WorldWideScience

Sample records for proximity detection systems

  1. 75 FR 5009 - Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ..., feeders, loaders/muckers, track equipment, trucks, roof bolting machines, and mobile bridge conveyors... which you rely. Include experiences, data, models, calculations, studies and articles, and standard... outreach and/or training in the area of proximity detection (e.g., red zone warning materials). How often...

  2. Proximal caries lesion detection using the Canary Caries Detection System: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Janja; Wan Bakar, Wan Zaripah; Mathews, Sapna M; Okoye, Linda O; Ehler, Benjamin R; Louden, Christopher; Amaechi, Bennett T

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of the Canary System (CS) to detect proximal caries lesions in vitro, and compared it with conventional methods: International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) II and bitewing radiography (BW). Visible proximal surfaces of extracted human teeth were assessed by ICDAS-II before setting them in five manikin mouth models. Then contacting proximal surfaces in mouth models were assessed by BW and CS. Histological validation with polarized-light microscopy served as a gold standard. Pairwise comparisons were performed on area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of the three methods, and corrected using Bonferroni's method. Sensitivities and specificities were compared using a test of proportions and AUC values were compared using DeLong's method. The CS presented significantly higher sensitivity (0.933) than ICDAS-II (0.733, P = 0.01) and BW (0.267, P proximal lesions than ICDAS-II and BW, although without significantly higher specificity. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. 76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Part 75 RIN 1219-AB65 Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal... hearing. SUMMARY: The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is announcing [[Page 63239

  4. 76 FR 54163 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... pinned by the machine. Proximity detection is a technology that uses electronic sensors to detect motion... also observed the Booyco Collision Warning System (CWS) being used on continuous mining machines. The... further analysis due to its potential to force machine operators out of previously safe areas into...

  5. 76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... addressing Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. This... Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. MSHA conducted hearings on October 18, October 20...

  6. Detection of proximal caries using digital radiographic systems with different resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikneshan, Sima; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashhadi; Sabbagh, Sedigheh

    2015-01-01

    Dental radiography is an important tool for detection of caries and digital radiography is the latest advancement in this regard. Spatial resolution is a characteristic of digital receptors used for describing the quality of images. This study was aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two digital radiographic systems with three different resolutions for detection of noncavitated proximal caries. Diagnostic accuracy. Seventy premolar teeth were mounted in 14 gypsum blocks. Digora; Optime and RVG Access were used for obtaining digital radiographs. Six observers evaluated the proximal surfaces in radiographs for each resolution in order to determine the depth of caries based on a 4-point scale. The teeth were then histologically sectioned, and the results of histologic analysis were considered as the gold standard. Data were entered using SPSS version 18 software and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for data analysis. P proximal caries (P > 0.05). RVG access system had the highest specificity (87.7%) and Digora; Optime at high resolution had the lowest specificity (84.2%). Furthermore, Digora; Optime had higher sensitivity for detection of caries exceeding outer half of enamel. Judgment of oral radiologists for detection of the depth of caries had higher reliability than that of restorative dentistry specialists. The three resolutions of Digora; Optime and RVG access had similar accuracy in detection of noncavitated proximal caries.

  7. Detection of proximal caries using digital radiographic systems with different resolutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sima Nikneshan; Fatemeh Mashhadi Abbas; Sedigheh Sabbagh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental radiography is an important tool for detection of caries and digital radiography is the latest advancement in this regard. Spatial resolution is a characteristic of digital receptors used for describing the quality of images. Aim: This study was aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two digital radiographic systems with three different resolutions for detection of noncavitated proximal caries. Settings and Design: Diagnostic accuracy. Materials and Methods...

  8. Evaluation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT System: Comparison with Intraoral Periapical Radiography in Proximal Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Valizadeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. With the introduction of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT in dentistry, a question has been raised whether the technique significantly increases the diagnostic accuracy in comparison with other techniques or not. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of CBCT modality in detecting proximal carious lesions as compared to conventional periapical radiographs. Materials and methods. This diagnostic study was carried out on 84 human extracted molars and premolars. The teeth were mounted and divided in 28 blocks of 3 teeth. Periapical and CBCT images of teeth were obtained. Five observers scored the images for the detection of proximal carious lesions using a 2-point scale (caries, present; caries, absent. The gold standard was determined by histopathologic sections. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves were traced for observers in both systems. The results were analyzed by paired t-test. Results. The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of CBCT images were 0.568, 0.835, 0.637, 0.714, 0.598 and 0.856, respectively. These parameters were 0.432, 0.837, 0.722, 0.77, 0.687 and 0.858 for the periapical conventional technique, respectively. Conclusion. The CBCT images did not enhance detection of proximal caries in comparison with periapical images.

  9. Implications of Articulating Machinery on Operator Line of Sight and Efficacy of Camera Based Proximity Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Schwabe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The underground mining industry, and some above ground operations, rely on the use of heavy equipment that articulates to navigate corners in the tight confines of the tunnels. Poor line of sight (LOS has been identified as a problem for safe operation of this machinery. Proximity detection systems, such as a video system designed to provide a 360 degree view around the machine have been implemented to improve the available LOS for the operator. A four-camera system was modeled in a computer environment to assess LOS on a 3D cad model of a typical, articulated machine. When positioned without any articulation, the system is excellent at removing blind spots for a machine driving straight forward or backward in a straight tunnel. Further analysis reveals that when the machine articulates in a simulated corner section, some camera locations are no longer useful for improving LOS into the corner. In some cases, the operator has a superior view into the corner, when compared to the best available view from the camera. The work points to the need to integrate proximity detection systems at the design, build, and manufacture stage, and to consider proper policy and procedures that would address the gains and limits of the systems prior to implementation.

  10. Alternative erasing times of the DenOptix system plate: performance on the detection of proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Daniela P; Pontual, Andrea A; Almeida, Solange M; Campos, Paulo F; Tosoni, Guilherme M

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the DenOptix system for detection of proximal caries using alternative erasing times for the photostimulable phosphor plates. Human teeth were X-rayed with phosphor plates using different erasing times. Five observers evaluated the images for the presence of caries by scoring the proximal surfaces of each tooth. Mean pixel intensity analyses were also carried out. The erasing times were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Analysis of variance for differences among erasing times and pixel intensity values was performed, followed by linear regression analysis for correlation between these variables. The mean ROC curve for each erasing time varied from 0.61 to 0.66 (not significant). Analysis of variance did not show any significant effect of the erasing times on the pixel intensity values of the images (P > .05). Erasing times for DenOptix phosphor plates from 20 to 130 s were satisfactory for diagnosis of proximal caries, and their use is therefore feasible in clinical practice.

  11. A Novel Method for Proximity Detection of Moving Targets Using a Large-Scale Planar Capacitive Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for proximity detection of moving targets (with high dielectric constants using a large-scale (the size of each sensor is 31 cm × 19 cm planar capacitive sensor system (PCSS is proposed. The capacitive variation with distance is derived, and a pair of electrodes in a planar capacitive sensor unit (PCSU with a spiral shape is found to have better performance on sensitivity distribution homogeneity and dynamic range than three other shapes (comb shape, rectangular shape, and circular shape. A driving excitation circuit with a Clapp oscillator is proposed, and a capacitance measuring circuit with sensitivity of 0.21 V p − p / pF is designed. The results of static experiments and dynamic experiments demonstrate that the voltage curves of static experiments are similar to those of dynamic experiments; therefore, the static data can be used to simulate the dynamic curves. The dynamic range of proximity detection for three projectiles is up to 60 cm, and the results of the following static experiments show that the PCSU with four neighboring units has the highest sensitivity (the sensitivities of other units are at least 4% lower; when the attack angle decreases, the intensity of sensor signal increases. This proposed method leads to the design of a feasible moving target detector with simple structure and low cost, which can be applied in the interception system.

  12. Detection of proximal caries with high-resolution and standard resolution digital radiographic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, W E R; Verheij, J G C; Syriopoulos, K; Li, G; Sanderink, G C H; van der Stelt, P F

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to: (1) compare the diagnostic accuracy of the high-resolution and standard resolution settings of four digital imaging systems for caries diagnosis and (2) compare the effect on the diagnostic accuracy of reducing the high-resolution image sizes to the standard resolution dimensions, and vice versa. 90 extracted human premolars were mounted in groups of 5 in plaster blocks, containing 4 test teeth and 1 non-test tooth. Two blocks at a time were placed in a jig to simulate a bitewing radiograph. Radiographs were taken using four digital systems (Planmeca Dixi 2; Gendex Visualix HDI; Dürr Vistascan; Digora Optime), each at two resolution settings. Next, the teeth were sectioned and a total of 65 surfaces were incorporated in the study. Additionally, the bicubic interpolation method was applied to reduce the high-resolution original images and to enlarge the standard resolution images. The original, reduced and enlarged images were randomly shown to five observers in two random sessions. The observers were asked to assess caries depth on a 4-point scale. The observers' scores were compared with the results from a histological examination. Data were analysed using the statistical theory for multivariate discrete data. Cohen's kappa was used to determine the agreement with the gold standard. None of the comparisons between the spatial resolution settings, or the comparisons between increased or reduced image size and the original image sizes, showed significant differences in the probability of caries detection (chi2=26.59, df=26, P approximately 0.50). The four digital systems used in this study differ significantly in the probability of caries detection (chi2=41.55, df=24, PCaries diagnosis does not improve when using high-resolution settings compared with the standard settings. The use of bicubic convolution interpolation for zooming has no detectable effect on caries diagnosis and therefore is recommended to use when enlarging or reducing

  13. Grouping by Proximity in Haptic Contour Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Wagemans, Johan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection. PMID:23762364

  14. Detection of proximal caries with high-resolution and standard resolution digital radiographic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, W.E.R.; Verheij, H.G.C.; Syriopoulos, K.; Li, G.; Sanderink, G.C.H.; van der Stelt, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to: (1) compare the diagnostic accuracy of the high-resolution and standard resolution settings of four digital imaging systems for caries diagnosis and (2) compare the effect on the diagnostic accuracy of reducing the high-resolution image sizes to the standard

  15. Detection of proximal caries in vitro using standard and task-specific enhanced images from a storage phosphor plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Sanderink, G C H; Berkhout, W E R; Syriopoulos, K; van der Stelt, P F

    2007-01-01

    Eight dentists evaluated 72 proximal surfaces of premolars with respect to all caries lesions and to lesions into dentine in digital images from a storage phosphor plate system. The images were processed in four different ways: (1) the default algorithm of the standard imaging system (DF); (2) an algorithm correcting for attenuation and visual response (AV), and two proprietary caries-specific enhancement algorithms (3) K1, and (4) K2, respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. There were no significant differences in the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves between differently processed radiographs for the categories of all caries lesions and caries into dentine. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Comparative study of a wireless digital system and 2 PSP digital systems on proximal caries detection and pixel values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Pontual, Andrea; de Melo, Daniela Pita; Pontual, Maria Luiza dos Anjos; de Almeida, Solange Maria; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the radiographic image quality of 2 photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate systems with a radiographic system against a complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) system. Using the 3 digital systems, 160 approximal surfaces were radiographed under standardized conditions. Using a 5-point scale, 6 observers scored the resulting images for the presence of caries. The presence of caries was validated histologically, and the image receptors were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The digital systems were used to take radiographs of an aluminum step wedge for objective analysis with pixel density measurements. The mean pixel values were analyzed statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn multiple comparison test (P < 0.01). The performance of the new CMOS system was comparable to the PSP plate systems and radiographic film.

