean square (0.375), mean absolute (0.328), and mean bias errors (0.010) than other models presented in the literature which, at least when applied to the present data set, tend to under-predict the combustion enthalpy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Improved Pearson’s Correlation Proximity-Based Hierarchical Clustering for Mining Biological Association between Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Booma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microarray gene expression datasets has concerned great awareness among molecular biologist, statisticians, and computer scientists. Data mining that extracts the hidden and usual information from datasets fails to identify the most significant biological associations between genes. A search made with heuristic for standard biological process measures only the gene expression level, threshold, and response time. Heuristic search identifies and mines the best biological solution, but the association process was not efficiently addressed. To monitor higher rate of expression levels between genes, a hierarchical clustering model was proposed, where the biological association between genes is measured simultaneously using proximity measure of improved Pearson's correlation (PCPHC. Additionally, the Seed Augment algorithm adopts average linkage methods on rows and columns in order to expand a seed PCPHC model into a maximal global PCPHC (GL-PCPHC model and to identify association between the clusters. Moreover, a GL-PCPHC applies pattern growing method to mine the PCPHC patterns. Compared to existing gene expression analysis, the PCPHC model achieves better performance. Experimental evaluations are conducted for GL-PCPHC model with standard benchmark gene expression datasets extracted from UCI repository and GenBank database in terms of execution time, size of pattern, significance level, biological association efficiency, and pattern quality.

  4. Fidelity based measurement induced nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuganesan, R.; Sankaranarayanan, R.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we propose measurement induced nonlocality (MIN) using a metric based on fidelity to capture global nonlocal effect of a quantum state due to locally invariant projective measurements. This quantity is a remedy for local ancilla problem in the original definition of MIN. We present an analytical expression of the proposed version of MIN for pure bipartite state and 2 × n dimensional mixed state. We also provide an upper bound of the MIN for general mixed state. Finally, we compare this quantity with MINs based on Hilbert-Schmidt norm and skew information for higher dimensional Werner and isotropic states.

  5. Bringing Technology to Students' Proximity: A Sociocultural Account of Technology-Based Learning Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukama, Evode

    2014-01-01

    This paper depicts a study carried out in Rwanda concerning university students who participated in a contest to produce short documentary films. The purpose of this research is to conceptualize these kinds of technology-based learning projects (TBLPs) through a sociocultural perspective. The methodology included focus group discussions and field…

  6. Software-based acoustical measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Miyara, Federico

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides a detailed introduction to the use of software in combination with simple and economical hardware (a sound level meter with calibrated AC output and a digital recording system) to obtain sophisticated measurements usually requiring expensive equipment. It emphasizes the use of free, open source, and multiplatform software. Many commercial acoustical measurement systems use software algorithms as an integral component; however the methods are not disclosed. This book enables the reader to develop useful algorithms and provides insight into the use of digital audio editing tools to document features in the signal. Topics covered include acoustical measurement principles, in-depth critical study of uncertainty applied to acoustical measurements, digital signal processing from the basics, and metrologically-oriented spectral and statistical analysis of signals. The student will gain a deep understanding of the use of software for measurement purposes; the ability to implement software-based...

  7. Bone mineral density measurements of the proximal femur from routine contrast-enhanced MDCT data sets correlate with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M; Bauer, J S; Dobritz, M; Beer, A J; Wolf, P; Woertler, K; Rummeny, E J; Baum, T

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the utility of femoral bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in routine contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (ceMDCT) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference standard. Forty-one patients (33 women, 8 men) underwent DXA measurement of the proximal femur. Subsequently, transverse sections of routine ceMDCT of these patients were used to measure BMD of the femoral head and femoral neck. The MDCT-to-DXA conversion equations for BMD and T-score were calculated using linear regression analysis. The conversion equations were applied to the MDCT data sets of 382 patients (120 women, 262 men) of whom 74 had osteoporotic fractures. A correlation coefficient of r = 0.84 (P < 0.05) was calculated for BMD(MDCT) values of the femoral head and DXA T-scores of the total proximal femur using the conversion equation T-score = 0.021 × BMD(MDCT) - 5.90. The correlation coefficient for the femoral neck was r = 0.79 (P < 0.05) with the conversion equation T-score = 0.016 × BMD(MDCT) - 4.28. Accordingly, converted T-scores for the femoral neck in patients with versus those without osteoporotic fractures were significantly different (female, -1.83 versus -1.47; male, -1.86 versus -1.47; P < 0.05). BMD measurements of the proximal femur were computed in routine contrast-enhanced MDCT and converted to DXA T-scores, which adequately differentiated patients with and without osteoporotic fractures.

  8. Bone mineral density measurements of the proximal femur from routine contrast-enhanced MDCT data sets correlate with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Bauer, J.S.; Dobritz, M.; Woertler, K.; Rummeny, E.J.; Baum, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Beer, A.J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Wolf, P. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the utility of femoral bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in routine contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (ceMDCT) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference standard. Forty-one patients (33 women, 8 men) underwent DXA measurement of the proximal femur. Subsequently, transverse sections of routine ceMDCT of these patients were used to measure BMD of the femoral head and femoral neck. The MDCT-to-DXA conversion equations for BMD and T-score were calculated using linear regression analysis. The conversion equations were applied to the MDCT data sets of 382 patients (120 women, 262 men) of whom 74 had osteoporotic fractures. A correlation coefficient of r = 0.84 (P < 0.05) was calculated for BMD{sub MDCT} values of the femoral head and DXA T-scores of the total proximal femur using the conversion equation T-score = 0.021 x BMD{sub MDCT} - 5.90. The correlation coefficient for the femoral neck was r = 0.79 (P < 0.05) with the conversion equation T-score = 0.016 x BMD{sub MDCT} - 4.28. Accordingly, converted T-scores for the femoral neck in patients with versus those without osteoporotic fractures were significantly different (female, -1.83 versus -1.47; male, -1.86 versus -1.47; P < 0.05). BMD measurements of the proximal femur were computed in routine contrast-enhanced MDCT and converted to DXA T-scores, which adequately differentiated patients with and without osteoporotic fractures. (orig.)

  9. Measurements of bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and proximal femur using lunar prodigy and the new pencil-beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Dongil [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Clinical Trial Center, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Deog-Yoon [Kyung Hee University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Chung Soo [Kyung Hee University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seonwoo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Clinical Trial Center, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Medical Center, Biostatistics Unit, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bok, Hae Sook [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Clinical Trial Center, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Wooseong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Clinical Trial Center, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jae-Wook [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Clinical Trial Center, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hwa [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Clinical Trial Center, Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We evaluated the correlation of the absolute bone mineral density (BMD) values of the lumbar spine and standard sites of the proximal femur obtained from a Lunar Prodigy and the newly developed pencil-beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Dexxum). Between June 2008 and December 2008, 79 Korean volunteers were enrolled. Measurements were obtained on the same day using both densitometers. The absolute BMD values (g/cm{sup 2}) from the two densitometers were evaluated using Pearson's correlation analysis with Bonferroni's correction for the three clinically important sites. In order to evaluate precision, we performed duplicate Dexxum measurements, and calculated the within-subject coefficient of variation (WSCV). The Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) of BMD values for the total proximal femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine by the two densitometers were 0.926, 0.948, and 0.955 respectively, and the null hypotheses of r = 0.8 were all rejected (p < 0.001 by one-sided Z-test with Fisher's z-transformation for each site). The T-scores (r {>=} 0.842) and Z-scores (r {>=} 0.709) also showed strong positive correlations. The duplicate BMD values of Dexxum showed a high level of precision (WSCV {<=} 4.27%). Dexxum measurements of BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores showed a strong linear correlation with those measured on Lunar Prodigy. (orig.)

  10. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  11. Proximal base stress fracture of the second metatarsal in a Highland dancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hannah Isabella; O'Donnell, Barry; Hopper, Graeme Philip; Chang, Winston

    2013-06-26

    A 15-year-old female Highland dancer presented to the accident and emergency department with an ankle inversion injury on a background of several weeks of pain in the right foot. A radiograph of the right foot demonstrated a stress fracture at the base of the second metatarsal. She was treated conservatively with a below knee removable supportive walking boot with a rocker bottom sole. She re-presented to the accident and emergency department 3 weeks later with pins and needles in the right foot; she was given crutches to use along side the supportive walking boot. Radiographs 12 weeks after the first presentation showed healing of the stress fracture. The patient was now asymptomatic of the injury. She was unable to fully train for 12 weeks due to the injury. Conservative management was successful in this patient.

  12. Use of a Proximity Sensor Switch for "Hands Free" Operation of Computer-Based Video Prompting by Young Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Alexandria N.; Mechling, Linda C.; Spencer, Galen P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of a "hands free" approach for operating video prompts to complete multi-step tasks was measured. Students advanced the video prompts by using a motion (hand wave) over a proximity sensor switch. Three young adult females with a diagnosis of moderate intellectual disability participated in the study.…

  13. Correlation-driven metal-insulator transition in proximity to an iron-based superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnukha, A.; Yin, Z. P.; Song, Y.; Cao, C. D.; Dai, Pengcheng; Haule, K.; Kotliar, G.; Basov, D. N.

    2017-11-01

    We report the direct spectroscopic observation of a metal to correlated-insulator transition in the family of iron-based superconducting materials. By means of optical spectroscopy we demonstrate that the excitation spectrum of NaFe1 -xCuxAs develops a large gap with increasing copper substitution. Dynamical mean-field theory calculations show a good agreement with the experimental data and suggest that the formation of the charge gap requires an intimate interplay of strong on-site electronic correlations and spin-exchange coupling, revealing the correlated Slater-insulator nature of the antiferromagnetic ground state. Our calculations further predict the high-temperature paramagnetic state of the same compound to be a highly incoherent correlated metal. We verify this prediction experimentally by showing that the doping-induced weakening of antiferromagnetic correlations enables a thermal crossover from an insulating to an incoherent metallic state. Redistribution of the optical spectral weight in this crossover uncovers the characteristic energy of Hund's-coupling and Mott-Hubbard electronic correlations essential for the electronic localization. Our results demonstrate that NaFe1 -xCuxAs continuously transitions from the typical itinerant phases of iron pnictides to a highly incoherent metal and ultimately a correlated insulator. Such an electronic state is expected to favor high-temperature superconductivity.

  14. Application of fuzzy logic-neural network based reinforcement learning to proximity and docking operations: Translational controller results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    The reinforcement learning techniques developed at Ames Research Center are being applied to proximity and docking operations using the Shuttle and Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite simulation. In utilizing these fuzzy learning techniques, we also use the Approximate Reasoning based Intelligent Control (ARIC) architecture, and so we use two terms interchangeable to imply the same. This activity is carried out in the Software Technology Laboratory utilizing the Orbital Operations Simulator (OOS). This report is the deliverable D3 in our project activity and provides the test results of the fuzzy learning translational controller. This report is organized in six sections. Based on our experience and analysis with the attitude controller, we have modified the basic configuration of the reinforcement learning algorithm in ARIC as described in section 2. The shuttle translational controller and its implementation in fuzzy learning architecture is described in section 3. Two test cases that we have performed are described in section 4. Our results and conclusions are discussed in section 5, and section 6 provides future plans and summary for the project.

  15. Synthesis and Application of an Environmentally Insensitive Cy3-Based Arsenical Fluorescent Probe to Identify Adaptive Microbial Responses Involving Proximal Dithiol Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Na; Su, Dian; Cort, John R.; Chen, Baowei; Xiong, Yijia; Qian, Weijun; Konopka, Allan; Bigelow, Diana J.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2013-03-06

    Reversible disulfide oxidation between proximal cysteines in proteins represents a common regulatory control mechanism to modulate flux through metabolic pathways in response to changing environmental conditions. To enable in vivo measurements of cellular redox changes linked to disulfide bond formation, we have synthesized a cell-permeable monosubstituted cyanine dye derivatized with arsenic (i.e., TRAP_Cy3) to trap and visualize dithiols in cytosolic proteins. Alkylation of reactive thiols prior to displacement of the bound TRAP-Cy3 by ethanedithiol permits facile protein capture and mass spectrometric identification of proximal reduced dithiols to the exclusion of individual cysteines. Applying TRAP_Cy3 to evaluate cellular responses to increases in oxygen and light levels in the photosynthetic microbe Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, we observe large decreases in the abundance of reduced dithiols in cellular proteins, which suggest redox-dependent mechanisms involving the oxidation of proximal disulfides. Under these same growth conditions that result in the oxidation of proximal thiols, there is a reduction in the abundance of post-translational oxidative modifications involving nitrotyrosine and methionine sulfoxide formation. These results suggest that the redox status of proximal cysteines respond to environmental conditions, acting to regulate metabolic flux and minimize the formation of reactive oxygen species to decrease oxidative protein damage.

  16. Measurement-Based Linear Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Rafael N; Gabay, Natasha C; Rohde, Peter P; Menicucci, Nicolas C

    2017-03-17

    A major challenge in optical quantum processing is implementing large, stable interferometers. We offer a novel approach: virtual, measurement-based interferometers that are programed on the fly solely by the choice of homodyne measurement angles. The effects of finite squeezing are captured as uniform amplitude damping. We compare our proposal to existing (physical) interferometers and consider its performance for BosonSampling, which could demonstrate postclassical computational power in the near future. We prove its efficiency in time and squeezing (energy) in this setting.

  17. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  18. Pressure Measurement Based on Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, K.

    2010-12-01

    Measuring gas pressures reliably in a harsh radiation environment was confirmed to be tricky during operation of the liquid spallation target of MEGAPIE at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Severe drift of calibration and the loss of a sensor were experienced. At the same time, the only instrumentation that worked flawlessly in the system were thermocouples. Motivated by this experience, a novel pressure sensor for application in high radiation fields has been developed, which is based on temperature measurement. The new sensor takes advantage of the fact that the thermal conductivity over a mechanical joint exhibits a strong dependence on the contact pressure. In the novel sensor heating is applied at one point and temperatures are measured at different specific locations of the pressure gage; in particular, the temperatures on the two sides of a mechanical contact are monitored. From the observed temperature distribution the gas pressure can be derived. By choosing specific mechanical details in the lay-out, it is possible to tailor the useful measurement range. In addition to yielding pressure values, the new sensor concept admits for obtaining a measure for the accuracy of the result. This is done by continuous self monitoring of the device. The health status and based thereupon the plausibility of the indicated pressure value can be deducted by comparing sensed temperatures to expectation values for any given heating power. Malfunctioning of the pressure gage is reliably detected from the diverse readings of only one device; this can be seen as providing internal redundancy while at the same time immunity to common mode failure. After some analytical and finite element studies to verify the concept in principle, a first prototype of such a novel pressure sensor has been built at PSI. Initial measurement campaigns demonstrated the correct operation of the device as anticipated. Further potential for optimization, like designing a gage for high temperature

  19. A pharmacologically-based array to identify targets of cyclosporine A-induced toxicity in cultured renal proximal tubule cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarró, Eduard, E-mail: eduard.sarro@vhir.org [Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Unitat de Bioquímica de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Jacobs-Cachá, Conxita, E-mail: conxita.jacobs@vhir.org [Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Itarte, Emilio, E-mail: emili.itarte@uab.es [Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Unitat de Bioquímica de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Meseguer, Anna, E-mail: ana.meseguer@vhir.org [Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    Mechanisms of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity were generally thought to be hemodynamic in origin; however, there is now accumulating evidence of a direct tubular effect. Although genomic and proteomic experiments by our group and others provided overall information on genes and proteins up- or down-regulated by CsA in proximal tubule cells (PTC), a comprehensive view of events occurring after CsA exposure remains to be described. For this purpose, we applied a pharmacologic approach based on the use of known activities of a large panel of potentially protective compounds and evaluated their efficacy in preventing CsA toxicity in cultured mouse PTC. Our results show that compounds that blocked protein synthesis and apoptosis, together with the CK2 inhibitor DMAT and the PI3K inhibitor apigenin, were the most efficient in preventing CsA toxicity. We also identified GSK3, MMPs and PKC pathways as potential targets to prevent CsA damage. Additionally, heparinase-I and MAPK inhibitors afforded partial but significant protection. Interestingly, antioxidants and calcium metabolism-related compounds were unable to ameliorate CsA-induced cytotoxicity. Subsequent experiments allowed us to clarify the hierarchical relationship of targeted pathways after CsA treatment, with ER stress identified as an early effector of CsA toxicity, which leads to ROS generation, phenotypical changes and cell death. In summary, this work presents a novel experimental approach to characterizing cellular responses to cytotoxics while pointing to new targets to prevent CsA-induced toxicity in proximal tubule cells. Highlights: ► We used a novel pharmacological approach to elucidate cyclosporine (CsA) toxicity. ► The ability of a broad range of compounds to prevent CsA toxicity was evaluated. ► CsA toxicity was monitored using LDH release assay and PARP cleavage. ► Protein synthesis, PI3K, GSK3, MMP, PKC and caspase inhibitors prevented CsA toxicity. ► We also identified ER

  20. Prediction of coal grindability based on petrography, proximate and ultimate analysis using multiple regression and artificial neural network models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelgani, S. Chehreh; Jorjani, E.; Mesroghli, Sh.; Bagherieh, A.H. [Department of Mining Engineering, Research and Science Campus, Islamic Azad University, Poonak, Hesarak Tehran (Iran); Hower, James C. [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    The effects of proximate and ultimate analysis, maceral content, and coal rank (R{sub max}) for a wide range of Kentucky coal samples from calorific value of 4320 to 14960 (BTU/lb) (10.05 to 34.80 MJ/kg) on Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) have been investigated by multivariable regression and artificial neural network methods (ANN). The stepwise least square mathematical method shows that the relationship between (a) Moisture, ash, volatile matter, and total sulfur; (b) ln (total sulfur), hydrogen, ash, ln ((oxygen + nitrogen)/carbon) and moisture; (c) ln (exinite), semifusinite, micrinite, macrinite, resinite, and R{sub max} input sets with HGI in linear condition can achieve the correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) of 0.77, 0.75, and 0.81, respectively. The ANN, which adequately recognized the characteristics of the coal samples, can predict HGI with correlation coefficients of 0.89, 0.89 and 0.95 respectively in testing process. It was determined that ln (exinite), semifusinite, micrinite, macrinite, resinite, and R{sub max} can be used as the best predictor for the estimation of HGI on multivariable regression (R{sup 2} = 0.81) and also artificial neural network methods (R{sup 2} = 0.95). The ANN based prediction method, as used in this paper, can be further employed as a reliable and accurate method, in the hardgrove grindability index prediction. (author)

  1. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  2. Fused analytical and iterative reconstruction (AIR) via modified proximal forward-backward splitting: a FDK-based iterative image reconstruction example for CBCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hao

    2016-10-07

    This work is to develop a general framework, namely analytical iterative reconstruction (AIR) method, to incorporate analytical reconstruction (AR) method into iterative reconstruction (IR) method, for enhanced CT image quality and reconstruction efficiency. Specifically, AIR is established based on the modified proximal forward-backward splitting (PFBS) algorithm, and its connection to the filtered data fidelity with sparsity regularization is discussed. As a result, AIR decouples data fidelity and image regularization with a two-step iterative scheme, during which an AR-projection step updates the filtered data fidelity term, while a denoising solver updates the sparsity regularization term. During the AR-projection step, the image is projected to the data domain to form the data residual, and then reconstructed by certain AR to a residual image which is then weighted together with previous image iterate to form next image iterate. Intuitively since the eigenvalues of AR-projection operator are close to the unity, PFBS based AIR has a fast convergence. Such an advantage is rigorously established through convergence analysis and numerical computation of convergence rate. The proposed AIR method is validated in the setting of circular cone-beam CT with AR being FDK and total-variation sparsity regularization, and has improved image quality from both AR and IR. For example, AIR has improved visual assessment and quantitative measurement in terms of both contrast and resolution, and reduced axial and half-fan artifacts.

  3. Fused analytical and iterative reconstruction (AIR) via modified proximal forward-backward splitting: a FDK-based iterative image reconstruction example for CBCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hao

    2016-10-01

    This work is to develop a general framework, namely analytical iterative reconstruction (AIR) method, to incorporate analytical reconstruction (AR) method into iterative reconstruction (IR) method, for enhanced CT image quality and reconstruction efficiency. Specifically, AIR is established based on the modified proximal forward-backward splitting (PFBS) algorithm, and its connection to the filtered data fidelity with sparsity regularization is discussed. As a result, AIR decouples data fidelity and image regularization with a two-step iterative scheme, during which an AR-projection step updates the filtered data fidelity term, while a denoising solver updates the sparsity regularization term. During the AR-projection step, the image is projected to the data domain to form the data residual, and then reconstructed by certain AR to a residual image which is then weighted together with previous image iterate to form next image iterate. Intuitively since the eigenvalues of AR-projection operator are close to the unity, PFBS based AIR has a fast convergence. Such an advantage is rigorously established through convergence analysis and numerical computation of convergence rate. The proposed AIR method is validated in the setting of circular cone-beam CT with AR being FDK and total-variation sparsity regularization, and has improved image quality from both AR and IR. For example, AIR has improved visual assessment and quantitative measurement in terms of both contrast and resolution, and reduced axial and half-fan artifacts.

  4. Prediction of the pre-morbid 3D anatomy of the proximal humerus based on statistical shape modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltaretskyi, S; Chaoui, J; Mayya, M; Hamitouche, C; Bercik, M J; Boileau, P; Walch, G

    2017-07-01

    Restoring the pre-morbid anatomy of the proximal humerus is a goal of anatomical shoulder arthroplasty, but reliance is placed on the surgeon's experience and on anatomical estimations. The purpose of this study was to present a novel method, 'Statistical Shape Modelling', which accurately predicts the pre-morbid proximal humeral anatomy and calculates the 3D geometric parameters needed to restore normal anatomy in patients with severe degenerative osteoarthritis or a fracture of the proximal humerus. From a database of 57 humeral CT scans 3D humeral reconstructions were manually created. The reconstructions were used to construct a statistical shape model (SSM), which was then tested on a second set of 52 scans. For each humerus in the second set, 3D reconstructions of four diaphyseal segments of varying lengths were created. These reconstructions were chosen to mimic severe osteoarthritis, a fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus and a proximal humeral fracture with diaphyseal extension. The SSM was then applied to the diaphyseal segments to see how well it predicted proximal morphology, using the actual proximal humeral morphology for comparison. With the metaphysis included, mimicking osteoarthritis, the errors of prediction for retroversion, inclination, height, radius of curvature and posterior and medial offset of the head of the humerus were 2.9° (± 2.3°), 4.0° (± 3.3°), 1.0 mm (± 0.8 mm), 0.8 mm (± 0.6 mm), 0.7 mm (± 0.5 mm) and 1.0 mm (± 0.7 mm), respectively. With the metaphysis excluded, mimicking a fracture of the surgical neck, the errors of prediction for retroversion, inclination, height, radius of curvature and posterior and medial offset of the head of the humerus were 3.8° (± 2.9°), 3.9° (± 3.4°), 2.4 mm (± 1.9 mm), 1.3 mm (± 0.9 mm), 0.8 mm (± 0.5 mm) and 0.9 mm (± 0.6 mm), respectively. This study reports a novel, computerised method that accurately predicts the pre-morbid proximal humeral anatomy even in challenging

  5. Full scale measurements and simulations of the wind speed in the close proximity of the building skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponechal Radoslav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 36 meteorological stations are located on the facade of the Research Centre building´s from 2016. Weather stations measure basic climate parameters and wind velocity and direction using a powerful ultra-sonic anemometers. These are located on the walls of the building oriented to four cardinal points at different heights and positions on the façade. The location selections were made with use of CFD simulation which analysed flow around the building. Thus they give faithful image of wind flow near the façade of five-storey office building. Such detailed measurements make it possible to achieve high accurate calibration of CFD models and measurements in the wind tunnel. This paper describes these meteorological stations in detail. First outputs from measurement in autumn are published and analysed.

  6. A hybrid FDTD-Rayleigh integral computational method for the simulation of the ultrasound measurement of proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassereau, Didier; Nauleau, Pierre; Bendjoudi, Aniss; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Laugier, Pascal; Bossy, Emmanuel; Grimal, Quentin

    2014-07-01

    The development of novel quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques to measure the hip is critically dependent on the possibility to simulate the ultrasound propagation. One specificity of hip QUS is that ultrasounds propagate through a large thickness of soft tissue, which can be modeled by a homogeneous fluid in a first approach. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithms have been widely used to simulate QUS measurements but they are not adapted to simulate ultrasonic propagation over long distances in homogeneous media. In this paper, an hybrid numerical method is presented to simulate hip QUS measurements. A two-dimensional FDTD simulation in the vicinity of the bone is coupled to the semi-analytic calculation of the Rayleigh integral to compute the wave propagation between the probe and the bone. The method is used to simulate a setup dedicated to the measurement of circumferential guided waves in the cortical compartment of the femoral neck. The proposed approach is validated by comparison with a full FDTD simulation and with an experiment on a bone phantom. For a realistic QUS configuration, the computation time is estimated to be sixty times less with the hybrid method than with a full FDTD approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The diaphysial axis-metacarpal head angle in the management of fractures of the base of the proximal phalanx in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, M M; Al-Motairi, M I; Al-Naeem, H A

    2013-11-01

    The diaphysial axis-metacarpal head angle (DHA) is the angle formed between the longitudinal axis of the diaphysis of the proximal phalanx and central point of the metacarpal head. The normal DHA ranges from 177.1° and 180.0°. There were no significant differences between DHA measurements when taken by the same observer at two separate occasions (P = 0.986) or when taken by two different observers (P = 0.948). We have put an algorithm of management of paediatric phalangeal base fractures incorporating the DHA in the decision making. A prospective study of 92 children (5-14 years) with phalangeal base fractures was conducted. Closed reduction was possible in all but one case in which open reduction and K-wire fixation was required. Closed reduction of the remaining 91 fractures yielded a 'good' reduction in 80 cases (no finger deformity on clinical examination with a post-reduction DHA greater than 177°). After a mean follow-up of 4.2 months, all these 80 cases qualified for an excellent outcome as per Al-Qattan's criteria. The remaining 11 children were considered to have an 'acceptable' reduction (no scissoring, but there was a mild residual lateral deviation of the finger with a DHA angle of 169.4° to 176.2°). At a mean follow-up of 28 months, all these 11 mal-united fractures remodelled with normalization of the DHA; and all 11 children qualified for an excellent outcome as per Al-Qattan's criteria. The current series stresses on the advantages of using DHA in the objective assessment of paediatric phalangeal base fractures and demonstrates the remodelling of fractures with about 10° of lateral deviation.

  8. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  9. Singlet oxygen triplet energy transfer-based imaging technology for mapping protein-protein proximity in intact cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Tsz-Leung; Fadul, Michael J; Shu, Xiaokun

    2014-06-06

    Many cellular processes are carried out by large protein complexes that can span several tens of nanometres. Whereas forster resonance energy transfer has a detection range of technology with a detection range of up to several tens of nanometres: singlet oxygen triplet energy transfer. We demonstrate that our method confirms the topology of a large protein complex in intact cells, which spans from the endoplasmic reticulum to the outer mitochondrial membrane and the matrix. This new method is thus suited for mapping protein proximity in large protein complexes.

  10. Agreement among dentists' restorative treatment planning thresholds for primary occlusal caries, primary proximal caries, and existing restorations: findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Tim J; Gordan, Valeria V; Litaker, Mark S; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Brad Rindal, D; Firestone, Allen R; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the agreement among individual National Dental Practice-Based Research Network dentists' self-reported treatment decisions for primary occlusal caries, primary proximal caries, and existing restorations. Five hypothetical clinical scenarios were presented: primary occlusal caries; primary proximal caries; and whether three existing restorations should be repaired or replaced. We quantified the probability that dentists who recommended later restorative intervention for primary caries were the same ones who recommended that existing restorations be repaired instead of replaced. Dentists who recommended later restorative treatment of primary occlusal caries and proximal caries at a more-advanced stage were significantly more likely to recommend repair instead of replacement. Agreement among dentists on a threshold stage for the treatment of primary caries ranged from 40 to 68%, while that for repair or replacement of existing restorations was 36 to 43%. Dentists who recommended repair rather than replacement of existing restorations were significantly more likely to recommend later treatment of primary caries. Conversely, dentists who recommended treatment of primary caries at an earlier stage were significantly more likely to recommend replacement of the entire restoration. Between-dentist agreement for primary caries treatment was better than between-dentist agreement for repair or replacement of existing restorations. These findings suggest consistency in how individual dentists approach the treatment of primary caries and existing restorations. However, substantial variation was found between dentists in their treatment decisions about the same teeth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Agreement among dentists’ restorative treatment planning thresholds for primary occlusal caries, primary proximal caries, and existing restorations: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Tim J.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Litaker, Mark S.; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Rindal, D. Brad; Firestone, Allen R.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to quantify the agreement among individual National Dental Practice-Based Research Network dentists’ self-reported treatment decisions for primary occlusal caries, primary proximal caries, and existing restorations. Methods Five hypothetical clinical scenarios were presented: primary occlusal caries; primary proximal caries; and whether three existing restorations should be repaired or replaced. We quantified the probability that dentists who recommended later restorative intervention for primary caries were the same ones who recommended that existing restorations be repaired instead of replaced. Results Dentists who recommended later restorative treatment of primary occlusal caries and proximal caries at a more-advanced stage were significantly more likely to recommend repair instead of replacement. Agreement among dentists on a threshold stage for the treatment of primary caries ranged from 40 to 68%, while that for repair or replacement of existing restorations was 36 to 43%. Conclusions Dentists who recommended repair rather than replacement of existing restorations were significantly more likely to recommend later treatment of primary caries. Conversely, dentists who recommended treatment of primary caries at an earlier stage were significantly more likely to recommend replacement of the entire restoration. Between-dentist agreement for primary caries treatment was better than between-dentist agreement for repair or replacement of existing restorations. Clinical implications These findings suggest consistency in how individual dentists approach the treatment of primary caries and existing restorations. However, substantial variation was found between dentists in their treatment decisions about the same teeth. PMID:23743181

  12. Implications of Articulating Machinery on Operator Line of Sight and Efficacy of Camera Based Proximity Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Schwabe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The underground mining industry, and some above ground operations, rely on the use of heavy equipment that articulates to navigate corners in the tight confines of the tunnels. Poor line of sight (LOS has been identified as a problem for safe operation of this machinery. Proximity detection systems, such as a video system designed to provide a 360 degree view around the machine have been implemented to improve the available LOS for the operator. A four-camera system was modeled in a computer environment to assess LOS on a 3D cad model of a typical, articulated machine. When positioned without any articulation, the system is excellent at removing blind spots for a machine driving straight forward or backward in a straight tunnel. Further analysis reveals that when the machine articulates in a simulated corner section, some camera locations are no longer useful for improving LOS into the corner. In some cases, the operator has a superior view into the corner, when compared to the best available view from the camera. The work points to the need to integrate proximity detection systems at the design, build, and manufacture stage, and to consider proper policy and procedures that would address the gains and limits of the systems prior to implementation.

  13. Effects of individual and proximate educational context on intimate partner violence: a population-based study of women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Leland K; Kawachi, Ichiro; Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Subramanian, S V

    2008-03-01

    We examined the role of women's education and proximate educational context on intimate partner violence (IPV). We examined a sample of 83627 married women aged 15 to 49 years from the 1998 to 1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. We used multilevel multiple logistic regression modeling to estimate the relative effect of women's and their husband's levels of education, spousal education differential, and community-level literacy on women's risk of recent and lifetime IPV. In adjusted models, odds of recent IPV among women without any education were 5.61 times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.53, 8.92) those of college-educated women, and odds among wives of uneducated men were 1.84 times (95% CI=1.44, 2.35) those of wives of college-educated men. Women with more education than their husbands were more likely than those with educational parity to report recent IPV (odds ratio [OR]=1.18; 95% CI=1.05, 1.33). The results were similar for lifetime IPV. After we controlled for individual factors, as community male and female literacy levels increased, likelihood of IPV declined. Although increasing women's levels of education is crucial to reducing IPV for women, proximate educational context is also an important factor in reducing this public health burden.

  14. European wet deposition maps based on measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen EP van; Erisman JW; Draaijers GPJ; Potma CJM; Pul WAJ van; LLO

    1995-01-01

    To date, wet deposition maps on a European scale have been based on long-range transport model results. For most components wet deposition maps based on measurements are only available on national scales. Wet deposition maps of acidifying components and base cations based on measurements are needed

  15. Direct measurement of proximal isovelocity surface area by single-beat three-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography in mitral regurgitation: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Agustín, Jose Alberto; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Fernandez-Golfin, Covadonga; Gonçalves, Alexandra; Feltes, Gisela; Nuñez-Gil, Ivan Javier; Almeria, Carlos; Rodrigo, Jose Luis; Perez de Isla, Leopoldo; Macaya, Carlos; Zamorano, Jose

    2012-08-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method has some technical limitations, mainly the geometric assumptions of PISA shape required to calculate effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA). Recently developed single-beat, real-time three-dimensional (3D) color Doppler imaging allows direct measurement of PISA without geometric assumptions. The aim of this study was to validate this novel method in patients with chronic mitral regurgitation (MR). Thirty-three patients were included, 25 (75.7%) with degenerative MR and eight (24.2%) with functional MR. EROA and regurgitant volume were assessed using transthoracic 2D and 3D PISA methods. The quantitative Doppler method and 3D transesophageal echocardiographic planimetry of EROA were used as reference methods. Both EROA and regurgitant volume assessed using the 3D PISA method had better correlations with the reference methods than conventional 2D PISA. A consistent significant underestimation of EROA and regurgitant volume using 2D PISA was observed, particularly in the assessment of eccentric jets. On the basis of 3D transesophageal echocardiographic planimetry of EROA, 14 patients had severe MR (EROA ≥ 0.4 cm(2)). Of these 14 patients, 42.8% (6 of 14) were underestimated as having nonsevere MR (EROA ≤ 0.4 cm(2)) by the 2D PISA method. In contrast, the 3D PISA method had 92.9% (13 of 14) agreement with 3D transesophageal planimetry in classifying severe MR. Good intraobserver and interobserver agreement for 3D PISA measurements was observed, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.96 and 0.92, respectively. Direct measurement of PISA without geometric assumptions using single-beat, real-time 3D color Doppler echocardiography is feasible in the clinical setting. MR quantification using this methodology is more accurate than the conventional 2D PISA method. Copyright © 2012 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro validation of real-time three-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for direct measurement of proximal isovelocity surface area in mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Stephen H; Igo, Stephen R; Pirat, Bahar; McCulloch, Marti; Hartley, Craig J; Nosé, Yukihiko; Zoghbi, William A

    2007-05-15

    The 2-dimensional (2D) color Doppler (2D-CD) proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method assumes a hemispheric flow convergence zone to estimate transvalvular flow. Recently developed 3-dimensional (3D)-CD can directly visualize PISA shape and surface area without geometric assumptions. To validate a novel method to directly measure PISA using real-time 3D-CD echocardiography, a circulatory loop with an ultrasound imaging chamber was created to model mitral regurgitation (MR). Thirty-two different regurgitant flow conditions were tested using symmetric and asymmetric flow orifices. Three-dimensional-PISA was reconstructed from a hand-held real-time 3D-CD data set. Regurgitant volume was derived using both 2D-CD and 3D-CD PISA methods, and each was compared against a flow-meter standard. The circulatory loop achieved regurgitant volume within the clinical range of MR (11 to 84 ml). Three-dimensional-PISA geometry reflected the 2D geometry of the regurgitant orifice. Correlation between the 2D-PISA method regurgitant volume and actual regurgitant volume was significant (r(2) = 0.47, p PISA regurgitant volume underestimate was 19.1 +/- 25 ml (2 SDs). For the 3D-PISA method, correlation with actual regurgitant volume was significant (r(2) = 0.92, p PISA method showed less regurgitant volume underestimation for all orifice shapes and regurgitant volumes tested. In conclusion, in an in vitro model of MR, 3D-CD was used to directly measure PISA without geometric assumption. Compared with conventional 2D-PISA, regurgitant volume was more accurate when derived from 3D-PISA across symmetric and asymmetric orifices within a broad range of hemodynamic flow conditions.

  17. Application of fuzzy logic-neural network based reinforcement learning to proximity and docking operations: Attitude control results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    As part of the RICIS activity, the reinforcement learning techniques developed at Ames Research Center are being applied to proximity and docking operations using the Shuttle and Solar Max satellite simulation. This activity is carried out in the software technology laboratory utilizing the Orbital Operations Simulator (OOS). This report is deliverable D2 Altitude Control Results and provides the status of the project after four months of activities and outlines the future plans. In section 2 we describe the Fuzzy-Learner system for the attitude control functions. In section 3, we provide the description of test cases and results in a chronological order. In section 4, we have summarized our results and conclusions. Our future plans and recommendations are provided in section 5.

  18. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  19. Age estimation in a sub-adult Western Australian population based on the analysis of the pelvic girdle and proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Siobhan; Flavel, Ambika; Franklin, Daniel

    2017-10-16

    The accurate and precise estimation of skeletal age by a forensic anthropologist is both a professional and judicial requirement. When unknown skeletal remains are referred to the anthropologist, the estimation of the requisite biological attributes (e.g., age and sex) should accordingly be based on the application of population-specific standards (statistical data). Deviations from the latter practice may result in reduced accuracy and compromised identification. Towards informing appropriate forensic practice, the aim of the present study is to develop statistically quantified age estimation models for a contemporary sub-adult Western Australian population based on the timing of fusion in the os coxa and proximal femur. The study sample comprises 562 known age and sex MDCT scans (292 male, 270 female) representing contemporary Western Australian individuals birth through 30 years of age. Scans are viewed in multi-planar reconstructed (MPR) and/or three-dimensionally reconstructed images using OsiriX(®). Fusion status is scored according to a three-stage system across a total of nine sites in the proximal femur and os coxae. Observer accordance, bilateral asymmetry and sex-specific variation in fusion timing are statistically quantified. Polynomial regression is used to formulate age prediction models; transition analysis is used to calculate age ranges and determine the mean age for transition between an unfused, fusing and fused status. Observer accordance in stage assignation is acceptable (ϰ=0.79) and there is no significant bilateral variation in fusion timing. It was found that the mean age of commencement of fusion is significantly earlier (∼2 years) in females. The accuracy (SEE) of the polynomial models ranges from ±3.29 to ±3.80 years and the transition analysis shows that fusion of the iliac crest is delayed in comparison to other attributes of os coxa and proximal femur. Results of the present study confirm that the pelvic girdle and proximal

  20. Locating distribution/service centers based on multi objective decision making using set covering and proximity to stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Dabibi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present competitive world, facility location is an important aspect of the supply chain (sc optimization. It involves selecting specific locations for facility construction and allocation of the distribution channel among different SC levels. In fact, it is a strategic issue which directly affects many operational/tactical decisions. Besides the accessibility, which results in customer satisfaction, the present paper optimizes the establishment costs of a number of distribution channels by considering their proximity to the stock market of the goods they distribute, and proposes mathematical models for two objective functions using the set covering problem. Then, two objective functions are proposed into one through the ε-constraint method and solved by the metaheuristic Genetic Algorithm (GA. To test the resulted model, a smaller scale problem is solved. Results from running the algorithm with different ε-values show that, on average, a 10% increase in ε, which increases the value of the second objective function - distance covered by customers will cause a 2% decrease in the value of the first objective function including the costs of establishing distribution centers. The repeatability and solution convergence of the two-objective model presented by the GA are other results obtained in this study.

  1. Nanoscale memory elements based on the superconductor-ferromagnet proximity effect and spin-transfer torque magnetization switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Burm

    Superconducting-ferromagnetic hybrid devices have potential for a practical memory technology compatible with superconducting logic circuits and may help realize energy-efficient, high-performance superconducting computers. We have developed Josephson junction devices with pseudo-spin-valve barriers. We observed changes in Josephson critical current depending on the magnetization state of the barrier (parallel or anti-parallel) through the superconductor-ferromagnet proximity effect. This effect persists to nanoscale devices in contrast to the remanent field effect. In nanopillar devices, the magnetization states of the pseudo-spin-valve barriers could also be switched with applied bias currents at 4 K, which is consistent with the spin-transfer torque effect in analogous room-temperature spin valve devices. These results demonstrate devices that combine major superconducting and spintronic effects for scalable read and write of memory states, respectively. Further challenges and proposals towards practical devices will also be discussed.In collaboration with: William Rippard, NIST - Boulder, Matthew Pufall, NIST - Boulder, Stephen Russek, NIST-Boulder, Michael Schneider, NIST - Boulder, Samuel Benz, NIST - Boulder, Horst Rogalla, NIST-Boulder, Paul Dresselhaus, NIST - Boulder

  2. Feasibility of Ultrasound-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics as a Mitral Valve Regurgitation Quantification Technique: Comparison with 2-D and 3-D Proximal Isovelocity Surface Area-Based Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Muhammad; Ahmad, Omar; Poh, Kian Keong; Yap, Choon Hwai

    2017-07-01

    Current Doppler echocardiography quantification of mitral regurgitation (MR) severity has shortcomings. Proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA)-based methods, for example, are unable to account for the fact that ultrasound Doppler can measure only one velocity component: toward or away from the transducer. In the present study, we used ultrasound-based computational fluid dynamics (Ub-CFD) to quantify mitral regurgitation and study its advantages and disadvantages compared with 2-D and 3-D PISA methods. For Ub-CFD, patient-specific mitral valve geometry and velocity data were obtained from clinical ultrasound followed by 3-D CFD simulations at an assumed flow rate. We then obtained the average ratio of the ultrasound Doppler velocities to CFD velocities in the flow convergence region, and scaled CFD flow rate with this ratio as the final measured flow rate. We evaluated Ub-CFD, 2-D PISA and 3-D PISA with an in vitro flow loop, which featured regurgitation flow through (i) a simplified flat plate with round orifice and (ii) a 3-D printed realistic mitral valve and regurgitation orifice. The Ub-CFD and 3-D PISA methods had higher precision than the 2-D PISA method. Ub-CFD had consistent accuracy under all conditions tested, whereas 2-D PISA had the lowest overall accuracy. In vitro investigations indicated that the accuracy of 2-D and 3-D PISA depended significantly on the choice of aliasing velocity. Evaluation of these techniques was also performed for two clinical cases, and the dependency of PISA on aliasing velocity was similarly observed. Ub-CFD was robustly accurate and precise and has promise for future translation to clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures with locking proximal humerus plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Cheng; Li, Yu-Lin; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Wu, Qiang; Feng, Shi-Qing

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of the locking proximal humerus plate to treat proximal humerus fractures. A retrospective clinical trial. Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with locking proximal humerus plates. The deltopectoral anterolateral acromial approach was used to the proximal humerus; open reduction and locking proximal humerus plate were applied. Constant Score was used to measure the shoulder functional recovery, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to measure subjective evaluation of pain. The radiology was observed. After average 26.7 months, the average Constant Score was 72.6 ± 13.2 points and the average VAS was 1.2 ± 0.8 points. All the complications such as screw perforation into the glenohumeral joint, screws loosening, soft tissue infections, avascular necrosis and delayed union occurred in eight cases (11.8 %). The effectiveness of the locking proximal humerus plate was similar to other published literatures on treating fractures of the proximal humerus; however, a lower complications rate in short follow-up time was observed in this study. It may potentially provide a favorable option for treating three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Dealing with each particular fracture pattern, surgeons should have a decision of appropriate way to internal fixation.

