WorldWideScience

Sample records for proximity emergency escape

  1. Inward contaminant leakage tests of the S-Tron Corporation emergency escape breathing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    At the request of S-Tron Corporation, to support their contract with the U.S. Navy, performance tests of the Emergency Escape Breathing Device (EEBD) were conducted in the Environmental Physiology Research Section contaminant leakage chamber. Sulfur ...

  2. Vaccine escape recombinants emerge after pneumococcal vaccination in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggemann, Angela B; Pai, Rekha; Crook, Derrick W; Beall, Bernard

    2007-11-01

    The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the United States (US) in 2000 and has significantly reduced invasive pneumococcal disease; however, the incidence of nonvaccine serotype invasive disease, particularly due to serotype 19A, has increased. The serotype 19A increase can be explained in part by expansion of a genotype that has been circulating in the US prior to vaccine implementation (and other countries since at least 1990), but also by the emergence of a novel "vaccine escape recombinant" pneumococcal strain. This strain has a genotype that previously was only associated with vaccine serotype 4, but now expresses a nonvaccine serotype 19A capsule. Based on prior evidence for capsular switching by recombination at the capsular locus, the genetic event that resulted in this novel serotype/genotype combination might be identifiable from the DNA sequence of individual pneumococcal strains. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterise the putative recombinational event(s) at the capsular locus that resulted in the change from a vaccine to a nonvaccine capsular type. Sequencing the capsular locus flanking regions of 51 vaccine escape (progeny), recipient, and putative donor pneumococci revealed a 39 kb recombinational fragment, which included the capsular locus, flanking regions, and two adjacent penicillin-binding proteins, and thus resulted in a capsular switch and penicillin nonsusceptibility in a single genetic event. Since 2003, 37 such vaccine escape strains have been detected, some of which had evolved further. Furthermore, two new types of serotype 19A vaccine escape strains emerged in 2005. To our knowledge, this is the first time a single recombinational event has been documented in vivo that resulted in both a change of serotype and penicillin nonsusceptibility. Vaccine escape by genetic recombination at the capsular locus has the potential to reduce PCV7 effectiveness in the longer term.

  3. Novel Interactive Data Visualization: Exploration of the ESCAPE Trial (Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Anterior Circulation Proximal Occlusion With Emphasis on Minimizing CT to Recanalization Times) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigdan, Matthew; Hill, Michael D; Jagdev, Abhijeet; Kamal, Noreen

    2018-01-01

    The ESCAPE (Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Anterior Circulation Proximal Occlusion With Emphasis on Minimizing CT to Recanalization Times) randomized clinical trial collected a large diverse data set. However, it is difficult to fully understand the effects of the study on certain patient groups and disease progression. We developed and evaluated an interactive visualization of the ESCAPE trial data. We iteratively designed an interactive visualization using Python's Bokeh software library. The design was evaluated through a user study, which quantitatively evaluated its efficiency and accuracy against traditional modified Rankin Scalegraphic. Qualitative feedback was also evaluated. The novel interactive visualization of the ESCAPE data are publicly available at http://escapevisualization.herokuapp.com/. There was no difference in the efficiency and accuracy when comparing the use of the novel with the traditional visualization. However, users preferred the novel visualization because it allowed for greater exploration. Some insights obtained through exploration of the ESCAPE data are presented. Novel interactive visualizations can be applied to acute stroke trial data to allow for greater exploration of the results. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01778335. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Self-expandable metal stent placement versus emergency resection for malignant proximal colon obstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, F.J.; Draaisma, W.A.; Consten, E.C.; Siersema, P.D.; Borg, F. ter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditionally, all patients with a malignant obstruction of the proximal colon (MOPC) are treated with emergency resection. However, recent data suggest that Self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) placement could lower mortality and morbidity rates. This study therefore aimed to compare

  5. Emergency escape system uses self-braking mechanism on fixed cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, C. R.; Mc Daris, R. A.; Mc Gough, J. T.; Neal, P. F.

    1966-01-01

    Slide-wire system with a twist level slide device incorporates automatic descent and braking for the safe and rapid evacuation of personnel from tall structures. This device is used on any tall structure that might require emergency evacuation. It is also used to transfer materials and equipment.

  6. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) as an Emergent System: A Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Aghdam, Saeed

    2017-03-01

    This paper sets out to present a novel construal of one of the notions of Vygotskian cultural-historical theory viz., zone of proximal development (ZPD) drawing upon dynamic systems theory. The principal thesis maintains that ZDP is an emergent and dynamic system which is engendered by a dialectical concatenation of psychogenesic and sociogenesic facets of human development over time. It is reasoned that Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development, by invoking dialectical logic, has transcended Cartesian substance dualism and in turn has proffered a monistic and process-anchored ontology for emerging becoming of human consciousness. Likewise, it is contended that dynamic systems theory, having assumed fluent flux of reality with a capital R as its ontological axiom, entails a consilience of cognitive and contextual conceptual schemes to describe, explain, and optimize human development. The paper concludes by drawing some interpretive conclusions in regard to ZPD from dynamic systems theory perspective.

  7. Emerging Economic Entity Crises in Post Financial Crisis Era – The impact and countermeasures against the escape of America from quantitative easing policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Five years from the eruption of financial crisis in 2008, the global economy is also on its way to the restoration, among which the emerging economic entities, typically China, India, Brazil, South Africa, Indonesia, etc., have rapidly run away from the crisis and led the recovery of global economy, which may be considered as the engine of global economy growth in the post financial crisis. While, with the America declaring that it would gradually reduce the quantitative easing (QE scale and escaped from the quantitative easing policy in the mid 2014, the fluctuation of global financial market was rapidly intensified, and the risk assets were largely sold off, with the emerging economic entities suffering serious impact. Furthermore, the anxiety about the “third round of financial crisis will burst out due to the emerging economic entities” is increasingly intensified. This article will first analyze the current economic situation of main global economic entities, discuss about the impact of America’s escape from QE on the emerging economic entity and its mechanism, and finally propose the countermeasures for China.

  8. Emergence of Ebola Virus Escape Variants in Infected Nonhuman Primates Treated with the MB-003 Antibody Cocktail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Kugelman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MB-003, a plant-derived monoclonal antibody cocktail used effectively in treatment of Ebola virus infection in non-human primates, was unable to protect two of six animals when initiated 1 or 2 days post-infection. We characterized a mechanism of viral escape in one of the animals, after observation of two clusters of genomic mutations that resulted in five nonsynonymous mutations in the monoclonal antibody target sites. These mutations were linked to a reduction in antibody binding and later confirmed to be present in a viral isolate that was not neutralized in vitro. Retrospective evaluation of a second independent study allowed the identification of a similar case. Four SNPs in previously identified positions were found in this second fatality, suggesting that genetic drift could be a potential cause for treatment failure. These findings highlight the importance selecting different target domains for each component of the cocktail to minimize the potential for viral escape.

  9. Research Techniques Made Simple: Emerging Methods to Elucidate Protein Interactions through Spatial Proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yonglu; Khavari, Paul A

    2017-12-01

    Interactions between proteins are essential for fundamental cellular processes, and the diversity of such interactions enables the vast variety of functions essential for life. A persistent goal in biological research is to develop assays that can faithfully capture different types of protein interactions to allow their study. A major step forward in this direction came with a family of methods that delineates spatial proximity of proteins as an indirect measure of protein-protein interaction. A variety of enzyme- and DNA ligation-based methods measure protein co-localization in space, capturing novel interactions that were previously too transient or low affinity to be identified. Here we review some of the methods that have been successfully used to measure spatially proximal protein-protein interactions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Distal and Proximal Religiosity as Protective Factors for Adolescent and Emerging Adult Alcohol Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle V. Porche

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Data from emerging adults (ages 18–29, N = 900 in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Study was used to examine the influence of childhood and emerging adult religiosity and religious-based decision-making, and childhood adversity, on alcohol use. Childhood religiosity was protective against early alcohol use and progression to later abuse or dependence, but did not significantly offset the influence of childhood adversity on early patterns of heavy drinking in adjusted logistic regression models. Religiosity in emerging adulthood was negatively associated with alcohol use disorders. Protective associations for religiosity varied by gender, ethnicity and childhood adversity histories. Higher religiosity may be protective against early onset alcohol use and later development of alcohol problems, thus, should be considered in prevention programming for youth, particularly in faith-based settings. Mental health providers should allow for integration of clients’ religiosity and spirituality beliefs and practices in treatment settings if clients indicate such interest.

  11. St.Petersburg Escape Experience Tour

    OpenAIRE

    Palagina, Mariia; Zhak, Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    The growing popularity of Russia as a tourist destination and the high interest towards escape rooms and quests opens new business opportunities and market niches. The aim of this thesis is to develop a tourist product based on the new escape room tourism concept combining the historical, cultural and game experiences. The choice of the theme and destination was determined by the authors’ personal backgrounds and the destination proximity to Finland. The theoretical research was implement...

  12. Age-related differences in decision-making for digital escape route signage under strenuous emergency conditions of tilted passenger ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwee-Meier, Sonja Th; Mertens, Alexander; Schlick, Christopher M

    2017-03-01

    This age-differentiated study investigated preferences for new digital, situation-adaptive escape route signage with informative and flashing elements under simulated emergency conditions of tilted passenger ships. The decision-making behaviour of 26 young (20-30 years) and 26 elderly (60-77 years) participants was observed in four conditions varying in applied stressors and in level versus uphill walking at 7° and 14°. In line with previous studies, decisions of young participants were significantly influenced by flashing elements on signs. In contrast, elderly participants based their decisions significantly stronger on integrated information about the sign's updatedness and reported irritation by flashing elements. These preferences were also persistent under increased mental, emotional and physical strain, evaluated by ratings and (psycho-)physiological measures. The findings demonstrate the importance to carefully design digital, situation-adaptive signage for passenger ships in a way that it not only attracts attention but also inspires trust especially for the elderly population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prosthetic Mitral Valve Leaflet Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Darae; Hun, Sin Sang; Cho, In-Jeong; Shim, Chi-Young; Ha, Jong-Won; Chung, Namsik; Ju, Hyun Chul; Sohn, Jang Won

    2013-01-01

    Leaflet escape of prosthetic valve is rare but potentially life threatening. It is essential to make timely diagnosis in order to avoid mortality. Transesophageal echocardiography and cinefluoroscopy is usually diagnostic and the location of the missing leaflet can be identified by computed tomography (CT). Emergent surgical correction is mandatory. We report a case of fractured escape of Edward-Duromedics mitral valve 27 years after the surgery. The patient presented with symptoms of acute decompensated heart failure and cardiogenic shock. She was instantly intubated and mechanically ventilated. After prompt evaluation including transthoracic echocardiography and CT, the escape of the leaflet was confirmed. The patient underwent emergent surgery for replacement of the damaged prosthetic valves immediately. Eleven days after the surgery, the dislodged leaflet in iliac artery was removed safely and the patient recovered well. PMID:23837121

  14. Dynamic Escape Routes for Naval Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villalonga, Francisco J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of optimal evacuation of a naval ship. We propose the use of a dynamic escape-route system which employs a signaling system to adapt the emergency egress process to the instigating contingency...

  15. Automated Escape Guidance Algorithms for An Escape Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanary, Ronald; Hammen, David; Ito, Daigoro; Rabalais, Bruce; Rishikof, Brian; Siebold, Karl

    2002-01-01

    An escape vehicle was designed to provide an emergency evacuation for crew members living on a space station. For maximum escape capability, the escape vehicle needs to have the ability to safely evacuate a station in a contingency scenario such as an uncontrolled (e.g., tumbling) station. This emergency escape sequence will typically be divided into three events: The fust separation event (SEP1), the navigation reconstruction event, and the second separation event (SEP2). SEP1 is responsible for taking the spacecraft from its docking port to a distance greater than the maximum radius of the rotating station. The navigation reconstruction event takes place prior to the SEP2 event and establishes the orbital state to within the tolerance limits necessary for SEP2. The SEP2 event calculates and performs an avoidance burn to prevent station recontact during the next several orbits. This paper presents the tools and results for the whole separation sequence with an emphasis on the two separation events. The fust challenge includes collision avoidance during the escape sequence while the station is in an uncontrolled rotational state, with rotation rates of up to 2 degrees per second. The task of avoiding a collision may require the use of the Vehicle's de-orbit propulsion system for maximum thrust and minimum dwell time within the vicinity of the station vicinity. The thrust of the propulsion system is in a single direction, and can be controlled only by the attitude of the spacecraft. Escape algorithms based on a look-up table or analytical guidance can be implemented since the rotation rate and the angular momentum vector can be sensed onboard and a-priori knowledge of the position and relative orientation are available. In addition, crew intervention has been provided for in the event of unforeseen obstacles in the escape path. The purpose of the SEP2 burn is to avoid re-contact with the station over an extended period of time. Performing this maneuver properly

  16. Escape of magnetic toroids from the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, John W.; Rust, David M.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of heliospheric magnetic fields at 1 AU shows that 10 24 Mx of net toroidal flux escapes from the Sun per solar cycle. This rate is compared with the apparent rate of flux emergence at the solar surface, and it is concluded that escaping toroids will remove at least 20% of the emerging flux, and may remove as much as 100% of emerging flux if multiple eruptions occur on the toroids. The data imply that flux escapes the Sun with an efficiency far exceeding Parker's upper limit estimate of 3%. Toroidal flux escape is almost certainly the source of the observed overwinding of the interplanetary magnetic field spiral. Two mechanisms to facilitate net flux escape are discussed: helicity charging to push open the fields and flux transport with reconnection to close them off. We estimate the Sun will shed ∼2x10 45 Mx 2 of magnetic helicity per solar cycle, leading to a mean helicity density of 100 Mx 2 cm -3 at 1 AU, which agrees well with observations

  17. Titan's hydrodynamically escaping atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Darrell F.

    2008-02-01

    The upper atmosphere of Titan is currently losing mass at a rate ˜(4-5)×10 amus, by hydrodynamic escape as a high density, slow outward expansion driven principally by solar UV heating by CH 4 absorption. The hydrodynamic mass loss is essentially CH 4 and H 2 escape. Their combined escape rates are restricted by power limitations from attaining their limiting rates (and limiting fluxes). Hence they must exhibit gravitational diffusive separation in the upper atmosphere with increasing mixing ratios to eventually become major constituents in the exosphere. A theoretical model with solar EUV heating by N 2 absorption balanced by HCN rotational line cooling in the upper thermosphere yields densities and temperatures consistent with the Huygens Atmospheric Science Investigation (HASI) data [Fulchignoni, M., and 42 colleagues, 2005. Nature 438, 785-791], with a peak temperature of ˜185-190 K between 3500-3550 km. This model implies hydrodynamic escape rates of ˜2×10 CHs and 5×10 Hs, or some other combination with a higher H 2 escape flux, much closer to its limiting value, at the expense of a slightly lower CH 4 escape rate. Nonthermal escape processes are not required to account for the loss rates of CH 4 and H 2, inferred by the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements [Yelle, R.V., Borggren, N., de la Haye, V., Kasprzak, W.T., Niemann, H.B., Müller-Wodarg, I., Waite Jr., J.H., 2006. Icarus 182, 567-576].

  18. Proximal Humerus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diercks, Ron L.; Bain, Gregory; Itoi, Eiji; Di Giacomo, Giovanni; Sugaya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the bony structures of the proximal humerus. The proximal humerus is often regarded as consisting of four parts, which assists in understanding function and, more specially, describes the essential parts in reconstruction after fracture or in joint replacement. These are the

  19. Restricting wolves risks escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Ballard, Warren; Bangs, Ed; Ream, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Implementing the proposal set forth by Licht and colleagues (BioScience 60: 147–153) requires restricting wolves to tiny "islands," areas that are magnitudes smaller than the ranges of most wolf populations. Wolves naturally have large ranges; restricting their spatial needs increases the risk of wolves escaping, exacerbating public relations and political and legal problems.

  20. Escape from the Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to elaborate on Romania’s specific agenda regarding the approach to the integration process in the EU as a project of modernization. The focus is on the functional aspects, the type of strategic solutions destined to consolidate the specific transformations belonging to post-communist transition seen as an internal transition, on the one hand and on the other hand to push convergence as the essence of integration, marked by the vision of EU integration as a continuation of change, which is the stage of external transition. Identifying the prominent factors and the pragmatic priorities of the escape from the peripheries of development by engaging in evolution by way of the second modernization constitutes as well a target for analysis. One particularity of the method of analysis is the review if the value-set of the bobsled effect of path dependency – the path of the peripheries – as well as of the set of values of the escape from the peripheries.

  1. THERMALLY DRIVEN ATMOSPHERIC ESCAPE: TRANSITION FROM HYDRODYNAMIC TO JEANS ESCAPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, Alexey N.; Johnson, Robert E.; Tucker, Orenthal J.; Erwin, Justin T.

    2011-01-01

    Thermally driven escape from planetary atmospheres changes in nature from an organized outflow (hydrodynamic escape) to escape on a molecule-by-molecule basis (Jeans escape) with increasing Jeans parameter, λ, the ratio of the gravitational to thermal energy of the atmospheric molecules. This change is described here for the first time using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. When heating is predominantly below the lower boundary of the simulation region, R 0 , and well below the exobase of a single-component atmosphere, the nature of the escape process changes over a surprisingly narrow range of Jeans parameters, λ 0 , evaluated at R 0 . For an atomic gas, the transition occurs over λ 0 ∼ 2-3, where the lower bound, λ 0 ∼ 2.1, corresponds to the upper limit for isentropic, supersonic outflow. For λ 0 > 3 escape occurs on a molecule-by-molecule basis and we show that, contrary to earlier suggestions, for λ 0 > ∼6 the escape rate does not deviate significantly from the familiar Jeans rate. In a gas composed of diatomic molecules, the transition shifts to λ 0 ∼ 2.4-3.6 and at λ 0 > ∼4 the escape rate increases a few tens of percent over that for the monatomic gas. Scaling by the Jeans parameter and the Knudsen number, these results can be applied to thermally induced escape of the major species from solar and extrasolar planets.

  2. Hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng

    Hydrodynamic escape is an important process in the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Due to the existence of a singularity point near the transonic point, it is difficult to find transonic steady state solutions by solving the time-independent hydrodynamic equations. In addition to that, most previous works assume that all energy driving the escape flow is deposited in one narrow layer. This assumption not only results in less accurate solutions to the hydrodynamic escape problem, but also makes it difficult to include other chemical and physical processes in the hydrodynamic escape models. In this work, a numerical model describing the transonic hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres is developed. A robust solution technique is used to solve the time dependent hydrodynamic equations. The method has been validated in an isothermal atmosphere where an analytical solution is available. The hydrodynamic model is applied to 3 cases: hydrogen escape from small orbit extrasolar planets, hydrogen escape from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere, and nitrogen/methane escape from Pluto's atmosphere. Results of simulations on extrasolar planets are in good agreement with the observations of the transiting extrasolar planet HD209458b. Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from other hypothetical close-in extrasolar planets are simulated and the influence of hydrogen escape on the long-term evolution of these extrasolar planets are discussed. Simulations on early Earth suggest that hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere is about two orders magnitude slower than the diffusion limited escape rate. A hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere could have been maintained by the balance between the hydrogen escape and the supply of hydrogen into the atmosphere by volcanic outgassing. Origin of life may have occurred in the organic soup ocean created by the efficient formation of prebiotic molecules in the hydrogen rich early

  3. Launch Pad Escape System Design (Human Spaceflight)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelli

    2011-01-01

    A launch pad escape system for human spaceflight is one of those things that everyone hopes they will never need but is critical for every manned space program. Since men were first put into space in the early 1960s, the need for such an Emergency Escape System (EES) has become apparent. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has made use of various types of these EESs over the past 50 years. Early programs, like Mercury and Gemini, did not have an official launch pad escape system. Rather, they relied on a Launch Escape System (LES) of a separate solid rocket motor attached to the manned capsule that could pull the astronauts to safety in the event of an emergency. This could only occur after hatch closure at the launch pad or during the first stage of flight. A version of a LES, now called a Launch Abort System (LAS) is still used today for all manned capsule type launch vehicles. However, this system is very limited in that it can only be used after hatch closure and it is for flight crew only. In addition, the forces necessary for the LES/LAS to get the capsule away from a rocket during the first stage of flight are quite high and can cause injury to the crew. These shortcomings led to the development of a ground based EES for the flight crew and ground support personnel as well. This way, a much less dangerous mode of egress is available for any flight or ground personnel up to a few seconds before launch. The early EESs were fairly simple, gravity-powered systems to use when thing's go bad. And things can go bad very quickly and catastrophically when dealing with a flight vehicle fueled with millions of pounds of hazardous propellant. With this in mind, early EES designers saw such a passive/unpowered system as a must for last minute escapes. This and other design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at the safety design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at

  4. Creating Engaging Escape Rooms for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Scott

    2018-01-01

    Escape rooms are "live-action team-based games where players discover clues, solve puzzles, and accomplish tasks in one or more rooms in order to accomplish a specific goal (usually escaping from the room) in a limited amount of time." Escape Rooms are one type of Escape Game, which are narrative-based challenges that use puzzles, tasks,…

  5. Cnidoscolus (Euphorbiaceae) escaped in Malesia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzen, van P.C.; Fernández-Casas, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    The genus Cnidoscolus, a species rich genus in the Americas, has been introduced in the Philippines. A cultivar of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius is used as vegetable and has been collected from gardens in Manila and Pasay City and two times near Cebu City. It cannot be excluded that it has escaped

  6. Integrating geographical information and augmented reality techniques for mobile escape guidelines on nuclear accident sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Ming-Kuan; Lee, Yung-Ching; Lu, Chung-Hsin; Chen, Mei-Hsin; Chou, Tien-Yin; Yau, Nie-Jia

    2012-01-01

    During nuclear accidents, when radioactive materials spread into the environment, the people in the affected areas should evacuate immediately. However, few information systems are available regarding escape guidelines for nuclear accidents. Therefore, this study constructs escape guidelines on mobile phones. This application is called Mobile Escape Guidelines (MEG) and adopts two techniques. One technique is the geographical information that offers multiple representations; the other is the augmented reality that provides semi-realistic information services. When this study tested the mobile escape guidelines, the results showed that this application was capable of identifying the correct locations of users, showing the escape routes, filtering geographical layers, and rapidly generating the relief reports. Users could evacuate from nuclear accident sites easily, even without relief personnel, since using slim devices to access the mobile escape guidelines is convenient. Overall, this study is a useful reference for a nuclear accident emergency response.

  7. Integrating geographical information and augmented reality techniques for mobile escape guidelines on nuclear accident sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Kuan; Lee, Yung-Ching; Lu, Chung-Hsin; Chen, Mei-Hsin; Chou, Tien-Yin; Yau, Nie-Jia

    2012-07-01

    During nuclear accidents, when radioactive materials spread into the environment, the people in the affected areas should evacuate immediately. However, few information systems are available regarding escape guidelines for nuclear accidents. Therefore, this study constructs escape guidelines on mobile phones. This application is called Mobile Escape Guidelines (MEG) and adopts two techniques. One technique is the geographical information that offers multiple representations; the other is the augmented reality that provides semi-realistic information services. When this study tested the mobile escape guidelines, the results showed that this application was capable of identifying the correct locations of users, showing the escape routes, filtering geographical layers, and rapidly generating the relief reports. Users could evacuate from nuclear accident sites easily, even without relief personnel, since using slim devices to access the mobile escape guidelines is convenient. Overall, this study is a useful reference for a nuclear accident emergency response. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An anticipative escape system for vehicles in water crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chuanliang; Wang, Jiawei; Yin, Qi; Zhu, Yantao; Yang, Jiawei; Liao, Mengdi; Yang, Liming

    2017-07-01

    In this article, it designs an escape system for vehicles in water crashes. The structure mainly contains sensors, control organs and actuating mechanism for both doors and windows. Sensors judge whether the vehicle falls into water or is in the falling process. The actuating mechanism accepts the signal delivered by the control organs, then open the electronic central lock on doors and meanwhile lower the window. The water escape system is able to anticipate drowning situations for vehicles and controls both doors and windows in such an emergency. Under the premise of doors staying in an undamaged state, it is for sure that people in the vehicle can open the door while drowning in the water and safely escape.

  9. Escaping carbon lock-in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unruh, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the climate policy implications of the arguments made in ''Understanding carbon lock-in'' (Unruh, 2000), which posited that industrial countries have become locked-into fossil fuel-based energy systems through path dependent processes driven by increasing returns to scale. Carbon lock-in arises through technological, organizational, social and institutional co-evolution, ''culminating'' in what was termed as techno-institutional complex (TIC). In order to resolve the climate problem, an escape from the lock-in condition is required. However, due to the self-referential nature of TIC, escape conditions are unlikely to be generated internally and it is argued here that erogenous forces are probably required. (author)

  10. What kind of memory has evolution wrought? Introductory article for the special issue of memory: adaptive memory: the emergence and nature of proximate mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    It is without question that our memory system evolved through a process of natural selection. However, basic research into the evolutionary foundations of memory has begun in earnest only recently. This is quite peculiar as the majority, perhaps even all, of memory research relates to whether memory is adaptive or not. In this Special Issue of Memory we have assembled a variety of papers that represent the cutting edge in research on the evolution of memory. These papers are centred on issues about the ultimate and proximate explanations of memory, the development of the adaptive functions of memory, as well as the positive consequences that arise from the current evolutionary form that our memory has taken. In this introductory article we briefly outline these different areas and indicate why they are vital for a more complete theory of memory. Further we argue that, by adopting a more applied stance in the area of the evolution of memory, one of the many future directions in this field could be a new branch of psychology that addresses questions in evolutionary legal psychology.

  11. EscapED: A Framework for Creating Educational Escape Rooms and Interactive Games to For Higher/Further Education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Jane Clarke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Game-based learning (GBL is often found to be technologically driven and more often than not, serious games for instance, are conceptualised and designed solely for digital platforms and state of the art technologies. To encourage a greater discussion on the potential benefits and challenges of a more holistic approach to developing GBL that promote human centered interactions and play for learning, the authors present the escapED programme. The escapED programme was conceived following the recent entertainment trend of escape rooms and is used for developing non-digital GBL approaches within education. escapED aids the design and creation of educational Escape Rooms and Interactive Gaming Experiences for staff and students in further/higher education settings. The paper first presents a pilot study that was used to assess the feasibility and acceptance of University teaching staff of embedding interactive GBL into a higher education environment. The authors then present the escapED theoretical framework that was used to create the prototype game for the pilot study as a tool to aid future design and development of on-site interactive experiences. The paper also presents an external developer report of using the escapED framework to develop a prototype game for teaching research methods to Southampton University students. Finally, the authors present a discussion on the use of the escapED framework so far and plans for future work and evaluation in order to provide engaging alternatives for learning and soft skills development amongst higher education staff andstudents.

  12. Malaria parasites: the great escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Rénia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parasites of the genus Plasmodium have a complex life cycle. They alternate between their final mosquito host and their intermediate hosts. The parasite can be either extra- or intracellular, depending on the stage of development. By modifying their shape, motility, and metabolic requirements, the parasite adapts to the different environments in their different hosts. The parasite has evolved to escape the multiple immune mechanisms in the host that try to block parasite development at the different stages of their development. In this article, we describe the mechanisms reported thus far that allow the Plasmodium parasite to evade innate and adaptive immune responses.

  13. Highlights of the Global HIV-1 CSF Escape Consortium Meeting, 9 June 2016, Bethesda, MD, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jeymohan; Cinque, Paola; Colosi, Deborah; Dravid, Ameet; Ene, Luminita; Fox, Howard; Gabuzda, Dana; Gisslen, Magnus; Beth Joseph, Sarah; Letendre, Scott; Mukerji, Shibani S; Nath, Avindra; Perez-Valero, Ignacio; Persaud, Deborah; Price, Richard W; Rao, Vasudev R; Sacktor, Ned; Swanstrom, Ronald; Winston, Alan; Wojna, Valerie; Wright, Edwina; Spudich, Serena

    2016-10-05

    CSF HIV escape is a recently recognised phenomenon that suggests that despite suppressive treatment, HIV RNA may be detected in the CNS compartment in some individuals. In rare cases this is associated with clinical neurological disease, while in most cases, neurological consequences are not apparent. Attempts at characterising the biological substrates of CSF escape and further investigating the neurological consequences need to be made to better understand the implications of this condition for the HIV cure agenda as well as for clinical outcomes. The Global CSF HIV-1 Escape Consortium meeting, convened by the US National Institute of Mental Health, was a first step to gather investigators from diverse sites to discuss opportunities for future collaborative work on this emerging issue. To better understand CSF HIV escape and allow cross-site data reconciliation, it will be useful to reach a consensus set of definitions of the distinct forms of CSF escape, without which concerted cross-site efforts are difficult.

  14. Leaflet escape in a new bileaflet mechanical valve: TRI technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottio, Tomaso; Casarotto, Dino; Thiene, Gaetano; Caprili, Luca; Angelini, Annalisa; Gerosa, Gino

    2003-05-13

    Leaflet escape is a mode of structural valve failure for mechanical prostheses. This complication previously has been reported for both monoleaflet and bileaflet valve models. We report 2 leaflet escape occurrences observed in 2 patients who underwent valve replacement with a TRI Technologies valve prosthesis. At the University of Padua, between November 2000 and February 2002, 36 TRI Technologies valve prostheses (26 aortic and 10 mitral) were implanted in 34 patients (12 women and 22 men) with a mean age of 59.9+/-10.3 years (range, 30 to 75 years). There were 5 deaths: 3 in hospital, 1 early after discharge, and 1 late. Two patients experienced a catastrophic prosthetic leaflet escape; the first patient was a 52-year-old man who died 10 days after aortic valve and ascending aorta replacement, and the second was a 58-year-old man who underwent a successful emergency reoperation 20 months after mitral valve replacement. Examination of the explanted prostheses showed in both cases a leaflet escape caused by a leaflet's pivoting system fracture. Prophylactic replacement was then successfully accomplished so far in 12 patients, without evidence of structural valve failure in any of them. Among other significant postoperative complications, we observed 3 major thromboembolisms, 1 hemorrhage, and 1 paravalvular leak. These catastrophes prompted us to interrupt the implantation program, and they cast a shadow on the durability of the TRI Technologies valve prosthesis because of its high risk of structural failure.

  15. Proximity credentials: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, L.J.

    1987-04-01

    Credentials as a means of identifying individuals have traditionally been a photo badge and more recently, the coded credential. Another type of badge, the proximity credential, is making inroads in the personnel identification field. This badge can be read from a distance instead of being veiewed by a guard or inserted into a reading device. This report reviews proximity credentials, identifies the companies marketing or developing proximity credentials, and describes their respective credentials. 3 tabs

  16. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  17. Outlet strut fracture and leaflet escape of Bjork-Shiley convexo-concave valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Gaku; Yoshida, Hideo; Sakoda, Naoya; Hattori, Shigeru; Kawabata, Takuya; Saiki, Munehiro; Fujita, Yasufumi; Yunoki, Keiji; Hisamochi, Kunikazu; Mine, Yoshinari

    2017-06-01

    Prosthetic valve fracture is a serious complication and may arise in patient post-valve replacement. We experienced an outlet strut fracture and leaflet escape of a Bjork-Shiley convexo-concave valve. We performed an emergency redo mitral valve replacement and successfully retrieved the fractured strut and escaped leaflet from superficial femoral artery and the abdominal aorta. The patient showed an uneventful postoperative recovery.

  18. Two examples of escaping harmonic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira do Valle, A.; Verjovsky, A.

    1988-12-01

    This paper is part of a study on the existence of special harmonic maps on complete non-compact Riemannian manifolds. We generalize the notion of escaping geodesic and prove some results on the existence of escaping harmonic maps. 11 refs, 6 figs

  19. Calculations of condensed moisture escape from a NPP spray pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratuta, Eh. G.; Yaroshenko, T.I.

    1988-01-01

    A method for calculating water losses due to condensed moisture escape with a wind away from a spray pond used for cooling steam turbine condensator water and emergency nuclear reactor cooling is developed. The method is based on solving a three-dimensional equation of single drop motion, assuming that during the whole flight only gravity and aerodynamic resistance forces act on a drop. The basic parameter variation ranges are the following: 0-18 m/s wind velocity, 0.04-0.12 MPa pressure drop at the nozzle output, 1-2 m height of sprayers above the pond mirror. The given method permits to determine both the amount of circulation water loss and the local liquid flow rate distribution pattern as well as the area around the pond receiving the escaped moisture that is necessary for estimating the ecological situation near a NPP

  20. Physics escape room as an educational tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Alpár István Vita; Sárközi, Zsuzsa

    2017-12-01

    Escape rooms have flourished in the last decade. These are adventure games in which players work together to solve puzzles using hints, clues and a strategy to escape from a locked room. In many cases they use different phenomena related to physics. Hence the idea of using escape rooms in science centers or even in classroom activities. Escape rooms are designed for one single team of players, the method is more suitable for activities in a science centre. In our paper, we show that escape rooms' puzzle solving methods could be used in physics classroom activities as well, taking into account that several teams have to work together in the same room/place. We have developed an educational escape game for physics of fluids, as this topic is left out from the Romanian high-school curriculum. We have tried out our game during the project week called "Şcoala altfel" ("school in a different way") and in a physics camp for gifted students. We present the designed physics escape game and the results.

  1. A Model for SEP Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, S. K.; Masson, S.; DeVore, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection in the solar atmosphere is believed to be the driver of most solar explosive phenomena. Therefore, the topology of the coronal magnetic field is central to understanding the solar drivers of space weather. Of particular importance to space weather are the impulsive Solar Energetic particles that are associated with some CME/eruptive flare events. Observationally, the magnetic configuration of active regions where solar eruptions originate appears to agree with the standard eruptive flare model. According to this model, particles accelerated at the flare reconnection site should remain trapped in the corona and the ejected plasmoid. However, flare-accelerated particles frequently reach the Earth long before the CME does. We present a model that may account for the injection of energetic particles onto open magnetic flux tubes connecting to the Earth. Our model is based on the well-known 2.5D breakout topology, which has a coronal null point (null line) and a four-flux system. A key new addition, however, is that we include an isothermal solar wind with open-flux regions. Depending on the location of the open flux with respect to the null point, we find that the flare reconnection can consist of two distinct phases. At first, the flare reconnection involves only closed field, but if the eruption occurs close to the open field, we find a second phase involving interchange reconnection between open and closed. We argue that this second reconnection episode is responsible for the injection of flare-accelerated particles into the interplanetary medium. We will report on our recent work toward understanding how flare particles escape to the heliosphere. This work uses high-resolution 2.5D MHD numerical simulations performed with the Adaptively Refined MHD Solver (ARMS).

  2. Narrow Escape of Interacting Diffusing Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranov, Tal; Meerson, Baruch

    2018-03-01

    The narrow escape problem deals with the calculation of the mean escape time (MET) of a Brownian particle from a bounded domain through a small hole on the domain's boundary. Here we develop a formalism which allows us to evaluate the nonescape probability of a gas of diffusing particles that may interact with each other. In some cases the nonescape probability allows us to evaluate the MET of the first particle. The formalism is based on the fluctuating hydrodynamics and the recently developed macroscopic fluctuation theory. We also uncover an unexpected connection between the narrow escape of interacting particles and thermal runaway in chemical reactors.

  3. Means of escape provisions and evacuation simulation of public building in Malaysia and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Muna Hanim Abdul; Taib, Nooriati; Ying, Choo Siew

    2017-10-01

    The Uniform Building By-law 1984 of Malaysia is the legal document governing fire safety requirements in buildings. Its prescriptive nature has made the requirements out dated from the viewpoint of current performance based approach in most developed countries. The means of escape provisions is a critical requirement to safeguard occupants' safety in fire especially in public buildings. As stipulated in the UBBL 1984, the means of escape provisions includes sufficient escape routes, travel distance, protection of escape routes, etc. designated as means to allow occupants to escape within a safe period of time. This research aims at investigating the effectiveness of those provisions in public buildings during evacuation process involving massive crowd during emergencies. This research includes a scenario-based study on evacuation processes using two software i.e. PyroSim, a crowd modelling software to conduct smoke study and Pathfinder to stimulate evacuation model of building in Malaysia and Singapore as comparative study. The results show that the buildings used as case study were designed according to Malaysian UBBL 1984 and Singapore Firecode, 2013 respectively provide relative safe means of escape. The simulations of fire and smoke and coupled with simulation of evacuation have demonstrated that although there are adequate exits designated according to fire requirements, the impact of the geometry of atriums on the behavior of fire and smoke have significant effect on escape time especially for unfamiliar user of the premises.

  4. Enhancing usability of augmented-reality-based mobile escape guidelines for radioactive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Ming-Kuan; Yau, Nie-Jia

    2013-01-01

    When radioactive accidents occur, modern tools in information technology for emergency response are good solutions to reduce the impact. Since few information-technology-based applications were developed for people during radioactive accidents, a previous study (Tsai et al., 2012) proposed augmented-reality-based mobile escape guidelines. However, because of the lack of transparent escape routes and indoor escape guidelines, the usability of the guidelines is limited. Therefore, this study introduces route planning and mobile three-dimensional (3D) graphics techniques to address the identified problems. The proposed approach could correctly present the geographical relationship from user locations to the anticipated shelters, and quickly show the floor-plan drawings as users are in the buildings. Based on the testing results, in contrast to the previous study, this study offered better escape routes, when the participants performed self-evacuation in outdoor and indoor environments. Overall, this study is not only a useful reference for similar studies, but also a beneficial tool for emergency response during radioactive accidents. -- Highlights: ► Enhancing the efficiency when people escape from radioactive accidents. ► The spatial relationship is transparently displayed in real time. ► In contrast to a previous study, this study offers better escape guidelines

  5. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  6. Proximal collagenous gastroenteritides:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Riis, Lene Buhl; Danese, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: While collagenous colitis represents the most common form of the collagenous gastroenteritides, the collagenous entities affecting the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract are much less recognized and possibly overlooked. The aim was to summarize the latest information through a syste...

  7. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  8. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  9. 75 FR 61386 - Emergency Escape Breathing Apparatus Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... operator RSIA--Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008, Public Law 110-432, Division A SCBA--self-contained.... Compliance With the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 G. Environmental Assessment H. Energy Impact I... pose an inhalation hazard in the event of a release''; (2) provide a place for convenient storage of...

  10. Escaping Circadian Regulation: An Emerging Hallmark of Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Athman, Rukeia; Relógio, Angela

    2018-03-28

    Alterations of circadian clock genes are associated with patient survival, tumor stage, and clinical subtype across various cancer types, highlighting the importance of timing in cancer treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cerebrospinal Fluid HIV Escape from Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Francesca; Gisslen, Magnus; Cinque, Paola; Price, Richard W

    2015-06-01

    CNS infection is a nearly constant facet of systemic CNS infection and is generally well controlled by suppressive systemic antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, there are instances when HIV can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) despite suppression of plasma viruses below the clinical limits of measurement. We review three types of CSF viral escape: asymptomatic, neuro-symptomatic, and secondary. The first, asymptomatic CSF escape, is seemingly benign and characterized by lack of discernable neurological deterioration or subsequent CNS disease progression. Neuro-symptomatic CSF escape is an uncommon, but important, entity characterized by new or progressive CNS disease that is critical to recognize clinically because of its management implications. Finally, secondary CSF escape, which may be even more uncommon, is defined by an increase of CSF HIV replication in association with a concomitant non-HIV infection, as a consequence of the local inflammatory response. Understanding these CSF escape settings not only is important for clinical diagnosis and management but also may provide insight into the CNS HIV reservoir.

  12. Escaping and repairing behaviors of the termite Odontotermes formosanus (Blattodea: Termitidae in response to disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongpeng Xiong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The escaping behavior of termites has been documented under laboratory conditions; however, no study has been conducted in a field setting due to the difficulty of observing natural behaviors inside wood or structures (e.g., nests, tunnels, etc.. The black-winged termite, Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki, is a subterranean macrotermitine species which builds extensive mud tubes on tree trunks. In the present study, 41 videos (totaling ∼2,700 min were taken on 22 colonies/subcolonies of O. formosanus after their mud tubes were partially damaged by hand. In general, termites consistently demonstrated three phases of escape, including initiation (wandering near the mud-tube breach, individual escaping (single termites moving downward, and massive, unidirectional escaping flows (groups of termites moving downward. Downward moving and repairing were the dominant behavioral activities of individuals and were significantly more frequent than upward moving, turning/backward moving, or wandering. Interestingly, termites in escaping flows moved significantly faster than escaping individuals. Repairing behavior was observed shortly after the disturbance, and new mud tubes were preferentially constructed from the bottom up. When predators (i.e., ants were present, however, termites stopped moving and quickly sealed the mud-tube openings by capping the broken ends. Our study provides an interesting example that documents an animal (besides humans simultaneously carrying out pathway repairs and emergency evacuation without congestion.

  13. Escaping and repairing behaviors of the termite Odontotermes formosanus (Blattodea: Termitidae) in response to disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hongpeng; Chen, Xuan; Wen, Yuzhen; Layne, Michael; Sun, Zhaohui; Ma, Tao; Wen, Xiujun; Wang, Cai

    2018-01-01

    The escaping behavior of termites has been documented under laboratory conditions; however, no study has been conducted in a field setting due to the difficulty of observing natural behaviors inside wood or structures (e.g., nests, tunnels, etc.). The black-winged termite, Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki), is a subterranean macrotermitine species which builds extensive mud tubes on tree trunks. In the present study, 41 videos (totaling ∼2,700 min) were taken on 22 colonies/subcolonies of O. formosanus after their mud tubes were partially damaged by hand. In general, termites consistently demonstrated three phases of escape, including initiation (wandering near the mud-tube breach), individual escaping (single termites moving downward), and massive, unidirectional escaping flows (groups of termites moving downward). Downward moving and repairing were the dominant behavioral activities of individuals and were significantly more frequent than upward moving, turning/backward moving, or wandering. Interestingly, termites in escaping flows moved significantly faster than escaping individuals. Repairing behavior was observed shortly after the disturbance, and new mud tubes were preferentially constructed from the bottom up. When predators (i.e., ants) were present, however, termites stopped moving and quickly sealed the mud-tube openings by capping the broken ends. Our study provides an interesting example that documents an animal (besides humans) simultaneously carrying out pathway repairs and emergency evacuation without congestion.

  14. Realities of proximity facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMott, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Numerous commercial nuclear power plant sites have 2 to 3 reactors located together, and a group of Facilities with capabilities for fuel fabrication, a nuclear reactor, a storage area for spent fuel, and a maintenance area for contaminated equipment and radioactive waste storage are being designed and constructed in the US. The proximity of these facilities to each other provides that the ordinary flow of materials remain within a limited area. Interactions between the various facilities include shared resources such as communication, fire protection, security, medical services, transportation, water, electrical, personnel, emergency planning, transport of hazardous material between facilities, and common safety and radiological requirements between facilities. This paper will explore the advantages and disadvantages of multiple facilities at one site. Problem areas are identified, and recommendations for planning and coordination are discussed

  15. Thermal escape from extrasolar giant planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Tommi T; Lavvas, Panayotis; Harris, Matthew J; Yelle, Roger V

    2014-04-28

    The detection of hot atomic hydrogen and heavy atoms and ions at high altitudes around close-in extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) such as HD209458b implies that these planets have hot and rapidly escaping atmospheres that extend to several planetary radii. These characteristics, however, cannot be generalized to all close-in EGPs. The thermal escape mechanism and mass loss rate from EGPs depend on a complex interplay between photochemistry and radiative transfer driven by the stellar UV radiation. In this study, we explore how these processes change under different levels of irradiation on giant planets with different characteristics. We confirm that there are two distinct regimes of thermal escape from EGPs, and that the transition between these regimes is relatively sharp. Our results have implications for thermal mass loss rates from different EGPs that we discuss in the context of currently known planets and the detectability of their upper atmospheres.

  16. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...... more when the road safety is low; the emergency service is not properly organized, and the nearest hospital has lower quality standards....

  17. Black holes escaping from domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachi, Antonino; Sasaki, Misao; Pujolas, Oriol; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies concerning the interaction of branes and black holes suggested that a small black hole intersecting a brane may escape via a mechanism of reconnection. Here we consider this problem by studying the interaction of a small black hole and a domain wall composed of a scalar field and simulate the evolution of this system when the black hole acquires an initial recoil velocity. We test and confirm previous results, however, unlike the cases previously studied, in the more general set-up considered here, we are able to follow the evolution of the system also during the separation, and completely illustrate how the escape of the black hole takes place

  18. Variable fitness impact of HIV-1 escape mutations to cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Troyer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Human lymphocyte antigen (HLA-restricted CD8(+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL target and kill HIV-infected cells expressing cognate viral epitopes. This response selects for escape mutations within CTL epitopes that can diminish viral replication fitness. Here, we assess the fitness impact of escape mutations emerging in seven CTL epitopes in the gp120 Env and p24 Gag coding regions of an individual followed longitudinally from the time of acute HIV-1 infection, as well as some of these same epitopes recognized in other HIV-1-infected individuals. Nine dominant mutations appeared in five gp120 epitopes within the first year of infection, whereas all four mutations found in two p24 epitopes emerged after nearly two years of infection. These mutations were introduced individually into the autologous gene found in acute infection and then placed into a full-length, infectious viral genome. When competed against virus expressing the parental protein, fitness loss was observed with only one of the nine gp120 mutations, whereas four had no effect and three conferred a slight increase in fitness. In contrast, mutations conferring CTL escape in the p24 epitopes significantly decreased viral fitness. One particular escape mutation within a p24 epitope was associated with reduced peptide recognition and high viral fitness costs but was replaced by a fitness-neutral mutation. This mutation appeared to alter epitope processing concomitant with a reduced CTL response. In conclusion, CTL escape mutations in HIV-1 Gag p24 were associated with significant fitness costs, whereas most escape mutations in the Env gene were fitness neutral, suggesting a balance between immunologic escape and replicative fitness costs.

  19. Quantum Proximity Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that at long wavelengths λ an s-wave scatterer can have a scattering cross section σ on the order of λ 2 , much larger than its physical size, as measured by the range of its potential. Very interesting phenomena can arise when two or more identical scatterers are placed close together, well within one wavelength. We show that, for a pair of identical scatterers, an extremely narrow p-wave open-quote open-quote proximity close-quote close-quote resonance develops from a broader s-wave resonance of the individual scatterers. A new s-wave resonance of the pair also appears. The relation of these proximity resonances (so called because they appear when the scatterers are close together) to the Thomas and Efimov effects is discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Martian Atmospheric and Ionospheric plasma Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Rickard

    2016-04-01

    Solar forcing is responsible for the heating, ionization, photochemistry, and erosion processes in the upper atmosphere throughout the lifetime of the terrestrial planets. Of the four terrestrial planets, the Earth is the only one with a fully developed biosphere, while our kin Venus and Mars have evolved into arid inhabitable planets. As for Mars, there are ample evidences for an early Noachian, water rich period on Mars. The question is, what made Mars evolve so differently compared to the Earth? Various hydrosphere and atmospheric evolution scenarios for Mars have been forwarded based on surface morphology, chemical composition, simulations, semi-empiric (in-situ data) models, and the long-term evolution of the Sun. Progress has been made, but the case is still open regarding the changes that led to the present arid surface and tenuous atmosphere at Mars. This presentation addresses the long-term variability of the Sun, the solar forcing impact on the Martian atmosphere, and its interaction with the space environment - an electromagnetic wave and particle interaction with the upper atmosphere that has implications for its photochemistry, composition, and energization that governs thermal and non-thermal escape. Non-thermal escape implies an electromagnetic upward energization of planetary ions and molecules to velocities above escape velocity, a process governed by a combination of solar EUV radiation (ionization), and energy and momentum transfer by the solar wind. The ion escape issue dates back to the early Soviet and US-missions to Mars, but the first more accurate estimates of escape rates came with the Phobos-2 mission in 1989. Better-quality ion composition measurement results of atmospheric/ionospheric ion escape from Mars, obtained from ESA Mars Express (MEX) instruments, have improved our understanding of the ion escape mechanism. With the NASA MAVEN spacecraft orbiting Mars since Sept. 2014, dual in-situ measurement with plasma instruments are now

  1. Do the visual conditions at the point of escape affect European sea bass escape behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. PAPADAKIS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, an important species for the Mediterranean aquaculture industry, has been reported to escape from sea cage installations. Fish escapes are caused mainly by operational and technical failures that eventually result into a creation of a tear. Escapees may interact with wild stocks through interbreeding, transfer of pathogens and competition for food. The aim of this study was to examine at which extent the presence of a visible obstacle close to a tear on the net have an influence on sea bass propensity to escape. Fish were initially confined into small sea cages, with a tear at one side. The escape behavior was tested under experimental conditions. It is clearly demonstrated that sea bass was able to locate a tear on the net pen, immediately after its appearance. Crossings occurred in all cages, in singles or in a series of up to seven individuals. The presence of an obstacle close to the net tear altered the escape behavior of D. labrax resulting in a delay that eventually reduced the escape rate. Concluding, it is highly recommended that sea bass cages should be kept internally the culture array. Furthermore, the placement of artificial obstacles close to the sea cages could be an efficient practice that mitigates the escape risk after severe environmental conditions.