  17. Task-specific enhancement filters in storage phosphor images from the Vistascan system for detection of proximal caries lesions of known size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiter-Neto, Francisco; Casanova, Marcia Spinelli; Frydenberg, Morten; Wenzel, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to compare original 8-bit images from the Vistascan storage phosphor plate system with images enhanced with specific filters for detection of proximal caries lesions and, further, to analyze the mutual sensitivity of the filtered images for different lesion sizes. One hundred sixty approximal noncavitated surfaces were radiographed using the Vistascan storage phosphor plate system. Original and enhanced (Fine, Caries1, and Caries2 filters) images were assessed by 6 observers who recorded the presence/absence of proximal carious lesions. Microscopy served to detect and measure true lesion size. One hundred one surfaces were sound, and 59 had lesions. The sensitivity of the Fine filter images was significantly higher than the Caries1 and Caries2 filter modalities (P Caries1 and Caries2 modalities. Both the Fine filter and the original images had a significantly higher specificity than the Caries2 modality (P Caries2 modality (P Caries1 modality (P detection of shallow carious lesion, because it showed less observer variability. The task-specific enhancement filters, Caries1 and Caries2, were less accurate than the original and Fine filter images and cannot be recommended for detection of the lesion sizes included in this study.

  18. Digital camera resolution and proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapayasatok, S; Janhom, A; Verochana, K; Pramojanee, S

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection from digitized film images captured by a digital camera at different resolution settings. Twenty-five periapical radiographs of 50 premolar and 25 molar teeth were photographed using a digital camera, Sony Cyber-shot, DSC-S75 at three different resolution settings: 640 x 480, 1280 x 960 and 1600 x 1200. Seventy-five digital images were transferred to a computer, saved and opened using ACDSee software. In addition, a PowerPoint slide was made from each digital image. Five observers scored three groups of images (the films, the displayed 1:1 digital images on the ACDSee software, and the PowerPoint slides) for the existence of proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale, and the depth of caries on a 4-point scale. Ground sections of the teeth were used as the gold standard. Az values under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each group of images and at different resolutions were compared using the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Mean different values between the lesions' depth interpreted by the observers and that of the gold standard were analysed. Films showed the highest Az values. Only the 1280 x 960 images on the ACDSee software showed no significant difference of the Az value from the films (P=0.28). The digital images from three resolution settings on the PowerPoint slides showed no significant differences, either among each other or between them and the films. For caries depth, the 1280 x 960 images showed lower values of mean difference in enamel lesions compared with the other two resolution groups. This study showed that in order to digitize conventional films, it was not necessary to use the highest camera resolution setting to achieve high diagnostic accuracy for proximal caries detection. The 1280 x 960 resolution setting of the digital camera demonstrated comparable diagnostic accuracy with film and was adequate for digitizing radiographs for caries

  19. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  20. Proximal caries detection: Sirona Sidexis versus Kodak Ektaspeed Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Ludlow, John B; Caplan, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of intraoral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD) receptor for proximal caries detection. Four observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a five-point confidence scale. The actual status of each surface was determined from ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under ROC curves (Az) were assessed through a paired t-test. The performance of the CCD-based intraoral sensor was not different statistically from Ektaspeed Plus film in detecting proximal caries.

  1. The validity of proximal caries detection using magnifying visual aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Rainer; Wicht, Michael J; Hellmich, Martin; Gossmann, Andrea; Noack, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of proximal caries detection supported by a prism loupe and a surgical microscope used by examiners having different professional experience. One hundred and sixty extracted premolars and molars with varying degrees of proximal caries or sound surfaces were embedded in 10 pairs of models with proximal tooth contacts and a simulated gingiva mask. The proximal surfaces were visually evaluated by 14 observers (7 students, 7 dentists) according to a 5-point caries rating scale using a head-worn prism loupe (x4.5), a surgical microscope (x 14) and without any magnifying device (control). The validity of observations was expressed as ROC curves calculated for two gold standard thresholds: (a) the presence of caries and (b) macroscopic cavitation. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of 'observer group' and 'diagnostic modality'. An influence of the observer group could not be demonstrated (p > 0.72), whereas significant differences were revealed between the diagnostic modalities (p caries detection with magnifying aids were smaller compared to the control group. It was concluded that the use of a prism loupe or a surgical microscope does not improve the validity of proximal caries detection if the operators, irrespective of being dental students or clinical instructors, are inexperienced in its utilisation. In general only moderate validity was achieved with visual inspection of proximal sites. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Design of intelligent proximity detection zones to prevent striking and pinning fatalities around continuous mining machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissert, P T; Carr, J L; DuCarme, J P; Smith, A K

    2016-01-01

    The continuous mining machine is a key piece of equipment used in underground coal mining operations. Over the past several decades these machines have been involved in a number of mine worker fatalities. Proximity detection systems have been developed to avert hazards associated with operating continuous mining machines. Incorporating intelligent design into proximity detection systems allows workers greater freedom to position themselves to see visual cues or avoid other hazards such as haulage equipment or unsupported roof or ribs. However, intelligent systems must be as safe as conventional proximity detection systems. An evaluation of the 39 fatal accidents for which the Mine Safety and Health Administration has published fatality investigation reports was conducted to determine whether the accident may have been prevented by conventional or intelligent proximity. Multiple zone configurations for the intelligent systems were studied to determine how system performance might be affected by the zone configuration. Researchers found that 32 of the 39 fatalities, or 82 percent, may have been prevented by both conventional and intelligent proximity systems. These results indicate that, by properly configuring the zones of an intelligent proximity detection system, equivalent protection to a conventional system is possible.

  3. Efficient Indoor Proximity and Separation Detection for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Treu, Georg; Ruppel, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Detecting proximity and separation among mobile targets is a basic mechanism for many location-based services (LBSs) and requires continuous positioning and tracking. However, realizing both mechanisms for indoor usage is still a major challenge. Positioning methods like GPS cannot be applied there......, and for distance calculations the particular building topology has to be taken into account. To address these challenges, this paper presents a novel approach for indoor proximity and separation detection, which uses location fingerprinting for indoor positioning of targets and walking distances for modeling...

  4. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Thyagarajan David; Haridas Samarth; Jones Denise; Dent Colin; Evans Richard; Williams Rhys

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system) for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years...

  5. Private and Flexible Proximity Detection in Mobile Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2010-01-01

    A privacy-aware proximity detection service determines if two mobile users are close to each other without requiring them to disclose their exact locations. Existing proposals for such services provide weak privacy, give low accuracy guarantees, incur high communication costs, or lack flexibility...

  6. A new screening method to detect proximal dental caries using fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Eun-Song; Kang, Si-Mook; Jung, Eun-Ha; de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Jung, Hoi-In; Kim, Baek-Il

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the screening performance of the quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology to detect proximal caries using both fluorescence loss and red fluorescence in a clinical situation. Moreover, a new simplified QLF score for the proximal caries (QS-Proximal) is proposed and its validity for detecting proximal caries was evaluated as well. This clinical study included 280 proximal surfaces, which were assessed by visual-tactile and radiographic examinations and scored by each scoring system according to lesion severity. The occlusal QLF images were analysed in two different ways: (1) a quantitative analysis producing fluorescence loss (ΔF) and red fluorescence (ΔR) parameters; and (2) a new QLF scoring index. For both quantitative parameters and QS-Proximal, the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) were calculated as a function of the radiographic scoring index at the enamel and dentine caries levels. Both ΔF and ΔR showed excellent AUROC values at the dentine caries level (ΔF=0.860, ΔR=0.902) whereas a relatively lower value was observed at the enamel caries level (ΔF=0.655, ΔR=0.686). The QS-Proximal also showed excellent AUROC ranged from 0.826 to 0.864 for detecting proximal caries at the dentine level. The QS-Proximal, which represents fluorescence changes, showed excellent performance in detecting proximal caries using the radiographic score as the gold standard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnostic performance of the visual caries classification system ICDAS II versus radiography and micro-computed tomography for proximal caries detection: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, P; Rahiotis, C; Stamatakis, H; Kakaboura, A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was: (a) to compare the visual caries classification system ICDAS II with conventional (CR) and digital radiography (DR) for diagnosis of non-cavitated caries on free proximal surfaces, (b) to examine the potential of micro-computed tomography (MCT) to substitute histological examination for the in vitro caries assessment. Both proximal surfaces of 20 teeth received classification separately by two examiners by means of the diagnostic modalities examined. The teeth were sectioned and assessed for depth of the lesion. The modalities were compared in terms of degree of inter-examiner agreement, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive value and validity. Two diagnostic thresholds were applied: no caries versus all caries scores (D1), and no dentin caries versus dentin caries (D3). The weighted kappa values for inter-examiner reproducibility for all diagnostic modalities were 0.51-0.81. Visual examination (ICDAS II) reached significant higher sensitivity (0.92-0.96) and negative predictive value (0.9-1) than radiography. Likewise, the radiographic modalities presented significantly higher specificity (0.93-1) and positive predictive values (0.92-1) than the ICDAS II criteria. The overall accuracy performance of radiographic modalities was related to the diagnostic threshold. MCT did not agree with histological validation at each disease severity scale. The ICDAS II criteria are a promising tool for caries diagnosis on free proximal surfaces. DR and CR radiography present comparable performance. Furthermore, MCT is not capable of constituting a reliable alternative to histological examination for caries research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Extraoral imaging for proximal caries detection: Bitewings vs scanogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Caplan, Daniel

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3 extraoral imaging modalities with an intraoral bitewing radiograph for proximal caries detection. Three modalities of Cranex TOME scanograms, x-ray film and DenOptix photostimulable phosphor plates with and without digital enhancement, were compared with Insight intraoral radiographs for proximal caries detection. Nine observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 45 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a 5-point confidence scale. The ground truth was determined from histological sections. Responses were evaluated by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (A z ). Repeated measures ANOVA (at alpha = 0.05) demonstrated significant differences among modalities ( P = .041). Paired t tests with Bonferroni correction demonstrated that Insight was superior to only unenhanced digital scanograms ( P = .003). Mean A z scores (+/-SD) were 0.73 (+/-0.08) for Insight, 0.65 (+/-0.06) for screen/film scanogram, 0.64 (+/-0.04) for unenhanced digital scanogram, and 0.66 (+/-0.07) for enhanced digital scanogram. The performances of film-based and enhanced digital scanograms were not statistically different from Insight film for proximal caries detection. Unenhanced digital scanograms exhibited a statistically significant lower diagnostic accuracy than Insight film.