  4. Preliminary Prioritization of California Oil and Gas Fields for Regional Groundwater Monitoring Based on Intensity of Petroleum Resource Development and Proximity to Groundwater Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. A.; Landon, M. K.; Bennett, G.

    2016-12-01

    The California State Water Resources Control Board is collaborating with the U.S. Geological Survey to implement a Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) to assess where and to what degree groundwater resources may be at risk of contamination from oil and gas development activities including stimulation, well integrity issues, produced water ponds, and underground injection. A key issue in the implementation of the RMP is that the state has 487 onshore oil fields covering 8,785 square kilometers but detailed characterization work can only be done in a few oil fields annually. The first step in the RMP is to prioritize fields using available data that indicate potential risk to groundwater from oil and gas development, including vertical proximity of groundwater and oil/gas resources, density of petroleum and water wells, and volume of water injected in oil fields. This study compiled data for these factors, computed summary metrics for each oil field, analyzed statewide distributions of summary metrics, used those distributions to define relative categories of potential risk for each factor, and combined these into an overall priority ranking. Aggregated results categorized 22% (107 fields) of the total number of onshore oil and gas fields in California as high priority, 23% as moderate priority, and 55% as low priority. On an area-weighted basis, 41% of the fields ranked high, 30% moderate, and 29% low, highlighting that larger fields tend to have higher potential risk because of greater intensity of development, sometimes coupled with closer proximity to groundwater. More than half of the fields ranked as high priority were located in the southern Central Valley or the Los Angeles Basin. The prioritization does not represent an assessment of groundwater risk from oil and gas development; rather, such assessments are planned to follow based on detailed analysis of data from the RMP near the oil fields selected for study in the future.

  5. Safety and feasibility of cell-based therapy of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells in plate-stabilized proximal humeral fractures in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebach, Caroline; Henrich, Dirk; Meier, Simon; Nau, Christoph; Bonig, Halvard; Marzi, Ingo

    2016-11-15

    Local implantation of ex vivo concentrated, washed and filtrated human bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMC) seeded onto β-tricalciumphosphate (TCP) significantly enhanced bone healing in a preclinical segmental defect model. Based on these results, we evaluated in a first clinical phase-I trial safety and feasibility of augmentation with preoperatively isolated autologous BMC seeded onto β-TCP in combination with angle stable plate fixation for the therapy of proximal humeral fractures as a potential alternative to autologous bone graft from the iliac crest. 10 patients were enrolled to assess whether cell therapy with 1.3 × 106 autologous BMC/ml/ml β-TCP, collected on the day preceding the definitive surgery, is safe and feasible when seeded onto β-TCP in patients with a proximal humeral fracture. 5 follow-up visits for clinical and radiological controls up to 12 weeks were performed. β-tricalciumphosphate fortification with BMC was feasible and safe; specifically, neither morbidity at the harvest site nor at the surgical wound site were observed. Neither local nor systemic inflammation was noted. All fractures healed within the observation time without secondary dislocation. Three adverse events were reported: one case each of abdominal wall shingles, tendon loosening and initial screw perforation, none of which presumed related to the IND. Cell therapy with autologous BMC for bone regeneration appeared to be safe and feasible with no drug-related adverse reactions being described to date. The impression of efficacy was given, although the study was not powered nor controlled to detect such. A clinical trial phase-II will be forthcoming in order to formally test the clinical benefit of BMC-laden β-TCP for PHF patients. Trial registration The study was registered in the European Clinical Trial Register as EudraCT No. 2012-004037-17. Date of registration 30th of August 2012. Informed consent was signed from all patients enrolled.

  6. Augmenting atlas-based liver segmentation for radiotherapy treatment planning by incorporating image features proximal to the atlas contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dengwang; Liu, Li; Chen, Jinhu; Li, Hongsheng; Yin, Yong; Ibragimov, Bulat; Xing, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Atlas-based segmentation utilizes a library of previously delineated contours of similar cases to facilitate automatic segmentation. The problem, however, remains challenging because of limited information carried by the contours in the library. In this studying, we developed a narrow-shell strategy to enhance the information of each contour in the library and to improve the accuracy of the exiting atlas-based approach. This study presented a new concept of atlas based segmentation method. Instead of using the complete volume of the target organs, only information along the organ contours from the atlas images was used for guiding segmentation of the new image. In setting up an atlas-based library, we included not only the coordinates of contour points, but also the image features adjacent to the contour. In this work, 139 CT images with normal appearing livers collected for radiotherapy treatment planning were used to construct the library. The CT images within the library were first registered to each other using affine registration. The nonlinear narrow shell was generated alongside the object contours of registered images. Matching voxels were selected inside common narrow shell image features of a library case and a new case using a speed-up robust features (SURF) strategy. A deformable registration was then performed using a thin plate splines (TPS) technique. The contour associated with the library case was propagated automatically onto the new image by exploiting the deformation field vectors. The liver contour was finally obtained by employing level set based energy optimization within the narrow shell. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated by comparing quantitatively the auto-segmentation results with that delineated by physicians. A novel atlas-based segmentation technique with inclusion of neighborhood image features through the introduction of a narrow-shell surrounding the target objects was established. Application of the technique to

  7. Augmenting atlas-based liver segmentation for radiotherapy treatment planning by incorporating image features proximal to the atlas contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dengwang; Liu, Li; Chen, Jinhu; Li, Hongsheng; Yin, Yong; Ibragimov, Bulat; Xing, Lei

    2017-01-07

    Atlas-based segmentation utilizes a library of previously delineated contours of similar cases to facilitate automatic segmentation. The problem, however, remains challenging because of limited information carried by the contours in the library. In this studying, we developed a narrow-shell strategy to enhance the information of each contour in the library and to improve the accuracy of the exiting atlas-based approach. This study presented a new concept of atlas based segmentation method. Instead of using the complete volume of the target organs, only information along the organ contours from the atlas images was used for guiding segmentation of the new image. In setting up an atlas-based library, we included not only the coordinates of contour points, but also the image features adjacent to the contour. In this work, 139 CT images with normal appearing livers collected for radiotherapy treatment planning were used to construct the library. The CT images within the library were first registered to each other using affine registration. The nonlinear narrow shell was generated alongside the object contours of registered images. Matching voxels were selected inside common narrow shell image features of a library case and a new case using a speed-up robust features (SURF) strategy. A deformable registration was then performed using a thin plate splines (TPS) technique. The contour associated with the library case was propagated automatically onto the new image by exploiting the deformation field vectors. The liver contour was finally obtained by employing level set based energy optimization within the narrow shell. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated by comparing quantitatively the auto-segmentation results with that delineated by physicians. A novel atlas-based segmentation technique with inclusion of neighborhood image features through the introduction of a narrow-shell surrounding the target objects was established. Application of the technique to

  8. Application for RSO Automated Proximity Analysis and IMAging (ARAPAJMA): Development of a Nanosat-based Space Situational Awareness Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    Based on the information extracted from the point clouds, RV and docking paths can be planned on-board, and the chaser is commanded to follow them...collision between the active Iridium 33 (US) satellite and the decommissioned Cosmos 2251 (FSU) on 10 February 2009, have increased the total number of

  9. Photoactivated In Vivo Proximity Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David B; Bonasio, Roberto

    2017-06-19

    Identification of molecular interactions is paramount to understanding how cells function. Most available technologies rely on co-purification of a protein of interest and its binding partners. Therefore, they are limited in their ability to detect low-affinity interactions and cannot be applied to proteins that localize to difficult-to-solubilize cellular compartments. In vivo proximity labeling (IPL) overcomes these obstacles by covalently tagging proteins and RNAs based on their proximity in vivo to a protein of interest. In IPL, a heterobifunctional probe comprising a photoactivatable moiety and biotin is recruited by a monomeric streptavidin tag fused to a protein of interest. Following UV irradiation, candidate interacting proteins and RNAs are covalently biotinylated with tight spatial and temporal control and subsequently recovered using biotin as an affinity handle. Here, we describe experimental protocols to discover novel protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions using IPL. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  11. Consensus-based distributed optimisation of multi-agent networks via a two level subgradient-proximal algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Liao, Rui-Quan; Zhang, Ding-Xue; Zheng, Gui-Lin

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a consensus-based stochastic subgradient algorithm for multi-agent networks to minimise multiple convex but not necessarily differential objective functions, subject to an intersection set of multiple closed convex constraint sets. Compared with the existing results an alternative subgradient algorithm is first introduced based on two level subgradient iterations, where the first level is to minimise the component functions, and the second to enforce the iterates not oscillate from the constraint set wildly. In addition, a distributed consensus-based type of the proposed subgradient algorithm is constructed within the framework of multi-agent networks for the case when the iteration index of local objective functions and local constraint sets is not homologous. Detailed convergence analysis of the proposed algorithms is established using matrix theories and super-martingale convergence theorem. In addition, a pre-step convergence factor is obtained in this study to characterise the distance between the iterations and the optimal set, while some existing literatures only present a convergence work. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed theoretical results.

  12. Proximity hybridization-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assembly for electrochemical immunoassay based on in situ DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Fuyi [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, 221004, Xuzhou (China); Yao, Yao; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Dengyang [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, 221004, Xuzhou (China); Gao, Fenglei, E-mail: jsxzgfl@sina.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, 221004, Xuzhou (China); Wang, Po, E-mail: wangpo@jsnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China)

    2017-05-29

    Novel hybridization proximity-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assembly strategy has been proposed for electrochemical immunoassay based on in situ DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles as signal label. The DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles were characterized with atomic force microscopic and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The highly efficient electrocatalysis by DNA template synthesized Pd nanoparticles for NaBH{sub 4} oxidation produced an intense detection signal. The label-free electrochemical method achieved the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with a linear range from 10{sup −15} to 10{sup −11} g mL{sup −1} and a detection limit of 0.43 × 10{sup −15} g mL{sup −1}. Through introducing a supersandwich reaction to increase the DNA length, the electrochemical signal was further amplified, leading to a detection limit of 0.52 × 10{sup −16} g mL{sup −1}. And it rendered satisfactory analytical performance for the determination of CEA in serum samples. Furthermore, it exhibited good reproducibility and stability; meanwhile, it also showed excellent specificity due to the specific recognition of antigen by antibody. Therefore, the DNA template synthesized Pd nanoparticles based signal amplification approach has great potential in clinical applications and is also suitable for quantification of biomarkers at ultralow level. - Graphical abstract: A novel label-free and enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay based on proximity hybridization-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assemblies for recycling of the CEA. - Highlights: • A novel enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor was developed for detection of CEA. • The signal amplification was based on catalytic DNA hairpin assembly and DNA-template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles. • The biosensor could detect CEA down to 0.52 × 10{sup −16} g mL{sup −1} level with a dynamic range spanning 5 orders of magnitude.

  13. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1962-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  14. Toward Measuring Network Aesthetics Based on Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengqiang Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this exploratory paper, we discuss quantitative graph-theoretical measures of network aesthetics. Related work in this area has typically focused on geometrical features (e.g., line crossings or edge bendiness of drawings or visual representations of graphs which purportedly affect an observer’s perception. Here we take a very different approach, abandoning reliance on geometrical properties, and apply information-theoretic measures to abstract graphs and networks directly (rather than to their visual representaions as a means of capturing classical appreciation of structural symmetry. Examples are used solely to motivate the approach to measurement, and to elucidate our symmetry-based mathematical theory of network aesthetics.

  15. Acoustic Hygrometer Based on Reverberation Time Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motegi, Takahiro; Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a hygrometer operated by acoustic means is proposed. It is important to measure spatial average humidity for environmental management in a room. In a large space, it is difficult to determine spatial average humidity because conventional sensors measure only local humidity at the measurement point. The proposed acoustic hygrometer utilizes the relationship between the sound attenuation coefficient and humidity. To measure the sound attenuation coefficient, reverberation time in a room is utilized. An acoustic hygrometer based on reverberation time achieves a noncontact measurement of spatial average humidity. As a practical examination, relative humidity (RH) was measured on the basis of reverberation time in a chamber, and compared with reference values. The humidity measurement accuracy of the hygrometer was evaluated by statistical means because the measured reverberation time showed variability. From the results, the possibility of humidity measurement with an accuracy of about 5% RH at 50% RH or more using this hygrometer was verified. Here, the unit of RH is % RH.

  16. Accuracy of magnetic resonance based susceptibility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdevig, Hannah E.; Russek, Stephen E.; Carnicka, Slavka; Stupic, Karl F.; Keenan, Kathryn E.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map the magnetic susceptibility of tissue to identify cerebral microbleeds associated with traumatic brain injury and pathological iron deposits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Accurate measurements of susceptibility are important for determining oxygen and iron content in blood vessels and brain tissue for use in noninvasive clinical diagnosis and treatment assessments. Induced magnetic fields with amplitude on the order of 100 nT, can be detected using MRI phase images. The induced field distributions can then be inverted to obtain quantitative susceptibility maps. The focus of this research was to determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements using simple phantom geometries and to compare the susceptibility measurements with magnetometry measurements where SI-traceable standards are available. The susceptibilities of paramagnetic salt solutions in cylindrical containers were measured as a function of orientation relative to the static MRI field. The observed induced fields as a function of orientation of the cylinder were in good agreement with simple models. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry using NIST-traceable standards. MRI can accurately measure relative magnetic susceptibilities while SQUID magnetometry measures absolute magnetic susceptibility. Given the accuracy of moment measurements of tissue mimicking samples, and the need to look at small differences in tissue properties, the use of existing NIST standard reference materials to calibrate MRI reference structures is problematic and better reference materials are required.

  17. Extraoral imaging for proximal caries detection: Bitewings vs scanogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Caplan, Daniel

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3 extraoral imaging modalities with an intraoral bitewing radiograph for proximal caries detection. Three modalities of Cranex TOME scanograms, x-ray film and DenOptix photostimulable phosphor plates with and without digital enhancement, were compared with Insight intraoral radiographs for proximal caries detection. Nine observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 45 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a 5-point confidence scale. The ground truth was determined from histological sections. Responses were evaluated by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (A z ). Repeated measures ANOVA (at alpha = 0.05) demonstrated significant differences among modalities ( P = .041). Paired t tests with Bonferroni correction demonstrated that Insight was superior to only unenhanced digital scanograms ( P = .003). Mean A z scores (+/-SD) were 0.73 (+/-0.08) for Insight, 0.65 (+/-0.06) for screen/film scanogram, 0.64 (+/-0.04) for unenhanced digital scanogram, and 0.66 (+/-0.07) for enhanced digital scanogram. The performances of film-based and enhanced digital scanograms were not statistically different from Insight film for proximal caries detection. Unenhanced digital scanograms exhibited a statistically significant lower diagnostic accuracy than Insight film.

  18. Experiments of the superconducting proximity effect between superconductor and semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Mutsuko; Nishino, Toshikazu; Kawabe, Ushio

    1987-01-01

    Coherence length in a semiconductor induced by the superconductor proximity effect is obtained experimentally from superconducting transition temperature measurements based on the de Gennes-Werthamer-Hauser theory. It was found that the coherence length in the semiconductor increases with increase in the carrier concentration n as a function of n1/3. This result agreed with the numerical result derived from the Seto-Van Duzer theory.

  19. Fabricating Nanogaps in YBa2 Cu3 O7 -δ for Hybrid Proximity-Based Josephson Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Reza; Arpaia, Riccardo; Charpentier, Sophie; Golubev, Dmitri; Bauch, Thilo; Lombardi, Floriana

    2015-07-01

    The advances of nanotechnologies applied to high-critical-temperature superconductors (HTSs) have recently given a huge boost to the field, opening new prospectives for their integration in hybrid devices. The feasibility of this research goes through the realization of HTS nanogaps with superconductive properties close to the as-grown bulk material at the nanoscale. Here we present a fabrication approach allowing the realization of YBa2 Cu3 O7 -δ (YBCO) nanogaps with dimensions as small as 35 nm. To assess the quality of the nanogaps, we measure, before and after an ozone treatment, the current-voltage characteristics and the resistance versus temperature of YBCO nanowires with various widths and lengths, fabricated by using different lithographic processes. The analysis of the superconducting transition with a thermally activated vortex-entry model allows us to determine the maximum damage the nanowires undergo during the patterning which relates to the upper bound for the dimension of the nanogap. We find that the effective width of the nanogap is of the order of 100 nm at the superconducting transition temperature while retaining the geometrical value of about 35 nm at lower temperatures. The feasibility of the nanogaps for hybrid Josephson devices is demonstrated by bridging them with thin Au films. We detect a Josephson coupling up to 85 K with an almost ideal magnetic-field response of the Josephson current. These results pave the way for the realization of complex hybrid devices, where tiny HTS nanogaps can be instrumental to study the Josephson effect through barriers such as topological insulators or graphene.

  20. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  1. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  2. Green maritime transportation: Market based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions from ships, and review several distinct MBM proposals that have been under consideration by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The chapter discusses...

  3. Application of fuzzy logic-neural network based reinforcement learning to proximity and docking operations: Special approach/docking testcase results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Yashvant

    1993-01-01

    As part of the RICIS project, the reinforcement learning techniques developed at Ames Research Center are being applied to proximity and docking operations using the Shuttle and Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite simulation. In utilizing these fuzzy learning techniques, we use the Approximate Reasoning based Intelligent Control (ARIC) architecture, and so we use these two terms interchangeably to imply the same. This activity is carried out in the Software Technology Laboratory utilizing the Orbital Operations Simulator (OOS) and programming/testing support from other contractor personnel. This report is the final deliverable D4 in our milestones and project activity. It provides the test results for the special testcase of approach/docking scenario for the shuttle and SMM satellite. Based on our experience and analysis with the attitude and translational controllers, we have modified the basic configuration of the reinforcement learning algorithm in ARIC. The shuttle translational controller and its implementation in ARIC is described in our deliverable D3. In order to simulate the final approach and docking operations, we have set-up this special testcase as described in section 2. The ARIC performance results for these operations are discussed in section 3 and conclusions are provided in section 4 along with the summary for the project.

  4. Oxytocin and vasopressin receptor gene variation as a proximate base for inter- and intraspecific behavioral differences in bonobos and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staes, Nicky; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Helsen, Philippe; Hillyer, Mia; Korody, Marisa; Eens, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature has revealed the importance of variation in neuropeptide receptor gene sequences in the regulation of behavioral phenotypic variation. Here we focus on polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and vasopressin receptor gene 1a (Avpr1a) in chimpanzees and bonobos. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the third intron of OXTR (rs53576 SNP (A/G)) is linked with social behavior, with the risk allele (A) carriers showing reduced levels of empathy and prosociality. Bonobos and chimpanzees differ in these same traits, therefore we hypothesized that these differences might be reflected in variation at the rs53576 position. We sequenced a 320 bp region surrounding rs53576 but found no indications of this SNP in the genus Pan. However, we identified previously unreported SNP variation in the chimpanzee OXTR sequence that differs from both humans and bonobos. Humans and bonobos have previously been shown to have a more similar 5' promoter region of Avpr1a when compared to chimpanzees, who are polymorphic for the deletion of ∼ 360 bp in this region (+/- DupB) which includes a microsatellite (RS3). RS3 has been linked with variation in levels of social bonding, potentially explaining part of the interspecies behavioral differences found in bonobos, chimpanzees and humans. To date, results for bonobos have been based on small sample sizes. Our results confirmed that there is no DupB deletion in bonobos with a sample size comprising approximately 90% of the captive founder population, whereas in chimpanzees the deletion of DupB had the highest frequency. Because of the higher frequency of DupB alleles in our bonobo population, we suggest that the presence of this microsatellite may partly reflect documented differences in levels of sociability found in bonobos and chimpanzees.

  5. Oxytocin and vasopressin receptor gene variation as a proximate base for inter- and intraspecific behavioral differences in bonobos and chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky Staes

    Full Text Available Recent literature has revealed the importance of variation in neuropeptide receptor gene sequences in the regulation of behavioral phenotypic variation. Here we focus on polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR and vasopressin receptor gene 1a (Avpr1a in chimpanzees and bonobos. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the third intron of OXTR (rs53576 SNP (A/G is linked with social behavior, with the risk allele (A carriers showing reduced levels of empathy and prosociality. Bonobos and chimpanzees differ in these same traits, therefore we hypothesized that these differences might be reflected in variation at the rs53576 position. We sequenced a 320 bp region surrounding rs53576 but found no indications of this SNP in the genus Pan. However, we identified previously unreported SNP variation in the chimpanzee OXTR sequence that differs from both humans and bonobos. Humans and bonobos have previously been shown to have a more similar 5' promoter region of Avpr1a when compared to chimpanzees, who are polymorphic for the deletion of ∼ 360 bp in this region (+/- DupB which includes a microsatellite (RS3. RS3 has been linked with variation in levels of social bonding, potentially explaining part of the interspecies behavioral differences found in bonobos, chimpanzees and humans. To date, results for bonobos have been based on small sample sizes. Our results confirmed that there is no DupB deletion in bonobos with a sample size comprising approximately 90% of the captive founder population, whereas in chimpanzees the deletion of DupB had the highest frequency. Because of the higher frequency of DupB alleles in our bonobo population, we suggest that the presence of this microsatellite may partly reflect documented differences in levels of sociability found in bonobos and chimpanzees.

  6. Some effects on SPM based surface measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Wenhao; Chen Yuhang [University of Science and Technology of China, Department of Precision Engineering and Instrumentation, Hefei, 230026 (China)

    2005-01-01

    The scanning probe microscope (SPM) has been used as a powerful tool for nanotechnology, especially in surface nanometrology. However, there are a lot of false images and modifications during the SPM measurement on the surfaces. This is because of the complex interaction between the SPM tip and the surface. The origin is not only due to the tip material or shape, but also to the structure of the sample. So people are paying much attention to draw true information from the SPM images. In this paper, we present some simulation methods and reconstruction examples for the microstructures and surface roughness based on SPM measurement. For example, in AFM measurement, we consider the effects of tip shape and dimension, also the surface topography distribution in both height and space. Some simulation results are compared with other measurement methods to verify the reliability.

  7. Development of a Scintillation Proximity Assay (SPA) Based, High Throughput Screening Feasible Method for the Identification of PDE12 Activity Modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Samuel; Bucher, Hannes; Nickolaus, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The scintillation proximity assay (SPA) technology has been widely used to establish high throughput screens (HTS) for a range of targets in the pharmaceutical industry. PDE12 (aka. 2'- phosphodiesterase) has been published to participate in the degradation of oligoadenylates that are involved in the establishment of an antiviral state via the activation of ribonuclease L (RNAse-L). Degradation of oligoadenylates by PDE12 terminates these antiviral activities, leading to decreased resistance of cells for a variety of viral pathogens. Therefore inhibitors of PDE12 are discussed as antiviral therapy. Here we describe the use of the yttrium silicate SPA bead technology to assess inhibitory activity of compounds against PDE12 in a homogeneous, robust HTS feasible assay using tritiated adenosine-P-adenylate ([3H]ApA) as substrate. We found that the used [3H]ApA educt, was not able to bind to SPA beads, whereas the product [3H]AMP, as known before, was able to bind to SPA beads. This enables the measurement of PDE12 activity on [3H]ApA as a substrate using a wallac microbeta counter. This method describes a robust and high throughput capable format in terms of specificity, commonly used compound solvents, ease of detection and assay matrices. The method could facilitate the search for PDE12 inhibitors as antiviral compounds.

  8. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-12-31

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  9. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk=0.34; 95% confidence interval=0.19, 0.63) Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

  10. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...... on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used...

  11. Safety and feasibility of cell-based therapy of autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells in plate-stabilized proximal humeral fractures in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Seebach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local implantation of ex vivo concentrated, washed and filtrated human bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMC seeded onto β-tricalciumphosphate (TCP significantly enhanced bone healing in a preclinical segmental defect model. Based on these results, we evaluated in a first clinical phase-I trial safety and feasibility of augmentation with preoperatively isolated autologous BMC seeded onto β-TCP in combination with angle stable plate fixation for the therapy of proximal humeral fractures as a potential alternative to autologous bone graft from the iliac crest. Methods 10 patients were enrolled to assess whether cell therapy with 1.3 × 106 autologous BMC/ml/ml β-TCP, collected on the day preceding the definitive surgery, is safe and feasible when seeded onto β-TCP in patients with a proximal humeral fracture. 5 follow-up visits for clinical and radiological controls up to 12 weeks were performed. Results β-tricalciumphosphate fortification with BMC was feasible and safe; specifically, neither morbidity at the harvest site nor at the surgical wound site were observed. Neither local nor systemic inflammation was noted. All fractures healed within the observation time without secondary dislocation. Three adverse events were reported: one case each of abdominal wall shingles, tendon loosening and initial screw perforation, none of which presumed related to the IND. Conclusions Cell therapy with autologous BMC for bone regeneration appeared to be safe and feasible with no drug-related adverse reactions being described to date. The impression of efficacy was given, although the study was not powered nor controlled to detect such. A clinical trial phase-II will be forthcoming in order to formally test the clinical benefit of BMC-laden β-TCP for PHF patients. Trial registration The study was registered in the European Clinical Trial Register as EudraCT No. 2012-004037-17. Date of registration 30th of August 2012. Informed

  12. Time-dependent spin and charge transport in Floquet topological insulator based on graphene nanoribbons with proximity induced spin-orbit coupling from transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Bogdan; Chen, Son-Hsien; Nikolic, Branislav

    The investigation of time-resolved phenomena in nanodevices is a topical research subject. To this end, an efficient algorithm, based on time-dependent nonequilibrium Green's functions (TDNEGF) was recently developed in Ref.. This approach converts the TDNEGF equations into an initial-value problem for the reduced density matrix (RDO) and auxiliary quantities. Moreover, since the RDO is propagated, all information on dynamics is accessible at each time step without extra effort. In this study, we employ the algorithm of Ref. to investigate spin and charge transport in graphene nanoribbons (GNR), with proximity induced spin-orbit coupling (SOC) from transition metal dichalcogenides underneath the ribbon, which are irradiated by circularly polarized light and attached to Fermi liquid reservoirs via semi-infinite ideal GNR leads. The usage of such leads bypasses ambiguities in defining the nonequilibrium occupations of the Floquet states, while discretization of the lead self-energies by a fitting procedure describes the system-lead coupling as reflectionless. We also compare long-time limit of TDNEGF algorithm with Floquet-NEGF approach of Ref.. NSF Grant No. ECCS 1566074.

  13. Measuring globalization-based acculturation in Ladakh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon; Schwartz, Seth

    2016-01-01

    to include groups who are exposed to global culturalstreams without international migration. The globalization-based acculturation process inthe North Indian region of Ladakh appears to be a tricultural encounter, suggesting anaddendum to the bidimensional acculturation model for this group (and perhaps...... for othersas well). This study explores the development, usability, and validity of a tridimensionalacculturation measure aiming to capture the multicultural orientations initiated by theprocess of globalization in Ladakh. The tridimensional acculturation scale was found to fitthe data significantly better...... compared to the bidimensional scale. Implications for the studyof globalization-based acculturation are discussed....

  14. A SVD Based Image Complexity Measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, David Karl John; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Nielsen, Mads

    2009-01-01

    Images are composed of geometric structures and texture, and different image processing tools - such as denoising, segmentation and registration - are suitable for different types of image contents. Characterization of the image content in terms of geometric structure and texture is an important...... problem that one is often faced with. We propose a patch based complexity measure, based on how well the patch can be approximated using singular value decomposition. As such the image complexity is determined by the complexity of the patches. The concept is demonstrated on sequences from the newly...... collected DIKU Multi-Scale image database....

  15. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  16. Statistical inference based on divergence measures

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Leandro

    2005-01-01

    The idea of using functionals of Information Theory, such as entropies or divergences, in statistical inference is not new. However, in spite of the fact that divergence statistics have become a very good alternative to the classical likelihood ratio test and the Pearson-type statistic in discrete models, many statisticians remain unaware of this powerful approach.Statistical Inference Based on Divergence Measures explores classical problems of statistical inference, such as estimation and hypothesis testing, on the basis of measures of entropy and divergence. The first two chapters form an overview, from a statistical perspective, of the most important measures of entropy and divergence and study their properties. The author then examines the statistical analysis of discrete multivariate data with emphasis is on problems in contingency tables and loglinear models using phi-divergence test statistics as well as minimum phi-divergence estimators. The final chapter looks at testing in general populations, prese...

  17. Proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  18. Malignant tumor of the distal part of the femur or the proximal part of the tibia: endoprosthetic replacement or rotationplasty. Functional outcome and quality-of-life measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmann, A; Hoffmann, C; Gosheger, G; Krakau, H; Winkelmann, W

    1999-04-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether there is a difference, with regard to functional outcome and quality of life, between endoprosthetic replacement and rotationplasty for the treatment of malignant tumors of the distal part of the femur or the proximal part of the tibia. Sixty-seven patients, between the ages of eleven and twenty-four years at the time of the diagnosis, had a malignant tumor of the distal part of the femur or the proximal part of the tibia. A rotationplasty was performed in thirty-three patients, and an endoprosthetic replacement was done in thirty-four patients. The median duration of follow-up was six years and one month (range, two years to sixteen years and two months). The scale developed by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society was used to evaluate the functional results. Quality-of-life issues were assessed with the questionnaire developed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. The patients who had had a rotationplasty had a mean functional score, according to the system of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society, of 24 points, and the patients who had had an endoprosthetic replacement had a mean score of 25 points. This difference was not found to be significant, with the numbers available (p = 0.47). Only one patient who had had a rotationplasty used an assistive device when walking long distances, whereas six patients who had had an endoprosthetic replacement used an assistive device. This difference was significant (protationplasty could participate in hobbies such as carpentry and sports as well as in other daily activities to a significantly greater degree than those who had had an endoprosthetic replacement (p = 0.001). Restriction in daily activities due to pain was significantly less common in the group that had had a rotationplasty than it was in the group that had had an endoprosthetic replacement (p = 0.047). Rotationplasty was not associated with any disadvantages with regard to function or

  19. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  20. Bioimpedance measurement based evaluation of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekonen, Atte; Bergelin, Mikael; Eriksson, Jan-Erik; Vaalasti, Annikki; Ylänen, Heimo; Viik, Jari

    2017-06-22

    Our group has developed a bipolar bioimpedance measurement-based method for determining the state of wound healing. The objective of this study was to assess the capability of the method. To assess the performance of the method, we arranged a follow-up study of four acute wounds. The wounds were measured using the method and photographed throughout the healing process. Initially the bioimpedance of the wounds was significantly lower than the impedance of the undamaged skin, used as a baseline. Gradually, as healing progressed, the wound impedance increased and finally reached the impedance of the undamaged skin. The clinical appearance of the wounds examined in this study corresponded well with the parameters derived from the bioimpedance data. Hard-to-heal wounds are a significant and growing socioeconomic burden, especially in the developed countries, due to aging populations and to the increasing prevalence of various lifestyle related diseases. The assessment and the monitoring of chronic wounds are mainly based on visual inspection by medical professionals. The dressings covering the wound must be removed before assessment; this may disturb the wound healing process and significantly increases the work effort of the medical staff. There is a need for an objective and quantitative method for determining the status of a wound without removing the wound dressings. This study provided evidence of the capability of the bioimpedance based method for assessing the wound status. In the future measurements with the method should be extended to concern hard-to-heal wounds.

  1. Animal-based measures for welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare assessment can’t be irrespective of measures taken on animals. Indeed, housing parametersrelatedtostructures, designandmicro-environment, evenifreliable parameters related to structures, design and micro-environment, even if reliable and easier to take, can only identify conditions which could be detrimental to animal welfare, but can’t predict poor welfare in animals per se. Welfare assessment through animal-based measures is almost complex, given that animals’ responses to stressful conditions largely depend on the nature, length and intensity of challenges and on physiological status, age, genetic susceptibility and previous experience of animals. Welfare assessment requires a multi-disciplinary approach and the monitoring of productive, ethological, endocrine, immunological and pathological param- eters to be exhaustive and reliable. So many measures are needed, because stresses can act only on some of the mentioned parameters or on all of them but at different times and degree. Under this point of view, the main aim of research is to find feasible and most responsive indicators of poor animal welfare. In last decades, studies focused on the following parameters for animal wel- fare assessment indexes of biological efficiency, responses to behavioral tests, cortisol secretion, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte proliferation, production of antigen specific IgG and cytokine release, somatic cell count and acute phase proteins. Recently, a lot of studies have been addressed to reduce handling and constraint of animals for taking measures to be used in welfare assessment, since such procedures can induce stress in animals and undermined the reliability of measures taken for welfare assessment. Range of animal-based measures for welfare assessment is much wider under experimental condition than at on-farm level. In welfare monitoring on-farm the main aim is to find feasible measures of proved validity and reliability

  2. Property-Based Software Engineering Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Morasca, Sandro; Basili, Victor R.

    1997-01-01

    Little theory exists in the field of software system measurement. Concepts such as complexity, coupling, cohesion or even size are very often subject to interpretation and appear to have inconsistent definitions in the literature. As a consequence, there is little guidance provided to the analyst attempting to define proper measures for specific problems. Many controversies in the literature are simply misunderstandings and stem from the fact that some people talk about different measurement concepts under the same label (complexity is the most common case). There is a need to define unambiguously the most important measurement concepts used in the measurement of software products. One way of doing so is to define precisely what mathematical properties characterize these concepts, regardless of the specific software artifacts to which these concepts are applied. Such a mathematical framework could generate a consensus in the software engineering community and provide a means for better communication among researchers, better guidelines for analysts, and better evaluation methods for commercial static analyzers for practitioners. In this paper, we propose a mathematical framework which is generic, because it is not specific to any particular software artifact and rigorous, because it is based on precise mathematical concepts. We use this framework to propose definitions of several important measurement concepts (size, length, complexity, cohesion, coupling). It does not intend to be complete or fully objective; other frameworks could have been proposed and different choices could have been made. However, we believe that the formalisms and properties we introduce are convenient and intuitive. This framework contributes constructively to a firmer theoretical ground of software measurement.

  3. Factors predicting perioperative delirium and acute exacerbation of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia based on admission data in elderly patients with proximal femoral fracture: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tomohiro

    2016-07-01

    To examine factors predicting the onset of perioperative delirium and acute exacerbation of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), based on patient background, operative background and laboratory data obtained on admission, in elderly patients with proximal femoral fracture. The participants were 152 patients (aged >70 years) who underwent surgery between 1 November 2012 and 31 March 2014. The participants were classified into group B (with onset of perioperative delirium or acute exacerbation of BPSD, n = 52), or group N, (without onset, n = 100), and risk factors were retrospectively examined. Onset was judged based on the presence or absence of common items; that is, "hallucination and delusion," "disturbing speech," "excitatory behavior" and "altered sleep-wake cycle." The participants were observed for 1 week after admission. The incidence of perioperative delirium or acute exacerbation of BPSD was 34.2% in total. In univariate analysis, the incidence was significantly higher (P < 0.005) in group B for the age, history of dementia and serum albumin level items. In multivariate analysis, history of dementia, serum albumin level and peripheral lymphocyte count (odds ratio 3.55, 0.17, 1.00, respectively) were identified as independent predictive factors. In the subanalysis, the incidence was 91.3% in the group with a history of dementia, serum albumin level <3.7 g/dL and peripheral lymphocyte count < 1200/μL. History of dementia, a low serum albumin level and low peripheral lymphocyte count were found to be useful factors for predicting the onset of perioperative delirium and acute exacerbation of BPSD. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 821-828. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Transcytosis-blocking abs elicited by an oligomeric immunogen based on the membrane proximal region of HIV-1 gp41 target non-neutralizing epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Nobuyuki; Griffin, Tagan A; Mittman, Michele; Doran, Jeffrey D; Alfsen, Annette; Montefiori, David C; Hanson, Carl V; Bomsel, Morgane; Mor, Tsafrir S

    2008-05-01

    CTB-MPR(649-684), a translational fusion protein consisting of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and residues 649 684 of gp41 membrane proximal region (MPR), is a candidate vaccine aimed at blocking early steps of HIV-1 mucosal transmission. Bacterially produced CTB MPR(649-684) was purified to homogeneity by two affinity chromatography steps. Similar to gp41 and derivatives thereof, the MPR domain can specifically and reversibly self-associate. The affinities of the broadly-neutralizing monoclonal Abs 4E10 and 2F5 to CTB MPR(649-684) were equivalent to their nanomolar affinities toward an MPR peptide. The fusion protein's affinity to GM1 ganglioside was comparable to that of native CTB. Rabbits immunized with CTB-MPR(649-684) raised only a modest level of anti-MPR(649-684) Abs. However, a prime-boost immunization with CTB-MPR(649-684) and a second MPR(649-684)-based immunogen elicited a more productive anti-MPR(649-684) antibody response. These Abs strongly blocked the epithelial transcytosis of a primary subtype B HIV-1 isolate in a human tight epithelial model, expanding our previously reported results using a clade D virus. The Abs recognized epitopes at the N-terminal portion of the MPR peptide, away from the 2F5 and 4E10 epitopes and were not effective in neutralizing infection of CD4+ cells. These results indicate distinct vulnerabilities of two separate interactions of HIV-1 with human cells - Abs against the C-terminal portion of the MPR can neutralize CD4+-dependent infection, while Abs targeting the MPR's N-terminal portion can effectively block galactosyl ceramide dependent transcytosis. We propose that Abs induced by MPR(649-684)-based immunogens may provide broad protective value independent of infection neutralization.

  5. Transformations through Proximity Flying: A Phenomenological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmbom, Maria; Brymer, Eric; Schweitzer, Robert D.

    2017-01-01

    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants’ perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity. PMID:29104552

  6. Korean Clinic Based Outcome Measure Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongbae Park

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence based medicine has become main tools for medical practice. However, conducting a highly ranked in the evidence hierarchy pyramid is not easy or feasible at all times and places. There remains a room for descriptive clinical outcome measure studies with admitting the limit of the intepretation. Aims: Presents three Korean clinic based outcome measure studies with a view to encouraging Korean clinicians to conduct similar studies. Methods: Three studies are presented briefly here including 1 Quality of Life of liver cancer patients after 8 Constitutional acupuncture; 2 Developing a Korean version of Measuring yourself Medical Outcome profile (MYMOP; and 3 Survey on 5 Shu points: a pilot In the first study, we have included 4 primary or secondary liver cancer patients collecting their diagnostic X-ray film and clinical data f개m their hospital, and asked them to fill in the European Organization Research and Treatment of Cancer, Quality of Life Questionnaire before the commencement of the treatment. The acupuncture treatment is set up format but not disclosed yet. The translation and developing a Korean version of outcome measures that is Korean clinician friendly has been sought for MYMOP is one of the most appropriate one. The permission was granted, the translation into Korean was done, then back translated into English only based on the Korean translation by the researcher who is bilingual in both languages. The back translation was compared by the original developer of MYMOP and confirmed usable. In order to test the existence of acupoints and meridians through popular forms of Korean acupuncture regimes, we aim at collecting opinions from 101 Korean clinicians that have used those forms. The questions asked include most effective symptoms, 5 Shu points, points those are least likely to use due to either adverse events or the lack of effectiveness, theoretical reasons for the above proposals, proposing outcome measures

  7. Measuring Modularity in Open Source Code Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Milev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Modularity of an open source software code base has been associated with growth of the software development community, the incentives for voluntary code contribution, and a reduction in the number of users who take code without contributing back to the community. As a theoretical construct, modularity links OSS to other domains of research, including organization theory, the economics of industry structure, and new product development. However, measuring the modularity of an OSS design has proven difficult, especially for large and complex systems. In this article, we describe some preliminary results of recent research at Carleton University that examines the evolving modularity of large-scale software systems. We describe a measurement method and a new modularity metric for comparing code bases of different size, introduce an open source toolkit that implements this method and metric, and provide an analysis of the evolution of the Apache Tomcat application server as an illustrative example of the insights gained from this approach. Although these results are preliminary, they open the door to further cross-discipline research that quantitatively links the concerns of business managers, entrepreneurs, policy-makers, and open source software developers.

  8. A Method for Measuring the Three-Dimensional Refractive-Index Distribution of Single Cells Using Proximal Two-Beam Optical Tweezers and a Phase-Shifting Mach—Zehnder Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasokawa, Toshiki; Ishimaru, Ichirou; Kondo, Masahiro; Kuriyama, Shigeki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Takegawa, Kaoru; Tanaka, Naotaka

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes a method for measuring the three-dimensional (3D) refractive-index distribution in a single cell. The method can be used to observe the distribution of cell components without fluorescence staining. The two-dimensional optical path length distributions from multiple directions are obtained by non-contact rotation of the cell. These optical path lengths are converted into the line integrals of the refractive index, and the 3D refractive-index distribution is reconstructed by means of computed tomography. The refractive-index distribution in a breast cancer cell can be measured using a phase-shifting Mach—Zehnder interferometer in conjunction with proximal two-beam optical tweezers.