  2. Trapped as a Group, Escape as a Team: Applying Gamification to Incorporate Team-building Skills Through an ‘Escape Room’ Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoo; Rodriguez, Carlos; Rudner, Joshua; Chan, Teresa M; Papanagnou, Dimitrios

    2018-01-01

    Teamwork, a skill critical for quality patient care, is recognized as a core competency by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). To date, there is no consensus on how to effectively teach these skills in a forum that engages learners, immerses members in life-like activities, and builds both trust and rapport. Recreational ‘Escape Rooms’ have gained popularity in creating a life-like environment that rewards players for working together, solving puzzles, and completing successions of mind-bending tasks in order to effectively ‘escape the room’ in the time allotted. In this regard, escape rooms share many parallels with the multitasking and teamwork that is essential for a successful emergency department (ED) shift. A pilot group of nine emergency medicine (EM) residents and one senior EM faculty member underwent a commercial escape room as part of a team-building exercise in January 2018. The escape room required participants to practice teamwork, communication, task delegation, and critical thinking to tackle waves of increasingly complex puzzles, ranging from hidden objects, physical object assembly (i.e., jigsaw puzzles), and symbol matching. Activities required members to recognize and utilize the collective experiences, skills, knowledge base, and physical abilities of the group. After the game, players underwent a structured ‘game-master’ debriefing facilitated by an employee of the commercial escape room; this was followed by a post-event survey facilitated by a faculty member, which focused on participants’ feelings, experiences, and problem-solving techniques. Escape rooms afford learners the opportunity to engage in an activity that rewards teamwork and effective leadership through experiences that directly link to specific ACGME milestones and educational learning theories. EM participants were engaged in the activity and felt that the escape room reproduced an environment analogous to the ED. The debriefing

  3. Trapped as a Group, Escape as a Team: Applying Gamification to Incorporate Team-building Skills Through an 'Escape Room' Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao Chi; Lee, Hyunjoo; Rodriguez, Carlos; Rudner, Joshua; Chan, Teresa M; Papanagnou, Dimitrios

    2018-03-02

    Teamwork, a skill critical for quality patient care, is recognized as a core competency by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). To date, there is no consensus on how to effectively teach these skills in a forum that engages learners, immerses members in life-like activities, and builds both trust and rapport. Recreational 'Escape Rooms' have gained popularity in creating a life-like environment that rewards players for working together, solving puzzles, and completing successions of mind-bending tasks in order to effectively 'escape the room' in the time allotted. In this regard, escape rooms share many parallels with the multitasking and teamwork that is essential for a successful emergency department (ED) shift. A pilot group of nine emergency medicine (EM) residents and one senior EM faculty member underwent a commercial escape room as part of a team-building exercise in January 2018. The escape room required participants to practice teamwork, communication, task delegation, and critical thinking to tackle waves of increasingly complex puzzles, ranging from hidden objects, physical object assembly (i.e., jigsaw puzzles), and symbol matching. Activities required members to recognize and utilize the collective experiences, skills, knowledge base, and physical abilities of the group. After the game, players underwent a structured 'game-master' debriefing facilitated by an employee of the commercial escape room; this was followed by a post-event survey facilitated by a faculty member, which focused on participants' feelings, experiences, and problem-solving techniques. Escape rooms afford learners the opportunity to engage in an activity that rewards teamwork and effective leadership through experiences that directly link to specific ACGME milestones and educational learning theories. EM participants were engaged in the activity and felt that the escape room reproduced an environment analogous to the ED. The debriefing that followed

  4. Learning from escaped prescribed fire reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne E. Black; Dave Thomas; James Saveland; Jennifer D. Ziegler

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. wildland fire community has developed a number of innovative methods for conducting a review following escape of a prescribed fire (expanding on the typical regional or local reviews, to include more of a learning focus - expanded After Action Reviews, reviews that incorporate High Reliability Organizing, Facilitated Learning Analyses, etc). The stated purpose...

  5. Genomics of Stress Escape in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, D.

    2016-01-01

    In nature, two highly diverse environmental signals, flooding and shade, sensed through their own unique receptor systems, share physiological and molecular similarities in the context of accelerated shoot elongation in plants (a conserved stress-escape strategy), suggesting a possible cross-talk

  6. Centrifugally Stimulated Exospheric Ion Escape at Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, Dominique; Seki, K.; Terada, N.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the transport of ions in the low-altitude magnetosphere magnetosphere of Mercury. We show that, because of small spatial scales, the centrifugal effect due to curvature of the E B drift paths can lead to significant particle energization in the parallel direction. We demonstrate that because of this effect, ions with initial speed smaller than the escape speed such as those produced via thermal desorption can overcome gravity and escape into the magnetosphere. The escape route of this low-energy exosphere originating material is largely controlled by the magnetospheric convection rate. This escape route spreads over a narrower range of altitudes when the convection rate increases. Bulk transport of low-energy planetary material thus occurs within a limited region of space once moderate magnetospheric convection is established. These results suggest that, via release of material otherwise gravitationally trapped, the E B related centrifugal acceleration is an important mechanism for the net supply of plasma to the magnetosphere of Mercury.

  7. Pade approximant calculations for neutron escape probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Wakil, S.A.; Saad, E.A.; Hendi, A.A.

    1984-07-01

    The neutron escape probability from a non-multiplying slab containing internal source is defined in terms of a functional relation for the scattering function for the diffuse reflection problem. The Pade approximant technique is used to get numerical results which compare with exact results. (author)

  8. Net escapement of Antartic krill in trawls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krafft, B.A.; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent

    This document describes the aims and methodology of a three year project (commenced in 2012) entitled Net Escapement of Antarctic krill in Trawls (NEAT). The study will include a morphology based mathematical modeling (FISHSELECT) of different sex and maturity groups of Antarctic krill (Euphausia...

  9. Life events and escape in conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, T R; Aybek, S; Craig, T; Harris, T; Wojcik, W; David, A S; Kanaan, R A

    2016-09-01

    Psychological models of conversion disorder (CD) traditionally assume that psychosocial stressors are identifiable around symptom onset. In the face of limited supportive evidence such models are being challenged. Forty-three motor CD patients, 28 depression patients and 28 healthy controls were assessed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule in the year before symptom onset. A novel 'escape' rating for events was developed to test the Freudian theory that physical symptoms of CD could provide escape from stressors, a form of 'secondary gain'. CD patients had significantly more severe life events and 'escape' events than controls. In the month before symptom onset at least one severe event was identified in 56% of CD patients - significantly more than 21% of depression patients [odds ratio (OR) 4.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-13.70] and healthy controls (OR 5.81, 95% CI 1.86-18.2). In the same time period 53% of CD patients had at least one 'high escape' event - again significantly higher than 14% in depression patients (OR 6.90, 95% CI 2.05-23.6) and 0% in healthy controls. Previous sexual abuse was more commonly reported in CD than controls, and in one third of female patients was contextually relevant to life events at symptom onset. The majority (88%) of life events of potential aetiological relevance were not identified by routine clinical assessments. Nine per cent of CD patients had no identifiable severe life events. Evidence was found supporting the psychological model of CD, the Freudian notion of escape and the potential aetiological relevance of childhood traumas in some patients. Uncovering stressors of potential aetiological relevance requires thorough psychosocial evaluation.

  10. Isolated Proximal Tibiofibular Dislocation during Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Chiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are rarely encountered in the Emergency Department (ED. We present a case involving a man presenting to the ED with left knee pain after making a sharp left turn on the soccer field. His physical exam was only remarkable for tenderness over the lateral fibular head. His X-rays showed subtle abnormalities of the tibiofibular joint. The dislocation was reduced and the patient was discharged from the ED with orthopedic follow-up.

  11. Proximity friction reexamined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krappe, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    The contribution of inelastic excitations to radial and tangential friction form-factors in heavy-ion collisions is investigated in the frame-work of perturbation theory. The dependence of the form factors on the essential geometrical and level-density parameters of the scattering system is exhibited in a rather closed form. The conditions for the existence of time-local friction coefficients are discussed. Results are compared to form factors from other models, in particular the transfer-related proximity friction. For the radial friction coefficient the inelastic excitation mechanism seems to be the dominant contribution in peripheral collisions. (orig.)

  12. Proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Lawrence X

    2002-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal femur include fractures of the head, neck, intertrochanteric, and subtrochanteric regions. Head fractures commonly accompany dislocations. Neck fractures and intertrochanteric fractures occur with greatest frequency in elderly patients with a low bone mineral density and are produced by low-energy mechanisms. Subtrochanteric fractures occur in a predominantly strong cortical osseous region which is exposed to large compressive stresses. Implants used to address these fractures must be able to accommodate significant loads while the fractures consolidate. Complications secondary to these injuries produce significant morbidity and include infection, nonunion, malunion, decubitus ulcers, fat emboli, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, stroke, and death.

  13. Escape of charged particles from a neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelizzari, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of particle trajectories in an axisymmetric magnetic field, formulated by C. Stormer, can be extended to cover conservative force fields as well. As such, it is an ideal tool to study the escape of charged particles from a rapidly rotating neutron star, enabling one to determine the maximum range of their trajectories in space. With the aid of this theory, it is shown that a neutron star, rotating in a vacuum with rotation and magnetic axes aligned, will not evolve a perfectly conducting magnetosphere if the neutron star is the only source of charge. The sign of charge accelerated from the equatorial regions will be magnetically trapped to a toroidal region very near the star, and the opposite sign of charge, emerging from the polar regions, will escape from the magnetosphere until a critical stellar charge is reached, after which polar charges will be electrostatically bound to the magnetosphere. This selective magnetic trapping of one sign of charge, which prevents the formation of a stellar wind, is a consequence of the magnetic field's orientation relative to the internal charge density of the neutron star

  14. Mass fractionation of noble gases in diffusion-limited hydrodynamic hydrogen escape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahnle, K.; Pollack, J.B.; Kasting, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The theory of mass fractionation by hydrogen is presently extended to atmospheres in which hydrogen is not the major constituent. This theoretical framework is applied to three different cases. In the first, it is shown that the fractionation of terrestrial atmospheric neon with respect to mantle neon is explainable as a consequence of diffusion-limited hydrogen escape from a steam atmosphere toward the end of the accretion process. In the second, the anomalously high Ar-38/Ar-36 ratio of Mars is shown to be due to hydrodynamic fractionation by a vigorously escaping and very pure hydrogen wind. In the last case, it is speculated that the currently high Martian D/H ratio emerged during the hydrodynamic escape phase which fractionated Ar. 35 refs

  15. Echosonography with proximity sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaisiam, W; Laithong, T; Meekhun, S; Chaiwathyothin, N; Thanlarp, P; Danworaphong, S

    2013-01-01

    We propose the use of a commercial ultrasonic proximity sensor kit for profiling an altitude-varying surface by employing echosonography. The proximity sensor kit, two identical transducers together with its dedicated operating circuit, is used as a profiler for the construction of an image. Ultrasonic pulses are emitted from one of the transducers and received by the other. The time duration between the pulses allows us to determine the traveling distance of each pulse. In the experiment, the circuit is used with the addition of two copper wires for directing the outgoing and incoming signals to an oscilloscope. The time of flight of ultrasonic pulses can thus be determined. Square grids of 5 × 5 cm 2 are made from fishing lines, forming pixels in the image. The grids are designed to hold the detection unit in place, about 30 cm above a flat surface. The surface to be imaged is constructed to be height varying and placed on the flat surface underneath the grids. Our result shows that an image of the profiled surface can be created by varying the location of the detection unit along the grid. We also investigate the deviation in relation to the time of flight of the ultrasonic pulse. Such an experiment should be valuable for conveying the concept of ultrasonic imaging to physical and medical science undergraduate students. Due to its simplicity, the setup could be made in any undergraduate laboratory relatively inexpensively and it requires no complex parts. The results illustrate the concept of echosonography. (paper)

  16. Injury rate in a helicopter underwater escape trainer (HUET) from 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Christopher J; MacDonald, Conor V; Gibbs, Peter N A

    2014-08-01

    Helicopter underwater escape training (HUET) carries a potential for injury and this paper identifies the injury rate. A marine survival training school registry of all students trained between 2005-2012 in HUET and the coinciding accident records were examined. There were 8902 students trained in a helicopter underwater escape simulator for a total of 59,245 underwater escapes. There were 40 cases where only first-aid was required and 3 serious injuries (a laceration requiring 5 sutures, 1 dislocated shoulder, and 1 water aspiration requiring hospitalization). There were no deaths and no problems reported with using the Emergency Breathing System (EBS) or Air Pocket. Of the injuries, 11 were due to the student using a poor escape technique. The overall probability of injury was 0.74 per 1000 ascents. In HUET training, there is a very low injury rate with almost no significant severity. Although not scientifically proven, this would suggest that the low incident rate is due to good medical screening and the attention given by instructors to anxious students. Compared to other training such as diving, parachute jumping, and submarine escape training, the rate of injury was considerably lower.

  17. Escape of atmospheres and loss of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunten, D.M.; Donahue, T.M.; Walker, J.C.G.; Kasting, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The properties and limitations of several loss processes for atmospheric gases are presented and discussed. They include thermal loss (Jeans and hydrodynamic); nonthermal loss (all processes involve charged particles); and impact erosion, including thermal escape from a molten body heated by rapid accretion. Hydrodynamic escape, or blowoff, is of particular interest because it offers the prospect of processing large quantities of gas and enriching the remainder in heavy elements and isotopes. In a second part, the water budgets and likely evolutionary histories of Venus, Earth and Mars are assessed. Although it is tempting to associate the great D/H enrichment on Venus with loss of a large initial endowment, a steady state with juvenile water (perhaps from comets) is equally probable

  18. Biomechanics of Tetrahymena escaping from dead ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Kikuchi, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    Behaviors of swimming microorganisms in complex environments are important in understanding cells' distribution in nature and in industries. Although cell's swimming and spreading in an infinite fluid has been intensively investigated, that in a narrow region bounded by walls is still unclear. Thus, in this study, we used Tetrahymena thermophila as a model microorganism, and experimentally investigated its behavior between flat plates with an angle. The results showed that the cells tended to escape from the narrow region, and the swimming velocity and the radius of curvature of the trajectories decreased as they swam narrower region. We then developed a computational model of swimming Tetrahymena. The results showed that the escaping behavior could be well explained by fluid mechanics. The obtained knowledge is useful in understanding cells' behaviors in complex environments, such as in porous media and in a granular matter. This research was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grants, numbers 25000008 and 17H00853.

  19. Constraining Lyman continuum escape using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Sambit K.; Zackrisson, Erik; Binggeli, Christian; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Cubo, Rubén; Mellema, Garrelt

    2018-05-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will observe the rest-frame ultraviolet/optical spectra of galaxies from the epoch of reionization (EoR) in unprecedented detail. While escaping into the intergalactic medium, hydrogen-ionizing (Lyman continuum; LyC) photons from the galaxies will contribute to the bluer end of the UV slope and make nebular emission lines less prominent. We present a method to constrain leakage of the LyC photons using the spectra of high redshift (z >~ 6) galaxies. We simulate JWST/NIRSpec observations of galaxies at z =6-9 by matching the fluxes of galaxies observed in the Frontier Fields observations of galaxy cluster MACS-J0416. Our method predicts the escape fraction fesc with a mean absolute error Δfesc ~ 0.14. The method also predicts the redshifts of the galaxies with an error .

  20. Measurement of the resonance escape probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, J.P.; Bacher, P.; Lheureux, L.; Moreau, J.; Schmitt, A.P.

    1957-01-01

    The average cadmium ratio in natural uranium rods has been measured, using equal diameter natural uranium disks. These values correlated with independent measurements of the lattice buckling, enabled us to calculate values of the resonance escape probability for the G1 reactor with one or the other of two definitions. Measurements were performed on 26 mm and 32 mm rods, giving the following values for the resonance escape probability p: 0.8976 ± 0.005 and 0.912 ± 0.006 (d. 26 mm), 0.8627 ± 0.009 and 0.884 ± 0.01 (d. 32 mm). The influence of either definition on the lattice parameters is discussed, leading to values of the effective integral. Similar experiments have been performed with thorium rods. (author) [fr

  1. Asymmetric Effects on Escape Rates of Bistable System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Canjun; Mei Dongcheng; Dai Zucheng

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric effects on the escape rates from the stable states x ± in the bistable system are analyzed. The results indicate that the multiplicative noise and the additive noise always enhance the particle escape from stable states x ± of bistable. However, the asymmetric parameter r enhances the particle escape from stable state x + , and holds back the particle escape from stable state x - . (general)

  2. Escape and transmission probabilities in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    An improved technique for the generation of escape and transmission probabilities in cylindrical geometry was applied to the existing resonance cross section processing code ROLAIDS. The algorithm of Hwang and Toppel, [ANL-FRA-TM-118] (with modifications) was employed. The probabilities generated were found to be as accurate as those given by the method previously applied in ROLAIDS, while requiring much less computer core storage and CPU time

  3. Characterization of extra-solar planets and their atmospheres (Spectroscopy of transits and atmospheric escape)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrier, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Hot Jupiters are exo-planets so close to their star that their atmosphere can lose gas because of hydrodynamic escape. Transiting gaseous giants are an excellent way to understand this mechanism, but it is necessary to study other types of planets to determine its impact on the exo-planetary population. This thesis aims at using transit spectroscopy to observe the atmosphere of several exo-planets, to study their properties and to contribute to the characterization of hydrodynamic escape. UV lines observed with the Hubble telescope are analyzed with the numerical model of upper atmospheres we developed. Using the Ly-α line we identify energetic and dynamical interactions between the atmospheres of the hot Jupiters HD209458b and HD189733b and their stars. We study the dependence of the escape on the environment of a planet and on its physical properties, through the observation of a super-Earth and a warm Jupiter in the 55 Cnc system. Using observations of HD209458b, we show that magnesium lines are a window on the region of formation of hydrodynamic escape. We study the potential of transit spectroscopy in the near-UV to detect new cases of atmospheric escape. This mechanism is fostered by the proximity of a planet to its star, which makes it even more important to understand the formation and migration processes that can be traced in the alignment of a planetary system. Using measures from the spectrographs HARPS-N and SOPHIE we study the alignments of 55 Cnc e and the Kepler candidate KOI 12.01, whose planetary nature we also seek to validate. (author)

  4. Xenon Fractionation and Archean Hydrogen Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Xenon is the heaviest gas found in significant quantities in natural planetary atmospheres. It would seem the least likely to escape. Yet there is more evidence for xenon escape from Earth than for any element other than helium and perhaps neon. The most straightforward evidence is that most of the radiogenic Xe from the decay of (129)I (half-life 15.7 Myr) and (244)Pu (half-life 81 Myr) that is Earth's birthright is missing. The missing xenon is often attributed to the impact erosion of early atmospheres of Earth and its ancestors. It is obvious that if most of the radiogenic xenon were driven off by impacts, most of the rest of the atmophiles fared the same fate. The other line of evidence is in the nonradiogenic isotopes of xenon and its silent partner, krypton. Atmospheric xenon is strongly mass fractionated (at about 4% per amu) compared to any known solar system source (Figure 1). This is in stark contrast to krypton, which may not be fractionated at all: atmospheric Kr is slightly heavier than solar Kr (at about 0.5% per amu), but it is the same as in carbonaceous chondrites. Nonradiogenic xenon is also under abundant relative to krypton (the so-called "missing xenon" problem). Together these observations imply that xenon has been subject to fractionating escape and krypton not.

  5. Escape probabilities for fluorescent x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, D.R.; Day, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Computation of the energy absorption efficiency of an x-ray photon detector involves consideration of the histories of the secondary particles produced in any initial or secondary interaction which may occur within the detector. In particular, the K or higher shell fluorescent x-rays which may be emitted following a photoelectric interaction can carry away a large fraction of the energy of the incident photon, especially if this energy is just above an absorption edge. The effects of such photons cannot be ignored and a correction term, depending upon the probability that the fluorescent x-rays will escape from the detector, must be applied to the energy absorption efficiency. For detectors such as x-ray intensifying screens, it has been usual to calculate this probability by numerical integration. In this note analytic expressions are derived for the escape probability of fluorescent photons from planar detectors in terms of exponential integral functions. Rational approximations for these functions are readily available and these analytic expressions therefore facilitate the computation of photon absorption efficiencies. A table is presented which should obviate the need for calculating the escape probability for most cases of interest. (author)

  6. Children's proximal societal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    2018-01-01

    that is above or outside the institutional setting or the children’s everyday life, but something that is represented through societal structures and actual persons participating (in political ways) within the institutional settings, in ways that has meaning to children’s possibilities to participate, learn...... and develop. Understanding school or kindergarten as (part of) the children’s proximal societal conditions for development and learning, means for instance that considerations about an inclusive agenda are no longer simply thoughts about the school – for economic reasons – having space for as many pupils...... as possible (schools for all). Such thoughts can be supplemented by reflections about which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to present our children with, and which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to set up as the condition for children’s participation and development. The point is to clarify or sharpen...

  7. Proximity detection system underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Kent [Mine Site Technologies (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Mine Site Technologies (MST) with the support ACARP and Xstrata Coal NSW, as well as assistance from Centennial Coal, has developed a Proximity Detection System to proof of concept stage as per plan. The basic aim of the project was to develop a system to reduce the risk of the people coming into contact with vehicles in an uncontrolled manner (i.e. being 'run over'). The potential to extend the developed technology into other areas, such as controls for vehicle-vehicle collisions and restricting access of vehicle or people into certain zones (e.g. non FLP vehicles into Hazardous Zones/ERZ) was also assessed. The project leveraged off MST's existing Intellectual Property and experience gained with our ImPact TRACKER tagging technology, allowing the development to be fast tracked. The basic concept developed uses active RFID Tags worn by miners underground to be detected by vehicle mounted Readers. These Readers in turn provide outputs that can be used to alert a driver (e.g. by light and/or audible alarm) that a person (Tag) approaching within their vicinity. The prototype/test kit developed proved the concept and technology, the four main components being: Active RFID Tags to send out signals for detection by vehicle mounted receivers; Receiver electronics to detect RFID Tags approaching within the vicinity of the unit to create a long range detection system (60 m to 120 m); A transmitting/exciter device to enable inner detection zone (within 5 m to 20 m); and A software/hardware device to process & log incoming Tags reads and create certain outputs. Tests undertaken in the laboratory and at a number of mine sites, confirmed the technology path taken could form the basis of a reliable Proximity Detection/Alert System.

  8. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  9. Retrieval of a leaflet escaped in a Tri-technologies bileaflet mechanical prosthetic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciulli, Tomás F; Lax, Jorge A; Saccheri, María C; Guidoin, Robert; Salvado, César M; Fernández, Adrián J; Prezioso, Horacio A

    2008-01-01

    The escape of the prosthetic heart valve disc is one of the causes of prosthetic dysfunction that requires emergency surgery. The removal of the embolized disc should be carried out because of the risk of a progressive extrusion on the aortic wall. Several imaging techniques can be used for the detection of the missing disc localization. In this report we describe a 32-year-old man who underwent mitral valve replacement with a Tri-technologies bileaflet valve three years ago, and was admitted in cardiogenic shock. Transesophageal echocardiography showed acute-onset massive mitral regurgitation. The patient underwent emergency replacement of the prosthetic valve. Only one of the two leaflets remained in the removed prosthetic valve. The missing leaflet could not be found within the cardiac cavity. The abdominal fluoroscopic study and plain radiography were unable to detect the escaped leaflet. The abdominal computed tomography scan and the ultrasound showed the escaped leaflet in the terminal portion of the aortic bifurcation. To retrieve the embolized disc laparotomy and aortotomy were performed three months later. The escaped leaflet shows a fracture of one of the pivot systems caused by structural failure. This kind of failure mode is usually the result of high stress concentration.

  10. Risks incurred by hydrogen escaping from containers and conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.R.; Grilliot, E.S. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Swain, M.N. [Analytical Technologies, Inc., Miami, FL (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This paper is a discussion of a method for hydrogen leak classification. Leaks are classified as; gas escapes into enclosed spaces, gas escapes into partially enclosed spaces (vented), and gas escapes into unenclosed spaces. Each of the three enclosure classifications is further divided into two subclasses; total volume of hydrogen escaped and flow rate of escaping hydrogen. A method to aid in risk assessment determination in partially enclosed spaces is proposed and verified for several enclosure geometries. Examples are discussed for additional enclosure geometries.

  11. Acute Mitral Valve Dysfunction Due to Escape of Prosthetic Mechanical Leaflet and Peripheral Leaftlet Embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Eyup Serhat; Limandal, Husnu Kamil; Arslan, Umit; Tort, Mehmet; Yildiz, Ziya; Bayram, Ednan; Dag, Ozgur; Kaygin, Mehmet Ali; Erkut, Bilgehan

    2015-12-14

    Leaflet escape of prosthetic valve is rare but potentially life threatening. Early diagnosis is essential on account of avoiding mortality, and emergency surgical correction is compulsory. This complication has previously been reported for both monoleaflet and bileaflet valve models. A 30-year-old man who had undergone mitral valve replacement with a bileaflet valve 8 years prior at another center was admitted with acute-onset with cardiogenic shock as an emergency case. Transthoracic echocardiograms showed acute-starting severe mitral regurgitation associated with prosthetic mitral valve. There was a suspicious finding of a single prosthetic mitral leaflet. But the problem related with the valve wasn't specifically determined. The patient underwent emergent surgery for replacement of the damaged prosthetic valves immediately. There was no tissue impingement and thrombosis, one of the two leaflets was absent, and there were no signs of endocarditis or pannus formation in the prosthetic valve. The missing leaflet could not be found within the cardiac cavity. The abdominal fluoroscopic study and plain radiography were unable to detect the escaped leaflet during surgery. The damaged valve was removed and a replacement 29 mm bileaflet mechanical valve was inserted by right lateral thoracotomy. After post-operative week one, the abdominal computed tomography scan and the ultrasound showed the escaped leaflet in the left femoral artery. Fifteen days after the surgery the escaped leaflet was removed safely from the left femoral artery and the patient made a complete recovery. The escaped leaflet showed a fracture of one of the pivot systems caused by structural failure. Early cardiac surgery should be applied because of life-threatening problems.

  12. The cost of the sword: escape performance in male swordtails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Baumgartner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The handicap theory of sexual selection posits that male display traits that are favored in mate choice come at a significant cost to performance. We tested one facet of this hypothesis in the green swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri. In this species, the lower ray of male caudal fin is extended into a 'sword', which serves to attract potential mates. However, bearing a long sword may increase drag and thus compromise a male's ability to swim effectively. We tested escape performance in this species by eliciting C-start escape responses, an instinctive escape behavior, in males with various sword lengths. We then removed males' swords and retested escape performance. We found no relationship between escape performance and sword length and no effect of sword removal on escape performance. While having a large sword may attract a predator's attention, our results suggest that sword size does not compromise a male's escape performance.

  13. Strange culinary encounters::stranger fetichism in "Jamie's Italian escape" and "Gordon's great escape"

    OpenAIRE

    Leer, Jonatan; Kjær, Katrine Meldgaard

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine the ways in which the encountering of 'other' food cultures is played out in the two travelogue cooking shows Gordon's Great Escape and Jamie's Italian Escape. We investigate how the two protagonist chefs Jamie Oliver and Gordon Ramsay imagine, meet and evaluate the ‘other’ food cultures in these programs, paying special attention to how the encounter with the local Indian and Italian is imagined to be a gateway to an authentic and/or primitive experience. Our main...

  14. Room escape at class: Escape games activities to facilitate the motivation and learning in computer science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Borrego

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Real-life room-escape games are ludic activities in which participants enter a room in order to get out of it only after solving some riddles. In this paper, we explain a Room Escape teaching experience developed in the Engineering School at Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. The goal of this activity is to increase student’s motivation and to improve their learning on two courses of the second year in the Computer Engineering degree: Computer Networksand Information and Security.

  15. Room escape at class: escape games activities to facilitate the motivation and learning in computer science

    OpenAIRE

    Borrego, Carlos; Fernández, Cristina; Blanes, Ian; Robles, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    Real-life room-escape games are ludic activities in which participants enter a room in order to get out of it only after solving some riddles. In this paper, we explain a Room Escape teaching experience developed in the Engineering School at Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. The goal of this activity is to increase student’s motivation and to improve their learning on two courses of the second year in the Computer Engineering degree: Computer Networksand Information and Security Peer Revi...

  16. Arduino adventures escape from Gemini station

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, James Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Arduino Adventures: Escape from Gemini Station provides a fun introduction to the Arduino microcontroller by putting you (the reader) into the action of a science fiction adventure story.  You'll find yourself following along as Cade and Elle explore Gemini Station-an orbiting museum dedicated to preserving and sharing technology throughout the centuries. Trouble ensues. The station is evacuated, including Cade and Elle's class that was visiting the station on a field trip. Cade and Elle don't make it aboard their shuttle and are trapped on the station along with a friendly artificial intellig

  17. Mars atmospheric escape and evolution; interaction with the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassefière, Eric; Leblanc, François

    2004-09-01

    This tutorial deals with the question of atmospheric escape on Mars. After a brief introduction describing the general context of Mars escape studies, we will present in Section 2 a simplified theory of thermal escape, of both Jeans and hydrodynamic types. The phenomenon of hydrodynamic escape, still hypothetical and not proved to have ever existed on terrestrial planets, will be treated with the help of two well known examples: (i) the isotopic fractionation of xenon in Mars and Earth atmospheres, (ii) the paradox of missing oxygen in Venus atmosphere. In Section 3, a simplified approach of non-thermal escape will be developed, treating in a specific way the different kinds of escape (photochemical escape, ion sputtering, ion escape and ionospheric outflow). As a matter of illustration, some calculations of the relative contributions of these mechanisms, and of their time evolutions, will be given, and the magnitude of the total amount of atmosphere lost by non-thermal escape will be estimated. Section 4 will present the state of knowledge concerning the constraints derived from Mars isotopic geochemistry in terms of past escape and evolution. Finally, a few conclusions, which are more interrogations, will be proposed.

  18. Molecular Dications in Planetary Atmospheric Escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Falcinelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental properties of multiply charged molecular ions, such as energetics, structure, stability, lifetime and fragmentation dynamics, are relevant to understand and model the behavior of gaseous plasmas as well as ionosphere and astrophysical environments. Experimental determinations of the Kinetic Energy Released (KER for ions originating from dissociations reactions, induced by Coulomb explosion of doubly charged molecular ions (molecular dications produced by double photoionization of CO2, N2O and C2H2 molecules of interest in planetary atmospheres, are reported. The KER measurement as a function of the ultraviolet (UV photon energy in the range of 28–65 eV was extracted from the electron-ion-ion coincidence spectra obtained by using tunable synchrotron radiation coupled with ion imaging techniques at the ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Laboratory Trieste, Italy. These experiments, coupled with a computational analysis based on a Monte Carlo trajectory simulation, allow assessing the probability of escape for simple ionic species in the upper atmosphere of Mars, Venus and Titan. The measured KER in the case of H+, C+, CH+, CH2+, N+, O+, CO+, N2+ and NO+ fragment ions range between 1.0 and 5.5 eV, being large enough to allow these ionic species to participate in the atmospheric escape from such planets into space. In the case of Mars, we suggest a possible explanation for the observed behavior of the O+ and CO22+ ion density profiles.

  19. Escape from viscosity : the kinematics and hydrodynamics of copepod foraging and escape swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duren, LA; Videler, JJ

    Feeding and escape swimming in adult females of the calanoid copepod. Temora lopgicornis Muller were investigated and compared. Swimming velocities were calculated using a 3-D filming setup., Foraging velocities ranged between 2 and 6 min s(-1), while maximum velocities of up to 80 mm s(-1) were

  20. Titan's hydrodynamically escaping atmosphere: Escape rates and the structure of the exobase region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Darrell F.

    2009-08-01

    In Strobel [Strobel, D.F., 2008. Icarus, 193, 588-594] a mass loss rate from Titan's upper atmosphere, ˜4.5×10 amus, was calculated for a single constituent, N 2 atmosphere by hydrodynamic escape as a high density, slow outward expansion driven principally by solar UV heating due to CH 4 absorption. It was estimated, but not proven, that the hydrodynamic mass loss is essentially CH 4 and H 2 escape. Here the individual conservation of momentum equations for the three major components of the upper atmosphere (N 2, CH 4, H 2) are solved in the low Mach number limit and compared with Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements to demonstrate that light gases (CH 4, H 2) preferentially escape over the heavy gas (N 2). The lightest gas (H 2) escapes with a flux 99% of its limiting flux, whereas CH 4 is restricted to ⩾75% of its limiting flux because there is insufficient solar power to support escape at the limiting rate. The respective calculated H 2 and CH 4 escape rates are 9.2×10 and 1.7×10 s, for a total of ˜4.6×10 amus. From the calculated densities, mean free paths of N 2, CH 4, H 2, and macroscopic length scales, an extended region above the classic exobase is inferred where frequent collisions are still occurring and thermal heat conduction can deliver power to lift the escaping gas out of the gravitational potential well. In this region rapid acceleration of CH 4 outflow occurs. With the thermal structure of Titan's thermosphere inferred from INMS data by Müller-Wodarg et al. [Müller-Wodarg, I.C.F., Yelle, R.V., Cui, J., Waite Jr., J.H., 2008. J. Geophys. Res. 113, doi:10.1029/2007JE003033. E10005], in combination with calculated temperature profiles that include sputter induced plasma heating at the exobase, it is concluded that on average that the integrated, globally average, orbit-averaged, plasma heating rate during the Cassini epoch does not exceed ˜5×10 eVcms ( ˜0.0008 ergcms).

  1. ProxImaL: efficient image optimization using proximal algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix; Diamond, Steven; Nieß ner, Matthias; Ragan-Kelley, Jonathan; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Wetzstein, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    domain-specific language and compiler for image optimization problems that makes it easy to experiment with different problem formulations and algorithm choices. The language uses proximal operators as the fundamental building blocks of a variety

  2. Some Possible Cases of Escape Mimicry in Neotropical Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C E G; Freitas, A V L

    2014-10-01

    The possibility that escape or evasive mimicry evolved in butterflies and other prey insects in a similar fashion to classical Batesian and Müllerian mimicry has long been advanced in the literature. However, there is a general disagreement among lepidopterists and evolutionary biologists on whether or not escape mimicry exists, as well as in which mimicry rings this form of mimicry has evolved. Here, we review some purported cases of escape mimicry in Neotropical butterflies and suggest new mimicry rings involving several species of Archaeoprepona, Prepona, and Doxocopa (the "bright blue bands" ring) and species of Colobura and Hypna (the "creamy bands" ring) where the palatability of butterflies, their ability to escape predator attacks, geographic distribution, relative abundance, and co-occurrence in the same habitats strongly suggest that escape mimicry is involved. In addition, we also indicate other butterfly taxa whose similarities of coloration patterns could be due to escape mimicry and would constitute important case studies for future investigation.

  3. A proximity effect in adults' contamination intuitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Kim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Magical beliefs about contagion via contact (Rozin, Nemeroff, Wane, and Sherrod, 1989 may emerge when people overgeneralize real-world mechanisms of contamination beyond their appropriate boundaries (Lindeman and Aarnio, 2007. Do people similarly overextend knowledge of airborne contamination mechanisms? Previous work has shown that very young children believe merely being close to a contamination source can contaminate an item (Springer and Belk 1994; we asked whether this same hyper-avoidant intuition is also reflected in adults' judgments. In two studies, we measured adults' ratings of the desirability of an object that had made contact with a source of contamination, an object nearby that had made no contact with the contaminant, and an object far away that had also made no contact. Adults showed a clear proximity effect, wherein objects near the contamination source were perceived to be less desirable than those far away, even though a separate group of adults unanimously acknowledged that contaminants could not possibly have made contact with either the nearby or far-away object (Study 1. The proximity effect also remained robust when a third group of adults was explicitly told that no contaminating particles had made contact with the objects at any time (Study 2. We discuss implications of our findings for extending the scope of magical contagion effects beyond the contact principle, for understanding the persistence of intuitive theories despite broad acceptance of science-based theories, and for constraining interpretations of the developmental work on proximity beliefs.

  4. Automated guidance algorithms for a space station-based crew escape vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanary, R; Hammen, D G; Ito, D; Rabalais, B W; Rishikof, B H; Siebold, K H

    2003-04-01

    An escape vehicle was designed to provide an emergency evacuation for crew members living on a space station. For maximum escape capability, the escape vehicle needs to have the ability to safely evacuate a station in a contingency scenario such as an uncontrolled (e.g., tumbling) station. This emergency escape sequence will typically be divided into three events: The first separation event (SEP1), the navigation reconstruction event, and the second separation event (SEP2). SEP1 is responsible for taking the spacecraft from its docking port to a distance greater than the maximum radius of the rotating station. The navigation reconstruction event takes place prior to the SEP2 event and establishes the orbital state to within the tolerance limits necessary for SEP2. The SEP2 event calculates and performs an avoidance burn to prevent station recontact during the next several orbits. This paper presents the tools and results for the whole separation sequence with an emphasis on the two separation events. The first challenge includes collision avoidance during the escape sequence while the station is in an uncontrolled rotational state, with rotation rates of up to 2 degrees per second. The task of avoiding a collision may require the use of the Vehicle's de-orbit propulsion system for maximum thrust and minimum dwell time within the vicinity of the station vicinity. The thrust of the propulsion system is in a single direction, and can be controlled only by the attitude of the spacecraft. Escape algorithms based on a look-up table or analytical guidance can be implemented since the rotation rate and the angular momentum vector can be sensed onboard and a-priori knowledge of the position and relative orientation are available. In addition, crew intervention has been provided for in the event of unforeseen obstacles in the escape path. The purpose of the SEP2 burn is to avoid re-contact with the station over an extended period of time. Performing this maneuver requires

  5. A proximal point algorithm with generalized proximal distances to BEPs

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, G. C.; Neto, J. X. Cruz; Lopes, J. O.; Soares Jr, P. A.; Soubeyran, A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a bilevel problem involving two monotone equilibrium bifunctions and we show that this problem can be solved by a proximal point method with generalized proximal distances. We propose a framework for the convergence analysis of the sequences generated by the algorithm. This class of problems is very interesting because it covers mathematical programs and optimization problems under equilibrium constraints. As an application, we consider the problem of the stability and change dyna...

  6. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis...

  7. Pleiotropic effects of hemagglutinin amino acid substitutions of H5 influenza escape mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudneva, Irina A.; Timofeeva, Tatiana A.; Ignatieva, Anna V.; Shilov, Aleksandr A.; Krylov, Petr S.; Ilyushina, Natalia A.; Kaverin, Nikolai V.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we assessed pleiotropic characteristics of the antibody-selected mutations. We examined pH optimum of fusion, temperatures of HA heat inactivation, and in vitro and in vivo replication kinetics of the previously obtained influenza H5 escape mutants. Our results showed that HA1 N142K mutation significantly lowered the pH of fusion optimum. Mutations of the escape mutants located in the HA lateral loop significantly affected H5 HA thermostability (P<0.05). HA changes at positions 131, 144, 145, and 156 and substitutions at positions 131, 142, 145, and 156 affected the replicative ability of H5 escape mutants in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Overall, a co-variation between antigenic specificity and different HA phenotypic properties has been demonstrated. We believe that the monitoring of pleiotropic effects of the HA mutations found in H5 escape mutants is essential for accurate prediction of mutants with pandemic potential. - Highlights: • HA1 N142K mutation significantly lowered the pH of fusion optimum. • Mutations located in the HA lateral loop significantly affected H5 HA thermostability. • HA changes at positions 131, 142, 144, 145, and 156 affected the replicative ability of H5 mutants. • Acquisition of glycosylation site could lead to the emergence of multiple pleiotropic effects

  8. Pleiotropic effects of hemagglutinin amino acid substitutions of H5 influenza escape mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudneva, Irina A.; Timofeeva, Tatiana A.; Ignatieva, Anna V.; Shilov, Aleksandr A.; Krylov, Petr S. [D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, 123098 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ilyushina, Natalia A., E-mail: Natalia.Ilyushina@fda.hhs.gov [FDA CDER, 29 Lincoln Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Kaverin, Nikolai V., E-mail: nik.kaverin@gmail.com [D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, 123098 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    In the present study we assessed pleiotropic characteristics of the antibody-selected mutations. We examined pH optimum of fusion, temperatures of HA heat inactivation, and in vitro and in vivo replication kinetics of the previously obtained influenza H5 escape mutants. Our results showed that HA1 N142K mutation significantly lowered the pH of fusion optimum. Mutations of the escape mutants located in the HA lateral loop significantly affected H5 HA thermostability (P<0.05). HA changes at positions 131, 144, 145, and 156 and substitutions at positions 131, 142, 145, and 156 affected the replicative ability of H5 escape mutants in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Overall, a co-variation between antigenic specificity and different HA phenotypic properties has been demonstrated. We believe that the monitoring of pleiotropic effects of the HA mutations found in H5 escape mutants is essential for accurate prediction of mutants with pandemic potential. - Highlights: • HA1 N142K mutation significantly lowered the pH of fusion optimum. • Mutations located in the HA lateral loop significantly affected H5 HA thermostability. • HA changes at positions 131, 142, 144, 145, and 156 affected the replicative ability of H5 mutants. • Acquisition of glycosylation site could lead to the emergence of multiple pleiotropic effects.

  9. The atmospheric escape at Mars: complementing the scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilensten, Jean; Simon, Cyril; Barthélémy, Mathieu; Thissen, Roland; Ehrenreich, David; Gronoff, Guillaume; Witasse, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    In the recent years, the presence of dications in the atmospheres of Mars, Venus, Earth and Titan has been modeled and assessed. These studies also suggested that these ions could participate to the escape of the planetary atmospheres because a large fraction of them is unstable and highly ener- getic. When they dissociate, their internal energy is transformed into kinetic energy which may be larger than the escape energy. This study assesses the impact of the doubly-charged ions in the escape of CO2-dominated planetary atmospheres and to compare it to the escape of thermal photo-ions.We solve a Boltzmann transport equation at daytime taking into account the dissociative states of CO++ for a simplified single constituent atmosphere of a 2 case-study planet. We compute the escape of fast ions using a Beer-Lambert approach. We study three test-cases. On a Mars-analog planet in today's conditions, we retrieve the measured electron escape flux. When comparing the two mechanisms (i.e. excluding solar wind effects, sputtering ...), the escape due to the fast ions issuing from the dissociation of dications may account for up to 6% of the total and the escape of thermal ions for the remaining. We show that these two mechanisms cannot explain the escape of the atmosphere since the magnetic field vanished but complement the other processes and allow writing the scenario of the Mars escape. We show that the atmosphere of a Mars analog planet would empty in another giga years and a half. At Venus orbit, the contribution of the dications in the escape rate is negligible.When simulating the hot Jupiter HD209458b, the two processes cannot explain the measured escape flux of C+.

  10. Non-thermal escape of molecular hydrogen from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacesa, M.; Zhang, P.; Kharchenko, V.

    2012-05-01

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of non-thermal escape of molecular hydrogen from Mars induced by collisions with hot atomic oxygen from the Martian corona. To accurately describe the energy transfer in O + H2(v, j) collisions, we performed extensive quantum-mechanical calculations of state-to-state elastic, inelastic, and reactive cross sections. The escape flux of H2 molecules was evaluated using a simplified 1D column model of the Martian atmosphere with realistic densities of atmospheric gases and hot oxygen production rates for low solar activity conditions. An average intensity of the non-thermal escape flux of H2 of 1.9 × 105 cm-2s-1 was obtained considering energetic O atoms produced in dissociative recombinations of O2+ ions. Predicted ro-vibrational distribution of the escaping H2 was found to contain a significant fraction of higher rotational states. While the non-thermal escape rate was found to be lower than Jeans rate for H2 molecules, the non-thermal escape rates of HD and D2 are significantly higher than their respective Jeans rates. The accurate evaluation of the collisional escape flux of H2 and its isotopes is important for understanding non-thermal escape of molecules from Mars, as well as for the formation of hot H2 Martian corona. The described molecular ejection mechanism is general and expected to contribute to atmospheric escape of H2 and other light molecules from planets, satellites, and exoplanetary bodies.

  11. Investigating the Consequences of Interference between Multiple CD8+ T Cell Escape Mutations in Early HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Garcia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection multiple CD8+ T cell responses are elicited almost simultaneously. These responses exert strong selective pressures on different parts of HIV's genome, and select for mutations that escape recognition and are thus beneficial to the virus. Some studies reveal that the later these escape mutations emerge, the more slowly they go to fixation. This pattern of escape rate decrease(ERD can arise by distinct mechanisms. In particular, in large populations with high beneficial mutation rates interference among different escape strains--an effect that can emerge in evolution with asexual reproduction and results in delayed fixation times of beneficial mutations compared to sexual reproduction--could significantly impact the escape rates of mutations. In this paper, we investigated how interference between these concurrent escape mutations affects their escape rates in systems with multiple epitopes, and whether it could be a source of the ERD pattern. To address these issues, we developed a multilocus Wright-Fisher model of HIV dynamics with selection, mutation and recombination, serving as a null-model for interference. We also derived an interference-free null model assuming initial neutral evolution before immune response elicitation. We found that interference between several equally selectively advantageous mutations can generate the observed ERD pattern. We also found that the number of loci, as well as recombination rates substantially affect ERD. These effects can be explained by the underexponential decline of escape rates over time. Lastly, we found that the observed ERD pattern in HIV infected individuals is consistent with both independent, interference-free mutations as well as interference effects. Our results confirm that interference effects should be considered when analyzing HIV escape mutations. The challenge in estimating escape rates and mutation-associated selective

  12. 30 CFR 75.382 - Mechanical escape facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with brakes that can stop the fully loaded platform, cage, or other device. (c) Mechanical escape facilities, including automatic elevators, shall be examined weekly. The weekly examination of this equipment... cages, platforms, or elevators. (e) Mechanical escape facilities shall have rated capacities consistent...

  13. Buying to blunt negative feelings : Materialistic escape from the self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donnelly, Grant E.; Ksendzova, Masha; Howell, Ryan T.; Vohs, Kathleen D.; Baumeister, Roy F.

    2016-01-01

    We propose that escape theory, which describes how individuals seek to free themselves from aversive states of self-awareness, helps explain key patterns of materialistic people's behavior. As predicted by escape theory, materialistic individuals may feel dissatisfied with their standard of living,

  14. Teachers Offering Healthy Escape Options for Teenagers in Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaywell, Joan F.

    2005-01-01

    "[T]wenty-five percent of today's teenagers have inordinate emotional baggage beyond the normal angst of adolescence." This burden can lead to unhealthy escapes, including substance abuse, sexual activity, violence, eating disorders, and suicide. One healthy escape, however, lies in books, where students can read about teenagers living in painful…

  15. Escape of protists in predator-generated feeding currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The ciliate Strobilidium sp. and 2 flagellates, Chrysochromulina simplex and Gymnodinium sp., were exposed to predator-generated feeding currents, and their escape responses were quantified using 2- and 3-dimensional video techniques. All 3 studied organisms responded by escaping at a defined dis...

  16. Preliminary study on leadership proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinea Valentina Mihaela

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, it is agreed that effective leadership requires a certain degree of proximity, either physical or mental, which enables leaders to maintain control over their followers and communicate their vision. Although we agree with the leadership proximity principles which states that leaders are able to efficiently serve only those people with whom they interact frequently, in this article we focus instead on the disadvantages of being too close and the way in which close proximity can actually hurt the effectiveness of leadership. The main effects that we discuss regard the way in which proximity and familiarity allow followers to see the weaknesses and faults of the leader much more easily and thus diminish the leader’s heroic aura, and the emotional bias that results from a leader being too familiar with his followers which will impede the process of rational decision making. As a result, we argue that there exists a functional proximity which allows the leader the necessary space in which to perform effective identity work and to hide the backstage aspects of leadership, while also allowing him an emotional buffer zone which will enable him to maintain the ability to see clearly and make rational decisions.

  17. Viral CTL escape mutants are generated in lymph nodes and subsequently become fixed in plasma and rectal mucosa during acute SIV infection of macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H Vanderford

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available SIV(mac239 infection of rhesus macaques (RMs results in AIDS despite the generation of a strong antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response, possibly due to the emergence of viral escape mutants that prevent recognition of infected cells by CTLs. To determine the anatomic origin of these SIV mutants, we longitudinally assessed the presence of CTL escape variants in two MamuA*01-restricted immunodominant epitopes (Tat-SL8 and Gag-CM9 in the plasma, PBMCs, lymph nodes (LN, and rectal biopsies (RB of fifteen SIV(mac239-infected RMs. As expected, Gag-CM9 did not exhibit signs of escape before day 84 post infection. In contrast, Tat-SL8 escape mutants were apparent in all tissues by day 14 post infection. Interestingly LNs and plasma exhibited the highest level of escape at day 14 and day 28 post infection, respectively, with the rate of escape in the RB remaining lower throughout the acute infection. The possibility that CTL escape occurs in LNs before RBs is confirmed by the observation that the specific mutants found at high frequency in LNs at day 14 post infection became dominant at day 28 post infection in plasma, PBMC, and RB. Finally, the frequency of escape mutants in plasma at day 28 post infection correlated strongly with the level Tat-SL8-specific CD8 T cells in the LN and PBMC at day 14 post infection. These results indicate that LNs represent the primary source of CTL escape mutants during the acute phase of SIV(mac239 infection, suggesting that LNs are the main anatomic sites of virus replication and/or the tissues in which CTL pressure is most effective in selecting SIV escape variants.

  18. Immune escape strategies of malaria parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Stephanie Gomes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most life-threatening infectious diseases worldwide. Immunity to malaria is slow and short-lived despite the repeated parasite exposure in endemic areas. Malaria parasites have evolved refined machinery to evade the immune system based on a range of genetic changes that include allelic variation, biomolecular exposure of proteins and intracellular replication. All of these features increase the probability of survival in both mosquitoes and the vertebrate host. Plasmodium species escape from the first immunological trap in its invertebrate vector host, the Anopheles mosquitoes. The parasites have to pass through various immunological barriers within the mosquito such as anti-microbial molecules and the mosquito microbiota in order to achieve successful transmission to the vertebrate host. Within these hosts, Plasmodium species employ various immune evasion strategies during different life cycle stages. Parasite persistence against the vertebrate immune response depends on the balance among virulence factors, pathology, metabolic cost of the host immune response, and the parasites ability to evade the immune response. In this review we discuss the strategies that Plasmodium parasites use to avoid the vertebrate host immune system and how they promote successful infection and transmission.