  9. Detection of driver drowsiness using wearable devices: A feasibility study of the proximity sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jibo; Choi, William; Yang, Yan; Lu, Junshi; Wu, Xiaohui; Peng, Kaiping

    2017-11-01

    Drowsiness is one of the major factors that cause crashes in the transportation industry. Drowsiness detection systems can alert drowsy operators and potentially reduce the risk of crashes. In this study, a Google-Glass-based drowsiness detection system was developed and validated. The proximity sensor of Google Glass was used to monitor eye blink frequency. A simulated driving study was carried out to validate the system. Driving performance and eye blinks were compared between the two states of alertness and drowsiness while driving. Drowsy drivers increased frequency of eye blinks, produced longer braking response time and increased lane deviation, compared to when they were alert. A threshold algorithm for proximity sensor can reliably detect eye blinks and proved the feasibility of using Google Glass to detect operator drowsiness. This technology provides a new platform to detect operator drowsiness and has the potential to reduce drowsiness-related crashes in driving and aviation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Detecting Proximal Secondary Caries Lesions: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, F; Brouwer, F; Paris, S; Stolpe, M

    2016-02-01

    When choosing detection methods for secondary caries lesions, dentists need to weigh sensitivity, allowing early initiation of retreatments to avoid lesion progression, against specificity, aiming to reduce risks of false-positive diagnoses and invasive overtreatments. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of different detection methods for proximal secondary lesions using Monte Carlo microsimulations. A vital permanent molar with an occlusal-proximal restoration was simulated over the lifetime of an initially 20-y-old. Three methods were compared: biannual tactile detection, radiographic detection every 2 y, and biannual laser fluorescence detection. Methods were employed either on their own or in pairwise combinations at sensitive and specific thresholds estimated with systematically collected data. A mixed public-private payer perspective in the context of German health care was applied. Effectiveness was calculated as years of tooth retention. Net-benefit analyses were used to evaluate cost-effectiveness acceptability at different willingness-to-pay thresholds. Radiographic detection verified by tactile assessment (both at specific thresholds) was least costly (mean, 1,060 euros) but had limited effectiveness (mean retention time, 50 y). The most effective but also more costly combination was laser fluorescence detection verified by radiography, again at specific thresholds (1157 euros, 53 y, acceptable if willingness to pay >32 euro/y). In the majority of simulations, not combining detection methods or applying them at sensitive thresholds was less effective and more costly. Net benefits were not greatly altered by applying different discounting rates or using different baseline prevalence of secondary lesions. Current detection methods for secondary lesions should best be used in combination, not on their own, at specific thresholds to avoid false-positive diagnoses leading to costly and invasive overtreatment. The relevant characteristics, such as predictive

  11. The reliability and accuracy of two methods for proximal caries detection and depth on directly visible proximal surfaces: an in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Alloza, Alvaro Luna; Promisiero, L

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the reliability and accuracy of the ICDAS and radiographs in detecting and estimating the depth of proximal lesions on extracted teeth. The lesions were visible to the naked eye. Three trained examiners scored a total of 132 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 106...... primary teeth and 160 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 140 permanent teeth. The selected surfaces were first scored visually, using the 7 classes in the ICDAS. They were then assessed on radiographs using a 5-point classification system. Reexaminations were conducted with both scoring systems. Teeth...... and the radiographs. The associations between the 2 detection methods were measured to be moderate. In particular, the ICDAS was accurate in predicting lesion depth (histologically) confined to the enamel/outer third of the dentine versus deeper lesions. This study shows that when proximal lesions are open...

  12. Sensitive detection of aggregated prion protein via proximity ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Maria; Wik, Lotta; Deslys, Jean-Philippe; Comoy, Emmanuel; Linné, Tommy; Landegren, Ulf; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood

    2014-01-01

    The DNA assisted solid-phase proximity ligation assay (SP-PLA) provides a unique opportunity to specifically detect prion protein (PrP) aggregates by investigating the collocation of 3 or more copies of the specific protein. We have developed an SP-PLA that can detect PrP aggregates in brain homogenates from infected hamsters even after a 10(7)-fold dilution. In contrast, brain homogenate from uninfected animals did not generate a detectable signal at 100-fold higher concentration. Using either of the 2 monoclonal anti-PrP antibodies, 3F4 and 6H4, we successfully detected low concentrations of aggregated PrP. The presented results provide a proof of concept that this method might be an interesting tool in the development of diagnostic approaches of prion diseases.

  13. Transillumination and HDR Imaging for Proximal Caries Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, A; Kunzelmann, K H; Hickel, R; Litzenburger, F

    2018-02-01

    The purpose was to develop an in vitro model for the validation of near-infrared transillumination (NIRT) for proximal caries detection, to enhance NIRT with high-dynamic-range imaging (HDRI), and to compare both methods, using micro-computed tomography (µCT) as a reference standard. Both proximal surfaces of 53 healthy or decayed permanent human teeth were examined using the Diagnocam (DC) (KaVo) and NIRT with HDRI (NIRT-HDRI). NIRT was combined with HDRI to improve the diagnostic performance by reducing under- and overexposed image areas. For NIRT-HDRI, an exposure series was captured and merged into a single HDR image. A classification was applied according to lesion depth. All surfaces were assessed twice by 2 trained examiners, and additionally with µCT for validation. The Kappa statistic was used to calculate inter-rater reliability and agreement between DC and NIRT-HDRI. Inter-rater reliability (weighted Kappa, wκ) showed very good agreement for the DC (0.90) and NIRT-HDRI (0.96). The overall agreement (wκ) was almost perfect (0.85). In the individual categories (0 to 4), the agreement (simple Kappa) ranged from almost perfect (category 4) to moderate (1 and 2) to substantial (categories 0 and 3). Sensitivity and specificity of sound surfaces, enamel, and dentin caries ranged from 0.57 to 0.99 and were similar for both methods in the different categories. NIRT-HDRI had a higher sensitivity for sound surfaces and enamel caries, as well as a higher specificity for dentin caries. Regarding the obtained images, HDRI allowed for the detection of caries within a greater range of luminance levels, resulting in a more detailed visualization of structures without under- or overexposure. However, HDRI this did not improve the diagnostics significantly. Distinguishing between a processed demineralized enamel and dentin lesions appears to be a problem specific to NIRT and cannot be balanced using HDRI.

  14. Detection accuracy of proximal caries by phosphor plate and cone-beam computerized tomography images scanned with different resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun-Ge; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Zu-Yan; Ma, Xu-Chen; Li, Gang

    2012-08-01

    This study was carried out to assess whether the spatial resolution has an impact on the detection accuracy of proximal caries in flat panel CBCT (cone beam computerized tomography) images and if the detection accuracy can be improved by flat panel CBCT images scanned with high spatial resolution when compared to digital intraoral images. The CBCT test images of 45 non-restored human permanent teeth were respectively scanned with the ProMax 3D and the DCT Pro scanners at different resolutions. Digital images were obtained with a phosphor plate imaging system Digora Optime. Eight observers evaluated all the test images for carious lesion within the 90 proximal surfaces. With the histological examination serving as the reference standard, observer performances were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The areas under the ROC curves were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance. No significant differences were found among the CBCT images and between CBCT and digital images when only proximal enamel caries was detected (p = 0.989). With respect to the detection of proximal dentinal caries, significant difference was found between CBCT and digital images (p proximal caries in flat panel CBCT images. The flat panel CBCT images scanned with high spatial resolution did not improve the detection accuracy of proximal enamel caries compared to digital intraoral images. CBCT images scanned with high spatial resolutions could not be used for proximal caries detection.

  15. Comparison between Two Digital Panoramic Radiography Techniques for Proximal Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Shafagh Motlagh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although proximal dental caries are very common, clinical examinations cannot detect them all. Panoramic radiography has been widely used in dentistry for both diagnosis and screening. This study aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of two digital panoramic radiography techniques in the diagnosis of proximal caries. Methods: A total number of 60 patients referred to a dental radiology center, all had complete dental system and bitewing radiographies, were included. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients. For the first and second groups, CR and DR images were obtained respectively. Images were obtained from the distal of the third tooth to the distal of the eighth. Bitewing images were compared with CR and DR images regarding the detection of caries. Kappa index and chi-squared statistics were employed to analyze the results. Results: There was a high agreement rate between bitewing images and CR (Kappa=0.775 and DR (Kappa=o.762 images in detecting caries. Also no significant difference was shown between CR and DR techniques in the detection of caries (0.543. However, DR and CR images are not efficient enough to be prescribed as the sole imaging technique to detect proximal caries. Conclusion: DR and CR techniques could be good imaging techniques for the detection of dental caries as a companion to clinical examinations.

  16. The Comparison between Two Different Digital Panoramic Radiography Techniques in the Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hoseini Zarch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although proximal dental caries are very common, clinical examinations cannot detect them all. Panoramic radiography has been widely used in dentistry for both diagnosis and screening. This study aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of two digital panoramic radiography techniques in the diagnosis of proximal caries. Methods: A total number of 60 patients referred to a dental radiology center, all had complete dental system and bitewing radiographies, were included. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients. For the first and second groups, CR and DR images were obtained respectively. Images were obtained from the distal of the third tooth to the distal of the eighth. Bitewing images were compared with CR and DR images regarding the detection of caries. Kappa index and chi-squared statistics were employed to analyze the results. Results: There was a high agreement rate between bitewing images and CR (Kappa=0.775 and DR (Kappa=o.762 images in detecting caries. Also no significant difference was shown between CR and DR techniques in the detection of caries (0.543. However, DR and CR images are not efficient enough to be prescribed as the sole imaging technique to detect proximal caries. Conclusion: DR and CR techniques could be good imaging techniques for the detection of dental caries as a companion to clinical examinations

  17. Depth- and range-dependent variation in the performance of aquatic telemetry systems: understanding and predicting the susceptibility of acoustic tag–receiver pairs to close proximity detection interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Scherrer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Passive acoustic telemetry using coded transmitter tags and stationary receivers is a popular method for tracking movements of aquatic animals. Understanding the performance of these systems is important in array design and in analysis. Close proximity detection interference (CPDI is a condition where receivers fail to reliably detect tag transmissions. CPDI generally occurs when the tag and receiver are near one another in acoustically reverberant settings. Here we confirm transmission multipaths reflected off the environment arriving at a receiver with sufficient delay relative to the direct signal cause CPDI. We propose a ray-propagation based model to estimate the arrival of energy via multipaths to predict CPDI occurrence, and we show how deeper deployments are particularly susceptible. Methods A series of experiments were designed to develop and validate our model. Deep (300 m and shallow (25 m ranging experiments were conducted using Vemco V13 acoustic tags and VR2-W receivers. Probabilistic modeling of hourly detections was used to estimate the average distance a tag could be detected. A mechanistic model for predicting the arrival time of multipaths was developed using parameters from these experiments to calculate the direct and multipath path lengths. This model was retroactively applied to the previous ranging experiments to validate CPDI observations. Two additional experiments were designed to validate predictions of CPDI with respect to combinations of deployment depth and distance. Playback of recorded tags in a tank environment was used to confirm multipaths arriving after the receiver’s blanking interval cause CPDI effects. Results Analysis of empirical data estimated the average maximum detection radius (AMDR, the farthest distance at which 95% of tag transmissions went undetected by receivers, was between 840 and 846 m for the deep ranging experiment across all factor permutations. From these results, CPDI was