  9. A Population-Based Analysis of Three Treatment Modalities for Malignant Obstruction of the Proximal Colon: Acute Resection Versus Stent or Stoma as a Bridge to Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, F. J.; Consten, E. C. J.; Siersema, P. D.; Tanis, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant obstruction of the proximal colon (MOPC) traditionally has been treated with acute resection. However, morbidity and mortality rates following these emergency surgeries are high. Initial bowel decompression by stent placement or stoma construction has been used for distal obstructions as

  10. Radiographic and Computed Tomographic Configuration of Incomplete Proximal Fractures of the Proximal Phalanx in Horses Not Used for Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brünisholz, Hervé P; Hagen, Regine; Fürst, Anton E; Kuemmerle, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    To characterize the configuration of incomplete proximal fractures of the proximal phalanx (P1) in horses not used for racing and compare radiographic with computed tomography (CT) findings. Historical cohort. Twenty-four horses with incomplete fractures of P1. Medical records of horses not used for racing diagnosed with an incomplete proximal fracture of P1 based on clinical and radiographic examination and confirmed by CT between 2008 and 2013 were retrieved. Radiographs and CT studies of these horses were analyzed using a subjective grading system and by measuring variables that characterized fracture configuration. Twenty-four horses were included (20 Warmbloods) with a mean age of 9.5 years and mean body weight of 574 kg. Fourteen forelimbs and 10 hind limbs were affected. Mean duration of lameness was 8.7 weeks. Computed tomography was superior to radiography in both identifying the fracture and determining fracture size and location. On CT, 92% of fractures were located in the mid-sagittal plane. Mean proximodistal length of the fracture was 13 mm. Fractures were frequently not bicortical. Fractures in forelimbs were located significantly more dorsally than fractures in hind limbs. A distinct fracture pattern with 2 subchondral lines running parallel in close proximity to each other was identified in 54% of cases. Incomplete proximal fractures of P1 have significant variation in their configurations, especially their dorsopalmar/-plantar location. Computed tomography examination allowed clear identification of the fracture configurations and was superior to radiography. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  11. Using satellite-based measurements to explore ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    New particle formation (NPF) can potentially alter regional climate by increasing aerosol particle (hereafter particle) number concentrations and ultimately cloud condensation nuclei. The large scales on which NPF is manifest indicate potential to use satellite-based (inherently spatially averaged) measurements of atmospheric conditions to diagnose the occurrence of NPF and NPF characteristics. We demonstrate the potential for using satellite-measurements of insolation (UV), trace gas concentrations (sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), formaldehyde (HCHO), ozone (O3)), aerosol optical properties (aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (AE)), and a proxy of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions (leaf area index (LAI), temperature (T)) as predictors for NPF characteristics: formation rates, growth rates, survival probabilities, and ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations at five locations across North America. NPF at all sites is most frequent in spring, exhibits a one-day autocorrelation, and is associated with low condensational sink (AOD×AE) and HCHO concentrations, and high UV. However, there are important site-to-site variations in NPF frequency and characteristics, and in which of the predictor variables (particularly gas concentrations) significantly contribute to the explanatory power of regression models built to predict those characteristics. This finding may provide a partial explanation for the reported spatia

  12. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  13. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  14. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  15. Two Proximal Skin Electrodes — A Respiration Rate Body Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Avbelj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new body sensor for extracting the respiration rate based on the amplitude changes in the body surface potential differences between two proximal body electrodes. The sensor could be designed as a plaster-like reusable unit that can be easily fixed onto the surface of the body. It could be equipped either with a sufficiently large memory for storing the measured data or with a low-power radio system that can transmit the measured data to a gateway for further processing. We explore the influence of the sensor’s position on the quality of the extracted results using multi-channel ECG measurements and considering all the pairs of two neighboring electrodes as potential respiration-rate sensors. The analysis of the clinical measurements, which also include reference thermistor-based respiration signals, shows that the proposed approach is a viable option for monitoring the respiration frequency and for a rough classification of breathing types. The obtained results were evaluated on a wireless prototype of a respiration body sensor. We indicate the best positions for the respiration body sensor and prove that a single sensor for body surface potential difference on proximal skin electrodes can be used for combined measurements of respiratory and cardiac activities.

  16. Complications in proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming

    2016-04-14

    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  18. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2017-09-20

    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  19. [Disorders of sex development and proximal hypospadias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, J

    2016-01-01

    Children with ambiguous genitalia due to different chromosome or gonadal sex are a particular challenge concerning the diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Proximal hypospadias patients with normal gonadal development should be distinguished from children with DSD (disorders of sex development) to guarantee normal gender identity and the best possible surgical therapy. This paper focuses on the terminology, embryology, and pathophysiology of the different manifestations of DSD. The state of knowledge about this disease pattern with particular emphasis on proximal hypospadias based on national and international scientific discussions is presented. The different clinical pictures as well as therapeutic options of DSD with a special focus on recent literature and giving particular attention to patients with proximal hypospadias are presented. Because of the complexity of patients suffering from disorders of sex development an interdisciplinary DSD healthcare team including a paediatric endocrinologist as well as paediatric urologist should be provided. These specialists enable an accurate diagnosis in severe hypospadias patients without reference to DSD diseases patterns.

  20. Investigating magnetic proximity effects at ferrite/Pt interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, M.; Mattana, R.; Moussy, J.-B.; Ollefs, K.; Collin, S.; Deranlot, C.; Anane, A.; Cros, V.; Petroff, F.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.

    2017-11-01

    Spintronic devices based on pure spin currents have drawn a lot of attention during the last few years for low energy device design. One approach to generate pure spin currents is to combine a metallic or insulating ferromagnetic layer with a non-magnetic metallic layer with a large spin-orbit coupling. A recent controversy has arisen in the possible role of magnetic proximity effects at ferromagnetic/non-magnetic interfaces, which can hamper the understanding of pure spin current generation mechanisms. While magnetic proximity effects have been frequently observed at ferromagnetic metal/non-magnetic interfaces, there are only a few studies on ferromagnetic insulator/non-magnetic interfaces. Regarding the use of ferromagnetic insulators, the focus has been mainly on yttrium iron garnet (YIG). However, investigation of induced magnetic moments at YIG/Pt interfaces has engendered contradictory results. Here, we propose to study insulating ferrites for which electronic and magnetic properties can be modulated. Magnetic proximity effects have been investigated at MnFe2O4/Pt, CoFe2O4/Pt, and NiFe2O4/Pt interfaces by X-ray circular magnetic dichroism (XMCD) measurements at the Pt L3 edge. Although hybridization with Pt seems to be different among the ferrites, we do not detect any XMCD signal as the signature of an induced magnetism in Pt. We have then studied the Fe3O4 ferrite below and above the Verwey transition temperature. No XMCD signal has been measured in the insulating or conducting phase of Fe3O4. This suggests that the absence of magnetic proximity effects at ferrite/Pt interfaces is not linked to the insulating character or not of the ferrites.

  1. Keldysh proximity action for disordered superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review a novel approach to the superconductive proximity effect in dis- ordered normal–superconducting (N–S) structures. The method is based on the multi- charge Keldysh action and is suitable for the treatment of interaction and fluctuation effects. As an application of the formalism, we study the subgap ...

  2. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  3. Marker-based method to measure movement between the residual limb and a transtibial prosthetic socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Walter Lee; Siebert, Steven

    2016-12-01

    Limb movement between the residuum and socket continues to be an underlying factor in limb health, prosthetic comfort, and gait performance yet techniques to measure this have been underdeveloped. Develop a method to measure motion between the residual limb and a transtibial prosthetic socket. Single subject, repeated measures with mathematical modeling. The gait of a participant with transtibial amputation was recorded using a motion capture system using a marker set that included arrays on the anterior distal tibia and the lateral epicondyle of the femur. The proximal or distal translation, anterior or posterior translation, and angular movements were quantified. A random Monte Carlo simulation based on the precision of the motion capture system and a model of the bone moving under the skin explored the technique's accuracy. Residual limb tissue stiffness was modeled as a linear spring based on data from Papaioannou et al. Residuum movement relative to the socket went through ~30 mm, 18 mm, and 15° range of motion. Root mean squared errors were 5.47 mm, 1.86 mm, and 0.75° when considering the modeled bone-skin movement in the proximal or distal, anterior or posterior, and angular directions, respectively. The measured movement was greater than the root mean squared error, indicating that this method can measure motion between the residuum and socket. The ability to quantify movement between the residual limb and the prosthetic socket will improve prosthetic treatment through the evaluation of different prosthetic suspensions, socket designs, and motor control of the prosthetic interface. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  4. Proximity and inter-organizational collaboration: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoben, J.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The proximity concept is used in many different ways in the literature. These dimensions of proximity are, however, defined and measured in many different (sometimes even contradictory) ways, show large amounts of overlap, and often are under- or over-specified. The goal of this paper is to specify

  5. Properties of Sn-Ag proximity effect bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Hongchang; Yu Zheng

    1983-09-01

    We have measured the I-V characteristics, I/sub c/(t) and T/sub c/ of Sn-Ag proximity effect bridges, obtaining some interesting results. We have also analyzed and tried to explain the results in terms of phenomenological theories, believing that microbridge theories of Skocpol, Beasley and Tinkham (SBT) also apply to our proximity effect bridges.

  6. Development of Validated Computer-based Preoperative Predictive Model for Proximal Junction Failure (PJF) or Clinically Significant PJK With 86% Accuracy Based on 510 ASD Patients With 2-year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Justin K; Osorio, Joseph A; Smith, Justin S; Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Virginie; Hart, Robert A; Bess, Shay; Line, Breton; Diebo, Bassel G; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Jain, Amit; Ailon, Tamir; Burton, Douglas C; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Klineberg, Eric; Ames, Christopher P

    2016-11-15

    A retrospective review of large, multicenter adult spinal deformity (ASD) database. The aim of this study was to build a model based on baseline demographic, radiographic, and surgical factors that can predict clinically significant proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) and proximal junctional failure (PJF). PJF and PJK are significant complications and it remains unclear what are the specific drivers behind the development of either. There exists no predictive model that could potentially aid in the clinical decision making for adult patients undergoing deformity correction. Inclusion criteria: age ≥18 years, ASD, at least four levels fused. Variables included in the model were demographics, primary/revision, use of three-column osteotomy, upper-most instrumented vertebra (UIV)/lower-most instrumented vertebra (LIV) levels and UIV implant type (screw, hooks), number of levels fused, and baseline sagittal radiographs [pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis (PI-LL), thoracic kyphosis (TK), and sagittal vertical axis (SVA)]. PJK was defined as an increase from baseline of proximal junctional angle ≥20° with concomitant deterioration of at least one SRS-Schwab sagittal modifier grade from 6 weeks postop. PJF was defined as requiring revision for PJK. An ensemble of decision trees were constructed using the C5.0 algorithm with five different bootstrapped models, and internally validated via a 70 : 30 data split for training and testing. Accuracy and the area under a receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Five hundred ten patients were included, with 357 for model training and 153 as testing targets (PJF: 37, PJK: 102). The overall model accuracy was 86.3% with an AUC of 0.89 indicating a good model fit. The seven strongest (importance ≥0.95) predictors were age, LIV, pre-operative SVA, UIV implant type, UIV, pre-operative PT, and pre-operative PI-LL. A successful model (86% accuracy, 0.89 AUC) was built predicting either

  7. Stereological measures of trabecular bone structure: comparison of 3D micro computed tomography with 2D histological sections in human proximal tibial bone biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Laib, A.; Koller, B.

    2005-01-01

    Stereology applied on histological sections is the 'gold standard' for obtaining quantitative information on cancellous bone structure. Recent advances in micro computed tomography (microCT) have made it possible to acquire three-dimensional (3D) data non-destructively. However, before the 3D...... methods can be used as a substitute for the current 'gold standard' they have to be verified against the existing standard. The aim of this study was to compare bone structural measures obtained from 3D microCT data sets with those obtained by stereology performed on conventional histological sections...... and analysed with a computerized method. Trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) and connectivity density (CD) were estimated in both modalities, whereas trabecular bone pattern factor (TBPf) was estimated on the histological sections only. Trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), number (Tb.N) and separation (Tb...

  8. Tractable Algorithms for Proximity Search on Large Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Education never ends, Watson. It is a series of lessons with the greatest for the last. — Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes . 2.1 Introduction A...Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes . 5.1 Introduction In this thesis, our main goal is to design fast algorithms for proximity search in large graphs. In chapter 3...Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes . In this thesis our main focus is on investigating some useful random walk based prox- imity measures. We have started

  9. Thermistor-based thermal conductivity measurement system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atkins, R.T; Wright, E.A

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a patented method for using commercially available thermistors to make in-situ thermal conductivity measurements with commonly available electronic equipment such as digital voltmeters...

  10. Refractive index measurement based on confocal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhe; Xu, XiPing; Yang, JinHua; Qiao, Yang; Liu, Yang

    2017-10-01

    The development of transparent materials is closed to optoelectronic technology. It plays an increasingly important role in various fields. It is not only widely used in optical lens, optical element, optical fiber grating, optoelectronics, but also widely used in the building material, pharmaceutical industry with vessel, aircraft windshield and daily wear glasses.Regard of solving the problem of refractive index measurement in optical transparent materials. We proposed that using the polychromatic confocal method to measuring the refractive index of transparent materials. In this article, we describes the principle of polychromatic confocal method for measuring the refractive index of glass,and sketched the optical system and its optimization. Then we establish the measurement model of the refractive index, and set up the experimental system. In this way, the refractive index of the glass has been calibrated for refractive index experiment. Due to the error in the experimental process, we manipulated the experiment data to compensate the refractive index measurement formula. The experiment taking the quartz glass for instance. The measurement accuracy of the refractive index of the glass is +/-1.8×10-5. This method is more practical and accurate, especially suitable for non-contact measurement occasions, which environmental requirements is not high. Environmental requirements are not high, the ordinary glass production line up to the ambient temperature can be fully adapted. There is no need for the color of the measured object that you can measure the white and a variety of colored glass.

  11. An amplified electrochemical proximity immunoassay for the total protein of Nosema bombycis based on the catalytic activity of Fe3O4NPs towards methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Gan, Xianxue; Zang, Ruhua; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Yali; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-07-15

    A simple electrochemical proximity immunoassay (ECPA) system for the total protein of Nosema bombycis (TP N.b) detection has been developed on the basis of a new amplification strategy combined with target-induced proximity hybridization. The desirable ECPA system was achieved through following process: firstly, the methylene blue (MB) labeled hairpin DNA (MB-DNA) were immobilized on electrode through Au-S bonding. Then, the antibody labeled complementary single-stranded DNA probe (Ab1-S1) hybridized with MB-DNA to open its hairpin structure, which led to the labeled MB far away from electrode surface. After that, the presence of target biomarker (TP N.b) and antibody labeled single-stranded DNA (Ab2-S2) triggered the typical sandwich reaction and proximity hybridization, which resulted in the dissociation of Ab1-S1 from electrode and the transformation of the MB-DNA into a hairpin structure with MB approaching to electrode surface. In consequence, the hairpin-closed MB was electrocatalyzed by the modified magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4NPs), leading to an increased and amplified electrochemical signal for the quantitative detection of TP N.b. In the present work, Fe3O4NPs were acted as catalyst to electrocatalyze the reduction of electron mediator MB for signal amplification, which could not only overcome the drawbacks of protein enzyme in electrocatalytic signal amplification but also shorten the interaction distance between catalyst and substance. Under optimal condition, the proposed ECPA system exhibited a wide linear range from 0.001ngmL(-1) to 100ngmL(-)(1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.54pgmL(-1). Considering the desirable sensitivity and specificity, as well as the novel and simple features, this signal amplified ECPA system opened an opportunity for quantitative analysis of many other kinds of protein biomarker. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Caries status and proximal lesion behaviour during a 6-year period in young adult Danes: an epidemiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignon, Stefania; Chavarría, Nathaly; Ekstrand, Kim Rud

    2010-08-01

    Studies have indicated that many initial proximal caries lesions progress and are eventually restored even if the patients have been under comprehensive preventive programmes. The objectives of the study were (1) to describe the 1996-year baseline caries status of male Danish conscripts and (2) to assess their early proximal lesions 6-year behaviour. In 1996, all 20-year-old conscripts at Central Barrack Birkerød (n = 115) went through an oral examination, including visual surface-level fillings' recording and a radiographic examination with bitewing radiographs that assessed the proximal-surface caries and restoration patterns. After 6 years, the behaviour of proximal lesions was studied in 73 of these subjects, and oral health habits were assessed through a questionnaire. Mean number of filled surfaces was 7.5, of which 23% were posterior proximal. Radiographically, the mean number of proximal lesions was 5.5. Over the 6-year period, there was progression of lesions into deeper radiolucencies or fillings in 57% of cases. The questionnaire showed a poor compliance with regular flossing/tooth-stick use (18%). Based on these results, more efficacious preventive measures seem to be needed for proximal surfaces.

  13. Determination of Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of the seed of 30 Nigerian sesame genotypes were determined based on the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the Sequential Multi- sample amino acid Analyzer (TSM). Proximate analysis showed that sesame seed contained ...

  14. Proximate composition and mineral contents of Pebbly fish, Alestes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The objective of this study was to determine the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. ... and also develop suitable processing method. This study determined the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. baremoze fillets based on fish size. Materials and .... moisture contents can vary with sex of the fish ...

  15. Relationships of trabecular bone structure with quantitative ultrasound parameters: in vitro study on human proximal femur using transmission and backscatter measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, F; Jenson, F; Bousson, V; Peyrin, F; Laugier, P

    2008-06-01

    The present study was designed to assess the relationships between QUS parameters and bone density or microarchitecture on samples of human femoral trabecular bone. The normalized slope of the frequency-dependent attenuation (nBUA), the speed of sound (SOS) and the broadband ultrasound backscatter coefficient (BUB) were measured on 37 specimens of pure trabecular bones removed from upper parts of fresh human femurs. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed using a clinical scanner. Finally, 8 mm diameter cylindrical cores were extracted from the specimens and their microarchitecture was reconstructed after synchrotron radiation microtomography experiments (isotropic resolution of 10 microm). A large number of microarchitectural parameters were computed, describing morphology, connectivity and geometry of the specimens. BMD correlated with all the microarchitectural parameters and the number of significant correlations was found among the architectural parameters themselves. All QUS parameters were significantly correlated to BMD (R=0.83 for nBUA, R=0.81 for SOS and R=0.69 for BUB) and to microarchitectural parameters (R=-0.79 between nBUA and Tb.Sp, R=-0.81 between SOS and Tb.Sp, R=-0.65 between BUB and BS/BV). Using multivariate model, it was found that microstructural parameters adds 10%, 19%, and 4% to the respective BMD alone contribution for the three variables BUA, SOS and BUB. Moreover, the RMSE was reduced by up to 50% for SOS, by up to 21% for nBUA and up to 11% when adding structural variables to BMD in explaining QUS results. Given the sample, which is not osteoporosis-enriched, the added contribution is quite substantial. The variability of SOS was indeed completely explained by a multivariate model including BMD and independent structural parameters (R(2)=0.94). The inverse problem on the data presented here has been addressed using simple and multiple linear regressions. It was shown that the predictions (in terms of R(2) or RMSE) of microarchitectural

  16. Energy Based Acoustic Measurement Senors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research focuses on fully developing energy density sensors that will yield a significant benefit both for measurements of interest to NASA, as well as for...

  17. Parkinson's disease detection based on dysphonia measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2017-04-01

    Assessing dysphonic symptoms is a noninvasive and effective approach to detect Parkinson's disease (PD) in patients. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of different dysphonia measurements on PD detection by support vector machine (SVM). Seven categories of dysphonia measurements are considered. Experimental results from ten-fold cross-validation technique demonstrate that vocal fundamental frequency statistics yield the highest accuracy of 88 % ± 0.04. When all dysphonia measurements are employed, the SVM classifier achieves 94 % ± 0.03 accuracy. A refinement of the original patterns space by removing dysphonia measurements with similar variation across healthy and PD subjects allows achieving 97.03 % ± 0.03 accuracy. The latter performance is larger than what is reported in the literature on the same dataset with ten-fold cross-validation technique. Finally, it was found that measures of ratio of noise to tonal components in the voice are the most suitable dysphonic symptoms to detect PD subjects as they achieve 99.64 % ± 0.01 specificity. This finding is highly promising for understanding PD symptoms.

  18. Measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in hip and knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, F; Hinman, R S; Hall, M

    2012-01-01

    reviewers independently rated measurement properties using the consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instrument (COSMIN). "Best evidence synthesis" was made using COSMIN outcomes and the quality of findings. RESULTS: Twenty-four out of 1792 publications were eligible......OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO up to the end of June 2012. Two...... for inclusion. Twenty-one performance-based measures were evaluated including 15 single-activity measures and six multi-activity measures. Measurement properties evaluated included internal consistency (three measures), reliability (16 measures), measurement error (14 measures), validity (nine measures...

  19. Asset-Based Measurement of Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolini, Andrea; Magri, Silvia; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is generally defined as income or expenditure insufficiency, but the economic condition of a household also depends on its real and financial asset holdings. This paper investigates measures of poverty that rely on indicators of household net worth. We review and assess two main approaches followed in the literature: income-net worth…

  20. Stability of acute dorsal fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyser, Andrew R; Tsai, Michael A; Parks, Brent G; Means, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    We performed a cadaveric biomechanical study to characterize proximal interphalangeal joint stability after an injury to different amounts of the volar articular base of the middle phalanx (intact, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% volar defects). Eighteen digits on 6 hands were tested through full proximal interphalangeal joint range of motion using computer-controlled flexion and extension via the digital tendons. We collected proximal interphalangeal joint kinematic cine data in a true lateral projection with mini-fluoroscopy. We measured the amount of dorsal middle phalanx translation in full proximal interphalangeal joint extension. As we cycled the joint from full flexion into extension, we recorded the angle at which subluxation occurred. No specimens with 20% volar bony defect subluxated. All specimens in the 60% and 80% groups subluxated at an average flexion angle of 67° (range, 10° to 90°) in the 60% group and at all degrees of flexion in the 80% group. In the 40% group, 28% of specimens demonstrated subluxation at an average flexion angle of 14° (range, 4° to 40°). Mean dorsal translation of the middle phalanx in relation to the proximal phalanx at full digital extension was 0.2 mm in the 20% group, 0.8 mm in the 40% group, 3.2 mm in the 60% group, and 3.1 mm in the 80% group. Simulated volar articular bony defects of 20% were stable, whereas those with 60% and 80% defects were unstable during digital motion. Stability in the 40% group was variable and appeared to be the threshold for stability. Knowledge of the typical amount of middle phalanx defect and degree of proximal interphalangeal joint extension that can lead to joint instability may improve management of mechanically important proximal interphalangeal joint fracture dislocations. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  2. Superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers

    OpenAIRE

    Zareyan, M.; Belzig, W.; Nazarov, Yu. V.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers with rough boundaries. The subgap density of states is formed by Andreev bound states at energies which depend on trajectory length and the ferromagnetic exchange field. At energies above the gap, the spectrum is governed by resonant scattering states. The resulting density of states, measurable by tunneling spectroscopy, exhibits a rich structure, which allows us to connect the theoretical parameters from exper...

  3. Skill composition : exploring a wage-based skill measure

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Øivind Anti; Raknerud, Arvid; Rybalka, Marina; Skjerpen, Terje

    2008-01-01

    This study explores a wage-based skill measure using information from a wage equation. Evidence from matched employer-employee data show that skill is attributable to variables other than educational length, for instance experience and type of education. Applying our wage-based skill measure to TFP growth analysis, the TFP growth decreases, indicating that more of the change in value-added is picked up by our skill measure than when using a purely education-based skill measure.

  4. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2015-01-01

    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  5. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  6. Effect of age on proximal esophageal response to swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira Dantas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I, 27 aged 31-50 years (group II, and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III. We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05. The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001. There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.

  7. A Transdermal Measurement Platform Based on Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Franz diffusion cell is one of the most widely used devices to evaluate transdermal drug delivery. However, this static and nonflowing system has some limitations, such as a relatively large solution volume and skin area and the development of gas bubbles during sampling. To overcome these disadvantages, this study provides a proof of concept for miniaturizing models of transdermal delivery by using a microfluidic chip combined with a diffusion cell. The proposed diffusion microchip system requires only 80 μL of sample solution and provides flow circulation. Two model compounds, Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 and potassium ferricyanide, were successfully tested for transdermal delivery experiments. The diffusion rate is high for a high sample concentration or a large membrane pore size. The developed diffusion microchip system, which is feasible, can be applied for transdermal measurement in the future.

  8. Calibration Base Lines for Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments (EDMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A calibration base line (CBL) is a precisely measured, straight-line course of approximately 1,400 m used to calibrate Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments...

  9. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.

    1989-04-01

    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  10. Topic-based Social Influence Measurement for Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asso Hamzehei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Social science studies have acknowledged that the social influence of individuals is not identical. Social networks structure and shared text can reveal immense information about users, their interests, and topic-based influence. Although some studies have considered measuring user influence, less has been on measuring and estimating topic-based user influence. In this paper, we propose an approach that incorporates network structure, user-generated content for topic-based influence measurement, and user’s interactions in the network. We perform experimental analysis on Twitter data and show that our proposed approach can effectively measure topic-based user influence.

  11. Tunable Magnetic Proximity Effects in Graphene Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, Predrag; Belashchenko, Kirill; Zutic, Igor

    2015-03-01

    The characteristic length of the magnetic proximity effects exceed the thickness of a graphene layer leading to an important, but typically overlooked, modifications of equilibrium and transport properties, as well as the implications for graphene spintronics. Using the first-principles studies that integrate a real space density functional theory (GPAW) with the state-of-the art boundary elements electrostatic code based on the Robin Hood method, we explore tunable electronic structure and magnetic proximity effects in the ferromagnet/insulator/graphene junctions. We show that the inclusion of a finite-size gate electrodes and van der Walls interaction lead to nontrivial effects that could also be important in other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. Work supported by US ONR, NSF-DMR and Nebraska NSF MRSEC.

  12. Proximity of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread acknowledgement among European policy-makers that higher education may potentially contribute to enhancing competitiveness of tourism. This has led to a sheer explosion of specific measures encouraging knowledge transfer with the private sector. Despite the importance...... of knowledge flow processes, the role of universities and students has been little researched or linked to the understanding of innovation defectiveness in tourism. Followed by a critical review of knowledge transfer and learning processes in generic development and tourism literature, the chapter presents...... an illustrative case from an innovation course on a Danish Master program in tourism. The case describes and discusses challenges in working with, creating and implementing innovation through student-practitioner collaboration. It is argued that successful innovation is not solely, as previously argued...

  13. Human - Robot Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    The media and political/managerial levels focus on the opportunities to re-perform Denmark through digitization. Feeding assistive robotics is a welfare technology, relevant to citizens with low or no function in their arms. Despite national dissemination strategies, it proves difficult to recruit...... the study that took place as multi-sited ethnography at different locations in Denmark and Sweden. Based on desk research, observation of meals and interviews I examine socio-technological imaginaries and their practical implications. Human - robotics interaction demands engagement and understanding...

  14. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  15. WhiteRef: A New Tower-Based Hyperspectral System for Continuous Reflectance Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Sakowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal sensing is fundamental to monitor the spatial and seasonal dynamics of ecosystems and can be considered as a crucial validation tool to upscale in situ observations to the satellite level. Linking hyperspectral remote sensing with carbon fluxes and biophysical parameters is critical to allow the exploitation of spatial and temporal extensive information for validating model simulations at different scales. In this study, we present the WhiteRef, a new hyperspectral system designed as a direct result of the needs identified during the EUROSPEC ES0903 Cost Action, and developed by Fondazione Edmund Mach and the Institute of Biometeorology, CNR, Italy. The system is based on the ASD FieldSpec Pro spectroradiometer and was designed to acquire continuous radiometric measurements at the Eddy Covariance (EC towers and to fill a gap in the scientific community: in fact, no system for continuous spectral measurements in the Short Wave Infrared was tested before at the EC sites. The paper illustrates the functioning of the WhiteRef and describes its main advantages and disadvantages. The WhiteRef system, being based on a robust and high quality commercially available instrument, has a clear potential for unattended continuous measurements aiming at the validation of satellites’ vegetation products.

  16. Characteristics of Differently Located Colorectal Cancers Support Proximal and Distal Classification: A Population-Based Study of 57,847 Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Yang

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that colorectal cancer be regarded as several subgroups defined according to tumor location rather than as a single entity. The current study aimed to identify the most useful method for grouping colorectal cancer by tumor location according to both baseline and survival characteristics.Cases of pathologically confirmed colorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 2000 to 2012 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database and categorized into three groups: right colon cancer (RCC, left colon cancer (LCC, and rectal cancer (ReC. Adjusted hazard ratios for known predictors of disease-specific survival (DSS in colorectal cancer were obtained using a Cox proportional hazards regression model.The study included 57847 patients: 43.5% with RCC, 37.7% with LCC, and 18.8% with ReC. Compared with LCC and ReC, RCC was more likely to affect old patients and women, and to be at advanced stage, poorly differentiated or un-differentiated, and mucinous. Patients with LCC or ReC had better DSS than those with RCC in subgroups including stage III or IV disease, age ≤70 years and non-mucinous adenocarcinoma. Conversely, patients with LCC or ReC had worse DSS than those with RCC in subgroups including age ˃70 years and mucinous adenocarcinoma.RCC differed from both LCC and ReC in several clinicopathologic characteristics and in DSS. It seems reasonable to group colorectal cancer into right-sided (i.e., proximal and left-sided (i.e., distal ones.

  17. Evaluation of energy expenditure in adult spring Chinook salmon migrating upstream in the Columbia River Basin: an assessment based on sequential proximate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, M.G.; Magie, C.D.

    2006-01-01

    The upstream migration of adult anadromous salmonids in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) has been dramatically altered and fish may be experiencing energetically costly delays at dams. To explore this notion, we estimated the energetic costs of migration and reproduction of Yakima River-bound spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha using a sequential analysis of their proximate composition (i.e., percent water, fat, protein, and ash). Tissues (muscle, viscera, and gonad) were sampled from fish near the start of their migration (Bonneville Dam), at a mid point (Roza Dam, 510 km upstream from Bonneville Dam) and from fresh carcasses on the spawning grounds (about 100 km above Roza Dam). At Bonneville Dam, the energy reserves of these fish were remarkably high, primarily due to the high percentage of fat in the muscle (18-20%; energy content over 11 kJ g-1). The median travel time for fish from Bonneville to Roza Dam was 27 d and ranged from 18 to 42 d. Fish lost from 6 to 17% of their energy density in muscle, depending on travel time. On average, fish taking a relatively long time for migration between dams used from 5 to 8% more energy from the muscle than faster fish. From the time they passed Bonneville Dam to death, these fish, depending on gender, used 95-99% of their muscle and 73-86% of their viscera lipid stores. Also, both sexes used about 32% of their muscular and very little of their visceral protein stores. However, we were unable to relate energy use and reproductive success to migration history. Our results suggest a possible influence of the CRB hydroelectric system on adult salmonid energetics.

  18. Proximity effect correction using multilevel area density maps for character projection based electron beam direct writing toward 14 nm node and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Kozo; Hoshino, Hiromi; Maruyama, Takashi; Machida, Yasuhide; Sugatani, Shinji

    2012-03-01

    We propose an advanced proximity effect correction method, in which all patterns of various sizes are written by character projection (CP) method, and the dose modulation and the auxiliary shot generation are performed using multiple area density maps with different mesh sizes according to the range of electron scatterings. We investigated the possibility that all patterns of various sizes could be written by using small number of CP characters of a single line with fixed width, which is called the "master-CP". We then estimated the range of the designed line width that can be supported by a master-CP and the number of master-CPs which are needed in order to support all patterns of various sizes. We found that only 5-7 master-CPs are required in terms of the dose margin, the rate of increase in the correction dose caused by using the master-CP of different width from the design pattern and the shot positioning error, and they have a low impact on the CP mask. Moreover, we estimated the effect of auxiliary shots on the throughput for 14 nm node technology. The percentage of auxiliary shots in the exposure time was less than 12.1%, even though a test pattern data was made by shrinking a 65 nm node logic LSI where the layout did not repeat very regularly. Therefore, as the layout becomes regularly-repeated to 14 nm node, the effect of the auxiliary shots would not be a dominant factor for the throughput.

  19. Proximal caries detection: Sirona Sidexis versus Kodak Ektaspeed Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Ludlow, John B; Caplan, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of intraoral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD) receptor for proximal caries detection. Four observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a five-point confidence scale. The actual status of each surface was determined from ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under ROC curves (Az) were assessed through a paired t-test. The performance of the CCD-based intraoral sensor was not different statistically from Ektaspeed Plus film in detecting proximal caries.

  20. The Reliability of Randomly Generated Math Curriculum-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Gerald G.; Smith, Bradley H.; Pender, Carolyn; Malone, Patrick S.; Roberts, Jarod; Hall, John D.

    2015-01-01

    "Curriculum-Based Measurement" (CBM) is a direct method of academic assessment used to screen and evaluate students' skills and monitor their responses to academic instruction and intervention. Interventioncentral.org offers a math worksheet generator at no cost that creates randomly generated "math curriculum-based measures"…

  1. Research Techniques Made Simple: Emerging Methods to Elucidate Protein Interactions through Spatial Proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yonglu; Khavari, Paul A

    2017-12-01

    Interactions between proteins are essential for fundamental cellular processes, and the diversity of such interactions enables the vast variety of functions essential for life. A persistent goal in biological research is to develop assays that can faithfully capture different types of protein interactions to allow their study. A major step forward in this direction came with a family of methods that delineates spatial proximity of proteins as an indirect measure of protein-protein interaction. A variety of enzyme- and DNA ligation-based methods measure protein co-localization in space, capturing novel interactions that were previously too transient or low affinity to be identified. Here we review some of the methods that have been successfully used to measure spatially proximal protein-protein interactions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. EIGENVECTOR-BASED CENTRALITY MEASURES FOR TEMPORAL NETWORKS*

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Dane; MYERS, SEAN A.; Clauset, Aaron; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous centrality measures have been developed to quantify the importances of nodes in time-independent networks, and many of them can be expressed as the leading eigenvector of some matrix. With the increasing availability of network data that changes in time, it is important to extend such eigenvector-based centrality measures to time-dependent networks. In this paper, we introduce a principled generalization of network centrality measures that is valid for any eigenvector-based centralit...

  3. Lactate oxidation by three segments of the rabbit proximal tubule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, P.H.; Taylor, B.B.

    1986-09-01

    Oxidation of (U/sup 14/C)lactate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was measured in vitro, in nonperfused anatomically defined segments of rabbit proximal tubule (S1, proximal convoluted, and S2 and S3, proximal straight tubules). The rate of lactate oxidation was similar in S2 and S3 segments, and within the range of lactate oxidation rates measured in vivo. In contrast, the oxidation rate of S1 segments was significantly lower than that of S2 or S3. In proximal straight tubules, lactate oxidation was inhibited by incubation at 0/sup 0/C, or by application of 1 mM ouabain. To determine if the rate of transepithelial transport affected the rate of lactate oxidation, lactate oxidation was measured in proximal straight tubules after the lumen had been opened by perfusion with Ringer's containing 10 mM polyethylene glycol. No difference in lactate oxidation rate was observed between tubules with patent lumina and nonperfused tubules. These results suggest that the various segments of the renal proximal tubule have difference metabolic characteristics, and that the rate of substrate oxidation is related to the activity of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase.

  4. Proximity systems: Analysis of health risks; Varchi magneticianalysis of health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbaro, V.; Bartolini, P.; Donato, A. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Ingegneria Biomedica; Militello, C.; Polichetti, A.; Vecchia, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Fisica

    1996-03-01

    The results of a study on the magnetic fields generated by proximity systems for the controlled access of personnel are reported. Besides data from experimental measurements, the results are presented of theoretical calculations of induced currents inside the body. Health risks are also evaluated based on a comparison with the most advanced international standards. Finally, possible effects of interference with implanted pacemakers are analyzed in detail.

  5. SHORT COMMUNICATION PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  6. Slice-Based Formal Specification Measures -- Mapping Coupling and Cohesion Measures to Formal Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollin, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that existing slice-based measures can reasonably be mapped to the field of state-based specification languages. By making use of Z specifications this contribution renews the idea of slice-profiles and derives coupling and cohesion measures for them. The measures are then assessed by taking a critical look at their sensitiveness in respect to modifications on the specification source. The presented study shows that slice-based coupling and cohesion measures have the potential to be used as quality indicators for specifications as they reflect the changes in the structure of a specification as accustomed from their program-related pendants.

  7. Observational attachment theory-based parenting measures predict children's attachment narratives independently from social learning theory-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Carla; O'Connor, Thomas G; Futh, Annabel; Scott, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Conceptually and methodologically distinct models exist for assessing quality of parent-child relationships, but few studies contrast competing models or assess their overlap in predicting developmental outcomes. Using observational methodology, the current study examined the distinctiveness of attachment theory-based and social learning theory-based measures of parenting in predicting two key measures of child adjustment: security of attachment narratives and social acceptance in peer nominations. A total of 113 5-6-year-old children from ethnically diverse families participated. Parent-child relationships were rated using standard paradigms. Measures derived from attachment theory included sensitive responding and mutuality; measures derived from social learning theory included positive attending, directives, and criticism. Child outcomes were independently-rated attachment narrative representations and peer nominations. Results indicated that Attachment theory-based and Social Learning theory-based measures were modestly correlated; nonetheless, parent-child mutuality predicted secure child attachment narratives independently of social learning theory-based measures; in contrast, criticism predicted peer-nominated fighting independently of attachment theory-based measures. In young children, there is some evidence that attachment theory-based measures may be particularly predictive of attachment narratives; however, no single model of measuring parent-child relationships is likely to best predict multiple developmental outcomes. Assessment in research and applied settings may benefit from integration of different theoretical and methodological paradigms.

  8. Translational Imaging Spectroscopy for Proximal Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogass, Christian; Koerting, Friederike M; Mielke, Christian; Brell, Maximilian; Boesche, Nina K; Bade, Maria; Hohmann, Christian

    2017-08-11

    Proximal sensing as the near field counterpart of remote sensing offers a broad variety of applications. Imaging spectroscopy in general and translational laboratory imaging spectroscopy in particular can be utilized for a variety of different research topics. Geoscientific applications require a precise pre-processing of hyperspectral data cubes to retrieve at-surface reflectance in order to conduct spectral feature-based comparison of unknown sample spectra to known library spectra. A new pre-processing chain called GeoMAP-Trans for at-surface reflectance retrieval is proposed here as an analogue to other algorithms published by the team of authors. It consists of a radiometric, a geometric and a spectral module. Each module consists of several processing steps that are described in detail. The processing chain was adapted to the broadly used HySPEX VNIR/SWIR imaging spectrometer system and tested using geological mineral samples. The performance was subjectively and objectively evaluated using standard artificial image quality metrics and comparative measurements of mineral and Lambertian diffuser standards with standard field and laboratory spectrometers. The proposed algorithm provides highly qualitative results, offers broad applicability through its generic design and might be the first one of its kind to be published. A high radiometric accuracy is achieved by the incorporation of the Reduction of Miscalibration Effects (ROME) framework. The geometric accuracy is higher than 1 μpixel. The critical spectral accuracy was relatively estimated by comparing spectra of standard field spectrometers to those from HySPEX for a Lambertian diffuser. The achieved spectral accuracy is better than 0.02% for the full spectrum and better than 98% for the absorption features. It was empirically shown that point and imaging spectrometers provide different results for non-Lambertian samples due to their different sensing principles, adjacency scattering impacts on the signal

  9. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of HIV fusion peptide 13CO to lipid 31P proximities support similar partially inserted membrane locations of the α helical and β sheet peptide structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrys, Charles M; Qiang, Wei; Sun, Yan; Xie, Li; Schmick, Scott D; Weliky, David P

    2013-10-03

    Fusion of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) membrane and the host cell membrane is an initial step of infection of the host cell. Fusion is catalyzed by gp41, which is an integral membrane protein of HIV. The fusion peptide (FP) is the ∼25 N-terminal residues of gp41 and is a domain of gp41 that plays a key role in fusion catalysis likely through interaction with the host cell membrane. Much of our understanding of the FP domain has been accomplished with studies of "HFP", i.e., a ∼25-residue peptide composed of the FP sequence but lacking the rest of gp41. HFP catalyzes fusion between membrane vesicles and serves as a model system to understand fusion catalysis. HFP binds to membranes and the membrane location of HFP is likely a significant determinant of fusion catalysis perhaps because the consequent membrane perturbation reduces the fusion activation energy. In the present study, many HFPs were synthesized and differed in the residue position that was (13)CO backbone labeled. Samples were then prepared that each contained a singly (13)CO labeled HFP incorporated into membranes that lacked cholesterol. HFP had distinct molecular populations with either α helical or oligomeric β sheet structure. Proximity between the HFP (13)CO nuclei and (31)P nuclei in the membrane headgroups was probed by solid-state NMR (SSNMR) rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) measurements. For many samples, there were distinct (13)CO shifts for the α helical and β sheet structures so that the proximities to (31)P nuclei could be determined for each structure. Data from several differently labeled HFPs were then incorporated into a membrane location model for the particular structure. In addition to the (13)CO labeled residue position, the HFPs also differed in sequence and/or chemical structure. "HFPmn" was a linear peptide that contained the 23 N-terminal residues of gp41. "HFPmn_V2E" contained the V2E mutation that for HIV leads to greatly reduced extent of fusion and

  10. Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements of HIV Fusion Peptide 13CO to Lipid 31P Proximities Support Similar Partially Inserted Membrane Locations of the α Helical and β Sheet Peptide Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrys, Charles M.; Qiang, Wei; Sun, Yan; Xie, Li; Schmick, Scott D.; Weliky, David P.

    2013-10-01

    Fusion of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) membrane and the host cell membrane is an initial step of infection of the host cell. Fusion is catalyzed by gp41, which is an integral membrane protein of HIV. The fusion peptide (FP) is the -25 N-terminal residues of gp41 and is a domain of gp41 that plays a key role in fusion catalysis likely through interaction with the host cell membrane. Much of our understanding of the FP domain has been accomplished with studies of -HFP-, i.e., a -25-residue peptide composed of the FP sequence but lacking the rest of gp41. HFP catalyzes fusion between membrane vesicles and serves as a model system to understand fusion catalysis. HFP binds to membranes and the membrane location of HFP is likely a significant determinant of fusion catalysis perhaps because the consequent membrane perturbation reduces the fusion activation energy. In the present study, many HFPs were synthesized and differed in the residue position that was 13CO backbone labeled. Samples were then prepared that each contained a singly 13CO labeled HFP incorporated into membranes that lacked cholesterol. HFP had distinct molecular populations with either α helical or oligomeric - sheet structure. Proximity between the HFP 13CO nuclei and 31P nuclei in the membrane headgroups was probed by solid-state NMR (SSNMR) rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) measurements. For many samples, there were distinct 13CO shifts for the α helical and - sheet structures so that the proximities to 31P nuclei could be determined for each structure. Data from several differently labeled HFPs were then incorporated into a membrane location model for the particular structure. In addition to the 13CO labeled residue position, the HFPs also differed in sequence and/or chemical structure. -HFPmn- was a linear peptide that contained the 23 N-terminal residues of gp41. -HFPmn_V2E- contained the V2E mutation that for HIV leads to greatly reduced extent of fusion and infection. The

  11. Cyst-based measurements for assessing lymphangioleiomyomatosis in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, P., E-mail: pechinlo@mednet.edu.ucla; Brown, M. S.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.; Goldin, J. G. [Center for Computer Vision and Imaging Biomarkers, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Argula, R.; Strange, C. [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of a new family of measurements made on individual pulmonary cysts extracted from computed tomography (CT) for assessing the severity of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Methods: CT images were analyzed using thresholding to identify a cystic region of interest from chest CT of LAM patients. Individual cysts were then extracted from the cystic region by the watershed algorithm, which separates individual cysts based on subtle edges within the cystic regions. A family of measurements were then computed, which quantify the amount, distribution, and boundary appearance of the cysts. Sequential floating feature selection was used to select a small subset of features for quantification of the severity of LAM. Adjusted R{sup 2} from multiple linear regression and R{sup 2} from linear regression against measurements from spirometry were used to compare the performance of our proposed measurements with currently used density based CT measurements in the literature, namely, the relative area measure and the D measure. Results: Volumetric CT data, performed at total lung capacity and residual volume, from a total of 49 subjects enrolled in the MILES trial were used in our study. Our proposed measures had adjusted R{sup 2} ranging from 0.42 to 0.59 when regressing against the spirometry measures, with p < 0.05. For previously used density based CT measurements in the literature, the best R{sup 2} was 0.46 (for only one instance), with the majority being lower than 0.3 or p > 0.05. Conclusions: The proposed family of CT-based cyst measurements have better correlation with spirometric measures than previously used density based CT measurements. They show potential as a sensitive tool for quantitatively assessing the severity of LAM.