  19. Nonthermal atmospheric escape from Mars and Titan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, H.; Bauer, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Energy flux spectra and particle concentrations of the hot O and N coronae from Mars and Titan, respectively, resulting primarily from dissociative recombination of molecular ions, have been calculated by means of a Monte Carlo method. The calculated energy flux spectra lead to an escape flux null esc ∼ 6 x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 for Mars and null esc ∼ 2 x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 for Titan, corresponding to a mass loss of about 0.14 kg/s for Mars and about 0.3 kg/s for Titan. (The contribution of electron impact ionization on N 2 amounts to only about 25% of Titan's mass loss.) Mass loss via solar and magnetospheric wind is also estimated using newly calculated mass loading limits. The mass loss via ion pickup from the extended hot atom corona for Mars amounts to about 0.25 kg/s (O + ) and for Titan to about 50 g/s (N 2 + or H 2 CN + ). Thus, the total mass loss rate from Mars and Titan is about the same, i.e., 0.4 kg/s

  20. Leishmania Hijacks Myeloid Cells for Immune Escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martínez-López

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a group of neglected tropical diseases whose clinical manifestations vary depending on the infectious Leishmania species but also on host factors. Recognition of the parasite by host myeloid immune cells is a key to trigger an effective Leishmania-specific immunity. However, the parasite is able to persist in host myeloid cells by evading, delaying and manipulating host immunity in order to escape host resistance and ensure its transmission. Neutrophils are first in infiltrating infection sites and could act either favoring or protecting against infection, depending on factors such as the genetic background of the host or the parasite species. Macrophages are the main host cells where the parasites grow and divide. However, macrophages are also the main effector population involved in parasite clearance. Parasite elimination by macrophages requires the priming and development of an effector Th1 adaptive immunity driven by specific subtypes of dendritic cells. Herein, we will provide a comprehensive outline of how myeloid cells regulate innate and adaptive immunity against Leishmania, and the mechanisms used by the parasites to promote their evasion and sabotage. Understanding the interactions between Leishmania and the host myeloid cells may lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches and improved vaccination to leishmaniases, an important worldwide health problem in which current therapeutic or preventive approaches are limited.

  1. Escape route simulator utilizing augmented reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Karen Salazar Ribeiro de; Mó, Antônio Carlos de A.; Santo, André Cotelli do E.; Silva, Marcio Henrique, E-mail: karensalazar.1190@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Universitário Carioca (UniCarioca), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Due to increasing demand and interest in the interaction of technology platforms and integration of different types of systems and technologies, some tools are already providing practical ways to develop integrated applications. The tools explored by this article are Unity, a platform for game development, and Vuforia, an SDK, software development kit, for augmented reality creation. The coalition proposal of these resources is to create an intuitive escape route that can be used for the evacuation of buildings or open spaces in view of imminent danger, such as radiation leakage, and that can be accessed from a target available at the institution. It has also the intention of simulating situations that involve training of personnel in order to obtain methods that allow to save financial resources, and even to avoid that those who are involved are exposed to risks unnecessarily. The simulator is expected to help design, test, and improve ways to maintain the physical integrity of the facility and provide end users with a better sense of immersion and attractiveness. (author)

  2. Escape route simulator utilizing augmented reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Karen Salazar Ribeiro de; Mó, Antônio Carlos de A.; Santo, André Cotelli do E.; Silva, Marcio Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing demand and interest in the interaction of technology platforms and integration of different types of systems and technologies, some tools are already providing practical ways to develop integrated applications. The tools explored by this article are Unity, a platform for game development, and Vuforia, an SDK, software development kit, for augmented reality creation. The coalition proposal of these resources is to create an intuitive escape route that can be used for the evacuation of buildings or open spaces in view of imminent danger, such as radiation leakage, and that can be accessed from a target available at the institution. It has also the intention of simulating situations that involve training of personnel in order to obtain methods that allow to save financial resources, and even to avoid that those who are involved are exposed to risks unnecessarily. The simulator is expected to help design, test, and improve ways to maintain the physical integrity of the facility and provide end users with a better sense of immersion and attractiveness. (author)

  3. Dications and thermal ions in planetary atmospheric escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilensten, J.; Simon Wedlund, C.; Barthélémy, M.; Thissen, R.; Ehrenreich, D.; Gronoff, G.; Witasse, O.

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, the presence of dications in the atmospheres of Mars, Venus, Earth and Titan has been modeled and assessed. These studies also suggested that these ions could participate to the escape of the planetary atmospheres because a large fraction of them is unstable and highly energetic. When they dissociate, their internal energy is transformed into kinetic energy which may be larger than the escape energy. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of the doubly-charged ions in the escape of CO2-dominated planetary atmospheres and to compare it to the escape of thermal photo-ions. We solve a Boltzmann transport equation at daytime taking into account the dissociative states of CO2++ for a simplified single constituent atmosphere of a case-study planet. We compute the escape of fast ions using a Beer-Lambert approach. We study three test-cases. On a Mars-analog planet in today's conditions, we retrieve the measured electron escape flux. When comparing the two mechanisms (i.e. excluding solar wind effects, sputtering, etc.), the escape due to the fast ions issuing from the dissociation of dications may account for up to 6% of the total and the escape of thermal ions for the remaining. We show that these two mechanisms cannot explain the escape of the atmosphere since the magnetic field vanished and even contribute only marginally to this loss. We show that with these two mechanisms, the atmosphere of a Mars analog planet would empty in another giga years and a half. At Venus orbit, the contribution of the dications in the escape rate is negligible. When simulating the hot Jupiter HD 209458 b, the two processes cannot explain the measured escape flux of C+. This study shows that the dications may constitute a source of the escape of planetary atmospheres which had not been taken into account until now. This source, although marginal, is not negligible. The influence of the photoionization is of course large, but cannot explain alone the loss of Mars

  4. The return of international labour migrants in the ESCAP Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    The social phenomenon of massive temporary international labor migration from the ESCAP region has emerged extremely rapidly. Within 10 years, the number of persons from ESCAP countries grew from a negligible one to 3.5 million. Related research and government policies have lagged behind this latest surge in migration. Most research conducted has been small-scale and lacks an analytical or theoretical framework. Policy formulation for temporary labor migration is difficult because most of the rapid growth in the industry has occurred as a result of private efforts, with a minimum of government intervention. It is now difficult, for the government to provide effective regulations or measures to stimulate and assist the process. Regulations on compulsory remittances or overseas minimum wages have proved to be unrealistic and, if not rescinded, are routinely circumvented. The most effective policies to assist return migrants may not be those which are intended to do so, but those which control the earlier stages of the migration process, such as recruitment, working conditions, and banking arrangements. The most valuable policies may also include those affecting education, training, employment, and general socioeconomic growth. Governments are recommended to provide social services for migrants and their families who are experiencing problems, and to institute community programs in areas with a large number of labor migrants. Governmental efforts to promote forms of labor migration beneficial to the workers would be valuable and should include measures to identify overseas labor markets for employing its nationals, government ot government labor contracts, and government participation in joint-venture projects. International migration should be analyzed in the context of theories and social change in order for governments to formulate effective measures for the reintegration of returning workers. Labor migration on the current scale has many social implications for

  5. A New Paradigm for Evaluating Avoidance/Escape Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Bouchekioua, Youcef; Mimura, Masaru; Tanaka, Kenji F

    2017-07-01

    Organisms have evolved to approach pleasurable opportunities and to avoid or escape from aversive experiences. These 2 distinct motivations are referred to as approach and avoidance/escape motivations and are both considered vital for survival. Despite several recent advances in understanding the neurobiology of motivation, most studies addressed approach but not avoidance/escape motivation. Here we develop a new experimental paradigm to quantify avoidance/escape motivation and examine the pharmacological validity. We set up an avoidance variable ratio 5 task in which mice were required to press a lever for variable times to avoid an upcoming aversive stimulus (foot shock) or to escape the ongoing aversive event if they failed to avoid it. We i.p. injected ketamine (0, 1, or 5 mg/kg) or buspirone (0, 5, or 10 mg/kg) 20 or 30 minutes before the behavioral task to see if ketamine enhanced avoidance/escape behavior and buspirone diminished it as previously reported. We found that the performance on the avoidance variable ratio 5 task was sensitive to the intensity of the aversive stimulus. Treatment with ketamine increased while that with buspirone decreased the probability of avoidance from an aversive stimulus in the variable ratio 5 task, being consistent with previous reports. Our new paradigm will prove useful for quantifying avoidance/escape motivation and will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of motivation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  6. The Toxiscape Hunt: An Escape Room-Scavenger Hunt for Toxicology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Boysen-Osborn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scavenger hunt/escape room is a didactic activity for emergency medicine residents or fourth-year medical students rotating in emergency medicine. Introduction: Between 2008-2011, 1.1 million patients presented to U.S. emergency departments each year for poisonings,1 including acute ingestions, envenomations, occupational exposures, and overdoses. Toxicologic exposures are considered part of the core curriculum for emergency medicine (EM residents, who must understand the presentation and treatment of such patients.2 Educating residents in a unique, engaging format such as an “escape room” activity provides an alternative to the didactic format of teaching this material, which may build medical knowledge and team rapport amongst residents.3 Objectives: By the end of the activity, learners should be able to: Calculate an anion and osmolal gap. Recognize poisonings amenable to hemodialysis. Interpret EKG changes related to a variety of ingestions, including beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers, digitalis, and tricyclic antidepressants. Recognize poisonous plants and their clinical toxidromes. Calculate loading dose of N-acetylcysteine as antidote for acute acetaminophen ingestion. Collaborate as a team to arrive at solutions of problems. Recognize poisons that have available antidotes Know the clinical effect of various types of snake envenomations. Recognize the toxicity associated with at least four household chemicals. Know the antidotes for six common poisonings. Methods: This didactic exercise is a small group activity, utilizing puzzles to apply toxicology knowledge.

  7. MAVEN Pickup Ion Constraints on Mars Neutral Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, A.; Larson, D. E.; Cravens, T.; Lillis, R. J.; Dunn, P.; Halekas, J. S.; McFadden, J. P.; Mitchell, D. L.; Thiemann, E.; Connerney, J. E. P.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Espley, J. R.; Eparvier, F. G.

    2017-12-01

    Mars is currently losing its atmosphere mainly due to the escape of neutral hydrogen and oxygen. Directly measuring the rate of escaping neutrals is difficult, because the neutral density in the Mars exosphere is dominated, up to several Martian radii, by atoms that are gravitationally bound to the planet. Neutral atoms in the Martian exosphere, however, can get ionized, picked up, and accelerated by the solar wind motional electric field and energized to energies high enough for particle detectors to measure them. The MAVEN SEP instrument detects O+ pickup ions that are created at altitudes where the escaping part of the exosphere is dominant. Fluxes of these ions reflect neutral densities in the distant exosphere of Mars, allowing us to constrain neutral oxygen escape rates. The MAVEN SWIA and STATIC instruments measure pickup H+ and O+ created closer to Mars; comparisons of these data with models can be used to constrain exospheric hot O and thermal H densities and escape rates. In this work, pickup ion measurements from SEP, SWIA, and STATIC, taken during the first 3 Earth years of the MAVEN mission, are compared to the outputs of a pickup ion model to constrain the variability of neutral escape at Mars. The model is based on data from six MAVEN instruments, namely, MAG providing magnetic field used in calculating pickup ion trajectories, SWIA providing solar wind velocity as well as 3D pickup H+ and O+ spectra, SWEA providing solar wind electron spectrum used in electron impact ionization rate calculations, SEP providing pickup O+ spectra, STATIC providing mass resolved 3D pickup H+ and O+ spectra, and EUVM providing solar EUV spectra used in photoionization rate calculations. A variability of less than a factor of two is observed in hot oxygen escape rates, whereas thermal escape of hydrogen varies by an order of magnitude with Mars season. This hydrogen escape variability challenges our understanding of the H cycle at Mars, but is consistent with other

  8. Air Pollution and Nonmalignant Respiratory Mortality in 16 Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Samoli, Evangelia; Beelen, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Prospective cohort studies have shown that chronic exposure to particulate matter and traffic related air pollution is associated with reduced survival. However, the effects on non-malignant respiratory mortality are less studied and those reported are less consistent. Objectives: We...... have investigated the relationship of long-term exposure to air pollution and non-malignant respiratory mortality in 16 cohorts with individual level data within the multi center European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Methods: Data from 16 ongoing cohort studies from Europe were...... used. The total number of subjects was 307,553. There were 1,559 respiratory deaths during follow-up. Measurements: Air pollution exposure was estimated by land use regression models at the baseline residential addresses of study participants and traffic-proximity variables were derived from...

  9. Neurovascular plexus theory for "escape pain phenomenon" in lower third molar surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gururaj Arakeri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain during extraction of impacted mandibular third molars which can occur despite adequate local anesthesia is termed as "escape pain phenomenon". Recently, it was described during elevation of a mesioangular impacted mandibular third molar and also while curetting an extracted third molar socket. This phenomenon has been overlooked, as it was previously considered secondary to pressure effect on the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle (IANB. However, it is unlikely that the pain impulses originate from direct pressure on the IANB, as the nerve is blocked more proximally at its entry into the mandible. The authors speculated that the occasional presence of a neurovascular plexus (NVP independent of the IANB causes the escape of a pain impulse upon stimulation by root pressure or instrumentation. To validate the presence of such a plexus, a meticulous literature search and review were performed. The search revealed evidence of the occasional presence of a NVP consisting of auriculotemporal and/or retromolar neural filaments. The plexus may be present around the inferior alveolar artery or embedded within the IANB, and does not innervate the tooth. This plexus likely propagates pain impulses only upon stimulation by compression or instrumentation in the apical area of the tooth socket. This theory explains the absence of pain during tooth sectioning and bone guttering in the presence of a complete inferior alveolar nerve block.

  10. Escape/Aggression Incidence in Sexually Abused Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, John W.; Gutierres, Sara E.

    1979-01-01

    Reports a continuation of prior research testing a theoretical model which predicts that juveniles subjected to abuse will not become aggressive but will engage in escape and social avoidance behaviors. Analysis supported the hypothesis. (Author)

  11. 30 CFR 57.11053 - Escape and evacuation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of principal air flow, location of escape routes and locations of existing telephones, primary fans... maps or diagrams shall be posted at all shaft stations and in underground shops, lunchrooms, and...

  12. Amplitude modulation control of escape from a potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacón, R.; Martínez García-Hoz, A.; Miralles, J.J.; Martínez, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of periodic amplitude modulations in controlling (suppressing and enhancing) escape from a potential well through the universal model of a damped Helmholtz oscillator subjected to an external periodic excitation (the escape-inducing excitation) whose amplitude is periodically modulated (the escape-controlling excitation). Analytical and numerical results show that this multiplicative control works reliably for different subharmonic resonances between the two periodic excitations involved, and that its effectiveness is comparable to those of different methods of additive control. Additionally, we demonstrate the robustness of the multiplicative control against the presence of low-intensity Gaussian noise. -- Highlights: •Multiplicative control of escape from a potential well has been demonstrated. •Theoretical predictions are obtained from a Melnikov analysis. •It has been shown the robustness of the multiplicative control against noise.

  13. Escape panels in trawls – a consistent management tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent; Feekings, Jordan P.

    2016-01-01

    ), saithe (Pollachius virens), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus). Thus the modification by fishers of certain gear properties not specified in the legislation can significantly influence the efficiency of an escape panel. We discuss...

  14. ProxImaL: efficient image optimization using proximal algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2016-07-11

    Computational photography systems are becoming increasingly diverse, while computational resources-for example on mobile platforms-are rapidly increasing. As diverse as these camera systems may be, slightly different variants of the underlying image processing tasks, such as demosaicking, deconvolution, denoising, inpainting, image fusion, and alignment, are shared between all of these systems. Formal optimization methods have recently been demonstrated to achieve state-of-the-art quality for many of these applications. Unfortunately, different combinations of natural image priors and optimization algorithms may be optimal for different problems, and implementing and testing each combination is currently a time-consuming and error-prone process. ProxImaL is a domain-specific language and compiler for image optimization problems that makes it easy to experiment with different problem formulations and algorithm choices. The language uses proximal operators as the fundamental building blocks of a variety of linear and nonlinear image formation models and cost functions, advanced image priors, and noise models. The compiler intelligently chooses the best way to translate a problem formulation and choice of optimization algorithm into an efficient solver implementation. In applications to the image processing pipeline, deconvolution in the presence of Poisson-distributed shot noise, and burst denoising, we show that a few lines of ProxImaL code can generate highly efficient solvers that achieve state-of-the-art results. We also show applications to the nonlinear and nonconvex problem of phase retrieval.

  15. GREEN PEA GALAXIES REVEAL SECRETS OF Lyα ESCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, Junxian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E. [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration (United States); Gronke, Max; Dijkstra, Mark [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo (Norway); Jaskot, Anne [Smith College, Northampton, MA (United States); Zheng, Zhenya, E-mail: yanghuan@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: huan.y@asu.edu, E-mail: Sangeeta.Malhotra@asu.edu, E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-04-01

    We analyze archival Lyα spectra of 12 “Green Pea” galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, model their Lyα profiles with radiative transfer models, and explore the dependence of the Lyα escape fraction on various properties. Green Pea galaxies are nearby compact starburst galaxies with [O iii] λ5007 equivalent widths (EWs) of hundreds of Å. All 12 Green Pea galaxies in our sample show Lyα lines in emission, with an Lyα EW distribution similar to high-redshift Lyα emitters. Combining the optical and UV spectra of Green Pea galaxies, we estimate their Lyα escape fractions and find correlations between Lyα escape fraction and kinematic features of Lyα profiles. The escape fraction of Lyα in these galaxies ranges from 1.4% to 67%. We also find that the Lyα escape fraction depends strongly on metallicity and moderately on dust extinction. We compare their high-quality Lyα profiles with single H i shell radiative transfer models and find that the Lyα escape fraction anticorrelates with the derived H i column densities. Single-shell models fit most Lyα profiles well, but not the ones with the highest escape fractions of Lyα. Our results suggest that low H i column density and low metallicity are essential for Lyα escape and make a galaxy an Lyα emitter.

  16. The influence of panic on the efficiency of escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jia-Quan; Wang, Xu-Wen; Jiang, Luo-Luo

    2018-02-01

    Whenever we (such as pedestrians) perceive a high density or imminent danger in a confined space, we tend to be panic, which can lead to severe injuries even in the absence of real dangers. Although it is difficult to measure panics in real conditions, we introduced a simple model to study the collective behaviors in condition of fire with dense smoke. Owing to blocking the sight with dense smoke, pedestrians in this condition have two strategies to escape: random-walking or walking along the wall. When the pedestrians are in moderate panic that mean the two types of behaviors are mixed(random-walking and walking along the wall). Our simulation results show that moderate panic, meaning that two escape strategies are mixed, reduces the escape time. In addition, the results indicate that moderate panic can improve the efficiency of escape, this theory also can be useful in a real escape situation. We hope that our research provides the theoretical understanding of underlying mechanisms of panic escape in the condition of poor sight.

  17. Species-specific escape of Plasmodium sporozoites from oocysts of avian, rodent, and human malarial parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfano, Alessandra S; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Duarte, Ana P M; Villegas, Luis M; Rodrigues, Nilton B; Pinto, Luciana C; Campos, Keillen M M; Pinilla, Yudi T; Chaves, Bárbara; Barbosa Guerra, Maria G V; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Smith, Ryan C; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Secundino, Nágila F C; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Pimenta, Paulo F P

    2016-08-02

    Malaria is transmitted when an infected mosquito delivers Plasmodium sporozoites into a vertebrate host. There are many species of Plasmodium and, in general, the infection is host-specific. For example, Plasmodium gallinaceum is an avian parasite, while Plasmodium berghei infects mice. These two parasites have been extensively used as experimental models of malaria transmission. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the most important agents of human malaria, a life-threatening disease of global importance. To complete their life cycle, Plasmodium parasites must traverse the mosquito midgut and form an oocyst that will divide continuously. Mature oocysts release thousands of sporozoites into the mosquito haemolymph that must reach the salivary gland to infect a new vertebrate host. The current understanding of the biology of oocyst formation and sporozoite release is mostly based on experimental infections with P. berghei, and the conclusions are generalized to other Plasmodium species that infect humans without further morphological analyses. Here, it is described the microanatomy of sporozoite escape from oocysts of four Plasmodium species: the two laboratory models, P. gallinaceum and P. berghei, and the two main species that cause malaria in humans, P. vivax and P. falciparum. It was found that sporozoites have species-specific mechanisms of escape from the oocyst. The two model species of Plasmodium had a common mechanism, in which the oocyst wall breaks down before sporozoites emerge. In contrast, P. vivax and P. falciparum sporozoites show a dynamic escape mechanism from the oocyst via polarized propulsion. This study demonstrated that Plasmodium species do not share a common mechanism of sporozoite escape, as previously thought, but show complex and species-specific mechanisms. In addition, the knowledge of this phenomenon in human Plasmodium can facilitate transmission-blocking studies and not those ones only based on the murine and avian models.

  18. PROXIMAL: a method for Prediction of Xenobiotic Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofshahi, Mona; Manteiga, Sara; Wu, Charmian; Lee, Kyongbum; Hassoun, Soha

    2015-12-22

    Contamination of the environment with bioactive chemicals has emerged as a potential public health risk. These substances that may cause distress or disease in humans can be found in air, water and food supplies. An open question is whether these chemicals transform into potentially more active or toxic derivatives via xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes expressed in the body. We present a new prediction tool, which we call PROXIMAL (Prediction of Xenobiotic Metabolism) for identifying possible transformation products of xenobiotic chemicals in the liver. Using reaction data from DrugBank and KEGG, PROXIMAL builds look-up tables that catalog the sites and types of structural modifications performed by Phase I and Phase II enzymes. Given a compound of interest, PROXIMAL searches for substructures that match the sites cataloged in the look-up tables, applies the corresponding modifications to generate a panel of possible transformation products, and ranks the products based on the activity and abundance of the enzymes involved. PROXIMAL generates transformations that are specific for the chemical of interest by analyzing the chemical's substructures. We evaluate the accuracy of PROXIMAL's predictions through case studies on two environmental chemicals with suspected endocrine disrupting activity, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB3). Comparisons with published reports confirm 5 out of 7 and 17 out of 26 of the predicted derivatives for BPA and PCB3, respectively. We also compare biotransformation predictions generated by PROXIMAL with those generated by METEOR and Metaprint2D-react, two other prediction tools. PROXIMAL can predict transformations of chemicals that contain substructures recognizable by human liver enzymes. It also has the ability to rank the predicted metabolites based on the activity and abundance of enzymes involved in xenobiotic transformation.

  19. Discussion on environment control technology of escaping cavern to uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yongkai

    2012-01-01

    As the important refuge of Uranium Mines, the environment of Escaping Cavern is important to the miner's life. In order to attain the standard of Environment Control, the paper gave the method of Environment Control to the fire danger, pervious, collapse; Gave the isolating prevention time; represented the scheme of compressed-air self-help system, high pressure oxygen system, emergency oxygen system; Introduced the air purge equipment to handle the CO, CO 2 , bacterium and other harmful gas. At the same time, gave the method to control the temperature with the phase-change materials and private prevention. (author)

  20. Electromagnetic properties of proximity systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresin, Vladimir Z.

    1985-07-01

    Magnetic screening in the proximity system Sα-Mβ, where Mβ is a normal metal N, semiconductor (semimetal), or a superconductor, is studied. Main attention is paid to the low-temperature region where nonlocality plays an important role. The thermodynamic Green's-function method is employed in order to describe the behavior of the proximity system in an external field. The temperature and thickness dependences of the penetration depth λ are obtained. The dependence λ(T) differs in a striking way from the dependence in usual superconductors. The strong-coupling effect is taken into account. A special case of screening in a superconducting film backed by a size-quantizing semimetal film is considered. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data.

  1. Electromagnetic properties of proximity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresin, V.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic screening in the proximity system S/sub α/-M/sub β/, where M/sub β/ is a normal metal N, semiconductor (semimetal), or a superconductor, is studied. Main attention is paid to the low-temperature region where nonlocality plays an important role. The thermodynamic Green's-function method is employed in order to describe the behavior of the proximity system in an external field. The temperature and thickness dependences of the penetration depth lambda are obtained. The dependence lambda(T) differs in a striking way from the dependence in usual superconductors. The strong-coupling effect is taken into account. A special case of screening in a superconducting film backed by a size-quantizing semimetal film is considered. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data

  2. Temperature as a proximate factor in orientation behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, W.W.

    1977-05-01

    Temperature serves as a proximate factor (cue, guidepost, sign stimulus, or directive factor) affecting locomotor responses of fishes. Although temperature can also serve as an ultimate ecological factor, as in behavioral thermoregulation, nonthermal factors may in some cases provide the ultimate adaptive or ecological value of a temperature response; some examples are habitat selection, intraspecific size segregation, interspecific niche differentiation, isolating mechanisms, predator avoidance, prey location, escape reactions, and migrations (thermoperiodic, diel, seasonal, spawning). Conversely, nonthermal variables such as light intensity or water depth may act as accessory proximate factors in thermoregulation. In spawning migrations, thermal requirements of eggs and larvae may take precedence over the (often different) preferenda or optima of adults. Although thermal responses of fishes are largely innate and species specific, ontogenetic and other changes can occur. Since temperature can serve as an unconditioned reinforcer in operant conditioning, thermal responses are not limited to simple kineses or taxes. Nonthermal factors such as photoperiod, circadian rhythms, currents, social and biotic interactions, stresses, infections, or chemicals can affect thermal responses, and may account for some lack of conformity between laboratory preferenda and field distributions and behaviors.

  3. Symmetry-based reciprocity: evolutionary constraints on a proximate mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campennì, Marco; Schino, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the evolution of reciprocal cooperation has attracted an enormous attention, the proximate mechanisms underlying the ability of animals to cooperate reciprocally are comparatively neglected. Symmetry-based reciprocity is a hypothetical proximate mechanism that has been suggested to be widespread among cognitively unsophisticated animals. Methods. We developed two agent-based models of symmetry-based reciprocity (one relying on an arbitrary tag and the other on interindividual proximity) and tested their ability both to reproduce significant emergent features of cooperation in group living animals and to promote the evolution of cooperation. Results. Populations formed by agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity showed differentiated "social relationships" and a positive correlation between cooperation given and received: two common aspects of animal cooperation. However, when reproduction and selection across multiple generations were added to the models, agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity were outcompeted by selfish agents that never cooperated. Discussion. In order to evolve, hypothetical proximate mechanisms must be able to stand competition from alternative strategies. While the results of our simulations require confirmation using analytical methods, we provisionally suggest symmetry-based reciprocity is to be abandoned as a possible proximate mechanism underlying the ability of animals to reciprocate cooperative interactions.

  4. Proximity effect at Millikelvin temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Proximity effects have been studied extensively for the past 25 years. Typically, they are in films several thousand angstroms thick at temperatures not so far below T/sub CNS/, the transition temperature of the NS system. Interesting is, however, the proximity effect at temperatures much lower than T/sub CNS/. In this case, the Cooper-pair amplitudes are not small and very long pair penetration lengths into the normal metal can be expected. Thus, we have observed pair penetration lengths. For these investigations very suitable specimens are commercial wires of one filament of NbTi or Nb embedded in a copper matrix. The reasons are the high transmission coefficient at the interface between the copper and the superconductor and the fact that the copper in these commercial wires is rather clean with electron free paths between 5 to 10 μm long. In this paper, the magnetic properties of thick proximity systems in the range of temperatures between T/sub CNS/ and 5 x 10/sup -4/ T/sub CNS/ in both low and high magnetic fields are discussed

  5. Ion escape fluxes from the terrestrial high-latitude ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, A.R.; Schunk, R.W.; Moore, T.E.; Waite, J.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The coupled continuity and momentum equations for H + , O + , and electrons were solved for the terrestrial ionosphere in order to determine the limiting ion escape fluxes at high latitudes. The effects of solar cycle, season, geomagnetic activity, and the altitude of the acceleration region on the ion escape fluxes were studied for average conditions. In addition, a systematic parameter study was conducted to determine the extent to which variations in ionospheric conditions (for example, electron temperature, ion temperature, induced vertical ion drifts, etc.) can affect the results. The main conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) as solar activity increases, the general trend is for an increase in the limiting O + escape flux and a decrease in the limiting H + escape flux; (2) in winter the limiting escape fluxes of both O + and H + are larger than those in summer, particularly for low geomagnetic activity; (3) the O + content of the ion outflow increases with increasing ''demand'' imposed on the ionosphere by a high-altitude acceleration process, with increasing solar activity, with increasing geomagnetic activity, with increasing solar elevation from winter to summer, and with a lowering of the altitude of the acceleration region; (4) when H + is in a near-diffusive equilibrium state and a selective mechanism accelerates O + , the limiting O + escape flux is significantly reduced compared to that obtained when an H + outflow also occurs; and (5) at a given time or location the general trends described above can be significantly modified or even reversed owing to natural variations of the ionospheric ion and electron temperatures, induced vertical ion drifts, etc. The general trends obtained for average conditions appear to mimic the qualitative behavior determined from statistically averaged data for comparable absolute escape flux magnitudes

  6. Social networks, geographic proximity, and firm performance in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Emma

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses panel data to assess the relative importance of social networks and geographic proximity to micro, small, and medium enterprises in Viet Nam. The results suggest that a larger social network, and hiring employees mainly through social networks, are both correlated with higher value added per worker. The number of government officials and civil servants in a firm's network emerges as particularly important. When the quality of contacts is controlled for, firms with tighter soci...

  7. To run or hide?: escape behaviour in a cryptic African snake | Maritz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal escape theory predicts that escape behaviour of an organism is best understood in terms of costs and benefits of escaping relative to risk of predation. However, risk of predation facing an organism is dependent on various biotic and abiotic factors. In order to better understand escape behaviour of an African snake, ...

  8. Improving escape panel selectivity in Nephrops directed fisheries by actively stimulating fish behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent; Feekings, Jordan P.

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency of escape panels inserted in trawls relies on fish actively attempting to escape through them. However, several studies indicate that most fish drift towards the aft end of the trawl, passing the escape panel through which they easily could have escaped, without making contact with...

  9. THE ESCAPE FRACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION FROM GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, Andrew; Venkatesan, Aparna; Shull, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    The escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies plays a critical role in the evolution of gas in galaxies, and the heating and ionization history of the intergalactic medium. We present semi-analytic calculations of the escape fraction of ionizing radiation for both hydrogen and helium from galaxies ranging from primordial systems to disk-type galaxies that are not heavily dust-obscured. We consider variations in the galaxy density profile, source type, location, and spectrum, and gas overdensity/distribution factors. For sufficiently hard first-light sources, the helium ionization fronts closely track or advance beyond that of hydrogen. Key new results in this work include calculations of the escape fractions for He I and He II ionizing radiation, and the impact of partial ionization from X-rays from early active galactic nuclei or stellar clusters on the escape fractions from galaxy halos. When factoring in frequency-dependent effects, we find that X-rays play an important role in boosting the escape fractions for both hydrogen and helium, but especially for He II. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for recent observations of the He II reionization epoch at low redshifts, as well as the UV data and emission-line signatures from early galaxies anticipated from future satellite missions.

  10. THE ESCAPE FRACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION FROM GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Andrew [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Venkatesan, Aparna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Shull, J. Michael, E-mail: abenson@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: avenkatesan@usfca.edu, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies plays a critical role in the evolution of gas in galaxies, and the heating and ionization history of the intergalactic medium. We present semi-analytic calculations of the escape fraction of ionizing radiation for both hydrogen and helium from galaxies ranging from primordial systems to disk-type galaxies that are not heavily dust-obscured. We consider variations in the galaxy density profile, source type, location, and spectrum, and gas overdensity/distribution factors. For sufficiently hard first-light sources, the helium ionization fronts closely track or advance beyond that of hydrogen. Key new results in this work include calculations of the escape fractions for He I and He II ionizing radiation, and the impact of partial ionization from X-rays from early active galactic nuclei or stellar clusters on the escape fractions from galaxy halos. When factoring in frequency-dependent effects, we find that X-rays play an important role in boosting the escape fractions for both hydrogen and helium, but especially for He II. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for recent observations of the He II reionization epoch at low redshifts, as well as the UV data and emission-line signatures from early galaxies anticipated from future satellite missions.

  11. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-01-01

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors)

  12. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-12-31

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  13. Escape behaviour of birds in urban parks and cemeteries across Europe: Evidence of behavioural adaptation to human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Federico; Mikula, Peter; Benedetti, Yanina; Bussière, Raphaël; Jerzak, Leszek; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2018-08-01

    Urban environments are very heterogeneous, and birds living in the proximity of humans have to adapt to local conditions, e.g. by changing their behavioural response to potential predators. In this study, we tested whether the escape distance of birds (measured as flight initiation distance; FID) differed between parks and cemeteries, areas characterized by different microhabitat conditions and human conduct, that are determinants of animal behaviour at large spatial scales. While escape behaviour of park populations of birds was often examined, cemetery populations have not been studied to the same extent and a large-scale comparison is still missing. Overall, we collected 2139 FID estimates for 44 bird species recorded in 79 parks and 90 cemeteries in four European countries: Czech Republic, France, Italy and Poland. Mixed model procedure was applied to study escape behaviour in relation to type of area (park or cemetery), environmental characteristics (area size, coverage by trees, shrubs, grass, chapels, tombstones, flowerbeds, number of street lamps) and human activity (human density, pedestrians speed and ratio of men/women). Birds allowed people closer in cemeteries than in parks in all countries. This pattern was persistent even when focusing on intraspecific differences in FID between populations of the most common bird species. Escape distance of birds was negatively correlated with the size of parks/cemeteries, while positively associated with tombstone coverage and human density in both types of habitat. Our findings highlight the ability of birds to adapt their behaviour to different types of urban areas, based on local environmental conditions, including the character of human-bird interactions. Our results also suggest that this behavioural pattern may be widespread across urban landscapes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Passive Facebook use, Facebook addiction, and associations with escapism: an experimental vignette study

    OpenAIRE

    Young, LN; Kuss, DJ; Griffiths, MD; Howard, CJ

    2017-01-01

    There is relatively little research considering motivations of passive Facebook use. However, research regarding motivations of general Facebook use indicates that people use Facebook to escape – and that escapism may motivate passive Facebook use. Research also suggests that using Facebook to escape is associated with Facebook addiction. Using an experimental vignette design, the present research investigated whether passive Facebook use is motivated by escapism and whether this escape motiv...

  15. Escaping and Falling into Poverty in India Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorat, Amit; Vanneman, Reeve; Desai, Sonalde; Dubey, Amaresh

    2017-05-01

    The study examines the dynamic nature of movements into and out of poverty over a period when poverty has fallen substantially in India. The analysis identifies people who escaped poverty and those who fell into it over the period 2005 to 2012. The analysis identifies people who escaped poverty and those who fell into it over the period 2005 to 2012. Using panel data from the India Human Development Survey for 2005 and 2012, we find that the risks of marginalized communities such as Dalits and Adivasis of falling into or remaining in poverty were higher than those for more privileged groups. Some, but not all of these higher risks are explained by educational, financial, and social disadvantages of these groups in 2005. Results from a logistic regression show that some factors that help people escape poverty differ from those that push people into it and that the strength of their effects varies.

  16. Escape response of planktonic protists to fluid mechanical signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

    2001-01-01

    The escape response to fluid mechanical signals was examined in 6 protists, 4 ciliates and 2 dinoflagellates. When exposed to a siphon flow. 3 species of ciliates, Balanion comatum, Strobilidium sp., and Mesodinium pulex, responded with escape jumps. The threshold deformation rates required...... times lower than that of a non-jumping similar sized protist when the predator was Temora longicornis, which captures prey entrained in a feeding current. However, when the predator was the ambush- feeding copepod Acartia tonsa, the predation mortalities of jumping and non-jumping protists were...... of similar magnitude. Escape responses may thus be advantageous in some situations. However, jumping behaviour may also enhance susceptibility to some predators, explaining the different predator avoidance strategies (jumping or not) that have evolved in planktonic protists....

  17. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-06-01

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds’ escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds’ cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier.

  18. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-01-01

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds’ escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds’ cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier. PMID:26123532

  19. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-06-30

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds' escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds' cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier.

  20. The relationship between migration and development in the ESCAP region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, R

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between migration and development in the ESCAP region including southeast and south Asian countries and the Pacific island of Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, Kiribati, Samoa, and the Solomon Islands is discussed in terms of mobility transition and origin and destination factors. The changing patterns of mobility in Asia are further delineated in the discussion of internal movements and international movement. Emigration in the smaller countries of the Pacific are treated separately. Future predictions are that the Asia Pacific region will experience continued fertility decline and stabilization of low rates over the next 20 years. The declines will result in slow labor force growth, and increased demand for labor in traditional core and neocore countries as defined and presented in table form by Friedman will be heightened. International movements are likely to increase in large urban areas within destination countries. Tokyo and Singapore are the principal cities in Asia. Tokyo by restrictive government policy has limited immigration, but future labor shortages of unskilled labor from southeast Asia and China are expected. Singapore is already dependent on foreign labor by 10%. Current labor shortages have led to the creation of a growth triangle between Singapore, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Other cities expected to emerge as primary cities in international regional complexes with spillover into the hinterlands include the Hong Kong, Guangzhou, and Macau triangle in the Pearl River delta, Taipei and Seoul, and possibly Kuala Lumpur. Internal migration is expected to increase in the capital cities of Bangkok, Manila,j and centers such as Shanghai, Beijing, and other large cities of southeast Asia. These cities will be linked through the flows of skilled international migrants, which began in the 1960s and is expected to become a future major flow. Recreational and resource niches will be left in much of the Pacific, the Himalayan Kingdoms, and

  1. Escape angles in bulk chi((2)) soliton interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Bang, Ole; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2002-01-01

    We develop a theory for nonplanar interaction between two identical type I spatial solitons propagating at opposite, but arbitrary transverse angles in quadratic nonlinear (or so-called chi((2))) bulk, media. We predict quantitatively the outwards escape angle, below which the solitons turn around...

  2. EscapeScape: Simulating Ecopedagogy for the Tourist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshifumi

    2018-01-01

    Environmental education as a theory and practice of ecopedagogical simulation positively acknowledges various accidental happenings in the learner's experience. By working with and on the accidents, the learner is encouraged to imagine the real object that escapes his/her experience and thus cannot be and should not be reduced into human…

  3. 46 CFR 169.313 - Means of escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means of escape. 169.313 Section 169.313 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction... apart, uniform for the length of the ladder; (3) At least 3 inches from the nearest permanent object in...

  4. Entrapment and Escape: Inventional Metaphors in Ronald Reagan's Economic Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Roger C.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Ronald Reagan's use of inventional metaphors of entrapment and escape, language meshing with the American public's perception of the economy in the early 1980s. Notes that Reagan's reliance on inventional metaphors produced a rigidity in his approach to new situations, ultimately damaging his ability to lead the nation. (MM)

  5. Escape rate from strange sets as an eigenvalue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tel, T.

    1986-06-01

    A new method is applied for calculating the escape rate from chaotic repellers or semi-attractors, based on the eigenvalue problem of the master equation of discrete dynamical systems. The corresponding eigenfunction is found to be smooth along unstable directions and to be, in general, a fractal measure. Examples of one and two dimensional maps are investigated. (author)

  6. The escape of brownian particle over potential barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Yunxiao

    1985-01-01

    A convenient method is introduced to calculate the rate of escape of Brownian particle over potential barriers by exact solution of Smoluchowskian equation. This method is applied to calculate the nuclear fission probabilities. The results for four different cases are compared with the results of other theories

  7. Flight mechanics and control of escape manoeuvres in hummingbirds. II. Aerodynamic force production, flight control and performance limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Wang, Yi; Wethington, Susan M; Chiu, George T-C; Deng, Xinyan

    2016-11-15

    The superior manoeuvrability of hummingbirds emerges from complex interactions of specialized neural and physiological processes with the unique flight dynamics of flapping wings. Escape manoeuvring is an ecologically relevant, natural behaviour of hummingbirds, from which we can gain understanding into the functional limits of vertebrate locomotor capacity. Here, we extend our kinematic analysis of escape manoeuvres from a companion paper to assess two potential limiting factors of the manoeuvring performance of hummingbirds: (1) muscle mechanical power output and (2) delays in the neural sensing and control system. We focused on the magnificent hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens, 7.8 g) and the black-chinned hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri, 3.1 g), which represent large and small species, respectively. We first estimated the aerodynamic forces, moments and the mechanical power of escape manoeuvres using measured wing kinematics. Comparing active-manoeuvring and passive-damping aerodynamic moments, we found that pitch dynamics were lightly damped and dominated by the effect of inertia, while roll dynamics were highly damped. To achieve observed closed-loop performance, pitch manoeuvres required faster sensorimotor transduction, as hummingbirds can only tolerate half the delay allowed in roll manoeuvres. Accordingly, our results suggested that pitch control may require a more sophisticated control strategy, such as those based on prediction. For the magnificent hummingbird, we estimated that escape manoeuvres required muscle mass-specific power 4.5 times that during hovering. Therefore, in addition to the limitation imposed by sensorimotor delays, muscle power could also limit the performance of escape manoeuvres. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. ULTRAVIOLET ESCAPE FRACTIONS FROM GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS DURING EARLY CLUSTER FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Corey; Pudritz, Ralph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Klessen, Ralf [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    The UV photon escape fraction from molecular clouds is a key parameter for understanding the ionization of the interstellar medium and extragalactic processes such as cosmic reionization. We present the ionizing photon flux and the corresponding photon escape fraction ( f {sub esc}) arising as a consequence of star cluster formation in a turbulent, 10{sup 6} M {sub ⊙} giant molecular cloud, simulated using the code FLASH. We make use of sink particles to represent young, star-forming clusters coupled with a radiative transfer scheme to calculate the emergent UV flux. We find that the ionizing photon flux across the cloud boundary is highly variable in time and space due to the turbulent nature of the intervening gas. The escaping photon fraction remains at ∼5% for the first 2.5 Myr, followed by two pronounced peaks at 3.25 and 3.8 Myr with a maximum f {sub esc} of 30% and 37%, respectively. These peaks are due to the formation of large H ii regions that expand into regions of lower density, some of which reaching the cloud surface. However, these phases are short-lived, and f {sub esc} drops sharply as the H ii regions are quenched by the central cluster passing through high-density material due to the turbulent nature of the cloud. We find an average f {sub esc} of 15% with factor of two variations over 1 Myr timescales. Our results suggest that assuming a single value for f {sub esc} from a molecular cloud is in general a poor approximation, and that the dynamical evolution of the system leads to large temporal variation.

  9. Escape manoeuvres in the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenici, Paolo; Standen, Emily M; Levine, Robert P

    2004-06-01

    The locomotor performance of dogfish during escape responses was observed by means of high-speed video. Dogfish show C-type escape responses that are comparable with those shown previously in teleosts. Dogfish show high variability of turning rates of the anterior part of the body (head to centre of mass), i.e. with peak values from 434 to 1023 deg. s(-1). We suggest that this variability may be due to the presence of two types of escape manoeuvres, i.e. responses with high and low turning rates, as previously found in a teleost species. Fast responses (i.e. with high maximum turning rates, ranging between 766 and 1023 deg. s(-1)) showed significantly higher locomotor performance than slow responses (i.e. with low maximum turning rates, ranging between 434 and 593 deg. s(-1)) in terms of distance covered, speed and acceleration, although no differences were found in the turning radius of the centre of mass during the escape manoeuvres. The existence of two types of escape responses would have implications in terms of both neural control and muscular activation patterns. When compared with literature data for the locomotor performance of bony fishes, dogfish showed relatively low speed and acceleration, comparable turning rates and a turning radius that is in the low part of the range when compared with teleosts, indicating relatively high manoeuvrability. The locomotor performance observed in dogfish is consistent with their morphological characteristics: (1) low locomotor performance associated with low thrust developed by their relatively small posterior depth of section and (2) relatively high manoeuvrability associated with their high flexibility.

  10. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Comparative, proximate composition, antioxidant vitamins, honey. INTRODUCTION ... solution of inverted sugars and complex mixture of other saccharides ... enzymatic browning in apple slices and grape juice. (Khan, 1985).

  11. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Keywords: Dioscorea dumetorum, proximate composition, mineral analysis, phytochemical screening ... were analyzed using atomic absorption ... determined using a Hack Dr/200 Spectrophotometer. ... Lead Acetate. +. +. + .... cosmetics.

  12. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  13. Emergency procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Emergency Procedures: emergency equipment, emergency procedures; emergency procedure involving X-Ray equipment; emergency procedure involving radioactive sources

  14. Female-biased expression of long non-coding RNAs in domains that escape X-inactivation in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual dimorphism in brain gene expression has been recognized in several animal species. However, the relevant regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. To investigate whether sex-biased gene expression in mammalian brain is globally regulated or locally regulated in diverse brain structures, and to study the genomic organisation of brain-expressed sex-biased genes, we performed a large scale gene expression analysis of distinct brain regions in adult male and female mice. Results This study revealed spatial specificity in sex-biased transcription in the mouse brain, and identified 173 sex-biased genes in the striatum; 19 in the neocortex; 12 in the hippocampus and 31 in the eye. Genes located on sex chromosomes were consistently over-represented in all brain regions. Analysis on a subset of genes with sex-bias in more than one tissue revealed Y-encoded male-biased transcripts and X-encoded female-biased transcripts known to escape X-inactivation. In addition, we identified novel coding and non-coding X-linked genes with female-biased expression in multiple tissues. Interestingly, the chromosomal positions of all of the female-biased non-coding genes are in close proximity to protein-coding genes that escape X-inactivation. This defines X-chromosome domains each of which contains a coding and a non-coding female-biased gene. Lack of repressive chromatin marks in non-coding transcribed loci supports the possibility that they escape X-inactivation. Moreover, RNA-DNA combined FISH experiments confirmed the biallelic expression of one such novel domain. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the amount of genes with sex-biased expression varies between individual brain regions in mouse. The sex-biased genes identified are localized on many chromosomes. At the same time, sexually dimorphic gene expression that is common to several parts of the brain is mostly restricted to the sex chromosomes. Moreover, the study uncovered

  15. Mutator suppression and escape from replication error-induced extinction in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J Herr

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cells rely on a network of conserved pathways to govern DNA replication fidelity. Loss of polymerase proofreading or mismatch repair elevates spontaneous mutation and facilitates cellular adaptation. However, double mutants are inviable, suggesting that extreme mutation rates exceed an error threshold. Here we combine alleles that affect DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ proofreading and mismatch repair to define the maximal error rate in haploid yeast and to characterize genetic suppressors of mutator phenotypes. We show that populations tolerate mutation rates 1,000-fold above wild-type levels but collapse when the rate exceeds 10⁻³ inactivating mutations per gene per cell division. Variants that escape this error-induced extinction (eex rapidly emerge from mutator clones. One-third of the escape mutants result from second-site changes in Pol δ that suppress the proofreading-deficient phenotype, while two-thirds are extragenic. The structural locations of the Pol δ changes suggest multiple antimutator mechanisms. Our studies reveal the transient nature of eukaryotic mutators and show that mutator phenotypes are readily suppressed by genetic adaptation. This has implications for the role of mutator phenotypes in cancer.

  16. Transverse and Longitudinal proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, Pryianka; Chand, Hum; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2018-04-01

    With close pairs (˜1.5arcmin) of quasars (QSOs), absorption in the spectra of a background quasar in the vicinity of a foreground quasar can be used to study the environment of the latter quasar at kpc-Mpc scales. For this we used a sample of 205 quasar pairs from the Sloan Digital Sky-Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12) in the redshift range of 2.5 to 3.5 by studying their H I Ly-α absorption. We study the environment of QSOs both in the longitudinal as well as in the transverse direction by carrying out a statistical comparison of the Ly-α absorption lines in the quasar vicinity to that of the absorption lines caused by the inter-galactic medium (IGM). This comparison was done with IGM, matched in absorption redshift and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to that of the proximity region. In contrast to the measurements along the line-of-sight, the regions transverse to the quasars exhibit enhanced H I Ly-α absorption. This discrepancy can either be interpreted as due to an anisotropic emission from the quasars or as a consequence of their finite lifetime.

  17. Proximal Participation: A Pathway into Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Selena

    2013-01-01

    In a longitudinal case study of apprentices, the term proximal participation was coined to describe the entry process of young people, with unclear career destinations, into the trade of baking. This article unravels the significance of proximal participation in the decision-making processes of young people who enter a trade through initial…

  18. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  19. Library Lockdown: An escape room by kids for the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Thoegersen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brief Hoping to bring the unexpected to Nebraska City, the Morton-James Public Library applied for an ALA Association for Library Service to Children Curiosity Creates grant to undertake an ambitious project: build an escape room. In a library storage room. With children. The hope was  by trying something completely different, we could increase interest in the library throughout the community and build a sense of ownership in the participants, while encouraging creativity and having a lot of fun. Library Lockdown was a four-month program that brought several dozen kids together—age 8 to 13—to build a fully-functioning escape room. Their creation, the Lab of Dr. Morton McBrains, is now open for business.

  20. Fixation and escape times in stochastic game learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realpe-Gomez, John; Szczesny, Bartosz; Galla, Tobias; Dall’Asta, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary dynamics in finite populations is known to fixate eventually in the absence of mutation. We here show that a similar phenomenon can be found in stochastic game dynamical batch learning, and investigate fixation in learning processes in a simple 2×2 game, for two-player games with cyclic interaction, and in the context of the best-shot network game. The analogues of finite populations in evolution are here finite batches of observations between strategy updates. We study when and how such fixation can occur, and present results on the average time-to-fixation from numerical simulations. Simple cases are also amenable to analytical approaches and we provide estimates of the behaviour of so-called escape times as a function of the batch size. The differences and similarities with escape and fixation in evolutionary dynamics are discussed. (paper)

  1. Quantum and thermal phase escape in extended Josephson systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this work I examine phase escape in long annular Josephson tunnel junctions. The sine-Gordon equation governs the dynamics of the phase variable along the junction. This equation supports topological soliton solutions, which correspond to quanta of magnetic flux trapped in the junction barrier. For such Josephson vortices an effective potential is formed by an external magnetic field, while a bias current acts as a driving force. Both together form a metastable potential well, which the vortex is trapped in. When the driving force exceeds the pinning force of the potential, the vortex escapes and the junction switches to the voltage state. At a finite temperature the driving force fluctuates. If the junction's energy scale is small, the phase variable can undergo a macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) process at temperatures below the crossover temperature. Without a vortex trapped, the metastable state is not a potential minimum in space, but a potential minimum at zero phase difference. (orig.)