  18. The detection accuracies for proximal caries by cone-beam computerized tomography, film, and phosphor plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-ling; Qu, Xing-min; Li, Gang; Zhang, Zu-yan; Ma, Xu-chen

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) for the detection of noncavitated proximal caries and to compare the detection accuracies of 2 CBCT imaging systems with those based on plain-film radiographs and phosphor-plate images. Test radiographs of 39 noncavitated unrestored human permanent teeth were obtained with film, phosphor-plate, ProMax 3D, and Kodak 9000 3D imaging systems. Seven observers used a 5-level scale to evaluate test images for the presence of proximal caries. With histologic examination serving as the reference standard, observer performances were assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and the areas under the ROC curves (A(z) values) for the observers, and modalities were analyzed with a repeated-measures analysis of variance. The mean A(z) values for film, phosphor plates, ProMax 3D, and Kodak 9000 3D imaging systems were 0.541, 0.523, 0.528, and 0.525, respectively (P = .763). For detecting subtle noncavitated proximal caries, the detection accuracy with the CBCT images was little better than chance performance and was similar to that with phosphor plate- and film-based intraoral images. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.

    1989-04-01

    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  20. The influence of display modalities on proximal caries detection and treatment decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Véra L S A; Gonzaga, Amanda K G; Pontual, Andrea A; Bento, Patrícia M; Ramos-Perez, Flávia M M; Filgueira, Pedro T D; Melo, Daniela P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of digital radiographic display on caries detection and choice of treatment among undergraduate students. Forty images of extracted human teeth were acquired using a PSP digital system. The proximal surfaces were evaluated for the presence of proximal caries and choice of treatment by 36 undergraduate students, divided into three groups according to the semester they were taking. The images were evaluated in two forms of image display: laptop, and printed on acetate viewed on a lightbox. The accuracy of the different forms of image display on caries detection was evaluated by means of ROC curve analysis and its effect by mixed linear regression. Residue analysis was used to verify the adequacy of the treatment of choice for the chosen diagnosis. There was no significant effect either for the display modalities (p=0.058) or for the different undergraduate student groups (p=0.991). The Az was 0.539 for printed images and 0.516 for laptop. The decisions based on treatment of choice were consistent with the scores achieved for caries detection. Accuracy of caries detection using a laptop was comparable to accuracy using printed images. Treatment decision was not affected by image display modality. The semester of the dentistry course that undergraduate students were taking did not significantly increase the accuracy of their proximal caries detection.

  1. Proximal surface caries detection with direct-exposure and rare earth screen/film imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundeen, R.C.; McDavid, W.D.; Barnwell, G.M.

    1988-12-01

    This laboratory study compared five imaging systems for their diagnostic accuracy in detection of proximal surface dental caries. Ten viewers provided data on radiographic detectability of carious lesions. The diagnostic accuracy of each system was determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves by comparing viewer data with the true state of the teeth as determined microscopically. D-speed film marginally outperformed the other four systems, but the three screen/film systems matched the diagnostic accuracy of E-speed film. Radiation reductions between 62% and 92% were achieved with the screen/film systems when compared to the two conventional dental films. The feasibility of designing a screen/film bite-wing cassette was shown, but the poor diagnostic accuracy of the present bite-wing system indicated a need for a new technology in caries detection.

  2. Comparison of proximal caries detection in primary teeth between laser fluorescence and bitewing radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virajsilp, V; Thearmontree, A; Aryatawong, S; Paiboonwarachat, D

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this in vitro study were to: (1) compare the accuracy of a laser fluorescence system (DIAGNOdent) in proximal caries diagnosis in primary teeth with that of bitewing radiography, using the histological examination as a gold standard; and (2) evaluate the reliability of the DIAGNOdent examination. Included were 107 extracted primary molars without obvious cavities on proximal surfaces. The teeth were examined by 2 examiners using DIAGNOdent directly on the lesions (without contact; ie, proximal surfaces were not in contact with other teeth) and indirectly (with contact; ie, proximal surfaces were in contact with adjacent teeth). To simulate contacting teeth, the studied surface was set adjacent to a sound surface in a wax base. The contacting teeth were also diagnosed using bitewing radiography. Results of the diagnoses were compared with a histological gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each diagnostic system. Inter- and intraexaminer reliabilities of DIAGNOdent were calculated using intraclass correlation (ICC). At the dentine caries (D3) level, the sensitivities of bitewing radiography (with contacting teeth) and DIAGNOdent with and without contacting teeth (direct application) were 0.41, 0.85 and 0.93, respectively, and the specificities were 1, 0.89, and 0.87, respectively. Both inter- and intraexaminer reliabilities using DIAGNOdent with and without contacting teeth (direct application) were very high (ICC=0.97 to 0.99). The reliability of DIAGNOdent is very high and its diagnostic validity (sum of sensitivity and specificity) is higher than that of bitewing radiography for proximal caries detection in primary teeth.

  3. A pilot study of a modified radiographic technique for detecting early proximal cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, M; Zarch, H H; Movagharipour, F; Ahrari, F

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosing the necessity of cavity preparation in demineralized proximal areas has been considered as a challenge in restorative treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of a modified radiographic technique for the detection of proximal cavities. The sample consisted of 44 proximal surfaces in 38 dental students. The patients had radiolucent proximal lesions restricted to the inner half of enamel or the outer third of dentine in bitewing radiographs, and there was doubt regarding the presence or absence of cavities in the approximal areas. The suspected surfaces were then examined by secondary bitewing radiographs which were taken after pressing radiopaque material into the proximal areas. Finally, orthodontic elastic separators were placed in the contact areas to provide enough space for direct visual and tactile examination, thus detecting any proximal cavity (reference standard). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the modified bitewing radiography were calculated against the reference standard. Overall, 7 surfaces presented caries cavities according to the reference standard. All proximal radiolucencies observed in the inner half of enamel and 46% of those extended to the outer third of dentine were not cavitated when evaluated by direct visual and tactile examination. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of bitewing radiography with opaque material for detecting proximal cavities (n = 7) were 86, 100 and 98%, respectively. The tested radiographic technique displayed good validity in this pilot study for detecting proximal cavities in posterior teeth and should be further investigated. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The Proximity Cryogenic System for the ATLAS Toroidal Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Baynham, D Elwyn; Brown, G; Cragg, D; Crook, M; Haug, F; Mayri, C; Orlowska, A H; Passardi, Giorgio; Pengo, R; ten Kate, H H J; Rochford, J; Sole, D

    2002-01-01

    ATLAS is a very high-energy detector for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The superconducting magnet used to provide the required magnetic field consists of four sub-systems: a central solenoid and a very large toroidal magnet comprising two end-cap magnets and the barrel toroid magnet. The associated cryogenic system, currently in the final specification and procurement phase has been sub-divided into three parts: internal, proximity and external. The internal cryogenics minimizes and extracts the heat loads to/from the 4.5 K cold mass and its thermal shields, while the proximity cryogenics takes the cooling capacity generated by the external common system and distributes it to the four magnets according to the various operating scenarios. Two independent proximity cryogenic systems have been designed taking into account the difference in cooling principle of the solenoid and the three toroids, respectively.

  5. The proximity cryogenic system for the ATLAS toroidal magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, F.; Passardi, G.; Pengo, R.; ten Kate, H.; Baynham, E.; Bradshaw, T.; Brown, G.; Cragg, D.; Crook, M.; Orlowska, A. H.; Rochford, J.; Sole, D.; Mayri, C.

    2002-05-01

    ATLAS is a very high-energy detector for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The superconducting magnet used to provide the required magnetic field consists of four sub-systems: a central solenoid and a very large toroidal magnet comprising two end-cap magnets and the barrel toroid magnet. The associated cryogenic system, currently in the final specification and procurement phase has been sub-divided into three parts: internal, proximity and external. The internal cryogenics minimizes and extracts the heat loads to/from the 4.5 K cold mass and its thermal shields, while the proximity cryogenics takes the cooling capacity generated by the external common system and distributes it to the four magnets according to the various operating scenarios. Two independent proximity cryogenic systems have been designed taking into account the difference in cooling principle of the solenoid and the three toroids, respectively.

  6. Assessing the Performance of the Laser Fluorescence Technique in Detecting Proximal Caries Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Akbari

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosing the necessity of cavity preparation and restoration in demineralized proximal areas is always considered as a challenge in restorative treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of the laser fluorescence (LF technique in detection of proximal cavities.Materials & Methods: In this clinical trial, 44 proximal surfaces in 38 dental students were evaluated. The selected patients had radiolucent proximal lesions restricted to inner half of enamel or outer third of dentine in bitewing radiographs (BW. DIAGNOdent pen (LF pen device was used to determine the presence or absence of caries cavities in suspected proximal surfaces. Orthodontic elastic separators were then placed in the contact areas to provide enough space for direct visual and tactile examination. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the laser fluorescence technique were calculated versus the reference standard. The ROC curve was drawn and the best cut-off to determine the presence or absence of proximal cavities was determined.Results: Using DIAGNOdent pen, the optimal cut-off for detecting proximal cavities was 18. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of DIAGNOdent pen for diagnosing proximal caries cavities were 100 per cent, 97.3 per cent and 97.7 per cent, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the high diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent pen in detecting proximal caries cavities, it can be used as a valuable supplement in restorative treatment planning.

  7. Detection of in vitro proximal caries in storage phosphor plate radiographs scanned with different resolutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, G.; Berkhout, W.E.R.; Sanderink, G.C.H.; Martins, M.; van der Stelt, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of the scanning resolution of storage phosphor plate (SPP) radiographs on the detection of proximal caries lesions. Methods: 10 dentists evaluated 72 proximal surfaces of premolars with respect to caries from SPP radiographs scanned with theoretical spatial

  8. Comparison of diagnostic ability of storage phosphor plate in detecting proximal caries with direct measurement by stereomicroscope: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velayudhannair Vivek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiography plays an important role in detection of interproximal caries. The aim of study is to compare diagnostic ability of photo stimulable phosphor (PSP with direct measurement using stereomicroscope in detecting proximal caries. Hundred proximal surfaces of 50 extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed with dental X-ray unit. The image receptors used was storage phosphor plate Vista scan (size 2, (time of exposure 0.4 s. Radiographs were interpreted and caries lesions were classified on a 4-point scale suggested by Abesi et al. The teeth were sectioned with diamond disc and were examined under a stereomicroscope with 20x magnification. Diagnostic accuracy of digital image is similar to that observed with stereomicroscope. The PSP plate digital X ray system can effectively be employed for detecting proximal caries as compared to direct observation by stereomicroscope. Further study with more number of observer/evaluator and large sample size is recommended.