  12. Calibrating animal-borne proximity loggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Christian; Morrissey, Michael B; Burns, Zackory T; Burt, John; Otis, Brian; St Clair, James J H; James, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Growing interest in the structure and dynamics of animal social networks has stimulated efforts to develop automated tracking technologies that can reliably record encounters in free-ranging subjects. A particularly promising approach is the use of animal-attached 'proximity loggers', which collect data on the incidence, duration and proximity of spatial associations through inter-logger radio communication. While proximity logging is based on a straightforward physical principle - the attenuation of propagating radio waves with distance - calibrating systems for field deployment is challenging, since most study species roam across complex, heterogeneous environments.In this study, we calibrated a recently developed digital proximity-logging system ('Encounternet') for deployment on a wild population of New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides. Our principal objective was to establish a quantitative model that enables robust post hoc estimation of logger-to-logger (and, hence, crow-to-crow) distances from logger-recorded signal-strength values. To achieve an accurate description of the radio communication between crow-borne loggers, we conducted a calibration exercise that combines theoretical analyses, field experiments, statistical modelling, behavioural observations, and computer simulations.We show that, using signal-strength information only, it is possible to assign crow encounters reliably to predefined distance classes, enabling powerful analyses of social dynamics. For example, raw data sets from field-deployed loggers can be filtered at the analysis stage to include predominantly encounters where crows would have come to within a few metres of each other, and could therefore have socially learned new behaviours through direct observation. One of the main challenges for improving data classification further is the fact that crows - like most other study species - associate across a wide variety of habitats and behavioural contexts, with different signal

  13. Improved CDGPS FDIR Using Comm-based Relative Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is to use the comm-based measurements available from many advanced satellite cluster wireless networks to improve the flexibility and...

  14. Temporal Proximity Promotes Integration of Overlapping Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R

    2017-08-01

    Events with overlapping elements can be encoded as two separate representations or linked into an integrated representation, yet we know little about the conditions that promote one form of representation over the other. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the proximity of overlapping events would increase the probability of integration. Participants first established memories for house-object and face-object pairs; half of the pairs were learned 24 hr before an fMRI session, and the other half 30 min before the session. During scanning, participants encoded object-object pairs that overlapped with the initial pairs acquired on the same or prior day. Participants were also scanned as they made inference judgments about the relationships among overlapping pairs learned on the same or different day. Participants were more accurate and faster when inferring relationships among memories learned on the same day relative to those acquired across days, suggesting that temporal proximity promotes integration. Evidence for reactivation of existing memories-as measured by a visual content classifier-was equivalent during encoding of overlapping pairs from the two temporal conditions. In contrast, evidence for integration-as measured by a mnemonic strategy classifier from an independent study [Richter, F. R., Chanales, A. J. H., & Kuhl, B. A. Predicting the integration of overlapping memories by decoding mnemonic processing states during learning. Neuroimage, 124, 323-335, 2016]-was greater for same-day overlapping events, paralleling the behavioral results. During inference itself, activation patterns further differentiated when participants were making inferences about events acquired on the same day versus across days. These findings indicate that temporal proximity of events promotes integration and further influences the neural mechanisms engaged during inference.

  15. Prox-1 Automated Proximity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-13

    on demonstrating the functionality required to meet minimum mission success criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of...also includes deployment of LightSail-B from the P-POD, and imaging of LightSail-B for 20 minutes as it recedes from Prox-1. small satellite ; proximity...criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of all spacecraft subsystems, including flight qualification of the following new

  16. Proximate cues for a short-distance migratory species: An application of survival analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, J.; Song, R.; Lutz, R.S.; Andersen, D.E.; Doherty, K.E.; Bruggink, J.G.; Oppelt, E.

    2008-01-01

    Investigation of bird migration has often highlighted the importance of external factors in determining timing of migration However, little distinction has been made between short- and long-distance migrants and between local and flight birds (passage migrants) in describing migration chronology. In addition, measures of food abundance as a proximate factor influencing timing of migration are lacking in studies of migration chronology. To address the relationship between environmental variables and timing of migration we quantified the relative importance of proximate external factors on migration chronology of local American woodcock (Scolopax minor), a short distance migrant, using event-time analysis methods (survival analysis). We captured 1,094 woodcock local to our study sites in Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin (USA) during autumn 2002-2004 and documented 786 departure dates for these birds. Photoperiod appeared to provide an initial proximate cue for timing of departure. Moon phase was important in modifying timing of departure, which may serve as a navigational aid in piloting and possibly orientation. Local synoptic weather variables also contributed to timing of departure by changing the rate of departure from our study sites. We found no evidence that food availability influenced timing of woodcock departure. Our results suggest that woodcock use a conservative photoperiod-controlled strategy with proximate modifiers for timing of migration rather than relying on abundance of their primary food, earthworms. Managing harvest pressure on local birds by adjusting season lengths may be an effective management tool with consistent migration patterns from year to year based on photoperiod.

  17. Ising Ferromagnets on Proximity Graphs with Varying Disorder of the Node Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schawe, Hendrik; Norrenbrock, Christoph; Hartmann, Alexander K

    2017-08-14

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations to determine the critical temperatures of Ising Ferromagnets (IFM) on different types of two-dimensional proximity graphs, in which the distribution of their underlying node sets has been changed systematically by means of a parameter σ. This allows us to interpolate between regular grids and proximity graphs based on complete random placement of nodes. Each edge of the planar proximity graphs carries a weighted ferromagnetic coupling. The coupling strengths are determined via the Euclidean distances between coupled spins. The simulations are carried out on graphs with N = 162 to N = 1282 nodes utilising the Wolff cluster algorithm and parallel tempering method in a wide temperature range around the critical point to measure the Binder cumulant in order to obtain the critical temperature for different values of σ. Interestingly, the critical temperatures depend partially non-monotonously on the disorder parameter σ, corresponding to a non-monotonous change of the graph structure. For completeness, we further verify using finite-size scaling methods that the IFM on proximity graphs is for all values of the disorder in the same universality class as the IFM on the two-dimensional square lattice.

  18. On blockage effects for a marine hydrokinetic turbine in free surface proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, A.; Kolekar, N.

    2016-12-01

    Experimental investigation was carried out with a three-bladed, constant chord marine hydrokinetic turbine to understand the influence of free surface proximity on blockage effects and near wake flow field. The turbine was placed at various depths of immersion as rotational speeds and flow speeds were varied; thrust and torque data was acquired through a submerged thrust torque sensor positioned in-line with the turbine axis. Blockage effects were quantified in terms of changes in power coefficient and were found to be dependent on flow velocity, rotational speed and blade-tip clearence (from free-surface). Flow acceleration near turbine rotation plane was attributed to blockage offered by the rotor, wake, and free surface deformation; the resulting performance improvements were calculated based on the measured thrust values. In addition, stereoscopic particle imaging velocimetry was carried out in the near-wake region using time-averaged and phase-averaged techniques to understand the mechanism responsible for variation of torque (and power coefficient) with rotational speed and free-surface proximity. Flow vizualisation revealed slower wake propagation for higher rotational velocities and increased assymetry in the wake with increasing free surface proximity. Improved performance at high rotational speed was attributed to enhanced wake blockage; performance enhancements with free-surface proximity was attributed to additional blockage effects caused by free surface deformation.

  19. Curriculum-Based Measurement for Beginning Writers (K-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombek, Jennifer L.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Assessment and instruction of reading tend to dominate current discussions of early literacy. Shifting the focus to writing, this article addresses the assessment of writing for students in kindergarten through second grade. Using curriculum-based measurement of written expression for beginning writers, teachers can measure growth of smaller…

  20. Similarity measures for convex polyhedra based on Minkowski addition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzikov, Alexander V.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Heijmans, Henk J.A.M.

    In this paper we introduce and investigate similarity measures for convex polyhedra based on Minkowski addition and inequalities for the mixed volume and volume related to the Brunn-Minkowski theory. All measures considered are invariant under translations; furthermore, some of them are also

  1. Measuring Disorientation Based on the Needleman-Wunsch Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güyer, Tolga; Atasoy, Bilal; Somyürek, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This study offers a new method to measure navigation disorientation in web based systems which is powerful learning medium for distance and open education. The Needleman-Wunsch algorithm is used to measure disorientation in a more precise manner. The process combines theoretical and applied knowledge from two previously distinct research areas,…

  2. Survey-Based Measurement of Public Management and Policy Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Adam Douglas; Lubell, Mark; McCoy, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Networks have become a central concept in the policy and public management literature; however, theoretical development is hindered by a lack of attention to the empirical properties of network measurement methods. This paper compares three survey-based methods for measuring organizational networks: the roster, the free-recall name generator, and…

  3. [Welding arc temperature field measurements based on Boltzmann spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Hong; Hua, Xue-Ming; Zhang, Wang; Li, Fang; Xiao, Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Arc plasma, as non-uniform plasma, has complicated energy and mass transport processes in its internal, so plasma temperature measurement is of great significance. Compared with absolute spectral line intensity method and standard temperature method, Boltzmann plot measuring is more accurate and convenient. Based on the Boltzmann theory, the present paper calculates the temperature distribution of the plasma and analyzes the principle of lines selection by real time scanning the space of the TIG are measurements.

  4. Calibration of Smartphone-Based Weather Measurements Using Pairwise Gossip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Louie Fresco Zamora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values.

  5. Calibration of Smartphone-Based Weather Measurements Using Pairwise Gossip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Jane Louie Fresco; Kashihara, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values.

  6. Calibration of Smartphone-Based Weather Measurements Using Pairwise Gossip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values. PMID:26421312

  7. Spatio-temporal representativeness of ground-based downward solar radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris

    2017-04-01

    Surface solar radiation (SSR) is most directly observed with ground based pyranometer measurements. Besides measurement uncertainties, which arise from the pyranometer instrument itself, also errors attributed to the limited spatial representativeness of observations from single sites for their large-scale surrounding have to be taken into account when using such measurements for energy balance studies. In this study the spatial representativeness of 157 homogeneous European downward surface solar radiation time series from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) and the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) were examined for the period 1983-2015 by using the high resolution (0.05°) surface solar radiation data set from the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF SARAH) as a proxy for the spatiotemporal variability of SSR. By correlating deseasonalized monthly SSR time series form surface observations against single collocated satellite derived SSR time series, a mean spatial correlation pattern was calculated and validated against purely observational based patterns. Generally decreasing correlations with increasing distance from station, with high correlations (R2 = 0.7) in proximity to the observational sites (±0.5°), was found. When correlating surface observations against time series from spatially averaged satellite derived SSR data (and thereby simulating coarser and coarser grids), very high correspondence between sites and the collocated pixels has been found for pixel sizes up to several degrees. Moreover, special focus was put on the quantification of errors which arise in conjunction to spatial sampling when estimating the temporal variability and trends for a larger region from a single surface observation site. For 15-year trends on a 1° grid, errors due to spatial sampling in the order of half of the measurement uncertainty for monthly mean values were found.

  8. Cellular force measurements using single-spaced polymeric microstructures: isolating cells from base substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Chew Lim, Chee; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Liao, Ronglih; Zhang, Xin

    2005-09-01

    Mechanical force is one of the most important parameters in cellular physiological behavior. To quantify the cellular force locally and more precisely, soft material probes, such as bulk polymeric surfaces or raised individual polymeric structures, have been developed which are deformable by the cell. The extent of deformation and the elastic properties of the probes allow for calculation of the mechanical forces exerted by the cell. Bulk polymeric surfaces have the disadvantage of requiring computational intensive calculations due to the continuous distortion of a large area, and investigators have attempted to address this problem by using raised polymeric structures to simplify the derivation of cellular mechanical force. These studies, however, have ignored the possibility of formation of local adhesions of the cell to the underlying base substrate, which could result in inaccurate cellular force measurements. Clearly, there is a need to develop polymeric structures that can efficiently isolate the cells from the underlying base substrate, in order to eliminate the continuous distortion problem. In this paper, we demonstrate the measurement of cellular force in isolated cardiac myocytes using single-spaced polymeric microstructures. Each structure is 2 µm in diameter and single-spaced packed. This geometry of the structures successfully isolates the cells from the underlying substrate. Displacement of the structures was measured in areas underneath the attached cell and at areas in close proximity to the cell. The results show that the individual structures underneath the cell were significantly displaced whereas no substantial strain in the underlying base substrate was detected. The mechanical force of the cell was derived from the displacements of individual structures upon multiplication with the locally determined spring constant. The force distribution reveals a parallel alignment as well as a periodic motion of the contractile units of the myocyte. The

  9. PC Based Linear Variable Differential Displacement Measurement Uses Optical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar MAITI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available PC based linear variable differential displacement (LVDD measurement with optical approach has been presented. The technique is a good blending of both hardware and software and is basically an alternative method of linear variable differential transformer (LVDT. A visual basic (VB programming is used for this PC based measurement. Here the voltage output and the displacement of the reflector can be studied and stored continuously. Theoretical predictions are supported by experimental results. This technique can be used for the measurement of some non-electrical parameters e.g. force, torque and liquid level etc.

  10. Dental pulp vitality measurement based on multiwavelength photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkela, Ville; Kopola, Harri K.; Oikarinen, Kyosti; Herrala, Esko

    1995-01-01

    Observation of the intradental blood supply is important in cases of dental trauma, but difficult. As the methods used by dentists to measure pulp vitality are not very reliable, a dental pulp vitalometer based on fiberoptic reflectance measurement and measurement of the absorption of blood has been designed and built. In addition to the fiber optic probe and reflectance sensor electronics, the vitalometer includes a data acquisition card, a PC and data processing programs. The thick dentin and enamel layers and the small amount of blood in a tooth are major problems for optical measurement of its vitality, and scattered light from the enamel and the dentin surrounding the pulpa also causes a problem in measurements based on reflectance. These problems are assessed here by means of theoretical models and calculations. The advantage of reflectance measurement is that only one probe is used, which is easy to put against the tooth. Thus measurements are simple to make. Three wavelengths (560 nm, 650 nm, 850 nm) are used to measure photoplethysmographic signals, and these should allow the oxygen saturation of the blood in a tooth to be measured as well in the future. Series of measurements have been performed on vital and non-vital teeth by recording photoplethysmographic signals, using the vitalometer and using a commercial laser-Doppler instrument. Verifications of the laser-Doppler and vitalometer results are presented and deduced here.

  11. The validity of proximal caries detection using magnifying visual aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Rainer; Wicht, Michael J; Hellmich, Martin; Gossmann, Andrea; Noack, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of proximal caries detection supported by a prism loupe and a surgical microscope used by examiners having different professional experience. One hundred and sixty extracted premolars and molars with varying degrees of proximal caries or sound surfaces were embedded in 10 pairs of models with proximal tooth contacts and a simulated gingiva mask. The proximal surfaces were visually evaluated by 14 observers (7 students, 7 dentists) according to a 5-point caries rating scale using a head-worn prism loupe (x4.5), a surgical microscope (x 14) and without any magnifying device (control). The validity of observations was expressed as ROC curves calculated for two gold standard thresholds: (a) the presence of caries and (b) macroscopic cavitation. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of 'observer group' and 'diagnostic modality'. An influence of the observer group could not be demonstrated (p > 0.72), whereas significant differences were revealed between the diagnostic modalities (p caries detection with magnifying aids were smaller compared to the control group. It was concluded that the use of a prism loupe or a surgical microscope does not improve the validity of proximal caries detection if the operators, irrespective of being dental students or clinical instructors, are inexperienced in its utilisation. In general only moderate validity was achieved with visual inspection of proximal sites. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Natural language in measuring user emotions : A qualitative approach to quantitative survey-based emotion measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonetto, L.M.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to developing surveys that measure user experiences with the use of natural everyday language. The common approach to develop questionnaires that measure experience is to translate theoretical factors into verbal survey items. This theory-based approach can impair the

  13. Measuring Software Test Verification for Complex Workpieces based on Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Peili

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Validity and correctness test verification of the measuring software has been a thorny issue hindering the development of Gear Measuring Instrument (GMI. The main reason is that the software itself is difficult to separate from the rest of the measurement system for independent evaluation. This paper presents a Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument (VGMI to independently validate the measuring software. The triangular patch model with accurately controlled precision was taken as the virtual workpiece and a universal collision detection model was established. The whole process simulation of workpiece measurement is implemented by VGMI replacing GMI and the measuring software is tested in the proposed virtual environment. Taking involute profile measurement procedure as an example, the validity of the software is evaluated based on the simulation results; meanwhile, experiments using the same measuring software are carried out on the involute master in a GMI. The experiment results indicate a consistency of tooth profile deviation and calibration results, thus verifying the accuracy of gear measuring system which includes the measurement procedures. It is shown that the VGMI presented can be applied in the validation of measuring software, providing a new ideal platform for testing of complex workpiece-measuring software without calibrated artifacts.

  14. Measuring Software Test Verification for Complex Workpieces based on Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peili; Wang, Jianhua; Lu, Chunxia

    2017-08-01

    Validity and correctness test verification of the measuring software has been a thorny issue hindering the development of Gear Measuring Instrument (GMI). The main reason is that the software itself is difficult to separate from the rest of the measurement system for independent evaluation. This paper presents a Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument (VGMI) to independently validate the measuring software. The triangular patch model with accurately controlled precision was taken as the virtual workpiece and a universal collision detection model was established. The whole process simulation of workpiece measurement is implemented by VGMI replacing GMI and the measuring software is tested in the proposed virtual environment. Taking involute profile measurement procedure as an example, the validity of the software is evaluated based on the simulation results; meanwhile, experiments using the same measuring software are carried out on the involute master in a GMI. The experiment results indicate a consistency of tooth profile deviation and calibration results, thus verifying the accuracy of gear measuring system which includes the measurement procedures. It is shown that the VGMI presented can be applied in the validation of measuring software, providing a new ideal platform for testing of complex workpiece-measuring software without calibrated artifacts.

  15. Accurate measurement method for tube's endpoints based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoli; Jin, Peng; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Xiao; Sun, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Tubes are used widely in aerospace vehicles, and their accurate assembly can directly affect the assembling reliability and the quality of products. It is important to measure the processed tube's endpoints and then fix any geometric errors correspondingly. However, the traditional tube inspection method is time-consuming and complex operations. Therefore, a new measurement method for a tube's endpoints based on machine vision is proposed. First, reflected light on tube's surface can be removed by using photometric linearization. Then, based on the optimization model for the tube's endpoint measurements and the principle of stereo matching, the global coordinates and the relative distance of the tube's endpoint are obtained. To confirm the feasibility, 11 tubes are processed to remove the reflected light and then the endpoint's positions of tubes are measured. The experiment results show that the measurement repeatability accuracy is 0.167 mm, and the absolute accuracy is 0.328 mm. The measurement takes less than 1 min. The proposed method based on machine vision can measure the tube's endpoints without any surface treatment or any tools and can realize on line measurement.

  16. Camera-based measurement of respiratory rates is reliable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christoph; Achermann, Stefan; Rocque, Mukul; Kirenko, Ihor; Schlack, Andreas; Dreher-Hummel, Thomas; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Bingisser, Roland; Nickel, Christian H

    2017-06-01

    Respiratory rate (RR) is one of the most important vital signs used to detect whether a patient is in critical condition. It is part of many risk scores and its measurement is essential for triage of patients in emergency departments. It is often not recorded as measurement is cumbersome and time-consuming. We intended to evaluate the accuracy of camera-based measurements as an alternative measurement to the current practice of manual counting. We monitored the RR of healthy male volunteers with a camera-based prototype application and simultaneously by manual counting and by capnography, which was considered the gold standard. The four assessors were mutually blinded. We simulated normoventilation, hypoventilation and hyperventilation as well as deep, normal and superficial breathing depths to assess potential clinical settings. The volunteers were assessed while being undressed, wearing a T-shirt or a winter coat. In total, 20 volunteers were included. The results of camera-based measurements of RRs and capnography were in close agreement throughout all clothing styles and respiratory patterns (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r=0.90-1.00, except for one scenario, in which the volunteer breathed slowly dressed in a winter coat r=0.84). In the winter-coat scenarios, the camera-based prototype application was superior to human counters. In our pilot study, we found that camera-based measurements delivered accurate and reliable results. Future studies need to show that camera-based measurements are a secure alternative for measuring RRs in clinical settings as well.

  17. Measures of safeguard and rehabilitation for landscape protection planning: a qualitative approach based on diversity indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Daniele; Privitera, Riccardo; Martinico, Francesco; La Greca, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Maintaining existing levels of landscape diversity is becoming more and more important for planning considering the increasing pressures on agricultural ecosystems due to soil sealing, sprawl processes and intensive agriculture. Norms for land-use regulation and measures for landscape Safeguard and Rehabilitation have to take into consideration these threats in landscape planning. Evaluating the diversity of agricultural ecosystems is a fundamental step for proposing sound approaches to planning and managing both soil and landscape, as well as maintaining the related ecosystem services. The paper proposes a method aimed at the qualitative evaluation of spatial diversity of agricultural landscapes using a reduced set of ecological indicators based on land-use vector data. Indicators are calculated for defined landscape units characterized by landscape homogeneity. GIS geoprocessing and spatial analysis functions are employed. The study area is the Province of Enna in Sicily (Italy), which is characterized by cultivation mosaics in its southern region, cereal cultivation in the central region and prevailing natural environments in the northern region. Results from the indicator calculations are used to define measures to be included in a Landscape Protection Plan. Safeguard and Rehabilitation measures are introduced, which link indicator scores to planning protection aims. The results highlight the relevance of some agricultural mosaics in proximity to streams and seasonal fluvial environments, where some undamaged natural environments are still present. For these areas, specific landscape safeguard measures are proposed to preserve their diversity features together with their original agricultural functions. The work shows that even with a reduced number of indicators, a differentiated set of measures can be proposed for a Landscape Protection Plan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Patch near field acoustic holography based on particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yong-Bin; Jacobsen, Finn; Bi, Chuan-Xing

    2009-01-01

    Patch near field acoustic holography (PNAH) based on sound pressure measurements makes it possible to reconstruct the source field near a source by measuring the sound pressure at positions on a surface. that is comparable in size to the source region of concern. Particle velocity is an alternative...... input quantity for NAH, and the advantage of using the normal component of the particle velocity rather than the sound pressure as the input of conventional spatial Fourier transform based NAH and as the input of the statistically optimized variant of NAH has recently been demonstrated. This paper......, PNAH based on particle velocity measurements can give better results than the pressure-based PNAH with a reduced number of iterations. A simulation study, as well as an experiment carried out with a pressure-velocity sound intensity probe, demonstrates these findings....

  19. PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS. 1 Alhassan, A. J. 1M .S. Sule, 1J. ... ABSTRACT. This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. Proximate ... days, before pulverized to powder and kept in plastic container.

  20. Assessing Therapist Competence: Development of a Performance-Based Measure and Its Comparison With a Web-Based Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Zafra; Doll, Helen; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Bohn, Kristin; de Vries, Dian; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2017-10-31

    Recent research interest in how best to train therapists to deliver psychological treatments has highlighted the need for rigorous, but scalable, means of measuring therapist competence. There are at least two components involved in assessing therapist competence: the assessment of their knowledge of the treatment concerned, including how and when to use its strategies and procedures, and an evaluation of their ability to apply such knowledge skillfully in practice. While the assessment of therapists' knowledge has the potential to be completed efficiently on the Web, the assessment of skill has generally involved a labor-intensive process carried out by clinicians, and as such, may not be suitable for assessing training outcome in certain circumstances. The aims of this study were to develop and evaluate a role-play-based measure of skill suitable for assessing training outcome and to compare its performance with a highly scalable Web-based measure of applied knowledge. Using enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) for eating disorders as an exemplar, clinical scenarios for role-play assessment were developed and piloted together with a rating scheme for assessing trainee therapists' performance. These scenarios were evaluated by examining the performance of 93 therapists from different professional backgrounds and at different levels of training in implementing CBT-E. These therapists also completed a previously developed Web-based measure of applied knowledge, and the ability of the Web-based measure to efficiently predict competence on the role-play measure was investigated. The role-play measure assessed performance at implementing a range of CBT-E procedures. The majority of the therapists rated their performance as moderately or closely resembling their usual clinical performance. Trained raters were able to achieve good-to-excellent reliability for averaged competence, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .653 to 909. The measure was

  1. Optical proximity correction: a first look at manufacturability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Lars W.; Grenon, Brian J.; Lavin, Mark A.; Schomody, Stephen; Zell, Thomas

    1994-12-01

    The feasibility of large scale optical proximity correction with a focus on mask manufacturability is demonstrated on the support and logic gates of a leading edge 64 Mb DRAM chip. Analysis of post reactive ion etch SEM data of the 500 - 600 nm, DUV exposed gates indicates two major contributors to across chip line width variation: first order proximity, that is, the minimum spacing to the nearest neighboring structure, and local area density or pattern loading. Data presented show a very long range (approximately equals 1 mm) impact of pattern density on post reactive ion etch line widths, favoring optical proximity correction approaches that are not based on biasing patterns to compensate for these effects. In this project, pattern density induced effects were alleviated by homogenizing the pattern loading across the chip to approximately 50% instead of biasing the gate structures to compensate for pattern density differences. Proximity induced effects were compensated for with a one- dimensional, single parameter (distance to nearest neighbor), four bucket proximity correction routine with a strong focus on mask manufacturability. Even though the unbiased 64 Mb DRAM gate level challenges mask makers with 480 MB of MEBES data, the optical proximity corrected mask posed no substantial post-processing, writing, or inspection problems in IBM's Burlington, Vermont maskhouse. A very significant 80% reduction in post reactive ion etch across chip line width variation was achieved with this corrected mask.

  2. Demonstration of automated proximity and docking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert L.; Tsugawa, Roy K.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    Automated spacecraft docking operations are being performed using a full scale motion based simulator and an optical sensor. This presentation will discuss the work in progress at TRW and MSFC facilities to study the problem of automated proximity and docking operations. The docking sensor used in the MSFC Optical Sensor and simulation runs are performed using the MSFC Flat Floor Facility. The control algorithms and six degrees of freedom (6DOF) simulation software were developed at TRW and integrated into the MSFC facility. Key issues being studied are the quantification of docking sensor requirements and operational constraints necessary to perform automated docking maneuvers, control algorithms capable of performing automated docking in the presence of sensitive and noisy sensor data, and sensor technologies for automated proximity and docking operations. As part of this study the MSFC sensor characteristics were analyzed and modeled so that off line simulation runs can be performed for control algorithm testing. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate full 6DOF docking capabilities with actual sensors on the MSFC motion based simulator. We present findings from actual docking simulation runs which show sensor and control loop performance as well as problem areas which require close attention. The evolution of various control algorithms using both phase plane and Clohessy-Wiltshire techniques are discussed. In addition, 6DOF target acquisition and control strategies are described.

  3. A New Laser Based Approach for Measuring Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Dobler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, we developed a proof-of-concept system for a new open-path laser absorption spectrometer concept for measuring atmospheric CO2. The measurement approach utilizes high-reliability all-fiber-based, continuous-wave laser technology, along with a unique all-digital lock-in amplifier method that, together, enables simultaneous transmission and reception of multiple fixed wavelengths of light. This new technique, which utilizes very little transmitted energy relative to conventional lidar systems, provides high signal-to-noise (SNR measurements, even in the presence of a large background signal. This proof-of-concept system, tested in both a laboratory environment and a limited number of field experiments over path lengths of 680 m and 1,600 m, demonstrated SNR values >1,000 for received signals of ~18 picoWatts averaged over 60 s. A SNR of 1,000 is equivalent to a measurement precision of ±0.001 or ~0.4 ppmv. The measurement method is expected to provide new capability for automated monitoring of greenhouse gas at fixed sites, such as carbon sequestration facilities, volcanoes, the short- and long-term assessment of urban plumes, and other similar applications. In addition, this concept enables active measurements of column amounts from a geosynchronous orbit for a network of ground-based receivers/stations that would complement other current and planned space-based measurement capabilities.

  4. Ontogeny of rabbit proximal tubule urea permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    QUIGLEY, RAYMOND; LISEC, AMBER; BAUM, MICHEL

    2014-01-01

    Urea transport in the proximal tubule is passive and is dependent on the epithelial permeability. The present study examined the maturation of urea permeability (Purea) in in vitro perfused proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) from rabbit renal cortex. Urea transport was lower in neonatal than adult PCT at both 37 and 25°C. The PCT Purea was also lower in the neonates than the adults (37°C: 45.4 ± 10.8 vs. 88.5 ± 15.2 × 10−6 cm/s, P 0.05). The activation energy for PCT Purea was not different between the neonatal and adult groups. BLMV Purea was determined by measuring vesicle shrinkage, due to efflux of urea, using a stop-flow instrument. Neonatal BLMV Purea was not different from adult BLMV Purea at 37°C [1.14 ± 0.05 × 10−6 vs. 1.25 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s; P = not significant (NS)] or 25°C (0.94 ± 0.06 vs. 1.05 ± 0.10 × 10−6 cm/s; P = NS). There was no effect of 250 μM phloretin, an inhibitor of the urea transporter, on Purea in either adult or neonatal BLMV. The activation energy for urea diffusion was also identical in the neonatal and adult BLMV. These findings in the BLMV are in contrast to the brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) where we have previously demonstrated that urea transport is lower in the neonate than the adult. Urea transport is lower in the neonatal proximal tubule than the adult. This is due to a lower rate of apical membrane urea transport, whereas basolateral urea transport is the same in neonates and adults. The lower Purea in neonatal proximal tubules may play a role in overall urea excretion and in developing and maintaining a high medullary urea concentration and thus in the ability to concentrate the urine during renal maturation. PMID:11353675

  5. Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise; Cerepani, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Finger dislocations are common injuries that are often managed by emergency nurse practitioners. A systematic physical examination following these injuries is imperative to avoid complications. Radiographic views, including the anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views, are imperative to evaluate these finger dislocations. A dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is the most common finger dislocation type often easily reduced. A volar PIP dislocation can often be difficult to reduce and may result in finger deformity. Finger dislocations should be reduced promptly. Referral to an orthopedic hand specialist is required if the dislocation is unable to be reduced or if the finger joint is unstable following reduction attempts.

  6. Modern gas-based temperature and pressure measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pavese, Franco

    2013-01-01

    This 2nd edition volume of Modern Gas-Based Temperature and Pressure Measurements follows the first publication in 1992. It collects a much larger set of information, reference data, and bibliography in temperature and pressure metrology of gaseous substances, including the physical-chemical issues related to gaseous substances. The book provides solutions to practical applications where gases are used in different thermodynamic conditions. Modern Gas-Based Temperature and Pressure Measurements, 2nd edition is the only comprehensive survey of methods for pressure measurement in gaseous media used in the medium-to-low pressure range closely connected with thermometry. It assembles current information on thermometry and manometry that involve the use of gaseous substances which are likely to be valid methods for the future. As such, it is an important resource for the researcher. This edition is updated through the very latest scientific and technical developments of gas-based temperature and pressure measurem...

  7. Nonlinearity measurements of PIN photodiode based ROSA for FTTX applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinzhong; He, Chun; Li, Yao; Zhou, Andy; Tsay, Wei-Shin

    2005-03-01

    We have designed and fabricated PIN photodiode based ROSA used for FTTX applications. The critical nonlinearity parameters of Inter-modulation Distortion (IMD) were measured by two RF modulated light sources near 1550nm wavelength channels. A cost effective measuring system with narrow pass band filter was set up and some procedures were utilized for determining the low level signals of IMD. Obtained test results were used in real time to guide packaging process to achieve best receiver performance.

  8. MASS MEASUREMENTS OF ISOLATED OBJECTS FROM SPACE-BASED MICROLENSING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei; Novati, S. Calchi; Gould, A.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the mass and distance measurements of two single-lens events from the 2015 Spitzer microlensing campaign. With both finite-source effect and microlens parallax measurements, we find that the lens of OGLE-2015-BLG-1268 is very likely a brown dwarf (BD). Assuming that the source star l...... is dramatically increased once simultaneous ground- and space-based observations are conducted....

  9. Measurement-based reliability prediction methodology. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Linda Shen

    1991-01-01

    In the past, analytical and measurement based models were developed to characterize computer system behavior. An open issue is how these models can be used, if at all, for system design improvement. The issue is addressed here. A combined statistical/analytical approach to use measurements from one environment to model the system failure behavior in a new environment is proposed. A comparison of the predicted results with the actual data from the new environment shows a close correspondence.

  10. Single-molecule sequencing and Hi-C-based proximity-guided assembly of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) chromosomes provide insights into genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, D J; Jarvis, D E; Ramaraj, T; Lee, R; Jellen, E N; Maughan, P J

    2017-08-31

    Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) was a food staple among the ancient civilizations of Central and South America that has recently received increased attention due to the high nutritional value of the seeds, with the potential to help alleviate malnutrition and food security concerns, particularly in arid and semiarid regions of the developing world. Here, we present a reference-quality assembly of the amaranth genome which will assist the agronomic development of the species. Utilizing single-molecule, real-time sequencing (Pacific Biosciences) and chromatin interaction mapping (Hi-C) to close assembly gaps and scaffold contigs, respectively, we improved our previously reported Illumina-based assembly to produce a chromosome-scale assembly with a scaffold N50 of 24.4 Mb. The 16 largest scaffolds contain 98% of the assembly and likely represent the haploid chromosomes (n = 16). To demonstrate the accuracy and utility of this approach, we produced physical and genetic maps and identified candidate genes for the betalain pigmentation pathway. The chromosome-scale assembly facilitated a genome-wide syntenic comparison of amaranth with other Amaranthaceae species, revealing chromosome loss and fusion events in amaranth that explain the reduction from the ancestral haploid chromosome number (n = 18) for a tetraploid member of the Amaranthaceae. The assembly method reported here minimizes cost by relying primarily on short-read technology and is one of the first reported uses of in vivo Hi-C for assembly of a plant genome. Our analyses implicate chromosome loss and fusion as major evolutionary events in the 2n = 32 amaranths and clearly establish the homoeologous relationship among most of the subgenome chromosomes, which will facilitate future investigations of intragenomic changes that occurred post polyploidization.

  11. Verifiable fault tolerance in measurement-based quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Hayashi, Masahito

    2017-09-01

    Quantum systems, in general, cannot be simulated efficiently by a classical computer, and hence are useful for solving certain mathematical problems and simulating quantum many-body systems. This also implies, unfortunately, that verification of the output of the quantum systems is not so trivial, since predicting the output is exponentially hard. As another problem, the quantum system is very delicate for noise and thus needs an error correction. Here, we propose a framework for verification of the output of fault-tolerant quantum computation in a measurement-based model. In contrast to existing analyses on fault tolerance, we do not assume any noise model on the resource state, but an arbitrary resource state is tested by using only single-qubit measurements to verify whether or not the output of measurement-based quantum computation on it is correct. Verifiability is equipped by a constant time repetition of the original measurement-based quantum computation in appropriate measurement bases. Since full characterization of quantum noise is exponentially hard for large-scale quantum computing systems, our framework provides an efficient way to practically verify the experimental quantum error correction.

  12. Hybrid architecture for encoded measurement-based quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J; Dür, W

    2014-06-20

    We present a hybrid scheme for quantum computation that combines the modular structure of elementary building blocks used in the circuit model with the advantages of a measurement-based approach to quantum computation. We show how to construct optimal resource states of minimal size to implement elementary building blocks for encoded quantum computation in a measurement-based way, including states for error correction and encoded gates. The performance of the scheme is determined by the quality of the resource states, where within the considered error model a threshold of the order of 10% local noise per particle for fault-tolerant quantum computation and quantum communication.

  13. Predictive Software Measures based on Z Specifications - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bollin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the effort and quality of a system is a critical step at the beginning of every software project. It is necessary to have reliable ways of calculating these measures, and, it is even better when the calculation can be done as early as possible in the development life-cycle. Having this in mind, metrics for formal specifications are examined with a view to correlations to complexity and quality-based code measures. A case study, based on a Z specification and its implementation in ADA, analyzes the practicability of these metrics as predictors.

  14. Micro-vision-based displacement measurement with high accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qinghua; Zhang, Xianmin; Fan, Yanbin

    2011-12-01

    The micro-motion stages are widely used in micro/nano manufacturing technology. In this paper, an integrated approach for measuring micro-displacement of micro-motion stage that incorporates motion estimation algorithm into the computer microvision is proposed. At first, the basic principle of the computer microvision measurement is analyzed. Then, a robust multiscale motion estimation algorithm for micro-motion measurement is proposed. Finally, the microdisplacement of the micro-motion stage based on the piezoelectric ceramic actuators and the compliant mechanisms is measured using the integrated approach. The maximal bias of the proposed approach reached 13 nm. Experimental results show that the new integrated method can measure micro-displacement with nanometer accuracy.

  15. A complex network-based importance measure for mechatronics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhui; Bi, Lifeng; Lin, Shuai; Li, Man; Shi, Hao

    2017-01-01

    In view of the negative impact of functional dependency, this paper attempts to provide an alternative importance measure called Improved-PageRank (IPR) for measuring the importance of components in mechatronics systems. IPR is a meaningful extension of the centrality measures in complex network, which considers usage reliability of components and functional dependency between components to increase importance measures usefulness. Our work makes two important contributions. First, this paper integrates the literature of mechatronic architecture and complex networks theory to define component network. Second, based on the notion of component network, a meaningful IPR is brought into the identifying of important components. In addition, the IPR component importance measures, and an algorithm to perform stochastic ordering of components due to the time-varying nature of usage reliability of components and functional dependency between components, are illustrated with a component network of bogie system that consists of 27 components.

  16. Image based method for aberration measurement of lithographic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuang; Tao, Bo; Guo, Yongxing; Li, Gongfa

    2018-01-01

    Information of lens aberration of lithographic tools is important as it directly affects the intensity distribution in the image plane. Zernike polynomials are commonly used for a mathematical description of lens aberrations. Due to the advantage of lower cost and easier implementation of tools, image based measurement techniques have been widely used. Lithographic tools are typically partially coherent systems that can be described by a bilinear model, which entails time consuming calculations and does not lend a simple and intuitive relationship between lens aberrations and the resulted images. Previous methods for retrieving lens aberrations in such partially coherent systems involve through-focus image measurements and time-consuming iterative algorithms. In this work, we propose a method for aberration measurement in lithographic tools, which only requires measuring two images of intensity distribution. Two linear formulations are derived in matrix forms that directly relate the measured images to the unknown Zernike coefficients. Consequently, an efficient non-iterative solution is obtained.

  17. Drone based measurement system for radiofrequency exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Aerts, Sam; Vandenbossche, Matthias; Thielens, Arno; Martens, Luc

    2016-03-10

    For the first time, a method to assess radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure of the general public in real environments with a true free-space antenna system is presented. Using lightweight electronics and multiple antennas placed on a drone, it is possible to perform exposure measurements. This technique will enable researchers to measure three-dimensional RF-EMF exposure patterns accurately in the future and at locations currently difficult to access. A measurement procedure and appropriate measurement settings have been developed. As an application, outdoor measurements are performed as a function of height up to 60 m for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 MHz base station exposure. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Secure LFSR Based Random Measurement Matrix for Compressive Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sudhish N.; Pattathil, Deepthi P.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for generating the secure measurement matrix for compressive sensing (CS) based on linear feedback shift register (LFSR) is presented. The basic idea is to select the different states of LFSR as the random entries of the measurement matrix and normalize these values to get independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables with zero mean and variance , where N is the number of input samples. The initial seed for the LFSR system act as the key to the user to provide security. Since the measurement matrix is generated from the LFSR system, and memory overload to store the measurement matrix is avoided in the proposed system. Moreover, the proposed system can provide security maintaining the robustness to noise of the CS system. The proposed system is validated through different block-based CS techniques of images. To enhance security, the different blocks of images are measured with different measurement matrices so that the proposed encryption system can withstand known plaintext attack. A modulo division circuit is used to reseed the LFSR system to generate multiple random measurement matrices, whereby after each fundamental period of LFSR, the feedback polynomial of the modulo circuit is modified in terms of a chaotic value. The proposed secure robust CS paradigm for images is subjected to several forms of attacks and is proven to be resistant against the same. From experimental analysis, it is proven that the proposed system provides better performance than its counterparts.

  19. A reliability measure of protein-protein interactions and a reliability measure-based search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byungkyu; Han, Kyungsook

    2010-02-01

    Many methods developed for estimating the reliability of protein-protein interactions are based on the topology of protein-protein interaction networks. This paper describes a new reliability measure for protein-protein interactions, which does not rely on the topology of protein interaction networks, but expresses biological information on functional roles, sub-cellular localisations and protein classes as a scoring schema. The new measure is useful for filtering many spurious interactions, as well as for estimating the reliability of protein interaction data. In particular, the reliability measure can be used to search protein-protein interactions with the desired reliability in databases. The reliability-based search engine is available at http://yeast.hpid.org. We believe this is the first search engine for interacting proteins, which is made available to public. The search engine and the reliability measure of protein interactions should provide useful information for determining proteins to focus on.

  20. Measurement model equivalence in web- and paper-based surveys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement model equivalence in web- and paper-based surveys. N. Martins. 4ABSTRACT. 8The aim of this research is to investigate whether web-based ... panels for survey research and found that the use of internet panels would continue to grow and that it would be ...... (q26–q29) and Teamwork (q93–q97). Items q17 ...