  2. Partial control of chaotic transients using escape times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabuco, Juan; Zambrano, Samuel; Sanjuan, Miguel A F

    2010-01-01

    The partial control technique allows one to keep the trajectories of a dynamical system inside a region where there is a chaotic saddle and from which nearly all the trajectories diverge. Its main advantage is that this goal is achieved even if the corrections applied to the trajectories are smaller than the action of environmental noise on the dynamics, a counterintuitive result that is obtained by using certain safe sets. Using the Henon map as a paradigm, we show here the deep relationship between the safe sets and the sets of points with different escape times, the escape time sets. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to find certain extended safe sets that can be used instead of the safe sets in the partial control technique. Numerical simulations confirm our findings and show that in some situations, the use of extended safe sets can be more advantageous.

  3. The production and escape of nitrogen atoms on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Updated rate coefficients and a revised ionosphere-thermosphere model are used to compute the production rates and densities of odd nitrogen species in the Martian atmosphere. Computed density profiles for N(4S), N(2D), N(2P), and NO are presented. The model NO densities are found to be about a factor of 2-3 less than those measured by the Viking 1 mass spectrometer. Revised values for the escape rates of N atoms from dissociative recombination and ionospheric reactions are also computed. Dissociative recombination is found to be comparable in importance to photodissociation at low solar activity, but it is still the most important escape mechanism for N-14 at high solar activity.

  4. Quantum and thermal phase escape in extended Josephson systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, A.

    2006-07-12

    In this work I examine phase escape in long annular Josephson tunnel junctions. The sine-Gordon equation governs the dynamics of the phase variable along the junction. This equation supports topological soliton solutions, which correspond to quanta of magnetic flux trapped in the junction barrier. For such Josephson vortices an effective potential is formed by an external magnetic field, while a bias current acts as a driving force. Both together form a metastable potential well, which the vortex is trapped in. When the driving force exceeds the pinning force of the potential, the vortex escapes and the junction switches to the voltage state. At a finite temperature the driving force fluctuates. If the junction's energy scale is small, the phase variable can undergo a macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) process at temperatures below the crossover temperature. Without a vortex trapped, the metastable state is not a potential minimum in space, but a potential minimum at zero phase difference. (orig.)

  5. UNESCO to blame:Reality or easy escape?

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Roders, A Ana; Grigolon, AB Anna

    2015-01-01

    “UNESCO to blame” is a trend often observed in scholarly works. In those studies UNESCO is accused to privilege Eurocentric standards on heritage conservation. Is this reality or an easy escape? Can this trend be noted in other UNESCO reference texts? This article seeks to answer this question by studying the two main inscription-based conventions and their contribution to heritage management, while performing a data analysis on the countries behind these conventions, and their roles over tim...

  6. The escape of natural satellites from Mercury and Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that the slow rotations of Mercury and Venus may be connected with the absence of natural satellites around them. If Mercury or Venus possessed a satellite at the time of formation, the tidal evolution would have caused the satellite to recede. At a sufficiently large distance from the planet, the Sun's gravitational influence makes the satellite orbit unstable. The natural satellites of Mercury and Venus might have escaped as a consequence of this instability. (Auth.)

  7. Escape of natural satellites from Mercury and Venus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S S [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville (USA)

    1977-09-01

    It is suggested that the slow rotations of Mercury and Venus may be connected with the absence of natural satellites around them. If Mercury or Venus possessed a satellite at the time of formation, the tidal evolution would have caused the satellite to recede. At a sufficiently large distance from the planet, the Sun's gravitational influence makes the satellite orbit unstable. The natural satellites of Mercury and Venus might have escaped as a consequence of this instability.

  8. Escaping domestic violence: A qualitative study of women who left their abusive husbands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surianti Sukeri, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This qualitative study aims to discover the factors that influenced the decisions of women who successfully escaped domestic violence by attaining a divorce. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 women, ages 21-56 who were either divorced or currently in the process of getting divorced in Kelantan, Malaysia. Results: Several themes emerged, indicating the following five reasons for divorce: 1 reaching the point of ultimatum, 2 having adequate support pre- and post-divorce, 3 concern for children's welfare, 4 seeking financial independence, and 5 fear of harm. Conclusion: The identification of the driving factors for divorce may spark a change in our society's mindset to empower female divorcees and allow them to lead happy, abuse-free lives. Keywords: Divorce, Domestic violence, In-depth interview, Malaysia

  9. ESCAPE: an integrated climate model for the EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotmans, J.

    1992-01-01

    A framework has been developed for the evaluation of policy options for climate change, called ESCAPE (Evaluation of Strategies to address Climate change by Adapting to and Preventing Emissions). ESCAPE consists of a suite of linked models which enables scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions to be constructed and their impact on global and regional climate and sea level and sectors of the European economy to be assessed. Conclusions resulting from simulations with the ESCAPE 1.1 model include: the major problem of a climate change for the EC is a sea level rise; Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain will be faced with higher costs in the agricultural sector; worldwide implementation of an EC carbon tax leads to about 12% lower worldwide CO 2 emissions; to stabilize CO 2 emissions an Ecotax of 18 dollars per barrel would be required; and in all cases the rate of global temperature increase will be above the rate of 0.1 degree C per decade for the coming 40 years. 2 figs

  10. Anomalous barrier escape: The roles of noise distribution and correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meng; Zhang, Jia-Ming; Bao, Jing-Dong

    2017-05-01

    We study numerically and analytically the barrier escape dynamics of a particle driven by an underlying correlated Lévy noise for a smooth metastable potential. A "quasi-monochrome-color" Lévy noise, i.e., the first-order derivative variable of a linear second-order differential equation subjected to a symmetric α-stable white Lévy noise, also called the harmonic velocity Lévy noise, is proposed. Note that the time-integral of the noise Green function of this kind is equal to zero. This leads to the existence of underlying negative time correlation and implies that a step in one direction is likely followed by a step in the other direction. By using the noise of this kind as a driving source, we discuss the competition between long flights and underlying negative correlations in the metastable dynamics. The quite rich behaviors in the parameter space including an optimum α for the stationary escape rate have been found. Remarkably, slow diffusion does not decrease the stationary rate while a negative correlation increases net escape. An approximate expression for the Lévy-Kramers rate is obtained to support the numerically observed dependencies.

  11. Transitions between three swimming gaits in Paramecium escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Amandine; Fisch, Cathy; Combettes, Laurent; Dupuis-Williams, Pascale; Baroud, Charles N

    2011-05-03

    Paramecium and other protists are able to swim at velocities reaching several times their body size per second by beating their cilia in an organized fashion. The cilia beat in an asymmetric stroke, which breaks the time reversal symmetry of small scale flows. Here we show that Paramecium uses three different swimming gaits to escape from an aggression, applied in the form of a focused laser heating. For a weak aggression, normal swimming is sufficient and produces a steady swimming velocity. As the heating amplitude is increased, a higher acceleration and faster swimming are achieved through synchronized beating of the cilia, which begin by producing oscillating swimming velocities and later give way to the usual gait. Finally, escape from a life-threatening aggression is achieved by a "jumping" gait, which does not rely on the cilia but is achieved through the explosive release of a group of trichocysts in the direction of the hot spot. Measurements through high-speed video explain the role of trichocysts in defending against aggressions while showing unexpected transitions in the swimming of microorganisms. These measurements also demonstrate that Paramecium optimizes its escape pattern by taking advantage of its inertia.

  12. Effective climate-energy solutions, escape routes and peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2012-01-01

    Many well-intended climate-energy strategies are ineffective in the absence of serious environmental regulation. This holds, among others, for direct support of clean energy, voluntary energy conservation, technical standards on a limited set of products, unilateral stringent carbon pricing, and awaiting peak oil as a climate strategy. All of these suffer from “escape routes” that indirectly increase CO 2 emissions and thus make the original strategy ineffective. On the other hand, environmental regulation alone may lead to a myopia-bias, stimulating early dominance of cost-effective technologies and a focus on incremental innovations associated with such technologies rather than on radical innovations. Although adopting a partial viewpoint keeps the analysis simple, we urgently need a more inclusive systems perspective on climate solutions. This will allow the formulation of an effective climate policy package that addresses the various escape routes. - Highlights: ► Many well-intended climate-energy strategies are ineffective because of escape routes. ► In this context the relationship between peak oil and climate policy receives attention. ► Environmental regulation alone creates myopia-bias, the resolution of which requires technology-specific policies. ► To formulate an effective climate policy package an inclusive systems perspective is needed.

  13. Escape Geography--Developing Middle-School Students' Sense of Place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rodney F.; Molina, Laurie E. S.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a social studies unit on escaping geography. Examines escape from dangerous places including an airliner, hotel fire, or war zone or from a social situation such as a boring speech or party. Describes historic escapes such as the Underground Railroad and the Berlin Wall. Lists learning strategies such as awareness of space and cognitive…

  14. Geometrical E-beam proximity correction for raster scan systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belic, Nikola; Eisenmann, Hans; Hartmann, Hans; Waas, Thomas

    1999-04-01

    High pattern fidelity is a basic requirement for the generation of masks containing sub micro structures and for direct writing. Increasing needs mainly emerging from OPC at mask level and x-ray lithography require a correction of the e-beam proximity effect. The most part of e-beam writers are raster scan system. This paper describes a new method for geometrical pattern correction in order to provide a correction solution for e-beam system that are not able to apply variable doses.

  15. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  16. Proximal Hamstring Tendinosis and Partial Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Startzman, Ashley N; Fowler, Oliver; Carreira, Dominic

    2017-07-01

    Proximal hamstring tendinosis and partial hamstring origin ruptures are painful conditions of the proximal thigh and hip that may occur in the acute, chronic, or acute on chronic setting. Few publications exist related to their diagnosis and management. This systematic review discusses the incidence, treatment, and prognosis of proximal hamstring tendinosis and partial hamstring ruptures. Conservative treatment measures include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, rest, and ice. If these measures fail, platelet-rich plasma or shockwave therapy may be considered. When refractory to conservative management, these injuries may be treated with surgical debridement and hamstring reattachment. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e574-e582.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. The effects of escape from self and interpersonal relationship on the pathological use of Internet games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hye; Chung, Chung-Suk; Lee, Jung

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether Baumeister's escape from self theory may account for the pathological use of Internet games among Korean adolescents. A sample of 1,136 junior high school students completed measures assessing Internet game addiction (IGA), real-ideal self discrepancy, escape from self, current mood, peer relationships, perceived parent-child relationship, and parental supervision. IGA was significantly correlated with all of these variables. Multiple regression analysis showed that escape from self best explained the adolescents' IGA. A path model yielded significant paths from self-discrepancy to negative mood, from negative mood to escape from self, and from escape from self to IGA. These results support the validity of using the escape from self theory to explain the adolescents' IGA, thereby suggesting that adolescents become addicted to Internet games in an attempt to escape from self and reality.

  18. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  19. THE PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN BUSH MANGO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    Information regarding previous studies on these physico-chemical ... This behaviour may be attributed to its high myristic acid ... The authors express deep appreciation to the. Heads of ... of a typical rural processing method on the proximate ...

  20. Proximate composition and nutritional characterization of Chia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dairy product associated with several beneficial nutritional and health effects. ... The results for amino acids showed that the essential and non-essential amino ... proximate composition and nutritional (amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals ...

  1. Proximal focal femoral deficiency: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD is a rare congenital anomaly resulting in limb shortening and disability in young. The exact cause of the disease is not known and it may present as varying grades of affection involving the proximal femur and the acetabulum. Recognition of this rare abnormality on radiographs can help manage these cases better since early institution of therapy may help in achieving adequate growth of the femur.

  2. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, D.C.; Pigoski, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors

  3. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  4. Escaping the Self: Identity, Group Identification and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hardie-Bick

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on the early work of Erich Fromm. In Escape from Freedom Fromm (1969 [1941] directly addressed the psychological mechanisms of escape modern individuals employ to protect themselves from feelings of ontological insecurity and existential estrangement. The article builds on Fromm’s analysis by discussing the significance of his escape mechanisms for understanding the dynamic psychological attractions of identifying with entitative groups. Fromm’s work will be discussed in relation to Hogg’s recent work on uncertainty-identity theory. The aim of the article is to examine the advantages of combining Fromm’s psychoanalytic analysis with Hogg’s uncertainty-identity theory and to highlight the potential this approach has for understanding why groups engage in violent and destructive behaviour. Este artículo se inspira en las primeras obras de Erich Fromm. En El miedo a la libertad, Fromm (1969 [1941] abordó directamente los mecanismos psicológicos de evasión que los individuos modernos emplean para protegerse de los sentimientos de inseguridad ontológica y distanciamiento existencial. Este artículo se basa en el análisis de Fromm exponiendo el significado de sus mecanismos de evasión para entender las atracciones psicológicas dinámicas de identificación con grupos entitativos. Se analizará la obra de Fromm en relación con la obra reciente de Hogg sobre la teoría de incertidumbre identitaria. El objetivo del artículo es examinar las ventajas de combinar el análisis psicoanalítico de Fromm con la teoría de incertidumbre identitaria de Hogg, y destacar el potencial que tiene esta aproximación para comprender por qué los grupos adoptan un comportamiento violento y destructivo. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2875737

  5. Escape trajectories of solar sails and general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kezerashvili, Roman Ya. [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, City University of New York, 300 Jay Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Vazquez-Poritz, Justin F., E-mail: jvazquez-poritz@citytech.cuny.ed [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, City University of New York, 300 Jay Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2009-11-16

    General relativity can have a significant impact on the long-range escape trajectories of solar sails deployed near the sun. For example, spacetime curvature in the vicinity of the sun can cause a solar sail traveling from about 4 solar radii to 2550 AU to be deflected by on the order of a million kilometers, and should therefore be taken into account at the beginning of the mission. There are a number of smaller general relativistic effects, such as frame dragging due to the slow rotation of the sun which can cause a deflection of more than one thousand kilometers.

  6. Diffusion escape through a cluster of small absorbing windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcman, D [Department of Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Schuss, Z [Department of Mathematics, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2008-04-18

    We study the first eigenvalue of the Laplace equation in a bounded domain in R{sup d} (d=2,3) with mixed Neumann-Dirichlet (Zaremba) boundary conditions. The Neumann condition is imposed on most of the boundary and the Dirichlet boundary consists of a cluster of small windows. When the windows are well separated the first eigenvalue is asymptotically the sum of eigenvalues of mixed problems with a single Dirichlet window. However, when two or more Dirichlet windows cluster tightly together they interact nonlinearly. We compare our asymptotic approximation of the eigenvalue to the escape rate of simulated Brownian particles through the small windows.

  7. Chases and escapes the mathematics of pursuit and evasion

    CERN Document Server

    Nahin, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    We all played tag when we were kids. What most of us don't realize is that this simple chase game is in fact an application of pursuit theory, and that the same principles of games like tag, dodgeball, and hide-and-seek are also at play in military strategy, high-seas chases by the Coast Guard, and even romantic pursuits. In Chases and Escapes, Paul Nahin gives us the first complete history of this fascinating area of mathematics, from its classical analytical beginnings to the present day. Drawing on game theory, geometry, linear algebra, target-tracking algorithms, and much

  8. Experimental study of subsonic microjet escaping from a rectangular nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniskin, V. M.; Maslov, A. A.; Mukhin, K. A.

    2016-10-01

    The first experiments on the subsonic laminar microjets escaping from the nozzles of rectangular shape are carried out. The nozzle size is 83.3x3823 microns. Reynolds number calculated by the nozzle height and the average flow velocity at the nozzle exit ranged from 58 to 154. The working gas was air at room temperature. The velocity decay and velocity fluctuations along the center line of the jet are determined. The fundamental difference between the laminar microjets characteristics and subsonic turbulent jets of macro size is shown. Based on measurements of velocity fluctuations it is shown the presence of laminar-turbulent transition in microjets and its location is determined.

  9. The age structure of selected countries in the ESCAP region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S

    1982-01-01

    The study objective was to examine the age structure of selected countries in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region, using available data and frequently applied indices such as the population pyramid, aged-child ratio, and median age. Based on the overall picture of the age structure thus obtained, age trends and their implication for the near future were arrived at. Countries are grouped into 4 types based on the fertility and mortality levels. Except for Japan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, the age structure in the 18 ESCAP region countries changed comparatively little over the 1950-80 period. The largest structural change occurred in Singapore, where the proportion of children under age 15 in the population declined significantly from 41-27%, while that of persons 65 years and older more than doubled. This was due primarily to the marked decline in fertility from a total fertility rate (TFR) of 6.7-1.8 during the period. Hong Kong also had a similar major transformation during the same period: the proportion of the old age population increased 2 1/2 times, from 2.5-6.3%. The age structures of the 18 ESCAP countries varied greatly by country. 10 countries of the 2 high fertility and mortality types showed a similar young age structural pattern, i.e., they have higher dependency ratios, a higher proportion of children under 15 years, a lower proportion of population 65 years and older, lower aged-child ratios, and younger median ages than the average countries in the less developed regions of the world. With minimal changes over the 1950-80 period, the gap between these countries and the average of the less developed regions widened. Unlike these 10 (mostly South Asian) countries, moderately low fertility and mortality countries (China, Korea, and Sri Lanka) are located between the world average and the less developed region in most of the indices, particularly during the last decade. Although their rate of population aging is not

  10. Escape trajectories of solar sails and general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Vazquez-Poritz, Justin F.

    2009-01-01

    General relativity can have a significant impact on the long-range escape trajectories of solar sails deployed near the sun. For example, spacetime curvature in the vicinity of the sun can cause a solar sail traveling from about 4 solar radii to 2550 AU to be deflected by on the order of a million kilometers, and should therefore be taken into account at the beginning of the mission. There are a number of smaller general relativistic effects, such as frame dragging due to the slow rotation of the sun which can cause a deflection of more than one thousand kilometers.

  11. International Environmental Agreements: Emissions Trade, Safety Valves and Escape Clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, Larry; Zhao, Jinhua

    2010-01-01

    We explain how the structure of multi-national or multi-regional environmental agreements affect their chance of success. Trade in emissions permits has ambiguous and in some cases surprising effects on both the equilibrium level of abatement, and on the ability to persuade nations or regions to participate in environmental agreements. An escape clause policy and a safety valve policy have essentially the same properties when membership in environmental agreement is pre-determined, but they create markedly different effects on the incentives to join such an agreement. The two policies lead to a qualitative difference in the leverage that a potential member of the agreement exercises on other members

  12. The case of escape probability as linear in short time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.

    2018-02-01

    We derive rigorously the short-time escape probability of a quantum particle from its compactly supported initial state, which has a discontinuous derivative at the boundary of the support. We show that this probability is linear in time, which seems to be a new result. The novelty of our calculation is the inclusion of the boundary layer of the propagated wave function formed outside the initial support. This result has applications to the decay law of the particle, to the Zeno behaviour, quantum absorption, time of arrival, quantum measurements, and more.

  13. Mechanisms of Pulmonary Escape and Dissemination by Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T. Denham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a common environmental saprophyte and human fungal pathogen that primarily causes disease in immunocompromised individuals. Similar to many environmentally acquired human fungal pathogens, C. neoformans initiates infection in the lungs. However, the main driver of mortality is invasive cryptococcosis leading to fungal meningitis. After C. neoformans gains a foothold in the lungs, a critical early step in invasion is transversal of the respiratory epithelium. In this review, we summarize current knowledge relating to pulmonary escape. We focus on fungal factors that allow C. neoformans to disseminate from the lungs via intracellular and extracellular routes.

  14. European SpaceCraft for the study of Atmospheric Particle Escape (ESCAPE): a planetary mission to Earth, proposed in response to the ESA M5-call

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandouras, I.; Yamauchi, M.; Rème, H.; De Keyser, J.; Marghitu, O.; Fazakerley, A.; Grison, B.; Kistler, L.; Milillo, A.; Nakamura, R.; Paschalidis, N.; Paschalis, A.; Pinçon, J.-L.; Sakanoi, T.; Wieser, M.; Wurz, P.; Yoshikawa, I.; Häggström, I.; Liemohn, M.; Tian, F.

    2017-09-01

    ESCAPE is a mission proposed in response to the ESA-M5 call that will quantitatively estimate the amount of escaping particles of the major atmospheric components (nitrogen and oxygen), as neutral and ionised species, escaping from the Earth as a magnetised planet. The goal is to understand the importance of each escape mechanism, its dependence on solar and geomagnetic activity, and to infer the history of the Earth's atmospheric composition over a long (geological scale) time period. Since the solar EUV and solar wind conditions during solar maximum at present are comparable to the solar minimum conditions 1-2 billion years ago, the escaping amount and the isotope and N/O ratios should be obtained as a function of external forcing (solar and geomagnetic conditions) to allow a scaling to the past. The result will be used as a reference to understand the atmospheric/ionospheric evolution of magnetised planets, which is essential for habitability.

  15. Diabetic Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaigns Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Diabetic Emergencies Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...

  16. Local niche experimentation in the energy transitions : a theoretical and empirical exploration of proximity and disadvantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Lars; Raven, R.P.J.M.; Verbong, G.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses how the approach of Strategic Niche Management (SNM) relates to proximity advantages in innovation processes as identified in the geography of innovation literature. The latter claims that the locations where innovation emerge and thrive are not coincidental, but that they

  17. Environmental education excursions and proximity to urban green space : Densification in a ‘compact city’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2016-01-01

    The value of urban green space for environmental education fieldwork is empirically investigated in a study among all secondary schools in Amsterdam. The article describes how the proximity of schools to green spaces emerges as a new factor in the ‘sustainable city’ and the ‘compact city’ debate.

  18. New insights on the collisional escape of light neutrals from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacesa, Marko; Zahnle, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Photodissociative recombination (PDR) of atmospheric molecules on Mars is a major mechanism of production of hot (suprathermal) atoms with sufficient kinetic energy to either directly escape to space or to eject other atmospheric species. This collisional ejection mechanism is important for evaluating the escape rates of all light neutrals that are too heavy to escape via Jeans escape. In particular, it plays a role in estimating the total volume of escaped water constituents (i.e., O and H) from Mars, as well as influences evolution of the atmospheric [D]/[H] ratio1. We present revised estimates of total collisional escape rates of neutral light elements including H, He, and H2, based on recent (years 2015-2016) atmospheric density profiles obtained from the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission. We also estimate the contribution to the collisional escape from Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) produced in charge-exchange of solar wind H+ and He+ ions with atmospheric gases2,3. Scattering of hot oxygen and atmospheric species of interest is modeled using fully-quantum reactive scattering formalism1,3. The escape rates are evaluated using a 1D model of the atmosphere supplemented with MAVEN measurements of the neutrals. Finally, new estimates of contributions of these non-thermal mechanisms to the estimated PDR escape rates from young Mars4 are presented. [1] M. Gacesa and V. Kharchenko, "Non-thermal escape of molecular hydrogen from Mars", Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L10203 (2012). [2] N. Lewkow and V. Kharchenko, "Precipitation of Energetic Neutral Atoms and Escape Fluxes induced from the Mars Atmosphere", Astroph. J., 790, 98 (2014). [3] M. Gacesa, N. Lewkow, and V. Kharchenko, "Non-thermal production and escape of OH from the upper atmosphere of Mars", Icarus 284, 90 (2017). [4] J. Zhao, F. Tian, Y. Ni, and X. Huang, "DR-induced escape of O and C from early Mars", Icarus 284, 305 (2017).

  19. On the escape of pollutants from urban street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, J.J.; Kim, J.J. [Kwangju Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Pollutant transport from urban street canyons is numerically investigated using a two-dimensional flow and dispersion model. The ambient wind blows perpendicular to the street and passive pollutants are released at the street level. Results from the control experiment with a street aspect ratio of 1 show that at the roof level of the street canyon, the vertical turbulent flux of pollutants is upward everywhere and the vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow is upward or downward. The horizontally integrated vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow at the roof level of the street canyon is downward and its magnitude is much smaller than that by turbulent process. These results indicate that pollutants escape from the street canyon mainly by turbulent process and that the net effect of mean flow is to make some escaped pollutants reenter the street canyon. Further experiments with different inflow turbulence intensities, inflow wind speeds, and street aspect ratio confirm the findings from the control experiment. In the case of two isolated buildings, the horizontally integrated vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow is upward due to flow separation but the other main results are the same as those from the control experiment. (author)

  20. Ultra-fast Escape of a Octopus-inspired Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymouth, Gabriel; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The octopus, squid, and other cephalopods inflate with water and then release a jet to accelerate in the opposite direction. This escape mechanism is particularly interesting in the octopus because they become initially quite bluff, yet this does not hinder them in achieving impressive bursts of speed. We examine this somewhat paradoxical maneuver using a simple deflating spheroid model in both potential and viscous flow. We demonstrate that the dynamic reduction of the width of the body completely changes the flow and forces acting on the escaping rocket in three ways. First, a body which reduces in size can generate an added mass thrust which counteracts the added mass inertia. Second, the motion of the shrinking wall acts similar to suction on a static wall, reducing separation and drag forces in a viscous fluid, but that this effects depends on the rate of size change. Third, using a combination of these two features it is possible to initially load the fluid with kinetic energy when heavy and bluff and then recover that energy when streamlined and light, enabling ultra-fast accelerations. As a notable example, these mechanisms allow a shrinking spheroid rocket in a heavy inviscid fluid to achieve speeds greater than an identical rocket in the vacuum of space. Southampton Marine and Maritime Institute.

  1. Lionfish misidentification circumvents an optimized escape response by prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Mark I; Allan, Bridie J M

    2016-01-01

    Invasive lionfish represent an unprecedented problem in the Caribbean basin, where they are causing major changes to foodwebs and habitats through their generalized predation on fishes and invertebrates. To ascertain what makes the red lionfish ( Pterois volitans ) such a formidable predator, we examined the reaction of a native damselfish prey, the whitetail damsel ( Pomacentrus chrysurus ), to a repeatable startle stimulus once they had been forewarned of the sight or smell of lionfish. Fast-start responses were compared with prey forewarned of a predatory rockcod ( Cephalopholis microprion ), a corallivorous butterflyfish ( Chaetodon trifasctiatus ) and experimental controls. Forewarning of the sight, smell or a combination of the two cues from a rockcod led to reduced escape latencies and higher response distances, speed and maximal speed compared with controls, suggesting that forewarning primed the prey and enabled a more effective escape response. In contrast, forewarning of lionfish did not affect the fast-start kinematics measured, which were the same as in the control and non-predatory butterflyfish treatments. Lionfish appear to be able to circumvent mechanisms commonly used by prey to identify predators and were misclassified as non-predatory, and this is likely to contribute to their success as predators.

  2. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  3. Giant proximity effect in ferromagnetic bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Silvia; Charlton, Tim; Quintanilla, Jorge; Suter, Andreas; Moodera, Jagadeesh; Prokscha, Thomas; Salman, Zaher; Forgan, Ted

    2013-03-01

    The proximity effect is a phenomenon where an ordered state leaks from a material into an adjacent one over some finite distance, ξ. For superconductors, this distance is ~ the coherence length. Nevertheless much longer-range, ``giant'' proximity effects have been observed in cuprate junctions. This surprising effect can be understood as a consequence of critical opalescence. Since this occurs near all second order phase transitions, giant proximity effects should be very general and, in particular, they should be present in magnetic systems. The ferromagnetic proximity effect has the advantage that its order parameter (magnetization) can be observed directly. We investigate the above phenomenon in Co/EuS bilayer films, where both materials undergo ferromagnetic transitions but at rather different temperatures (bulk TC of 1400K for Co and 16.6K for EuS). A dramatic increase in the range of the proximity effect is expected near the TC of EuS. We present the results of our measurements of the magnetization profiles as a function of temperature, carried out using the complementary techniques of low energy muon rotation and polarized neutron reflectivity. Work supported by EPSRC, STFC and ONR grant N00014-09-1-0177 and NSF grant DMR 0504158.

  4. Orbital and escape dynamics in barred galaxies - III. The 3D system: correlations between the basins of escape and the NHIMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.; Jung, Christof

    2018-01-01

    The escape dynamics of the stars in a barred galaxy composed of a spherically symmetric central nucleus, a bar, a flat thin disc and a dark matter halo component is investigated by using a realistic three degrees of freedom (3-d.o.f.) dynamical model. Modern colour-coded diagrams are used for distinguishing between bounded and escaping motion. In addition, the smaller alignment index method is deployed for determining the regular, sticky or chaotic nature of bounded orbits. We reveal the basins of escape corresponding to the escape through the two symmetrical escape channels around the Lagrange points L2 and L3 and also we relate them with the corresponding distribution of the escape times of the orbits. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the stable manifolds, around the index-1 saddle points, accurately define the fractal basin boundaries observed in the colour-coded diagrams. The development scenario of the fundamental vertical Lyapunov periodic orbit is thoroughly explored for obtaining a more complete view of the unfolding of the singular behaviour of the dynamics at the cusp values of the parameters. Finally, we examine how the combination of the most important parameters of the bar (such as the semimajor axis and the angular velocity) influences the observed stellar structures (rings and spirals), which are formed by escaping stars guided by the invariant manifolds near the saddle points.

  5. Gamma-ray escape peak characteristics of radiation-damaged reverse-electrode germanium coaxial detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.; Hull, E.L.; Madden, N.W.; Xing Jingshu; Friesel, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of the characteristics of full-energy gamma-ray peaks and their corresponding escape peaks when high energy photons interact in radiation damaged reverse-electrode (n-type) germanium coaxial detectors is presented. Coaxial detector geometry is the dominant factor, causing charge collection to be dramatically better for interactions occurring near the outer periphery of the detector as well as increasing of the probability of escape events occurring in this region. It follows that the resolution of escape peaks is better than that of ordinary gamma-ray peaks. This is experimentally verified. A nearly identical but undamaged detector exhibited significant Doppler broadening of single escape peaks. Because double escape events preferentially occur at outer radii, energy shifts of double escape reflect extremely small amounts of charge trapping in undamaged detectors. (orig.)

  6. Proximity operations concept design study, task 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. N.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of using optical technology to perform the mission of the proximity operations communications subsystem on Space Station Freedom was determined. Proximity operations mission requirements are determined and the relationship to the overall operational environment of the space station is defined. From this information, the design requirements of the communication subsystem are derived. Based on these requirements, a preliminary design is developed and the feasibility of implementation determined. To support the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and National Space Transportation System, the optical system development is straightforward. The requirements on extra-vehicular activity are such as to allow large fields of uncertainty, thus exacerbating the acquisition problem; however, an approach is given that could mitigate this problem. In general, it is found that such a system could indeed perform the proximity operations mission requirement, with some development required to support extra-vehicular activity.

  7. Endomedullar nail of metacarpal and proximal phalanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Olaya, Francisco Javier; Sanchez Mesa, Pedro Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Prospective study, series of cases; it included patients with diaphysis fractures and union diaphysis-neck or union diaphysis-base of metacarpal and proximal phalanges, in whom was practiced anterograde intramedullary nailing previous closed reduction of the fracture, using prevent intramedullary nail of 1.6 mm. (cem 16) for the metacarpal fractures, and two nail prevent of 1.0 mm. (cem 10) for the proximal phalangeal fractures. Indications: transverse and oblique short fractures, spiral and with comminuting bicortical. Pursuit average is 5.7 months. Frequency surgical intervened patient: 2.2 each month, using this surgical technique a total of 20 (twenty) patients have been operated, 21 (twenty one) fractures; 16 (sixteen) metacarcal fractures and 5 (five) proximal phalangeal fractures, all of them tested using clinical and radiological parameters. Results: good 82%, regular 18%, and bad 0% obtaining bony consolidation and early rehabilitation with incorporation to their habitual works

  8. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2017-09-20

    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  9. Evaluation and Management of Proximal Humerus Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Khmelnitskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal humerus fractures are common injuries, especially among older osteoporotic women. Restoration of function requires a thorough understanding of the neurovascular, musculotendinous, and bony anatomy. This paper addresses the relevant anatomy and highlights various management options, including indication for arthroplasty. In the vast majority of cases, proximal humerus fractures may be treated nonoperatively. In the case of displaced fractures, when surgical intervention may be pursued, numerous constructs have been investigated. Of these, the proximal humerus locking plate is the most widely used. Arthroplasty is generally reserved for comminuted 4-part fractures, head-split fractures, or fractures with significant underlying arthritic changes. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is reserved for patients with a deficient rotator cuff, or highly comminuted tuberosities.

  10. Proximity functions for general right cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Distributions of distances between pairs of points within geometrical objects, or the closely related proximity functions and geometric reduction factors, have applications to dosimetric and microdosimetric calculations. For convex bodies these functions are linked to the chord-length distributions that result from random intersections by straight lines. A synopsis of the most important relations is given. The proximity functions and related functions are derived for right cylinders with arbitrary cross sections. The solution utilizes the fact that the squares of the distances between two random points are sums of independently distributed squares of distances parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. Analogous formulas are derived for the proximity functions or geometric reduction factors for a cylinder relative to a point. This requires only a minor modification of the solution

  11. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming

    2016-04-14

    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  12. [Partial replantation following proximal limb injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, T; Malikov, S A; Dinh, A; Kupatadze, D D; Oberlin, C; Alnot, J Y; Nabokov, B B

    2000-11-01

    Proximal replantation is a technically feasible but life-threatening procedure. Indications must be restricted to patients in good condition with a good functional prognosis. The goal of replantation must be focused not only on reimplanting the amputated limb but also on achieving a good functional outcome. For the lower limb, simple terminalization remains the best choice in many cases. When a proximal amputation is not suitable for replantation, the main aim of the surgical procedure must be to reconstruct a stump long enough to permit fitting a prosthesis preserving the function of the adjacent joint. If the proximal stump beyond the last joint is very short, it may be possible to restore some length by partial replantation of spared tissues from the amputated part. We present here the results we obtained following this policy. This series included 16 cases of partial replantations, 14 involving the lower limb and 2 the upper limb. All were osteocutaneous microsurgical transfers. For the lower limb, all transfers recovered protective sensitivity following tibial nerve repair. The functional calcaeoplantar unit was used in 13 cases. The transfer of this specialized weight bearing tissue provided a stable distal surface making higher support unnecessary. In one case, we raised a 13-cm vascularized tibial segment covered with foot skin for additional length. For the upper limb, the osteocutaneous transfer, based on the radial artery, was not reinnervated, but this lack of sensitivity did not impair prosthesis fitting. One vascular failure was finally amputated. This was the only unsuccessful result. For all other patients, the surgical procedure facilitated prosthesis fitting and preserved the proximal joint function despite an initially very proximal amputation. The advantages of partial replantation are obvious compared with simple terminalization or secondary reconstruction. There is no secondary donor site and, because there is no major muscle mass in the

  13. Escaping Electrons from Intense Laser-Solid Interactions as a Function of Laser Spot Size

    OpenAIRE

    Rusby, Dean; Gray, Ross; Butler, Nick; Dance, Rachel; Scott, Graeme; Bagnoud, Vincent; Zielbauer, Bernhard; McKenna, Paul; Neely, David

    2018-01-01

    The interaction of a high-intensity laser with a solid target produces an energetic distribution of electrons that pass into the target. These electrons reach the rear surface of the target creating strong electric potentials that act to restrict the further escape of additional electrons. The measurement of the angle, flux and spectra of the electrons that do escape gives insights to the initial interaction. Here, the escaping electrons have been measured using a differentially filtered imag...

  14. On the relative contributions of positive reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal.

    OpenAIRE

    Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Gulotta, Charles S; Sevin, Bari M; Layer, Stacy A

    2003-01-01

    We compared the effects of positive reinforcement alone, escape extinction alone, and positive reinforcement with escape extinction in the treatment of the food and fluid refusal of 4 children who had been diagnosed with a pediatric feeding disorder. Consumption did not increase when positive reinforcement was implemented alone. By contrast, consumption increased for all participants when escape extinction was implemented, independent of the presence or absence of positive reinforcement. Howe...

  15. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies

  16. Proximity effects in ferromagnet/superconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H.L.; Sun, G.Y.; Yang, L.Y.; Xing, D.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The Nambu spinor Green's function approach is applied to study proximity effects in ferromagnet/superconductor (FM/SC) structures. They include the induced superconducting order parameter and density of states (DOS) with superconducting feature on the FM side, and spin-dependent DOS within the energy gap on the SC side. The latter indicates an appearance of gapless superconductivity and a coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in a small regime near the interface. The influence of exchange energy in FM and barrier strength at interface on the proximity effects is discussed

  17. Ultimate and proximate explanations of strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, Jack

    2017-08-23

    Strong reciprocity (SR) has recently been subject to heated debate. In this debate, the "West camp" (West et al. in Evol Hum Behav 32(4):231-262, 2011), which is critical of the case for SR, and the "Laland camp" (Laland et al. in Science, 334(6062):1512-1516, 2011, Biol Philos 28(5):719-745, 2013), which is sympathetic to the case of SR, seem to take diametrically opposed positions. The West camp criticizes advocates of SR for conflating proximate and ultimate causation. SR is said to be a proximate mechanism that is put forward by its advocates as an ultimate explanation of human cooperation. The West camp thus accuses advocates of SR for not heeding Mayr's original distinction between ultimate and proximate causation. The Laland camp praises advocates of SR for revising Mayr's distinction. Advocates of SR are said to replace Mayr's uni-directional view on the relation between ultimate and proximate causes by the bi-directional one of reciprocal causation. The paper argues that both the West camp and the Laland camp misrepresent what advocates of SR are up to. The West camp is right that SR is a proximate cause of human cooperation. But rather than putting forward SR as an ultimate explanation, as the West camp argues, advocates of SR believe that SR itself is in need of ultimate explanation. Advocates of SR tend to take gene-culture co-evolutionary theory as the correct meta-theoretical framework for advancing ultimate explanations of SR. Appearances notwithstanding, gene-culture coevolutionary theory does not imply Laland et al.'s notion of reciprocal causation. "Reciprocal causation" suggests that proximate and ultimate causes interact simultaneously, while advocates of SR assume that they interact sequentially. I end by arguing that the best way to understand the debate is by disambiguating Mayr's ultimate-proximate distinction. I propose to reserve "ultimate" and "proximate" for different sorts of explanations, and to use other terms for distinguishing

  18. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  19. Emergency Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Resources » Emergency Communication Emergency Communication Stay informed of emergencies, weather delays, closures, other alerts. Find links to

  20. Antibody escape kinetics of equine infectious anemia virus infection of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Elissa J; Nanda, Seema; Mealey, Robert H

    2015-07-01

    Lentivirus escape from neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is not well understood. In this work, we quantified antibody escape of a lentivirus, using antibody escape data from horses infected with equine infectious anemia virus. We calculated antibody blocking rates of wild-type virus, fitness costs of mutant virus, and growth rates of both viruses. These quantitative kinetic estimates of antibody escape are important for understanding lentiviral control by antibody neutralization and in developing NAb-eliciting vaccine strategies. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Sharks modulate their escape behavior in response to predator size, speed and approach orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamone, Scott; Blaine, Tristan; Higham, Timothy E

    2014-12-01

    Escape responses are often critical for surviving predator-prey interactions. Nevertheless, little is known about how predator size, speed and approach orientation impact escape performance, especially in larger prey that are primarily viewed as predators. We used realistic shark models to examine how altering predatory behavior and morphology (size, speed and approach orientation) influences escape behavior and performance in Squalus acanthias, a shark that is preyed upon by apex marine predators. Predator models induced C-start escape responses, and increasing the size and speed of the models triggered a more intense response (increased escape turning rate and acceleration). In addition, increased predator size resulted in greater responsiveness from the sharks. Among the responses, predator approach orientation had the most significant impact on escapes, such that the head-on approach, as compared to the tail-on approach, induced greater reaction distances and increased escape turning rate, speed and acceleration. Thus, the anterior binocular vision in sharks renders them less effective at detecting predators approaching from behind. However, it appears that sharks compensate by performing high-intensity escapes, likely induced by the lateral line system, or by a sudden visual flash of the predator entering their field of view. Our study reveals key aspects of escape behavior in sharks, highlighting the modulation of performance in response to predator approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Decompression illness in goats following simulated submarine escape: 1993-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, F M; Thacker, J C; Fisher, A S; Jurd, K M; White, M G; Loveman, G A M

    2014-01-01

    The United Kingdom Ministry of Defence commissioned work to define the relationship between the internal pressure of a distressed submarine (DISSUB), the depth from which escape is made and the risk of decompression illness (DCI). The program of work used an animal model (goat) to define these risks and this paper reports the incidence and type of DCI observed. A total of 748 pressure exposures comprising saturation only, escape only or saturation followed by escape were conducted in the submarine escape simulator between 1993 and 2006. The DCI following saturation exposures was predominantly limb pain, whereas following escape exposures the DCI predominantly involved the central nervous system and was fast in onset. There was no strong relationship between the risk of DCI and the range of escape depths investigated. The risk of DCI incurred from escape following saturation was greater than that obtained by combining the risks for the independent saturation only, and escape only, exposures. The output from this program of work has led to improved advice on the safety of submarine escape.

  3. On the relative contributions of positive reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Gulotta, Charles S; Sevin, Bari M; Layer, Stacy A

    2003-01-01

    We compared the effects of positive reinforcement alone, escape extinction alone, and positive reinforcement with escape extinction in the treatment of the food and fluid refusal of 4 children who had been diagnosed with a pediatric feeding disorder. Consumption did not increase when positive reinforcement was implemented alone. By contrast, consumption increased for all participants when escape extinction was implemented, independent of the presence or absence of positive reinforcement. However, the addition of positive reinforcement to escape extinction was associated with beneficial effects (e.g., greater decreases in negative vocalizations and inappropriate behavior) for some participants.

  4. On the relative contributions of noncontingent reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gregory K; Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Layer, Stacy A; Bachmeyer, Melanie H; Bethke, Stephanie D; Gutshall, Katharine A

    2004-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated the relative effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), escape extinction, and a combination of NCR and escape extinction as treatment for the feeding problems exhibited by 4 children. For each participant, consumption increased only when escape extinction was implemented, independent of whether NCR was present or absent. These results were consistent with prior research suggesting that positive reinforcement alone is insufficient for increasing consumption, and that escape extinction often is necessary to increase and maintain food acceptance. However, NCR appeared to decrease inappropriate behavior for some participants.

  5. A longitudinal study of perceptual grouping by proximity, luminance and shape in infants at two, four and six months

    OpenAIRE

    Farran, E. K.; Brown, J. H.; Cole, V. L.; Houston-Price, C.; Karmiloff-Smith, A.

    2008-01-01

    Grouping by luminance and shape similarity has previously been demonstrated in neonates and at 4 months, respectively. By contrast, grouping by proximity has hitherto not been investigated in infancy. This is also the first study to chart the developmental emergence of perceptual grouping longitudinally. Sixty-one infants were presented with a matrix of local stimuli grouped horizontally or vertically by luminance, shape or proximity at 2, 4, and 6 months. Infants were exposed to each set of ...

  6. Escape and avoidance learning in the earthworm Eisenia hortensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jeffrey Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in instrumental learning in earthworms dates back to 1912 when Yerkes concluded that they can learn a spatial discrimination in a T-maze. Rosenkoetter and Boice determined in the 1970s that the “learning” that Yerkes observed was probably chemotaxis and not learning at all. We examined a different form of instrumental learning: the ability to learn both to escape and to avoid an aversive stimulus. Freely moving “master” worms could turn off an aversive white light by increasing their movement; the behavior of yoked controls had no effect on the light. We demonstrate that in as few as 12 trials the behavior of the master worms comes under the control of this contingency.

  7. Novel Anti-Melanoma Immunotherapies: Disarming Tumor Escape Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Sapoznik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune system fights cancer and sometimes temporarily eliminates it or reaches an equilibrium stage of tumor growth. However, continuous immunological pressure also selects poorly immunogenic tumor variants that eventually escape the immune control system. Here, we focus on metastatic melanoma, a highly immunogenic tumor, and on anti-melanoma immunotherapies, which recently, especially following the FDA approval of Ipilimumab, gained interest from drug development companies. We describe new immunomodulatory approaches currently in the development pipeline, focus on the novel CEACAM1 immune checkpoint, and compare its potential to the extensively described targets, CTLA4 and PD1. This paper combines multi-disciplinary approaches and describes anti-melanoma immunotherapies from molecular, medical, and business angles.

  8. The great escape: viral strategies to counter BST-2/tetherin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L Douglas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The interferon-induced BST-2 protein has the unique ability to restrict the egress of HIV-1, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, Ebola virus, and other enveloped viruses. The observation that virions remain attached to the surface of BST-2-expressing cells led to the renaming of BST-2 as "tetherin". However, viral proteins such as HIV-1 Vpu, simian immunodeficiency virus Nef, and KSHV K5 counteract BST-2, thereby allowing mature virions to readily escape from infected cells. Since the anti-viral function of BST-2 was discovered, there has been an explosion of research into several aspects of this intriguing interplay between host and virus. This review focuses on recent work addressing the molecular mechanisms involved in BST-2 restriction of viral egress and the species-specific countermeasures employed by various viruses.

  9. Will 3552 Don Quixote escape from the Solar System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryadi Siregar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Asteroid 1983 SA, well known as 3552 Don Quixote, is one of Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs which is the most probable candidate for the cometary origin, or otherwise as Jupiter-Family-Comets (JFCs. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of 3552 Don Quixote to be ejected from the Solar System. This paper presents an orbital evolution of 100 hypothetical asteroids generated by cloning 3552 Don Quixote. Investigation of its orbital evolution is conducted by using the SWIFT subroutine package, where the gravitational perturbations of eight major planets in the Solar System are considered. Over very short time scales (220 kyr relative to the Solar System life time (10 Gyr, the asteroid 3552 Don Quixote gave an example of chaotic motion that can cause asteroid to move outward and may be followed by escaping from the Solar System. Probability of ejection within the 220 kyr time scale is 50%.

  10. Initiating a watch list for Ebola virus antibody escape mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Miller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV outbreak in West Africa is the largest in recorded history and resulted in over 11,000 deaths. It is essential that strategies for treatment and containment be developed to avoid future epidemics of this magnitude. With the development of vaccines and antibody-based therapies using the envelope glycoprotein (GP of the 1976 Mayinga strain, one important strategy is to anticipate how the evolution of EBOV might compromise these efforts. In this study we have initiated a watch list of potential antibody escape mutations of EBOV by modeling interactions between GP and the antibody KZ52. The watch list was generated using molecular modeling to estimate stability changes due to mutation. Every possible mutation of GP was considered and the list was generated from those that are predicted to disrupt GP-KZ52 binding but not to disrupt the ability of GP to fold and to form trimers. The resulting watch list contains 34 mutations (one of which has already been seen in humans at six sites in the GP2 subunit. Should mutations from the watch list appear and spread during an epidemic, it warrants attention as these mutations may reflect an evolutionary response from the virus that could reduce the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. However, this watch list is incomplete and emphasizes the need for more experimental structures of EBOV interacting with antibodies in order to expand the watch list to other epitopes. We hope that this work provokes experimental research on evolutionary escape in both Ebola and other viral pathogens.

  11. Initiating a watch list for Ebola virus antibody escape mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Craig R; Johnson, Erin L; Burke, Aran Z; Martin, Kyle P; Miura, Tanya A; Wichman, Holly A; Brown, Celeste J; Ytreberg, F Marty

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa is the largest in recorded history and resulted in over 11,000 deaths. It is essential that strategies for treatment and containment be developed to avoid future epidemics of this magnitude. With the development of vaccines and antibody-based therapies using the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of the 1976 Mayinga strain, one important strategy is to anticipate how the evolution of EBOV might compromise these efforts. In this study we have initiated a watch list of potential antibody escape mutations of EBOV by modeling interactions between GP and the antibody KZ52. The watch list was generated using molecular modeling to estimate stability changes due to mutation. Every possible mutation of GP was considered and the list was generated from those that are predicted to disrupt GP-KZ52 binding but not to disrupt the ability of GP to fold and to form trimers. The resulting watch list contains 34 mutations (one of which has already been seen in humans) at six sites in the GP2 subunit. Should mutations from the watch list appear and spread during an epidemic, it warrants attention as these mutations may reflect an evolutionary response from the virus that could reduce the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. However, this watch list is incomplete and emphasizes the need for more experimental structures of EBOV interacting with antibodies in order to expand the watch list to other epitopes. We hope that this work provokes experimental research on evolutionary escape in both Ebola and other viral pathogens.

  12. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SUBSCRIBE Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Childhood Emergencies Keeping children healthy and safe is every ... and tools to prevent, recognize and address a childhood emergency is the first step in keeping your ...

  13. Eye Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  14. Emergency contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B; Family planning - emergency contraception ... IUD placed inside the uterus CHOICES FOR EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION Two emergency contraceptive pills may be bought without a prescription. ...

  15. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening results indicate the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phytosterols and phenols. Acute toxicity study showed there was no mortality at 8000 mg/kg of the extract. The results indicate that the plant is rich in phytochemicals and is relatively safe. Key words: Phytochemicals, acute toxicity, proximate ...

  16. PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. ... and 12.75 ± 3.65% respectively. Mineral contents of white grub in terms of relative concentration .... of intracellular Ca, bone mineralization, blood coagulation, and plasma membrane potential ...

  17. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  18. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  19. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  20. Modified Koyanagi Technique in Management of Proximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xp

    Modified Koyanagi Technique in Management of Proximal Hypospadias. Adham Elsaied, Basem Saied, and Mohammed El- ... All operations were performed by the authors,using fine instruments and under 3.5X loupe ... the other needed an operation to close the fistula six months later. The case with meatal recession had ...