  9. Comparison of Diagnostic Ability of Storage Phosphor Plate in Detecting Proximal Caries with Direct Measurement by Stereomicroscope: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Velayudhannair; Thomas, Sunila; Nair, Bindu J; Vineet, Alex Daniel; Thomas, Jincy; Ranimol, Prasanna; Vijayan, Aswathy K

    2015-09-28

    Radiography plays an important role in detection of interproximal caries. The aim of study is to compare diagnostic ability of photo stimulable phosphor (PSP) with direct measurement using stereomicroscope in detecting proximal caries. Hundred proximal surfaces of 50 extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed with dental X-ray unit. The image receptors used was storage phosphor plate Vista scan (size 2), (time of exposure 0.4 s). Radiographs were interpreted and caries lesions were classified on a 4-point scale suggested by Abesi et al. The teeth were sectioned with diamond disc and were examined under a stereomicroscope with 20x magnification. Diagnostic accuracy of digital image is similar to that observed with stereomicroscope. The PSP plate digital X ray system can effectively be employed for detecting proximal caries as compared to direct observation by stereomicro-scope. Further study with more number of observer/evaluator and large sample size is recommended.

  10. The reliability and accuracy of two methods for proximal caries detection and depth on directly visible proximal surfaces: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, K R; Luna, L E; Promisiero, L; Cortes, A; Cuevas, S; Reyes, J F; Torres, C E; Martignon, S

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the reliability and accuracy of the ICDAS and radiographs in detecting and estimating the depth of proximal lesions on extracted teeth. The lesions were visible to the naked eye. Three trained examiners scored a total of 132 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 106 primary teeth and 160 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 140 permanent teeth. The selected surfaces were first scored visually, using the 7 classes in the ICDAS. They were then assessed on radiographs using a 5-point classification system. Reexaminations were conducted with both scoring systems. Teeth were then sectioned and the selected surfaces histologically classified using a stereomicroscope (×5). Intrareproducibility values (weighted kappa statistics) for the ICDAS for both primary and permanent teeth were >0.9, and for the radiographs between 0.6 and 0.8. Interreproducibility values for the ICDAS were >0.85, for the radiographs >0.6. For both primary and permanent teeth, the accuracy of each examiner (Spearman's correlation coefficient) for the ICDAS was ≥0.85, and for the radiographs ≥0.45. Corresponding data were achieved when using pooled data from the 3 examiners for both the ICDAS and the radiographs. The associations between the 2 detection methods were measured to be moderate. In particular, the ICDAS was accurate in predicting lesion depth (histologically) confined to the enamel/outer third of the dentine versus deeper lesions. This study shows that when proximal lesions are open for inspection, the ICDAS is a more reliable and accurate method than the radiograph for detecting and estimating the depth of the lesion in both primary and permanent teeth. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Comparison of Proximal Caries Detection in Primary Teeth between Laser Fluorescence and Bitewing Radiography: An in vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepparambath, Ratheesh; S Bhat, Sham; K Hegde, Sundeep; Anjana, G; Sunil, M; Mathew, Sherryl

    2014-01-01

    Proximal caries detection is of great importance because of the rapid rate of caries progression and the difficulty in determining the absence or presence of a lesion in primary dentition. Although, various methods for caries diagnosis offer good diagnostic performances, they provide varying sensitivities for detecting proximal carious lesions. The objective of this study was to compare, in vivo, the accuracy of DIAGNOdent and bitewing radiography at detecting proximal caries in primary teeth. One Hundred and one primary maxillary and mandibular molars without obvious cavities of children between the age group of 3 and 10 years were included. The teeth were first subjected to DIAGNOdent examination followed by bitewing radiography. The specificity and sensitivity of the systems were calculated. At the dentin caries (D3) level, the sensitivity of DIAGNOdent and bitewing radiography was 78.5%; at the enamel caries (D1 and D2) level it was 39.12% and for the sound teeth (D0) it was found to be 76.52%. A strong association was observed between the DIAGNOdent and the bitewing radiograph (p proximal caries in primary teeth. But when seen at the each caries level, the DIAGNOdent is more accurate at the D0 and D3 threshold. How to cite this article: Mepparambath R, Bhat SS, Hegde SK, Anjana G, Sunil M, Mathew S. Comparison of Proximal Caries Detection in Primary Teeth between Laser Fluorescence and Bitewing Radiography: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):163-167.

  12. Efficient Proximity Detection among Mobile Users via SelfTuning Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Hou U, Leong; Saltenis, Simonas

    2010-01-01

    Given a set of users, their friend relationships, and a distance threshold per friend pair, the proximity detection problem is to find each pair of friends such that the Euclidean distance between them is within the given threshold. This problem plays an essential role in friend-locator applicati......Given a set of users, their friend relationships, and a distance threshold per friend pair, the proximity detection problem is to find each pair of friends such that the Euclidean distance between them is within the given threshold. This problem plays an essential role in friend......-locator applications and massively multiplayer online games. Existing proximity detection solutions either incur substantial location update costs or their performance does not scale well to a large number of users. Motivated by this, we present a centralized proximity detection solution that assigns each mobile...

  13. Validity of digital imaging of fiber-optic transillumination in caries detection on proximal tooth surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Laitala, M.-L. (Marja-Liisa); Piipari, L. (Liina); Sämpi, N. (Noora); Korhonen, M. (Maria); Pesonen, P. (Paula); Joensuu, T. (Tiina); Anttonen, V. (Vuokko)

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate the validity of the digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI) method in comparison with clinical visual examination (CV) and bitewing (BW) radiography on detecting caries lesions on proximal surfaces of teeth. Materials and Methods Proximal tooth surfaces of premolars and molars (n = 2,103) of 91 voluntary university students aged from 18 to 30 years were examined with CV, BW radiography, and the DIFOTI method. Results DIFOTI detecte...

  14. Effect of Zooming, Colorization, and Contrast Conversion on Proximal Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Valizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Different enhancements have been used to improve the diagnostic accuracy of radiographic images in digital systems. However, the diagnostic accuracy of the effects of these enhancement options on dental caries has not been determined. Objectives This study evaluated the effects of software enhancements of zooming, colorization, and contrast conversion on the accuracy of proximal caries detection. Materials and Methods In this diagnostic in vitro trial study, 42 non-cavitated and restoration-free extracted permanent molars and premolars were selected and mounted onto 14 blocks in contact with each other. Radiographic images were obtained from the teeth in similar standardized condition using the paralleling technique. The images were shown without any enhancement or with using the options of zooming, colorization, and contrast conversion. Depth of proximal caries was determined by a radiologist using four-scaled criteria. The diagnostic accuracy of digital images that had undergone different enhancements was calculated by the chi-square test. Results The diagnostic odds of the original digital images were lower than 20 (5.7. By using the enhancement options of zooming, colorization, and contrast conversion, the diagnostic odds of the enamel proximal caries had a score of less than 20. The score was higher than 20 for proximal caries located in the outer and inner half of the dentin. Conclusions The enhancement options of zooming, colorization, and contrast conversion did not significantly influence the diagnostic accuracy of digital images in enamel caries, but they enhanced caries diagnosis/progression in the outer and inner half of the dentin.

  15. Affordable dual-sensing proximity sensor for touchless interactive systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2016-09-13

    We report an ultra-low cost flexible proximity sensor using only off-the-shelf recyclable materials such as aluminum foil, napkin and double-sided tape. Unlike previous reports, our device structure exhibits two sensing capabilities in one platform, with outstanding long detection range of 20 cm and pressure sensitivity of 0.05 kPa. This is the first ever demonstration of a low-cost, accessible, and batch manufacturing process for pressure and proximity sensing on a singular platform. The mechanical flexibility of the sensor makes it possible to mount on various irregular platforms, which is vital in many areas, such as robotics, machine automation, vehicular technology and inspection tools.

  16. Film tomography compared with film and digital bitewing radiography for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, I; Toraman Alkurt, M; Altunkaynak, B

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of conventional tomography for proximal caries detection compared with conventional bitewing and digital intraoral radiography. In this study, 48 extracted human posterior permanent teeth were used. Conventional bitewing radiographs, digital intraoral radiographs and conventional tomograms were obtained of the teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored according to a five-point scale by two oral and maxillofacial radiologists. True caries depth was determined by histological examination. The diagnostic accuracy of each radiographic system was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The mean of areas under the ROC curve (A(z)) was analysed by pairwise comparison of ROC curve. The interobserver agreement was evaluated using a t-test. The statistical analysis of A(z) scores has shown no significant difference for three imaging modalities (P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between interobserver agreement (P>0.05). This study has demonstrated that the diagnostic accuracy of conventional tomograms is comparable to that of conventional bitewing and digital intraoral radiographs for proximal caries detection.

  17. Superconducting proximity effect for in situ and model layered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnemore, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    The primary drawback for in situ composites is that the ac losses are higher than for mechanically produced multifilamentary wire. To develop an understanding of the proximity effect so that analytical expressions will be available for design, a model system is developed based on PbCd. Items discussed include boundary conditions at SN interface, phonon spectral function, supercurrents through normal barriers, flux entry fields, and implications for in situ composites. (GHT)

  18. A comparison of conventional intraoral radiography and computer imaging techniques for the detection of proximal surface calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    The present results indicates that the sensitivity for the proximal calculus was high, but there are different sensitivities among the observer. More study should be done to determine that digitized image can be clinical applicable to detecting the proximal calculus.

  19. Detection method of proximal caries using line profile in digital intra-oral radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kim, Gyu Tae; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Min Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Hoon [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how to detect proximal caries using line profile and validate linear measurements of proximal caries lesions by basic digital manipulation of radiographic images. The X-ray images of control group (15) and caries teeth (15) from patients were used. For each image, the line profile at the proximal caries-susceptible zone was calculated. To evaluate the contrast as a function of line profile to detect proximal caries, a difference coefficient (D) that indicates the relative difference between caries and sound dentin or intact enamel was measured. Mean values of D were 0.0354 {+-} 0.0155 in non-caries and 0.2632 {+-} 0.0982 in caries (p<0.001). The mean values of caries group were higher than non-caries group and there was correlation between proximal dental caries and D. It is demonstrated that the mean value of D from caries group was higher than that of control group. From the result, values of D possess great potentiality as a new detection parameter for proximal dental caries.