  1. Subliminal Gestalt grouping: evidence of perceptual grouping by proximity and similarity in absence of conscious perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Pedro R; Luna, Dolores; Ortells, Juan J

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies making use of indirect processing measures have shown that perceptual grouping can occur outside the focus of attention. However, no previous study has examined the possibility of subliminal processing of perceptual grouping. The present work steps forward in the study of perceptual organization, reporting direct evidence of subliminal processing of Gestalt patterns. In two masked priming experiments, Gestalt patterns grouped by proximity or similarity that induced either a horizontal or vertical global orientation of the stimuli were presented as masked primes and followed by visible targets that could be congruent or incongruent with the orientation of the primes. The results showed a reliable priming effect in the complete absence of prime awareness for both proximity and similarity grouping principles. These findings suggest that a phenomenal report of the Gestalt pattern is not mandatory to observe an effect on the response based on the global properties of Gestalt stimuli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of pharmacy-based measures of medication adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollmer William M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacy databases are commonly used to assess medication usage, and a number of measures have been developed to measure patients’ adherence to medication. An extensive literature now supports these measures, although few studies have systematically compared the properties of different adherence measures. Methods As part of an 18-month randomized clinical trial to assess the impact of automated telephone reminders on adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS among 6903 adult members of a managed care organization, we computed eight pharmacy-based measures of ICS adherence using outpatient pharmacy dispensing records obtained from the health plan’s electronic medical record. We used simple descriptive statistics to compare the relative performance characteristics of these measures. Results Comparative analysis found a relative upward bias in adherence estimates for those measures that require at least one dispensing event to be calculated. Measurement strategies that require a second dispensing event evidence even greater upward bias. These biases are greatest with shorter observation times. Furthermore, requiring a dispensing to be calculated meant that these measures could not be defined for large numbers of individuals (17-32 % of participants in this study. Measurement strategies that do not require a dispensing event to be calculated appear least vulnerable to these biases and can be calculated for everyone. However they do require additional assumptions and data (e.g., pre-intervention dispensing data to support their validity. Conclusions Many adherence measures require one, or sometimes two, dispensings in order to be defined. Since such measures assume all dispensed medication is used as directed, they have a built in upward bias that is especially pronounced when they are calculated over relatively short timeframes ( Trial registration The study was funded by grant R01HL83433 from the National Heart, Lung and

  3. Is central skeleton bone quality a predictor of the severity of proximal humeral fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yeol; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Sang-Jin

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the correlation between bone attenuation around the shoulder joint assessed on conventional computed tomography (CT) and bone mineral density (BMD) based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) of the central skeleton and the correlation between the bone quality around the shoulder joint and the severity of the fracture pattern of the proximal humerus. A total of 200 patients with proximal humeral fracture who underwent preoperative 3-dimensional shoulder CT as well as DEXA within 3 months of the CT examination were included. Fracture types were divided into simple and comminuted fracture based on the Neer classification. After reliability testing, bone attenuation of the glenoid, three portions of the humeral head, and metaphysis was measured by placing a circular region of interest on the center of each bony region on CT images. Partial correlation analysis was used to assess the correlation between the bone quality around the shoulder joint on CT and the BMD on the central skeleton after adjusting for age and body mass index. Partial correlations between fracture classification and CT/DEXA results were also evaluated. Bone attenuation measurements of the glenoid and humeral head showed good to excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.623-0.998). Bone attenuation of the central portion of the humeral head on CT showed a significant correlation with the BMD of L1, L4, the femoral neck, and femoral trochanter (correlation coefficient, 0.269-0.431). Bone attenuation of other areas showed a lower correlation with BMD by DEXA. As the level of the Neer classification increased from a 2 to 4-part fracture, bone attenuation of the central humeral head decreased significantly (r=-0.150, p=0.034). However, the BMD on DEXA was not a predictive factor for comminuted fracture of the proximal humerus. DEXA examination of the central skeleton may not reflect the bone quality of the proximal humerus and

  4. Molecular imprinting sensor based on quantum weak measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; He, Qinghua; He, Yonghong; Xin, Meiguo; Zhang, Yilong; Shen, Zhiyuan

    2017-08-15

    A new type of sensing protocol, based on a high precision metrology of quantum weak measurement, was first proposed for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) sensor. The feasibility, sensitivity and selectivity of weak measurement based MIP (WMMIP) sensor were experimentally demonstrated with bovine serum albumin (BSA). Weak measurement system exhibits high sensitivity to the optical phase shift corresponding to the refractive index change, which is induced by the specific capture of target protein molecules with its recognition sites. The recognition process can be finally characterized by the central wavelength shift of output spectra through weak value amplification. In our experiment, we prepared BSA@MIP with modified reversed-phase microemulsion method, and coated it on the internal surface of measuring channels assembled into the Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer based optical weak measurement system. The design of this home-built optical system makes it possible to detect analyte in real time. The dynamic process of the specific adsorption and concentration response to BSA from 5×10-4 to 5×10-1μg/L was achieved with a limit of detection (LOD) of 8.01×10-12g/L. This WMMIP shows superiority in accuracy, fast response and low cost. Furthermore, real-time monitoring system can creatively promote the performance of MIP in molecular analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrated method for the measurement of trace nitrogenous atmospheric bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Key

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogenous atmospheric bases are thought to play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their sources, transport, and sinks remain poorly understood. Of the many methods available to measure such compounds in ambient air, few meet the current need of being applicable to the complete range of potential analytes and fewer still are convenient to implement using instrumentation that is standard to most laboratories. In this work, an integrated approach to measuring trace, atmospheric, gaseous nitrogenous bases has been developed and validated. The method uses a simple acid scrubbing step to capture and concentrate the bases as their phosphite salts, which then are derivatized and analyzed using GC/MS and/or LC/MS. The advantages of both techniques in the context of the present measurements are discussed. The approach is sensitive, selective, reproducible, as well as convenient to implement and has been validated for different sampling strategies. The limits of detection for the families of tested compounds are suitable for ambient measurement applications (e.g., methylamine, 1 pptv; ethylamine, 2 pptv; morpholine, 1 pptv; aniline, 1 pptv; hydrazine, 0.1 pptv; methylhydrazine, 2 pptv, as supported by field measurements in an urban park and in the exhaust of on-road vehicles.

  6. An Adaptive Algorithm for Pairwise Comparison-based Preference Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meissner, Martin; Decker, Reinhold; Scholz, Sören W.

    2011-01-01

    The Pairwise Comparison‐based Preference Measurement (PCPM) approach has been proposed for products featuring a large number of attributes. In the PCPM framework, a static two‐cyclic design is used to reduce the number of pairwise comparisons. However, adaptive questioning routines that maximize ...

  7. Robust Similarity Measure for Spectral Clustering Based on Shared Neighbors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ye, Xiucai; Sakurai, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    ...) graph, which cannot reveal the real clusters when the data are not well separated. In this paper, to improve the spectral clustering, we consider a robust similarity measure based on the shared nearest neighbors in a directed kNN graph...

  8. Hydrogel-based sensor for CO2 measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber, S.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    A hydrogel-based sensor is presented for CO2 measurements. The sensor consists of a pressure sensor and porous silicon cover. A pH-sensitive hydrogel is confined between the two parts. Furthermore the porous cover contains a bicarbonate solution and a gaspermeable membrane. CO2 reacts with the

  9. Upconversion-based lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgstedt, Lasse; Fix, Andreas; Wirth, Martin

    2016-01-01

    For the first time an upconversion based detection scheme is demonstrated for lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2-concentrations, with a hard target at a range of 3 km and atmospheric backscatter from a range of similar to 450 m. The pulsed signals at 1572 nm are upconverted to 635 nm...

  10. Curriculum-Based Measurement of Reading: Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madelaine, Alison; Wheldall, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    A significant amount of literature has been published on curriculum-based measurement (CBM) in the last decade. Much of the conceptual work on CBM was done in the 1980s and early 1990s. This review concentrates on the large body of research published within the last 10 years on CBM of reading, including further research demonstrating its technical…

  11. Metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Leslie; Petersson, Niclas

    2016-09-01

    The metrology of human-based and other qualitative measurements is in its infancy—concepts such as traceability and uncertainty are as yet poorly developed. This paper reviews how a measurement system analysis approach, particularly invoking as performance metric the ability of a probe (such as a human being) acting as a measurement instrument to make a successful decision, can enable a more general metrological treatment of qualitative observations. Measures based on human observations are typically qualitative, not only in sectors, such as health care, services and safety, where the human factor is obvious, but also in customer perception of traditional products of all kinds. A principal challenge is that the usual tools of statistics normally employed for expressing measurement accuracy and uncertainty will probably not work reliably if relations between distances on different portions of scales are not fully known, as is typical of ordinal or other qualitative measurements. A key enabling insight is to connect the treatment of decision risks associated with measurement uncertainty to generalized linear modelling (GLM). Handling qualitative observations in this way unites information theory, the perceptive identification and choice paradigms of psychophysics. The Rasch invariant measure psychometric GLM approach in particular enables a proper treatment of ordinal data; a clear separation of probe and item attribute estimates; simple expressions for instrument sensitivity; etc. Examples include two aspects of the care of breast cancer patients, from diagnosis to rehabilitation. The Rasch approach leads in turn to opportunities of establishing metrological references for quality assurance of qualitative measurements. In psychometrics, one could imagine a certified reference for knowledge challenge, for example, a particular concept in understanding physics or for product quality of a certain health care service. Multivariate methods, such as Principal Component

  12. Software-defined Radio Based Measurement Platform for Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, I-Chun; Lee, Kang B; Candell, Richard; Proctor, Frederick; Shen, Chien-Chung; Lin, Shinn-Yan

    2015-10-01

    End-to-end latency is critical to many distributed applications and services that are based on computer networks. There has been a dramatic push to adopt wireless networking technologies and protocols (such as WiFi, ZigBee, WirelessHART, Bluetooth, ISA100.11a, etc.) into time-critical applications. Examples of such applications include industrial automation, telecommunications, power utility, and financial services. While performance measurement of wired networks has been extensively studied, measuring and quantifying the performance of wireless networks face new challenges and demand different approaches and techniques. In this paper, we describe the design of a measurement platform based on the technologies of software-defined radio (SDR) and IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) for evaluating the performance of wireless networks.

  13. Method of pectus excavatum measurement based on structured light technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinkowski, Wojciech; Sitnik, Robert; Witkowski, Marcin; Kocoń, Hanna; Bolewicki, Pawel; Górecki, Andrzej

    2009-07-01

    We present an automatic method for assessment of pectus excavatum severity based on an optical 3-D markerless shape measurement. A four-directional measurement system based on a structured light projection method is built to capture the shape of the body surface of the patients. The system setup is described and typical measurement parameters are given. The automated data analysis path is explained. Their main steps are: normalization of trunk model orientation, cutting the model into slices, analysis of each slice shape, selecting the proper slice for the assessment of pectus excavatum of the patient, and calculating its shape parameter. We develop a new shape parameter (I3ds) that shows high correlation with the computed tomography (CT) Haller index widely used for assessment of pectus excavatum. Clinical results and the evaluation of developed indexes are presented.

  14. Observer-based Coal Mill Control using Oxygen Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; S., Tom

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to coal flow estimation in pulverized coal mills, which utilizes measurements of oxygen content in the flue gas. Pulverized coal mills are typically not equipped with sensors that detect the amount of coal injected into the furnace. This makes control...... of the coal flow difficult, causing stability problems and limits the plant's load following capabilities. To alleviate this problem without having to rely on expensive flow measurement equipment, a novel observer-based approach is investigated. A Kalman filter based on measurements of combustion air flow led...... into the furnace and oxygen concentration in the flue gas is designed to estimate the actual coal flow injected into the furnace. With this estimate, it becomes possible to close an inner loop around the coal mill itself, thus giving a better disturbance rejection capability. The approach is validated against...

  15. Depth Measurement Based on Infrared Coded Structured Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depth measurement is a challenging problem in computer vision research. In this study, we first design a new grid pattern and develop a sequence coding and decoding algorithm to process the pattern. Second, we propose a linear fitting algorithm to derive the linear relationship between the object depth and pixel shift. Third, we obtain depth information on an object based on this linear relationship. Moreover, 3D reconstruction is implemented based on Delaunay triangulation algorithm. Finally, we utilize the regularity of the error curves to correct the system errors and improve the measurement accuracy. The experimental results show that the accuracy of depth measurement is related to the step length of moving object.

  16. Computer Vision Based Measurement of Wildfire Smoke Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUGARIC, M.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a novel method for measurement of wildfire smoke dynamics based on computer vision and augmented reality techniques. The aspect of smoke dynamics is an important feature in video smoke detection that could distinguish smoke from visually similar phenomena. However, most of the existing smoke detection systems are not capable of measuring the real-world size of the detected smoke regions. Using computer vision and GIS-based augmented reality, we measure the real dimensions of smoke plumes, and observe the change in size over time. The measurements are performed on offline video data with known camera parameters and location. The observed data is analyzed in order to create a classifier that could be used to eliminate certain categories of false alarms induced by phenomena with different dynamics than smoke. We carried out an offline evaluation where we measured the improvement in the detection process achieved using the proposed smoke dynamics characteristics. The results show a significant increase in algorithm performance, especially in terms of reducing false alarms rate. From this it follows that the proposed method for measurement of smoke dynamics could be used to improve existing smoke detection algorithms, or taken into account when designing new ones.

  17. Damage detection technique by measuring laser-based mechanical impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-02-01

    This study proposes a method for measurement of mechanical impedance using noncontact laser ultrasound. The measurement of mechanical impedance has been of great interest in nondestructive testing (NDT) or structural health monitoring (SHM) since mechanical impedance is sensitive even to small-sized structural defects. Conventional impedance measurements, however, have been based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) using contact-type piezoelectric transducers, which show deteriorated performances induced by the effects of a) Curie temperature limitations, b) electromagnetic interference (EMI), c) bonding layers and etc. This study aims to tackle the limitations of conventional EMI measurement by utilizing laser-based mechanical impedance (LMI) measurement. The LMI response, which is equivalent to a steady-state ultrasound response, is generated by shooting the pulse laser beam to the target structure, and is acquired by measuring the out-of-plane velocity using a laser vibrometer. The formation of the LMI response is observed through the thermo-mechanical finite element analysis. The feasibility of applying the LMI technique for damage detection is experimentally verified using a pipe specimen under high temperature environment.

  18. Accuracy of MRI-based Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russek, Stephen; Erdevig, Hannah; Keenan, Kathryn; Stupic, Karl

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map tissue susceptibility to identify microbleeds associated with brain injury and pathologic iron deposits associated with neurologic diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Field distortions with a resolution of a few parts per billion can be measured using MRI phase maps. The field distortion map can be inverted to obtain a quantitative susceptibility map. To determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements, a set of phantoms with paramagnetic salts and nano-iron gels were fabricated. The shapes and orientations of features were varied. Measured susceptibility of 1.0 mM GdCl3 solution in water as a function of temperature agreed well with the theoretical predictions, assuming Gd+3 is spin 7/2. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry. The paramagnetic susceptibility sits on top of the much larger diamagnetic susceptibility of water (-9.04 x 10-6), which leads to errors in the SQUID measurements. To extract out the paramagnetic contribution using standard magnetometry, measurements must be made down to low temperature (2K). MRI-based susceptometry is shown to be as or more accurate than standard magnetometry and susceptometry techniques.

  19. Microcontroller Power Consumption Measurement Based on PSoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Janković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcontrollers are often used as central processing elements in embedded systems. Because of different sleep and performance modes that microcontrollers support, their power consumption may have a high dynamic range, over 100 dB. In this paper, a data acquisition (DAQ system for measuring and analyzing the power consumption of microcontrollers is presented. DAQ system consists of a current measurement circuit using potentiostat technique, a DAQ device based on system on chip PSoC 5LP and Python PC program for the analysis, storage and visualization of measured data. Both Successive Approximation Register (SAR and Delta-Sigma (DS ADCs contained in the PSoC 5LP are used for measuring voltage drop across the shunt resistor. SAR ADC samples data at a 10 times higher rate than DS ADC, so the input range of DS ADC can be adjusted based on data measured by SAR ADC, thus enabling the extension of current measuring range by 28%. Implemented DAQ device is connected with a computer through a USB port and tested with developed Python PC program.

  20. Ship-based MAX-DOAS measurements of nitrogen dioxide in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Stefan F.; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.

    2014-05-01

    In November 2011, the SHIVA-Sonne campaign took place in the South China Sea in order to investigate the transport of very short-lived substances to the stratosphere for a better understanding of their role in ozone depletion. Among other instruments, a Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrument was placed on board the RV Sonne to measure scattered sunlight at different elevation angles. These measurements can be used for the retrieval of vertical columns of several trace gases (e.g. nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), and iodine monoxide (IO)) by applying the DOAS method. In this study, we present tropospheric NO2 vertical columns (TVC NO2) retrieved from the MAX-DOAS measurements between 17 and 28 November 2011. During this period, the tropospheric NO2 levels were rather low ( 5 x 1015 molec cm-2) were observed when other large vessels navigated in the proximity of RV Sonne. Moreover, elevated levels of TVC NO2 (> 3 x 1015 molec cm-2) were also observed close to the coast of the island Borneo. The web-based version of the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) was used for the calculation of 24 h backward trajectories to better identify the sources of these elevated levels of TVC NO2. The analysis of the backward trajectories indicated that some cases with elevated tropospheric NO2 levels could be the result of NO2 transport from biomass burning and urban/industrial sources. In summary, the highest levels of TVC NO2 were found to be the result of the combustion process of large vessel engines. The contribution of biomass burning and urban/industrial sources to the tropospheric NO2 level in the South China Sea is rather low, at least during this part of the season.

  1. CAIP system for vision-based on-machine measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Rui-xue; Lu, Rong-sheng; Shi, Yan-qiong; Li, Qi; Dong, Jing-tao; Liu, Ning

    2011-12-01

    Computer-Aided Inspection Planning (CAIP) is an important module of modern dimensional measuring instruments, utilizing the CAIP for machined parts inspection is an important indication of the level of automation and intelligence. Aiming at the characteristic of visual inspection, it develops a CAIP system for vision-based On-Machine Measurement (OMM) based on a CAD development platform whose kernel is Open CASCADE. The working principle of vision-based OMM system is introduced, and the key technologies of CAIP include inspection information extraction, sampling strategy, inspection path planning, inspection codes generation, inspection procedure verification, data post-processor, comparison, and so on. The entire system was verified on a CNC milling machine, and relevant examples show that the system can accomplish automatic inspection planning task for common parts efficiently.

  2. Global Observer-Based Attitude Controller Using Direct Inertial Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saâdi Bouhired

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we address the problem of global attitude control using direct inertial measurements. When using direct inertial measurement to observe the rigid body attitude, it is shown that due to a geometrical obstruction, it is impossible to achieve global asymptotic stability. In fact, for a particular initial condition the tracking error quaternion converges to a pure imaginary quaternion formed by an eigenvector of a characteristic matrix related to the inertial constant and known vectors. Our proposition consists of adding a dynamic signal to force the rigid body to escape from such a situation. The proposed observer-based controller is synthesized based on a single Lyapunov function and a stability analysis shows that the controller stabilizes globally and asymptotically the rigid body attitude at the desired one. The effectiveness of the proposed observer-based controller is confirmed by simulation results.

  3. The Pragmatic Utility of Watson-Based Caring Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, Huda; Ahmad, Muayyad; Alslman, Eman Tariq; Hani, Manar Ali Bani

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to clarify the caring concept with emphasis on the pragmatic utility of caring measures. The Morse et al. (Morse, Hupcey, Mitcham, & Lenz, 1996; Morse, Mitcham, Hupcey, & Tasón, 1996) criteria for concept maturity were used as a framework. A literature review of Watson-based caring concept was undertaken to evaluate the logical, epistemological, linguistical, and pragmatic parameters. The concept of caring as conceptualized by Watson and operationalized through different measures appeared mature. Despite differences, shorter scales of caring measures were effective to capture caring behavior. Caring concept was further clarified and more confidence in using caring measures for assessment, evaluation, and modification of caring behavior become more feasible.

  4. High Precision Infrared Temperature Measurement System Based on Distance Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the need of real-time remote monitoring of human body surface temperature for optical rehabilitation therapy, a non-contact high-precision real-time temperature measurement method based on distance compensation was proposed, and the system design was carried out. The microcontroller controls the infrared temperature measurement module and the laser range module to collect temperature and distance data. The compensation formula of temperature with distance wass fitted according to the least square method. Testing had been performed on different individuals to verify the accuracy of the system. The results indicate that the designed non-contact infrared temperature measurement system has a residual error of less than 0.2°C and the response time isless than 0.1s in the range of 0 to 60cm. This provides a reference for developing long-distance temperature measurement equipment in optical rehabilitation therapy.

  5. Levels and proximate determinants of fertility in Butajira District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    and child health services in Ethiopia were one of the main aims of the health extension program. The impediment of ... Objectives: This study aimed at measuring levels and fertility inhibition effects of proximate determinants in Butajira district. Methods: A ... its link to the success of reproductive health programs and policies ...

  6. Depressionary Effect of Proximity of Residential Properties to Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is important to know if and to which extent proximity to waste disposal sites or treatment plants depresses residential property values for many reasons. Whether as a measure of the impact of the sites on health and general welfare of the resident, or to ascertain the degree of monetary depression that would be suffered by ...

  7. Levels and proximate determinants of fertility in Butajira District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impediment of early marriage was revised in the national family code which claims assessment of fertility situations. Objectives: This study aimed at measuring levels and fertility inhibition effects of proximate determinants in Butajira district. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on resident women of ...

  8. Some Proximate Analysis of African Pear ( Dacryodes Edulis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05) were observed between the samples for all the parameters measured. Fruit density showed a negative correlation (r = -0.86) with the pulp/seed ratio. Significant differences were also observed in the proximate composition of the African pear pulp. The major components of the pulp were moisture (36.5% to 53.82%), ...

  9. Improving outcomes for patients with proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dipal; Dhillon, Amritpaul; Mulvaney, Emily; Robinson, Margaret; Weerasuriya, Namal

    2014-09-25

    A peri-operative bay was created to treat all patients with proximal femoral fractures admitted to one trauma ward at the Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham. All patients had urinary catheterisation and their fluid intake and output was recorded; patients had daily blood tests and were cared for on pressure-relieving mattresses. In addition, a study day was provided for all nursing staff on the management of patients with proximal femoral fractures. These measures resulted in a significant decrease in the incidence of acute kidney injury, reduced the length of hospital stay for patients on this ward and reduced the numbers of falls and pressure-related injuries for these patients.

  10. Measurements of simulated periodontal bone defects in inverted digital image and film-based radiograph: an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molon, Rafael Scaf; Morais Camillo, Juliana Aparecida Najarro Dearo; Ferreira, Mauricio Goncalves; Loffredo, Leonor Castro Monteiro; Scaf, Gulnara [Araraquara Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sakakura, Celso Eduardo [Barretos Dental School, Barretos Educational Fundation, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to compare the inverted digital images and film-based images of dry pig mandibles to measure the periodontal bone defect depth. Forty 2-wall bone defects were made in the proximal region of the premolar in the dry pig mandibles. The digital and conventional radiographs were taken using a Schick sensor and Kodak F-speed intraoral film. Image manipulation (inversion) was performed using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. Four trained examiners made all of the radiographic measurements in millimeters a total of three times from the cementoenamel junction to the most apical extension of the bone loss with both types of images: inverted digital and film. The measurements were also made in dry mandibles using a periodontal probe and digital caliper. The Student's t-test was used to compare the depth measurements obtained from the two types of images and direct visual measurement in the dry mandibles. A significance level of 0.05 for a 95% confidence interval was used for each comparison. There was a significant difference between depth measurements in the inverted digital images and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.0039), with means of 6.29 mm (IC{sub 95%}:6.04-6.54) and 6.79 mm (IC{sub 95%}:6.45-7.11), respectively. There was a non-significant difference between the film-based radiographs and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.4950), with means of 6.64 mm(IC{sub 95%}:6.40-6.89) and 6.79 mm(IC{sub 95%}:6.45-7.11), respectively. The periodontal bone defect measurements in the inverted digital images were inferior to film-based radiographs, underestimating the amount of bone loss.

  11. Specific Emitter Identification Based on the Natural Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Jia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Specific emitter identification (SEI techniques are often used in civilian and military spectrum-management operations, and they are also applied to support the security and authentication of wireless communication. In this letter, a new SEI method based on the natural measure of the one-dimensional component of the chaotic system is proposed. We find that the natural measures of the one-dimensional components of higher dimensional systems exist and that they are quite diverse for different systems. Based on this principle, the natural measure is used as an RF fingerprint in this letter. The natural measure can solve the problems caused by a small amount of data and a low sample rate. The Kullback–Leibler divergence is used to quantify the difference between the natural measures obtained from diverse emitters and classify them. The data obtained from real application are exploited to test the validity of the proposed method. Experimental results show that the proposed method is not only easy to operate, but also quite effective, even though the amount of data is small and the sample rate is low.

  12. Conservation and Unscripted Development: Proximity to Park Associated with Development and Financial Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D. Baird

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Decades of research on the social dynamics of biodiversity conservation has shown that parks and protected areas have added hardship to rural communities throughout much of the developing world. Nonetheless, some recent studies have found evidence of poverty alleviation near protected areas. To build on these conflicting accounts, I use a comparative, mixed-methods design to examine opportunistic, unplanned, i.e., unscripted, development in indigenous communities near Tarangire National Park (TNP in northern Tanzania. I ask the questions: (1 How is proximity to TNP related to community-level infrastructural development? (2 How has the process of development changed over time? and (3 How is proximity to TNP related to infrastructure-related social outcomes at the household-level? Results from semistructured interviews show that, compared with distant communities, communities near TNP have developed more extensive education and water infrastructure in the past decade by procuring financial support from a greater diversity of external organizations, including wildlife-related organizations. Correspondingly, household survey results show that education measures are positively associated with proximity to TNP, controlling for other factors. These findings support the notion that development can accrue near protected areas in ways that are diverse, uncoordinated, and opportunistic, and correspondingly distinct from heralded community-based conservation, community-based natural resource management, and integrated conservation and development project initiatives.

  13. The detection accuracies for proximal caries by cone-beam computerized tomography, film, and phosphor plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-ling; Qu, Xing-min; Li, Gang; Zhang, Zu-yan; Ma, Xu-chen

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) for the detection of noncavitated proximal caries and to compare the detection accuracies of 2 CBCT imaging systems with those based on plain-film radiographs and phosphor-plate images. Test radiographs of 39 noncavitated unrestored human permanent teeth were obtained with film, phosphor-plate, ProMax 3D, and Kodak 9000 3D imaging systems. Seven observers used a 5-level scale to evaluate test images for the presence of proximal caries. With histologic examination serving as the reference standard, observer performances were assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and the areas under the ROC curves (A(z) values) for the observers, and modalities were analyzed with a repeated-measures analysis of variance. The mean A(z) values for film, phosphor plates, ProMax 3D, and Kodak 9000 3D imaging systems were 0.541, 0.523, 0.528, and 0.525, respectively (P = .763). For detecting subtle noncavitated proximal caries, the detection accuracy with the CBCT images was little better than chance performance and was similar to that with phosphor plate- and film-based intraoral images. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. TEXT MINING: TEXT SIMILARITY MEASURE FOR NEWS ARTICLES BASED ON STRING BASED APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    R. Kohila*, Dr. K. Arunesh

    2016-01-01

    Now-a-days, the documents similarity measuring plays an important role in text related researches. There are many applications in document similarity measures such as plagiarism detection, document clustering, automatic essay scoring, information retrieval and machine translation. String Based Similarity, Knowledge Based Similarity and Corpus Based Similarity are the three major approaches proposed by the most of the   researchers to solve the problems in document similarity. In thi...

  15. An ABS control logic based on wheel force measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, D.; Galvagno, E.; Ondrak, V.; van Leeuwen, B.; Vigliani, A.

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents an anti-lock braking system (ABS) control logic based on the measurement of the longitudinal forces at the hub bearings. The availability of force information allows to design a logic that does not rely on the estimation of the tyre-road friction coefficient, since it continuously tries to exploit the maximum longitudinal tyre force. The logic is designed by means of computer simulation and then tested on a specific hardware in the loop test bench: the experimental results confirm that measured wheel force can lead to a significant improvement of the ABS performances in terms of stopping distance also in the presence of road with variable friction coefficient.

  16. Laser based measurement for the monitoring of shaft misalignment.

    OpenAIRE

    Simm, Anthony; Wang, Qing; Huang, Songling; Wei ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method for real-time online monitoring of shaft misalignment, which is a common problem in rotating machinery, such as the drive train of wind turbines. A non-contact laser based measurement method is used to monitor positional changes of a rotating shaft in real time while in operation. The results are then used to detect the presence of shaft misalignment. An experimental test rig is designed to measure shaft misalignment and the results from the work show that the tec...

  17. A Laser Based Instrument for MWPC Wire Tension Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Baldini, W; Evangelisti, F; Germani, S; Landi, L; Savrié, M; Graziani, G; Lenti, M; Lenzi, M; Passaleva, G; Carboni, G; De Capua, S; Kachtchouk, A

    2007-01-01

    A fast and simple method for the measurement of the mechanical tension of wires of Multi Wires Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) is described. The system is based on commercial components and does not require any electrical connection to the wires or electric or magnetic field. It has been developed for the quality control of MWPCs of the Muon Detector of the LHCb experiment in construction at CERN. The system allows a measurement of the wire tension with a precision better than 0.5% within 3-4 seconds per wire

  18. Toward a Theory-Based Measurement of Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Detmar Straub; Karen Loch; Roberto Evaristo; Elena Karahanna; Mark Srite

    2002-01-01

    In reviewing the history of the conceptualization and measurement of “culture,†one quickly realizes that there is wide-ranging and contradictory scholarly opinion about which values, norms, and beliefs should be measured to represent the concept of “culture.†We explore an alternate theory-based view of culture via social identity theory (SIT), which suggests that each individual is influenced by plethora of cultures and sub-cultures–some ethnic, some national, and some organizationa...

  19. Defining and Computing a Valued Based Cyber-Security Measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aissa, Anis Ben [University of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    In earlier work, we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper, we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates, and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  20. Measurement Uncertainty Analysis of the Strain Gauge Based Stabilographic Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walendziuk Wojciech

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes constructing a stabilographic platform which records a standing patient’s deflection from their point of balance. The constructed device is composed of a toughen glass slab propped with 4 force sensors. Power transducers are connected to the measurement system based on a 24-bit ADC transducer which acquires slight body movements of a patient. The data is then transferred to the computer in real time and data analysis is conducted. The article explains the principle of operation as well as the algorithm of measurement uncertainty for the COP (Centre of Pressure surface (x, y.

  1. Quantum Measurements Based on Photon Number Resolved Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberhorn, Christine

    2009-05-01

    The characterization of any quantum system requires measurements, which allows an observer to gain information about a performed experiment. The theory of quantum measurements connects the properties of a quantum state, which is typically defined by its density matrix ρ, and the description of the measurement devices, represented by a positive-operator-valued measure (POVM), with the probabilities of obtaining specific detection outcomes. The way on how we interpret our results depends, on the one hand, on the technical limitations of available detectors, and on the other hand, on our knowledge about the measurement apparatus. Up to recently no practical photon-number resolving detectors were available. Hence most research dealing with multi-photon states is based on homodyne tomography schemes. A time-multiplexing detector (TMD) that is capable to resolve photon statistics can be built from a fiber network followed by avalanche photo-detection. TMDs enable the direct measurement of count statistics, but their moderate efficiency hampers identifying the photon number of each signal state on a single-shot basis. The POVMs describing this detector correspond to loss-degraded photon number measurements, and a precise calibration of the losses can be utilized to recover the original photon number statistics in ensemble measurements by a loss inversion method. However, the knowledge of the photon statistics is not sufficient to completely characterize a state, because photon counting annihilates any information about the coherences between photon numbers. Nevertheless, TMD measurements can render a complete characterization of a density matrix ρ, if the statistics of the displaced states are analyzed. We investigate the capabilities of detector tomography and loss-tolerant detection of photon statistics for the complete characterization of photonic states.

  2. Analysis of Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.

    2011-01-01

    To synchronize clocks between spacecraft in proximity, the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol has been proposed. PITS is based on the NTP Interleaved On-Wire Protocol and is capable of being adapted and integrated into CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol with minimal modifications. In this work, we will discuss the correctness and liveness of PITS. Further, we analyze and evaluate the performance of time synchronization latency with various channel error rates in different PITS operational modes.

  3. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  4. Developing a community-based flood resilience measurement standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Given the increased attention to resilience-strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there has been concurrent interest in its measurement and the overall accountability of "resilience strengthening" initiatives. The literature is reaching beyond the polemic of defining resilience to its measurement. Similarly, donors are increasingly expecting organizations to go beyond claiming resilience programing to measuring and showing it. However, key questions must be asked, in particular "Resilience of whom and to what?". There is no one-size-fits-all solution. The approach to measuring resilience is dependent on the audience and the purpose of the measurement exercise. Deriving a resilience measurement system needs to be based on the question it seeks to answer and needs to be specific. This session highlights key lessons from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance approach to develop a flood resilience measurement standard to measure and assess the impact of community based flood resilience interventions, and to inform decision-making to enhance the effectiveness of these interventions. We draw on experience in methodology development to-date, together with lessons from application in two case study sites in Latin America. Attention will be given to the use of a consistent measurement methodology for community resilience to floods over time and place; challenges to measuring a complex and dynamic phenomenon such as community resilience; methodological implications of measuring community resilience versus impact on and contribution to this goal; and using measurement and tools such as cost-benefit analysis to prioritize and inform strategic decision making for resilience interventions. The measurement tool follows the five categories of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the 4Rs of complex adaptive systems - robustness, rapidity, redundancy and resourcefulness -5C-4R. A recent white paper by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance traces the

  5. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yongyu; You, Wei; Zhu, Weimin; Cui, Jiaming; Chen, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases. PMID:29081829

  6. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyu Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases.

  7. Topology of digital images visual pattern discovery in proximity spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2014-01-01

    This book carries forward recent work on visual patterns and structures in digital images and introduces a near set-based a topology of digital images. Visual patterns arise naturally in digital images viewed as sets of non-abstract points endowed with some form of proximity (nearness) relation. Proximity relations make it possible to construct uniform topolo- gies on the sets of points that constitute a digital image. In keeping with an interest in gaining an understanding of digital images themselves as a rich source of patterns, this book introduces the basics of digital images from a computer vision perspective. In parallel with a computer vision perspective on digital images, this book also introduces the basics of prox- imity spaces. Not only the traditional view of spatial proximity relations but also the more recent descriptive proximity relations are considered. The beauty of the descriptive proximity approach is that it is possible to discover visual set patterns among sets that are non-overlapping ...

  8. Rehabilitation and Prevention of Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Nicholas R; Félix, Ioonna; Hettler, Jessica; Moley, Peter J; Wyss, James F

    Proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) comprises a small but significant portion of hamstring injuries in athletes, especially runners. PHT is a chronic condition that is clinically diagnosed but can be supported with imaging. The main presenting complaint is pain in the lower gluteal or ischial region that may or may not radiate along the hamstrings in the posterior thigh. There is little scientific evidence on which to base the rehabilitation management of PHT. Treatment is almost always conservative, with a focus on activity modification, addressing contributing biomechanical deficiencies, effective tendon loading including eccentric training, and ultrasound-guided interventional procedures which may facilitate rehabilitation. Surgery is limited to recalcitrant cases or those involving concomitant high-grade musculotendinous pathology. The keys to PHT management include early and accurate diagnosis, optimal rehabilitation to allow for a safe return to preinjury activity level, and preventative strategies to reduce risk of reinjury.

  9. Effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade on proximal tubular fluid reabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Karlsen, F M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1997-01-01

    convolution of halothane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Four parameters that depend on the rate of proximal fluid reabsorption were measured: proximal intratubular pressure (Pprox), early and late proximal flow rate, and early distal NaCl concentration. Pprox decreased by 0.5 +/- 0.1 mmHg, late proximal...... flow rate decreased by 2.0 +/- 0.8 nl/min, and early distal NaCl concentration decreased by 4.3 +/- 0.8 mM (mean +/- SE). No changes were observed after microperfusion with saline. Because the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism was operating in the closed-loop mode, the decreased NaCl load...... the early and late proximal convolutions was estimated to be 7.8 nl/min (approximately 36%). It is concluded that a decrease in local luminal angiotensin II levels and/or AT1 receptor activity under free flow conditions increases the rate of proximal tubular fluid reabsorption....

  10. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  11. Observer-Based Fuel Control Using Oxygen Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Mortensen, Jan Henrik

    This report describes an attempt to improve the existing control af coal mills used at the Danish power plant Nordjyllandsværket Unit 3. The coal mills are not equipped with coal flow sensors; thus an observer-based approach is investigated. A nonlinear differential equation model of the boiler...... is constructed and validated against data obtained at the plant. A Kalman filter based on measurements of combustion air flow led into the furnace and oxygen concentration in the flue gas is designed to estimate the actual coal flow. With this estimate, it becomes possible to close an inner loop around the coal...

  12. Automated pavement horizontal curve measurement methods based on inertial measurement unit and 3D profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Luo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pavement horizontal curve is designed to serve as a transition between straight segments, and its presence may cause a series of driving-related safety issues to motorists and drivers. As is recognized that traditional methods for curve geometry investigation are time consuming, labor intensive, and inaccurate, this study attempts to develop a method that can automatically conduct horizontal curve identification and measurement at network level. The digital highway data vehicle (DHDV was utilized for data collection, in which three Euler angles, driving speed, and acceleration of survey vehicle were measured with an inertial measurement unit (IMU. The 3D profiling data used for cross slope calibration was obtained with PaveVision3D Ultra technology at 1 mm resolution. In this study, the curve identification was based on the variation of heading angle, and the curve radius was calculated with kinematic method, geometry method, and lateral acceleration method. In order to verify the accuracy of the three methods, the analysis of variance (ANOVA test was applied by using the control variable of curve radius measured by field test. Based on the measured curve radius, a curve safety analysis model was used to predict the crash rates and safe driving speeds at horizontal curves. Finally, a case study on 4.35 km road segment demonstrated that the proposed method could efficiently conduct network level analysis.

  13. Metric dimensions of the proximal phalanges of the human hand and their relationship to side, position, and asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Varas, C E; Thompson, T J U

    2011-04-01

    The anatomy of the proximal phalanges of the human hand has been widely described. Nevertheless, when consulting osteology and anatomy publications, the general opinion of researchers is that siding and allocating the proximal phalanges with regard to finger position is difficult, if not impossible. We provide morphological criteria for determining the side of the proximal phalanges and a metric means of allocating a phalanx to a specific finger. This paper also quantifies the absolute and directional asymmetry found in phalanges within this sample. The sample studied consists of three groups, one modern and two archaeological. To investigate these, three measurements were taken-maximum length, maximum width at the base and maximum width at the head. It was found that phalanges could be assigned correctly to the side and finger of origin in 100% of the cases when the five phalanges of a given hand were present, and that this result dropped to 92% when allocating isolated phalanges. The means of the measurements taken were larger in the modern group and a constant relationship between the greater basal width of the second and the fourth proximal phalanges was found. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Evolution of treatment of of the proximal humerus fractures (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Kogan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article in generalized form acquaints with the publications devoted to the bases of proximal humeral fractures treatment. A brief digression on anatomy and biomechanics of the humeral joint allows to consider the main morphological features of it. The most commonly used classification of proximal humeral fractures concisely classify many types of damage. According to the clinical and anatomical characteristics of fractures tracked the historical aspect, the development and the current state of the most common methods of treatment. In his review collected works authors share their experience in the application of methods. It allows to further the perspective directions.

  15. Efficient Indoor Proximity and Separation Detection for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Treu, Georg; Ruppel, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Detecting proximity and separation among mobile targets is a basic mechanism for many location-based services (LBSs) and requires continuous positioning and tracking. However, realizing both mechanisms for indoor usage is still a major challenge. Positioning methods like GPS cannot be applied there......, and for distance calculations the particular building topology has to be taken into account. To address these challenges, this paper presents a novel approach for indoor proximity and separation detection, which uses location fingerprinting for indoor positioning of targets and walking distances for modeling...

  16. On-Line Voltage Stability Assessment based on PMU Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; P. Da Silva, Luiz C.; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2009-01-01

    through statistic analysis. During the off-line analysis, a memory of high-risk situations following a pre-defined voltage stability criterion is obtained. Thereafter, basic statistics analyses are applied resulting in the definition of voltage regions. During on-line operation, voltage magnitudes...... of critical buses obtained by phasor measurements are monitored in relation to the risk regions. Comprehensive studies demonstrate that the proposed method could assist operators to avoid voltage collapse events, by taking preventive or emergency actions.......This paper presents a method for on-line monitoring of risk voltage collapse based on synchronised phasor measurement. As there is no room for intensive computation and analysis in real-time, the method is based on the combination of off-line computation and on-line monitoring, which are correlated...

  17. Monitoring psychotherapy with performance-based measures of personality functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Irving B

    2004-12-01

    In this commentary, I review a meta-analysis and three original research reports concerning the Rorschach (Exner, 2003; Rorschach, 1921/1942) and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) assessment in psychological treatment planning and outcome evaluation. The information in these four articles bears witness to the potential utility of performance-based personality assessment measures for this purpose. The strengths and limitations of the articles suggest several guidelines for future research designed to examine this Rorschach and TAT application including an emphasis on effectiveness studies, longitudinal data, integrated independent variables, observable dependent variables, sophisticated data analysis combining nomothetic and idiographic presentation, and the incremental contribution of performance-based measures to psychotherapy-related personality assessment.

  18. Web service reputation evaluation based on QoS measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiteng; Shao, Zhiqing; Zheng, Hong; Zhai, Jie

    2014-01-01

    In the early service transactions, quality of service (QoS) information was published by service provider which was not always true and credible. For better verification the trust of the QoS information was provided by the Web service. In this paper, the factual QoS running data are collected by our WS-QoS measurement tool; based on these objectivity data, an algorithm compares the difference of the offered and measured quality data of the service and gives the similarity, and then a reputation evaluation method computes the reputation level of the Web service based on the similarity. The initial implementation and experiment with three Web services' example show that this approach is feasible and these values can act as the references for subsequent consumers to select the service.

  19. Modifying measures based on differential item functioning (DIF) impact analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A; Ramirez, Mildred; Jones, Richard N; Choi, Seung; Crane, Paul K

    2012-09-01

    Measure modification can impact comparability of scores across groups and settings. Changes in items can affect the percent admitting to a symptom. Using item response theory (IRT) methods, well-calibrated items can be used interchangeably, and the exact same item does not have to be administered to each respondent, theoretically permitting wider latitude in terms of modification. Recommendations regarding modifications vary, depending on the use of the measure. In the context of research, adjustments can be made at the analytic level by freeing and fixing parameters based on findings of differential item functioning (DIF). The consequences of DIF for clinical decision making depend on whether or not the patient's performance level approaches the scale decision cutpoint. High-stakes testing may require item removal or separate calibrations to ensure accurate assessment. Guidelines for modification based on DIF analyses and illustrations of the impact of adjustments are presented.

  20. Fault Location Based on Synchronized Measurements: A Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Al-Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive survey on transmission and distribution fault location algorithms that utilize synchronized measurements. Algorithms based on two-end synchronized measurements and fault location algorithms on three-terminal and multiterminal lines are reviewed. Series capacitors equipped with metal oxide varistors (MOVs, when set on a transmission line, create certain problems for line fault locators and, therefore, fault location on series-compensated lines is discussed. The paper reports the work carried out on adaptive fault location algorithms aiming at achieving better fault location accuracy. Work associated with fault location on power system networks, although limited, is also summarized. Additionally, the nonstandard high-frequency-related fault location techniques based on wavelet transform are discussed. Finally, the paper highlights the area for future research.

  1. Specifics of proximal caries and their diagnostics in posterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik-Checinska Ilona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proximal surfaces are the second in turn after the occlusal surfaces, as being the most exposed places to the carious process. The specificity of changes and location makes the diagnostic of approximal cavities difficult. The aim of the study was to collect information on possibilities of detection, monitoring and assessment of carious lesions located on proximal surfaces, starting from the early stage. On the base of current literature, chosen methods of diagnosis, from conventional, to advanced technologies were presented. Current literature also suggests that none of the diagnostic methods exclude the possibility of misdiagnosis of proximal caries. Therefore, during the diagnosing of doubtful cases, it is advisable to employ several methods of assessment, with simultaneous individual appraisal of caries risk factors, such as oral hygiene, frequency of eating sweets or the number of active caries foci.