  1. Proximity focusing RICH with TOF capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpar, S.; Adachi, I.; Fujita, K.; Fukushima, T.; Gorisek, A.; Hayashi, D.; Iijima, T.; Ikado, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawai, H.; Kozakai, Y.; Krizan, P.; Kuratani, A.; Mazuka, Y.; Nakagawa, T.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Seki, T.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Unno, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A proximity focusing RICH counter with a multi-channel micro-channel plate (MCP) PMT was tested as a time-of-flight counter. Cherenkov photons emitted in the radiator medium as well as in the entrance window of the PMT were used for the time-of-flight measurement, and an excellent performance of the counter could be demonstrated

  2. Proximate composition and mycological characterization of peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: The aim of this work was to contribute to the food safety of Ivorian consumers by investigating the proximate composition and the toxic fungal contamination of peanut butters offered for retail sale on the different markets of Abidjan. Methodology and results: Peanut butter samples (45) ...

  3. Prosthetic replacement for proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontakis, George; Tosounidis, Theodoros; Galanakis, Ioannis; Megas, Panagiotis

    2008-12-01

    The ideal management of complex proximal humeral fractures continues to be debatable. Evolution of proximal humeral fracture management, during the past decade, led to the implementation of many innovations in surgical treatment. Even though the pendulum of treatment seems to swing towards new trends such as locked plating, hemiarthroplasty remains a valid and reliable option that serves the patient's needs well. Hemiarthroplasty is indicated for complex proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients with poor bone stock and when internal fixation is difficult or unreliable. Hemiarthroplasty provides a better result when it is performed early post-injury. Stem height, retroversion and tuberosity positioning are technical aspects of utmost importance. Additionally reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is an alternative new modality that can be used as a primary solution in selected patients with proximal humeral fracture treatment. Failed hemiarthroplasty and fracture sequelae can be successfully managed with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Individual decision-making and tailored treatment that takes into consideration the personality of the fracture and the patient's characteristics should be used.

  4. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the phytochemical screening showed that alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present, while reducing sugars, tannins, oils and acid compounds were absent. Similarly, the results of the proximate analysis of the rhizome showed that ginger ...

  5. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  6. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  7. European SpaceCraft for the study of Atmospheric Particle Escape (ESCAPE): a mission proposed in response to the ESA M5-call

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandouras, Iannis; Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Rème, Henri; De Keyser, Johan; Marghitu, Octav; Fazakerley, Andrew; Grison, Benjamin; Kistler, Lynn; Milillo, Anna; Nakamura, Rumi; Paschalidis, Nikolaos; Paschalis, Antonis; Pinçon, Jean-Louis; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Wieser, Martin; Wurz, Peter; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Häggström, Ingemar; Liemohn, Mike; Tian, Feng

    2017-04-01

    ESCAPE is a mission proposed in response to the ESA-M5 call that will quantitatively estimate the amount of escaping particles of the major atmospheric components (nitrogen and oxygen), as neutral and ionised species, escaping from the Earth as a magnetised planet. The spatial distribution and temporal variability of the flux of these species and their isotopic composition will be for the first time systematically investigated in an extended altitude range, from the exobase/upper ionosphere (500 km altitude) up to the magnetosphere. The goal is to understand the importance of each escape mechanism, its dependence on solar and geomagnetic activity, and to infer the history of the Earth's atmosphere over a long (geological scale) time period. Since the solar EUV and solar wind conditions during solar maximum at present are comparable to the solar minimum conditions 1-2 billion years ago, the escaping amount and the isotope and N/O ratios should be obtained as a function of external forcing (solar and geomagnetic conditions) to allow a scaling to the past. The result will be used as a reference to understand the atmospheric/ionospheric evolution of magnetised planets. To achieve this goal, a slowly spinning spacecraft is proposed equipped with a suite of instruments developed and supplied by an international consortium. These instruments will detect the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere escaping populations by a combination of in-situ measurements and of remote-sensing observations.

  8. Escapement of Cape hakes under the fishing line of the Namibian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to establish whether Cape hakes Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus escape under the fishing line and to identify any species or length dependence of escape rates. Experiments were carried out in Namibian waters during two cruises in October 2002 and October 2003. A collection bag ...

  9. The rate of immune escape vanishes when multiple immune responses control an HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deutekom, Hanneke W. M.; Wijnker, Gilles; de Boer, Rob J.

    2013-01-01

    During the first months of HIV infection, the virus typically evolves several immune escape mutations. These mutations are found in epitopes in viral proteins and reduce the impact of the CD8⁺ T cells specific for these epitopes. Recent data show that only a subset of the epitopes escapes, that most

  10. Behavioral analyses of wind-evoked escape of the cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanou, Masamichi; Konishi, Atsuko; Suenaga, Rie

    2006-04-01

    The wind-evoked escape behavior of the cricket Gryllodes sigillatus was investigated using an air puff stimulus. A high velocity air puff elicited the escape behavior in many crickets. The crickets tended to escape away from the stimulus source, but the direction was not accurately oriented 180 degrees from the stimulus. After bilateral cercal ablation, only a few crickets showed wind-evoked escape behavior, and their response rates did not increase even 19 days after ablation. Therefore, information on air motion detected by cercal filiform hairs is essential for triggering wind-evoked behavior. After unilateral cercal ablation, the 81.3% response rate of intact crickets decreased to 16.5%, that is, it decreased to almost 20% that of intact crickets. One week after unilateral cercal ablation, the response rate recovered to more than 60% that of intact crickets. However, the accuracy rate of the escape direction of G. sigillatus showed no change even immediately after the unilateral cercal ablation. Therefore, both cerci are not necessarily required to determine the escape direction. The behavioral characteristics of wind-evoked escape of G. sigillatus are compared with those of another species of cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. The two species of cricket employ different strategies for wind-evoked escape.

  11. A Substantial Plume of Escaping Planetary Ions in the MSE Northern Hemisphere Observed by MAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y.; Fang, X.; Brain, D. A.; McFadden, J. P.; Halekas, J. S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Curry, S.; Harada, Y.; Luhmann, J. G.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars-solar wind interaction accelerates and transports planetary ions away from Mars through a number of processes, including pick-up by the electromagnetic fields. The Mars Atmospheric and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft has frequently detected strong escaping planetary ion fluxes in both tailward and upstream solar wind motional electric field directions since the beginning of its science phase in November 2014. Our statistical study using three-month MAVEN data from November 2014 through February 2015 illustrates a substantial plume-like escaping planetary ion population organized by the upstream electric field with strong fluxes widely distributed in the northern hemisphere of the Mars-Sun-Electric-field (MSE) coordinate system, which is generally consistent with model predictions. The plume constitutes an important planetary ion escape channel from the Martian atmosphere in addition to the tailward escape. The >25eV O+ escape rate through the plume is estimated to be ~35% of the tailward escape and ~25% of the total escape. We will compare the dynamics of the plume and tailward escaping ions based on their velocity-space distributions with respect to the electromagnetic fields. We will also discuss the variations of the plume characteristics between different ion species (O+, O2+, and CO2+) and from the effect of different solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions.

  12. Escaping blood-fed malaria mosquitoes minimize tactile detection without compromising on take-off speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijres, F.T.; Chang, S.W.; Veen, van W.G.; Spitzen, J.; Biemans, B.T.; Koehl, M.A.R.; Dudley, R.

    2017-01-01

    To escape after taking a blood meal, a mosquito must exert forces sufficiently high to take off when carrying a load roughly equal to its body weight, while simultaneously avoiding detection by minimizing tactile signals exerted on the host’s skin. We studied this trade-off between escape speed and

  13. Computer Self-Efficacy, Competitive Anxiety and Flow State: Escaping from Firing Online Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Pei-Yu, Chiu; Shih, Hsiao-Feng; Lin, Pei-Shin; Hong, Jon-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Flow state in game playing affected by computer self-efficacy and game competitive anxiety was studied. In order to examine the effect of those constructs with high competition, this study select "Escaping from firing online game" which require college students to escape from fire and rescue people and eliminate the fire damage along the way of…

  14. Treatment of Escape-Maintained Behavior with Positive Reinforcement: The Role of Reinforcement Contingency and Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Welter, Katherine M.

    2009-01-01

    Functional analyses suggested that the disruptive behavior of three preschool children was maintained by escape from demands. While keeping the escape contingency intact, we conducted (a) a density analysis in which the children earned preferred items for task completion according to two schedules that varied in reinforcement density, and (b) a…

  15. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  16. Plasma Clouds and Snowplows: Bulk Plasma Escape from Mars Observed by MAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Brain, D. A.; Ruhunusiri, S.; McFadden, J. P.; Mitchell, D. L.; Mazelle, C.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Harada, Y.; Hara, T.; Espley, J. R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present initial Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) observations and preliminary interpretation of bulk plasma loss from Mars. MAVEN particle and field measurements show that planetary heavy ions derived from the Martian atmosphere can escape in the form of discrete coherent structures or "clouds." The ions in these clouds are unmagnetized or weakly magnetized, have velocities well above the escape speed, and lie directly downstream from magnetic field amplifications, suggesting a "snowplow" effect. This postulated escape process, similar to that successfully used to explain the dynamics of active gas releases in the solar wind and terrestrial magnetosheath, relies on momentum transfer from the shocked solar wind protons to the planetary heavy ions, with the electrons and magnetic field acting as intermediaries. Fluxes of planetary ions on the order of 10(exp 7)/sq cm/s can escape by this process, and if it operates regularly, it could contribute 10-20% of the current ion escape from Mars.

  17. Antarctic krill; assessment of mesh size selectivity and escape mortality from trawls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krafft, Bjørn A.; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent

    2015-01-01

    Marine AS. The project will examine krill escape mortality from the codend during a full scale field experiment, model size selectivity and escape mortality in codends including different designs and assess the size selectivity in the trawl body forward of the codend. Based on end results from the preceding...... examinations we will be able to predict size selectivity and escape mortality from the entire trawl body with the appurtenant mortality for different trawl designs......This working paper presents the aims and methodology for a three-year-project (commenced in 2015) assessing size selectivity and escape mortality of Antarctic krill from trawl nets. The project is widely based on acquired experiences from a completed study Net Escapement of Antarctic krill...

  18. Improving the effectiveness of escape windows in directed Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus trawl fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Frandsen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    A substantial improvement in the bycatch selectivity of Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus trawls is required, particularly with respect to cod Gadus morhua , whose stocks are at low levels in several areas. Conventional escape windows are not adequate to properly release cod and other bycatch...... species caught in the trawls. To address this issue, we developed a novel sorting box concept consisting of a four-panel section with a window on the top in order to improve the escape of cod and other bycatch species through an escape window while retaining the target catch of Norway lobster. The concept....... The reduction in bycatch decreased with decreasing mesh size and increasing height of the sorting box. Escape of Norway lobster through the escape window was limited. A modified version of the sorting box concept was implemented in the Kattegat fishery from 2009 onwards...

  19. Mass fractionation during transonic escape and implications for loss of water from Mars and Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahnle, K.J.; Kasting, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from a planetary atmosphere can remove heavier gases as well as hydrogen, provided that the escape rate is sufficiently large. Analytic approximations for the degree of mass fractionation of a trace species during hydrodynamic escape are compared with accurate numerical solutions for the case of transonic outflow. The analytic approximations are most accurate when the ratio of molecular weights of the heavier and lighter constituents is large so that nonlinear terms in the momentum equation for the heavy constituent become small. The simplest analytic formula is readily generalized to the case where a heavy constituent is also a major species. Application of the generalized formula to hypothetical episodes of hydrodynamic escape from Venus and Mars suggests that both hydrogen and oxygen could have escaped; thus, substantial quantities of water may have been lost without the need to oxidize large amounts of the crust. 29 references

  20. Escape peak ratios in silicon X-ray charge coupled devices (CCDs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K.J.; Owens, A.; Keay, A.

    1997-01-01

    The intensity of the escape peak from the CCDs developed for the Joint European X-ray Telescope (JET-X) has been investigated over the energy range 2-10 keV. Both measured and calculated escape peak ratios (i.e., the ratio of counts in the escape peak to the sum of the counts in the escape and main peaks) are found to be in excellent agreement for all event sizes (i.e., single pixel events, 1 and 2 pixel events, etc.). Using a Monte Carlo simulation the escape peak ratio has been investigated as a function of pixel size and depletion depth. For completeness, we list the energy dependent parameterised forms for five CCDs used in three major astronomy missions. (orig.)

  1. A Novel Cell Type Enables B. subtilis to Escape from Unsuccessful Sporulation in Minimal Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeu Soufo, Hervé Joël

    2016-01-01

    Sporulation is the most enduring survival strategy developed by several bacterial species. However, spore development of the model organism Bacillus subtilis has mainly been studied by means of media or conditions optimized for the induction of sporogenesis. Here, I show that during prolonged growth during stationary phase in minimal medium, B. subtilis undergoes an asymmetric cell division that produces small and round-shaped, DNA containing cells. In contrast to wild-type cells, mutants harboring spo0A or spoIIIE / sftA double mutations neither sporulate nor produce this special cell type, providing evidence that the small round cells emerge from the abortion of endospore formation. In most cases observed, the small round cells arise in the presence of sigma H but absence of sigma F activity, different from cases of abortive sporulation described for rich media. These data suggest that in minimal media, many cells are able to initiate but fail to complete spore development, and therefore return to normal growth as rods. This work reveals that the continuation of asymmetric cell division, which results in the formation of the small round cells, is a way for cells to delay or escape from-unsuccessful-sporulation. Based on these findings, I suggest to name the here described cell type as "dwarf cells" to distinguish them from the well-known minicells observed in mutants defective in septum placement or proper chromosome partitioning.

  2. A Novel Cell Type Enables B. subtilis To Escape From Unsuccessful Sporulation In Minimal Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herve Joel Defeu Soufo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sporulation is the most enduring survival strategy developed by several bacterial species. However, spore development of the model organism Bacillus subtilis has mainly been studied by means of media or conditions optimized for the induction of sporogenesis. Here, I show that during prolonged growth during stationary phase in minimal medium, B. subtilis undergoes an asymmetric cell division that produces small and round-shaped, DNA containing cells. In contrast to wild-type cells, mutants harboring spo0A or spoIIIE/sftA double mutations neither sporulate nor produce this special cell type, providing evidence that the small round cells emerge from the abortion of endospore formation. In most cases observed, the small round cells arise in the presence of sigma H but absence of sigma F activity, different from cases of abortive sporulation described for rich media. These data suggest that in minimal media, many cells are able to initiate but fail to complete spore development, and therefore return to normal growth as rods. This work reveals that the continuation of asymmetric cell division, which results in the formation of the small round cells, is a way for cells to delay or escape from - unsuccessful - sporulation. Based on these findings, I suggest to name the here described cell type as dwarf cells to distinguish them from the well-known minicells observed in mutants defective in septum placement or proper chromosome partitioning.

  3. The Sunburst Arc: Direct Lyman α escape observed in the brightest known lensed galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Thorsen, T. E.; Dahle, H.; Gronke, M.; Bayliss, M.; Rigby, J. R.; Simcoe, R.; Bordoloi, R.; Turner, M.; Furesz, G.

    2017-11-01

    We present rest-frame ultraviolet and optical spectroscopy of the brightest lensed galaxy yet discovered, at redshift z = 2.4. The source reveals a characteristic triple-peaked Lyman α profile that has been predicted in various theoretical works, but to our knowledge has not been unambiguously observed previously. The feature is well fit by a superposition of two components: a double-peak profile emerging from substantial radiative transfer, and a narrow, central component resulting from directly escaping Lyman α photons, but it is poorly fit by either component alone. We demonstrate that the feature is unlikely to contain contamination from nearby sources, and that the central peak is unaffected by radiative transfer effects except for very slight absorption. The feature is detected at signal-to-noise ratios exceeding 80 per pixel at line center, and bears strong resemblance to synthetic profiles predicted by numerical models. Based on observations obtained at the Magellan-I (Baade) Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  4. Endovascular treatment in proximal and intracranial carotid occlusion 9 hours after symptom onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowska, Malgorzata M.; Michels, Peter; Mueller-Jensen, Axel; Leppien, Andreas; Eckert, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    A debate is emerging over whether the treatment time window in acute stroke can be extended beyond 6 h if penumbral tissue can be identified. Treatment decisions are very difficult in cases of tandem proximal carotid occlusion with arterioarterial intracranial embolism. We enter this debate with the present report on a case of atherosclerotic proximal carotid occlusion and resulting periocclusional carotid T embolism that was successfully treated 9 h after symptom onset. The case of a 68-year-old man with fluctuating symptoms of right-hemispheric stroke is presented (NIHSS score 12-20 on admission). CT angiography demonstrated proximal carotid occlusion and periocclusional embolism of the entire internal carotid artery (ICA) including the carotid T segment. Penumbral tissue was diagnosed by nonenhanced and perfusion CT imaging 7.5 h after symptom onset. Treatment was initiated 9 h after symptom onset by passing the proximal occlusion with a microcatheter and local administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) into the carotid T segment at the level of posterior communicating artery (PCoA) origin. Recanalization of the ICA and middle cerebral artery was accomplished within 1 h by flow establishment via the PCoA. The atherosclerotic proximal ICA occlusion was not stented due to the risk of embolism from remnant thrombi in the petrous and cavernous ICA segments. Follow-up MRI showed only mild haemorrhagic infarct transformation of the initial infarct core. The patient was discharged from hospital 18 days after treatment with NIHSS score 5. If penumbral tissue can be conclusively identified, endovascular treatment in proximal and intracranial tandem occlusion can be successful, even in treatments initiated 6-9 h after stroke onset. If the intracranial flow after recanalization can be established via the circle of Willis, the underlying proximal ICA occlusion may not require treatment. (orig.)

  5. Endovascular treatment in proximal and intracranial carotid occlusion 9 hours after symptom onset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowska, Malgorzata M.; Michels, Peter; Mueller-Jensen, Axel [Asklepios Clinic Altona, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany); Leppien, Andreas; Eckert, Bernd [Asklepios Clinic Altona, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    A debate is emerging over whether the treatment time window in acute stroke can be extended beyond 6 h if penumbral tissue can be identified. Treatment decisions are very difficult in cases of tandem proximal carotid occlusion with arterioarterial intracranial embolism. We enter this debate with the present report on a case of atherosclerotic proximal carotid occlusion and resulting periocclusional carotid T embolism that was successfully treated 9 h after symptom onset. The case of a 68-year-old man with fluctuating symptoms of right-hemispheric stroke is presented (NIHSS score 12-20 on admission). CT angiography demonstrated proximal carotid occlusion and periocclusional embolism of the entire internal carotid artery (ICA) including the carotid T segment. Penumbral tissue was diagnosed by nonenhanced and perfusion CT imaging 7.5 h after symptom onset. Treatment was initiated 9 h after symptom onset by passing the proximal occlusion with a microcatheter and local administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) into the carotid T segment at the level of posterior communicating artery (PCoA) origin. Recanalization of the ICA and middle cerebral artery was accomplished within 1 h by flow establishment via the PCoA. The atherosclerotic proximal ICA occlusion was not stented due to the risk of embolism from remnant thrombi in the petrous and cavernous ICA segments. Follow-up MRI showed only mild haemorrhagic infarct transformation of the initial infarct core. The patient was discharged from hospital 18 days after treatment with NIHSS score 5. If penumbral tissue can be conclusively identified, endovascular treatment in proximal and intracranial tandem occlusion can be successful, even in treatments initiated 6-9 h after stroke onset. If the intracranial flow after recanalization can be established via the circle of Willis, the underlying proximal ICA occlusion may not require treatment. (orig.)

  6. Effects of metamorphosis on the aquatic escape response of the two-lined salamander (Eurycea bislineata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Emanuel; Landberg, Tobias

    2002-03-01

    Although numerous studies have described the escape kinematics of fishes, little is known about the aquatic escape responses of salamanders. We compare the escape kinematics of larval and adult Eurycea bislineata, the two-lined salamander, to examine the effects of metamorphosis on aquatic escape performance. We hypothesize that shape changes associated with resorption of the larval tail fin at metamorphosis will affect aquatic locomotor performance. Escape responses were recorded using high-speed video, and the effects of life stage and total length on escape kinematics were analyzed statistically using analysis of covariance. Our results show that both larval and adult E. bislineata use a two-stage escape response (similar to the C-starts of fishes) that consists of a preparatory (stage 1) and a propulsive (stage 2) stroke. The duration of both kinematic stages and the distance traveled during stage 2 increased with total length. Both larval and adult E. bislineata had final escape trajectories that were directed away from the stimulus. The main kinematic difference between larvae and adults is that adults exhibit significantly greater maximum curvature during stage 1. Total escape duration and the distance traveled during stage 2 did not differ significantly between larvae and adults. Despite the significantly lower tail aspect ratio of adults, we found no significant decrease in the overall escape performance of adult E. bislineata. Our results suggest that adults may compensate for the decrease in tail aspect ratio by increasing their maximum curvature. These findings do not support the hypothesis that larvae exhibit better locomotor performance than adults as a result of stronger selective pressures on early life stages.

  7. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.

    1989-04-01

    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  8. Superconducting proximity effect in topological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeg, Christopher R.

    In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the proximity effect due to its role in the realization of topological superconductivity. In this dissertation, we discuss several results that have been obtained in the field of proximity-induced superconductivity and relate the results to the search for Majorana fermions. First, we show that repulsive electron-electron interactions can induce a non-Majorana zero-energy bound state at the interface between a conventional superconductor and a normal metal. We show that this state is very sensitive to disorder, owing to its lack of topological protection. Second, we show that Rashba spin-orbit coupling, which is one of the key ingredients in engineering a topological superconductor, induces triplet pairing in the proximity effect. When the spin-orbit coupling is strong (i.e., when the characteristic energy scale for spin-orbit coupling is comparable to the Fermi energy), the induced singlet and triplet pairing amplitudes can be comparable in magnitude. Finally, we discuss how the size of the proximity-induced gap, which appears in a low-dimensional material coupled to a superconductor, evolves as the thickness of the (quasi-)low-dimensional material is increased. We show that the induced gap can be comparable to the bulk energy gap of the underlying superconductor in materials that are much thicker than the Fermi wavelength, even in the presence of an interfacial barrier and strong Fermi surface mismatch. This result has important experimental consequences for topological superconductivity, as a sizable gap is required to isolate and detect the Majorana modes.

  9. [Proximity and breastfeeding at the maternity hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradin-Charrier, Anne-Claire

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of breastfeeding, as well as its duration, are facilitated through the proximity of the mother with her new baby. However, in maternity hospitals, breastfeeding mothers very often leave their baby in the nursery at night time. A study carried out in 2014 in several maternity hospitals put forward suggestions and highlighted areas to improve in everyday practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. An unusual case: right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein and distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Ibrahim Serin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 32-years old woman presented to the emergency room of Bozok University Research Hospital with right renal colic. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT showed compression of the proximal ureter by the right ovarian vein and compression of the right distal ureter by the right external iliac vein. To the best of our knowledge, right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein together with distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein have not been reported in the literature. Ovarian vein and external iliac vein compression should be considered in patients presenting to the emergency room with renal colic or low back pain and a dilated collecting system.

  11. Proximity effects in topological insulator heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiao-Guang; Wu Guang-Fen; Zhang Gu-Feng; Culcer Dimitrie; Zhang Zhen-Yu; Chen Hua

    2013-01-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) are bulk insulators that possess robust helical conducting states along their interfaces with conventional insulators. A tremendous research effort has recently been devoted to Tl-based heterostructures, in which conventional proximity effects give rise to a series of exotic physical phenomena. This paper reviews our recent studies on the potential existence of topological proximity effects at the interface between a topological insulator and a normal insulator or other topologically trivial systems. Using first-principles approaches, we have realized the tunability of the vertical location of the topological helical state via intriguing dual-proximity effects. To further elucidate the control parameters of this effect, we have used the graphene-based heterostructures as prototypical systems to reveal a more complete phase diagram. On the application side of the topological helical states, we have presented a catalysis example, where the topological helical state plays an essential role in facilitating surface reactions by serving as an effective electron bath. These discoveries lay the foundation for accurate manipulation of the real space properties of the topological helical state in TI-based heterostructures and pave the way for realization of the salient functionality of topological insulators in future device applications. (topical review - low-dimensional nanostructures and devices)

  12. [Augmentation technique on the proximal humerus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, A; Gebhard, F; Röderer, G

    2015-09-01

    The treatment of osteoporotic fractures is still a challenge. The advantages of augmentation with respect to primary in vitro stability and the clinical use for the proximal humerus are presented in this article. In this study six paired human humeri were randomized into an augmented and a non-augmented group. Osteosynthesis was performed with a PHILOS plate (Synthes®). In the augmented group the two screws finding purchase in the weakest cancellous bone were augmented. The specimens were tested in a 3-part fracture model in a varus bending test. The augmented PHILOS plates withstood significantly more load cycles until failure. The correlation to bone mineral density (BMD) showed that augmentation could partially compensate for low BMD. The augmentation of the screws in locked plating in a proximal humerus fracture model is effective in improving the primary stability in a cyclic varus bending test. The targeted augmentation of two particular screws in a region of low bone quality within the humeral head was almost as effective as four screws with twice the amount of bone cement. Screw augmentation combined with a knowledge of the local bone quality could be more effective in enhancing the primary stability of a proximal humerus locking plate because the effect of augmentation can be exploited more effectively limiting it to the degree required. The technique of augmentation is simple and can be applied in open and minimally invasive procedures. When the correct procedure is used, complications (cement leakage into the joint) can be avoided.

  13. Evolutionary invasion and escape in the presence of deleterious mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Loverdo

    Full Text Available Replicators such as parasites invading a new host species, species invading a new ecological niche, or cancer cells invading a new tissue often must mutate to adapt to a new environment. It is often argued that a higher mutation rate will favor evolutionary invasion and escape from extinction. However, most mutations are deleterious, and even lethal. We study the probability that the lineage will survive and invade successfully as a function of the mutation rate when both the initial strain and an adaptive mutant strain are threatened by lethal mutations. We show that mutations are beneficial, i.e. a non-zero mutation rate increases survival compared to the limit of no mutations, if in the no-mutation limit the survival probability of the initial strain is smaller than the average survival probability of the strains which are one mutation away. The mutation rate that maximizes survival depends on the characteristics of both the initial strain and the adaptive mutant, but if one strain is closer to the threshold governing survival then its properties will have greater influence. These conclusions are robust for more realistic or mechanistic depictions of the fitness landscapes such as a more detailed viral life history, or non-lethal deleterious mutations.

  14. Human embryo immune escape mechanisms rediscovered by the tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Laura; Petrini, Massimiliano; Fiammenghi, Laura; Riccobon, Angela; Ridolfi, Ruggero

    2009-01-01

    Towards the end of the 1990s, the two opposing theories on immunosurveillance and immunostimulation were extensively studied by researchers in an attempt to understand the complex mechanisms that regulate the relation between tumors and the host's immune system. Both theories probably have elements that would help us to comprehend how the host can induce anti-tumor clinical responses through stimulation of the immune system and which could also give us a deeper insight into the mechanisms of tumor immunosuppression. The model that most resembles the behavior of tumor cells in terms of growth, infiltration and suppression of the immune system of the environment in which they live is undoubtedly that of the embryonic cell. The fetus behaves like an allogenic transplant within the mother's body, using every means it has to escape from and defend itself against the mother's immune system. The majority of these mechanisms are the same as those found in tumor cells: antigenic loss, lack of expression of classic HLA-I molecules, production of immunosuppressive cytokines, induction of lack of expression of co-stimulatory molecules in antigen presenting cells, and induction of apoptosis in infiltrating lymphocytes, with activation of a type Th2 regulatory lymphocyte response. A careful and comparative study of key mechanisms capable of triggering tolerance or cytotoxicity in both embryonic and tumor cells could prove immensely valuable in designing new strategies for anti-tumor immunotherapy.

  15. Intertextuality in Novel: An Escape from Patriarchal Soliloquy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Bagheri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypertextuality is one of the intertextual relationships introduced by Gerard Genette. According to him, hypertextuality includes all the relationships which the hypertext has with the previous text, i.e. the hypotext. However, he does not consider the relationship between these two texts to be in such a way that the hypertext is the interpretation of the hypotext. On the other hand, other theorizers including Bakhtin, regard the conversation between texts a way to escape a one-voiced and dominant discourse. From this viewpoint, the intertextual relationships of Sadegh Hedayat’s The Blind Owl, with Shahrnoush Parsipour’s The Blue Mind and Abbas Maroufi’s The Body of Farhad are in such a way that The Blind Owl can be regarded as a hypotext for the other 2 novels but these two novels interpret the text differently. The present study aims to examine the intertextual relationships between these 3 novels and explore how a multiple-voiced conversation is formed between them.

  16. Thermal and quantum escape of fractional Josephson vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poehler, Hanna; Kienzle, Uta; Buckenmaier, Kai; Gaber, Tobias; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold; Goldobin, Edward [Physikalisches Institut, Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    By using a pair of tiny current injectors one can create an arbitrary {kappa} discontinuity of the phase in a long Josephson junction (LJJ) and a fractional Josephson vortex (FJV), carrying a fraction {phi}/{phi}{sub 0}={kappa}/2{pi}{<=}1 of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}{approx}2.07 .10{sup -15} Wb, which is pinned at the discontinuity. If a bias current I, exceeds the critical value I{sub c}({kappa}), an integer fluxon is torn off the discontinuity and the LJJ switches to the voltage state. Due to thermal or quantum fluctuations this escape event may occur at I

  17. EUROGAM: A high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, P J [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.

    1992-08-01

    EUROGAM is a UK-France collaboration to develop and build a high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array. The project has involved the development of both germanium (Ge) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors to produce crystals which are both bigger and have a more complex geometry. As a major investment for the future, the collaboration has developed a new electronics and data acquisition system based on the VXI and VME standards. The array will start its experimental programme in mid 1992 at the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, U.K. At this stage it will have a total photopeak efficiency (for 1.33 MeV gamma-rays) of {approx} 4.5%. This will give an improvement in sensitivity (relative to presently operating arrays) of a factor of about 10. When EUROGAM moves to France in mid 1993 its photopeak efficiency will have increased to about 8.5% which will result in an increase in sensitivity of a further factor of about 10. In this article I will concentrate on the array which will operate at Daresbury in 1992 and only briefly cover the developments which will take place for the full array before it is used in France in 1993. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  18. Imaging escape gated MPWC for hard X-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; La Padula, C.; Mastropietro, M.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F.; Barbareschi, L.; Perotti, F.; Villa, G.

    1983-11-15

    A scientific forward step in the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray astronomy will only be possible with the use of a new generation of space borne instruments. Their main characteristics have to be the two-dimensional imaging capability over a large collecting area and the fine spectral resolution in order to discriminate between the weak signal coming from cosmic sources to be detected and the strong background induced by cosmic rays, in the space environment, on the detector. To reach this goal we have developed a new hard X-ray position sensitive proportional counter operating with the escape gate technique in the range 15-150 keV, to be used together with a pseudo-random coded mask in order to obtain sky images. The detector is a high pressure (5 bar) xenon-argon-isobutane filled chamber with a spatial resolution of 30x2 mm and a spectral resolution of 5% at 60 keV on the sensitive area of 3000 cm/sup 2/.

  19. Cellular Adhesion Promotes Prostate Cancer Cells Escape from Dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppender, Nazanin; Larson, Sandy; Lakely, Bryce; Kollath, Lori; Brown, Lisha; Coleman, Ilsa; Coleman, Roger; Nguyen, Holly; Nelson, Peter S; Corey, Eva; Snyder, Linda A; Vessella, Robert L; Morrissey, Colm; Lam, Hung-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Dissemination of prostate cancer (PCa) cells to the bone marrow is an early event in the disease process. In some patients, disseminated tumor cells (DTC) proliferate to form active metastases after a prolonged period of undetectable disease known as tumor dormancy. Identifying mechanisms of PCa dormancy and reactivation remain a challenge partly due to the lack of in vitro models. Here, we characterized in vitro PCa dormancy-reactivation by inducing cells from three patient-derived xenograft (PDX) lines to proliferate through tumor cell contact with each other and with bone marrow stroma. Proliferating PCa cells demonstrated tumor cell-cell contact and integrin clustering by immunofluorescence. Global gene expression analyses on proliferating cells cultured on bone marrow stroma revealed a downregulation of TGFB2 in all of the three proliferating PCa PDX lines when compared to their non-proliferating counterparts. Furthermore, constitutive activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), a downstream effector of integrin-beta1 and TGF-beta2, in non-proliferating cells promoted cell proliferation. This cell proliferation was associated with an upregulation of CDK6 and a downregulation of E2F4. Taken together, our data provide the first clinically relevant in vitro model to support cellular adhesion and downregulation of TGFB2 as a potential mechanism by which PCa cells may escape from dormancy. Targeting the TGF-beta2-associated mechanism could provide novel opportunities to prevent lethal PCa metastasis.

  20. EUROGAM: A high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    EUROGAM is a UK-France collaboration to develop and build a high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array. The project has involved the development of both germanium (Ge) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors to produce crystals which are both bigger and have a more complex geometry. As a major investment for the future, the collaboration has developed a new electronics and data acquisition system based on the VXI and VME standards. The array will start its experimental programme in mid 1992 at the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, U.K. At this stage it will have a total photopeak efficiency (for 1.33 MeV gamma-rays) of ∼ 4.5%. This will give an improvement in sensitivity (relative to presently operating arrays) of a factor of about 10. When EUROGAM moves to France in mid 1993 its photopeak efficiency will have increased to about 8.5% which will result in an increase in sensitivity of a further factor of about 10. In this article I will concentrate on the array which will operate at Daresbury in 1992 and only briefly cover the developments which will take place for the full array before it is used in France in 1993. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  1. Controlling ventilation for safe escape from coal mine fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wala, A M [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Mining Engineering Dept.

    1966-04-01

    If a fire occurs outby an underground coal mine section, the immediate safe evacuation of miners from the working section should always take precedence. Unfortunately, in many cases, the dedicated escapeway (escape routes) for the evacuation of the miners become contaminated by the byproducts of fire from the adjacent entries. The purpose of this paper is to present the ventilation-control process that would keep the escapeway free from contaminants and, thus, available for travel. A few scenarios of mine fires in longwall development panels are analysed and discussed. To perform these studies, a mine-fire simulator (MFS) was used. This (MFS) provides a dynamic representation of the fire`s progress (in real time) and gives a color-graphic visualization of the spready of oxygen, combustion products and temperature of the gases throughout the ventilation system. Also presented and discussed are ways in which the MFS can be used as a training and teaching tool for miners and particularly, for ventilation and safety specialists. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  2. ESCAPE. Energy Security and ClimAte Policy Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessels, J.R.; Bakker, S.J.A.

    2005-05-01

    Climate change and energy supply security policy are currently not integrated in most countries, despite possible synergies. The ESCAPE approach suggests that linking climate change policy with security of energy supply could improve climate change policy at both a national and international level. The report explores the interaction between policies of energy security and climate change and the options of inclusion of energy security issues into national and international post-2012 climate negotiations. It emphasises the importance of the US in this regard and takes a close look at US energy policy documents. It appears that current US energy policy is not directed towards reducing its reliance on imported fossil fuel, even though the government has a strong preference for this. This study shows that measures to reduce import dependency are mostly synergetic with climate policy and gives some options that can be implemented. On an international level, linkages of energy security into post-2012 climate policy may be possible in sectoral bottom-up approaches or technology frameworks. As well, inclusion of a security of supply criterion in international emission trading instruments may provide potential benefits

  3. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at increased risk of sudden lung ...

  4. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  5. Treatment of proximal ulna and olecranon fractures by dorsal plating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloen, Peter; Buijze, Geert A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : Anatomic reconstruction of proximal ulna and olecranon fractures allowing early mobilization and prevention of ulnohumeral arthritis. INDICATIONS : Comminuted olecranon or proximal ulna fractures (including Monteggia fractures), olecranon fractures extending distally from the coronoid

  6. Entrepreneurship, Emerging Technologies, Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thukral, Inderpreet S.; Von Ehr, James; Walsh, Steven Thomas; Groen, Arend J.; van der Sijde, Peter; Adham, Khairul Akmaliah

    2008-01-01

    Academics and practitioners alike have long understood the benefits, if not the risks, of both emerging markets and emerging technologies.Yet it is only recently that foresighted firms have embraced emerging technologies and emerging markets through entrepreneurial activity. Emerging technologies

  7. Strong Proximities on Smooth Manifolds and Vorono\\" i Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, J. F.; Guadagni, C.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces strongly near smooth manifolds. The main results are (i) second countability of the strongly hit and far-miss topology on a family $\\mathcal{B}$ of subsets on the Lodato proximity space of regular open sets to which singletons are added, (ii) manifold strong proximity, (iii) strong proximity of charts in manifold atlases implies that the charts have nonempty intersection. The application of these results is given in terms of the nearness of atlases and charts of proxim...

  8. Measuring behaviours for escaping from house fires: use of latent variable models to summarise multiple behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploubidis, G B; Edwards, P; Kendrick, D

    2015-12-15

    This paper reports the development and testing of a construct measuring parental fire safety behaviours for planning escape from a house fire. Latent variable modelling of data on parental-reported fire safety behaviours and plans for escaping from a house fire and multivariable logistic regression to quantify the association between groups defined by the latent variable modelling and parental-report of having a plan for escaping from a house fire. Data comes from 1112 participants in a cluster randomised controlled trial set in children's centres in 4 study centres in the UK. A two class model provided the best fit to the data, combining responses to five fire safety planning behaviours. The first group ('more behaviours for escaping from a house fire') comprised 86% of participants who were most likely to have a torch, be aware of how their smoke alarm sounds, to have external door and window keys accessible, and exits clear. The second group ('fewer behaviours for escaping from a house fire') comprised 14% of participants who were less likely to report these five behaviours. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants allocated to the 'more behaviours for escaping from a house fire group were 2.5 times more likely to report having an escape plan (OR 2.48; 95% CI 1.59-3.86) than those in the "fewer behaviours for escaping from a house fire" group. Multiple fire safety behaviour questions can be combined into a single binary summary measure of fire safety behaviours for escaping from a house fire. Our findings will be useful to future studies wishing to use a single measure of fire safety planning behaviour as measures of outcome or exposure. NCT 01452191. Date of registration 13/10/2011.

  9. Quantifying the impact of human immunodeficiency virus-1 escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich D Kadolsky

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 escape from the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL response leads to a weakening of viral control and is likely to be detrimental to the patient. To date, the impact of escape on viral load and CD4(+ T cell count has not been quantified, primarily because of sparse longitudinal data and the difficulty of separating cause and effect in cross-sectional studies. We use two independent methods to quantify the impact of HIV-1 escape from CTLs in chronic infection: mathematical modelling of escape and statistical analysis of a cross-sectional cohort. Mathematical modelling revealed a modest increase in log viral load of 0.051 copies ml(-1 per escape event. Analysis of the cross-sectional cohort revealed a significant positive association between viral load and the number of "escape events", after correcting for length of infection and rate of replication. We estimate that a single CTL escape event leads to a viral load increase of 0.11 log copies ml(-1 (95% confidence interval: 0.040-0.18, consistent with the predictions from the mathematical modelling. Overall, the number of escape events could only account for approximately 6% of the viral load variation in the cohort. Our findings indicate that although the loss of the CTL response for a single epitope results in a highly statistically significant increase in viral load, the biological impact is modest. We suggest that this small increase in viral load is explained by the small growth advantage of the variant relative to the wildtype virus. Escape from CTLs had a measurable, but unexpectedly low, impact on viral load in chronic infection.

  10. Critical Proximity as a Methodological Move in Techno-Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Elgaard Jensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    proximity.’ Critical proximity offers an alternative to critical distance, especially with respect to avoiding premature references to abstract panoramas such as democratization and capitalist exploitation in the quest to conduct ‘critical’ analysis. Critical proximity implies, instead, granting the beings...

  11. 75 FR 5009 - Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... information regarding whether the use of proximity detection systems would reduce the risk of accidents where... . Information on MSHA-approved proximity detection systems is available on the Internet at http://www.msha.gov...

  12. Escape of the martian protoatmosphere and initial water inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkaev, N V; Lammer, H; Elkins-Tanton, L T; Stökl, A; Odert, P; Marcq, E; Dorfi, E A; Kislyakova, K G; Kulikov, Yu N; Leitzinger, M; Güdel, M

    2014-08-01

    Latest research in planet formation indicates that Mars formed within a few million years (Myr) and remained as a planetary embryo that never grew to a more massive planet. It can also be expected from dynamical models that most of Mars' building blocks consisted of material that formed in orbital locations just beyond the ice line which could have contained [Formula: see text] of H 2 O. By using these constraints, we estimate the nebula-captured and catastrophically outgassed volatile contents during the solidification of Mars' magma ocean and apply a hydrodynamic upper atmosphere model for the study of the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) driven thermal escape of the martian protoatmosphere during the early active epoch of the young Sun. The amount of gas that has been captured from the protoplanetary disk into the planetary atmosphere is calculated by solving the hydrostatic structure equations in the protoplanetary nebula. Depending on nebular properties such as the dust grain depletion factor, planetesimal accretion rates and luminosities, hydrogen envelopes with masses [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] could have been captured from the nebula around early Mars. Depending on the before mentioned parameters, due to the planets low gravity and a solar XUV flux that was [Formula: see text] times stronger compared to the present value, our results indicate that early Mars would have lost its nebular captured hydrogen envelope after the nebula gas evaporated, during a fast period of [Formula: see text]. After the solidification of early Mars' magma ocean, catastrophically outgassed volatiles with the amount of [Formula: see text] H 2 O and [Formula: see text] CO 2 could have been lost during [Formula: see text], if the impact related energy flux of large planetesimals and small embryos to the planet's surface lasted long enough, that the steam atmosphere could have been prevented from condensing. If this was not the case, then our results suggest

  13. Escaping 1 MeV tritons in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Strachan, J.D.; Boivin, R.; Cavallo, A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.; Mynick, H.E.; White, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    1 MeV tritons created by D-D reactions can simulate the 'single-particle' behavior expected with 3.5 MeV D-T alphas, since the gyroradii and slowing-down of these two particles are similar. This paper describes measurements of the flux of escaping 1 MeV tritons from the TFTR plasma during high power D 0 →D neutral beam injection, and shows that in most cases the observed triton loss is consistent with the classical (single-particle) first-orbit loss model. In this model tritons are lost if their first orbit intersects the wall due to their large banana width, while almost all tritons confined on their first orbit should stay confined until thermalized. The triton detectors are ZnS(Ag) scintillator screens housed in light-tight boxes located just outside the plasma boundary at the bottom of the TFTR vessel. They are particle 'pinhole' cameras which can resolve the triton flux vs. pitch angle (to ±5 o ), energy (to ±50 %), and time (to <20 μsec). The 2-D images of triton flux onto these scintillators are optically coupled to either an intensified TV camera or to photomultiplyer tubes for fast time resolution. The soft x-ray background in an earlier prototype has been eliminated. Although there are presently 8 such detectors in TFTR, this paper discusses results from only the detector located just below the vessel center (R=259 cm, r=102 cm). Note that the '1 MeV triton' signal discussed below also has about a 30 % contribution from 3 MeV protons; however, since these two particles have identical gyroradii they should behave alike. 5 refs., 5 figs

  14. HCV Genotype 6a Escape From and Resistance to Velpatasvir, Pibrentasvir, and Sofosbuvir in Robust Infectious Cell Culture Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Long V; Ramirez, Santseharay; Gottwein, Judith M

    2018-01-01

    V was able to propagate and escape in the presence of pibrentasvir with emergence of NS5A-L28S, conferring a high level of resistance to this inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: Strains of HCV genotype 6a isolated from patients can be adapted to propagate in cultured cells, permitting studies of the complete...... infectious cell culture models of HCV genotype 6a infection to study the effects of these inhibitors and the development of resistance. METHODS: The consensus sequences of prototype strains HK2 (MG717925) and HK6a (MG717928), originating from serum of patients with chronic HCV infection, were determined...... by Sanger sequencing of genomes amplified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. In vitro noninfectious full-length clones of these 6a strains were subsequently adapted in Huh7.5 cells, primarily by using substitutions identified in JFH1-based Core-NS5A and Core-NS5B genotype 6a recombinants...

  15. An analytical evaluation for spatial-dependent intra-pebble Dancoff factor and escape probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Songhyun; Kim, Hong-Chul; Kim, Jong Kyung; Kim, Soon Young; Noh, Jae Man

    2009-01-01

    The analytical evaluation of spatial-dependent intra-pebble Dancoff factors and their escape probabilities is pursued by the model developed in this study. Intra-pebble Dancoff factors and their escape probabilities are calculated as a function of fuel kernel radius, number of fuel kernels, and fuel region radius. The method in this study can be easily utilized to analyze the tendency of spatial-dependent intra-pebble Dancoff factor and spatial-dependent fuel region escape probability for the various geometries because it is faster than the MCNP method as well as good accuracy. (author)

  16. 29 CFR 1918.100 - Emergency action plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... action plans. (a) Scope and application. This section requires all employers to develop and implement an... departments that can be contacted for further information or explanation of duties under the plan. (c) Alarm... emergency action or for reaction time for safe escape of employees from the workplace or the immediate work...

  17. 29 CFR 1917.30 - Emergency action plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... action plans—(1) Scope and application. This paragraph (a) requires all employers to develop and... departments that can be contacted for further information or explanation of duties under the plan. (3) Alarm... emergency action and for reaction time for safe escape of employees from the workplace or the immediate work...

  18. Proximal sensing for soil carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Jacqueline R.; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A.

    2018-05-01

    Maintaining or increasing soil organic carbon (C) is vital for securing food production and for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, climate change, and land degradation. Some land management practices in cropping, grazing, horticultural, and mixed farming systems can be used to increase organic C in soil, but to assess their effectiveness, we need accurate and cost-efficient methods for measuring and monitoring the change. To determine the stock of organic C in soil, one requires measurements of soil organic C concentration, bulk density, and gravel content, but using conventional laboratory-based analytical methods is expensive. Our aim here is to review the current state of proximal sensing for the development of new soil C accounting methods for emissions reporting and in emissions reduction schemes. We evaluated sensing techniques in terms of their rapidity, cost, accuracy, safety, readiness, and their state of development. The most suitable method for measuring soil organic C concentrations appears to be visible-near-infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy and, for bulk density, active gamma-ray attenuation. Sensors for measuring gravel have not been developed, but an interim solution with rapid wet sieving and automated measurement appears useful. Field-deployable, multi-sensor systems are needed for cost-efficient soil C accounting. Proximal sensing can be used for soil organic C accounting, but the methods need to be standardized and procedural guidelines need to be developed to ensure proficient measurement and accurate reporting and verification. These are particularly important if the schemes use financial incentives for landholders to adopt management practices to sequester soil organic C. We list and discuss requirements for developing new soil C accounting methods based on proximal sensing, including requirements for recording, verification, and auditing.

  19. Never ever? Characteristics, outcomes and motivations of patients who abscond or escape: A 5-year review of escapes and absconds from two medium and low secure forensic units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezey, Gillian; Durkin, Catherine; Dodge, Liam; White, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Absconds and escapes by psychiatric patients from secure forensic psychiatric settings create public anxiety and are poorly understood. To describe secure hospital patients who escape from within the secure perimeter or abscond, and test for differences between these groups. Escapes and absconds between 2008 and 2012 from the medium and low secure forensic psychiatric inpatient units of two London National Health Service Trusts were identified through the Trusts' databases. Demographic, offending, mental health and incident data were extracted from records for each. Seventy-seven incidents, involving 54 patients, were identified over the five years. These were 13 escapes involving 12 patients, representing a rate of 0.04 per 1000 bed days, and 64 absconds involving 42 patients, a rate of 0.26 per 1000 bed days; 15 (28%) patients were absent without leave more than once. Over half of the patients came back voluntarily within 24 hours of leaving. Over 50% of them had drunk alcohol or taken drugs while away from the unit. Escapees were more likely to be transferred prisoners and to have planned their escape, less likely to return to the unit voluntarily and away longer than patients who absconded. Offending was rare during unauthorised leave--just three offences among the 77 incidents; self-harm was more likely. Motives for absconding included: wanting freedom or drink or drugs, family worries and/or dissatisfaction with aspects of treatment. Escapes or absconding from secure healthcare units have different characteristics, but may best be prevented by convergent strategies. Relational security is likely to be as important for foiling plans for the former as it is for reducing boredom, building strong family support and managing substance misuse in the latter. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Keldysh proximity action for disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigel'man, M.V.; Larkin, A.I.; Skvortsov, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We review a novel approach to the superconductive proximity effect in disordered normal-superconducting (N-S) structures. The method is based on the multicharge Keldysh action and is suitable for the treatment of interaction and fluctuation effects. As an application of the formalism, we study the subgap conductance and noise in two-dimensional N-S system in the presence of the electron-electron interaction in the Cooper channel. It is shown that singular nature of the interaction correction at large scales leads to a nonmonotonous temperature, voltage and magnetic field dependence of the Andreev conductance. (author)

  1. Phonon structure in proximity tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate, H.G.; Carbotte, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    We have iterated to convergence, for the first time, a set of four coupled real axis Eliashberg equations for the superconducting gap and renormalization functions on each side of a proximity sandwich. We find that the phenomenological procedures developed to extract the size of the normal side electron-phonon interaction from tunneling data are often reasonable but may in some cases need modifications. In all the cases considered the superconducting phonon structure reflected on the normal side, as well as other structures, shows considerable agreement with experiment as to size, shape, and variation with barrier transmission coefficient. Finally, we study the effects of depairing on these structures

  2. Proximal iliotibial band syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Guadagnini Falotico

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The overuse injuries in the hip joint occur commonly in sports practitioners and currently due to technical advances in diagnostic imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, are often misdiagnosed. Recently, a group of people were reported, all female, with pain and swelling in the pelvic region.T2-weighted MRI showed increased signal in the enthesis of the iliotibial band (ITB along the lower border of the iliac tubercle. We report a case of a 34 year old woman, non-professional runner, with pain at the iliac crest with no history of trauma and whose MRI was compatible with the proximal iliotibial band syndrome.