  20. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Hyun Seok; Hong, Kyung Won; Oh, Berm Seok; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 {mu}m and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm{sup 2}. The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  1. A Study on the Diagnostic Detection Ability of the Artificial Proximal Caries by Digora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyung Ran; Choi, Eui Hwan; Kim, Jae Duck [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-15

    Digora system is an intraoral indirect digital radiography system utilizing storage phosphor image plate. It has wide dynamic range which allows it to decrease the patient's exposure time and may increase diagnostic ability through image processing (such as edge enhancement, grey scale conversion, brightness change, and contrast enhancement). And also, it can transmit and storage image information. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries between Conventional radiograph and Digora images (unenhanced image, brightness and contrast controlled image, and edge enhanced image). ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis, paired t-tests, and F-tests were done for the statistical evaluation of detectability. The following results were acquired: 1. In Grade I lesions, the mean ROC areas of Conventional radiograph, Digora unenhanced image, Digora controlled image, and Digora edge enhanced image were 0.953, 0.933, 0.965, 0.978 (p>0.05). 2. In Grade II lesions, the mean ROC areas of Conventional radiograph, Digora unenhanced image, Digora controlled image, and Digora edge enhanced image were 0.969, 0.964, 0.988, 0.994. Among theses areas, there was just statistical significance between Diagnostic abilities of Digora edge enhanced image and Conventional radiograph (p<0.05). 3. In the Interobserver variability, the ROC curve areas of Digora edge enhanced image was lowerest in these areas, regardless of the Carious lesion depths. In conclusion, intraoral indirect digital system, Digora system, has the potential possibility as an alternative of Conventional radiograph in the diagnosis of proximal caries.

  2. Clusters of suicides and suicide attempts: detection, proximity and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, L S; Pirkis, J; Milner, A; Spittal, M J

    2017-10-01

    A suicide cluster is defined as a higher number of observed cases occurring in space and/or time than would typically be expected. Previous research has largely focused on identifying clusters of suicides, while there has been comparatively limited research on clusters of suicide attempts. We sought to identify clusters of both types of behaviour, and having done that, identify the factors that distinguish suicide attempts inside a cluster from those that were outside a cluster. We used data from Western Australia from 2000 to 2011. We defined suicide attempts as admissions to hospital for deliberate self-harm and suicides as deaths due to deliberate self-harm. Using an analytic strategy that accounted for the repetition of attempted suicide within a cluster, we performed spatial-temporal analysis using Poisson discrete scan statistics to detect clusters of suicide attempts and clusters of suicides. Logistic regression was then used to compare clustered attempts with non-clustered attempts to identify risk factors for an attempt being in a cluster. We detected 350 (1%) suicide attempts occurring within seven spatial-temporal clusters and 12 (0.6%) suicides occurring within two spatial-temporal clusters. Both of the suicide clusters were located within a larger but later suicide attempt cluster. In multivariate analysis, suicide attempts by individuals who lived in areas of low socioeconomic status had higher odds of being in a cluster than those living in areas of high socioeconomic status [odds ratio (OR) = 29.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.3-135.5]. A one percentage-point increase in the proportion of people who had changed address in the last year was associated with a 60% increase in the odds of the attempt being within a cluster (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.29-1.98) and a one percentage-point increase in the proportion of Indigenous people in the area was associated with a 7% increase in the suicide being within a cluster (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.00-1.13). Age

  3. Near infrared transillumination compared with radiography to detect and monitor proximal caries: A clinical retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Marwa; Krejci, Ivo; Perneger, Thomas; Feilzer, Albert; Vazquez, Lydia

    2018-03-01

    To compare near infrared transillumination device, DIAGNOcam (DC) and bitewing radiography (BW) for the detection of proximal caries. This retrospective analysis of DC and BW images of 18 students in dental medicine who had consented to the anonymous use of their dental record. The data included BW and DC images performed for a check-up in 2013, and corresponding follow-up images performed in 2015. Two observers rated 376 proximal surfaces on a 4-level dentin lesion scale and reached a unanimous rating for each surface. Calculated measures of agreement for each assessment method over time provided the reproducibility of the information obtained by each method. Agreement between 2013 and 2015 within each method was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient, BW: 0.86, DC: 0.90). Agreement between DC and BW was similar for dentin lesion detection, but was low for enamel caries detection; DC detected more enamel caries than BW. Agreement between DC and BW was modest (0.33 in 2013 and 0.36 in 2015), chiefly because DC identified more enamel caries. This study shows that DC is as reliable as BW to detect proximal dentin lesions. DC detects proximal enamel lesions at an earlier stage than BW. DC enables clinicians to differentiate lesions limited to the enamel from lesions that have reached the enamel dentin junction. Regular monitoring with DC should help provide individualized preventive measures and early non-invasive caries management. The early detection of enamel lesions with near infrared transillumination can help clinicians undertake early non invasive treatments to prevent or slow down the progression of initial proximal lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of in vitro proximal caries in storage phosphor plate radiographs scanned with different resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Berkhout, W E R; Sanderink, G C H; Martins, M; van der Stelt, P F

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the effect of the scanning resolution of storage phosphor plate (SPP) radiographs on the detection of proximal caries lesions. 10 dentists evaluated 72 proximal surfaces of premolars with respect to caries from SPP radiographs scanned with theoretical spatial resolutions of: (1) the Digora FMX at 7.8 lp mm(-1); (2) the Digora Optime at both 7.8 lp mm(-1) and 12.5 lp mm(-1); and (3) the Dürr VistaScan at 10 lp mm(-1) and 20 lp mm(-1), respectively. The lesions were validated by histological examination. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed. The A(z) value for the radiographs scanned with the Dürr VistaScan at 10 lp mm(-1) is significantly lower than those for the other series of radiographs (P = 0.000). For SPP radiographs, an increased theoretical spatial resolution per se is not related to an improved detection of proximal caries.

  5. The influence of interdental spacing on the detection of proximal caries lesions in primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Fernandes Novaes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of interdental spacing on the performance of proximal caries detection methods in primary molars. In addition, aspects related to temporary tooth separation with orthodontic separators were evaluated. The proximal spaces between the posterior primary teeth (n = 344 of 76 children (4-12 years old were evaluated before and after temporary separation. Stainless steel strips with different standardized thicknesses were used to measure the presence of biological spacing and the spacing obtained after temporary separation with orthodontic rubber rings. First, the presence of proximal caries lesions was assessed by visual inspection, bitewing radiographs and a pen-type laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent pen. Visual inspection after temporary separation with separators was the reference standard method in checking the actual presence of caries. Multilevel analyses were performed considering different outcomes: the performance of the methods in detecting caries lesions and the spacing after temporary separation. The spacing did not influence the performance of the caries detection methods. The maximum spacing obtained with temporary tooth separation was 0.80 mm (mean ± standard deviation = 0.46 ± 0.13 mm. The temporary separation was more effective in the upper arch and less effective when an initial biological interdental spacing was present. The biological interdental spacing does not influence the performance of proximal caries detection methods in primary molars, and temporary tooth separation provides spacing narrower than 1.0 mm.

  6. The influence of interdental spacing on the detection of proximal caries lesions in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Tatiane Fernandes; Matos, Ronilza; Celiberti, Paula; Braga, Mariana Minatel; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of interdental spacing on the performance of proximal caries detection methods in primary molars. In addition, aspects related to temporary tooth separation with orthodontic separators were evaluated. The proximal spaces between the posterior primary teeth (n = 344) of 76 children (4-12 years old) were evaluated before and after temporary separation. Stainless steel strips with different standardized thicknesses were used to measure the presence of biological spacing and the spacing obtained after temporary separation with orthodontic rubber rings. First, the presence of proximal caries lesions was assessed by visual inspection, bitewing radiographs and a pen-type laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent pen). Visual inspection after temporary separation with separators was the reference standard method in checking the actual presence of caries. Multilevel analyses were performed considering different outcomes: the performance of the methods in detecting caries lesions and the spacing after temporary separation. The spacing did not influence the performance of the caries detection methods. The maximum spacing obtained with temporary tooth separation was 0.80 mm (mean ± standard deviation = 0.46 ± 0.13 mm). The temporary separation was more effective in the upper arch and less effective when an initial biological interdental spacing was present. The biological interdental spacing does not influence the performance of proximal caries detection methods in primary molars, and temporary tooth separation provides spacing narrower than 1.0 mm.

  7. Radiographic assessment of proximal caries: A comparison between film-based and dexis digital imaging systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama N Kalappanavar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared Kodak Ektaspeed film and Dexis digital imaging systems for their diagnostic accuracy in detection of proximal canes in 210 proximal surfaces from 105 extracted human teeth (20 premolars and 85 molars, 129 of which were carious. Ground teeth were evaluated histologically. The images were assessed by an observer. ANOVA revealed that groups differ in scoring patterns with f-value of 26.72 and p < 0.01. The mean caries score by histologic assessment was significantly (p < 0.01 more when compared with the scores obtained by conventional and Dexis digital radiographic methods. The mean score for conventional radiographic method was slightly more than Dexis digital radiographic method, but the difference was statistically insignificant (p < 0.05. Both the radiographic methods were less accurate in detecting proximal canes confined to enamel, but as the lesion depth was increased to dentin, the rate of caries detection increased dramatically. It was concluded that both conventional and Dexis digital radiographic methods under estimated canes depth when compared with histologic method. Lastly, conventional film radiographs and Dexis digital radiographs did not perform significantly different from each other in the detection of canes.

  8. Characterization and application studies of ProxyPhos, a chemosensor for the detection of proximally phosphorylated peptides and proteins in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraskouskaya, D; Cabral, A D; Fong, R; Bancerz, M; Toutah, K; Rosa, D; Gardiner, J E; de Araujo, E D; Duodu, E; Armstrong, D; Fekl, U; Gunning, P T

    2017-06-26

    Proximal phosphorylation on proteins appears to have functional significance and has been associated with several diseases, including Alzheimer's and cancer. While much remains to be learned about the role of proximal phosphorylation in biological systems, no simple and/or affordable technique is available for its detection. To this end, we have previously developed a ProxyPhos chemosensor, which detects proximally phosphorylated peptides and proteins over mono- and non-phosphorylated motifs in aqueous solutions. In this follow-up work, we performed extensive characterization of peptide and protein ProxyPhos assay conditions to achieve enhanced detection, and further explored the selectivity of ProxyPhos, and its potential off-targets. As a result of characterization studies, selective sensing of proximally phosphorylated over mono-phosphorylated peptides and proteins was achieved. Moreover, studies demonstrated that ProxyPhos was compatible with the detection of all commonly phosphorylated residues (i.e. tyrosine, serine and threonine residues). Under optimized conditions, ProxyPhos efficiently discriminated between peptides derived from the activated (proximally phosphorylated, disease-relevant) and inactive (mono-phosphorylated) forms of JAK2, SYK and MAPK1 kinases. In addition, ProxyPhos can be used to probe phosphatase activity on peptides and proteins via detecting changes in proximal phosphorylation, demonstrating immediate utility of this chemosensing system.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of different imaging modalities in detection of proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, B; Kamburoglu, K; Uçok, O; Yüksel, S P; Ozen, T; Avsever, H

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro diagnostic ability of visual inspection, film, charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor, photostimulable phosphor (PSP) sensor and cone beam CT in the detection of proximal caries in posterior teeth compared with the histological gold standard. Visual inspection, film, CCD, PSP and cone beam CT images were used to detect proximal caries in the mesial and distal surfaces of 138 teeth (276 surfaces). Visual inspection and evaluation of all intraoral digital and conventional radiographs and cone beam CT images were performed twice by three oral radiologists. Weighted kappa coefficients were calculated to assess intra- and interobserver agreement for each image set, and scores were compared with the histological gold standard using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate diagnostic ability. Intraobserver kappa coefficients calculated for each observer for each method of detecting caries ranged from 0.739 to 0.928. Strong interobserver agreement ranging from 0.631 to 0.811 was found for all detection methods. The highest Az values for all three observers were obtained with the cone beam CT images; however, differences between detection methods were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Visual inspection, film, CCD, PSP plates and cone beam CT performed similarly in the detection of proximal caries.