  2. Automatic measurement of crops canopy height based on monocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenghong; Cao, Zhiguo; Bai, Xiaodong

    2011-12-01

    Computer vision technology has been increasingly used for automatically observing crop growth state, but as one of the key parameters in the field of agro-meteorological observation, crop canopy height is still measured manually in the actual observation process up to now. In order to automatically measure the height based on the forward-and-downward-looking image in the existing monocular vision observation system, a novel method is proposed, that is, to measure the canopy height indirectly by the solving algorithm for the actual height of the vertical objects (SAAH) with the help of the intelligent sensor device. The experiment results verified the feasibility and validity of our method, and that the method could meet the actual observation demand.

  3. Neurally based measurement and evaluation of environmental noise

    CERN Document Server

    Soeta, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with methods of measurement and evaluation of environmental noise based on an auditory neural and brain-oriented model. The model consists of the autocorrelation function (ACF) and the interaural cross-correlation function (IACF) mechanisms for signals arriving at the two ear entrances. Even when the sound pressure level of a noise is only about 35 dBA, people may feel annoyed due to the aspects of sound quality. These aspects can be formulated by the factors extracted from the ACF and IACF. Several examples of measuring environmental noise—from outdoor noise such as that of aircraft, traffic, and trains, and indoor noise such as caused by floor impact, toilets, and air-conditioning—are demonstrated. According to the noise measurement and evaluation, applications for sound design are discussed. This book provides an excellent resource for students, researchers, and practitioners in a wide range of fields, such as the automotive, railway, and electronics industries, and soundscape, architec...

  4. [A novel spectral classifier based on coherence measure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-ru; Wu, Fu-chao; Hu, Zhan-yi; Luo, A-li

    2005-11-01

    Classification and discovery of new types of celestial bodies from voluminous celestial spectra are two important issues in astronomy, and these two issues are treated separately in the literature to our knowledge. In the present paper, a novel coherence measure is introduced which can effectively measure the coherence of a new spectrum of unknown type with the training sampleslocated within its neighbourhood, then a novel classifier is designed based on this coherence measure. The proposed classifier is capable of carrying out spectral classification and knowledge discovery simultaneously. In particular, it can effectively deal with the situation where different types of training spectra exist within the neighbourhood of a new spectrum, and the traditional k-nearest neighbour method usually fails to reach a correct classification. The satisfactory performance for classification and knowledge discovery has been obtained by the proposed novel classifier over active galactic nucleus (AGNs) and active galaxies (AGs) data.

  5. Beam based measurement of beam position monitor electrode gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Rubin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Low emittance tuning at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR test accelerator depends on precision measurement of vertical dispersion and transverse coupling. The CESR beam position monitors (BPMs consist of four button electrodes, instrumented with electronics that allow acquisition of turn-by-turn data. The response to the beam will vary among the four electrodes due to differences in electronic gain and/or misalignment. This variation in the response of the BPM electrodes will couple real horizontal offset to apparent vertical position, and introduce spurious measurements of coupling and vertical dispersion. To alleviate this systematic effect, a beam based technique to measure the relative response of the four electrodes has been developed. With typical CESR parameters, simulations show that turn-by-turn BPM data can be used to determine electrode gains to within ∼0.1%.

  6. Complexity measurement based on information theory and kolmogorov complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Leong Ting; Terrazas, Germán; Zenil, Hector; Alexander, Cameron; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades many definitions of complexity have been proposed. Most of these definitions are based either on Shannon's information theory or on Kolmogorov complexity; these two are often compared, but very few studies integrate the two ideas. In this article we introduce a new measure of complexity that builds on both of these theories. As a demonstration of the concept, the technique is applied to elementary cellular automata and simulations of the self-organization of porphyrin molecules.

  7. A Semantics-Based Measure of Emoji Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Balasuriya, Lakshika; Sheth, Amit; Doran, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Emoji have grown to become one of the most important forms of communication on the web. With its widespread use, measuring the similarity of emoji has become an important problem for contemporary text processing since it lies at the heart of sentiment analysis, search, and interface design tasks. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the semantic similarity of emoji through embedding models that are learned over machine-readable emoji meanings in the EmojiNet knowledge base. Using e...

  8. An Improved Dissonance Measure Based on Auditory Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Dissonance is an important feature in music audio analysis. We present here a dissonance model that accounts for the temporal integration of dissonant events in auditory short term memory. We compare the memory-based dissonance extracted from musical audio sequences to the response of human...... listeners. In a number of tests, the memory model predicts listener’s response better than traditional dissonance measures....

  9. Deformation Measurements of Gabion Walls Using Image Based Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Fraštia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The image based modeling finds use in applications where it is necessary to reconstructthe 3D surface of the observed object with a high level of detail. Previous experiments showrelatively high variability of the results depending on the camera type used, the processingsoftware, or the process evaluation. The authors tested the method of SFM (Structure fromMotion to determine the stability of gabion walls. The results of photogrammetricmeasurements were compared to precise geodetic point measurements.

  10. The Thermal Proximity Effect: A New Probe of the He II Reionization History and Quasar Lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrykin, I. S.; Hennawi, J. F.; McQuinn, M.

    2017-04-01

    Despite decades of effort, the timing and duration of He II reionization and the properties of the quasars believed to drive it are still not well constrained. We present a new method to study both via the thermal proximity effect—the heating of the intergalactic medium (IGM) around quasars when their radiation doubly ionizes helium. We post-process hydrodynamical simulations with 1D radiative transfer and study how the thermal proximity effect depends on the He II fraction, {x}{He{{II}},0}, which prevailed in the IGM before the quasar turned on, and the quasar lifetime {t}{{Q}}. We find that the amplitude of the temperature boost in the quasar environment depends on {x}{He{{II}},0}, with a characteristic value of {{Δ }}T≃ {10}4 {{K}} for {x}{He{{II}},0}=1.0, whereas the size of the thermal proximity zone is sensitive to {t}{{Q}}, with typical sizes of ≃ 100 {cMpc} for {t}{{Q}}={10}8 {yr}. This temperature boost increases the thermal broadening of H I absorption lines near the quasar. We introduce a new Bayesian statistical method based on measuring the Lyα forest power spectrum as a function of distance from the quasar, and demonstrate that the thermal proximity effect should be easily detectable. For a mock data set of 50 quasars at z≃ 4, we predict that one can measure {x}{He{{II}},0} to an (absolute) precision ≈ 0.04 and {t}{{Q}} to a precision of ≈ 0.1 dex. By applying our formalism to existing high-resolution Lyα forest spectra, one should be able to reconstruct the He II reionization history, providing a global census of hard photons in the high-z universe.

  11. Noncontact temperature measurement. II. Least squares based techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mansoor A.; Allemand, Charly; Eagar, Thomas W.

    1991-02-01

    A technique for the noncontact measurement of temperatures is described. The technique is based on the measurement of the emitted intensity at multiple wavelengths and the simultaneous calculation of emissivity and temperature through the use of least squares curve fitting techniques. The technique is shown to make no assumptions regarding the emissivity of the target except that it be possible to model it with an analytic function. A theory is developed to predict the errors in the estimation of temperatures based on both linear and nonlinear least-squares techniques. It is shown that the maximum error in the predicted temperature is related to the noise in the measured intensities in a quantifiable manner. It is shown using computer simulations that the theory and algorithms developed here can predict both the temperatures and the uncertainty associated with each temperature prediction with a very high accuracy. An instrument was developed to test this theory. This instrument, referred to as the MITTMA, was used to measure absolute temperatures of various sources from 900 °C to 2300 °C with an average accuracy of approximately 0.5%.

  12. Image-based force and moment measurement in hypersonic facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, Stuart J.; Hornung, H.G. [California Institute of Technology, Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    This article addresses the problem of force and moment measurement in short-duration hypersonic facilities. An image-based technique is described in which the motion of a free-flying model is tracked over a sequence of high-speed digital images. Force components are derived from the calculated trajectory by assuming constant acceleration during the test time. A linear version of the technique, appropriate for simple model geometries, is first outlined and the technique's precision is estimated. A nonlinear version, suitable for more generalised body shapes, is then described in the context of a series of experiments to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the NASA Orion vehicle in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel. The accuracy of these measurements was adversely affected by both the choice of light source and test-gas luminosity, but these experiments nevertheless show image-based measurements to be, at the very least, a promising supplement to standard accelerometer-based techniques. (orig.)

  13. Measurements of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted from Cellular Base Stations in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With increasing the usage of mobile communication devices and internet network information, the entry of private telecommunications companies in Iraq has been started since 2003. These companies began to build up cellular towers to accomplish the telecommunication works but they ignore the safety conditions imposed for the health and environment that are considered in random way. These negative health effects which may cause a health risk for life beings and environment pollution. The aim of this work is to determine the safe and unsafe ranges and discuss damage caused by radiation emitted from Asia cell base stations in Shirqat city and discuses the best ways in which can be minimize its exposure level to avoid its negative health effects. Practical measurements of power density around base stations has been accomplished by using a radiation survey meter type (Radio frequency EMF Strength Meter 480846 in two ways. The first way of measurements has been accomplished at a height of 2 meters above ground for different distances from (0-300 meters .The second way is at a distance of 150 meters for different levels from (2-15 meters above ground level. The maximum measured power density is about (3 mW/m2. Results indicate that the levels of power density are far below the RF radiation exposure of USSR safety standards levels. And that means these cellular base station don't cause negative the health effect for life being if the exposure is within the acceptable international standard levels.

  14. Computer vision based nacre thickness measurement of Tahitian pearls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loesdau, Martin; Chabrier, Sébastien; Gabillon, Alban

    2017-03-01

    The Tahitian Pearl is the most valuable export product of French Polynesia contributing with over 61 million Euros to more than 50% of the total export income. To maintain its excellent reputation on the international market, an obligatory quality control for every pearl deemed for exportation has been established by the local government. One of the controlled quality parameters is the pearls nacre thickness. The evaluation is currently done manually by experts that are visually analyzing X-ray images of the pearls. In this article, a computer vision based approach to automate this procedure is presented. Even though computer vision based approaches for pearl nacre thickness measurement exist in the literature, the very specific features of the Tahitian pearl, namely the large shape variety and the occurrence of cavities, have so far not been considered. The presented work closes the. Our method consists of segmenting the pearl from X-ray images with a model-based approach, segmenting the pearls nucleus with an own developed heuristic circle detection and segmenting possible cavities with region growing. Out of the obtained boundaries, the 2-dimensional nacre thickness profile can be calculated. A certainty measurement to consider imaging and segmentation imprecisions is included in the procedure. The proposed algorithms are tested on 298 manually evaluated Tahitian pearls, showing that it is generally possible to automatically evaluate the nacre thickness of Tahitian pearls with computer vision. Furthermore the results show that the automatic measurement is more precise and faster than the manual one.

  15. Two Stages repair of proximal hypospadias: Review of 33 cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HussamHassan

    It decreases the rate of fistula formation; disruption; stenosis and gives a satisfactory cosmetic appearance. Index Word: proximal hypospadias, two stages repair. ... Second procedure: a) formation of the neo-urethra, b) skin closure, c) dressing. Complete degloving of the penile shaft was performed till its base. Then artificial ...

  16. Proximate composition and basic phytochemical assessment of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The nut of the yellow variety had terpenoids and steroids present in it while the nut of the red variety had alkaloids present. Statistical analyses carried out showed that there were no significant differences (p≤0.05) between the two varieties based on their proximate composition. INTRODUCTION. Terminalia catappa is ...

  17. A prospective study to assess the surgical outcome in three- and four-part proximal humerus fracture with PHILOS plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahantesh Y Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optimal surgical management of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures in osteoporotic patients is controversial, with many advocating prosthetic replacement of the humeral head. Proximal humerus interlocking osteosyntheses that maintain angular stability under load have been proposed as an alternative to hemiarthroplasty for the treatment of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures. Materials and Methods: The records showed 50 patients, with a mean age of 57.5 years. The Neer three-part proximal humeral fractures were 18 in number, and the four-part proximal humeral fractures were 32. All the patients were treated surgically between January 2008 and December 2010. All patients had a radiographic and clinical follow-up performed at one, three, and six months and at one year. The clinical outcomes were measured with the use of the Constant-Murley system. This study was based on level 1 of the evidence. Results: The mean Constant score (and standard deviation at the time of the final follow-up was better in the locked-plate group. The mean Constant score was 80 (range, 40 - 100. Complications with this fixation included osteonecrosis in one patient, malunion in one patient, Axillary nerve palsy in one patient, and impingement syndrome in one patient. Conclusions: The most important factor for a favorable outcome in three- and four-part fractures in the proximal end humerus gives an accurate anatomical reduction, which is achieved by locking plate osteosynthesis, with multiplanar screws. It is a safe and effective method, with minimal tissue damage, higher primary stability, and load transfer through the implant, which are important to avoid complications. The PHILOS Plate produces promising functional outcomes.

  18. Smartphone based hemispherical photography for canopy structure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xuefen; Cui, Jian; Jiang, Xueqin; Zhang, Jingwen; Yang, Yi; Zheng, Tao

    2018-01-01

    The canopy is the most direct and active interface layer of the interaction between plant and environment, and has important influence on energy exchange, biodiversity, ecosystem matter and climate change. The measurement about canopy structure of plant is an important foundation to analyze the pattern, process and operation mechanism of forest ecosystem. Through the study of canopy structure of plant, solar radiation, ambient wind speed, air temperature and humidity, soil evaporation, soil temperature and other forest environmental climate characteristics can be evaluated. Because of its accuracy and effectiveness, canopy structure measurement based on hemispherical photography has been widely studied. However, the traditional method of canopy structure hemispherical photogrammetry based on SLR camera and fisheye lens. This method is expensive and difficult to be used in some low-cost occasions. In recent years, smartphone technology has been developing rapidly. The smartphone not only has excellent image acquisition ability, but also has the considerable computational processing ability. In addition, the gyroscope and positioning function on the smartphone will also help to measure the structure of the canopy. In this paper, we present a smartphone based hemispherical photography system. The system consists of smart phones, low-cost fisheye lenses and PMMA adapters. We designed an Android based App to obtain the canopy hemisphere images through low-cost fisheye lenses and provide horizontal collimation information. In addition, the App will add the acquisition location tag obtained by GPS and auxiliary positioning method in hemisphere image information after the canopy structure hemisphere image acquisition. The system was tested in the urban forest after it was completed. The test results show that the smartphone based hemispherical photography system can effectively collect the high-resolution canopy structure image of the plant.

  19. A Feature-Based Structural Measure: An Image Similarity Measure for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Abdalrazak Shnain

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial recognition is one of the most challenging and interesting problems within the field of computer vision and pattern recognition. During the last few years, it has gained special attention due to its importance in relation to current issues such as security, surveillance systems and forensics analysis. Despite this high level of attention to facial recognition, the success is still limited by certain conditions; there is no method which gives reliable results in all situations. In this paper, we propose an efficient similarity index that resolves the shortcomings of the existing measures of feature and structural similarity. This measure, called the Feature-Based Structural Measure (FSM, combines the best features of the well-known SSIM (structural similarity index measure and FSIM (feature similarity index measure approaches, striking a balance between performance for similar and dissimilar images of human faces. In addition to the statistical structural properties provided by SSIM, edge detection is incorporated in FSM as a distinctive structural feature. Its performance is tested for a wide range of PSNR (peak signal-to-noise ratio, using ORL (Olivetti Research Laboratory, now AT&T Laboratory Cambridge and FEI (Faculty of Industrial Engineering, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil databases. The proposed measure is tested under conditions of Gaussian noise; simulation results show that the proposed FSM outperforms the well-known SSIM and FSIM approaches in its efficiency of similarity detection and recognition of human faces.

  20. Optical proximity correction with principal component regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peiran; Gu, Allan; Zakhor, Avideh

    2008-03-01

    An important step in today's Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing is optical proximity correction (OPC). In model based OPC, masks are systematically modified to compensate for the non-ideal optical and process effects of optical lithography system. The polygons in the layout are fragmented, and simulations are performed to determine the image intensity pattern on the wafer. Then the mask is perturbed by moving the fragments to match the desired wafer pattern. This iterative process continues until the pattern on the wafer matches the desired one. Although OPC increases the fidelity of pattern transfer to the wafer, it is quite CPU intensive; OPC for modern IC designs can take days to complete on computer clusters with thousands of CPU. In this paper, techniques from statistical machine learning are used to predict the fragment movements. The goal is to reduce the number of iterations required in model based OPC by using a fast and efficient solution as the initial guess to model based OPC. To determine the best model, we train and evaluate several principal component regression models based on prediction error. Experimental results show that fragment movement predictions via regression model significantly decrease the number of iterations required in model based OPC.

  1. Effects of extracellular fluid volume and plasma bicarbonate concentration on proximal acidification in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Alpern, R J; Cogan, M G; Rector, F C

    1983-01-01

    The effects of systemic bicarbonate concentration and extracellular fluid volume status on proximal tubular bicarbonate absorption, independent of changes in luminal composition and flow rate, were examined with in vivo luminal microperfusion of rat superficial proximal convoluted tubules. Net bicarbonate absorption and bicarbonate permeability were measured using microcalorimetry. From these data, net bicarbonate absorption was divided into two parallel components: proton secretion and passi...

  2. Active lithium transport by rat renal proximal tubule: a micropuncture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Frederiksen, O; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1994-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that proximal tubular Li+ reabsorption is due to passive transport. Clearances of [14C]inulin (CIn) and Li+ (CLi), proximal transepithelial electrical potential difference (PD), and tubular fluid-to-plasma Li+ concentration ratios [(TF/P)Li] were measured in anesthetized...

  3. Mouse model of proximal tubule endocytic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Kathrin; Storm, Tina; Shan, Jingdong; Vainio, Seppo; Kozyraki, Renata; Verroust, Pierre J; Christensen, Erik I; Nielsen, Rikke

    2011-11-01

    Several studies have indicated the central role of the megalin/cubilin multiligand endocytic receptor complex in protein reabsorption in the kidney proximal tubule. However, the poor viability of the existing megalin-deficient mice precludes further studies and comparison of homogeneous groups of mice. Megalin- and/or cubilin-deficient mice were generated using a conditional Cre-loxP system, where the Cre gene is driven by the Wnt4 promoter. Kidney tissues from the mice were analysed for megalin and cubilin expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Renal albumin uptake was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages and analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratios were measured by ELISA and the alkaline picrate method. The Meg(lox/lox);Cre(+), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) and Meg(lox/lox), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) mice were all viable, fertile and developed normal kidneys. Megalin and/or cubilin expression, assessed by immunohistology and western blotting, was reduced by >89%. Consistent with this observation, the mice excreted megalin and cubilin ligands such as transferrin and albumin in addition to low-molecular weight proteins. We further show that megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice excrete albumin with an average of 1.45 ± 0.54 mg/day, suggesting a very low albumin concentration in the glomerular ultrafiltrate. We report here the efficient genetic ablation of megalin, cubilin or both, using a Cre transgene driven by the Wnt4 promoter. The viable megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice now allow for detailed large-scale group analysis, and we anticipate that the mice will be of great value as an animal model for proximal tubulopathies with disrupted endocytosis.

  4. Uav-Based Automatic Tree Growth Measurement for Biomass Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpina, M.; Jarząbek-Rychard, M.; Tymków, P.; Borkowski, A.

    2016-06-01

    Manual in-situ measurements of geometric tree parameters for the biomass volume estimation are time-consuming and economically non-effective. Photogrammetric techniques can be deployed in order to automate the measurement procedure. The purpose of the presented work is an automatic tree growth estimation based on Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle (UAV) imagery. The experiment was conducted in an agriculture test field with scots pine canopies. The data was collected using a Leica Aibotix X6V2 platform equipped with a Nikon D800 camera. Reference geometric parameters of selected sample plants were measured manually each week. In situ measurements were correlated with the UAV data acquisition. The correlation aimed at the investigation of optimal conditions for a flight and parameter settings for image acquisition. The collected images are processed in a state of the art tool resulting in a generation of dense 3D point clouds. The algorithm is developed in order to estimate geometric tree parameters from 3D points. Stem positions and tree tops are identified automatically in a cross section, followed by the calculation of tree heights. The automatically derived height values are compared to the reference measurements performed manually. The comparison allows for the evaluation of automatic growth estimation process. The accuracy achieved using UAV photogrammetry for tree heights estimation is about 5cm.

  5. UAV-BASED AUTOMATIC TREE GROWTH MEASUREMENT FOR BIOMASS ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karpina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Manual in-situ measurements of geometric tree parameters for the biomass volume estimation are time-consuming and economically non-effective. Photogrammetric techniques can be deployed in order to automate the measurement procedure. The purpose of the presented work is an automatic tree growth estimation based on Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle (UAV imagery. The experiment was conducted in an agriculture test field with scots pine canopies. The data was collected using a Leica Aibotix X6V2 platform equipped with a Nikon D800 camera. Reference geometric parameters of selected sample plants were measured manually each week. In situ measurements were correlated with the UAV data acquisition. The correlation aimed at the investigation of optimal conditions for a flight and parameter settings for image acquisition. The collected images are processed in a state of the art tool resulting in a generation of dense 3D point clouds. The algorithm is developed in order to estimate geometric tree parameters from 3D points. Stem positions and tree tops are identified automatically in a cross section, followed by the calculation of tree heights. The automatically derived height values are compared to the reference measurements performed manually. The comparison allows for the evaluation of automatic growth estimation process. The accuracy achieved using UAV photogrammetry for tree heights estimation is about 5cm.

  6. Score-based tests of measurement invariance: Use in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting eWang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a family of recently-proposed measurement invariance tests that are based on the scores of a fitted model. This family can be used to test for measurement invariance w.r.t. a continuous auxiliary variable, without pre-specification of subgroups. Moreover, the family can be used when one wishes to test for measurement invariance w.r.t. an ordinal auxiliary variable, yielding test statistics that are sensitive to violations that are monotonically related to the ordinal variable (and less sensitive to non-monotonic violations. The paper is specifically aimed at potential users of the tests who may wish to know (i how the tests can be employed for their data, and (ii whether the tests can accurately identify specific models parameters that violate measurement invariance (possibly in the presence of model misspecification. After providing an overview of the tests, we illustrate their general use via the R packages lavaan and strucchange. We then describe two novel simulations that provide evidence of the tests' practical abilities. As a whole, the paper provides researchers with the tools and knowledge needed to apply these tests to general measurement invariance scenarios.

  7. Ranking the dermatology programs based on measurements of academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jashin J; Ramirez, Claudia C; Alonso, Carol A; Berman, Brian; Tyring, Stephen K

    2007-07-13

    The only dermatology rankings in the past were based on National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding and journal citations. To determine the highest ranking academic dermatology programs based on 5 outcome measures and on an overall ranking scale. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to rank the dermatology programs on 4 of the following outcome measures of academic achievement and with an overall ranking. We collected extensive 2001 to 2004 data ranging from total publications to grant funding on 107 U.S. dermatology programs and their full-time faculty. Data from part-time and volunteer faculty were not used. Publications in 2001 to 2004; NIH funding in 2004; Dermatology Foundation grants in 2001 to 2004; faculty lectures in 2004 delivered at national conferences; number of full-time faculty members who were on the editorial boards of the top 3 U.S. dermatology journals and the top 4 subspecialty journals We used the 5 outcome measures to tabulate the highest ranking programs in each category. Using a weighted ranking system, we also tabulated the overall top 30 dermatology programs based on these 5 outcome measures. We were not able to determine the total amount of NIH funding in dollars of the dermatology divisions. The impact factors of the journal in which these publications appeared was not factored into our calculations. Since faculty members may collaborate on the same publication, some publications may have been double-counted. In descending order, the 5 highest ranked academic programs are the University of Pennsylvania; University of California, San Francisco; Yale-New Haven Medical Center; New York University; and University of Michigan. This ranking system may allow residents and faculty to improve the academic achievements at their respective programs.

  8. Developing safety performance functions incorporating reliability-based risk measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar El-Bassiouni; Sayed, Tarek

    2011-11-01

    Current geometric design guides provide deterministic standards where the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from these standards. Several studies have advocated probabilistic geometric design where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a risk measure of the implication of deviation from design standards. However, there is currently no link between measures of design reliability and the quantification of safety using collision frequency. The analysis presented in this paper attempts to bridge this gap by incorporating a reliability-based quantitative risk measure such as the probability of non-compliance (P(nc)) in safety performance functions (SPFs). Establishing this link will allow admitting reliability-based design into traditional benefit-cost analysis and should lead to a wider application of the reliability technique in road design. The present application is concerned with the design of horizontal curves, where the limit state function is defined in terms of the available (supply) and stopping (demand) sight distances. A comprehensive collision and geometric design database of two-lane rural highways is used to investigate the effect of the probability of non-compliance on safety. The reliability analysis was carried out using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Two Negative Binomial (NB) SPFs were developed to compare models with and without the reliability-based risk measures. It was found that models incorporating the P(nc) provided a better fit to the data set than the traditional (without risk) NB SPFs for total, injury and fatality (I+F) and property damage only (PDO) collisions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Thyagarajan David; Haridas Samarth; Jones Denise; Dent Colin; Evans Richard; Williams Rhys

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system) for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years...

  10. Best Proximity Points for a New Class of Generalized Proximal Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Kamran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The best proximity points are usually used to find the optimal approximate solution of the operator equation Tx = x, when T has no fixed point. In this paper, we prove some best proximity point theorems for nonself multivalued operators, following the foot steps of Basha and Shahzad [Best proximity point theorems for generalized proximal contractions, Fixed Point Theory Appl., 2012, 2012:42].

  11. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of Proximity Superconductivity in Epitaxial Multilayer Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Natterer, Fabian D.; Ha, Jeonghoon; Baek, Hongwoo; Zhang, Duming; Cullen, William; Zhitenev, Nikolai B.; Kuk, Young; Stroscio, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    We report on spatial measurements of the superconducting proximity effect in epitaxial graphene induced by a graphene-superconductor interface. Superconducting aluminum films were grown on epitaxial multilayer graphene on SiC. The aluminum films were discontinuous with networks of trenches in the film morphology reaching down to exposed graphene terraces. Scanning tunneling spectra measured on the graphene terraces show a clear decay of the superconducting energy gap with increasing separatio...

  12. Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced proximal tubular cell damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camano, Sonia; Lazaro, Alberto; Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefania; Torres, Ana M; de Lucas, Carmen; Humanes, Blanca; Lazaro, Jose A; Milagros Gomez-Gomez, M; Bosca, Lisardo; Tejedor, Alberto

    2010-08-01

    A major area in cancer therapy is the search for protective strategies against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We investigated the protective effect of cilastatin on cisplatin-induced injury to renal proximal tubular cells. Cilastatin is a specific inhibitor of renal dehydrodipeptidase I (DHP-I), which prevents hydrolysis of imipenem and its accumulation in the proximal tubule. Primary cultures of proximal cells were treated with cisplatin (1-30 microM) in the presence or absence of cilastatin (200 microg/ml). Apoptosis and mitochondrial injury were assessed by different techniques. Cisplatin uptake and DNA binding were measured by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. HeLa cells were used to control the effect of cilastatin on the tumoricidal activity of cisplatin. Cisplatin increased cell death, apoptotic-like morphology, caspase activation, and mitochondrial injury in proximal tubular cells in a dose- and time-dependent way. Concomitant treatment with cilastatin reduced cisplatin-induced changes. Cilastatin also reduced the DNA-bound platinum but did not modify cisplatin-dependent up-regulation of death receptors (Fas) or ligands (tumor necrosis factor alpha, Fas ligand). In contrast, cilastatin did not show any effects on cisplatin-treated HeLa cells. Renal DHP-I was virtually absent in HeLa cells. Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced cell death in proximal tubular cells without reducing the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin in tumor cells. Our findings suggest that the affinity of cilastatin for renal dipeptidase makes this effect specific for proximal tubular cells and may be related to a reduction in intracellular drug accumulation. Therefore, cilastatin administration might represent a novel strategy in the prevention of cisplatin-induced acute renal injury.

  13. Biomechanical superiority of plate fixation for proximal tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartford, James M; Hester, Peter; Watt, Phil M; Hamilton, Doris; Rohmiller, Michael; Pienkowski, David

    2003-07-01

    Proximal tibial osteotomies require secure and durable fixation to allow early range of motion; however, biomechanical data comparing commonly used fixation methods are lacking. The current study was done to quantify the dynamic biomechanical performance of blade staple fixation and plate fixation of simulated proximal tibial osteotomies. A 15 degrees proximal tibial osteotomy was done on each of 18 synthetic adult composite tibias. Blade staples were used as the means of fixation in nine tibias; plate fixation was used in the remaining nine tibias. The specimens were stressed cyclically in sinusoidal loading whose peak compression and tension loads imitate those measured during normal gait. Device performance was quantified by measuring displacement at the osteotomy site and the number of cycles to failure. Plate fixation had a greater fatigue life than staples (eight plates surviving past 200,000 cycles versus one blade staple) and showed a trend toward less displacement (0.69 mm versus 0.97 mm). Plate fixation of proximal tibial osteotomies offers better fixation and dynamic mechanical performance than blade staples.

  14. Children's Attentional Processing of Mother and Proximity Seeking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bosmans

    Full Text Available Attachment expectations regarding the availability of mother as a source for support are supposed to influence distressed children's support seeking behavior. Because research is needed to better understand the mechanisms related to support seeking behavior, this study tested the hypothesis that the cognitive processing of mother-related information is linked to proximity and support seeking behavior. Uncertainty in maternal support has been shown to be characterized by a biased attentional encoding of mother, reducing the breadth of children's attentional field around her. We investigated whether this attentional bias is related to how long distressed children wait before seeking their mother's proximity. Thirty-three children (9-11 years participated in this study that consisted of experimental tasks to measure attentional breadth and to observe proximity seeking behavior and of questionnaires to measure confidence in maternal support and experienced distress. Results suggested that distressed children with a more narrow attentional field around their mother wait longer to seek her proximity. Key Message: These findings provide a first support for the hypothesis that the attentional processing of mother is related to children's attachment behavior.

  15. Preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the following proximate ...

  16. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  17. Grouping by Proximity in Haptic Contour Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Wagemans, Johan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection. PMID:23762364

  18. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Vol. 15 (1) 9 - 11. Full-text Available Online at www.bioline.org.br/ja. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms. ADEDAYO, MAJEKODUNMI RACHEL. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, P.M.B.3032, Kano. ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in.

  19. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

  20. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spigelia anthelmia is used traditionally in Southern Nigeria for the treatment of infant convulsion and epilepsy. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant effect of the methanolic extract of Spigelia anthelmia. Phytochemical evaluation and proximate analysis was carried ...

  1. IMU-based joint angle measurement for gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seel, Thomas; Raisch, Jörg; Schauer, Thomas

    2014-04-16

    This contribution is concerned with joint angle calculation based on inertial measurement data in the context of human motion analysis. Unlike most robotic devices, the human body lacks even surfaces and right angles. Therefore, we focus on methods that avoid assuming certain orientations in which the sensors are mounted with respect to the body segments. After a review of available methods that may cope with this challenge, we present a set of new methods for: (1) joint axis and position identification; and (2) flexion/extension joint angle measurement. In particular, we propose methods that use only gyroscopes and accelerometers and, therefore, do not rely on a homogeneous magnetic field. We provide results from gait trials of a transfemoral amputee in which we compare the inertial measurement unit (IMU)-based methods to an optical 3D motion capture system. Unlike most authors, we place the optical markers on anatomical landmarks instead of attaching them to the IMUs. Root mean square errors of the knee flexion/extension angles are found to be less than 1° on the prosthesis and about 3° on the human leg. For the plantar/dorsiflexion of the ankle, both deviations are about 1°.

  2. IMU-Based Joint Angle Measurement for Gait Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Seel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is concerned with joint angle calculation based on inertial measurement data in the context of human motion analysis. Unlike most robotic devices, the human body lacks even surfaces and right angles. Therefore, we focus on methods that avoid assuming certain orientations in which the sensors are mounted with respect to the body segments. After a review of available methods that may cope with this challenge, we present a set of new methods for: (1 joint axis and position identification; and (2 flexion/extension joint angle measurement. In particular, we propose methods that use only gyroscopes and accelerometers and, therefore, do not rely on a homogeneous magnetic field. We provide results from gait trials of a transfemoral amputee in which we compare the inertial measurement unit (IMU-based methods to an optical 3D motion capture system. Unlike most authors, we place the optical markers on anatomical landmarks instead of attaching them to the IMUs. Root mean square errors of the knee flexion/extension angles are found to be less than 1° on the prosthesis and about 3° on the human leg. For the plantar/dorsiflexion of the ankle, both deviations are about 1°.

  3. Cultural distance in international business and management : from mean-based to variance-based measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Maseland, Robbert; Onrust, Marjolijn; van Hoorn, Andre; Slangen, Arjen

    2015-01-01

    Extant practice in international management is to measure cultural distance as a nation-to-nation comparison of country means on cultural values, thereby ignoring the cultural variation that exists within countries. We argue that these traditional mean-based measures of cultural distance should take

  4. Covariance-Based Measurement Selection Criterion for Gaussian-Based Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. Auat Cheein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Process modeling by means of Gaussian-based algorithms often suffers from redundant information which usually increases the estimation computational complexity without significantly improving the estimation performance. In this article, a non-arbitrary measurement selection criterion for Gaussian-based algorithms is proposed. The measurement selection criterion is based on the determination of the most significant measurement from both an estimation convergence perspective and the covariance matrix associated with the measurement. The selection criterion is independent from the nature of the measured variable. This criterion is used in conjunction with three Gaussian-based algorithms: the EIF (Extended Information Filter, the EKF (Extended Kalman Filter and the UKF (Unscented Kalman Filter. Nevertheless, the measurement selection criterion shown herein can also be applied to other Gaussian-based algorithms. Although this work is focused on environment modeling, the results shown herein can be applied to other Gaussian-based algorithm implementations. Mathematical descriptions and implementation results that validate the proposal are also included in this work.

  5. Impact of image quality on OCT angiography based quantitative measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sheikh, Mayss; Ghasemi Falavarjani, Khalil; Akil, Handan; Sadda, SriniVas R

    2017-01-01

    To study the impact of image quality on quantitative measurements and the frequency of segmentation error with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Seventeen eyes of 10 healthy individuals were included in this study. OCTA was performed using a swept-source device (Triton, Topcon). Each subject underwent three scanning sessions 1-2 min apart; the first two scans were obtained under standard conditions and for the third session, the image quality index was reduced using application of a topical ointment. En face OCTA images of the retinal vasculature were generated using the default segmentation for the superficial and deep retinal layer (SRL, DRL). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used as a measure for repeatability. The frequency of segmentation error, motion artifact, banding artifact and projection artifact was also compared among the three sessions. The frequency of segmentation error, and motion artifact was statistically similar between high and low image quality sessions (P = 0.707, and P = 1 respectively). However, the frequency of projection and banding artifact was higher with a lower image quality. The vessel density in the SRL was highly repeatable in the high image quality sessions (ICC = 0.8), however, the repeatability was low, comparing the high and low image quality measurements (ICC = 0.3). In the DRL, the repeatability of the vessel density measurements was fair in the high quality sessions (ICC = 0.6 and ICC = 0.5, with and without automatic artifact removal, respectively) and poor comparing high and low image quality sessions (ICC = 0.3 and ICC = 0.06, with and without automatic artifact removal, respectively). The frequency of artifacts is higher and the repeatability of the measurements is lower with lower image quality. The impact of image quality index should be always considered in OCTA based quantitative measurements.

  6. Satellite-based Precipitation Measurements For Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skofronick Jackson, G.; Huffman, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Water is essential to Earth. Thus, knowing when, where, and how precipitation falls is of paramount importance for science and society. Some areas of the world have dense ground-based rain observations, but the vast oceans, less populated regions, and parts of developing countries lack adequate surface precipitation data. Satellites provide an optimal platform to measure precipitation globally. In the 1970's satellites started measuring precipitation and, over time, satellite precipitation sensors improved considerably. A major breakthrough was the 1998 launch of the joint NASA-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The TRMM spacecraft had both a multi-frequency passive microwave imaging radiometer for measuring wide-swath rainfall surface intensity and horizontal structures, and a single-frequency radar channel capable of generating 3D views of rain in clouds. In 2014, NASA and JAXA launched the Global Precipitation Measurement Core Observatory (GPM-CO) spacecraft carrying the most advanced precipitation sensors currently in space, including a dual-frequency precipitation radar and a well-calibrated, multi-frequency passive microwave radiometer. The GPM-CO was designed to measure precipitation rates from 0.2-110 mm hr-1, to provide 3D particle size distributions, and to detect moderate to intense snow events, considerably improving over TRMM's capabilities. The GPM-CO serves as a reference for unifying data from a constellation of partner satellites to provide next-generation, merged estimates globally and with high temporal (30 min) and spatial (0.1ox0.1o) resolutions. GPM data have been used for observing hurricanes from the tropics to mid-latitudes; developing susceptibility maps for floods, landslides, and droughts; providing inputs into weather and climate models; and offering new insights into agricultural productivity and world health. The current status of GPM, its ongoing science, and the future plans will be

  7. Multiple regression based imputation for individualizing template human model from a small number of measured dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Ryuki; Endo, Yui; Murai, Akihiko; Takemura, Hiroshi; Kouchi, Makiko; Tada, Mitsunori

    2016-08-01

    Individual human models are usually created by direct 3D scanning or deforming a template model according to the measured dimensions. In this paper, we propose a method to estimate all the necessary dimensions (full set) for the human model individualization from a small number of measured dimensions (subset) and human dimension database. For this purpose, we solved multiple regression equation from the dimension database given full set dimensions as the objective variable and subset dimensions as the explanatory variables. Thus, the full set dimensions are obtained by simply multiplying the subset dimensions to the coefficient matrix of the regression equation. We verified the accuracy of our method by imputing hand, foot, and whole body dimensions from their dimension database. The leave-one-out cross validation is employed in this evaluation. The mean absolute errors (MAE) between the measured and the estimated dimensions computed from 4 dimensions (hand length, breadth, middle finger breadth at proximal, and middle finger depth at proximal) in the hand, 2 dimensions (foot length, breadth, and lateral malleolus height) in the foot, and 1 dimension (height) and weight in the whole body are computed. The average MAE of non-measured dimensions were 4.58% in the hand, 4.42% in the foot, and 3.54% in the whole body, while that of measured dimensions were 0.00%.

  8. Intramedullary compression device for proximal ulna fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Han, Fucai; Decruz, Joshua; Pannirselvam, Vinodhkumar; Murphy, Diarmuid

    2015-02-01

    Proximal ulna fractures account for 20% of all proximal forearm fractures. Many treatment options are available for such fractures, such as cast immobilisation, plate and screw fixation, tension band wiring and intramedullary screw fixation, depending on the fracture pattern. Due to the subcutaneous nature of the proximal forearm, it is vulnerable to open injuries over the dorsal aspect of the proximal ulna. This may in turn prove challenging, as it is critical to obtain adequate soft tissue coverage to reduce the risk of implant exposure and bony infections. We herein describe a patient with a Gustillo III-B open fracture of the proximal ulna, treated with minimally invasive intramedullary screw fixation using a 6.0-mm cannulated headless titanium compression screw (FusiFIX, Péronnas, France).

  9. Sex estimation based on tooth measurements using panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitaneanu, Cezar; Willems, Guy; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Fieuws, Steffen; Thevissen, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    Sex determination is an important step in establishing the biological profile of unidentified human remains. The aims of the study were, firstly, to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in permanent teeth, based on digital tooth measurements performed on panoramic radiographs. Secondly, to identify sex-related tooth position-specific measurements or combinations of such measurements, and to assess their applicability for potential sex determination. Two hundred digital panoramic radiographs (100 males, 100 females; age range 22-34 years) were retrospectively collected from the dental clinic files of the Dentomaxillofacial Radiology Center of the University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium, and imported in image enhancement software. Tooth length- and width-related variables were measured on all teeth in upper and lower left quadrant, and ratios of variables were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to quantify the sex discriminative value of the tooth position-specific variables and their combinations. The mandibular and maxillary canine showed the greatest sexual dimorphism, and tooth length variables had the highest discriminative potential. Compared to single variables, combining variables or ratios of variables did not improve substantially the discrimination between males and females. Considering that the discriminative ability values (area under the curve (AUC)) were not higher than 0.80, it is not advocated to use the currently studied dental variables for accurate sex estimation in forensic practice.

  10. Measure of Landscape Heterogeneity by Agent-Based Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, E.; Szabó, Gy.; Czinkóczky, A.

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid increase of the world's population, the efficient food production is one of the key factors of the human survival. Since biodiversity and heterogeneity is the basis of the sustainable agriculture, the authors tried to measure the heterogeneity of a chosen landscape. The EU farming and subsidizing policies (EEA, 2014) support landscape heterogeneity and diversity, nevertheless exact measurements and calculations apart from statistical parameters (standard deviation, mean), do not really exist. In the present paper the authors' goal is to find an objective, dynamic method that measures landscape heterogeneity. It is achieved with the so called agent-based modelling, where randomly dispatched dynamic scouts record the observed land cover parameters and sum up the features of a new type of land. During the simulation the agents collect a Monte Carlo integral as a diversity landscape potential which can be considered as the unit of the `greening' measure. As a final product of the ABM method, a landscape potential map is obtained that can serve as a tool for objective decision making to support agricultural diversity.

  11. A vision-based method for planar position measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong-Hao; Huang, Peisen S.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a vision-based method is proposed for three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) planar position (XY{θZ} ) measurement. This method uses a single camera to capture the image of a 2D periodic pattern and then uses the 2D discrete Fourier transform (2D DFT) method to estimate the phase of its fundamental frequency component for position measurement. To improve position measurement accuracy, the phase estimation error of 2D DFT is analyzed and a phase estimation method is proposed. Different simulations are done to verify the feasibility of this method and study the factors that influence the accuracy and precision of phase estimation. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed method for position measurement, a prototype encoder consisting of a black-and-white industrial camera with VGA resolution (480  ×  640 pixels) and an iPhone 4s has been developed. Experimental results show the peak-to-peak resolutions to be 3.5 nm in X axis, 8 nm in Y axis and 4 μ \\text{rad} in {θZ} axis. The corresponding RMS resolutions are 0.52 nm, 1.06 nm, and 0.60 μ \\text{rad} respectively.

  12. Proximate Kitaev quantum spin liquid behaviour in a honeycomb magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, A; Bridges, C A; Yan, J-Q; Aczel, A A; Li, L; Stone, M B; Granroth, G E; Lumsden, M D; Yiu, Y; Knolle, J; Bhattacharjee, S; Kovrizhin, D L; Moessner, R; Tennant, D A; Mandrus, D G; Nagler, S E

    2016-07-01

    Quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are topological states of matter exhibiting remarkable properties such as the capacity to protect quantum information from decoherence. Whereas their featureless ground states have precluded their straightforward experimental identification, excited states are more revealing and particularly interesting owing to the emergence of fundamentally new excitations such as Majorana fermions. Ideal probes of these excitations are inelastic neutron scattering experiments. These we report here for a ruthenium-based material, α-RuCl3, continuing a major search (so far concentrated on iridium materials) for realizations of the celebrated Kitaev honeycomb topological QSL. Our measurements confirm the requisite strong spin-orbit coupling and low-temperature magnetic order matching predictions proximate to the QSL. We find stacking faults, inherent to the highly two-dimensional nature of the material, resolve an outstanding puzzle. Crucially, dynamical response measurements above interlayer energy scales are naturally accounted for in terms of deconfinement physics expected for QSLs. Comparing these with recent dynamical calculations involving gauge flux excitations and Majorana fermions of the pure Kitaev model, we propose the excitation spectrum of α-RuCl3 as a prime candidate for fractionalized Kitaev physics.