  3. Noise measurements on proximity effect bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, S.K.; Mercereau, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Audio frequency noise density measurements were performed on weakly superconducting proximity effect bridges on using a cooled transformer and room temperature low noise preamplifier. The noise temperature of the measuring system is approximately 4 0 K for a 0.9 Ω resistor. Noise density was measured as a function of bias current and temperature for the bridges. Excess noise above that expected from Johnson noise for a resistor equal to the dynamic resistance of the bridges was observed in the region near the critical current of the device. At high currents compared to the critical current, the noise density closely approaches that given by Johnson noise

  4. Long-term results after proximal thoracic aortic redo surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Czerny

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate early and mid-term results in patients undergoing proximal thoracic aortic redo surgery. METHODS: We analyzed 60 patients (median age 60 years, median logistic EuroSCORE 40 who underwent proximal thoracic aortic redo surgery between January 2005 and April 2012. Outcome and risk factors were analyzed. RESULTS: In hospital mortality was 13%, perioperative neurologic injury was 7%. Fifty percent of patients underwent redo surgery in an urgent or emergency setting. In 65%, partial or total arch replacement with or without conventional or frozen elephant trunk extension was performed. The preoperative logistic EuroSCORE I confirmed to be a reliable predictor of adverse outcome- (ROC 0.786, 95%CI 0.64-0.93 as did the new EuroSCORE II model: ROC 0.882 95%CI 0.78-0.98. Extensive individual logistic EuroSCORE I levels more than 67 showed an OR of 7.01, 95%CI 1.43-34.27. A EuroSCORE II larger than 28 showed an OR of 4.44 (95%CI 1.4-14.06. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified a critical preoperative state (OR 7.96, 95%CI 1.51-38.79 but not advanced age (OR 2.46, 95%CI 0.48-12.66 as the strongest independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. Median follow-up was 23 months (1-52 months. One year and five year actuarial survival rates were 83% and 69% respectively. Freedom from reoperation during follow-up was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a substantial early attrition rate in patients presenting with a critical preoperative state, proximal thoracic aortic redo surgery provides excellent early and mid-term results. Higher EuroSCORE I and II levels and a critical preoperative state but not advanced age are independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. As a consequence, age alone should no longer be regarded as a contraindication for surgical treatment in this particular group of patients.

  5. Exospheric density and escape fluxes of atomic isotopes on Venus and Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, M.K.

    1978-01-01

    Energetic neutrals in dissociative recombinations near or above the exobase provided an important component of exospheric density and escape fluxes. Plasma thermal velocities provide the main contribution to the velocity spread and an exact integral for the escape flux applicable in marginal cases is found for a simple atmosphere and collisional cut-off. Atomic fragments from recombination of diatomic oxygen and nitrogen ions in the Venus and Mars atmospheres are examined and density integrals derived. The oxygen escape flux on Mars is half that previously estimated and there is very little isotope preference supplementing diffusive separation. However, escape of the heavier 15 N isotope is low by a factor two. Reinterpretation of its 75% enrichment as detected by Viking leads to a range 0.4-1.4 mbar for the primeval nitrogen content on Mars. (author)

  6. Escape windows to improve the size selectivity in the Baltic cod trawl fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Foldager, L.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid decrease of the stock of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) has provided the incentive to improve the size selectivity in the trawl fishery. Use of escape windows is permitted in the legislation to give means of improving the size selectivity of cod as an alternative to a traditional standard codend....... The history of the use of escape windows in the Baltic Sea cod fishery is reviewed. The present escape windows do not function optimally. The objective of this new experiment was to compare an improved design of escape window, which is placed in the upper panel, with that of standard codend. Three standard...... of the codend selectivity was formulated to analyse the results and determine the effects of codend type, mesh size and other recorded variables. L50 and SR increased significantly with the mesh size. L50 was significantly increased and SR significantly reduced for a window codend with the same window mesh size...

  7. Optical escape factors for Doppler profiles in spherical, cylindrical and plane parallel geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Masamoto.

    1977-12-01

    Optical escape factors for Doppler profiles in spherical, cylindrical and plane parallel geometries are tabulated over the range of optical depths from 10 -3 to 10 5 . Relations with the known formulae are discussed also. (auth.)

  8. Pizza or Pancake? Formation Models of Gas Escape Biosignatures in Terrestrial and Martian Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Fairen, A. G.; Baker, L.; McKay, C. P.; Willson, D.

    2016-05-01

    Fine-grained sedimentary hollowed structures were imaged in Gale Crater, but no biomarkers identified to support biology. Our observation-based (gas escape) terrestrial model could inform on possible martian paleoenvironments at time of formation.

  9. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  10. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk=0.34; 95% confidence interval=0.19, 0.63) Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

  11. Inhibition of chaotic escape from a potential well using small parametric modulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon, R.; Balibrea, F.; Lopez, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown theoretically for the first time that, depending on its period, amplitude, and initial phase, a periodic parametric modulation can suppress a chaotic escape from a potential well. The instance of the Helmholtz oscillator is used to demonstrate, by means of Melnikov close-quote s method, that parametric modulations of the linear or quadratic potential terms inhibit chaotic escape when certain resonance conditions are met. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Model Of Thermal Escape From Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert E.; Tucker, O. J.

    2008-09-01

    Recent analysis of density profiles vs. altitude from the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) on Cassini (Waite et al. 2005) suggest Titan could have loss a significant amount of atmosphere in 4 Gyr at present escape rates (e.g., Johnson 2008). Strobel 2008 applied a slow hydrodynamic escape model to Titan's atmosphere using solar heating below the exobase to drive upward thermal conduction and power escape. However, near the exobase continuum models become problematic as a result of the increasing rarefaction in the atmosphere. The microscopic nature of DSMC is directly suitable to model atmosphere flow in nominal exobase region (e.g., Michael et. al. 2005). Our Preliminary DSMC models have shown no evidence for slow hydrodynamic escape of N2 and CH4 from Titan's atmosphere using boundary conditions normalized to the atmospheric properties in Strobel (2008). In this paper we use a 1D radial Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model of heating in Titan's upper atmosphere to estimate the escape rate as a function of the Jean's parameter. In this way we can test under what conditions the suggested deviations from Jeans escape would occur. In addition, we will be able to extract the necessary energy deposition to power the heavy molecule loss rates suggested in recent models (Strobel 2008; Yelle et. al. 2008). Michael, M. Johnson, R.E. 2005 Energy Deposition of pickup ions and heating of Titan's atmosphere. Planat. Sp. Sci. 53, 1510-1514 Johnson, R.E., "Sputtering and Heating of Titan's Upper Atmosphere", Proc Royal Soc. (London) (2008) Strobel, D.F. 2008 Titan's hydrodynamically escaping atmosphere. Icarus 193, 588-594 Yelle, R.V., J. Cui and I. C.F. Muller-Wodarg 2008 Methane Escape from Titan's Atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res in press Waite, J.H., Jr., Niemann, H.B., Yelle, R.V. et al. 2005 Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer Results from the First Flyby of Titan. Science 308, 982-986

  13. Efektivitas Celah Pelolosan (Escape Gap) Pada Alat Tangkap Pengilar Untuk Menunjang Kelestarian Sumberdaya Ikan

    OpenAIRE

    Rezeki, Silka Tria; Syofyan, Irwandy; ', Isnaniah

    2017-01-01

    The research was conducted during of March until June 2016 in Kampar River and Laboratory of Fishing Gear and Material Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science University of Riau. The study aim to determine the extent effectivenes of escape gap. The method used are survey and experiment method. The results of this study shown that the circles escape gap can pass the larva of fish with a value of the effectiveness has 0.89

  14. Heat-induced symmetry breaking in ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae escape behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Kai Chung

    Full Text Available The collective egress of social insects is important in dangerous situations such as natural disasters or enemy attacks. Some studies have described the phenomenon of symmetry breaking in ants, with two exits induced by a repellent. However, whether symmetry breaking occurs under high temperature conditions, which are a common abiotic stress, remains unknown. In our study, we deposited a group of Polyrhachis dives ants on a heated platform and counted the number of escaping ants with two identical exits. We discovered that ants asymmetrically escaped through two exits when the temperature of the heated platform was >32.75°C. The degree of asymmetry increased linearly with the temperature of the platform. Furthermore, the higher the temperature of heated platform was, the more ants escaped from the heated platform. However, the number of escaping ants decreased for 3 min when the temperature was higher than the critical thermal limit (39.46°C, which is the threshold for ants to endure high temperature without a loss of performance. Moreover, the ants tended to form small groups to escape from the thermal stress. A preparatory formation of ant grouping was observed before they reached the exit, indicating that the ants actively clustered rather than accidentally gathered at the exits to escape. We suggest that a combination of individual and grouping ants may help to optimize the likelihood of survival during evacuation.

  15. Flowing water affects fish fast-starts: escape performance of the Hawaiian stream goby, Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Kelly M; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Walker, Jeffrey A; Blob, Richard W

    2016-10-01

    Experimental measurements of escape performance in fishes have typically been conducted in still water; however, many fishes inhabit environments with flow that could impact escape behavior. We examined the influences of flow and predator attack direction on the escape behavior of fish, using juveniles of the amphidromous Hawaiian goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni In nature, these fish must escape ambush predation while moving through streams with high-velocity flow. We measured the escape performance of juvenile gobies while exposing them to a range of water velocities encountered in natural streams and stimulating fish from three different directions. Frequency of response across treatments indicated strong effects of flow conditions and attack direction. Juvenile S. stimpsoni had uniformly high response rates for attacks from a caudal direction (opposite flow); however, response rates for attacks from a cranial direction (matching flow) decreased dramatically as flow speed increased. Mechanical stimuli produced by predators attacking in the same direction as flow might be masked by the flow environment, impairing the ability of prey to detect attacks. Thus, the likelihood of successful escape performance in fishes can depend critically on environmental context. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Born in an alien nest: how do social parasite male offspring escape from host aggression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Lhomme

    Full Text Available Social parasites exploit the colony resources of social insects. Some of them exploit the host colony as a food resource or as a shelter whereas other species also exploit the brood care behavior of their social host. Some of these species have even lost the worker caste and rely completely on the host's worker force to rear their offspring. To avoid host defenses and bypass their recognition code, these social parasites have developed several sophisticated chemical infiltration strategies. These infiltration strategies have been highly studied in several hymenopterans. Once a social parasite has successfully entered a host nest and integrated its social system, its emerging offspring still face the same challenge of avoiding host recognition. However, the strategy used by the offspring to survive within the host nest without being killed is still poorly documented. In cuckoo bumblebees, the parasite males completely lack the morphological and chemical adaptations to social parasitism that the females possess. Moreover, young parasite males exhibit an early production of species-specific cephalic secretions, used as sexual pheromones. Host workers might thus be able to recognize them. Here we used a bumblebee host-social parasite system to test the hypothesis that social parasite male offspring exhibit a chemical defense strategy to escape from host aggression during their intranidal life. Using behavioral assays, we showed that extracts from the heads of young cuckoo bumblebee males contain a repellent odor that prevents parasite males from being attacked by host workers. We also show that social parasitism reduces host worker aggressiveness and helps parasite offspring acceptance.

  17. Emerging Hopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China looks to strategically important emerging industries for innovation-driven economic growthc hina will soon announce a decision to rev up seven strategically impor- tant emerging industries,said the National

  18. Promoter proximal polyadenylation sites reduce transcription activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Kjølhede; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression relies on the functional communication between mRNA processing and transcription. We previously described the negative impact of a point-mutated splice donor (SD) site on transcription. Here we demonstrate that this mutation activates an upstream cryptic polyadenylation (CpA) site......, which in turn causes reduced transcription. Functional depletion of U1 snRNP in the context of the wild-type SD triggers the same CpA event accompanied by decreased RNA levels. Thus, in accordance with recent findings, U1 snRNP can shield premature pA sites. The negative impact of unshielded pA sites...... on transcription requires promoter proximity, as demonstrated using artificial constructs and supported by a genome-wide data set. Importantly, transcription down-regulation can be recapitulated in a gene context devoid of splice sites by placing a functional bona fide pA site/transcription terminator within ∼500...

  19. Children’s proximal societal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    or the children’s everyday life, but something that is represented through societal structures and actual persons participating (in political ways) within the institutional settings, in ways that has meaning to children’s possibilities to participate, learn and develop. Understanding school or daycare as (part of......) the children’s proximal societal conditions for development and learning, means for instance that considerations about an inclusive agenda in a (Danish) welfare state with well-developed school- and daycare system, are no longer simply thoughts about the school having space for as many pupils as possible...... (schools for all). Such thoughts can or should be supplemented by reflections about which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to present our children with, and which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to set up as the condition for children’s participation and development. These questions require an ethical...

  20. Emergent Expertise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  1. Proximity to Industrial Food Animal Production and Asthma Exacerbations in Pennsylvania, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sara G; Casey, Joan A; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Schwartz, Brian S

    2017-03-31

    The research on industrial food animal production (IFAP) and asthma exacerbations in the United States has relied on small sample sizes and/or self-reported outcomes. We assessed associations of proximity to large-scale and densely stocked swine and dairy/veal IFAP with three types of asthma exacerbations: hospitalizations, emergency encounters, and oral corticosteroid (OCS) medication orders from Geisinger Clinic in Pennsylvania. We used a diagnosis code ( International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification code 493.x) and medication orders from electronic health records to identify these exacerbations among asthma patients ( n = 35,269) from 2005-2012. We compared residential proximity to swine or dairy/veal IFAP (dichotomized as <3 miles (4.8 km) or ≥3 miles) among asthma patients with and without exacerbations and estimated odds ratios using multilevel logistic regression. In adjusted models, proximity to IFAP was associated (odds ratio (95% confidence interval)) with OCS orders (1.11 (1.04-1.19)) and hospitalizations (1.29 (1.15-1.46)), but not emergency encounters (1.12 (0.91-1.37)). This study contributes to growing evidence that IFAP may impact health, in this case clinically-documented asthma exacerbations. No prior study has evaluated the association of IFAP and clinically-documented asthma exacerbations in the United States.

  2. Temporal and ontogenetic variation in the escape response of Ameiva festiva (Squamata, Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lattanzio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several factors have been shown to affect lizard escape behavior (flight initiation distance or FID, the distance between predator and prey when the prey initiates escape. Patterns of daily activity, such as foraging or movement behavior, vary with respect to time of day, supporting that escape responses may vary temporally as well. However, there remains scant information regarding the effects of time of day on FID. During peak activity, FID may decrease due to increased cost of giving up resources (e.g., prey or potential mates. An alternative hypothesis is that FID may increase because lizard activity in general may serve to alert a predator in advance of its approach. A lizard in this scenario may be favored to flee sooner rather than later. Moreover, juvenile and adult lizards of multiple species may differ in behavioral, ecological, and morphological traits that could influence escape decisions. I tested the effects of time of day (in 30-min intervals and age (juvenile or adult on the FID of a tropical whiptail lizard, Ameiva festiva in Costa Rica. I found that A. festiva escape responses varied with time of day such that in general, their FID decreased throughout the day. In addition, I observed a peak in FID from mid to late-morning that matches published estimates of peak activity times for A. festiva. Overall, juvenile A. festiva initiated an escape response sooner than adults, which may be related to differences in perceived risk associated with differences in size and predator experience between the two age groups. I conclude that escape responses may be contingent on both the activity level of the animal at the time of approach and its age.

  3. Escape Excel: A tool for preventing gene symbol and accession conversion errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Eric A; Stewart, Paul A; Kuenzi, Brent M; Eschrich, James A

    2017-01-01

    Microsoft Excel automatically converts certain gene symbols, database accessions, and other alphanumeric text into dates, scientific notation, and other numerical representations. These conversions lead to subsequent, irreversible, corruption of the imported text. A recent survey of popular genomic literature estimates that one-fifth of all papers with supplementary gene lists suffer from this issue. Here, we present an open-source tool, Escape Excel, which prevents these erroneous conversions by generating an escaped text file that can be safely imported into Excel. Escape Excel is implemented in a variety of formats (http://www.github.com/pstew/escape_excel), including a command line based Perl script, a Windows-only Excel Add-In, an OS X drag-and-drop application, a simple web-server, and as a Galaxy web environment interface. Test server implementations are accessible as a Galaxy interface (http://apostl.moffitt.org) and simple non-Galaxy web server (http://apostl.moffitt.org:8000/). Escape Excel detects and escapes a wide variety of problematic text strings so that they are not erroneously converted into other representations upon importation into Excel. Examples of problematic strings include date-like strings, time-like strings, leading zeroes in front of numbers, and long numeric and alphanumeric identifiers that should not be automatically converted into scientific notation. It is hoped that greater awareness of these potential data corruption issues, together with diligent escaping of text files prior to importation into Excel, will help to reduce the amount of Excel-corrupted data in scientific analyses and publications.

  4. Comparative pick-up ion distributions at Mars and Venus: Consequences for atmospheric deposition and escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Shannon M.; Luhmann, Janet; Ma, Yingjuan; Liemohn, Michael; Dong, Chuanfei; Hara, Takuya

    2015-09-01

    Without the shielding of a substantial intrinsic dipole magnetic field, the atmospheres of Mars and Venus are particularly susceptible to similar atmospheric ion energization and scavenging processes. However, each planet has different attributes and external conditions controlling its high altitude planetary ion spatial and energy distributions. This paper describes analogous test particle simulations in background MHD fields that allow us to compare the properties and fates, precipitation or escape, of the mainly O+ atmospheric pick-up ions at Mars and Venus. The goal is to illustrate how atmospheric and planetary scales affect the upper atmospheres and space environments of our terrestrial planet neighbors. The results show the expected convection electric field-related hemispheric asymmetries in both precipitation and escape, where the degree of asymmetry at each planet is determined by the planetary scale and local interplanetary field strength. At Venus, the kinetic treatment of O+ reveals a strong nightside source of precipitation while Mars' crustal fields complicate the simple asymmetry in ion precipitation and drive a dayside source of precipitation. The pickup O+ escape pattern at both Venus and Mars exhibits low energy tailward escape, but Mars exhibits a prominent, high energy 'polar plume' feature in the hemisphere of the upward convection electric field while the Venus ion wake shows only a modest poleward concentration. The overall escape is larger at Venus than Mars (2.1 ×1025 and 4.3 ×1024 at solar maximum, respectively), but the efficiency (likelihood) of O+ escaping is 2-3 times higher at Mars. The consequences of these comparisons for pickup ion related atmospheric energy deposition, loss rates, and detection on spacecraft including PVO, VEX, MEX and MAVEN are considered. In particular, both O+ precipitation and escape show electric field controlled asymmetries that grow with energy, while the O+ fluxes and energy spectra at selected spatial

  5. Unsteady motion: escape jumps in planktonic copepods, their kinematics and energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders; Langlois, Vincent J.; Jakobsen, Hans H.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the kinematics of escape jumps in three species of 0.3–3.0 mm-sized planktonic copepods. We find similar kinematics between species with periodically alternating power strokes and passive coasting and a resulting highly fluctuating escape velocity. By direct numerical simulations, we estimate the force and power output needed to accelerate and overcome drag. Both are very high compared with those of other organisms, as are the escape velocities in comparison to startle velocities of other aquatic animals. Thus, the maximum weight-specific force, which for muscle motors of other animals has been found to be near constant at 57 N (kg muscle)−1, is more than an order of magnitude higher for the escaping copepods. We argue that this is feasible because most copepods have different systems for steady propulsion (feeding appendages) and intensive escapes (swimming legs), with the muscular arrangement of the latter probably adapted for high force production during short-lasting bursts. The resulting escape velocities scale with body length to power 0.65, different from the size-scaling of both similar sized and larger animals moving at constant velocity, but similar to that found for startle velocities in other aquatic organisms. The relative duration of the pauses between power strokes was observed to increase with organism size. We demonstrate that this is an inherent property of swimming by alternating power strokes and pauses. We finally show that the Strouhal number is in the range of peak propulsion efficiency, again suggesting that copepods are optimally designed for rapid escape jumps. PMID:20462876

  6. How to Escape? The Trap of the Transition in the Recent Cinema of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Rawski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Escape? The Trap of the Transition in the Recent Cinema of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2000-2012 The paper concerns the latest cinema of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2000-2012. Focusing on the cinema of social criticism (represented by movies which try to rethink the new socio-political order gradually emerging in BiH after the war of 1992-95, the authors recognize the Bosnian society as a community captured in the trap of an unfinished system transition. The story of the Bosnian society, simultaneously stuck in a dysfunctional and oppressive state and completely devoid of any prospects for the improvement of this situation, seems to be dominated by several escape strategies into an alternative reality: the nostalgic past, the imagined present or the utopian future. In that sense, the Bosnian cinema of social criticism turns out to be a cinema of social escapism.   Jak uciec? Pułapka transformacji w najnowszym kinie Bośni i Hercegowiny (2000-2012 Tekst dotyczy najnowszej kinematografii Bośni i Hercegowiny (2000-2012. Skupienie na nurcie kina krytycznego (do którego zaliczone zostały filmy, które próbują interpretować nowy porządek społeczno-polityczny powoli wyłaniający się w Bośni i Hercegowinie po wojnie z lat 1992-95 pozwala ukazać społeczeństwo Bośni i Hercegowiny jako znajdujące się w pułapce wciąż niedokończonej transformacji systemowej. Opowieść o społeczeństwie z jednej strony uwięzionym w dysfunkcjonalnym i opresyjnym państwie, a z drugiej całkowicie pozbawionym perspektyw i nadziei na poprawę sytuacji, zdominowana jest przez rozmaite strategie ucieczki w alternatywną rzeczywistość: nostalgiczną przeszłość, wyobrażoną teraźniejszość lub utopijną przyszłość. W tym sensie, bośniackie kino krytyczne jawi się jako kino eskapizmu społecznego.

  7. Modified technique of the treatment for proximal tibiofibular joint dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Nemanja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ is a rare injury. The diagnosis requires an accurate history of the mechanism and symptoms of the injury, and adequate clinical and radiographic evaluation of both knees. In the literature there is no larger series, only several cases of PTFJ dislocation treated by different methods have been published so far. The aim of the study was to present a modified technique for the treatment of the unstable PTFJ that results in faster recovery of the patient. Case report. A 24-year-old football player was injured at the beginning of training; when tackling the ball he felt a sharp pain in his right knee. He was immediately brought to the Emergency Center of Vojvodina and diagnosed with anterolateral dislocation of the PTFJ. Close reduction in general anesthesia was tried but we failed and then open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF were performed with a single three cortical screw. We preferred not to immobilise the knee after the procedure and immediately employed passive and active exercises in the knee, without bearing weight to the injured leg. After 6 weeks we removed the screw and gave full weight support to the leg and continued physical treatment. Conclusion. In case of acute PTFJ dislocation, the first method of choice is closed reduction in sedation or general anesthesia. If closed reduction fails, ORIF must be performed. ORIF without immobilization and early start of physical therapy lead to the rapid return to sports activities

  8. Proximate Kitaev quantum spin liquid behaviour in a honeycomb magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, A; Bridges, C A; Yan, J-Q; Aczel, A A; Li, L; Stone, M B; Granroth, G E; Lumsden, M D; Yiu, Y; Knolle, J; Bhattacharjee, S; Kovrizhin, D L; Moessner, R; Tennant, D A; Mandrus, D G; Nagler, S E

    2016-07-01

    Quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are topological states of matter exhibiting remarkable properties such as the capacity to protect quantum information from decoherence. Whereas their featureless ground states have precluded their straightforward experimental identification, excited states are more revealing and particularly interesting owing to the emergence of fundamentally new excitations such as Majorana fermions. Ideal probes of these excitations are inelastic neutron scattering experiments. These we report here for a ruthenium-based material, α-RuCl3, continuing a major search (so far concentrated on iridium materials) for realizations of the celebrated Kitaev honeycomb topological QSL. Our measurements confirm the requisite strong spin-orbit coupling and low-temperature magnetic order matching predictions proximate to the QSL. We find stacking faults, inherent to the highly two-dimensional nature of the material, resolve an outstanding puzzle. Crucially, dynamical response measurements above interlayer energy scales are naturally accounted for in terms of deconfinement physics expected for QSLs. Comparing these with recent dynamical calculations involving gauge flux excitations and Majorana fermions of the pure Kitaev model, we propose the excitation spectrum of α-RuCl3 as a prime candidate for fractionalized Kitaev physics.

  9. Assessing the Effect of Spatial Proximity on Urban Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gomes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Land-Use/Cover Change (LUCC reacts to demographic pressures, economic trends, or improved transport networks. Urban growth with implications on LUCC patterns can be measured using a diversity of methods. Our study derives from Tobler’s first law of geography: ‘everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant ones’. We identified and measured the influence of neighbouring distance on urban growth from the edge of existing urban areas. For that, we have developed a method, built using the NetLogo software tool, which we called Land-use chAnge and Neighbouring Distance (LAND. We selected Torres Vedras (Portugal to conduct our case study due to its increasing urban development in the past few years. The periods of analysis were 1995–2010, 1995–2007, and 2007–2010. The results have shown the influence and the effect of strong spatial correlation between the proximity of existing artificial surfaces and the emergence of new ones. The understanding of the patterns of urban growth is helpful to plan forward land developments. This method can be used to write guidelines for decision makers to monitor urban expansion and define spatial planning priorities.

  10. Distributed Autonomous Control of Multiple Spacecraft During Close Proximity Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCamish, Shawn B

    2007-01-01

    This research contributes to multiple spacecraft control by developing an autonomous distributed control algorithm for close proximity operations of multiple spacecraft systems, including rendezvous...

  11. PROXIMAL DISABILITY AND SPINAL DEFORMITY INDEX IN PATIENTS WITH PROXIMAL FEMUR FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvio Mistro Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the quality of life related to the spine in patients with proximal femoral fractures. Methods : Study conducted in a tertiary public hospital in patients with proximal femoral fractures caused by low-energy trauma, through the Oswestry Disability Index questionnaire to asses complaints related to the spine at the time of life prior to the femoral fracture. The thoracic and lumbar spine of patients were also evaluated applying the radiographic index described by Gennant (Spinal Deformity Index, which assesses the number and severity of fractures. Results : Seventeen subjects completed the study. All had some degree of vertebral fracture. Patients were classified in the categories of severe and very severe disability in the questionnaire about quality of life. It was found that the higher SDI, the better the quality of life. Conclusion : There is a strong association of disability related to the spine in patients with proximal femoral fracture, and this complaint must be systematically evaluated in patients with appendicular fracture.

  12. Initial outcome and efficacy of S3 proximal humerus locking plate in the treatment of proximal humerus fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiming; Zhu Xuesong; Bao Zhaohua; Yang Huilin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to explore the initial outcome and efficacy of S 3 proximal humerus locking plate in the treatment of proximal humerus fractures. Methods: Twenty-two patients with proximal humerus fracture were treated with the S 3 proximal humerus locking plate. Most of the fractures were complex, two-part (n=4), three-part (n=11) and four-part (n=7) fractures according to the Neer classification of the proximal humerus fractures. Results: All patients were followed up for 3∼15 months. There were no complications related to the implant including loosening or breakage of the plate. Good and excellent results were documented in 17 patients fair results in 4 patients according the Neer scores of shoulder. Conclusion: New design concepts of S 3 proximal humerus plate provide the subchondral support and the internal fixation support. With the addition of the proper exercise of the shoulder joint, the outcomes would be satisfied. (authors)

  13. Extinction Correction Significantly Influences the Estimate of the Lyα Escape Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fang Xia; Zheng, Xian Zhong; Hao, Cai-Na; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Xia, Xiao-Yang

    2017-02-01

    The Lyα escape fraction is a key measure to constrain the neutral state of the intergalactic medium and then to understand how the universe was fully reionized. We combine deep narrowband imaging data from the custom-made filter NB393 and the {{{H}}}2S1 filter centered at 2.14 μm to examine the Lyα emitters and Hα emitters at the same redshift z = 2.24. The combination of these two populations allows us to determine the Lyα escape fraction at z = 2.24. Over an area of 383 arcmin2 in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), 124 Lyα emitters are detected down to NB393 = 26.4 mag at the 5σ level, and 56 Hα emitters come from An et al. Of these, four have both Lyα and Hα emissions (LAHAEs). We also collect the Lyα emitters and Hα emitters at z = 2.24 in the COSMOS field from the literature, and increase the number of LAHAEs to 15 in total. About one-third of them are AGNs. We measure the individual/volumetric Lyα escape fraction by comparing the observed Lyα luminosity/luminosity density to the extinction-corrected Hα luminosity/luminosity density. We revisit the extinction correction for Hα emitters using the Galactic extinction law with color excess for nebular emission. We also adopt the Calzetti extinction law together with an identical color excess for stellar and nebular regions to explore how the uncertainties in extinction correction affect the estimate of individual and global Lyα escape fractions. In both cases, an anti-correlation between the Lyα escape fraction and dust attenuation is found among the LAHAEs, suggesting that dust absorption is responsible for the suppression of the escaping Lyα photons. However, the estimated Lyα escape fraction of individual LAHAEs varies by up to ˜3 percentage points between the two methods of extinction correction. We find the global Lyα escape fraction at z = 2.24 to be (3.7 ± 1.4)% in the ECDFS. The variation in the color excess of the extinction causes a discrepancy of ˜1 percentage point

  14. Energy transfer in O collisions with He isotopes and helium escape from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, S.; Zhang, P.; Kharchenko, V.; Dalgarno, A.

    2010-12-01

    Helium is one of the dominant constituents in the upper atmosphere of Mars [1]. Thermal (Jeans’) escape of He is negligible on Mars [2] and major mechanism of escape is related to the collisional ejection of He atoms by energetic oxygen. Collisional ejection dominates over ion-related mechanisms [3] and evaluation of the escape flux of neutral He becomes an important issue. The dissociative recombination of O2+ is considered to be the major source of energetic oxygen atoms [4]. We report accurate data on energy-transfer collisions between hot oxygen atoms and the atmospheric helium gas. Angular dependent scattering cross sections for elastic collisions of O(3P) and O(1D) atoms with helium gas have been calculated quantum mechanically and found to be surprisingly similar. Cross sections, computed for collisions with both helium isotopes, 3He and 4He, have been used to construct the kernel of the Boltzmann equation, describing the energy relaxation of hot oxygen atoms. Computed rates of energy transfer in O + He collisions have been used to evaluate the flux of He atoms escaping from the Mars atmosphere at different solar conditions. We have identified atmospheric layers mostly responsible for production of the He escape flux. Our results are consistent with recent data from Monte Carlo simulations of the escape of O atoms: strong angular anisotropy of atomic cross sections leads to an increased transparency of the upper atmosphere for escaping O flux [5] and stimulate the collisional ejection of He atoms. References [1] Krasnopolsky, V. A., and G. R. Gladstone (2005), Helium on Mars and Venus: EUVE observations and modeling, Icarus, 176, 395. [2] Chassefiere E. and F. Leblanc (2004), Mars atmospheric escape and evolution; interaction with the solar wind, Planetary and Space Science, 52, 1039 [3] Krasnopolsky, V. (2010), Solar activity variations of thermospheric temperatures on Mars and a problem of CO in the lower atmoshpere, Icarus, 207, 638. [4] Fox, J. L

  15. Non-thermal escape rates of atmospheric H and D from Mars using MAVEN data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacesa, M.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Geological evidence suggests that an ocean of liquid water existed on Mars until at least middle to late Noachian era (4.1 to 3.8 Ga) and possibly, at least episodically, as late as Hesperian. Between 67% and 87% of the total primordial amount of water, equal to about 70 to 110 meters equivalent (spread over the entire Mars' surface), is believed to have escape to space, while about 35 meters remains on or beneath the surface as water ice. Establishing better constraints on these numbers and identifying the responsible atmospheric loss processes remains the major objective of NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission. The ratio of atmospheric Deuterium and Hydrogen (D/H) on Mars is one of the best indicators of water loss to space. While majority of H and D escape through thermal Jeans escape, up to 10% of D can escape to space via non-thermal mechanisms, such as collisions with superthermal neutral atoms. In this study, we present new estimates of non-thermal escape rates of light molecules of interest to the water evolution, including H2, HD, OH, and OD, based on recent measurements of atmospheric density and temperature profiles by MAVEN. The escape mechanisms considered include photochemical sources of hot O, as well as collisions with energetic neutral atoms produced in charge-exchange of solar wind ions with atmospheric gases1,2. Energy transport and escape rates are modeled using quantum reactive scattering formalism3 and seasonal variations are illustrated. Finally, a simple estimate of the role of the non-thermal escape mechanisms in previous eras is given. We conclude that D escape rates can be affected by the non-thermal processes with consequences on the estimates of primordial water inventory based on the D/H ratio. [1] N. Lewkow and V. Kharchenko, Astroph. J., 790, 98 (2014) [2] M. Gacesa, N. Lewkow, V. Kharchenko, Icarus 284, 90 (2017) [3] M. Gacesa and V. Kharchenko, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L10203 (2012)

  16. Threat of Deportation as Proximal Social Determinant of Mental Health Amongst Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Nicholas M; Koh, Chiu Yee; Amirrudin, Amirah

    2017-06-01

    While migration health studies traditionally focused on socioeconomic determinants of health, an emerging body of literature is exploring migration status as a proximate cause of health outcomes. Study 1 is a path analysis of the predictors of mental health amongst 582 documented migrant workers in Singapore, and shows that threat of deportation is one of the most important proximate social determinants of predicted mental illness, and a mediator of the impact of workplace conflict on mental health. Study 2 is a qualitative study of the narratives of 149 migrant workers who were in workplace conflict with their employers, and demonstrates that workers believed threats were used as a negotiating strategy during workplace conflicts. Findings suggest that migration status places workers who come into workplace conflict with their employers at heightened risk of mental illness because migration status can be used as a tool by employers in workplace negotiations.

  17. Proximity effect in semiconductor films with spin-splitting and spin-orbit interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, Jens; Grein, Roland [Institut fuer Theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Superconducting heterostructures with spin-active materials have emerged as promising platforms for engineering topological superconductors featuring Majorana bound states at surfaces, edges and vortices. Here we present a method for evaluating, from a microscopic model, the band structure of a semiconductor film of finite thickness deposited on top of a conventional superconductor. Analytical expressions for the proximity induced gap openings are presented in terms of microscopic parameters and the proximity effect in presence of spin-orbit and exchange splitting is visualized in terms of Andreev reflection processes. An expression for the topological invariant, associated with the existence of Majorana bound states, is shown to depend only on parameters of the semiconductor film. The finite thickness of the film leads to resonant states in the film giving rise to a complex band structure with the topological phase alternating between trivial and non-trivial as the parameters are tuned of the film are tuned.

  18. Proximity Operations and Docking Sensor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Brewster, Linda L.; Lee, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been under development for the last three years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in spot mode out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. 12 Parts obsolescence issues prevent the construction of more AVGS units, and the next generation sensor was updated to allow it to support the CEV and COTS programs. The flight proven AR&D sensor has been redesigned to update parts and add additional capabilities for CEV and COTS with the development of the Next Generation AVGS at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The obsolete imager and processor are being replaced with new radiation tolerant parts. In addition, new capabilities include greater sensor range, auto ranging capability, and real-time video output. This paper presents some sensor hardware trades, use of highly integrated laser components, and addresses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It also discusses approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements

  19. Escape from Telomere-Driven Crisis Is DNA Ligase III Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon E. Jones

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Short dysfunctional telomeres are capable of fusion, generating dicentric chromosomes and initiating breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. Cells that escape the ensuing cellular crisis exhibit large-scale genomic rearrangements that drive clonal evolution and malignant progression. We demonstrate that there is an absolute requirement for fully functional DNA ligase III (LIG3, but not ligase IV (LIG4, to facilitate the escape from a telomere-driven crisis. LIG3- and LIG4-dependent alternative (A and classical (C nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ pathways were capable of mediating the fusion of short dysfunctional telomeres, both displaying characteristic patterns of microhomology and deletion. Cells that failed to escape crisis exhibited increased proportions of C-NHEJ-mediated interchromosomal fusions, whereas those that escaped displayed increased proportions of intrachromosomal fusions. We propose that the balance between inter- and intrachromosomal telomere fusions dictates the ability of human cells to escape crisis and is influenced by the relative activities of A- and C-NHEJ at short dysfunctional telomeres.

  20. How Hospitable Are Space Weather Affected Habitable Zones? The Role of Ion Escape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, Vladimir S.; Glocer, Alex; Khazanov, George V.; Danchi, William C. [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Loyd, R. O. P.; France, Kevin [University of Colorado/LASP, Boulder, CO (United States); Sojka, Jan [Utah State University, Logan, UT (United States); Liemohn, Michael W. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Atmospheres of exoplanets in the habitable zones around active young G-K-M stars are subject to extreme X-ray and EUV (XUV) fluxes from their host stars that can initiate atmospheric erosion. Atmospheric loss affects exoplanetary habitability in terms of surface water inventory, atmospheric pressure, the efficiency of greenhouse warming, and the dosage of the UV surface irradiation. Thermal escape models suggest that exoplanetary atmospheres around active K-M stars should undergo massive hydrogen escape, while heavier species including oxygen will accumulate forming an oxidizing atmosphere. Here, we show that non-thermal oxygen ion escape could be as important as thermal, hydrodynamic H escape in removing the constituents of water from exoplanetary atmospheres under supersolar XUV irradiation. Our models suggest that the atmospheres of a significant fraction of Earth-like exoplanets around M dwarfs and active K stars exposed to high XUV fluxes will incur a significant atmospheric loss rate of oxygen and nitrogen, which will make them uninhabitable within a few tens to hundreds of Myr, given a low replenishment rate from volcanism or cometary bombardment. Our non-thermal escape models have important implications for the habitability of the Proxima Centauri’s terrestrial planet.

  1. Enhanced Endosomal Escape by Light-Fueled Liquid-Metal Transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Lin, Yiliang; Chen, Zhaowei; Hu, Quanyin; Liu, Yang; Yu, Shuangjiang; Gao, Wei; Dickey, Michael D; Gu, Zhen

    2017-04-12

    Effective endosomal escape remains as the "holy grail" for endocytosis-based intracellular drug delivery. To date, most of the endosomal escape strategies rely on small molecules, cationic polymers, or pore-forming proteins, which are often limited by the systemic toxicity and lack of specificity. We describe here a light-fueled liquid-metal transformer for effective endosomal escape-facilitated cargo delivery via a chemical-mechanical process. The nanoscale transformer can be prepared by a simple approach of sonicating a low-toxicity liquid-metal. When coated with graphene quantum dots (GQDs), the resulting nanospheres demonstrate the ability to absorb and convert photoenergy to drive the simultaneous phase separation and morphological transformation of the inner liquid-metal core. The morphological transformation from nanospheres to hollow nanorods with a remarkable change of aspect ratio can physically disrupt the endosomal membrane to promote endosomal escape of payloads. This metal-based nanotransformer equipped with GQDs provides a new strategy for facilitating effective endosomal escape to achieve spatiotemporally controlled drug delivery with enhanced efficacy.

  2. Escape rate for nonequilibrium processes dominated by strong non-detailed balance force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Xu, Song; Ao, Ping

    2018-02-01

    Quantifying the escape rate from a meta-stable state is essential to understand a wide range of dynamical processes. Kramers' classical rate formula is the product of an exponential function of the potential barrier height and a pre-factor related to the friction coefficient. Although many applications of the rate formula focused on the exponential term, the prefactor can have a significant effect on the escape rate in certain parameter regions, such as the overdamped limit and the underdamped limit. There have been continuous interests to understand the effect of non-detailed balance on the escape rate; however, how the prefactor behaves under strong non-detailed balance force remains elusive. In this work, we find that the escape rate formula has a vanishing prefactor with decreasing friction strength under the strong non-detailed balance limit. We both obtain analytical solutions in specific examples and provide a derivation for more general cases. We further verify the result by simulations and propose a testable experimental system of a charged Brownian particle in electromagnetic field. Our study demonstrates that a special care is required to estimate the effect of prefactor on the escape rate when non-detailed balance force dominates.

  3. How Hospitable Are Space Weather Affected Habitable Zones? The Role of Ion Escape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, Vladimir S.; Glocer, Alex; Khazanov, George V.; Danchi, William C.; Loyd, R. O. P.; France, Kevin; Sojka, Jan; Liemohn, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheres of exoplanets in the habitable zones around active young G-K-M stars are subject to extreme X-ray and EUV (XUV) fluxes from their host stars that can initiate atmospheric erosion. Atmospheric loss affects exoplanetary habitability in terms of surface water inventory, atmospheric pressure, the efficiency of greenhouse warming, and the dosage of the UV surface irradiation. Thermal escape models suggest that exoplanetary atmospheres around active K-M stars should undergo massive hydrogen escape, while heavier species including oxygen will accumulate forming an oxidizing atmosphere. Here, we show that non-thermal oxygen ion escape could be as important as thermal, hydrodynamic H escape in removing the constituents of water from exoplanetary atmospheres under supersolar XUV irradiation. Our models suggest that the atmospheres of a significant fraction of Earth-like exoplanets around M dwarfs and active K stars exposed to high XUV fluxes will incur a significant atmospheric loss rate of oxygen and nitrogen, which will make them uninhabitable within a few tens to hundreds of Myr, given a low replenishment rate from volcanism or cometary bombardment. Our non-thermal escape models have important implications for the habitability of the Proxima Centauri’s terrestrial planet.

  4. Hydrogen escape from Mars enhanced by deep convection in dust storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, Nicholas G.; Kleinböhl, Armin; Chaffin, Michael S.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Kass, David M.; Hayne, Paul O.; McCleese, Daniel J.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Shirley, James H.; Schofield, John T.

    2018-02-01

    Present-day water loss from Mars provides insight into Mars's past habitability1-3. Its main mechanism is thought to be Jeans escape of a steady hydrogen reservoir sourced from odd-oxygen reactions with near-surface water vapour2, 4,5. The observed escape rate, however, is strongly variable and correlates poorly with solar extreme-ultraviolet radiation flux6-8, which was predicted to modulate escape9. This variability has recently been attributed to hydrogen sourced from photolysed middle atmospheric water vapour10, whose vertical and seasonal distribution is only partly characterized and understood11-13. Here, we report multi-annual observational estimates of water content and dust and water transport to the middle atmosphere from Mars Climate Sounder data. We provide strong evidence that the transport of water vapour and ice to the middle atmosphere by deep convection in Martian dust storms can enhance hydrogen escape. Planet-encircling dust storms can raise the effective hygropause (where water content rapidly decreases to effectively zero) from 50 to 80 km above the areoid (the reference equipotential surface). Smaller dust storms contribute to an annual mode in water content at 40-50 km that may explain seasonal variability in escape. Our results imply that Martian atmospheric chemistry and evolution can be strongly affected by the meteorology of the lower and middle atmosphere of Mars.

  5. Escape Distance in Ground-Nesting Birds Differs with Individual Level of Camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Aggarwal, Jared K; Troscianko, Jolyon T; Stevens, Martin; Spottiswoode, Claire N

    2016-08-01

    Camouflage is one of the most widespread antipredator strategies in the animal kingdom, yet no animal can match its background perfectly in a complex environment. Therefore, selection should favor individuals that use information on how effective their camouflage is in their immediate habitat when responding to an approaching threat. In a field study of African ground-nesting birds (plovers, coursers, and nightjars), we tested the hypothesis that individuals adaptively modulate their escape behavior in relation to their degree of background matching. We used digital imaging and models of predator vision to quantify differences in color, luminance, and pattern between eggs and their background, as well as the plumage of incubating adult nightjars. We found that plovers and coursers showed greater escape distances when their eggs were a poorer pattern match to the background. Nightjars sit on their eggs until a potential threat is nearby, and, correspondingly, they showed greater escape distances when the pattern and color match of the incubating adult's plumage-rather than its eggs-was a poorer match to the background. Finally, escape distances were shorter in the middle of the day, suggesting that escape behavior is mediated by both camouflage and thermoregulation.

  6. Fluid escape structures in the Graham Bank region (Sicily Channel, Central Mediterranean) revealing volcanic and neotectonic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatola, Daniele; Pennino, Valentina; Basilone, Luca; Interbartolo, Francesco; Micallef, Aaron; Sulli, Attilio; Basilone, Walter

    2016-04-01

    In the Sicily Channel, (Central Mediterranean), two geodynamic processes overlap each other, the Maghrebides-Apennines accretionary prism and the Sicily Channel rift. Moreover, the northwestern sector (Banks sector) is characterised by an irregular seafloor morphology linked to the recent volcanic and tectonic activity.In order to discriminate the role exerted by both the processes in the morphostructural setting of the area we used a dataset of both high and very high resolution single-channel and multi-channel profiles, acquired in the frame of the RITMARE project respectively with CHIRP and sparker, and airgun sources, and high resolution (5 m cell) morpho-bathymetric data. The data allowed us to identify and characterise two areas where different geological features (sedimentary and volcanic) are prevailing. They present fluid escaping evidence, which often appears to be active and generating different types of morphologies (both positive and negative). In the western sector we recognised pockmarks at water depths of 195 to 317 m, with diameters from 25 to 580 m, depths from 1.3 to 15 m, and slope up to 23°. They show sub-circular shape in plan-view and reflectors with upward concavity in cross section, and are oriented along a NW-SE trend.The CHIRP and multichannel profiles highlight fluids that affect the Plio-Quaternary succession, especially in areas where the top surface of the Messinian succession is shallower. Conversely, wipe-out acoustic facies were recognised in proximity of: i) extensional faults of Mesozoic age with NW-SE trend; ii) dip/strike slip faults of Cenozoic age with NW-SE, N-S and about NNE-SSW trends, and iii) extensional neo-tectonic faults with NW-SE and NNW-SSE trends. We cannot exclude that they could feed the shallower reservoir producing a mixing between the two. In the eastern sector we recognised a cluster of volcanoes composed of seven cone-shaped structures (SCV1-7), pertaining to a wide area known as Graham Bank. A detailed

  7. Hypoxia promotes tumor growth in linking angiogenesis to immune escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem eCHOUAIB

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the impressive progress over the past decade, in the field of tumor immunology, such as the identification of tumor antigens and antigenic peptides as potential targets, there are still many obstacles in eliciting an effective immune response to eradicate cancer. It has become increasingly clear that tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in the control of immune protection and contains many overlapping mechanisms to evade antigen specific immunotherapy. Obviously, tumors have evolved to utilize hypoxic stress to their own advantage by activating key biochemical and cellular pathways that are important in progression, survival and metastasis. Among the hypoxia-induced genes, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF play a determinant role in promoting tumor cell growth and survival. In this regard, hypoxia is emerging as an attractive target for cancer therapy. How the microenvironmental hypoxia poses both obstacles and opportunities for new therapeutic immune interventions will be discussed.

  8. Proximity coupling in superconductor-graphene heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2018-05-01

    This review discusses the electronic properties and the prospective research directions of superconductor-graphene heterostructures. The basic electronic properties of graphene are introduced to highlight the unique possibility of combining two seemingly unrelated physics, superconductivity and relativity. We then focus on graphene-based Josephson junctions, one of the most versatile superconducting quantum devices. The various theoretical methods that have been developed to describe graphene Josephson junctions are examined, together with their advantages and limitations, followed by a discussion on the advances in device fabrication and the relevant length scales. The phase-sensitive properties and phase-particle dynamics of graphene Josephson junctions are examined to provide an understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Josephson coupling via graphene. Thereafter, microscopic transport of correlated quasiparticles produced by Andreev reflections at superconducting interfaces and their phase-coherent behaviors are discussed. Quantum phase transitions studied with graphene as an electrostatically tunable 2D platform are reviewed. The interplay between proximity-induced superconductivity and the quantum-Hall phase is discussed as a possible route to study topological superconductivity and non-Abelian physics. Finally, a brief summary on the prospective future research directions is given.

  9. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, J M

    2012-10-01

    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asztalos, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need

  11. Imaging of rectus femoris proximal tendinopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesquer, Lionel; Poussange, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudiere, Benjamin; Feldis, Matthieu; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Graveleau, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The rectus femoris is the most commonly injured muscle of the anterior thigh among athletes, especially soccer players. Although the injury pattern of the muscle belly is well documented, less is known about the anatomy and specific lesions of the proximal tendons. For each head, three distinctive patterns may be encountered according to the location of the injury, which can be at the enthesis, within the tendon, or at the musculotendinous junction. In children, injuries correspond most commonly to avulsion of the anteroinferior iliac spine from the direct head and can lead to subspine impingement. Calcific tendinitis and traumatic tears may be encountered in adults. Recent studies have shown that traumatic injuries of the indirect head may be underdiagnosed and that injuries of both heads may have a surgical issue. Finally, in the case of tears, functional outcome and treatment may vary if the rupture involves one or both tendons and if the tear is partial or complete. Thus, it is mandatory for the radiologist to know the different ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of these lesions in order to provide accurate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this article is to recall the anatomy of the two heads of rectus femoris, describe a reliable method of assessment with ultrasound and MRI and know the main injury patterns, through our own experience and literature review. (orig.)

  12. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  13. Imaging of rectus femoris proximal tendinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesquer, Lionel; Poussange, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudiere, Benjamin; Feldis, Matthieu [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre d' Imagerie Osteo-articulaire, Merignac (France); Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand [Groupe Ramsay Generale de Sante - Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, Centre Orthopedique Santy, Lyon (France); Graveleau, Nicolas [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Sportive, Merignac (France)

    2016-07-15

    The rectus femoris is the most commonly injured muscle of the anterior thigh among athletes, especially soccer players. Although the injury pattern of the muscle belly is well documented, less is known about the anatomy and specific lesions of the proximal tendons. For each head, three distinctive patterns may be encountered according to the location of the injury, which can be at the enthesis, within the tendon, or at the musculotendinous junction. In children, injuries correspond most commonly to avulsion of the anteroinferior iliac spine from the direct head and can lead to subspine impingement. Calcific tendinitis and traumatic tears may be encountered in adults. Recent studies have shown that traumatic injuries of the indirect head may be underdiagnosed and that injuries of both heads may have a surgical issue. Finally, in the case of tears, functional outcome and treatment may vary if the rupture involves one or both tendons and if the tear is partial or complete. Thus, it is mandatory for the radiologist to know the different ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of these lesions in order to provide accurate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this article is to recall the anatomy of the two heads of rectus femoris, describe a reliable method of assessment with ultrasound and MRI and know the main injury patterns, through our own experience and literature review. (orig.)