  10. Combination probes with intercalating anchors and proximal fluorophores for DNA and RNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jieqiong; Wilson, Adam; El-Sagheer, Afaf H; Brown, Tom

    2016-09-30

    A new class of modified oligonucleotides (combination probes) has been designed and synthesised for use in genetic analysis and RNA detection. Their chemical structure combines an intercalating anchor with a reporter fluorophore on the same thymine nucleobase. The intercalator (thiazole orange or benzothiazole orange) provides an anchor, which upon hybridisation of the probe to its target becomes fluorescent and simultaneously stabilizes the duplex. The anchor is able to communicate via FRET to a proximal reporter dye (e.g. ROX, HEX, ATTO647N, FAM) whose fluorescence signal can be monitored on a range of analytical devices. Direct excitation of the reporter dye provides an alternative signalling mechanism. In both signalling modes, fluorescence in the unhybridised probe is switched off by collisional quenching between adjacent intercalator and reporter dyes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA and RNA targets are identified by differences in the duplex melting temperature, and the use of short hybridization probes, made possible by the stabilisation provided by the intercalator, enhances mismatch discrimination. Unlike other fluorogenic probe systems, placing the fluorophore and quencher on the same nucleobase facilitates the design of short probes containing multiple modifications. The ability to detect both DNA and RNA sequences suggests applications in cellular imaging and diagnostics. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Accuracy of extraoral tuned aperture computed tomography (TACT) for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harase, Yuichi; Araki, Kazuyuki; Okano, Tomohiro

    2006-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the difference in the accuracy of proximal caries detection by extraoral tuned aperture computed tomography (TACT), intraoral TACT, and film radiographs. Eighty proximal surfaces of 40 extracted human maxillary teeth were used. A digital sensor was the image receptor for TACT. Film radiographs were acquired using Insight film. Nine basis images were acquired to reconstruct TACT slices. Seven observers scored the presence or absence of proximal caries using the 3 imaging modalities. The true presence of caries and its depth were determined using the sectional images obtained by micro CT. Among the image modalities and observers, possible differences in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). ANOVA indicated no statistically significant differences between observers (P = .845), modalities (P = .657), and observer-modality combinations (P = .593). Within the limited range of this study, extraoral TACT was not statistically different from intraoral TACT or film radiographs for proximal caries detection. This suggests that extraoral TACT may have some clinical utility for caries diagnosis and that further study may be warranted.

  12. Effect of tube potential and image receptor on the detection of natural proximal caries in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogur, Elif; Baksı, B Güniz; Orhan, Kaan; Paksoy, S Candan; Dogan, Salih; Erdal, Yılmaz S; Mert, Ali

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the detection of proximal caries in primary teeth at three different tube potentials using Ektaspeed films, storage phosphor plates (SPPs), and a charge-coupled device (CCD). Fifty-three extracted human primary molars with natural proximal caries were radiographed with three different imaging modalities--Digora Optime SPP system, RVGui CCD system, and Ektaspeed films--at 50-, 65-, and 70-kV tube potentials. Three observers scored the resultant images for the presence or absence of caries. The definitive diagnosis was determined by stereomicroscopic assessment. The diagnostic accuracy for each imaging modality was expressed as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (A(z)). Differences among the A(z) values were assessed using two-way ANOVA and t tests. Kappa was used to measure inter- and intra-observer agreement. Higher accuracy was found for SPPs compared to film and CCD images at all tube potentials. Accuracy was significantly different only at 50-kV tube setting in favor of SPPs (p proximal caries since further advantages include the elimination of chemical processing, image enhancement, and a better low-contrast detectability performance.

  13. In vitro comparison of four different dental X-ray films and direct digital radiography for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkurt, Meryem Torman; Peker, Ilkay; Bala, Oya; Altunkaynak, Bulent

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of different speeds of conventional intraoral films and a direct digital system for proximal caries detection. In this study, 48 extracted human posterior permanent teeth were used. Conventional bitewing radiographs and direct digital radiographs were obtained from the teeth. Three observers independently assessed 96 proximal surfaces, each observer had 10 years of experience. The presence or absence of caries was scored according to a five-point scale. True caries depth was determined by histological examination. The diagnostic accuracy of each radiographic system was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The mean of areas under the ROC curve (Az) was analyzed by pairwise comparison of ROC curve. The interobserver agreement was evaluated by using ANOVA analysis. The statistical analysis of Az scores exhibited no significant difference for the five imaging modalities (p > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between interobserver agreements (p > 0.05). The results of this study showed that the diagnostic performance of E- and F-speed films and direct digital radiography are similar for proximal caries detection.

  14. Videosensor for the Detection of Unsafe Driving Behavior in the Proximity of Black Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Andres; Fuentes, Ricardo; Cabello, Enrique; Conde, Cristina; Martin, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the overall design and implementation of a video sensor for the detection of risky behaviors of car drivers near previously identified and georeferenced black spots. The main goal is to provide the driver with a visual audio alert that informs of the proximity of an area of high incidence of highway accidents only if their driving behavior could result in a risky situation. It proposes a video sensor for detecting and supervising driver behavior, its main objective being manual distractions, so hand driver supervision is performed. A GPS signal is also considered, the GPS information is compared with a database of global positioning Black Spots to determine the relative proximity of a risky area. The outputs of the video sensor and GPS sensor are combined to evaluate a possible risky behavior. The results are promising in terms of risk analysis in order to be validated for use in the context of the automotive industry as future work. PMID:25347580

  15. Videosensor for the Detection of Unsafe Driving Behavior in the Proximity of Black Spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Fuentes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the overall design and implementation of a video sensor for the detection of risky behaviors of car drivers near previously identified and georeferenced black spots. The main goal is to provide the driver with a visual audio alert that informs of the proximity of an area of high incidence of highway accidents only if their driving behavior could result in a risky situation. It proposes a video sensor for detecting and supervising driver behavior, its main objective being manual distractions, so hand driver supervision is performed. A GPS signal is also considered, the GPS information is compared with a database of global positioning Black Spots to determine the relative proximity of a risky area. The outputs of the video sensor and GPS sensor are combined to evaluate a possible risky behavior. The results are promising in terms of risk analysis in order to be validated for use in the context of the automotive industry as future work.

  16. In vitro assessment of cone beam local computed tomography for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathingal, Sajitha M; Mol, André; Tyndall, Donald A; Caplan, Daniel J

    2007-11-01

    To compare the accuracy of local computed tomography (LCT) and conventional radiography for proximal caries detection and depth assessment. An in vitro model was used consisting of 20 extracted posterior teeth with 18 caries lesions. Local computed tomography slices were reconstructed in axial and parasagittal planes from 100 basis projections. Conventional radiographs were also acquired. Eight observers determined the presence and depth of caries lesions. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and weighted kappa statistics were used. Local computed tomography had a mean A(z) score of 0.82 (SD = 0.07) and conventional radiography of 0.79 (SD = 0.08; analysis of variance: P > .05). Interobserver agreement was moderate. The mean kappa for depth assessment was 0.68 (SD = 0.06) for LCT and 0.47 (SD = 0.08) for conventional radiography (analysis of variance: P proximal caries detection. Local computed tomography was more accurate for assessing caries lesion depth.

  17. Intraoral versus extraoral bitewing radiography in detection of enamel proximal caries: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Ela, Walaa Hussein; Farid, Mary Medhat; Mostafa, Mostafa Saad El-Din

    2016-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of digital intraoral and extraoral bitewing (EO BW) radiography in the detection of enamel proximal caries regardless of their ability to separate contacts. Artificial caries with different degrees of decalcification was induced in 80 human sound premolars and molars using formic acid. Intraoral radiographs were taken with photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), using the paralleling bitewing technique. Extraoral bitewing radiographs were obtained using Sirona digital panoramic X-ray unit (Sirona Siemens, Bensheim, Germany). In total, 160 proximal surfaces were assessed by 2 observers twice. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) values for each image type, observer and reading were compared using z-tests, with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value for each observer and reading were calculated. Spearman's test showed a strong positive correlation between the duration of demineralization and histological grading of carious teeth surfaces. For the three radiographic techniques, intraobserver reliability was strong to excellent. Moreover, interobserver agreement was strong. The differences between all detection methods were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Intraoral bitewing using CMOS sensor had the highest sensitivity while EO BW had the highest specificity in the detection of incipient proximal caries. Within the limits of the ex vivo design, the difference in diagnostic accuracy between the three radiographic techniques was not significant. EO BW could be used in the detection of enamel proximal caries with results comparable with intraoral bitewing with PSP plate and CMOS sensor.

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of Digitized Conventional Radiographs by Camera and Scanner in Detection of Proximal Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Solmaz Valizadeh; Mohammad Amin Tavakoli; Tara Zarabian; Farzad Esmaeili

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims Digital radiographs have some advantages over conventional ones. Application of digital recep-tors is not routine yet. Therefore, there is a need for digitizing conventional radiographs. The aim of the present study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of digitized conventional radiographs by scanner and camera in detection of proximal car-ies. Materials and methods Three hundred and sixteen surfaces of 158 extracted posterior teeth were radiographed. The radiographs wer...

  19. Validity of Digital Imaging of Fiber-Optic Transillumination in Caries Detection on Proximal Tooth Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitala, Marja-Liisa; Piipari, Liina; Sämpi, Noora; Korhonen, Maria; Pesonen, Paula; Joensuu, Tiina; Anttonen, Vuokko

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the validity of the digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI) method in comparison with clinical visual examination (CV) and bitewing (BW) radiography on detecting caries lesions on proximal surfaces of teeth. Proximal tooth surfaces of premolars and molars ( n = 2,103) of 91 voluntary university students aged from 18 to 30 years were examined with CV, BW radiography, and the DIFOTI method. DIFOTI detected more initial and manifested caries lesions compared with CV and BW. Of the analyzed tooth surfaces, 69.8% were classified as sound by DIFOTI, 80.3% by BW, and 91.6% by CV. Initial caries lesions were found in 21.2% of the surfaces by DIFOTI, in 14.1% by BW, and in 6.2% by CV, whereas the proportions for manifested dental caries lesions were 9.0%, 5.6%, and 2.2%, respectively. The interexaminer agreement regarding the DIFOTI findings between an experienced clinician and a fifth-year dental student was high: κ = 0.67 for initial and κ = 0.91 for manifested caries lesions. The noninvasive DIFOTI method seems to offer a potential tool for everyday clinical practice. In clinical use, DIFOTI finds well even initial caries lesions on proximal surfaces, thus providing an instrument for detecting lesions potential for arresting as well as for monitoring the outcome after preventive measures.