  13. WSN-Based Space Charge Density Measurement System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Deng

    Full Text Available It is generally acknowledged that high voltage direct current (HVDC transmission line endures the drawback of large area, because of which the utilization of cable for space charge density monitoring system is of inconvenience. Compared with the traditional communication network, wireless sensor network (WSN shows advantages in small volume, high flexibility and strong self-organization, thereby presenting great potential in solving the problem. Additionally, WSN is more suitable for the construction of distributed space charge density monitoring system as it has longer distance and higher mobility. A distributed wireless system is designed for collecting and monitoring the space charge density under HVDC transmission lines, which has been widely applied in both Chinese state grid HVDC test base and power transmission projects. Experimental results of the measuring system demonstrated its adaptability in the complex electromagnetic environment under the transmission lines and the ability in realizing accurate, flexible, and stable demands for the measurement of space charge density.

  14. WSN-Based Space Charge Density Measurement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dawei; Yuan, Haiwen; Lv, Jianxun; Ju, Yong

    2017-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line endures the drawback of large area, because of which the utilization of cable for space charge density monitoring system is of inconvenience. Compared with the traditional communication network, wireless sensor network (WSN) shows advantages in small volume, high flexibility and strong self-organization, thereby presenting great potential in solving the problem. Additionally, WSN is more suitable for the construction of distributed space charge density monitoring system as it has longer distance and higher mobility. A distributed wireless system is designed for collecting and monitoring the space charge density under HVDC transmission lines, which has been widely applied in both Chinese state grid HVDC test base and power transmission projects. Experimental results of the measuring system demonstrated its adaptability in the complex electromagnetic environment under the transmission lines and the ability in realizing accurate, flexible, and stable demands for the measurement of space charge density.

  15. A fingerprint based metric for measuring similarities of crystalline structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Amsler, Maximilian; Fuhrer, Tobias; Schaefer, Bastian; Faraji, Somayeh; Rostami, Samare; Ghasemi, S Alireza; Sadeghi, Ali; Grauzinyte, Migle; Wolverton, Chris; Goedecker, Stefan

    2016-01-21

    Measuring similarities/dissimilarities between atomic structures is important for the exploration of potential energy landscapes. However, the cell vectors together with the coordinates of the atoms, which are generally used to describe periodic systems, are quantities not directly suitable as fingerprints to distinguish structures. Based on a characterization of the local environment of all atoms in a cell, we introduce crystal fingerprints that can be calculated easily and define configurational distances between crystalline structures that satisfy the mathematical properties of a metric. This distance between two configurations is a measure of their similarity/dissimilarity and it allows in particular to distinguish structures. The new method can be a useful tool within various energy landscape exploration schemes, such as minima hopping, random search, swarm intelligence algorithms, and high-throughput screenings.

  16. Relating quantum coherence and correlations with entropy-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Li; Yue, Qiu-Ling; Yu, Chao-Hua; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan

    2017-09-21

    Quantum coherence and quantum correlations are important quantum resources for quantum computation and quantum information. In this paper, using entropy-based measures, we investigate the relationships between quantum correlated coherence, which is the coherence between subsystems, and two main kinds of quantum correlations as defined by quantum discord as well as quantum entanglement. In particular, we show that quantum discord and quantum entanglement can be well characterized by quantum correlated coherence. Moreover, we prove that the entanglement measure formulated by quantum correlated coherence is lower and upper bounded by the relative entropy of entanglement and the entanglement of formation, respectively, and equal to the relative entropy of entanglement for all the maximally correlated states.

  17. A fingerprint based metric for measuring similarities of crystalline structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Li; Fuhrer, Tobias; Schaefer, Bastian; Grauzinyte, Migle; Goedecker, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.goedecker@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, Universität Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Amsler, Maximilian [Department of Physics, Universität Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Faraji, Somayeh; Rostami, Samare; Ghasemi, S. Alireza [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Ali [Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Evin, 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Wolverton, Chris [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Measuring similarities/dissimilarities between atomic structures is important for the exploration of potential energy landscapes. However, the cell vectors together with the coordinates of the atoms, which are generally used to describe periodic systems, are quantities not directly suitable as fingerprints to distinguish structures. Based on a characterization of the local environment of all atoms in a cell, we introduce crystal fingerprints that can be calculated easily and define configurational distances between crystalline structures that satisfy the mathematical properties of a metric. This distance between two configurations is a measure of their similarity/dissimilarity and it allows in particular to distinguish structures. The new method can be a useful tool within various energy landscape exploration schemes, such as minima hopping, random search, swarm intelligence algorithms, and high-throughput screenings.

  18. Defining and Computing a Valued Based Cyber Security Measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aissa, Anis Ben [University of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    In earlier works (Ben-Aissa et al. 2010; Abercrombie et al. 2008; Sheldon et al. 2009), we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper, we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates, and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  19. A fingerprint based metric for measuring similarities of crystalline structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Amsler, Maximilian; Fuhrer, Tobias; Schaefer, Bastian; Faraji, Somayeh; Rostami, Samare; Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Sadeghi, Ali; Grauzinyte, Migle; Wolverton, Chris; Goedecker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Measuring similarities/dissimilarities between atomic structures is important for the exploration of potential energy landscapes. However, the cell vectors together with the coordinates of the atoms, which are generally used to describe periodic systems, are quantities not directly suitable as fingerprints to distinguish structures. Based on a characterization of the local environment of all atoms in a cell, we introduce crystal fingerprints that can be calculated easily and define configurational distances between crystalline structures that satisfy the mathematical properties of a metric. This distance between two configurations is a measure of their similarity/dissimilarity and it allows in particular to distinguish structures. The new method can be a useful tool within various energy landscape exploration schemes, such as minima hopping, random search, swarm intelligence algorithms, and high-throughput screenings.

  20. High-speed FPGA-based phase measuring profilometry architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guomin; Tang, Hongwei; Zhong, Kai; Li, Zhongwei; Shi, Yusheng; Wang, Congjun

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a high-speed FPGA architecture for the phase measuring profilometry (PMP) algorithm. The whole PMP algorithm is designed and implemented based on the principle of full-pipeline and parallelism. The results show that the accuracy of the FPGA system is comparable with those of current top-performing software implementations. The FPGA system achieves 3D sharp reconstruction using 12 phase-shifting images and completes in 21 ms with 1024 × 768 pixel resolution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fully pipelined architecture for PMP systems, and this makes the PMP system very suitable for high-speed embedded 3D shape measurement applications.

  1. Estimating spacecraft attitude based on in-orbit sensor measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Britt; Lyn-Knudsen, Kevin; Mølgaard, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    of 2014/15. To better evaluate the performance of the payload, it is desirable to couple the payload data with the satellite's orientation. With AAUSAT3 already in orbit it is possible to collect data directly from space in order to evaluate the performance of the attitude estimation. An extended kalman...... filter (EKF) is used for quaternion-based attitude estimation. A Simulink simulation environment developed for AAUSAT3, containing a "truth model" of the satellite and the orbit environment, is used to test the performance The performance is tested using different sensor noise parameters obtained both...... solely on Earth or whether an in-orbit tuning/update of the algorithm is needed. of the EKF. Generally, sensor noise variances are larger in the in-orbit measurements than in the measurements obtained on ground. From Monte Carlo simulations with varying settings of the satellite inertia and initial time...

  2. Scintillator-based fast ion loss measurements in the EAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J F; Isobe, M; Ogawa, K; Huang, J; Wu, C R; Xu, Z; Jin, Z; Lin, S Y; Hu, L Q

    2016-11-01

    A new scintillator-based fast ion loss detector (FILD) has been installed on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to investigate the fast ion loss behavior in high performance plasma with neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). A two dimensional 40 mm × 40 mm scintillator-coated (ZnS:Ag) stainless plate is mounted in the front of the detector, capturing the escaping fast ions. Photons from the scintillator plate are imaged with a Phantom V2010 CCD camera. The lost fast ions can be measured with the pitch angle from 60° to 120° and the gyroradius from 10 mm to 180 mm. This paper will describe the details of FILD diagnostic on EAST and describe preliminary measurements during NBI and ICRH heating.

  3. De novo likelihood-based measures for comparing genome assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Mohammadreza; Hill, Christopher M; Astrovskaya, Irina; Lin, Henry; Sommer, Dan D; Koren, Sergey; Pop, Mihai

    2013-08-22

    The current revolution in genomics has been made possible by software tools called genome assemblers, which stitch together DNA fragments "read" by sequencing machines into complete or nearly complete genome sequences. Despite decades of research in this field and the development of dozens of genome assemblers, assessing and comparing the quality of assembled genome sequences still relies on the availability of independently determined standards, such as manually curated genome sequences, or independently produced mapping data. These "gold standards" can be expensive to produce and may only cover a small fraction of the genome, which limits their applicability to newly generated genome sequences. Here we introduce a de novo  probabilistic measure of assembly quality which allows for an objective comparison of multiple assemblies generated from the same set of reads. We define the quality of a sequence produced by an assembler as the conditional probability of observing the sequenced reads from the assembled sequence. A key property of our metric is that the true genome sequence maximizes the score, unlike other commonly used metrics. We demonstrate that our de novo  score can be computed quickly and accurately in a practical setting even for large datasets, by estimating the score from a relatively small sample of the reads. To demonstrate the benefits of our score, we measure the quality of the assemblies generated in the GAGE and Assemblathon 1 assembly "bake-offs" with our metric. Even without knowledge of the true reference sequence, our de novo  metric closely matches the reference-based evaluation metrics used in the studies and outperforms other de novo  metrics traditionally used to measure assembly quality (such as N50). Finally, we highlight the application of our score to optimize assembly parameters used in genome assemblers, which enables better assemblies to be produced, even without prior knowledge of the genome being assembled. Likelihood-based

  4. An Innovative Transponder-Based Interferometric Radar for Vibration Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, F.; Cerutti, A.; Farina, P.; De Pasquale, G.; Novembrini, G.

    2010-05-01

    Ground-based radar interferometry has recently emerged as an innovative technology of remote sensing, able to accurately measure the static or dynamic displacement of several points of a structure. This technique in the last couple of years has been applied to different types of structures, such as bridges, towers and chimneys. This paper presents a prototype system developed by IDS, originally aimed at measuring the structural vibrations of helicopter rotor blades, based on an interferometric technique and constituted by combination of a radar sensor and a series of transponders installed on the target structure. The main advantages of this solution with respect to conventional interferometric radars, are related to the increased spatial resolution of the system, provided by the possibility to discriminate different transponders installed within the same resolution cell of the radar sensor, and to the reduction of the ambient noise (e.g. multi-path) on the radar measurement. The first feature allows the use of the microwave technology even on target areas with limited dimensions, such as industrial facilities, while the second aspect may extend the use of radar interferometric systems to complex scenarios, where multi-reflections are expected due to the presence of natural targets with high reflectivity to the radar signal. In the paper, the system and its major characteristics are first described; subsequently, application to the measurement of ambient vibration response of a lab set-up is summarized. Then the data acquired on a rotating mock-up are reported and analyzed to identify natural frequencies and mode shapes of the investigated structure.

  5. Height estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-03-01

    Anthropometric measurements (e.g. the height to the head, nose tip, eyes or shoulders) of a perpetrator based on video material may be used in criminal cases. However, several height measurements may be difficult to assess as the perpetrators may be disguised by clothes or headwear. The eye height (EH) measurement, on the other hand, is less prone to concealment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate: (1) how the eye height varies during the gait cycle, and (2) how the eye height changes with head position. The eyes were plotted manually in APAS for 16 test subjects during a complete gait cycle. The influence of head tilt on the EH was investigated in 20 healthy men. Markers were attached to the face and the subjects were instructed to stand relaxed, tilt their head to the right, to the left, forward and backward. The marker data for the right eye were used to calculate the EH. The respective deviation and SD from the relaxed standing EH and the EH in the Frankfurt plane, left tilted, right tilted, forward tilted and backward tilted, in addition to the corresponding head tilt angles were calculated. There was no correlation between the height of the subject and the maximum vertical displacement of the EH throughout the gait cycle nor between height of the subjects and the variation of the EH throughout the gait cycle. The average maximum vertical displacement for the test subject group was 4.76 cm (± 1.56 cm). The average EH was lower when the subjects were standing in the relaxed position than in the Frankfurt plane. The average EH was higher in the relaxed position than when the subjects tilted their heads, except when they tilted their heads backwards. The subjects had a slightly larger range of motion to the right than to the left, which was not significant. The results of this study provide a range for eye height estimates and may be readily implemented in forensic case work. It can be used as a reference in height estimates in cases with height

  6. AC dipole based optics measurement and correction at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, X; Bai, M; White, S; Robert-Domolaize, G; Luo, Y; Marusic, A; Tomas, R

    2013-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to the AC dipole based optics measurement at RHIC to extract beta functions as well as phase advances at each BPM. Existence of excessive beta-beat was observed in both rings of RHIC at polarized proton store energy. A unique global optics correction scheme was then developed and tested successfully during the RHIC polarized proton run in 2013. The feasibility of using horizontal closed orbit bump at sextupole for arc beta-beat correction was also demonstrated.

  7. Preparation and measurement of TFBG based vibration sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helan, Radek; Urban, Frantisek; Mikel, Bretislav; Urban, Frantisek

    2014-08-01

    We present vibration fiber sensor set up based on tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) and fiber taper. The sensor uses the TFBG as a cladding modes reflector and fiber taper as a bend-sensitive recoupling member. The lower cladding modes (ghost), reflected from TFBG, is recoupled back into the fiber core via tapered fiber section. We focused on optimization of TFBG tilt angle to reach maximum reflection of the ghost and taper parameters. Comparative measurements were made using optical spectrum analyzer and superluminiscent diode as broadband light source. We present dependence between intensity of recoupled ghost mode and sensor deflection.

  8. Establishing maintenance intervals based on measurement reliability of engineering endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P J

    2000-01-01

    Methods developed by the metrological community and principles used by the research community were integrated to provide a basis for a periodic maintenance interval analysis system. Engineering endpoints are used as measurement attributes on which to base two primary quality indicators: accuracy and reliability. Also key to establishing appropriate maintenance intervals is the ability to recognize two primary failure modes: random failure and time-related failure. The primary objective of the maintenance program is to avert predictable and preventable device failure, and understanding time-related failures enables service personnel to set intervals accordingly.

  9. Geometric, Kinematic and Radiometric Aspects of Image-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshu

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses theoretical foundations of quantitative image-based measurements for extracting and reconstructing geometric, kinematic and dynamic properties of observed objects. New results are obtained by using a combination of methods in perspective geometry, differential geometry. radiometry, kinematics and dynamics. Specific topics include perspective projection transformation. perspective developable conical surface, perspective projection under surface constraint, perspective invariants, the point correspondence problem. motion fields of curves and surfaces. and motion equations of image intensity. The methods given in this paper arc useful for determining morphology and motion fields of deformable bodies such as elastic bodies. viscoelastic mediums and fluids.

  10. GNSS Spoofing Detection Based on Signal Power Measurements: Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dehghanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A threat to GNSS receivers is posed by a spoofing transmitter that emulates authentic signals but with randomized code phase and Doppler values over a small range. Such spoofing signals can result in large navigational solution errors that are passed onto the unsuspecting user with potentially dire consequences. An effective spoofing detection technique is developed in this paper, based on signal power measurements and that can be readily applied to present consumer grade GNSS receivers with minimal firmware changes. An extensive statistical analysis is carried out based on formulating a multihypothesis detection problem. Expressions are developed to devise a set of thresholds required for signal detection and identification. The detection processing methods developed are further manipulated to exploit incidental antenna motion arising from user interaction with a GNSS handheld receiver to further enhance the detection performance of the proposed algorithm. The statistical analysis supports the effectiveness of the proposed spoofing detection technique under various multipath conditions.

  11. Measuring children's social skills using microcomputer-based videodisc assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, L K; Walker, H M; Noell, J; Singer, G H; Irvine, A B; Marquez, K; Britz, B

    1992-10-01

    This article describes the development of a microcomputer-based videodisc assessment prototype for measuring children's social skills. The theoretical and empirical foundations for the content are described, and the contributions of interactive microcomputer-based video technology to assessment of children with handicaps are detailed. An application of Goldfried and D'Zurilla's "behavior-analytic" approach to development of the content of assessments is presented, and the related video and computer technology development is detailed. The article describes the conceptual foundations of the psychometrics of the assessment prototype as well as the psychometric methodology that was employed throughout the development process. Finally, a discussion of the potential applications and implications of the social skills assessment prototype is included.

  12. Air temperature measurements based on the speed of sound to compensate long distance interferometric measurements

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    Astrua Milena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to measure the real time temperature distribution along an interferometer path based on the propagation of acoustic waves is presented. It exploits the high sensitivity of the speed of sound in air to the air temperature. In particular, it takes advantage of a special set-up where the generation of the acoustic waves is synchronous with the amplitude modulation of a laser source. A photodetector converts the laser light to an electronic signal considered as reference, while the incoming acoustic waves are focused on a microphone and generate a second signal. In this condition, the phase difference between the two signals substantially depends on the temperature of the air volume interposed between the sources and the receivers. The comparison with the traditional temperature sensors highlighted the limit of the latter in case of fast temperature variations and the advantage of a measurement integrated along the optical path instead of a sampling measurement. The capability of the acoustic method to compensate the interferometric distance measurements due to air temperature variations has been demonstrated for distances up to 27 m.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging-based measures of atlas position: Relationship to canine atlantooccipital overlapping, syringomyelia and clinical signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda-Gonzalez, S; Bibi, K F; Gifford, A T; Mudrak, E L; Scrivani, P V

    2016-03-01

    Canine atlantooccipital overlapping (AOO) is characterized by a decreased distance between the dorsal arch of the atlas and the supraoccipital bone. Current diagnostic criteria for this condition are subjective and clinician-dependent; objective criteria are needed to allow a reliable and reproducible diagnosis in clinical and research settings and assess clinical significance. We propose four standardized MRI-based measurements to objectively assess the proximity of the atlas to the foramen magnum. Inclusion criteria for dogs in this study were bodyweight 5 months, and availability of a complete MRI study performed with the craniocervical junction in extension. Exclusion criteria were space-occupying lesions and poor image quality (i.e. unclear bony margins). Measurements also included blinded determinations of skull type, presence of craniocervical junction anomalies and presence and severity of syringomyelia. Clinical status at the time of imaging was noted. Measurements were obtained in 271 dogs; these were reproducible and reliable. Findings varied by skull type: dolichocephalic dogs had smaller foramen magnum, whereas brachycephalic dogs had more cranially and dorsally positioned atlas bodies in comparison to the other skull types. Measurements also increased with increases in bodyweight. This study demonstrated a close association between AOO, syringomyelia and clinical signs. Toy and small breed dogs (including Cavalier King Charles spaniels) showed higher than previously reported prevalence of AOO; its occurrence was also associated with lower bodyweights within the study population of <15 kg toy/small breed dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring participant rurality in Web-based interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKay H Garth

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Web-based health behavior change programs can reach large groups of disparate participants and thus they provide promise of becoming important public health tools. Data on participant rurality can complement other demographic measures to deepen our understanding of the success of these programs. Specifically, analysis of participant rurality can inform recruitment and social marketing efforts, and facilitate the targeting and tailoring of program content. Rurality analysis can also help evaluate the effectiveness of interventions across population groupings. Methods We describe how the RUCAs (Rural-Urban Commuting Area Codes methodology can be used to examine results from two Randomized Controlled Trials of Web-based tobacco cessation programs: the ChewFree.com project for smokeless tobacco cessation and the Smokers' Health Improvement Program (SHIP project for smoking cessation. Results Using RUCAs methodology helped to highlight the extent to which both Web-based interventions reached a substantial percentage of rural participants. The ChewFree program was found to have more rural participation which is consistent with the greater prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in rural settings as well as ChewFree's multifaceted recruitment program that specifically targeted rural settings. Conclusion Researchers of Web-based health behavior change programs targeted to the US should routinely include RUCAs as a part of analyzing participant demographics. Researchers in other countries should examine rurality indices germane to their country.

  15. Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Ofer; Abernethy, Rebecca; Brauer, Michael; Davies, Hugh; Allen, Ryan W

    2011-12-21

    Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances school proximity to major roads, urban density, and indicators of socioeconomic status. Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00), while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km²: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16). Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children.

  16. Valgus sliding subtrochanteric osteotomy for neglected fractures of the proximal femur; surgical technique and a retrospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaskar, Ashok S; Chowdary, Naveen T

    2013-03-15

    Conventional technique of valgus osteotomy of the proximal femur involves removal of a partial or full thickness lateral based wedge from the peritrochanteric region. The purpose of this article is to describe a novel technique of valgus subtrochanteric osteotomy for proximal femur nonunion. 11 patients with proximal femur nonunions {intracapsular fractures--7, extracapsular fractures--4} were treated using a new technique of sliding subtrochanteric osteotomy and DHS fixation. Outcomes analysed include radiological outcome in terms of improvement in Pauwel's angle, neck-shaft angle and evidence of radiological union at the nonunion site and osteotomy site. Other outcomes analysed include, measurement of limb length discrepancy and functional outcome assessment with Oxford hip score. Union at the nonunion site and the osteotomy site was achieved in all patients. There were significant improvements in the postoperative Pauwel's angle, neck shaft angle and Oxford hip score. Limb length discrepancy improved to less than 1 cm in all patients. There was no x ray evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head at one year follow-up. The sliding osteotomy technique is simple, does not need extensive pre operative planning or removal of bone from the proximal femur.

  17. Service quality measurement. A new approach based on Conjoint Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Gatta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the measurement of service quality. The main objective is to suggest an alternative criterion for service quality definition and measurement. After a brief description of the most traditional techniques and with the intent to overcome some critical factors pertaining them, I focus my attention on the choice-based conjoint analysis, a particular stated preferences method that estimates the structure of consumers’ preferences given their choices between alternative service options. Discrete choice models and the traditional compensatory utility maximization framework are extended by the inclusion of the attribute cutoffs into the decision problem formulation. The major theoretical aspects of the described approach are examined and discussed, showing that it is able to identify the relative importance of the relevant attributes, calculating elasticity and monetary evaluation, and to determine a service quality index. Then simulations enable the identification of potential service quality levels, so that marketing managers have valuable information to plan their best business strategies. We present findings from an empirical study in the public transport sector designed to gain insights into the use of the choice-based conjoint analysis.

  18. Quantum Jarzynski equality of measurement-based work extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikuni, Yohei; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Hatano, Naomichi

    2017-03-01

    Many studies of quantum-size heat engines assume that the dynamics of an internal system is unitary and that the extracted work is equal to the energy loss of the internal system. Both assumptions, however, should be under scrutiny. In the present paper, we analyze quantum-scale heat engines, employing the measurement-based formulation of the work extraction recently introduced by Hayashi and Tajima [M. Hayashi and H. Tajima, arXiv:1504.06150]. We first demonstrate the inappropriateness of the unitary time evolution of the internal system (namely, the first assumption above) using a simple two-level system; we show that the variance of the energy transferred to an external system diverges when the dynamics of the internal system is approximated to a unitary time evolution. Second, we derive the quantum Jarzynski equality based on the formulation of Hayashi and Tajima as a relation for the work measured by an external macroscopic apparatus. The right-hand side of the equality reduces to unity for "natural" cyclic processes but fluctuates wildly for noncyclic ones, exceeding unity often. This fluctuation should be detectable in experiments and provide evidence for the present formulation.

  19. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  20. A Method to Measure the Bracelet Based on Feature Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongmin; Li, Lu; Wang, Zhiheng; Huo, Zhanqiang

    2017-12-01

    To measure the bracelet automatically, a novel method based on feature energy is proposed. Firstly, the morphological method is utilized to preprocess the image, and the contour consisting of a concentric circle is extracted. Then, a feature energy function, which is relevant to the distances from one pixel to the edge points, is defined taking into account the geometric properties of the concentric circle. The input image is subsequently transformed to the feature energy distribution map (FEDM) by computing the feature energy of each pixel. The center of the concentric circle is thus located by detecting the maximum on the FEDM; meanwhile, the radii of the concentric circle are determined according to the feature energy function of the center pixel. Finally, with the use of a calibration template, the internal diameter and thickness of the bracelet are measured. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the true sizes of the bracelet accurately with the simplicity, directness and robustness compared to the existing methods.

  1. Analogy between gambling and measurement-based work extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkler, Dror A.; Permuter, Haim H.; Merhav, Neri

    2016-04-01

    In information theory, one area of interest is gambling, where mutual information characterizes the maximal gain in wealth growth rate due to knowledge of side information; the betting strategy that achieves this maximum is named the Kelly strategy. In the field of physics, it was recently shown that mutual information can characterize the maximal amount of work that can be extracted from a single heat bath using measurement-based control protocols, i.e. using ‘information engines’. However, to the best of our knowledge, no relation between gambling and information engines has been presented before. In this paper, we briefly review the two concepts and then demonstrate an analogy between gambling, where bits are converted into wealth, and information engines, where bits representing measurements are converted into energy. From this analogy follows an extension of gambling to the continuous-valued case, which is shown to be useful for investments in currency exchange rates or in the stock market using options. Moreover, the analogy enables us to use well-known methods and results from one field to solve problems in the other. We present three such cases: maximum work extraction when the probability distributions governing the system and measurements are unknown, work extraction when some energy is lost in each cycle, e.g. due to friction, and an analysis of systems with memory. In all three cases, the analogy enables us to use known results in order to obtain new ones.

  2. Heart rate measurement based on face video sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Zhou, Qin-Wu; Wu, Peng; Chen, Xing; Yang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Hong-jian

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a new non-contact heart rate measurement method based on photoplethysmography (PPG) theory. With this method we can measure heart rate remotely with a camera and ambient light. We collected video sequences of subjects, and detected remote PPG signals through video sequences. Remote PPG signals were analyzed with two methods, Blind Source Separation Technology (BSST) and Cross Spectral Power Technology (CSPT). BSST is a commonly used method, and CSPT is used for the first time in the study of remote PPG signals in this paper. Both of the methods can acquire heart rate, but compared with BSST, CSPT has clearer physical meaning, and the computational complexity of CSPT is lower than that of BSST. Our work shows that heart rates detected by CSPT method have good consistency with the heart rates measured by a finger clip oximeter. With good accuracy and low computational complexity, the CSPT method has a good prospect for the application in the field of home medical devices and mobile health devices.

  3. Coordinate measuring system based on microchip lasers for reverse prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovlev, Alexey; Grishkanich, Alexsandr S.; Redka, Dmitriy; Tsvetkov, Konstantin

    2017-02-01

    According to the current great interest concerning Large-Scale Metrology applications in many different fields of manufacturing industry, technologies and techniques for dimensional measurement have recently shown a substantial improvement. Ease-of-use, logistic and economic issues, as well as metrological performance, are assuming a more and more important role among system requirements. The project is planned to conduct experimental studies aimed at identifying the impact of the application of the basic laws of chip and microlasers as radiators on the linear-angular characteristics of existing measurement systems. The project is planned to conduct experimental studies aimed at identifying the impact of the application of the basic laws of microlasers as radiators on the linear-angular characteristics of existing measurement systems. The system consists of a distributed network-based layout, whose modularity allows to fit differently sized and shaped working volumes by adequately increasing the number of sensing units. Differently from existing spatially distributed metrological instruments, the remote sensor devices are intended to provide embedded data elaboration capabilities, in order to share the overall computational load.

  4. Electroencephalogram measurement using polymer-based dry microneedle electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Miyako; Nishinaka, Yuya; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we report a successful electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement using polymer-based dry microneedle electrodes. The electrodes consist of needle-shaped substrates of SU-8, a silver film, and a nanoporous parylene protective film. Differently from conventional wet electrodes, microneedle electrodes do not require skin preparation and a conductive gel. SU-8 is superior as a structural material to poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS; Dow Corning Toray Sylgard 184) in terms of hardness, which was used in our previous work, and facilitates the penetration of needles through the stratum corneum. SU-8 microneedles can be successfully inserted into the skin without breaking and could maintain a sufficiently low skin-electrode contact impedance for EEG measurement. The electrodes successfully measured EEG from the frontal pole, and the quality of acquired signals was verified to be as high as those obtained using commercially available wet electrodes without any skin preparation or a conductive gel. The electrodes are readily applicable to record brain activities for a long period with little stress involved in skin preparation to the users.

  5. An optomechatronic curvature measurement array based on fiber Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsing-Cheng; Chang, I.-Nan; Chen, Ya-Hui; Lin, Shyan-Lung; Hung, San-Shan; Lin, Jung-Chih; Liu, Wen-Fung

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated an optomechatronic array-integrated signal processing module and a human-machine interface based on fiber Bragg grating sensing elements embedded in an elastic support matrix that involves using a self-located electromagnetic mechanism for curvature sensing and solid contour reconstruction. Using bilinear interpolation and average calculation methods, the smooth and accurate surface contours of convex and concave lenses are reconstructed in real-time. The elastic supporting optical sensing array is self-balanced to reduce operational errors. Compared with our previous single-head sensor, the sensitivity of the proposed array is improved by more than 15%. In the curvature range from -20.15 to +27.09 m-1, the sensitivities are 3.53 pm m for the convex measurement and 2.15 pm m for the concave measurement with an error rate below 8.89%. The curvature resolutions are 0.283 and 0.465 m-1 for convex and concave lenses, respectively. This array could be applied in the curvature measurement of solar collectors to monitor energy conversion efficiency or could be used to monitor the wafer-level thin-film fabrication process.

  6. Proximal placement of lateral thigh skin markers reduces soft tissue artefact during normal gait using the Conventional Gait Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, John; Louw, Quinette; Baker, Richard

    2016-11-01

    A primary source of measurement error in gait analysis is soft-tissue artefact. Hip and knee angle measurements, regularly used in clinical decision-making, are particularly prone to pervasive soft tissue on the femur. However, despite several studies of thigh marker artefact it remains unclear how lateral thigh marker height affects results using variants of the Conventional Gait Model. We compared Vicon Plug-in Gait hip and knee angle estimates during gait using a proximal and distal thigh marker placement for ten healthy subjects. Knee axes were estimated by optimizing thigh rotation offsets to minimize knee varus-valgus range during gait. Relative to the distal marker, the proximal marker produced 37% less varus-valgus range and 50% less hip rotation range (p < 0.001), suggesting that it produced less soft-tissue artefact in knee axis estimates. The thigh markers also produced different secondary effects on the knee centre estimate. Using whole gait cycle optimization, the distal marker showed greater minimum and maximum knee flexion (by 6° and 2° respectively) resulting in a 4° reduction in range. Mid-stance optimization reduced distal marker knee flexion by 5° throughout, but proximal marker results were negligibly affected. Based on an analysis of the Plug-in Gait knee axis definition, we show that the proximal marker reduced sensitivity to soft-tissue artefact by decreasing collinearity between the points defining the femoral frontal plane and reducing anteroposterior movement between the knee and thigh markers. This study suggests that a proximal thigh marker may be preferable when performing gait analysis using the Plug-in Gait model.

  7. Accurate fluid force measurement based on control surface integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David

    2018-01-01

    Nonintrusive 3D fluid force measurements are still challenging to conduct accurately for freely moving animals, vehicles, and deforming objects. Two techniques, 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV) and a new technique, the aerodynamic force platform (AFP), address this. Both rely on the control volume integral for momentum; whereas PIV requires numerical integration of flow fields, the AFP performs the integration mechanically based on rigid walls that form the control surface. The accuracy of both PIV and AFP measurements based on the control surface integration is thought to hinge on determining the unsteady body force associated with the acceleration of the volume of displaced fluid. Here, I introduce a set of non-dimensional error ratios to show which fluid and body parameters make the error negligible. The unsteady body force is insignificant in all conditions where the average density of the body is much greater than the density of the fluid, e.g., in gas. Whenever a strongly deforming body experiences significant buoyancy and acceleration, the error is significant. Remarkably, this error can be entirely corrected for with an exact factor provided that the body has a sufficiently homogenous density or acceleration distribution, which is common in liquids. The correction factor for omitting the unsteady body force, {{{ {ρ f}} {1 - {ρ f} ( {{ρ b}+{ρ f}} )}.{( {{{{ρ }}b}+{ρ f}} )}}} , depends only on the fluid, {ρ f}, and body, {{ρ }}b, density. Whereas these straightforward solutions work even at the liquid-gas interface in a significant number of cases, they do not work for generalized bodies undergoing buoyancy in combination with appreciable body density inhomogeneity, volume change (PIV), or volume rate-of-change (PIV and AFP). In these less common cases, the 3D body shape needs to be measured and resolved in time and space to estimate the unsteady body force. The analysis shows that accounting for the unsteady body force is straightforward to non

  8. EIGENVECTOR-BASED CENTRALITY MEASURES FOR TEMPORAL NETWORKS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAYLOR, DANE; MYERS, SEAN A.; CLAUSET, AARON; PORTER, MASON A.; MUCHA, PETER J.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous centrality measures have been developed to quantify the importances of nodes in time-independent networks, and many of them can be expressed as the leading eigenvector of some matrix. With the increasing availability of network data that changes in time, it is important to extend such eigenvector-based centrality measures to time-dependent networks. In this paper, we introduce a principled generalization of network centrality measures that is valid for any eigenvector-based centrality. We consider a temporal network with N nodes as a sequence of T layers that describe the network during different time windows, and we couple centrality matrices for the layers into a supra-centrality matrix of size NT × NT whose dominant eigenvector gives the centrality of each node i at each time t. We refer to this eigenvector and its components as a joint centrality, as it reflects the importances of both the node i and the time layer t. We also introduce the concepts of marginal and conditional centralities, which facilitate the study of centrality trajectories over time. We find that the strength of coupling between layers is important for determining multiscale properties of centrality, such as localization phenomena and the time scale of centrality changes. In the strong-coupling regime, we derive expressions for time-averaged centralities, which are given by the zeroth-order terms of a singular perturbation expansion. We also study first-order terms to obtain first-order-mover scores, which concisely describe the magnitude of nodes’ centrality changes over time. As examples, we apply our method to three empirical temporal networks: the United States Ph.D. exchange in mathematics, costarring relationships among top-billed actors during the Golden Age of Hollywood, and citations of decisions from the United States Supreme Court. PMID:29046619

  9. EIGENVECTOR-BASED CENTRALITY MEASURES FOR TEMPORAL NETWORKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Dane; Myers, Sean A; Clauset, Aaron; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Numerous centrality measures have been developed to quantify the importances of nodes in time-independent networks, and many of them can be expressed as the leading eigenvector of some matrix. With the increasing availability of network data that changes in time, it is important to extend such eigenvector-based centrality measures to time-dependent networks. In this paper, we introduce a principled generalization of network centrality measures that is valid for any eigenvector-based centrality. We consider a temporal network with N nodes as a sequence of T layers that describe the network during different time windows, and we couple centrality matrices for the layers into a supra-centrality matrix of size NT × NT whose dominant eigenvector gives the centrality of each node i at each time t. We refer to this eigenvector and its components as a joint centrality, as it reflects the importances of both the node i and the time layer t. We also introduce the concepts of marginal and conditional centralities, which facilitate the study of centrality trajectories over time. We find that the strength of coupling between layers is important for determining multiscale properties of centrality, such as localization phenomena and the time scale of centrality changes. In the strong-coupling regime, we derive expressions for time-averaged centralities, which are given by the zeroth-order terms of a singular perturbation expansion. We also study first-order terms to obtain first-order-mover scores, which concisely describe the magnitude of nodes' centrality changes over time. As examples, we apply our method to three empirical temporal networks: the United States Ph.D. exchange in mathematics, costarring relationships among top-billed actors during the Golden Age of Hollywood, and citations of decisions from the United States Supreme Court.

  10. Creating synergy between ground and space-based precipitation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, J. J.; Hong, Y.; Petersen, W. A.; Howard, K.; Flamig, Z.; Wen, Y.

    2010-12-01

    As the successor of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite launched in 1997, the multi-national Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, to be launched in 2013, will provide next-generation global precipitation estimates from space within a unified framework. On the ground, several countries worldwide are in the throes of expanding their weather radar networks with gap-filling radars and upgrading them to include polarimetric capabilities. While significant improvements in precipitation estimation capabilities have been realized from space- and ground-based platforms separately, little effort has been focused on aligning these communities for synergistic, joint development of algorithms. In this study, we demonstrate the integration of real-time rainfall products from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) into the National Severe Storms Laboratory’s (NSSL) National Mosaic and QPE (NMQ/Q2; http://nmq.ou.edu) system. The NMQ system enables a CONUS-wide comparison of TRMM products to NEXRAD-based Q2 rainfall products. Moreover, NMQ’s ground validation software ingests and quality controls data from all automatic-reporting rain gauge networks throughout the US and provides robust graphical and statistical validation tools, accessible by anyone with internet access. This system will readily incorporate future products from GPM as well as those from the dual-polarization upgrade to the NEXRAD network. While initial efforts are on the intercomparison of rainfall products, we envision this system will ultimately promote the development of precipitation algorithms that capitalize on the strengths of spatiotemporal and error characteristics of space and ground remote-sensing data. An example algorithm is presented where the vertical structure of precipitating systems over complex terrain is more completely resolved using combined information from NMQ and TRMM precipitation radar (PR), leading to more accurate surface rainfall estimates.

  11. Identify fracture-critical regions inside the proximal femur using statistical parametric mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Kornak, John; Harris, Tamara; Keyak, Joyce; Li, Caixia; Lu, Ying; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Lang, Thomas

    2009-04-01

    We identified regions inside the proximal femur that are most strongly associated with hip fracture. Bone densitometry based on such fracture-critical regions showed improved power in discriminating fracture patients from controls. Hip fractures typically occur in lateral falls, with focal mechanical failure of the sub-volumes of tissue in which the applied stress exceeds the strength. In this study, we describe a new methodology to identify proximal femoral tissue elements with highest association with hip fracture. We hypothesize that bone mineral density (BMD) measured in such sub-volumes discriminates hip fracture risk better than BMD in standard anatomic regions such as the femoral neck and trochanter. We employed inter-subject registration to transform hip QCT images of 37 patients with hip fractures and 38 age-matched controls into a voxel-based statistical atlas. Within voxels, we performed t-tests between the two groups to identify the regions which differed most. We then randomly divided the 75 scans into a training set and a test set. From the training set, we derived a fracture-driven region of interest (ROI) based on association with fracture. In the test set, we measured BMD in this ROI to determine fracture discrimination efficacy using ROC analysis. Additionally, we compared the BMD distribution differences between the 29 patients with neck fractures and the 8 patients with trochanteric fractures. By evaluating fracture discrimination power based on ROC analysis, the fracture-driven ROI had an AUC (area under curve) of 0.92, while anatomic ROIs (including the entire proximal femur, the femoral neck, trochanter and their cortical and trabecular compartments) had AUC values between 0.78 and 0.87. We also observed that the neck fracture patients had lower BMD (p=0.014) in a small region near the femoral neck and the femoral head, and patients with trochanteric fractures had lower BMD in trochanteric regions such as in the internal calcar septum (p=0

  12. Proximity Effect at Graphene - High Tc Superconductor Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da; Shih, En-Min; Arefe, Ghidewon; Kim, Youngduck; Edelberg, Drew; Andrade, Erick; Wang, Dennis; Hone, James; Dean, Cory; Pasupathy, Abhay; Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA Collaboration

    The proximity effect is a well-known mesoscopic phenomenon where Cooper pairs from a superconductor (S) enter into a normal metal (N) that is well coupled to it. Since graphene was discovered a decade ago, the proximity effect at superconductor-graphene junctions has been extensively studied and interesting phenomena such as specular Andreev reflection and ballistic transport at graphene Josephson junctions have been observed. However, superconductors used in these experiments to date are of conventional low Tc, such as aluminum(Tc=1.2K), NbSe2(Tc=7K), and MoRe(Tc=8K). Understanding how the proximity effect works between high-Tc superconductors (pnictides and cuprates) and the Dirac Fermions of graphene remains largely unexplored. The chief technical challenge here is to create high-quality junctions between high-Tc superconductors and graphene. In this work, we will introduce a home-made setup that allows us to exfoliate, transfer and encapsulate superconductor-graphene junctions in a well controlled inert atmosphere. Transport measurements of the proximity effect at graphene-iron pnictide(FeSe, FeTeSe) and graphene-cuprate(BSCCO) junctions will be described.

  13. Gait assessment system based on novel gait variability measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchen; Ristic-Durrant, Danijela; Spranger, Matthias; Graser, Axel

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a novel gait assessment system based on measures of gait variability reflected through the variability of shapes of gait cycles trajectories is proposed. The presented gait assessment system is based on SVM (support vector machine) classifier and on gait variability-based features calculated from the hip and knee joint angle trajectories recorded using wearable IMUs during walking trials. A system classifier was trained to distinguish healthy gait patterns from the pathological ones. The features were extracted by calculating the distances between the joint trajectories of the individual gait cycles using 4 different distance functions. As result, the system is able to provide a Gait Variability Index (GVI), which is a numeric value that can be used as an indicator of a degree to which a pathological gait pattern is close to a healthy gait pattern. The system and GVI were tested in three experiments, involving subjects suffering from gait disorders caused by different neurological diseases. The results demonstrated that the proposed gait assessment system would be suitable for supporting clinicians in the evaluation of gait performances during the gait rehabilitation procedures.

  14. Measuring information-based energy and temperature of literary texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Chu; Yang, Albert C.-C.; Eugene Stanley, H.; Peng, C.-K.

    2017-02-01

    We apply a statistical method, information-based energy, to quantify informative symbolic sequences. To apply this method to literary texts, it is assumed that different words with different occurrence frequencies are at different energy levels, and that the energy-occurrence frequency distribution obeys a Boltzmann distribution. The temperature within the Boltzmann distribution can be an indicator for the author's writing capacity as the repertory of thoughts. The relative temperature of a text is obtained by comparing the energy-occurrence frequency distributions of words collected from one text versus from all texts of the same author. Combining the relative temperature with the Shannon entropy as the text complexity, the information-based energy of the text is defined and can be viewed as a quantitative evaluation of an author's writing performance. We demonstrate the method by analyzing two authors, Shakespeare in English and Jin Yong in Chinese, and find that their well-known works are associated with higher information-based energies. This method can be used to measure the creativity level of a writer's work in linguistics, and can also quantify symbolic sequences in different systems.