  14. Emergency surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoneham, M; Murray, D; Foss, N

    2014-01-01

    National reports recommended that peri-operative care should be improved for elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates remain high, and indicate that emergency ruptured aneurysm repair, laparotomy and hip fracture fixation are high-risk procedures...... undertaken on elderly patients with limited physiological reserve. National audits have reported variations in care quality, data that are increasingly being used to drive quality improvement through professional guidance. Given that the number of elderly patients presenting for emergency surgery is likely...

  15. Thermoresponsive pegylated bubble liposome nanovectors for efficient siRNA delivery via endosomal escape

    KAUST Repository

    Alamoudi, Kholod; Martins, Patricia; Croissant, Jonas G.; Patil, Sachin; Omar, Haneen; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2017-01-01

    Improving the delivery of siRNA into cancer cells via bubble liposomes. Designing a thermoresponsive pegylated liposome through the introduction of ammonium bicarbonate salt into liposomes so as to control their endosomal escape for gene therapy.A sub-200 nm nanovector was fully characterized and examined for cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, endosomal escape and gene silencing.The siRNA-liposomes were internalized into cancer cells within 5 min and then released siRNAs in the cytosol prior to lysosomal degradation upon external temperature elevation. This was confirmed by confocal bioimaging and gene silencing reaching up to 90% and further demonstrated by the protein inhibition of both target genes.The thermoresponsiveness of ammonium bicarbonate containing liposomes enabled the rapid endosomal escape of the particles and resulted in an efficient gene silencing.

  16. European policymaking on the tobacco advertising ban: the importance of escape routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamini, Sandra; Versluis, Esther; Maarse, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the European Union policymaking process regarding tobacco advertising. While others already highlighted the importance of intergovernmental bargaining between member states to explain the outcome of the tobacco advertising case, the main aim of this article is to identify the use of escape routes by the Commission, the European Parliament, the Council and interest groups that played an important role in overcoming the deadlock. When looking at the different institutions that structure policymaking, we argue that indeed focusing on escape routes provides a clear insight in the process and in what strategies were necessary to 'make Europe work'. In the end, it appears to be a combination of escape routes that resulted in the final decision.

  17. Thermoresponsive pegylated bubble liposome nanovectors for efficient siRNA delivery via endosomal escape

    KAUST Repository

    Alamoudi, Kholod

    2017-05-19

    Improving the delivery of siRNA into cancer cells via bubble liposomes. Designing a thermoresponsive pegylated liposome through the introduction of ammonium bicarbonate salt into liposomes so as to control their endosomal escape for gene therapy.A sub-200 nm nanovector was fully characterized and examined for cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, endosomal escape and gene silencing.The siRNA-liposomes were internalized into cancer cells within 5 min and then released siRNAs in the cytosol prior to lysosomal degradation upon external temperature elevation. This was confirmed by confocal bioimaging and gene silencing reaching up to 90% and further demonstrated by the protein inhibition of both target genes.The thermoresponsiveness of ammonium bicarbonate containing liposomes enabled the rapid endosomal escape of the particles and resulted in an efficient gene silencing.

  18. HIV-1 viral escape in cerebrospinal fluid of subjects on suppressive antiretroviral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edén, Arvid; Fuchs, Dietmar; Hagberg, Lars; Nilsson, Staffan; Spudich, Serena; Svennerholm, Bo; Price, Richard W; Gisslén, Magnus

    2010-12-15

    Occasional cases of viral escape in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) despite suppression of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA have been reported. We investigated CSF viral escape in subjects treated with commonly used antiretroviral therapy regimens in relation to intrathecal immune activation and central nervous system penetration effectiveness (CPE) rank. Sixty-nine neurologically asymptomatic subjects treated with antiretroviral therapy >6 months and plasma HIV-1 RNA penetration effectiveness rank was not a significant predictor of detectable CSF virus or CSF neopterin levels. Viral escape in CSF is more common than previously reported, suggesting that low-grade central nervous system infection may continue in treated patients. Although these findings need extension in longitudinal studies, they suggest the utility of monitoring CSF responses, as new treatment combinations and strategies modify clinical practice.

  19. Unsteady motion: escape jumps in planktonic copepods, their kinematics and energetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders Peter; Langlois, Vincent J.

    2010-01-01

    velocities in other aquatic organisms. The relative duration of the pauses between power strokes was observed to increase with organism size. We demonstrate that this is an inherent property of swimming by alternating power strokes and pauses. We finally show that the Strouhal number is in the range of peak......We describe the kinematics of escape jumps in three species of 0.3–3.0 mm-sized planktonic copepods. We find similar kinematics between species with periodically alternating power strokes and passive coasting and a resulting highly fluctuating escape velocity. By direct numerical simulations, we...... estimate the force and power output needed to accelerate and overcome drag. Both are very high compared with those of other organisms, as are the escape velocities in comparison to startle velocities of other aquatic animals. Thus, the maximum weight-specific force, which for muscle motors of other animals...

  20. Optimization of a Compton-suppression system by escape-peak ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, H.; Chao, J.H.; Wu, S.-C.

    1996-01-01

    A Compton-suppression system consisting of an HPGe central detector surrounded by eight BGO scintillators in an annular geometry was assembled. This system is dedicated to in-beam γ-ray measurements. The ratios of full-energy to single-escape peak and full-energy of double-escape peak, at γ-rays of 2754, 4443 and 6130 keV, were used to derive associated suppression factors in order to optimize detection conditions of the system. The suppression factors derived both from the escape peak ratios and the corresponding peak-to-Compton ratios of the γ-ray spectra are compared and discussed. This optimization technique may be of great significance for analyzing complicated spectra, where high-energy γ-rays are considered for analytical use. (Author)

  1. Proximate analysis of female population of wild feather back fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... Key words: Body composition, Notopterus notopterus, condition factor, wild fish. INTRODUCTION. Proximate body composition is the analysis of water, fat, protein and ash contents of the fish (Love, 1980). Proximate composition is a good indicator of physiology which is needed for routine analysis of ...

  2. Proximate analysis of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each of the mushroom species was separated into its stipe and pileus and used for proximate analysis. There was a highly significant difference (p<0.01) in the proximate composition of the two species. P. atroumbonata had significantly higher crude protein, crude fibre and moisture content than L. squarrosulus while the ...

  3. Proximal Focal Femoral Deficiency in Ibadan a Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cultural aversion to amputation in our environment makes it difficult to employ that option of treatment. Proximal focal femoral deficiency in Ibadan a developing country's perspective and a review of the literature. Keywords: Proximal focal femoral deficiency , congenital malformations , limb malformations , lower limb ...

  4. Proximity approach to problems in topology and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Naimpally, Somashekhar

    2009-01-01

    Dieses Buch konzentriert das aktuelle Gesamtwissen zum Proximity-Konzept und stellt es dem Leser in gut strukturierter Form dar. Hauptaugenmerk liegt auf den vielfältigen Möglichkeiten, die sich aus dem Proximity-Konzept der räumlichen Nähe und seiner Verallgemeinerung im Nearness-Konzept ergeben.

  5. Systemic calciphylaxis presenting as a painful, proximal myopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelstein, C. L.; Wickham, M. K.; Kirby, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    A renal transplant patient who presented with a painful, proximal myopathy due to systemic calciphylaxis is described. The myopathy preceded the characteristic skin and soft tissue necrosis. Systemic calciphylaxis should be considered in a dialysis or a renal transplant patient presenting with a painful proximal myopathy even in the absence of necrotic skin lesions.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: proximal 18q deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... characteristic features. Most cases of proximal 18q deletion syndrome are the result of a new (de novo) deletion and are not inherited from a ... J, Fox PT, Stratton RF, Perry B, Hale DE. Recurrent interstitial deletions of proximal 18q: a new syndrome involving expressive speech delay. Am J Med Genet ...

  7. Proximal soil sensors and data fusion for precision agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    different remote and proximal soil sensors are available today that can scan entire fields and give detailed information on various physical, chemical, mechanical and biological soil properties. The first objective of this thesis was to evaluate different proximal soil sensors available today and to

  8. Two Stages repair of proximal hypospadias: Review of 33 cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HussamHassan

    Background/Purpose: Proximal hypospadias with chordee is the most challenging variant of hypospadias to reconstruct. During the last 10 years, the approach to sever hypospadias has been controversial. Materials & Methods: During the period from June 2002 to December 2009, I performed 33 cases with proximal.

  9. Early low-titer neutralizing antibodies impede HIV-1 replication and select for virus escape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine J Bar

    Full Text Available Single genome sequencing of early HIV-1 genomes provides a sensitive, dynamic assessment of virus evolution and insight into the earliest anti-viral immune responses in vivo. By using this approach, together with deep sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, antibody adsorptions and virus-entry assays, we found evidence in three subjects of neutralizing antibody (Nab responses as early as 2 weeks post-seroconversion, with Nab titers as low as 1∶20 to 1∶50 (IC(50 selecting for virus escape. In each of the subjects, Nabs targeted different regions of the HIV-1 envelope (Env in a strain-specific, conformationally sensitive manner. In subject CH40, virus escape was first mediated by mutations in the V1 region of the Env, followed by V3. HIV-1 specific monoclonal antibodies from this subject mapped to an immunodominant region at the base of V3 and exhibited neutralizing patterns indistinguishable from polyclonal antibody responses, indicating V1-V3 interactions within the Env trimer. In subject CH77, escape mutations mapped to the V2 region of Env, several of which selected for alterations of glycosylation. And in subject CH58, escape mutations mapped to the Env outer domain. In all three subjects, initial Nab recognition was followed by sequential rounds of virus escape and Nab elicitation, with Nab escape variants exhibiting variable costs to replication fitness. Although delayed in comparison with autologous CD8 T-cell responses, our findings show that Nabs appear earlier in HIV-1 infection than previously recognized, target diverse sites on HIV-1 Env, and impede virus replication at surprisingly low titers. The unexpected in vivo sensitivity of early transmitted/founder virus to Nabs raises the possibility that similarly low concentrations of vaccine-induced Nabs could impair virus acquisition in natural HIV-1 transmission, where the risk of infection is low and the number of viruses responsible for transmission and productive clinical

  10. MAVEN Observations of Escaping Planetary Ions from the Martian Atmosphere: Mass, Velocity, and Spatial Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yaxue; Fang, Xiaohua; Brain, D. A.; McFadden, James P.; Halekas, Jasper; Connerney, Jack

    2015-04-01

    The Mars-solar wind interaction accelerates and transports planetary ions away from the Martian atmosphere through a number of processes, including ‘pick-up’ by electromagnetic fields. The MAVEN spacecraft has made routine observations of escaping planetary ions since its arrival at Mars in September 2014. The SupraThermal And Thermal Ion Composition (STATIC) instrument measures the ion energy, mass, and angular spectra. It has detected energetic planetary ions during most of the spacecraft orbits, which are attributed to the pick-up process. We found significant variations in the escaping ion mass and velocity distributions from the STATIC data, which can be explained by factors such as varying solar wind conditions, contributions of particles from different source locations and different phases during the pick-up process. We also study the spatial distributions of different planetary ion species, which can provide insight into the physics of ion escaping process and enhance our understanding of atmospheric erosion by the solar wind. Our results will be further interpreted within the context of the upstream solar wind conditions measured by the MAVEN Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA) instrument and the magnetic field environment measured by the Magnetometer (MAG) instrument. Our study shows that the ion spatial distribution in the Mars-Sun-Electric-Field (MSE) coordinate system and the velocity space distribution with respect to the local magnetic field line can be used to distinguish the ions escaping through the polar plume and those through the tail region. The contribution of the polar plume ion escape to the total escape rate will also be discussed.

  11. Escape of O(3P), O(1D), and O(1S) from the Martian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jane L.; Hać, Aleksander B.

    2018-01-01

    We have computed here the escape probabilities, fluxes and rates for hot O atoms that are initially produced in the ground state and the first two excited metastable states, O(1D)and O(1S), in the Martian thermosphere by dissociative recombination of O2+. In order to compare our results with those of our previous calculations and with those of others, we have employed here the pre-MAVEN models that we have used previously. To compute the escape probabilities, we have employed the Monte Carlo escape code that has been described previously, but we here use for the first time energy-dependent elastic cross sections for collisions of the energetic O atoms with each of the twelve background species in our model. We also incorporate three mechanisms that interchange identities of the O(3P) and O(1D) atoms, including collisional excitation of O(3P) to O(1D), quenching of O(1D) to O(3P), and excitation exchange of O(1D) with O(3P). We find that the escape probabilities of O atoms that are produced initially as O(1D) are reduced compared to those in which these processes are not included, but the escape probabilities of O atoms that are initially produced as O(3P) are not significantly reduced. As a guide for our future research and those of other investigators, we review here what is known about the interactions of O atoms with other species in which the energies of the O atoms are altered, and several other sources of hot and escaping O, many of which have been suggested by other investigators. We will incorporate these data in a future MAVEN-like model.

  12. Proximity correction of high-dosed frame with PROXECCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Hans; Waas, Thomas; Hartmann, Hans

    1994-05-01

    Usefulness of electron beam lithography is strongly related to the efficiency and quality of methods used for proximity correction. This paper addresses the above issue by proposing an extension to the new proximity correction program PROXECCO. The combination of a framing step with PROXECCO produces a pattern with a very high edge accuracy and still allows usage of the fast correction procedure. Making a frame with a higher dose imitates a fine resolution correction where the coarse part is disregarded. So after handling the high resolution effect by means of framing, an additional coarse correction is still needed. Higher doses have a higher contribution to the proximity effect. This additional proximity effect is taken into account with the help of the multi-dose input of PROXECCO. The dose of the frame is variable, depending on the deposited energy coming from backscattering of the proximity. Simulation proves the very high edge accuracy of the applied method.

  13. Rejecting escape events in large volume Ge detectors by a pulse shape selection procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Zoppo, A.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.

    1993-01-01

    The dependence of the response to γ-rays of a large volume Ge detector on the interval width of a selected initial rise pulse slope is investigated. The number of escape events associated with a small pulse slope is found to be greater than the corresponding number of full energy events. An escape event rejection procedure based on the observed correlation between energy deposition and pulse shape is discussed. Such a procedure seems particularly suited for the design of highly granular large volume Ge detector arrays. (orig.)

  14. Four-channel ZnS scintillator measurements of escaping tritons in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.

    1988-10-01

    A four-channel scintillation detector capable of measuring tritons, protons, and alphas escaping from a tokamak plasma was operated during the 1986 run period of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Signals consistent with the expected 1 MeV triton behavior have been observed during deuterium operation. Backgrounds associated with neutrons, gammas, and soft x-rays have been evaluated in situ. Such a detector should be capable of measuring escaping alphas during the D/T phase of TFTR. 16 refs., 10 figs

  15. Tumor suppressor genes that escape from X-inactivation contribute to cancer sex bias

    OpenAIRE

    Dunford, Andrew; Weinstock, David M.; Savova, Virginia; Schumacher, Steven E.; Cleary, John P.; Yoda, Akinori; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Hess, Julian M.; Gimelbrant, Alexander A.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lawrence, Michael S.; Getz, Gad; Lane, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a striking and unexplained male predominance across many cancer types. A subset of X chromosome (chrX) genes can escape X-inactivation, which would protect females from complete functional loss by a single mutation. To identify putative “Escape from X-Inactivation Tumor Suppressor” (EXITS) genes, we compared somatic alterations from >4100 cancers across 21 tumor types for sex bias. Six of 783 non-pseudoautosomal region (PAR) chrX genes (ATRX, CNKSR2, DDX3X, KDM5C, KDM6A, and MAGEC3) ...

  16. Four-channel ZnS scintillator measurements of escaping tritons in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.J.

    1988-10-01

    A four-channel scintillation detector capable of measuring tritons, protons, and alphas escaping from a tokamak plasma was operated during the 1986 run period of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Signals consistent with the expected 1 MeV triton behavior have been observed during deuterium operation. Backgrounds associated with neutrons, gammas, and soft x-rays have been evaluated in situ. Such a detector should be capable of measuring escaping alphas during the D/T phase of TFTR. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Sound attenuation and preferred music in the treatment of problem behavior maintained by escape from noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettering, Tracy L; Fisher, Wayne W; Kelley, Michael E; LaRue, Robert H

    2018-06-06

    We examined the extent to which different sounds functioned as motivating operations (MO) that evoked problem behavior during a functional analysis for two participants. Results suggested that escape from loud noises reinforced the problem behavior for one participant and escape from arguing reinforced problem behavior for the other participant. Noncontingent delivery of preferred music through sound-attenuating headphones decreased problem behavior without the use of extinction for both participants. We discuss the results in terms of the abolishing effects of the intervention. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Nosema ceranae escapes fumagillin control in honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Fone Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fumagillin is the only antibiotic approved for control of nosema disease in honey bees and has been extensively used in United States apiculture for more than 50 years for control of Nosema apis. It is toxic to mammals and must be applied seasonally and with caution to avoid residues in honey. Fumagillin degrades or is diluted in hives over the foraging season, exposing bees and the microsporidia to declining concentrations of the drug. We showed that spore production by Nosema ceranae, an emerging microsporidian pathogen in honey bees, increased in response to declining fumagillin concentrations, up to 100% higher than that of infected bees that have not been exposed to fumagillin. N. apis spore production was also higher, although not significantly so. Fumagillin inhibits the enzyme methionine aminopeptidase2 (MetAP2 in eukaryotic cells and interferes with protein modifications necessary for normal cell function. We sequenced the MetAP2 gene for apid Nosema species and determined that, although susceptibility to fumagillin differs among species, there are no apparent differences in fumagillin binding sites. Protein assays of uninfected bees showed that fumagillin altered structural and metabolic proteins in honey bee midgut tissues at concentrations that do not suppress microsporidia reproduction. The microsporidia, particularly N. ceranae, are apparently released from the suppressive effects of fumagillin at concentrations that continue to impact honey bee physiology. The current application protocol for fumagillin may exacerbate N. ceranae infection rather than suppress it.

  19. Resilience offers escape from trapped thinking on poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Steven J; Haider, L Jamila; Engström, Gustav; Schlüter, Maja

    2017-05-01

    The poverty trap concept strongly influences current research and policy on poverty alleviation. Financial or technological inputs intended to "push" the rural poor out of a poverty trap have had many successes but have also failed unexpectedly with serious ecological and social consequences that can reinforce poverty. Resilience thinking can help to (i) understand how these failures emerge from the complex relationships between humans and the ecosystems on which they depend and (ii) navigate diverse poverty alleviation strategies, such as transformative change, that may instead be required. First, we review commonly observed or assumed social-ecological relationships in rural development contexts, focusing on economic, biophysical, and cultural aspects of poverty. Second, we develop a classification of poverty alleviation strategies using insights from resilience research on social-ecological change. Last, we use these advances to develop stylized, multidimensional poverty trap models. The models show that (i) interventions that ignore nature and culture can reinforce poverty (particularly in agrobiodiverse landscapes), (ii) transformative change can instead open new pathways for poverty alleviation, and (iii) asset inputs may be effective in other contexts (for example, where resource degradation and poverty are tightly interlinked). Our model-based approach and insights offer a systematic way to review the consequences of the causal mechanisms that characterize poverty traps in different agricultural contexts and identify appropriate strategies for rural development challenges.

  20. Toriyeh: the Way of Escaping from Telling Lies to Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Alinouri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Toriyeh means concealing real intention of speech using its parallel and common words so that the listener constructs from speaker's speech a meaning what he/she meant. The purpose of this research is studying jurisprudential dimensions of toriyeh in order to clarify its distinction from lying and related jurisprudential commandments by explanation of the most important discussions about toriyeh. This research was conducted via library method using verses, narratives, jurisprudence sources and decrees by religious authorities. two types of Second type: the speaker`s intention is the outward meaning but the listener misunderstands due to his mental moods. Some of the contemporaries regard the first type as forbidden and they regard the second type to allowable Toriyeh is not equivalent in the meaning with lying and jurists have mentioned narrative-based reasons to prove it. Therefore, in cases of emergency in which man is allowable to tell lie for removing inevitable loss he should use toriyeh as much as possible, and not tell a lie. Of course, toriyeh in the first sense is permissible and if a forbidden thing is conformed to it as a subordinate, it will lose its legality.

  1. Resilience offers escape from trapped thinking on poverty alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Steven J.; Haider, L. Jamila; Engström, Gustav; Schlüter, Maja

    2017-01-01

    The poverty trap concept strongly influences current research and policy on poverty alleviation. Financial or technological inputs intended to “push” the rural poor out of a poverty trap have had many successes but have also failed unexpectedly with serious ecological and social consequences that can reinforce poverty. Resilience thinking can help to (i) understand how these failures emerge from the complex relationships between humans and the ecosystems on which they depend and (ii) navigate diverse poverty alleviation strategies, such as transformative change, that may instead be required. First, we review commonly observed or assumed social-ecological relationships in rural development contexts, focusing on economic, biophysical, and cultural aspects of poverty. Second, we develop a classification of poverty alleviation strategies using insights from resilience research on social-ecological change. Last, we use these advances to develop stylized, multidimensional poverty trap models. The models show that (i) interventions that ignore nature and culture can reinforce poverty (particularly in agrobiodiverse landscapes), (ii) transformative change can instead open new pathways for poverty alleviation, and (iii) asset inputs may be effective in other contexts (for example, where resource degradation and poverty are tightly interlinked). Our model-based approach and insights offer a systematic way to review the consequences of the causal mechanisms that characterize poverty traps in different agricultural contexts and identify appropriate strategies for rural development challenges. PMID:28508077

  2. Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    An interactive graphical planning system for on-site planning of proximity operations in the congested multispacecraft environment about the space station is presented. The system shows the astronaut a bird's eye perspective of the space station, the orbital plane, and the co-orbiting spacecraft. The system operates in two operational modes: (1) a viewpoint mode, in which the astronaut is able to move the viewpoint around in the orbital plane to range in on areas of interest; and (2) a trajectory design mode, in which the trajectory is planned. Trajectory design involves the composition of a set of waypoints which result in a fuel-optimal trajectory which satisfies all operational constraints, such as departure and arrival constraints, plume impingement constraints, and structural constraints. The main purpose of the system is to present the trajectory and the constraints in an easily interpretable graphical format. Through a graphical interactive process, the trajectory waypoints are edited until all operational constraints are satisfied. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the system. Eight airline pilots with no prior background in orbital mechanics participated in the experiments. Subject training included a stand-alone training session of about 6 hours duration, in which the subjects became familiar with orbital mechanics concepts and performed a series of exercises to familiarize themselves with the control and display features of the system. They then carried out a series of production runs in which 90 different trajectory design situations were randomly addressed. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate how the planning time, planning efforts, and fuel expenditures were affected by the planning difficulty. Some results of these experiments are presented.

  3. Selective proximal vagotomy with and without pyloroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, E.

    1984-01-01

    It was the aim of the study described here to gain information relevant to the well-being of patients subjected to selective proximal vagotomy with or without pyroloplasty as soon as possible after surgery. For this purpose, particular care was taken to ascertain the frequency of recidivation and the post-operative occurrence of disturbances in the emptying of gastric contents. In 35 patients solely undergoing SPV and a further 12 individuals, where both SPV and pyroloplasty had been performed, gastric emptying was monitored using a gamma camera and computer system. All patients were given a standardised test meal consisting of 500 ml ready-made milk labeled with 2 mCi 99mTc-HSA. After the patients had been assigned to different study groups according to the gastric emptying rates established in the individual cases, it became evident that there was a correlation between gastric emptying time (T/2) and the occurrence of post-operative discomfort. In the majority of patients the gastric emptying rate was found to be increased as compared to individuals with a healthy stomach. Among a total of 8 patients showing delayed gastric emptying only one, who solely underwent SPV, reported post-operative discomfort. Markedly increased rates of gastric emptying (T/2 ≤ 5 min) were predominantly determined in patients subjected to SPV in conjunction with pyroloplasty. A dumping syndrome and diarrhea were diagnosed in every third patient. Clinical follow-up studies and questionnaires distributed among the study patients showed relapses to occur with a frequency of 6.7%, the recidivation of ulcera being confined to the group of patients merely undergoing SPV. (TRV) [de

  4. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  5. Proximally exposed A-bomb survivors. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    Methods for observing chromosomes can be chronologically divided into the era of non-differential staining technique (1962-1975) and the era of differential staining method (since 1976). This paper reviews the literature of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells found in the two eras. Findings during the era of 1962-1975 include the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells, comparison of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells and T lymphocytes, and annual variation of chromosomal aberrations. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was high in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors (90.5% and 52.6% in A-bomb survivors exposed within 500 m and at 501-1,000 m, respectively); on the contrary, it was low in those exposed far from 1,000 m (6.2% or less). The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells was lower than that in T lymphocytes (21.5% vs 27.1% in those exposed within 500 m and 14.1% vs 23% in those exposed at 501-1,000 m). Annual analysis for chromosomal aberrations has shown the somewhat dependence upon medullary hematopoiesis and virus infection. The advent of differential staining technique since 1976 has made it possible to clarify the type of chromosomal aberrations and site of breakage. Of 710 bone marrow cells taken from 13 A-bomb survivors exposed within 1,000 m, 121 cells (from 11 A-bomb survivors) exhibited chromosomal aberrations. In differential staining analysis, all 121 cells but one were found to be of stable type, such as translocation and inversion. Furthermore, the site of breakage was found to be non-randomly distributed. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells has advantages of reflecting dynamic condition of these cells and determining gradual progression into leukemia. (N.K.)

  6. Hypospadias and residential proximity to pesticide applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Wolff, Craig; Guo, Liang; Lammer, Edward J; English, Paul; Shaw, Gary M

    2013-11-01

    Experimental evidence suggests pesticides may be associated with hypospadias. Examine the association of hypospadias with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications. The study population included male infants born from 1991 to 2004 to mothers residing in 8 California counties. Cases (n = 690) were ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program; controls were selected randomly from the birth population (n = 2195). We determined early pregnancy exposure to pesticide applications within a 500-m radius of mother's residential address, using detailed data on applications and land use. Associations with exposures to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for maternal race or ethnicity and age and infant birth year. Forty-one percent of cases and controls were classified as exposed to 57 chemical groups and 292 chemicals. Despite >500 statistical comparisons, there were few elevated odds ratios with confidence intervals that excluded 1 for chemical groups or specific chemicals. Those that did were for monochlorophenoxy acid or ester herbicides; the insecticides aldicarb, dimethoate, phorate, and petroleum oils; and adjuvant polyoxyethylene sorbitol among all cases; 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides, the herbicide oxyfluorfen, and the fungicide copper sulfate among mild cases; and chloroacetanilide herbicides, polyalkyloxy compounds used as adjuvants, the insecticides aldicarb and acephate, and the adjuvant nonyl-phenoxy-poly(ethylene oxy)ethanol among moderate and severe cases. Odds ratios ranged from 1.9 to 2.9. Most pesticides were not associated with elevated hypospadias risk. For the few that were associated, results should be interpreted with caution until replicated in other study populations.

  7. Ligament augmentation for prevention of proximal junctional kyphosis and proximal junctional failure in adult spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaee, Michael M; Deviren, Vedat; Dalle Ore, Cecilia; Scheer, Justin K; Lau, Darryl; Osorio, Joseph A; Nicholls, Fred; Ames, Christopher P

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a well-recognized, yet incompletely defined, complication of adult spinal deformity surgery. There is no standardized definition for PJK, but most studies describe PJK as an increase in the proximal junctional angle (PJA) of greater than 10°-20°. Ligament augmentation is a novel strategy for PJK reduction that provides strength to the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) and adjacent segments while also reducing junctional stress at those levels. METHODS In this study, ligament augmentation was used in a consecutive series of adult spinal deformity patients at a single institution. Patient demographics, including age; sex; indication for surgery; revision surgery; surgical approach; and use of 3-column osteotomies, vertebroplasty, or hook fixation at the UIV, were collected. The PJA was measured preoperatively and at last follow-up using 36-inch radiographs. Data on change in PJA and need for revision surgery were collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with change in PJA and proximal junctional failure (PJF), defined as PJK requiring surgical correction. RESULTS A total of 200 consecutive patients were included: 100 patients before implementation of ligament augmentation and 100 patients after implementation of this technique. The mean age of the ligament augmentation cohort was 66 years, and 67% of patients were women. Over half of these cases (51%) were revision surgeries, with 38% involving a combined anterior or lateral and posterior approach. The mean change in PJA was 6° in the ligament augmentation group compared with 14° in the control group (p historical cohort, ligament augmentation is associated with a significant decrease in PJK and PJF. These data support the implementation of ligament augmentation in surgery for adult spinal deformity, particularly in patients with a high risk of developing PJK and PJF.

  8. THE EMERGENCE OF LA DECROISSANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Elena Gheorghica

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to provide an overview of the emergence of degrowth – the notion designates a grass root, political and academic movement which is progressively spreading since the previous decade across Europe as a reaction to the drawbacks associated with the imperatives of economic growth. The intellectual founder of the new paradigm of degrowth is the Romanian born economist – Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen. The translation of his scientific works and the publication in French was to become the first milestone of degrowth discourse France becoming the cradle of the movement. While degrowth encompasses many dimensions such as equity, ecology, democracy or enjoyment of life, the overarching theme of the movement is the escaping of the economy as a central societal value. Degrowth gained an increasing audience in the beginning of the years 2000’, spreading progressively mostly in other Francophone, Francophile or Latin language speaking countries such as Italy and Spain, but in other European nations as well.

  9. From Rio to Rio: a global carbon price signal to escape the great climate inconsistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, Stephane; Laurent, Eloi

    2012-05-01

    Two decades after the 1992 Rio Conference, we must admit to collective failure in combating human-induced climate change. The problem is not that no efforts have been undertaken, but that these efforts have just not been enough. We cannot escape serious climate disruption - which, to some extent, has already begun - if we keep going down that road. We must change direction, and we must move quickly. To this end, we call in this paper for a fine-tuning of the international negotiations on climate. We propose refocusing these international efforts on negotiating a global carbon price signal, harmonized in principle but flexible in practice, instead of doggedly spending the next few years attempting to convince countries to accept stricter national targets for quantitative reduction of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We cannot afford to spend the next few years missing the wrong targets. Simply put, we must move away, collectively, from an ineffective logic of constraint to a pragmatic logic of price incentives. The December 2011 Durban Conference proved, once again, that the 'to each their own target' approach does not work. We must instead adopt a 'one price signal for all' strategy. If there were a single reason to improve the current mitigation logic, it would be this evident fact: developing countries, which now account for 60% of emissions worldwide, cannot accept what they perceive as an obstacle to their economic development, when developed countries have been able to get rich on unlimited use of fossil fuel energy. Indeed, in the foreseeable future, emerging economies, particularly China and India with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) annual growth rates of between 8% and 10%, will not accept absolute reduction targets for GHG emissions. On the other hand, these countries might be more open to the idea of a flexible levy of a price per tonne of carbon dioxide, a price from which they would derive revenues, and which their economic

  10. PROPERTIES OF QSO METAL-LINE ABSORPTION SYSTEMS AT HIGH REDSHIFTS: NATURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE ABSORBERS AND NEW EVIDENCE ON ESCAPE OF IONIZING RADIATION FROM GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boksenberg, Alec [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Sargent, Wallace L. W., E-mail: boksy@ast.cam.ac.uk [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Using Voigt-profile-fitting procedures on Keck High Resolution Spectrograph spectra of nine QSOs, we identify 1099 C IV absorber components clumped in 201 systems outside the Lyman forest over 1.6 ≲ z ≲ 4.4. With associated Si IV, C II, Si II  and N V where available, we investigate the bulk statistical and ionization properties of the components and systems and find no significant change in redshift for C IV and Si IV while C II, Si II  and N V change substantially. The C IV components exhibit strong clustering, but no clustering is detected for systems on scales from 150 km s{sup –1} out to 50,000 km s{sup –1}. We conclude that the clustering is due entirely to the peculiar velocities of gas present in the circumgalactic media of galaxies. Using specific combinations of ionic ratios, we compare our observations with model ionization predictions for absorbers exposed to the metagalactic ionizing radiation background augmented by proximity radiation from their associated galaxies and find that the generally accepted means of radiative escape by transparent channels from the internal star-forming sites is spectrally not viable for our stronger absorbers. We develop an active scenario based on runaway stars with resulting changes in the efflux of radiation that naturally enable the needed spectral convergence, and in turn provide empirical indicators of morphological evolution in the associated galaxies. Together with a coexisting population of relatively compact galaxies indicated by the weaker absorbers in our sample, the collective escape of radiation is sufficient to maintain the intergalactic medium ionized over the full range 1.9 < z ≲ 4.4.

  11. Quantifying factors determining the rate of CTL escape and reversion during acute and chronic phases of HIV infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often evades cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses by generating variants that are not recognized by CTLs. However, the importance and quantitative details of CTL escape in humans are poorly understood. In part, this is because most studies looking at escape of HIV from CTL responses are cross-sectional and are limited to early or chronic phases of the infection. We use a novel technique of single genome amplification (SGA) to identify longitudinal changes in the transmitted/founder virus from the establishment of infection to the viral set point at 1 year after the infection. We find that HIV escapes from virus-specific CTL responses as early as 30-50 days since the infection, and the rates of viral escapes during acute phase of the infection are much higher than was estimated in previous studies. However, even though with time virus acquires additional escape mutations, these late mutations accumulate at a slower rate. A poor correlation between the rate of CTL escape in a particular epitope and the magnitude of the epitope-specific CTL response suggests that the lower rate of late escapes is unlikely due to a low efficacy of the HIV-specific CTL responses in the chronic phase of the infection. Instead, our results suggest that late and slow escapes are likely to arise because of high fitness cost to the viral replication associated with such CTL escapes. Targeting epitopes in which virus escapes slowly or does not escape at all by CTL responses may, therefore, be a promising direction for the development of T cell based HIV vaccines.

  12. Emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) continued in systematic development of its activities in the field of emergency planning according to the concept adopted by the Authority and according to the concept for building Emergency headquarters (EH) adopted after establishing of Emergency Response Centre (ERC). Major efforts were focused not only on building up a quality EH, but also tasks associated with completion and incorporation of ERC into emergency planning and emergency managing. An important role in building ERC was played by international missions. Significant position among these missions was taken by missions from Great Britain, which in the past years made a significant contribution to building up ERC. These missions focused on review of newly created standard procedures, preparation and implementation of first emergency exercises of the EH. The emergency exercises in which NRA SR took place in 1996 are reviewed. In order to make the co-operation of the Authority with the selected Army units of SR more effective in solving extraordinary situations in nuclear energy, an agreement was signed between NRA SR and the Headquarters of the Army of SR, which will help significantly to the objective

  13. Treatment of Unstable Trochanteric Femur Fractures: Proximal Femur Nail Versus Proximal Femur Locking Compression Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Narsaria, Nidi; G R, Arun; Srivastava, Vivek

    Unstable trochanteric femur fractures are common fractures that are difficult to manage. We conducted a prospective study to compare functional outcomes and complications of 2 different implant designs, proximal femur nail (PFN) and proximal femur locking compression plate (PFLCP), used in internal fixation of unstable trochanteric femur fractures. On hospital admission, 48 patients with unstable trochanteric fractures were randomly assigned (using a sealed envelope method) to treatment with either PFN (24 patients) or PFLCP (24 patients). Perioperative data and complications were recorded. All cases were followed up for 2 years. The groups did not differ significantly (P > .05) in operative time, reduction quality, complications, hospital length of stay, union rate, or time to union. Compared with the PFLCP group, the PFN group had shorter incisions and less blood loss. Regarding functional outcomes, there was no significant difference in mean Harris Hip Score (P = .48) or Palmer and Parker mobility score (P = .58). Both PFN and PFLCP are effective in internal fixation of unstable trochanteric femur fractures.

  14. Addressing Complex Societal Problems: Enabling Multiple Dimensions of Proximity to Sustain Partnerships for Collective Impact in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nii A. Addy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable solutions for complex societal problems, like poverty, require informing stakeholders about progress and changes needed as they collaborate. Yet, inter-organizational collaboration researchers highlight monumental challenges in measuring seemingly intangible factors during collective impact processes. We grapple with the question: How can decision-makers coherently conceptualize and measure seemingly intangible factors to sustain partnerships for the emergence of collective impact? We conducted an inductive process case study to address this question, analyzing data from documents, observations, and interviews of 24 philanthropy leaders and multiple stakeholders in a decades-long partnership involving Canada’s largest private family foundation, government and community networks, and during which a “collective impact project” emerged in Quebec Province, Canada. The multidimensional proximity framework provided an analytical lens. During the first phase of the partnership studied, there was a lack of baseline measurement of largely qualitative factors—conceptualized as cognitive, social, and institutional proximity between stakeholders—which evaluations suggested were important for explaining which community networks successfully brought about desired outcomes. Non-measurement of these factors was a problem in providing evidence for sustained engagement of stakeholders, such as government and local businesses. We develop a multidimensional proximity model that coherently conceptualizes qualitative proximity factors, for measuring their change over time.

  15. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  16. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Siun M; Browne, Katherine; Tuite, David J; O'Shaughnessy, Michael

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Digital contrast subtraction radiography for proximal caries diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether subtraction images utilizing contrast media can improve the diagnostic performance of proximal caries diagnosis compared to conventional periapical radiographic images. Thirty-six teeth with 57 proximal surfaces were radiographied using a size no.2 RVG-ui sensor (Trophy Radiology, Marne-la-Vallee, France). The teeth immersed in water-soluble contrast media and subtraction images were taken. Each tooth was then sectioned for histologic examination. The digital radiographic images and subtraction images were examined and interpreted by three dentists for proximal caries. The results of the proximal caries diagnosis were then verified with the results of the histologic examination. The proximal caries sensitivity using digital subtraction radiography was significantly higher than simply examining a single digital radiograph. The sensitivity of the proximal dentinal carious lesion when analyzed with the subtraction radiograph and the radiograph together was higher than with the subtraction radiograph or the radiograph alone. The use of subtraction radiography with contrast media may be useful for detecting proximal dentinal carious lesions.

  18. Effect of age on proximal esophageal response to swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira Dantas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I, 27 aged 31-50 years (group II, and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III. We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05. The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001. There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.

  19. Giant proximity effect and critical opalescence in EuS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Timothy; Ramos, Silvia; Quintanilla, Jorge; Suter, Andreas; Moodera, Jagadeesh

    2015-03-01

    The proximity effect is a type of wetting phenomenon where an ordered state, usually magnetism or superconductivity, ``leaks'' from one material into an adjacent one over some finite distance. For superconductors, the characteristic range is of the order of the coherence length, usually hundreds of nm. Nevertheless much longer, ``giant'' proximity effects have been observed in cuprate perovskite junctions. Such giant proximity effects can be understood by taking into account the divergence of the pairing susceptibility in the non-superconducting material when it is itself close to a superconducting instability: a superconducting version of critical opalescence. Since critical opalescence occurs in all second order phase transitions, giant proximity effects are expected to be general, therefor there must be a giant ferromagnetic proximity effect. Compared to its superconducting counterpart, the giant ferromagnetic proximity effect has the advantage that the order parameter (magnetization) can be observed directly. We have fabricated Co/EuS thin films and measured the magnetization profiles as a function of temperature using the complementary techniques of low energy muon relaxation and polarized neutron reflectivity. Details of the proximity effect near TCEuS will be presented.

  20. Studying Emerge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia; Rodegher, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The Emerge event, held in Tempe, AZ in March 2012, brought together a range of scientists, artists, futurists, engineers and students in order to experiment with innovative methods for thinking about the future. These methodological techniques were tested through nine workshops, each of which made...... use of a different format; Emerge as a whole, then, offered an opportunity to study a diverse set of future-oriented engagement practices. We conducted an event ethnography, in which a team of 11 researchers collaboratively developed accounts of the practices at play within Emerge and its workshops...

  1. Chemical Emergencies - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) PDF Chemical Emergencies - English MP3 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) MP3 Chemical Emergencies - English MP4 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) ...

  2. Cancer in proximity to TV towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, B.; Gordon, I.; Hatfield, G.

    1996-01-01

    Standard (AS2772.1). The few actual measurements available indicate even lower levels. The analysis shows no increased risk of brain cancer. An increased risk of childhood leukaemia is indicated in the municipalities close to the TV towers. The rate ratio for incidence is 1.6 (95% Cl: 1.08-2 41) and for mortality is 2.25 (95% Cl: 1.29-3.92), mainly due to lymphatic leukaemia (1.63 for incidence, 2.84 for mortality). An association between increased childhood leukaemia and proximity to TV towers is indicated. Further studies are needed to test this association and determine any dose-response relationship before firm conclusions may be reached

  3. Reoperations following proximal interphalangeal joint nonconstrained arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsch, Tamir; Rizzo, Marco

    2011-09-01

    To retrospectively analyze the reasons for reoperations following primary nonconstrained proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthroplasty and review clinical outcomes in this group of patients with 1 or more reoperations. Between 2001 and 2009, 294 nonconstrained (203 pyrocarbon and 91 metal-plastic) PIP joint replacements were performed in our institution. A total of 76 fingers (59 patients) required reoperation (50 pyrocarbon and 26 metal-plastic). There were 40 women and 19 men with an average age of 51 years (range, 19-83 y). Primary diagnoses included osteoarthritis in 35, posttraumatic arthritis in 24, and inflammatory arthritis in 17 patients. There were 21 index, 27 middle, 18 ring, and 10 small fingers. The average number of reoperations per PIP joint was 1.6 (range, 1-4). A total of 45 joints had 1 reoperation, 19 had 2, 11 had 3, and 1 had 4. Extensor mechanism dysfunction was the most common reason for reoperation; it involved 51 of 76 fingers and was associated with Chamay or tendon-reflecting surgical approaches. Additional etiologies included component loosening in 17, collateral ligament failure in 10, and volar plate contracture in 8 cases. Inflammatory arthritis was associated with collateral ligament failure. Six fingers were eventually amputated, 9 had PIP joint arthrodeses, and 2 had resection arthroplasties. The arthrodesis and amputation rates correlated with the increased number of reoperations per finger. Clinically, most patients had no or mild pain at the most recent follow-up, and the PIP joint range-of-motion was not significantly different from preoperative values. Pain levels improved with longer follow-up. Reoperations following primary nonconstrained PIP joint arthroplasties are common. Extensor mechanism dysfunction was the most common reason for reoperation. The average reoperation rate was 1.6, and arthrodesis and amputation are associated with an increasing number of operations. Overall clinical outcomes demonstrated no

  4. Application of escape probability to line transfer in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.; London, R.A.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Haglestein, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the authors apply the escape probability method to treat transfer of optically thick lines in laser-produced plasmas in plan-parallel geometry. They investigate the effect of self-absorption on the ionization balance and ion level populations. In addition, they calculate such effect on the laser gains in an exploding foil target heated by an optical laser. Due to the large ion streaming motion in laser-produced plasmas, absorption of an emitted photon occurs only over the length in which the Doppler shift is equal to the line width. They find that the escape probability calculated with the Doppler shift is larger compared to the escape probability for a static plasma. Therefore, the ion streaming motion contributes significantly to the line transfer process in laser-produced plasmas. As examples, they have applied escape probability to calculate transfer of optically thick lines in both ablating slab and exploding foil targets under irradiation of a high-power optical laser

  5. Extended exposure to elevated temperature affects escape response behaviour in coral reef fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald T. Warren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The threat of predation, and the prey’s response, are important drivers of community dynamics. Yet environmental temperature can have a significant effect on predation avoidance techniques such as fast-start performance observed in marine fishes. While it is known that temperature increases can influence performance and behaviour in the short-term, little is known about how species respond to extended exposure during development. We produced a startle response in two species of damselfish, the lemon damsel Pomacentrus moluccensis, and the Ambon damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis, by the repeated use of a drop stimulus. We show that the length of thermal exposure of juveniles to elevated temperature significantly affects this escape responses. Short-term (4d exposure to warmer temperature affected directionality and responsiveness for both species. After long-term (90d exposure, only P. moluccensis showed beneficial plasticity, with directionality returning to control levels. Responsiveness also decreased in both species, possibly to compensate for higher temperatures. There was no effect of temperature or length of exposure on latency to react, maximum swimming speed, or escape distance suggesting that the physical ability to escape was maintained. Evidence suggests that elevated temperature may impact some fish species through its effect on the behavioural responses while under threat rather than having a direct influence on their physical ability to perform an effective escape response.

  6. On the escape transition of a tethered Gaussian chain; exact results in two conjugate ensembles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skvortsov, A.M.; Klushin, L.I.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Upon compression between two pistons an end-tethered polymer chain undergoes an abrupt transition from a confined coil state to an inhomogeneous flower-like conformation that is partially escaped from the gap. In the thermodynamic limit the system demonstrates a first-order phase transition. A

  7. Self-consciousness and binge eating in college women : an escape from rumination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon; Donofrio, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Background: Binge-eating is a highly distressing symptom that has been found to co-occur with other symptoms of eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa. One perspective of binge eating is that it is an attempt to escape high levels of aversive self-consciousness. A primary aim of this study is to

  8. Race as/and the Trace of the Ghost: Jurisprudential Escapism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondly, how the escape from those legal texts evinces, or perhaps even facilitated, a certain evasion of, or anxiety towards the horizontal application of the Bill of Rights which explicitly proscribes overt (racial) discrimination by private non-state actors. And thirdly, how by following a formalist legal approach, one in which ...

  9. A trouser bag experiment that quantify by-catch species escaping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sea fishing trials were conducted to quantify by-catch species escaping from a modified shrimp trawl codend and retained in a trouser bag. Modification was by inserting a rectangular aluminum frame excluder device with bar spacing of 20mm at the anterior bunt. Thirty replicate landings showed that; Drepane africana have ...

  10. Educational Gaming for Pharmacy Students - Design and Evaluation of a Diabetes-themed Escape Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eukel, Heidi N; Frenzel, Jeanne E; Cernusca, Dan

    2017-09-01

    Objective. To design an educational game that will increase third-year professional pharmacy students' knowledge of diabetes mellitus disease management and to evaluate their perceived value of the game. Methods. Faculty members created an innovative educational game, the diabetes escape room. An authentic escape room gaming environment was established through the use of a locked room, an escape time limit, and game rules within which student teams completed complex puzzles focused on diabetes disease management. To evaluate the impact, students completed a pre-test and post-test to measure the knowledge they've gained and a perception survey to identify moderating factors that could help instructors improve the game's effectiveness and utility. Results. Students showed statistically significant increases in knowledge after completion of the game. A one-sample t -test indicated that students' mean perception was statistically significantly higher than the mean value of the evaluation scale. This statically significant result proved that this gaming act offers a potential instructional benefit beyond its novelty. Conclusion. The diabetes escape room proved to be a valuable educational game that increased students' knowledge of diabetes mellitus disease management and showed a positive perceived overall value by student participants.

  11. The upstream escape of energized solar wind protons from the bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstadt, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, there have been some systematic observations of backstreaming protons at the Earth's bow shock with parallel velocity components and total energies much too high to be associated with the usual long-period upstream waves or to be produced by Sonnerup's simple reflection process (Lin et al., 1974), and these protons (30-100keV) were attributed to some unknown acceleration mechanism in the upstream region. The observations of Lof et al. involved protons in high pitch angle, and, although their reasons for favoring an upstream acceleration were quite different, it may seem intuitive that high pitch angle particles would have difficulty escaping the shock, especially at large field-normal angles. Such an inference would superficially support the notion of energization outside the bow shock. It seems worthwhile therefore to examine the extent to which the geometry of individual particle motion alone might select among reflected particles those that can escape upstream and those that cannot. In this paper the geometry of escape is described and some simple numerical examples are worked out for a few special cases. It is found that protons with rather high energies and pitch angles can escape the shock at only marginally quasi-parallel field orientations (i.e., thetasub(nB) approximately 50 0 ), even if they have quite moderate speeds parallel to B. (Auth.)

  12. Measurement of p-odd asymmetry of fragment escape in ternary fission of plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belozerov, A.V.; Vodennikov, B.D.; Danilyan, G.V.; Korobkina, E.I.; Pavlov, V.S.; Pevchev, Yu.F.; Sadchikov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Values of effects of parity nonconservation in binary and ternary fission of plutonium 239 by polarized thermal neutrons were measured simultaneously. The ratio of asymmetry coefficient (AC) of ternary fission to the AC of binary fission was equal to 0.67+-0.20. The obtained result testifies to insignificant disagreement of AC of fragment escape in studied fission types

  13. A New Window into Escaping Exoplanet Atmospheres: 10830 Å Line of Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklopčić, Antonija; Hirata, Christopher M.

    2018-03-01

    Observational evidence for escaping exoplanet atmospheres has been obtained for a few exoplanets to date. It comes from strong transit signals detected in the ultraviolet, most notably in the wings of the hydrogen Lyα (Lyα) line. However, the core of the Lyα line is often heavily affected by interstellar absorption and geocoronal emission, limiting the information about the atmosphere that can be extracted from that part of the spectrum. Transit observations in atomic lines that are (a) sensitive enough to trace the rarefied gas in the planetary wind and (b) do not suffer from significant extinction by the interstellar medium could enable more detailed observations, and thus provide better constraints on theoretical models of escaping atmospheres. The absorption line of a metastable state of helium at 10830 Å could satisfy both of these conditions for some exoplanets. We develop a simple 1D model of escaping planetary atmospheres containing hydrogen and helium. We use it to calculate the density profile of helium in the 23S metastable excited state and the expected in-transit absorption at 10830 Å for two exoplanets known to have escaping atmospheres. Our results indicate that exoplanets similar to GJ 436b and HD 209458b should exhibit enhanced transit depths at 10830 Å, with ∼8% and ∼2% excess absorption in the line core, respectively.

  14. Enhanced escape rate for Hg 254 nm resonance radiation in fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, James E; Raizen, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    The potential of the low-cost MAGIS isotopic separation method to improve fluorescent lamp efficacy is explored using resonance radiation transport simulations. New Hg isotopic mixes are discovered that yield escape rates for 254 nm Hg I resonance radiation equal to 117% to 122% of the rate for a natural isotopic mix under the same lamp conditions. (paper)

  15. Identification of a Peptide-Pheromone that Enhances Listeria monocytogenes Escape from Host Cell Vacuoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xayarath, Bobbi; Alonzo, Francis; Freitag, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that invades mammalian cells and escapes from membrane-bound vacuoles to replicate within the host cell cytosol. Gene products required for intracellular bacterial growth and bacterial spread to adjacent cells are regulated by a transcriptional activator known as PrfA. PrfA becomes activated following L. monocytogenes entry into host cells, however the signal that stimulates PrfA activation has not yet been defined. Here we provide evidence for L. monocytogenes secretion of a small peptide pheromone, pPplA, which enhances the escape of L. monocytogenes from host cell vacuoles and may facilitate PrfA activation. The pPplA pheromone is generated via the proteolytic processing of the PplA lipoprotein secretion signal peptide. While the PplA lipoprotein is dispensable for pathogenesis, bacteria lacking the pPplA pheromone are significantly attenuated for virulence in mice and have a reduced efficiency of bacterial escape from the vacuoles of nonprofessional phagocytic cells. Mutational activation of PrfA restores virulence and eliminates the need for pPplA-dependent signaling. Experimental evidence suggests that the pPplA peptide may help signal to L. monocytogenes its presence within the confines of the host cell vacuole, stimulating the expression of gene products that contribute to vacuole escape and facilitating PrfA activation to promote bacterial growth within the cytosol. PMID:25822753

  16. Increased metabolic turnover rate and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in long-term juvenile diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Rossing, N; Sander, E

    1975-01-01

    The metabolic turnover rate and transcapillary escape rate of albumin were studied with 131I-labelled human albumin in nine patients with long-term diabetes mellitus. Retinopathy was present in all patients and nephropathy in four. Plasma albumin concentration and plasma volume were reduced (P...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 223 - Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED 12 Figure 12 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 13 to Part 223 - Single Grid Hard TED Escape Opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single Grid Hard TED Escape Opening 13 Figure 13 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 13 Figure 13 to Part 223—Singl...

  19. X-ray escape effects in Si, Ge, and NaI detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, G.

    1989-01-01

    A 3-parameter representation of the type x = K 1 [1 -L(ln(1 + 1/L))] together with L = K 2 E K 3 is recommended for the escape to parent peak ratio. Parameter values are provided for Si, Ge, and NaI detectors. Scattering, which has been neglected up to now, is included. (author)

  20. Workshop on agricultural and agro-industrial residue utilization in the ESCAP region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimal, O P

    1980-02-01

    A summary of the workshop held at Pattaya, Thailand is given at which the present status of both technological and non-technical aspects of utilization of agricultural and industrial residues in the ESCAP region are reviewed. A course of action was recommended whereby national programmes could develop and international assistance be focussed through follow up activities.

  1. Genetic evidence of hybridization between Onothera wolfii (Wolf's evening primrose) and O. glaziovana, a garden escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer DeWoody; Leonel Arguello; David Imper; Robert D. Westfall; Valerie D. Hipkins

    2008-01-01

    Isozyme analysis of the rare Oenothera wolfii (Wolf's evening primrose) and the garden escape, O. glazioviana, indicates that hybridization between these species may be more widespread than morphological evidence indicates. Although both species contained low amounts of genetic variation, unique alleles were identified in...

  2. GAMMA-RAY EMISSION OF ACCELERATED PARTICLES ESCAPING A SUPERNOVA REMNANT IN A MOLECULAR CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, Donald C.; Bykov, Andrei M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a model of gamma-ray emission from core-collapse supernovae (SNe) originating from the explosions of massive young stars. The fast forward shock of the supernova remnant (SNR) can accelerate particles by diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) in a cavern blown by a strong, pre-SN stellar wind. As a fundamental part of nonlinear DSA, some fraction of the accelerated particles escape the shock and interact with a surrounding massive dense shell producing hard photon emission. To calculate this emission, we have developed a new Monte Carlo technique for propagating the cosmic rays (CRs) produced by the forward shock of the SNR, into the dense, external material. This technique is incorporated in a hydrodynamic model of an evolving SNR which includes the nonlinear feedback of CRs on the SNR evolution, the production of escaping CRs along with those that remain trapped within the remnant, and the broadband emission of radiation from trapped and escaping CRs. While our combined CR-hydro-escape model is quite general and applies to both core collapse and thermonuclear SNe, the parameters we choose for our discussion here are more typical of SNRs from very massive stars whose emission spectra differ somewhat from those produced by lower mass progenitors directly interacting with a molecular cloud.

  3. Theoretical UV absorption spectra of hydrodynamically escaping O2/CO2-rich exoplanetary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronoff, G.; Mertens, C. J.; Norman, R. B.; Maggiolo, R.; Wedlund, C. Simon; Bell, J.; Bernard, D.; Parkinson, C. J.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing Earth- and Venus-like exoplanets' atmospheres to determine if they are habitable and how they are evolving (e.g., equilibrium or strong erosion) is a challenge. For that endeavor, a key element is the retrieval of the exospheric temperature, which is a marker of some of the processes occurring in the lower layers and controls a large part of the atmospheric escape. We describe a method to determine the exospheric temperature of an O 2 - and/or CO 2 -rich transiting exoplanet, and we simulate the respective spectra of such a planet in hydrostatic equilibrium and hydrodynamic escape. The observation of hydrodynamically escaping atmospheres in young planets may help constrain and improve our understanding of the evolution of the solar system's terrestrial planets' atmospheres. We use the dependency of the absorption spectra of the O 2 and CO 2 molecules on the temperature to estimate the temperature independently of the total absorption of the planet. Combining two observables (two parts of the UV spectra that have a different temperature dependency) with the model, we are able to determine the thermospheric density profile and temperature. If the slope of the density profile is inconsistent with the temperature, then we infer the hydrodynamic escape. We address the question of the possible biases in the application of the method to future observations, and we show that the flare activity should be cautiously monitored to avoid large biases.

  4. DWARF GALAXIES WITH IONIZING RADIATION FEEDBACK. I. ESCAPE OF IONIZING PHOTONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Krumholz, Mark R.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Abel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new method for simulating ionizing radiation and supernova feedback in the analogs of low-redshift galactic disks. In this method, which we call star-forming molecular cloud (SFMC) particles, we use a ray-tracing technique to solve the radiative transfer equation for ultraviolet photons emitted by thousands of distinct particles on the fly. Joined with high numerical resolution of 3.8 pc, the realistic description of stellar feedback helps to self-regulate star formation. This new feedback scheme also enables us to study the escape of ionizing photons from star-forming clumps and from a galaxy, and to examine the evolving environment of star-forming gas clumps. By simulating a galactic disk in a halo of 2.3 × 10 11 M ☉ , we find that the average escape fraction from all radiating sources on the spiral arms (excluding the central 2.5 kpc) fluctuates between 0.08% and 5.9% during a ∼20 Myr period with a mean value of 1.1%. The flux of escaped photons from these sources is not strongly beamed, but manifests a large opening angle of more than 60° from the galactic pole. Further, we investigate the escape fraction per SFMC particle, f esc (i), and how it evolves as the particle ages. We discover that the average escape fraction f esc is dominated by a small number of SFMC particles with high f esc (i). On average, the escape fraction from an SFMC particle rises from 0.27% at its birth to 2.1% at the end of a particle lifetime, 6 Myr. This is because SFMC particles drift away from the dense gas clumps in which they were born, and because the gas around the star-forming clumps is dispersed by ionizing radiation and supernova feedback. The framework established in this study brings deeper insight into the physics of photon escape fraction from an individual star-forming clump and from a galactic disk

  5. Estimating Collisionally-Induced Escape Rates of Light Neutrals from Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacesa, M.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    Collisions of atmospheric gases with hot oxygen atoms constitute an important non-thermal mechanism of escape of light atomic and molecular species at Mars. In this study, we present revised theoretical estimates of non-thermal escape rates of neutral O, H, He, and H2 based on recent atmospheric density profiles obtained from the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission and related theoretical models. As primary sources of hot oxygen, we consider dissociative recombination of O2+ and CO2+ molecular ions. We also consider hot oxygen atoms energized in primary and secondary collisions with energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced in charge-exchange of solar wind H+ and He+ ions with atmospheric gases1,2. Scattering of hot oxygen and atmospheric species of interest is modeled using fully-quantum reactive scattering formalism3. This approach allows us to construct distributions of vibrationally and rotationally excited states and predict the products' emission spectra. In addition, we estimate formation rates of excited, translationally hot hydroxyl molecules in the upper atmosphere of Mars. The escape rates are calculated from the kinetic energy distributions of the reaction products using an enhanced 1D model of the atmosphere for a range of orbital and solar parameters. Finally, by considering different scenarios, we estimate the influence of these escape mechanisms on the evolution of Mars's atmosphere throughout previous epochs and their impact on the atmospheric D/H ratio. M.G.'s research was supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the NASA Ames Research Center, administered by Universities Space Research Association under contract with NASA. 1N. Lewkow and V. Kharchenko, "Precipitation of Energetic Neutral Atoms and Escape Fluxes induced from the Mars Atmosphere", Astroph. J., 790, 98 (2014) 2M. Gacesa, N. Lewkow, and V. Kharchenko, "Non-thermal production and escape of OH from the upper atmosphere of Mars", arXiv:1607

  6. Proximal caries detection: Sirona Sidexis versus Kodak Ektaspeed Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Ludlow, John B; Caplan, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of intraoral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD) receptor for proximal caries detection. Four observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a five-point confidence scale. The actual status of each surface was determined from ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under ROC curves (Az) were assessed through a paired t-test. The performance of the CCD-based intraoral sensor was not different statistically from Ektaspeed Plus film in detecting proximal caries.

  7. [Avulsion of the Proximal Hamstring Insertion. Case Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizera, R; Harcuba, R; Kratochvíl, J

    2016-01-01

    Proximal hamstring avulsion is an uncommon muscle injury with a lack of consensus on indications and the timing and technique of surgery. Poor clinical symptoms and difficulties in the diagnostic process can lead to a false diagnosis. The authors present three cases of proximal hamstring avulsion, two complete and one partial ruptures of the biceps femoris muscle. MRI and ultrasound scans were used for optimal treatment alignment. Acute surgery reconstruction (hamstring strength. Two interesting systematic reviews published on the treatment of proximal hamstring avulsion are discussed in the final part of the paper. Key words: hamstring, rupture, avulsion.

  8. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.; Chu, Hungkuo; Lee, Tongyee; Wolf, Lior; Yeshurun, Hezy; Cohen-Or, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart

  9. Emergent emotion

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Elaine Finbarr

    2016-01-01

    I argue that emotion is an ontologically emergent and sui generis. I argue that emotion meets both of two individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for ontological emergence. These are, (i) that emotion necessarily has constituent parts to which it cannot be reduced, and (ii) that emotion has a causal effect on its constituent parts (i.e. emotion demonstrates downward causation).\\ud \\ud I argue that emotion is partly cognitive, partly constituted by feelings and partly perceptu...

  10. Dermatologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Simón Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologic emergencies represent about 8–20% of the diseases seen in the Emergency Department of hospitals. It is often a challenge for primary care physicians to differentiate mundane skin ailments from more serious, life threatening conditions that require immediate intervention. In this review we included the following conditions: Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrosis, pemphigus vulgaris, toxic shock syndrome, fasciitis necrotising, angioedema/urticaria, meningococcemia, Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

  11. Evaluation of K x-ray escape and crosstalk in CdTe detectors and multi-channel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuchi, Tetsuro; Ohmori, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroshi; Baba, Sueki

    1995-01-01

    The simple structure of CdTe semiconductor detectors facilitates their downsizing, and their possible application to radiographic sensors has been studied. The escape of K X-rays from these detectors increases with reduction of their dimensions and affects the measurements of X- and gamma-ray spectra. K X-rays also produce crosstalk in multi-channel detectors with adjacent channels. Therefore, K X-rays which escape from the detector elements degrade both the precision of energy spectra and spatial resolution. The ratios of escape peak integrated counts to total photon counts for various sizes of CdTe single detectors were calculated for gamma rays using the Monte Carlo method. Also, escape and crosstalk ratios were simulated for the CdTe multi-channel detectors. The theoretical results were tested experimentally for 59.54-keV gamma rays from a 241 Am radioactive source. Results showed that escape ratios for single detectors were strongly dependent on element size and thickness. The escape and crosstalk ratios increased with closer channel pitch. The calculated results showed a good agreement with the experimental data. The calculations made it clear that K X-rays which escaped to neighboring channels induced crosstalk more frequently at smaller channel pitch in multichannel detectors. A radiation shielding grid which blocked incident photons between the boundary channels was also tested by experiment and by calculation. It was effective in reducing the probability of escape and crosstalk

  12. Escapism among players of MMORPGs--conceptual clarification, its relation to mental health factors, and development of a new measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, David; Kaldo, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies show that the concept of escapism needs to be clarified and that its relation to problematic online gaming and other factors needs further examination. This study uses well-established, basic learning theory to clarify the concept of escapism, and examines its relation to problematic gaming, psychological distress, and satisfaction with life among players of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). MMORPG players (n=201) answered an online questionnaire where these factors were measured and correlated with a previously developed scale on motivation to play (MTPI), including extra items to cover positive and negative aspects of escapism. Factor analysis and construct validation show that positive aspects of escapism are theoretically and empirically unstable and that escapism is best clarified as purely "negative escapism," corresponding to playing being negatively reinforced as a way of avoiding everyday hassles and distress. Negative escapism had a stronger relationship to symptoms of Internet addiction, psychological distress, and life satisfaction than other variables and other more positive motivations to play. Future studies should use the revised subscale for escapism (in the MTPI-R) presented in the present study, for example when screening for Internet addiction.

  13. Centering Single Cells in Microgels via Delayed Crosslinking Supports Long-Term 3D Culture by Preventing Cell Escape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman, Tom; Henke, Sieger; Visser, Claas Willem; Karperien, Marcel; Leijten, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Single-cell-laden microgels support physiological 3D culture conditions while enabling straightforward handling and high-resolution readouts of individual cells. However, their widespread adoption for long-term cultures is limited by cell escape. In this work, it is demonstrated that cell escape is

  14. Data from: Escaping blood-fed malaria mosquitoes minimize tactile detection without compromising on take-off speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijres, F.T.; Chang, S.W.; Veen, van W.G.; Spitzen, J.; Biemans, Bart; Koehl, M.A.R.; Dudley, R.

    2017-01-01

    To escape after taking a blood meal, a mosquito must exert forces sufficiently high to take off when carrying a load roughly equal to its body weight, while simultaneously avoiding detection by minimizing tactile signals exerted on the host's skin. We studied this trade-off between escape speed and

  15. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...

  16. Variation of NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 European study areas: Results from the ESCAPE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cyrys, J.; Eeftens, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028300; Heinrich, J.; Ampe, C.; Armengaud, A.; Beelen, R.; Bellander, T.; Beregszaszi, T.; Birk, M.; Cesaroni, G.; Cirach, M.; de Hoogh, K.; de Nazelle, A.; de Vocht, F.; Declercq, C.; Dėdelė, A.; Dimakopoulou, K.; Eriksen, K.; Galassi, C.; Grąulevičienė, R.; Grivas, G.; Gruzieva, O.; Gustafsson, A.H.; Hoffmann, B.; Iakovides, M.; Ineichen, A.; Krämer, U.; Lanki, T.; Lozano, P.; Madsen, C.; Meliefste, K.; Modig, L.; Mölter, A.; Mosler, G.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Nonnemacher, M.; Oldenwening, M.; Peters, A.; Pontet, S.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Quass, U.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Ranzi, A.; Sugiri, D.; Stephanou, E.G.; Taimisto, P.; Tsai, M-Y.; Vaskövi, É.; Villani, S.; Wang, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345480279; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475

    2012-01-01

    The ESCAPE study (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) investigates long-term effects of exposure to air pollution on human health in Europe. This paper documents the spatial variation of measured NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 ESCAPE study areas across Europe. In

  17. EMERGENCY CALLS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2001-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors ...

  18. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart. This paper presents a synthesis technique to generate images of 3D objects that are detectable by humans, but difficult for an automatic algorithm to recognize. The technique allows generating an infinite number of images with emerging figures. Our algorithm is designed so that locally the synthesized images divulge little useful information or cues to assist any segmentation or recognition procedure. Therefore, as we demonstrate, computer vision algorithms are incapable of effectively processing such images. However, when a human observer is presented with an emergence image, synthesized using an object she is familiar with, the figure emerges when observed as a whole. We can control the difficulty level of perceiving the emergence effect through a limited set of parameters. A procedure that synthesizes emergence images can be an effective tool for exploring and understanding the factors affecting computer vision techniques. © 2009 ACM.

  19. Anorectal emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-01-01

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up. PMID:27468181

  20. A convergent and essential interneuron pathway for Mauthner-cell-mediated escapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, Alix M B; Schoppik, David; Robson, Drew N; Haesemeyer, Martin; Portugues, Ruben; Li, Jennifer M; Randlett, Owen; Wee, Caroline L; Engert, Florian; Schier, Alexander F

    2015-06-01

    The Mauthner cell (M-cell) is a command-like neuron in teleost fish whose firing in response to aversive stimuli is correlated with short-latency escapes [1-3]. M-cells have been proposed as evolutionary ancestors of startle response neurons of the mammalian reticular formation [4], and studies of this circuit have uncovered important principles in neurobiology that generalize to more complex vertebrate models [3]. The main excitatory input was thought to originate from multisensory afferents synapsing directly onto the M-cell dendrites [3]. Here, we describe an additional, convergent pathway that is essential for the M-cell-mediated startle behavior in larval zebrafish. It is composed of excitatory interneurons called spiral fiber neurons, which project to the M-cell axon hillock. By in vivo calcium imaging, we found that spiral fiber neurons are active in response to aversive stimuli capable of eliciting escapes. Like M-cell ablations, bilateral ablations of spiral fiber neurons largely eliminate short-latency escapes. Unilateral spiral fiber neuron ablations shift the directionality of escapes and indicate that spiral fiber neurons excite the M-cell in a lateralized manner. Their optogenetic activation increases the probability of short-latency escapes, supporting the notion that spiral fiber neurons help activate M-cell-mediated startle behavior. These results reveal that spiral fiber neurons are essential for the function of the M-cell in response to sensory cues and suggest that convergent excitatory inputs that differ in their input location and timing ensure reliable activation of the M-cell, a feedforward excitatory motif that may extend to other neural circuits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Space Weathering of Super-Earths: Model Simulations of Exospheric Sodium Escape from 61 Virgo b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, M.; Berdyugina, S.; Kuhn, J. [Kiepenheuer Institute for Solar Physics, Schöneckstraße 6, 79104 Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    Rocky exoplanets are expected to be eroded by space weather in a similar way as in the solar system. In particular, Mercury is one of the dramatically eroded planets whose material continuously escapes into its exosphere and further into space. This escape is well traced by sodium atoms scattering sunlight. Due to solar wind impact, micrometeorite impacts, photo-stimulated desorption and thermal desorption, sodium atoms are released from surface regolith. Some of these released sodium atoms are escaping from Mercury’s gravitational-sphere. They are dragged anti-Sun-ward and form a tail structure. We expect similar phenomena on exoplanets. The hot super-Earth 61 Vir b orbiting a G3V star at only 0.05 au may show a similar structure. Because of its small separation from the star, the sodium release mechanisms may be working more efficiently on hot super-Earths than on Mercury, although the strong gravitational force of Earth-sized or even more massive planets may be keeping sodium atoms from escaping from the planet. Here, we performed model simulations for Mercury (to verify our model) and 61 Vir b as a representative super-Earth. We have found that sodium atoms can escape from this exoplanet due to stellar wind sputtering and micrometeorite impacts, to form a sodium tail. However, in contrast to Mercury, the tail on this hot super-Earth is strongly aligned with the anti-starward direction because of higher light pressure. Our model suggests that 61 Vir b seems to have an exo-base atmosphere like that of Mercury.

  2. Space Weathering of Super-Earths: Model Simulations of Exospheric Sodium Escape from 61 Virgo b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, M.; Berdyugina, S.; Kuhn, J.

    2017-01-01

    Rocky exoplanets are expected to be eroded by space weather in a similar way as in the solar system. In particular, Mercury is one of the dramatically eroded planets whose material continuously escapes into its exosphere and further into space. This escape is well traced by sodium atoms scattering sunlight. Due to solar wind impact, micrometeorite impacts, photo-stimulated desorption and thermal desorption, sodium atoms are released from surface regolith. Some of these released sodium atoms are escaping from Mercury’s gravitational-sphere. They are dragged anti-Sun-ward and form a tail structure. We expect similar phenomena on exoplanets. The hot super-Earth 61 Vir b orbiting a G3V star at only 0.05 au may show a similar structure. Because of its small separation from the star, the sodium release mechanisms may be working more efficiently on hot super-Earths than on Mercury, although the strong gravitational force of Earth-sized or even more massive planets may be keeping sodium atoms from escaping from the planet. Here, we performed model simulations for Mercury (to verify our model) and 61 Vir b as a representative super-Earth. We have found that sodium atoms can escape from this exoplanet due to stellar wind sputtering and micrometeorite impacts, to form a sodium tail. However, in contrast to Mercury, the tail on this hot super-Earth is strongly aligned with the anti-starward direction because of higher light pressure. Our model suggests that 61 Vir b seems to have an exo-base atmosphere like that of Mercury.

  3. Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-08-18

    Aug 18, 2010 ... transmission lines on ornamental plant growth. Zeki Demir ... The effects of proximity to power-line on specific leaf area and seedling dbh were tested .... during vegetation season is about 72% and common wind blow.

  4. Nutritive Value Assessment of Four Crop Residues by Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Grace Tona

    Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria ... Abstract. This study estimated the proximate composition and in vitro gas production parameters of rice husk, bean ... farms and industries generate large quantities.

  5. Computational proximity excursions in the topology of digital images

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces computational proximity (CP) as an algorithmic approach to finding nonempty sets of points that are either close to each other or far apart. Typically in computational proximity, the book starts with some form of proximity space (topological space equipped with a proximity relation) that has an inherent geometry. In CP, two types of near sets are considered, namely, spatially near sets and descriptivelynear sets. It is shown that connectedness, boundedness, mesh nerves, convexity, shapes and shape theory are principal topics in the study of nearness and separation of physical aswell as abstract sets. CP has a hefty visual content. Applications of CP in computer vision, multimedia, brain activity, biology, social networks, and cosmology are included. The book has been derived from the lectures of the author in a graduate course on the topology of digital images taught over the past several years. Many of the students have provided important insights and valuable suggestions. The topics in ...

  6. Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations data set combines information from a global data set developed by Declan Butler of...

  7. Proximate composition and nutrient content of some wild and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and nutrient content of some wild and cultivated ... Ca, P, K), one minor mineral (Fe) constituent and vitamin C content were determined. ... Mineral content (P and K) in the mushroom sporophores were found to be ...

  8. Effects of Fermentation and Extrusion on the Proximate Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    protein malnutrition persists as a principal health problem among children .... Proximate analysis: Moisture content ... nitrogen by a factor of 6.25. Crude fat ... Statistical analysis: The data were ..... interaction of amino acid in maillard reactions.

  9. Proximate composition and mineral contents of Pebbly fish, Alestes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    /100 g) were significantly .... Proximate analysis of A. baremoze fillets according to sample sizes in a study in. Uganda .... present in the fish tissues in trace amounts. ... The zinc contents in fish samples of ..... (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and.

  10. Effects of Planting Locations on the Proximate Compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Ash, moisture, crude fat, crude fibre, carbohydrate and protein contents were determined according ... All fruits, vegetables, legumes (beans and peas), and the grains we eat ... isolate and quantify each proximate present in the plant material.

  11. HCV Genotype 6a Escape from and Resistance to Velpatasvir, Pibrentasvir, and Sofosbuvir in Robust Infectious Cell Culture Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Long; Ramirez Almeida, Santseharay; Gottwein, Judith Margarete

    was able to propagate and escape in the presence of pibrentasvir with emergence of NS5A-L28S, conferring a high level of resistance to this inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: Strains of HCV genotype 6a isolated from patients can be adapted to propagate in cultured cells, permitting studies of the complete life cycle...... infectious cell culture models of HCV genotype 6a infection to study the effects of these inhibitors and the development of resistance. METHODS: The consensus sequences of prototype strains HK2 (MG717925) and HK6a (MG717928), originating from serum of patients with chronic HCV infection, were determined...... by Sanger sequencing of genomes amplified by reverse transcription-PCR. In vitro non-infectious full-length clones of these 6a strains were subsequently adapted in Huh7.5 cells, primarily by using substitutions identified in JFH1-based core-NS5A and core-NS5B genotype 6a recombinants. We studied...

  12. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    with an application to L1-regularized covariance selection, in which prior constraints on the sparsity pattern of the inverse covariance matrix are imposed. In the numerical experiments the proximal Newton steps are computed by an accelerated proximal gradient method, and multifrontal algorithms for positive definite...... matrices with chordal sparsity patterns are used to evaluate gradients and matrix-vector products with the Hessian of the smooth component of the objective....

  13. Hemiarthroplasty for proximal humeral fracture: restoration of the Gothic arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sumant G; Bennion, Phillip W; Reineck, John R; Burkhead, Wayne Z

    2008-10-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are the most common fractures of the shoulder girdle, and initial management of these injuries often determines final outcome. When arthroplasty is used to manage proximal humeral fractures, surgery remains technically demanding, and outcomes have been unpredictable. Recent advances in both technique and prosthetic implants have led to more successful and reproducible results. Key technical points include restoration of the Gothic arch, anatomic tuberosity reconstruction, and minimal soft tissue dissection.

  14. Neutron scattering in the proximate quantum spin liquid α-RuCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arnab; Yan, Jiaqiang; Knolle, Johannes; Bridges, Craig A.; Stone, Matthew B.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Mandrus, David G.; Tennant, David A.; Moessner, Roderich; Nagler, Stephen E.

    2017-06-01

    The Kitaev quantum spin liquid (KQSL) is an exotic emergent state of matter exhibiting Majorana fermion and gauge flux excitations. The magnetic insulator α-RuCl3 is thought to realize a proximate KQSL. We used neutron scattering on single crystals of α-RuCl3 to reconstruct dynamical correlations in energy-momentum space. We discovered highly unusual signals, including a column of scattering over a large energy interval around the Brillouin zone center, which is very stable with temperature. This finding is consistent with scattering from the Majorana excitations of a KQSL. Other, more delicate experimental features can be transparently associated with perturbations to an ideal model. Our results encourage further study of this prototypical material and may open a window into investigating emergent magnetic Majorana fermions in correlated materials.

  15. Hematologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vallisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the surprising progress made in other areas of hematology (advances in the understanding of leukemogenesis, improved transplant techniques has been conspicuously absent in the management of hematologic emergencies. And yet, every step toward greater knowledge, every new treatment option will be of little value unless we are able to manage the acute complications of hematologic diseases. These complications are better defined as hematologic emergencies, and they are characterized by a high rate of mortality. This review is based on a search of the literature that was initially confined to articles published in the journal Hematology from 2000 to 2009. The search was then extended to the Cochrane Library and to Pub Med in February 2010 with the following Keywords emergencies; urgencies; hematology. The same key words were employed in a search of the archives of Blood and the New England Journal of Medicine from 2000 to 2010. The results confirm that hematologic emergencies can be caused by hematologic malignancies as well as by non-neoplastic hematologic diseases. Within the former category; this review examines the causes; manifestations; treatment and prevention of disseminated intravascular coagulation; superior vena caval syndrome; spinal cord compression; tumor lysis syndrome; hyperleukocytosis; and hypercalcemia. We also review emergency situations associated with non-neoplatic haematological diseases; such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; drug-induced hemolytic anemia; and acute sickle-cell crisis.

  16. The sooner, the better: exercise outcome proximity and intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M Blair; Cooke, Lisa M; Murray, Robyn A; Wilson, Anne E

    2014-11-01

    Despite evidence that outcomes are highly valued when they are expected sooner rather than further into the future (Ainslie, 1975), limited research effort has been devoted to understanding the role of exercise outcome proximity. The purpose of this study was to examine how temporal proximity to positive outcomes influences exercisers' intrinsic motivation. We expected that focusing people on temporally proximal exercise outcomes would increase intrinsic motivation, especially among low-frequency exercisers. This online experimental study was completed by 135 community exercisers (Mage  = 31.11, SD = 10.29; 62% female) who reported an average of 4.86 exercise bouts per week (SD = 2.12). Participants were randomly assigned to a condition that primed temporally proximal positive exercise outcomes (i.e. experienced during or directly following an exercise bout) or temporally distal outcomes (i.e. experienced after days, months, or years of regular exercise). Participants then reported perceptions of behavioral regulation in exercise. As expected, the proximal exercise outcome condition elicited increased intrinsic regulation among those participants who exercised less frequently (i.e. 1 SD below the mean). This study reveals the importance of considering proximity as an important dimension of exercise outcomes-particularly when promoting intrinsic motivation among relatively infrequent exercisers. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  17. Psychological responses to the proximity of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügger, Adrian; Dessai, Suraje; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Morton, Thomas A.; Pidgeon, Nicholas F.

    2015-12-01

    A frequent suggestion to increase individuals' willingness to take action on climate change and to support relevant policies is to highlight its proximal consequences, that is, those that are close in space and time. But previous studies that have tested this proximizing approach have not revealed the expected positive effects on individual action and support for addressing climate change. We present three lines of psychological reasoning that provide compelling arguments as to why highlighting proximal impacts of climate change might not be as effective a way to increase individual mitigation and adaptation efforts as is often assumed. Our contextualization of the proximizing approach within established psychological research suggests that, depending on the particular theoretical perspective one takes on this issue, and on specific individual characteristics suggested by these perspectives, proximizing can bring about the intended positive effects, can have no (visible) effect or can even backfire. Thus, the effects of proximizing are much more complex than is commonly assumed. Revealing this complexity contributes to a refined theoretical understanding of the role that psychological distance plays in the context of climate change and opens up further avenues for future research and for interventions.

  18. HEMATOMA OF THE PROXIMAL NAIL FOLD. REPORT OF 41 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Patricia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proximal fold is an important part of the nail apparatus it contributes to the formation of the nail plate and through the cuticle acts as an impermeable barrier protecting it from any cause.Objective: To know the proximal nail fold hematoma caused by the use of pulse oximeter.Material and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in 41 patients with proximal nail hematoma secondary to the use of oximetry in patients hospitalized in the Intermediate and Intensive Care Unit at the Hospital General de Enfermedades from December 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010.Results: We studied 41 patients with proximal nail fold hematoma secondary to the use of oximeter, 30 (73.1% were males and 11 (26.8% females. The numbers of fingers affected by pulse oximeter were in one digit. 30 (73.1% cases, in two digits 6 (14.6%, in three digits 3 (7.3%, in 4 digits 1 (2.4% and in 5 digits 1 (2.4% case. The most affected proximal nail fold was right index: 24 (58.5%, right middle 11 (26.8%, right ring 6 (14.6%, left index 12 (29.2%, and left middle 6 (14.6% cases.Conclusions: Hematomas of the proximal nail fold may be caused by different traumatisms. The use of pulse oximeter is one of them.

  19. Emergency preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    Cennini, E; Oortman Gerlings, P

    2009-01-01

    On September 19th 2008, a technical fault was at the centre of a sequence of events which hampered the performance of certain equipments of the LHC 3-4 sector. Once the first effects of this sequence of events were detected, the behaviour of the CERN staff confronted to this complex and critical situation became the centre of the risk control process. During such a downward spiral the preparation of all stakeholders is essential and should respect the (apparently) basic principles of emergency preparedness. Preparedness towards normal operation of CERN facilities towards minor up to major emergency situations will be presented. The main technical, organisational and legal frameworks of the CERN emergency preparedness will be recalled, highlighting the CERN risk management and risk control strategy. Then, the sequence of events experienced by different stakeholders on September 19th will be reported, thus starting the learned lessons process.

  20. Emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  1. Emergency neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarabino, T.; Hospital of Andria; Salvolini, U.; Jinkins, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The book is directed at emergency radiologists and neuroradiologists. It aims at providing exhaustive information that will help the reader understand the clinical problems in the full range of neurological emergencies and to select the methodological and technical options that will ensure prompt and effective response and correct interpretation of the clinical findings. The various chapters address the most common neuroradiological emergencies, summarize their fundamental physiopathological features, describe the main semiological and differential diagnostic features, and provide operative suggestions for the selection of the appropriate techniques to be applied in a sequential order. The book addresses the application of state-of-the-art techniques and their implications for clinical practice (particularly the contributions of standard and functional MRI and of spiral and multislice CT). The illustrations provide not only training but also reference material for routine clinical work. (orig.)

  2. Importance of Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Multiple Antigenic Sites on the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein To Avoid Neutralization Escape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lingshu; Shi, Wei; Chappell, James D.; Joyce, M. Gordon; Zhang, Yi; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Becker, Michelle M.; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Fischer, Robert; Wang, Nianshuang; Corbett, Kizzmekia S.; Choe, Misook; Mason, Rosemarie D.; Van Galen, Joseph G.; Zhou, Tongqing; Saunders, Kevin O.; Tatti, Kathleen M.; Haynes, Lia M.; Kwong, Peter D.; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Kong, Wing-Pui; McLellan, Jason S.; Denison, Mark R.; Munster, Vincent J.; Mascola, John R.; Graham, Barney S.; Gallagher, Tom

    2018-03-07

    ABSTRACT

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a highly lethal pulmonary infection with ~35% mortality. The potential for a future pandemic originating from animal reservoirs or health care-associated events is a major public health concern. There are no vaccines or therapeutic agents currently available for MERS-CoV. Using a probe-based single B cell cloning strategy, we have identified and characterized multiple neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specifically binding to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or S1 (non-RBD) regions from a convalescent MERS-CoV-infected patient and from immunized rhesus macaques. RBD-specific MAbs tended to have greater neutralizing potency than non-RBD S1-specific MAbs. Six RBD-specific and five S1-specific MAbs could be sorted into four RBD and three non-RBD distinct binding patterns, based on competition assays, mapping neutralization escape variants, and structural analysis. We determined cocrystal structures for two MAbs targeting the RBD from different angles and show they can bind the RBD only in the “out” position. We then showed that selected RBD-specific, non-RBD S1-specific, and S2-specific MAbs given prophylactically prevented MERS-CoV replication in lungs and protected mice from lethal challenge. Importantly, combining RBD- and non-RBD MAbs delayed the emergence of escape mutations in a cell-based virus escape assay. These studies identify MAbs targeting different antigenic sites on S that will be useful for defining mechanisms of MERS-CoV neutralization and for developing more effective interventions to prevent or treat MERS-CoV infections.

    IMPORTANCEMERS-CoV causes a highly lethal respiratory infection for which no vaccines or antiviral therapeutic options are currently available. Based on continuing exposure from established reservoirs in dromedary camels and bats, transmission of MERS-CoV into humans and future outbreaks are expected. Using

  3. EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Pantić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Emergency contraception refers to any device or drug that is used as an emergency procedure to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse.The first method of emergency contraception was high dose of estrogen. Concern about side effects led to subsequent development of the so-called Yuzpe regimen which combined ethinil estradiol with levonorgestrel and levonorgestrel alone. Less convenient to use is the copper intauterine contraceptive device.It is known that in some women sexual steroids may inhibit or delay ovulation and may interfere with ovum and sperm transport and implantation. Copper intrauterine device causes a foreign-body effect on the endometrium and a direct toxic effect to sperm and blastocyst.The Yuzpe regimen reduces the risk of pregnancy after a single act of sexual intercourse by about 75% and the levonorgestrel alone by about 85%. The copper intrauterine device is an extremely effective method for selected patients.Nausea and vomiting are common among women using the Yuzpe regimen and considerably less common among women using levonorgestrel alone regimen.Emergency contraception is relatively safe with no contraindications except pregnancy. It is ineffective if a woman is pregnant. There is no need for a medical hystory or a phisical examination before providing emergency contraceptive pills. They are taken long before organogenesis starts, so they should not have a teratogenic effect.Counseling should include information about correct use of the method, possible side effects and her preferences for regular contraception.Unintended pregnancy is a great problem. Several safe, effective and inexpensive methods of emergency contraception are available including Yuzpe regimen, levonorges-trel-only regimen and copper intrauterine device.

  4. The escape of Lyman photons from a young starburst: the case of Haro11†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Atek, Hakim; Kunth, Daniel; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Leitherer, Claus; Jiménez-Bailón, Elena; Adamo, Angela

    2007-12-01

    Lyman α (Lyα) is one of the dominant tools used to probe the star-forming galaxy population at high redshift (z). However, astrophysical interpretations of data drawn from Lyα alone hinge on the Lyα escape fraction which, due to the complex radiative transport, may vary greatly. Here, we map the Lyα emission from the local luminous blue compact galaxy Haro11, a known emitter of Lyα and the only known candidate for low-z Lyman continuum emission. To aid in the interpretation, we perform a detailed ultraviolet and optical multiwavelength analysis and model the stellar population, dust distribution, ionizing photon budget, and star-cluster population. We use archival X-ray observations to further constrain properties of the starburst and estimate the neutral hydrogen column density. The Lyα morphology is found to be largely symmetric around a single young star-forming knot and is strongly decoupled from other wavelengths. From general surface photometry, only very slight correlation is found between Lyα and Hα, E(B - V), and the age of the stellar population. Only around the central Lyα bright cluster do we find the Lyα/Hα ratio at values predicted by the recombination theory. The total Lyα escape fraction is found to be just 3 per cent. We compute that ~90 per cent of the Lyα photons that escape do so after undergoing multiple resonance scattering events, masking their point of origin. This leads to a largely symmetric distribution and, by increasing the distance that photons must travel to escape, decreases the escape probability significantly. While dust must ultimately be responsible for the destruction of Lyα, it plays a little role in governing the observed morphology, which is regulated more by interstellar medium kinematics and geometry. We find tentative evidence for local Lyα equivalent width in the immediate vicinity of star clusters being a function of cluster age, consistent with hydrodynamic studies. We estimate the intrinsic production

  5. Energy conversion through mass loading of escaping ionospheric ions for different Kp values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Slapak, Rikard

    2018-01-01

    By conserving momentum during the mixing of fast solar wind flow and slow planetary ion flow in an inelastic way, mass loading converts kinetic energy to other forms - e.g. first to electrical energy through charge separation and then to thermal energy (randomness) through gyromotion of the newly born cold ions for the comet and Mars cases. Here, we consider the Earth's exterior cusp and plasma mantle, where the ionospheric origin escaping ions with finite temperatures are loaded into the decelerated solar wind flow. Due to direct connectivity to the ionosphere through the geomagnetic field, a large part of this electrical energy is consumed to maintain field-aligned currents (FACs) toward the ionosphere, in a similar manner as the solar wind-driven ionospheric convection in the open geomagnetic field region. We show that the energy extraction rate by the mass loading of escaping ions (ΔK) is sufficient to explain the cusp FACs, and that ΔK depends only on the solar wind velocity accessing the mass-loading region (usw) and the total mass flux of the escaping ions into this region (mloadFload), as ΔK ˜ -mloadFloadu2sw/4. The expected distribution of the separated charges by this process also predicts the observed flowing directions of the cusp FACs for different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations if we include the deflection of the solar wind flow directions in the exterior cusp. Using empirical relations of u0 ∝ Kp + 1.2 and Fload ∝ exp(0.45Kp) for Kp = 1-7, where u0 is the solar wind velocity upstream of the bow shock, ΔK becomes a simple function of Kp as log10(ΔK) = 0.2 ṡ Kp + 2 ṡ log10(Kp + 1.2) + constant. The major contribution of this nearly linear increase is the Fload term, i.e. positive feedback between the increase of ion escaping rate Fload through the increased energy consumption in the ionosphere for high Kp, and subsequent extraction of more kinetic energy ΔK from the solar wind to the current system by the increased

  6. Stable cytotoxic T cell escape mutation in hepatitis C virus is linked to maintenance of viral fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Uebelhoer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms by which hepatitis C virus (HCV evades cellular immunity to establish persistence in chronically infected individuals are not clear. Mutations in human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I-restricted epitopes targeted by CD8(+ T cells are associated with persistence, but the extent to which these mutations affect viral fitness is not fully understood. Previous work showed that the HCV quasispecies in a persistently infected chimpanzee accumulated multiple mutations in numerous class I epitopes over a period of 7 years. During the acute phase of infection, one representative epitope in the C-terminal region of the NS3/4A helicase, NS3(1629-1637, displayed multiple serial amino acid substitutions in major histocompatibility complex (MHC anchor and T cell receptor (TCR contact residues. Only one of these amino acid substitutions at position 9 (P9 of the epitope was stable in the quasispecies. We therefore assessed the effect of each mutation observed during in vivo infection on viral fitness and T cell responses using an HCV subgenomic replicon system and a recently developed in vitro infectious virus cell culture model. Mutation of a position 7 (P7 TCR-contact residue, I1635T, expectedly ablated the T cell response without affecting viral RNA replication or virion production. In contrast, two mutations at the P9 MHC-anchor residue abrogated antigen-specific T cell responses, but additionally decreased viral RNA replication and virion production. The first escape mutation, L1637P, detected in vivo only transiently at 3 mo after infection, decreased viral production, and reverted to the parental sequence in vitro. The second P9 variant, L1637S, which was stable in vivo through 7 years of follow-up, evaded the antigen-specific T cell response and did not revert in vitro despite being less optimal in virion production compared to the parental virus. These studies suggest that HCV escape mutants emerging early in infection are not necessarily

  7. Con "Confianza": The Emergence of the Zone of Proximal Development in a University ESL Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Santiago, Sandra L.; Rivera, Rosita L.; Mazak, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    This article illustrates how a classroom community characterized by "confianza"--a feeling of mutual understanding, respect, and emotional closeness--facilitated the English language learning of Spanish-speaking students in a content-based English as a second language class at a Puerto Rican public university. To understand the processes…

  8. Trusted Remote Operation of Proximate Emergency Robots (TROOPER): DARPA Robotics Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    method for activating the drill is to press the button by visual servoing in with the POKEY stick, described below. 3.3.5.4 Button Tracking and Stick...involving visual servoing much easier to accomplish. Figure 7. POKEY Stick Since the camera is mounted at a more maneuverable position (i.e., end...In the wall task, the cutting tool can be activated using a visual servoing approach to find the button with the hand camera then steadily move

  9. Objective quantification of the food proximity effect on grapes, chocolate and cracker consumption in a Swedish high school. A temporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlet, Billy; Fagerberg, Petter; Glossner, Andrew; Ioakimidis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Close food proximity leads to increased short-term energy intake, potentially contributing to the long-term development of obesity. However, its precise effects on eating behaviour are still unclear, especially with food available for extended periods of time. This study involved two similar high school student groups (15-17 years old), which had ad libitum access to grapes, chocolates and crackers during an hour-long experimental session. In the distal condition the foods were placed 6 meters away from the students (n = 24), in contrast to the proximal condition (n = 17) were the food was placed near the students. The identification of the type and the quantification of the amount of each food selected, for each individual serving, was facilitated through use of food scales and video recording. In the proximal condition individuals served themselves grapes and crackers more often and consumed more chocolate than in the distal condition. In total, participants in the proximal condition ingested significantly more energy (726 kcal vs. 504 kcal; p = 0.029), without reporting higher fullness. Food proximity also affected the temporal distribution of servings, with the first five minutes of the sessions corresponding to 53.1% and 45.6% of the total energy intake for the distal and proximal conditions, respectively. After the first five minutes, the servings in the distal condition were strongly clustered in time, with many students getting food together. In the proximal condition however, students displayed an unstructured pattern of servings over time. In conclusion, this study strengthens past evidence regarding the important role of food proximity on individual energy intake and, for the first time, it associates continuous food proximity to the emergence of unstructured eating over time. These conclusions, expanded upon by future studies, could support the creation of meaningful intervention strategies based on spatially and temporally controlled food availability.

  10. Nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This leaflet, which is in the form of a fold-up chart, has panels of text which summarize the emergencies that could arise and the countermeasures and emergency plans that have been prepared should nuclear accident occur or affect the United Kingdom. The levels of radiation doses at which various measures would be introduced are outlined. The detection and monitoring programmes that would operate is illustrated. The role of NRPB and the responsible government departments are set out together with an explanation of how the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity would be coordinated. (UK)

  11. EMERGING MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE CARALICEA-MĂRCULESCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The emerging markets are winning the currency war, because at this very moment its the battle of global financial institutions , as to who is more vulnerable and more exposed to the debt crisis and have their hands in more risky assets. US and Euro with their intertwining the financial stuff of the nation, the banks and the corporations are in a deep mess. One goes down, takes the other ones too. Right now , they all are struggling and getting beaten up , while the emerging markets are quiet and not really expressing their stands on the current situation except are reacting by all only putting their own houses in order.

  12. Emergency radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the German, translated version of the original published in 1984 in the U.S.A., entitled 'Emergency Radiology'. The publication for the most part is made up as an atlas of the radiological images presenting the findings required for assessment of the emergency cases and their first treatment. The test parts' function is to explain the images and give the necessary information. The material is arranged in seven sections dealing with the skull, the facial part of the skull, the spine, thorax, abdominal region, the pelvis and the hip, and the limbs. With 690 figs [de

  13. Emergency Preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The trends of RPC work in the area of preparedness for nuclear and radiological accidents are listed. RPC in cooperation with Swedish Government developed the project on preparation for iodine prophylaxis in case of accident at Ignalina NPP and arranged seminar on emergency preparedness issues in 2001.

  14. Emerging Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily be und...

  15. Emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J. [Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp., Sylvan Lake, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This presentation included several slides depicting well control and emergency preparedness. It provided information to help in pre-emergency planning for potential well control situations. Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp has gained experience in the Canadian and International well control industry as well as from the fires of Kuwait. The president of the company lectures on the complications and concerns of managers, wellsite supervisors, service companies, the public sector, land owners, government agencies and the media. The slides presented scenarios based on actual blowout recovery assignments and described what types of resources are needed by a well control team. The presentation addressed issues such as the responsibility of a well control team and what they can be expected to do. The issue of how government agencies become involved was also discussed. The presentation combines important information and descriptive images of personal experiences in fire fighting and well control. The emergency situations presented here demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of preplanning for emergencies and what to expect when a typical day in the oil patch turns into a high stress, volatile situation. tabs., figs.

  16. OPERATION EMERGENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MELBO, IRVING R.

    THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE EMERGING ENVIRONMENT FOR THE FUTURE OF PUBLIC EDUCATION IN CALIFORNIA IS CONSIDERED. CERTAIN WORLD REVOLUTIONS HAVE AFFECTED CONTEMPORARY LIFE. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BROUGHT WITH IT INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY, RESEARCH, HIGHER STANDARDS OF LIVING, LONGER LIFE SPANS, AND CATEGORIZATION OF NATIONS INTO HAVES AND HAVE NOTS.…

  17. Emergent Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Everdij, M.H.C.; Bouarfa, S.; Cook, A; Rivas, D

    2016-01-01

    In complexity science a property or behaviour of a system is called emergent if it is not a property or behaviour of the constituting elements of the system, though results from the interactions between its constituting elements. In the socio-technical air transportation system these interactions

  18. Emergence delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Louise; Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Gögenur, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Emergence delirium (ED) is a well-known phenomenon in the postoperative period. However, the literature concerning this clinical problem is limited. This review evaluates the literature with respect to epidemiology and risk factors. Treatment strategies are discussed. The review concludes...

  19. Thyroid emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    This review presents current knowledge about the thyroid emergencies known as myxedema coma and thyrotoxic storm. Understanding the pathogenesis of these conditions, appropriate recognition of the clinical signs and symptoms, and their prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment are crucial in optimizing survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ESCAPING PARTICLE FLUXES IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF CLOSE-IN EXOPLANETS. II. REDUCED MASS-LOSS RATES AND ANISOTROPIC WINDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    In Paper I, we presented a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the winds of close-in exoplanets. However, close-in exoplanets are tidally locked and irradiated only on the day sides by their host stars. This requires two-dimensional hydrodynamic models with self-consistent radiative transfer calculations. In this paper, for the tidal-locking (two-dimensional radiative transfer) and non-tidal-locking cases (one-dimensional radiative transfer), we constructed a multi-fluid two-dimensional hydrodynamic model with detailed radiative transfer to depict the escape of particles. We found that the tidal forces (the sum of tidal gravity of the star and centrifugal force due to the planetary rotation) supply significant accelerations and result in anisotropic winds. An important effect of the tidal forces is that it severely depresses the outflow of particles near the polar regions where the density and the radial velocity are a factor of a few (ten) smaller than those of the low-latitude regions. As a consequence, most particles escape the surface of the planet from the regions of low latitude. Comparing the tidal-locking and non-tidal-locking cases, we found that their optical depths are very different so that the flows also emerge with a different pattern. In the case of non-tidal locking, the radial velocities at the base of the wind are higher than the meridional velocities. However, in the case of tidal locking, the meridional velocities dominate the flow at the base of the wind, and they can effectively transfer mass and energy from the day sides to the night sides. Further, we also found that the differences of the winds show a middle extent at large radii. This means that the structure of the wind at the base can be changed by the two-dimensional radiative transfer due to large optical depths, but the extent is reduced with an increase in radius. Because the escape is depressed in the polar regions, the mass-loss rate predicted by the non-tidal-locking model, in