  15. Ozone Measurements Monitoring Using Data-Based Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-02-01

    The complexity of ozone (O3) formation mechanisms in the troposphere make the fast and accurate modeling of ozone very challenging. In the absence of a process model, principal component analysis (PCA) has been extensively used as a data-based monitoring technique for highly correlated process variables; however conventional PCA-based detection indices often fail to detect small or moderate anomalies. In this work, we propose an innovative method for detecting small anomalies in highly correlated multivariate data. The developed method combine the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) monitoring scheme with PCA modelling in order to enhance anomaly detection performance. Such a choice is mainly motivated by the greater ability of the MEWMA monitoring scheme to detect small changes in the process mean. The proposed PCA-based MEWMA monitoring scheme is successfully applied to ozone measurements data collected from Upper Normandy region, France, via the network of air quality monitoring stations. The detection results of the proposed method are compared to that declared by Air Normand air monitoring association.

  16. Dirac-electron-mediated magnetic proximity effect in topological insulator/magnetic insulator heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingda; Song, Qichen; Zhao, Weiwei; Garlow, Joseph A.; Liu, Te-Huan; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Chan, Moses H. W.; Chen, Gang; Chang, Cui-Zu

    2017-11-01

    The possible realization of dissipationless chiral edge current in a topological insulator/magnetic insulator heterostructure is based on the condition that the magnetic proximity exchange coupling at the interface is dominated by the Dirac surface states of the topological insulator. Here we report a polarized neutron reflectometry observation of Dirac-electron-mediated magnetic proximity effect in a bulk-insulating topological insulator (B i0.2S b0.8)2 T e3 /magnetic insulator EuS heterostructure. We are able to maximize the proximity-induced magnetism by applying an electrical back gate to tune the Fermi level of topological insulator to be close to the Dirac point. A phenomenological model based on diamagnetic screening is developed to explain the suppressed proximity-induced magnetism at high carrier density. Our work paves the way to utilize the magnetic proximity effect at the topological insulator/magnetic insulator heterointerface for low-power spintronic applications.

  17. Robust QKD-based private database queries based on alternative sequences of single-qubit measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, YuGuang; Liu, ZhiChao; Chen, XiuBo; Zhou, YiHua; Shi, WeiMin

    2017-12-01

    Quantum channel noise may cause the user to obtain a wrong answer and thus misunderstand the database holder for existing QKD-based quantum private query (QPQ) protocols. In addition, an outside attacker may conceal his attack by exploiting the channel noise. We propose a new, robust QPQ protocol based on four-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states. In contrast to existing QPQ protocols against channel noise, only an alternative fixed sequence of single-qubit measurements is needed by the user (Alice) to measure the received DF states. This property makes it easy to implement the proposed protocol by exploiting current technologies. Moreover, to retain the advantage of flexible database queries, we reconstruct Alice's measurement operators so that Alice needs only conditioned sequences of single-qubit measurements.

  18. Noncontact temperature measurement. I - Interpolation based techniques. II - Least squares based techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mansoor A.; Allemand, Charly; Eagar, Thomas W.

    1991-02-01

    Two types of techniques for noncontact temperature measurements are described. The one type, the interpolation-based techniques, is based on the ratio pyrometry techniques (two, three, and four color). It is shown that the ratio pyrometry methods are very sensitive to measurement noise and that the sensitivity increases quickly with the number of terms in the ratio. In these methods (under certain conditions) reference temperature can be used to make accurate predictions regarding the temperature elsewhere in the system. The other type of technique is based on measurements of the emitted intensity at multiple wavelengths and the simultaneous calculation of emissivity and temperature through the use of a least square curve fitting technique. Using computer simulations, it is shown that the theory and the algorithms developed for this method can accurately predict both the temperature and the uncertainty associated with each temperature prediction.

  19. Mucosal integrity and sensitivity to acid in the proximal esophagus in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeij, Froukje B; Weijenborg, Pim W; van den Bergh Weerman, Marius A; van den Wijngaard, René M J G J; Verheij, J; Smout, André J P M; Bredenoord, Albert J

    2016-07-01

    Acid reflux episodes that extend to the proximal esophagus are more likely to be perceived. This suggests that the proximal esophagus is more sensitive to acid than the distal esophagus, which could be caused by impaired mucosal integrity in the proximal esophagus. Our aim was to explore sensitivity to acid and mucosal integrity in different segments of the esophagus. We used a prospective observational study, including 12 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). After stopping acid secretion-inhibiting medication, two procedures were performed: an acid perfusion test and an upper endoscopy with electrical tissue impedance spectroscopy and esophageal biopsies. Proximal and distal sensitivity to acid and tissue impedance were measured in vivo, and mucosal permeability and epithelial intercellular spaces at different esophageal levels were measured in vitro. Mean lag time to heartburn perception was much shorter after proximal acid perfusion (0.8 min) than after distal acid perfusion (3.9 min) (P = 0.02). Median in vivo tissue impedance was significantly lower in the distal esophagus (4,563 Ω·m) compared with the proximal esophagus (8,170 Ω·m) (P = 0.002). Transepithelial permeability, as measured by the median fluorescein flux was significantly higher in the distal (2,051 nmol·cm(-2)·h(-1)) than in the proximal segment (368 nmol·cm(-2)·h(-1)) (P = 0.033). Intercellular space ratio and maximum heartburn intensity were not significantly different between the proximal and distal esophagus. In GERD patients off acid secretion-inhibiting medication, acid exposure in the proximal segment of the esophagus provokes symptoms earlier than acid exposure in the distal esophagus, whereas mucosal integrity is impaired more in the distal esophagus. These findings indicate that the enhanced sensitivity to proximal reflux episodes is not explained by increased mucosal permeability. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. PROXIMAL RADIUS RECONSTRUCTION BY METATARSAL OSTEOCHONDRAL AUTO GRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kammar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 17 Year Old student, Pavan presents with swelling since 8 months. Swelling was diffuse over forearm. Tenderness was present. No local rise of temperature. Range of m ovement at elbow was restricted and painful terminally. No distal neurovascular deficits. X - ray reveale d it to be an a neurysmal bone cyst of proximal right radius. FNAC showed Aneurysmal bone cyst for which curettage and bone grafting was done. Post 6 months tumour recurred with a swelling around upper third of right fo rearm. FNAC and J - needle biopsy showed it to be a neurysmal bone cyst. MRI showed ABC of proximal radius without soft tissue involvement. Excision of proximal third of radius with reconstruction by 3 rd metatarsal and augmented with fib ular graft and stabili zed with dynamic c ompression plate and screws . Tumour specimen was sent for h istopathology a t 2 weeks p ost operatively patient had good range of movements. At present patient has full range of flexion , extension , supination & pronation . He is able to carry out his ADL. In the literature proximal radius reconstruction has been tried in traumatic communited radial head fractures. Here it done for r ecurrent benign tumour like aneurysmal bone cyst, as the base of 3rd metatarsal anatomically coincides with radial head and hence a better radio - capital articulation

  1. Copper in silicon: Quantitative analysis of internal and proximity gettering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugo, S.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Flink, C.; Weber, E.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The behavior of copper in the presence of a proximity gettering mechanism and a standard internal gettering mechanism in silicon was studied. He implantation-induced cavities in the near surface region were used as a proximity gettering mechanism and oxygen precipitates in the bulk of the material provided internal gettering sites. Moderate levels of copper contamination were introduced by ion implantation such that the copper was not supersaturated during the anneals, thus providing realistic copper contamination/gettering conditions. Copper concentrations at cavities and internal gettering sites were quantitatively measured after the annealings. In this manner, the gettering effectiveness of cavities was measured when in direct competition with internal gettering sites. The cavities were found to be the dominant gettering mechanism with only a small amount of copper gettered at the internal gettering sites. These results reveal the benefits of a segregation-type gettering mechanism for typical contamination conditions.

  2. [18F]FDG uptake in proximal muscles assessed by PET/CT reflects both global and local muscular inflammation and provides useful information in the management of patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shigeru; Ikeda, Kei; Uchiyama, Katsuhiro; Iwamoto, Taro; Sanayama, Yoshie; Okubo, Ayako; Nakagomi, Daiki; Takahashi, Kentaro; Yokota, Masaya; Suto, Akira; Suzuki, Kotaro; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT ([(18)F]FDG-PET/CT) discriminates PM/DM from non-muscular diseases and also whether FDG uptake in proximal muscles reflects the activity and severity of muscular inflammation in PM/DM. Twenty treatment-naïve PM/DM patients who underwent [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT were retrospectively identified by reviewing medical records. The same number of age- and sex-matched control patients with non-muscular diseases were also identified. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated for each of the seven proximal muscles. For patient-based assessment, mean proximal muscle SUV was calculated by averaging the SUVs for these proximal muscles bilaterally. Mean proximal muscle SUVs were significantly greater in PM/DM patients than in control patients (median 1.05 vs 0.69, P muscle SUVs significantly correlated with mean proximal manual muscle test scores (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.028) and serum levels of creatine kinase (ρ = 0.54, P = 0.015) and aldolase (ρ = 0.64, P = 0.002). Furthermore, SUVs in proximal muscles from which biopsy specimens were obtained significantly correlated with histological grade for inflammatory cell infiltration (ρ = 0.66, P = 0.002). Our results suggest that [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT is useful in the diagnosis of PM/DM when inflammation in proximal muscles is globally assessed with quantitative measurements. Our results also indicate that local FDG uptake in a proximal muscle reflects the activity of inflammation in the same muscle and provides useful information in determining the region for muscle biopsy.

  3. Virtual Instrumentation Based Equipment for Bio-medical Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriliu ILIE

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our equipment forbio-chemical measurement, designed for monitoringthe functional parameters of the persons undergoingeffort tests. This equipment, based on a virtualinstrumentation, has more functions: the acquisitionof biological signals from the participant running inthe effort tests for the anaerobic threshold; thehardware and software configuration of theequipment; the setting of maximal parametersdepending on the type of test; the processing of theacquired data in real time for various alarms, endpoints and displaying this data on the screen; thetransmission of the acquired signals in real time orof the stored ones to a computer for further analysis.This provides a useful and elegant tool for bothhardware and software development and for dailyusage for research or stress tests regularly carriedout in the Cardiology or Sports MedicineDepartments of Hospitals.

  4. Prospective measurement of a problem-based learning course sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolder, Christian R; Olin, Jacqueline L; Alston, Gregory L

    2012-11-12

    To measure the effect, over time, of a 2-year problem-based learning (PBL) sequence on the skills, knowledge, and abilities it was designed to develop and enhance. At the start of each PBL semester, students were provided a "work sample" case with a main medical issue not previously covered in the curriculum. A standardized form containing 6 sections (hypotheses, learning issues to investigate, how hypotheses ruled in/out, primary-problem identification, plan, and goals of plan) was completed for each case. To rate student performance, investigators used a standardized form with 5-point Likert scale. Sixty-seven students who completed 4 assessments were included in data analyses. Scores significantly improved for each semester compared with baseline. Minimal significant differences were observed among semesters 2, 3, and 4. The 2-year PBL sequence improved students' performance compared with baseline, but the performance ceiling observed in our study requires further investigation.

  5. Measuring intracellular redox conditions using GFP-based sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Ostergaard, Henrik; Winther, Jakob R

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen the development of methods for analyzing the redox conditions in specific compartments in living cells. These methods are based on genetically encoded sensors comprising variants of Green Fluorescent Protein in which vicinal cysteine residues have been introduced at solvent......-exposed positions. Several mutant forms have been identified in which formation of a disulfide bond between these cysteine residues results in changes of their fluorescence properties. The redox sensors have been characterized biochemically and found to behave differently, both spectroscopically and in terms...... of redox properties. As genetically encoded sensors they can be expressed in living cells and used for analysis of intracellular redox conditions; however, which parameters are measured depends on how the sensors interact with various cellular redox components. Results of both biochemical and cell...

  6. Accurate position estimation methods based on electrical impedance tomography measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Samuel; Sbarbaro, Daniel; Johansen, T. A.

    2017-08-01

    than 0.05% of the tomograph radius value. These results demonstrate that the proposed approaches can estimate an object’s position accurately based on EIT measurements if enough process information is available for training or modelling. Since they do not require complex calculations it is possible to use them in real-time applications without requiring high-performance computers.

  7. Estimation of Fire Emissions from Satellite-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass burning is a worldwide phenomenon affecting many vegetated parts of the globe regularly. Fires emit large quantities of aerosol and trace gases into the atmosphere, thus influencing the atmospheric chemistry and climate. Traditional methods of fire emissions estimation achieved only limited success, because they were based on peripheral information such as rainfall patterns, vegetation types and changes, agricultural practices, and surface ozone concentrations. During the last several years, rapid developments in satellite remote sensing has allowed more direct estimation of smoke emissions using remotely-sensed fire data. However, current methods use fire pixel counts or burned areas, thereby depending on the accuracy of independent estimations of the biomass fuel loadings, combustion efficiency, and emission factors. With the enhanced radiometric range of its 4-micron fire channel, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, which flies aboard both of the Earth Observing System EOS) Terra and Aqua Satellites, is able to measure the rate of release of fire radiative energy (FRE) in MJ/s (something that older sensors could not do). MODIS also measures aerosol distribution. Taking advantage of these new resources, we have developed a procedure combining MODIS fire and aerosol products to derive FRE-based smoke emission coefficients (C(e), in kg/MJ) for different regions of the globe. These coefficients are simply used to multiply FRE from MODIS to derive the emitted smoke aerosol mass. Results from this novel methodology are very encouraging. For instance, it was found that the smoke total particulate mass emission coefficient for the Brazilian Cerrado ecosystem (approximately 0.022 kg/MJ) is about twice the value for North America, Western Europe, or Australia, but about 50% lower than the value for southern Africa.

  8. Proximity and Collaboration in European Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.W.; Werker, C.

    2011-01-01

    Collaborations are particularly important for the development and deployment of technology. We analyze the influence of organizational, technological and geographical proximity on European nanotechnology collaborations with the help of a publication dataset and additional geographical information.

  9. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, L L; Simon, E E

    1990-01-01

    The transport of ammonia in the proximal tubule is a complex interaction of a number of processes. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule is clearly bidirectional; ammonia is secreted into the early proximal tubule lumen, but later in the proximal tubule, efflux out of the lumen may result in net ammonia reabsorption. Two mechanisms of ammonia transport have clearly been established: NH3 diffusion and NH4+ transport on the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. The relative contribution of these pathways to ammonia transport is still unsettled. Other pathways for ammonia transport, particularly NH4+ efflux out of the lumen, may be important as well. A variety of factors may modulate ammonia transport: plasma, cell and luminal pH, luminal flow rate, luminal potassium, and angiotensin II. Each of these factors also alters ammonia production rates and in most circumstances, ammonia transport appears to follow ammonia production rates.

  10. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 ... Key words: Rhynchophorus phoenicis, Oryctes monoceros, proximate composition, cholesterol, heat treatment. INTRODUCTION. Insects have played ...

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITIONS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde Emmanuel

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... Fish allows for protein improved nutrition in that it has a high biological value in terms of high ... marine algae upon which the fish feed [11]. ... Proximate composition of catfish Clarias gariepinus and Tarpon atlanticus were.

  12. Uav Positioning and Collision Avoidance Based on RSS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, A.; Fissore, F.; Guarnieri, A.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are attracting more and more attention in both the research and industrial communities: indeed, the possibility to use them in a wide range of remote sensing applications makes them a very flexible and attractive solution in both civil and commercial cases (e.g. precision agriculture, security and control, monitoring of sites, exploration of areas difficult to reach). Most of the existing UAV positioning systems rely on the use of the GPS signal. Despite this can be a satisfactory solution in open environments where the GPS signal is available, there are several operating conditions of interest where it is unavailable or unreliable (e.g. close to high buildings, or mountains, in indoor environments). Consequently, a different approach has to be adopted in these cases. This paper considers the use ofWiFi measurements in order to obtain position estimations of the device of interest. More specifically, to limit the costs for the devices involved in the positioning operations, an approach based on radio signal strengths (RSS) measurements is considered. Thanks to the use of a Kalman filter, the proposed approach takes advantage of the temporal dynamic of the device of interest in order to improve the positioning results initially provided by means of maximum likelihood estimations. The considered UAVs are assumed to be provided with communication devices, which can allow them to communicate with each other in order to improve their cooperation abilities. In particular, the collision avoidance problem is examined in this work.

  13. Polarized light based birefringence measurements for monitoring myocardial regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael F. G.; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Li, Shu-Hong; Weisel, Richard D.; Wilson, Brian C.; Li, Ren-Ke; Vitkin, Alex

    2009-02-01

    Myocardial infarction leads to remodeling of the myocardium, resulting in a deterioration of cardiac function. This remodeling involves changes in the extracellular matrix, particularly an increase in collagen. Recently developed stem cell based regenerative treatments have been shown to reduce myocardial remodeling and collagen formation after infarction leading to an improvement in overall cardiac function. However, this emerging field is in dire need of biomarkers to monitor the progress and success of these treatments. Collagen is a fibrous protein and exhibits birefringence due to different refractive indices parallel and perpendicular to the direction of the fibers. As a result, changes in the collagen content and organization in the myocardium should lead to changes in birefringence. Birefringence measurements were made through ex vivo myocardial tissues from rats with induced myocardial infarctions including a number that had undergone regenerative treatment with mesenchymal stem cells. Results show a decrease in birefringence from normal to infracted myocardium, indicating a decrease in tissue organization associated with scar formation, however, an increase in birefringence was seen in those myocardial tissues that had undergone regenerative treatment indicating reorganization of tissue structure. These results demonstrate promise for this technique and are motivating further work towards performing measurements in vivo.

  14. Assessing heart rate variability through wavelet-based statistical measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowiak, Mark P; Hay, Dean C; Johnson, Michel J

    2016-10-01

    Because of its utility in the investigation and diagnosis of clinical abnormalities, heart rate variability (HRV) has been quantified with both time and frequency analysis tools. Recently, time-frequency methods, especially wavelet transforms, have been applied to HRV. In the current study, a complementary computational approach is proposed wherein continuous wavelet transforms are applied directly to ECG signals to quantify time-varying frequency changes in the lower bands. Such variations are compared for resting and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) conditions using statistical and information-theoretic measures, and compared with standard HRV metrics. The latter confirm the expected lower variability in the LBNP condition due to sympathetic nerve activity (e.g. RMSSD: p=0.023; SDSD: p=0.023; LF/HF: p=0.018). Conversely, using the standard Morlet wavelet and a new transform based on windowed complex sinusoids, wavelet analysis of the ECG within the observed range of heart rate (0.5-1.25Hz) exhibits significantly higher variability, as measured by frequency band roughness (Morlet CWT: p=0.041), entropy (Morlet CWT: p=0.001), and approximate entropy (Morlet CWT: p=0.004). Consequently, this paper proposes that, when used with well-established HRV approaches, time-frequency analysis of ECG can provide additional insights into the complex phenomenon of heart rate variability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Optimal source localization problem based on TOA measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosić Maja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining an optimal emitting source location based on the time of arrival (TOA measurements is one of the important problems in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. The nonlinear least-squares (NLS estimation technique is employed to obtain the location of an emitting source. This optimization problem has been formulated by the minimization of the sum of squared residuals between estimated and measured data as the objective function. This paper presents a hybridization of Genetic Algorithm (GA for the determination of the global optimum solution with the local search Newton-Raphson (NR method. The corresponding Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB on the localization errors is derived, which gives a lower bound on the variance of any unbiased estimator. Simulation results under different signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR conditions show that the proposed hybrid Genetic Algorithm-Newton-Raphson (GA-NR improves the accuracy and efficiency of the optimal solution compared to the regular GA. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR32028

  16. A Dynamic Attitude Measurement System Based on LINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzhou Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic attitude measurement system (DAMS is developed based on a laser inertial navigation system (LINS. Three factors of the dynamic attitude measurement error using LINS are analyzed: dynamic error, time synchronization and phase lag. An optimal coning errors compensation algorithm is used to reduce coning errors, and two-axis wobbling verification experiments are presented in the paper. The tests indicate that the attitude accuracy is improved 2-fold by the algorithm. In order to decrease coning errors further, the attitude updating frequency is improved from 200 Hz to 2000 Hz. At the same time, a novel finite impulse response (FIR filter with three notches is designed to filter the dither frequency of the ring laser gyro (RLG. The comparison tests suggest that the new filter is five times more effective than the old one. The paper indicates that phase-frequency characteristics of FIR filter and first-order holder of navigation computer constitute the main sources of phase lag in LINS. A formula to calculate the LINS attitude phase lag is introduced in the paper. The expressions of dynamic attitude errors induced by phase lag are derived. The paper proposes a novel synchronization mechanism that is able to simultaneously solve the problems of dynamic test synchronization and phase compensation. A single-axis turntable and a laser interferometer are applied to verify the synchronization mechanism. The experiments results show that the theoretically calculated values of phase lag and attitude error induced by phase lag can both match perfectly with testing data. The block diagram of DAMS and physical photos are presented in the paper. The final experiments demonstrate that the real-time attitude measurement accuracy of DAMS can reach up to 20″ (1σ and the synchronization error is less than 0.2 ms on the condition of three axes wobbling for 10 min.

  17. Altruism by age and social proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark C; Krause, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which an individual's stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context-most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person's health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person's wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other's health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family). We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent's state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society's understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making.

  18. Altruism by age and social proximity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C Long

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the extent to which an individual's stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context-most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person's health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person's wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other's health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family. We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent's state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society's understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making.

  19. Altruism by age and social proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which an individual’s stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context–most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person’s health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person’s wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other’s health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family). We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent’s state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society’s understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making. PMID:28837557

  20. Development of procedures for programmable proximity aperture lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, H. J.; Gorelick, S.; Puttaraksa, N.; Napari, M.; Hokkanen, M. J.; Norarat, R.

    2013-07-01

    Programmable proximity aperture lithography (PPAL) with MeV ions has been used in Jyväskylä and Chiang Mai universities for a number of years. Here we describe a number of innovations and procedures that have been incorporated into the LabView-based software. The basic operation involves the coordination of the beam blanker and five motor-actuated translators with high accuracy, close to the minimum step size with proper anti-collision algorithms. By using special approaches, such writing calibration patterns, linearisation of position and careful backlash correction the absolute accuracy of the aperture size and position, can be improved beyond the standard afforded by the repeatability of the translator end-point switches. Another area of consideration has been the fluence control procedures. These involve control of the uniformity of the beam where different approaches for fluence measurement such as simultaneous aperture current and the ion current passing through the aperture using a Faraday cup are used. Microfluidic patterns may contain many elements that make-up mixing sections, reaction chambers, separation columns and fluid reservoirs. To facilitate conception and planning we have implemented a .svg file interpreter, that allows the use of scalable vector graphics files produced by standard drawing software for generation of patterns made up of rectangular elements.

  1. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity studies were carried out on the leaf extract of Cola lepidota, in accordance with established standard procedures. The proximate analysis reveals a moisture content of 27.43 ± 3.11 % w/w, total ash value 9.32 ± 0.27 % w/w, acid insoluble ash 3.12 ± 1.05 % w/w ...

  2. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was investigated using standard procedures. Proximate analysis included in g% dry weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a moisture content of 70.04 ...

  3. Painful Spastic Hip Dislocation: Proximal Femoral Resection

    OpenAIRE

    Albiñana, Javier; Gonzalez-Moran, Gaspar

    2002-01-01

    The dislocated hip in a non-ambulatory child with spastic paresis tends to be a painful interference to sleep, sitting upright, and perineal care. Proximal femoral resection-interposition arthroplasty is one method of treatment for this condition. We reviewed eight hips, two bilateral cases, with a mean follow-up of 30 months. Clinical improvement was observed in all except one case, with respect to pain relief and sitting tolerance. Some proximal migration was observed in three cases, despit...

  4. ANATOMIC STUDY OF THE PROXIMAL THIRD OF THE FEMUR: FEMOROACETABULAR IMPACT AND THE CAM EFFECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labronici, Pedro José; Alves, Sergio Delmonte; da Silva, Anselmo Fernandes; Giuberti, Gilberto Ribeiro; de Azevedo Neto, Justino Nóbrega; Mezzalira Penedo, Jorge Luiz

    2009-01-01

    To analyze anatomical variations of the proximal end of femur that could cause a femoroacetabular impact. 199 skeletically mature anatomical specimens of femurs were used. The femurs were measured in order to determine the anteversion angle of the femoral neck, neckshaft angle, sphericity of the femoral head at anteroposterior and superoinferior, angle between epiphysis and the anterior femoral neck, angle between epiphysis and the neck at lateral plane, anteroposterior distance at 5mm of the head and neck junction and anteroposterior distance of the neck base. we found that the impact subgroup presented a significantly larger junction diameter of 5mm (p = 0.0001) and cam-head (%) (p= 0.0001), while base-cam (%) (p = 0.0001) showed a significantly smaller diameter than the subgroup without impact. It was identified that cam-head (%) ≤ 80 e base-cam (%) ≤ 73 were identified as the optimal impact points. our study showed that the effect cam, caused by anatomical variations of the proximal femoral end focused the head-neck junction and base of the neck-junction head-neck. These rates can be predictive factors of the impact.

  5. Proximity of schools in Detroit, Michigan to automobile and truck traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Chen; Batterman, Stuart A

    2006-09-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants, which has been associated with a range of adverse health effects, often is represented using indirect proxies or surrogate exposure measures, most commonly, the proximity to busy roads. This study examines the proximity of grade K-12 schools to high traffic roads in Wayne County, Michigan, an area including the industrialized city of Detroit as well as outlying urban and suburban communities. Unlike earlier studies, commercial and non-commercial traffic is distinguished, and effects of school type (public, charter, private), socio-economic variables, demographic factors, and mapping errors are evaluated. We find that total traffic flow, as measured by annual average daily traffic (AADT), does not reflect the substantial differences between trucking and commuting routes. Thus, AADT alone may inadequately capture traffic-related exposures, especially given the large differences between diesel and gasoline emissions. Based on close proximity (school-road distance traffic (AADT > or = 50,000), 4.9% of the 845 Wayne County schools are traffic exposed at school. In the urban core area, 7.2% of schools and 7.6% of students are traffic exposed at school. A larger proportion of grade 7-12 students in public schools are exposed than K-6 students. Considering truck emissions, 2.8% of the schools are within 150 m of roads with 5000 or more trucks per day. In Wayne County, students attending schools near high traffic roads are more likely to be Black or Hispanic, to be enrolled in a meal program, and to reside in a poor area. Many of these results are driven by the large minority population in the densely populated core area of Detroit. The findings show that a large fraction of children have high exposures to traffic-related pollutants, especially in Detroit, and the need for exposure measures that account for both the composition and volume of traffic.

  6. RISK LOAN PORTFOLIO OPTIMIZATION MODEL BASED ON CVAR RISK MEASURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chang LEE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve commercial banks liquidity, safety and profitability objective requirements, loan portfolio risk analysis based optimization decisions are rational allocation of assets.  The risk analysis and asset allocation are the key technology of banking and risk management.  The aim of this paper, build a loan portfolio optimization model based on risk analysis.  Loan portfolio rate of return by using Value-at-Risk (VaR and Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR constraint optimization decision model reflects the bank's risk tolerance, and the potential loss of direct control of the bank.  In this paper, it analyze a general risk management model applied to portfolio problems with VaR and CVaR risk measures by using Using the Lagrangian Algorithm.  This paper solves the highly difficult problem by matrix operation method.  Therefore, the combination of this paper is easy understanding the portfolio problems with VaR and CVaR risk model is a hyperbola in mean-standard deviation space.  It is easy calculation in proposed method.

  7. Research on cloud-based remote measurement and analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang; He, Lingsong; Su, Wei; Wang, Can; Zhang, Changfan

    2015-02-01

    The promising potential of cloud computing and its convergence with technologies such as cloud storage, cloud push, mobile computing allows for creation and delivery of newer type of cloud service. Combined with the thought of cloud computing, this paper presents a cloud-based remote measurement and analysis system. This system mainly consists of three parts: signal acquisition client, web server deployed on the cloud service, and remote client. This system is a special website developed using asp.net and Flex RIA technology, which solves the selective contradiction between two monitoring modes, B/S and C/S. This platform supplies customer condition monitoring and data analysis service by Internet, which was deployed on the cloud server. Signal acquisition device is responsible for data (sensor data, audio, video, etc.) collection and pushes the monitoring data to the cloud storage database regularly. Data acquisition equipment in this system is only conditioned with the function of data collection and network function such as smartphone and smart sensor. This system's scale can adjust dynamically according to the amount of applications and users, so it won't cause waste of resources. As a representative case study, we developed a prototype system based on Ali cloud service using the rotor test rig as the research object. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system architecture is feasible.

  8. Rank-Based Analysis of Unbalanced Repeated Measures Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mushfiqur Rashid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} In this article, we have developed a rank (intra-subject based analysis of clinical trials with unbalanced repeated measures data. We assume that the errors within each patient are exchangeable and continuous random variables. This rank-based inference is valid when the unbalanced data are missing either completely at random or by design. A drop in dispersion test is developed for general linear hypotheses. A numerical example is given to illustrate the procedure.

  9. Video-based measurements for wireless capsule endoscope tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Iakovidis, Dimitris K.

    2014-01-01

    The wireless capsule endoscope is a swallowable medical device equipped with a miniature camera enabling the visual examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It wirelessly transmits thousands of images to an external video recording system, while its location and orientation are being tracked approximately by external sensor arrays. In this paper we investigate a video-based approach to tracking the capsule endoscope without requiring any external equipment. The proposed method involves extraction of speeded up robust features from video frames, registration of consecutive frames based on the random sample consensus algorithm, and estimation of the displacement and rotation of interest points within these frames. The results obtained by the application of this method on wireless capsule endoscopy videos indicate its effectiveness and improved performance over the state of the art. The findings of this research pave the way for a cost-effective localization and travel distance measurement of capsule endoscopes in the GI tract, which could contribute in the planning of more accurate surgical interventions.

  10. Comparison of pharmacy-based and diagnosis-based comorbidity measures from medical administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortaredona, Sébastien; Pambrun, Elodie; Verdoux, Hélène; Verger, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Health status is sometimes quantified by chronic condition (CC) scores calculated from medical administrative data. We sought to modify two pharmacy-based comorbidity measures and compare their performance in predicting hospitalization and/or death. The reference was a diagnosis-based score. One of the two measures applied an updated approach linking specific ATC codes of dispensed drugs to 22 CCs; the other used a list of 37 drug categories, without linking them to specific CCs. Using logistic regressions that took repeated measures into account and hospitalization and/or death the following year as the outcome, we assigned weights to each CC/drug category. Comorbidity scores were calculated as the weighted sum of the 22 CCs/37 drug categories. We compared the performance of both measures in predicting hospitalization and/or death with that of a diagnosis-based score based on 30 groups of long-term illnesses (LTIs), a status granted in France to exempt beneficiaries with chronic diseases from copayments. We assessed the predictive performance of the scores with the quasi-likelihood under the independence model criterion (QIC), the c statistic and the Brier score. The two pharmacy-based scores performed better than the LTI score, with lower QIC and Brier scores and higher c statistics. Their predictive performance was very similar. While there is no clear consensus or recommendations about the optimal choice of comorbidity measure, both pharmacy-based scores may be useful for limiting confounding in observational studies among general populations of adults from health insurance databases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Physiological Signal-Based Method for Measurement of Pain Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqi Chu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The standard method for prediction of the absence and presence of pain has long been self-report. However, for patients with major cognitive or communicative impairments, it would be better if clinicians could quantify pain without having to rely on the patient's self-description. Here, we present a newly pain intensity measurement method based on multiple physiological signals, including blood volume pulse (BVP, electrocardiogram (ECG, and skin conductance level (SCL, all of which are induced by external electrical stimulation. The proposed pain prediction system consists of signal acquisition and preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection and feature reduction, and three types of pattern classifiers. Feature extraction phase is devised to extract pain-related characteristics from short-segment signals. A hybrid procedure of genetic algorithm-based feature selection and principal component analysis-based feature reduction was established to obtain high-quality features combination with significant discriminatory information. Three types of classification algorithms—linear discriminant analysis, k-nearest neighbor algorithm, and support vector machine—are adopted during various scenarios, including multi-signal scenario, multi-subject and between-subject scenario, and multi-day scenario. The classifiers gave correct classification ratios much higher than chance probability, with the overall average accuracy of 75% above for four pain intensity. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can provide an objective and quantitative evaluation of pain intensity. The method might be used to develop a wearable device that is suitable for daily use in clinical settings.

  12. The role of renal proximal tubule transport in the regulation of blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Horita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1 on the basolateral side of the renal proximal tubule plays a pivotal role in systemic acid-base homeostasis. Mutations in the gene encoding NBCe1 cause severe proximal renal tubular acidosis accompanied by other extrarenal symptoms. The proximal tubule reabsorbs most of the sodium filtered in the glomerulus, contributing to the regulation of plasma volume and blood pressure. NBCe1 and other sodium transporters in the proximal tubule are regulated by hormones, such as angiotensin II and insulin. Angiotensin II is probably the most important stimulator of sodium reabsorption. Proximal tubule AT1A receptor is crucial for the systemic pressor effect of angiotensin II. In rodents and rabbits, the effect on proximal tubule NBCe1 is biphasic; at low concentration, angiotensin II stimulates NBCe1 via PKC/cAMP/ERK, whereas at high concentration, it inhibits NBCe1 via NO/cGMP/cGKII. In contrast, in human proximal tubule, angiotensin II has a dose-dependent monophasic stimulatory effect via NO/cGMP/ERK. Insulin stimulates the proximal tubule sodium transport, which is IRS2-dependent. We found that in insulin resistance and overt diabetic nephropathy, stimulatory effect of insulin on proximal tubule transport was preserved. Our results suggest that the preserved stimulation of the proximal tubule enhances sodium reabsorption, contributing to the pathogenesis of hypertension with metabolic syndrome. We describe recent findings regarding the role of proximal tubule transport in the regulation of blood pressure, focusing on the effects of angiotensin II and insulin.

  13. Fusion of PCA-Based and LDA-Based Similarity Measures for Face Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittler Josef

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of fusing similarity measure-based classifiers is considered in the context of face verification. The performance of face verification systems using different similarity measures in two well-known appearance-based representation spaces, namely Principle Component Analysis (PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA is experimentally studied. The study is performed for both manually and automatically registered face images. The experimental results confirm that our optimised Gradient Direction (GD metric within the LDA feature space outperforms the other adopted metrics. Different methods of selection and fusion of the similarity measure-based classifiers are then examined. The experimental results demonstrate that the combined classifiers outperform any individual verification algorithm. In our studies, the Support Vector Machines (SVMs and Weighted Averaging of similarity measures appear to be the best fusion rules. Another interesting achievement of the work is that although features derived from the LDA approach lead to better results than those of the PCA algorithm for all the adopted scoring functions, fusing the PCA- and LDA-based scores improves the performance of the system.

  14. Proximity coupling in superconductor-graphene heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2018-02-16

    This review discusses the electronic properties and the prospective research directions of superconductor-graphene heterostructures. The basic electronic properties of graphene are introduced to highlight the unique possibility of combining two seemingly unrelated physics, superconductivity and relativity. We then focus on graphene-based Josephson junctions, one of the most versatile superconducting quantum devices. The various theoretical methods that have been developed to describe graphene Josephson junctions are examined, together with their advantages and limitations, followed by a discussion on the advances in device fabrication and the relevant length scales. The phase-sensitive properties and phase-particle dynamics of graphene Josephson junctions are examined to provide an understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Josephson coupling via graphene. Thereafter, microscopic transport of correlated quasiparticles produced by Andreev reflections at superconducting interfaces and their phase-coherent behaviors are discussed. Quantum phase transitions studied with graphene as an electrostatically tunable two-dimensional platform are reviewed. The interplay between proximity-induced superconductivity and the quantum-Hall phase is discussed as a possible route to study topological superconductivity and non-Abelian physics. Finally, a brief summary on the prospective future research directions is given. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Interobserver reliability of classification and characterization of proximal humeral fractures: a comparison of two and three-dimensional CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Wendy E; Guitton, Thierry G; Warner, Jon J P; Ring, David

    2013-09-04

    Interobserver reliability for the classification of proximal humeral fractures is limited. The aim of this study was to test the null hypothesis that interobserver reliability of the AO classification of proximal humeral fractures, the preferred treatment, and fracture characteristics is the same for two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography (CT). Members of the Science of Variation Group--fully trained practicing orthopaedic and trauma surgeons from around the world--were randomized to evaluate radiographs and either 2-D CT or 3-D CT images of fifteen proximal humeral fractures via a web-based survey and respond to the following four questions: (1) Is the greater tuberosity displaced? (2) Is the humeral head split? (3) Is the arterial supply compromised? (4) Is the glenohumeral joint dislocated? They also classified the fracture according to the AO system and indicated their preferred treatment of the fracture (operative or nonoperative). Agreement among observers was assessed with use of the multirater kappa (κ) measure. Interobserver reliability of the AO classification, fracture characteristics, and preferred treatment generally ranged from "slight" to "fair." A few small but statistically significant differences were found. Observers randomized to the 2-D CT group had slightly but significantly better agreement on displacement of the greater tuberosity (κ = 0.35 compared with 0.30, p Proximal humeral fracture classifications may be helpful conceptually, but they have poor interobserver reliability even when 3-D rather than 2-D CT is utilized. This may contribute to the similarly poor interobserver reliability that was observed for selection of the treatment for proximal humeral fractures. The lack of a reliable classification confounds efforts to compare the outcomes of treatment methods among different clinical trials and reports.

  16. Computed tomographic evaluation of the proximal femur: A predictive classification in displaced femoral neck fracture management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Kumar Magu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral neck fracture is truly an enigma due to the high incidence of avascular necrosis and nonunion. Different methods have been described to determine the size of the femoral head fragment, as a small head has been said to be associated with poor outcome and nonunion due to inadequate implant purchase in the proximal fragment. These methods were two dimensional and were affected by radiography techniques, therefore did not determine true head size. Computed tomography (CT is an important option to measure true head size as images can be obtained in three dimensions. Henceforth, we subjected patients to CT scan of hip in cases with displaced fracture neck of femur. The study aims to define the term "small head or inadequate size femoral head" objectively for its prognostic significance. Materials and Methods: 70 cases of displaced femoral neck fractures underwent CT scan preoperatively for proximal femoral geometric measurements of both hips. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was done in all cases. Patients were treated with either intertrochanteric osteotomy or lag screw osteosynthesis based on the size of the head fragment on plain radiographs. Results: The average femoral head fragment volume was 57 cu cm (range 28.3-84.91 cu cm; standard deviation 14 cu cm. Proximal fragment volume of >43 cu cm was termed adequate size (type I and of ≤43 cu cm as small femoral head (type II. Fractures which united (n = 54 had a relatively large average head size (59 cu cm when compared to fractures that did not (n = 16, which had a small average head size (49 cu cm and this difference was statistically significant. In type I fractures union rate was comparable in both osteotomy and lag screw groups (P > 0.05. Lag screw fixation failed invariably, while osteotomy showed good results in type II fractures (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Computed tomography scan of the proximal femur is advisable for measuring true size of head fragment. An objective

  17. Sorption isotherms: A review on physical bases, modeling and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limousin, G. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France) and Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (CNRS-INPG-IRD-UJF), BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: guillaumelimousin@yahoo.fr; Gaudet, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (CNRS-INPG-IRD-UJF), BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Charlet, L. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Techtonophysique - CNRS-IRD-LCPC-UJF-Universite de Savoie, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Szenknect, S. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Barthes, V. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Krimissa, M. [Electricite de France, Division Recherche et Developpement, Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique et d' Environnement - P78, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France)

    2007-02-15

    The retention (or release) of a liquid compound on a solid controls the mobility of many substances in the environment and has been quantified in terms of the 'sorption isotherm'. This paper does not review the different sorption mechanisms. It presents the physical bases underlying the definition of a sorption isotherm, different empirical or mechanistic models, and details several experimental methods to acquire a sorption isotherm. For appropriate measurements and interpretations of isotherm data, this review emphasizes 4 main points: (i) the adsorption (or desorption) isotherm does not provide automatically any information about the reactions involved in the sorption phenomenon. So, mechanistic interpretations must be carefully verified. (ii) Among studies, the range of reaction times is extremely wide and this can lead to misinterpretations regarding the irreversibility of the reaction: a pseudo-hysteresis of the release compared with the retention is often observed. The comparison between the mean characteristic time of the reaction and the mean residence time of the mobile phase in the natural system allows knowing if the studied retention/release phenomenon should be considered as an instantaneous reversible, almost irreversible phenomenon, or if reaction kinetics must be taken into account. (iii) When the concentration of the retained substance is low enough, the composition of the bulk solution remains constant and a single-species isotherm is often sufficient, although it remains strongly dependent on the background medium. At higher concentrations, sorption may be driven by the competition between several species that affect the composition of the bulk solution. (iv) The measurement method has a great influence. Particularly, the background ionic medium, the solid/solution ratio and the use of flow-through or closed reactor are of major importance. The chosen method should balance easy-to-use features and representativity of the studied

  18. GIS Based Measurement and Regulatory Zoning of Urban Ecological Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecological vulnerability is measured on the basis of ecological sensitivity and resilience based on the concept analysis of vulnerability. GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis (GIS-MCDA methods are used, supported by the spatial analysis tools of GIS, to define different levels of vulnerability for areas of the urban ecology. These areas are further classified into different types of regulatory zones. Taking the city of Hefei in China as the empirical research site, this study uses GIS-MCDA, including the index system, index weights and overlay rules, to measure the degree of its ecological vulnerability on the GIS platform. There are eight indices in the system. Raking and analytical hierarchy process (AHP methods are used to calculate index weights according to the characteristics of the index system. The integrated overlay rule, including selection of the maximum value, and weighted linear combination (WLC are applied as the overlay rules. In this way, five types of vulnerability areas have been classified as follows: very low vulnerability, low vulnerability, medium vulnerability, high vulnerability and very high vulnerability. They can be further grouped into three types of regulatory zone of ecological green line, ecological grey line and ecological red line. The study demonstrates that ecological green line areas are the largest (53.61% of the total study area and can be intensively developed; ecological grey line areas (19.59% of the total area can serve as the ecological buffer zone, and ecological red line areas (26.80% cannot be developed and must be protected. The results indicate that ecological green line areas may provide sufficient room for future urban development in Hefei city. Finally, the respective regulatory countermeasures are put forward. This research provides a scientific basis for decision-making around urban ecological protection, construction and sustainable development. It also provides theoretical method

  19. Superconducting proximity effect for in situ and model layered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnemore, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    The primary drawback for in situ composites is that the ac losses are higher than for mechanically produced multifilamentary wire. To develop an understanding of the proximity effect so that analytical expressions will be available for design, a model system is developed based on PbCd. Items discussed include boundary conditions at SN interface, phonon spectral function, supercurrents through normal barriers, flux entry fields, and implications for in situ composites. (GHT)

  20. Scaffolding, the zone of proximal development, and novice programmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Kastro Awbi

    Full Text Available The work reported here is part of a larger research program that aims to explore the learning strategies that novice computer programmers adopt, the ways in which they integrate knowledge, and the processes they employ when applying their knowledge and skills in different contexts. Our findings, based on a narrative analysis of think-aloud retrospective interviews, indicate that scaffolding can influence progression in learning and can extend a student\\'s zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978.