  20. Validity of Digital Imaging of Fiber-Optic Transillumination in Caries Detection on Proximal Tooth Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Laitala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of our study was to evaluate the validity of the digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI method in comparison with clinical visual examination (CV and bitewing (BW radiography on detecting caries lesions on proximal surfaces of teeth. Materials and Methods. Proximal tooth surfaces of premolars and molars (n=2,103 of 91 voluntary university students aged from 18 to 30 years were examined with CV, BW radiography, and the DIFOTI method. Results. DIFOTI detected more initial and manifested caries lesions compared with CV and BW. Of the analyzed tooth surfaces, 69.8% were classified as sound by DIFOTI, 80.3% by BW, and 91.6% by CV. Initial caries lesions were found in 21.2% of the surfaces by DIFOTI, in 14.1% by BW, and in 6.2% by CV, whereas the proportions for manifested dental caries lesions were 9.0%, 5.6%, and 2.2%, respectively. The interexaminer agreement regarding the DIFOTI findings between an experienced clinician and a fifth-year dental student was high: κ=0.67 for initial and κ=0.91 for manifested caries lesions. Conclusions. The noninvasive DIFOTI method seems to offer a potential tool for everyday clinical practice. In clinical use, DIFOTI finds well even initial caries lesions on proximal surfaces, thus providing an instrument for detecting lesions potential for arresting as well as for monitoring the outcome after preventive measures.

  1. Detection and treatment of proximal caries lesions: Milieu-specific cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Paris, Sebastian; Stolpe, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Dental caries lesions are highly prevalent, concentrated in high-risk groups, and often affect proximal tooth surfaces. Choosing a caries detection method determines the available treatment options: radiographically detected early lesion stages might receive non-, micro-, or invasive treatments, whilst visually tactile detected lesions are often advanced and mostly require invasive treatment. Thus, the choice of detection method impacts on patients via the applied treatment. We compared the cost-effectiveness of combinations of detections and treatments of proximal lesions in different populations which did or did not receive prevention during adolescence. These cost-effectiveness comparisons of different detection-treatment combinations should aid clinical decision making and improve resource allocation. A Markov-model was constructed to follow a proximal posterior surface in a 12-year-old German over his lifetime. Prevalence, validity and transition probabilities were extracted from the literature. Microsimulations were performed to evaluate costs (Euro) per tooth-retention-time (years). For populations with low risk, radiographic detection plus non-invasive treatment without (270 Euro, 61.5 years) and with prevention (312 Euro, 63.0 years), as well as radiographic detection plus micro-invasive treatment and prevention (373 Euro, 64.0 years) were cost-effective. For populations with high risk, radiographic detection plus micro-invasive treatment without (427 Euro, 58.5 years) and with prevention (436 Euro, 61.0 years) were cost-effective. Combinations involving invasive treatments had limited cost-effectiveness. Caries detection methods should be evaluated regarding the cost-effectiveness resulting from their use in different populations. Caries detection methods are usually evaluated regarding their validity compared to a gold standard. We demonstrate that the cost-effectiveness stemming from using different detection methods additionally depends on the

  2. Effect of data compression on proximal caries detection: observer performance with DenOptix photostimulable phosphor images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabla, T; Ludlow, J B; Tyndall, D A; Platin, E; Abreu, M

    2003-01-01

    To study the effect of lossy image compression on caries detection. Null hypothesis states no difference in caries detection efficacy among observers using original digital images versus images compressed at various rates of compression. Digital images of 41 extracted posterior teeth were obtained with a storage phosphor DenOptix (Gendex DenOptix Imaging system) system. Images were exported in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) and compressed with Joint Photographic Experts Group File Interchange Format (JFIF), as provided by the software of the imaging system. The compressions options JFIF100%, JFIF75% and JFIF50% resulted in reducing the image size to 1:2, 1:11 and 1:16, respectively. Eight observers evaluated the presence or absence of caries on a 5-point confidence scale. The actual caries status of each proximal surface was determined by ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under the curves (Az) were assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The mean Az scores were 0.85 for original/uncompressed images, and 0.89 for JFIF100%, 0.88 for JFIF75% and 0.88 for JFIF50% images. These differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.26). Differences between observers were also not statistically significant (P = 0.12). JFIF compression at the level of 1:16 can be used without significant deterioration in diagnostic accuracy for proximal caries detection.

  3. Comparison of Proximal Caries Detection in Primary Teeth between Laser Fluorescence and Bitewing Radiography: An in vivo Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mepparambath, Ratheesh; S Bhat, Sham; K Hegde, Sundeep; Anjana, G; Sunil, M; Mathew, Sherryl

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Background and objective: Proximal caries detection is of great importance because of the rapid rate of caries progression and the difficulty in determining the absence or presence of a lesion in primary dentition. Although, various methods for caries diagnosis offer good diagnostic performances, they provide varying sensitivities for detecting proximal carious lesions. The objective of this study was to compare, in vivo, the accuracy of DIAGNOdent and bitewing radiography at detect...

  4. TaqManR proximity ligation technology for the detection of heterodimeric adhesion receptors on lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehwolf, Renate; Band, Elisabeth; Trost, Andrea; Iglseder, Bernhard; Trinka, Eugen; Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Kraus, Jörg; Harrer, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    TaqMan(R) proximity ligation technology (TaqMan(R) PLA) is an innovative advancement of immuno PCR. It allows a fast and quantitative detection of vicinal proteins or protein-protein interactions from cell lysates by combining antibody-antigen binding with a real-time PCR detection. We tested if TaqMan(R) PLA also was applicable to investigate and relatively quantitate adhesion receptor heterodimers such as the alpha-4/beta-1 integrin on the surface of intact cells. Both, alpha-4, beta-1 and the alpha-4/beta-1 heterodimer were detected on the surface of lymphocytes by TaqMan(R) PLA. Results were specific, reproducible and comparable to flow cytometric data. However, preciseness of reactions varied dependent on the antibody pairs used. Co-detection of proximate identical subunits suggested clusters of alpha-4 and/or beta-1 on the cell surface which we confirmed by microscopy. We conclude that real-time PCR-based TaqMan(R) PLA is of limited applicability to investigate heterodimeric receptor molecules such as the alpha-4/beta-1 integrin. Determination of an abundance ratio of alpha-4/beta-1 in relation to total alpha-4 or beta-1 was not possible and real-time detection did not allow conclusions on the surface distribution of molecules. The related in situ PLA developed for microscopy allows visualizing proximate protein interactions and might be an interesting alternative for research into receptor heterodimers and their surface distribution on immune cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Portable modular detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, James S [Rodeo, CA; Singh, Anup [Danville, CA; Throckmorton, Daniel J [Tracy, CA; Stamps, James F [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  6. Intrusion detection system episteme

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel Mihályi; Valerie Novitzká; Martina Ľaľová

    2012-01-01

    .... We deal with a simplified model of an intrusion detection system. We model an intrusion detection system as a coalgebra and construct its Kripke model of coalgebraic modal linear logic using powerset endofunctor...

  7. A new scintillation proximity assay-based approach for the detection of KRAS mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So-Young; Lim, Jae-Cheong; Cho, Eun-Ha; Jung, Sung-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Radioisotope Research Div.

    2016-04-01

    KRAS is very commonly mutated resulting in a constitutively activated protein, which is independent of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand binding and resistant to anti-EGFR therapy. Although KRAS is frequently studied, there is still no uniform standard for detecting of KRAS mutations. In this report, a new scintillation proximity assay-based approach is described that determines the relative affinities of wild-type and mutated KRAS to the anti-KRAS antibody. We performed in vitro experiments using normal human colonic cells (CCD18Co), KRAS wild type (Caco-2) and KRAS mutant (HCT 116) cell lines to determine the relative affinities of wild type or mutated KRAS toward an anti-KRAS monoclonal antibody. The process consists of two primary steps: immunoprecipitation from cell lysate to enrich the KRAS protein and the scintillation proximity assay of the immunoprecipitant to determine the relative affinity against the antibody. A fixed concentration of cell lysates was purified by the immunoprecipitation method. The expressions of the KRAS protein in all cell lines was quantitatively confirmed by western blot analysis. For the scintillation proximity assay, the KRAS standard protein was radiolabeled with {sup 125}I by a simple mixing process in the iodogen tube immediately at room temperature immediately before use. The obtained CPM (count per minute) values of were used to calculate the KRAS concentration using purified KRAS as the standard. The calculated relative affinities of 7 μg of Caco-2 and HCT 116 immunoprecipitants for the anti-KRAS antibody were 77 and 0%, respectively. The newly developed scintillation proximity assay-based strategy determines the relative affinities of wild-type or mutated KRAS towards the anti-KRAS monoclonal antibody. This determination can help distinguish mutated KRAS from the wild type protein. The new SPA based approach for detecting KRAS mutations is applicable to many other cancer-related mutations.

  8. Sensitive detection of Aβ protofibrils by proximity ligation - relevance for Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsdottir Sigrun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein aggregation plays important roles in several neurodegenerative disorders. For instance, insoluble aggregates of phosphorylated tau and of Aβ peptides are cornerstones in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Soluble protein aggregates are therefore potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for their cognate disorders. Detection of the aggregated species requires sensitive tools that efficiently discriminate them from monomers of the same proteins. Here we have established a proximity ligation assay (PLA for specific and sensitive detection of Aβ protofibrils via simultaneous recognition of three identical determinants present in the aggregates. PLA is a versatile technology in which the requirement for multiple target recognitions is combined with the ability to translate signals from detected target molecules to amplifiable DNA strands, providing very high specificity and sensitivity. Results For specific detection of Aβ protofibrils we have used a monoclonal antibody, mAb158, selective for Aβ protofibrils in a modified PLA, where the same monoclonal antibody was used for the three classes of affinity reagents required in the assay. These reagents were used for detection of soluble Aβ aggregates in solid-phase reactions, allowing detection of just 0.1 pg/ml Aβ protofibrils, and with a dynamic range greater than six orders of magnitude. Compared to a sandwich ELISA setup of the same antibody the PLA increases the sensitivity of the Aβ protofibril detection by up to 25-fold. The assay was used to measure soluble Aβ aggregates in brain homogenates from mice transgenic for a human allele predisposing to Aβ aggregation. Conclusions The proximity ligation assay is a versatile analytical technology for proteins, which can provide highly sensitive and specific detection of Aβ aggregates - and by implication other protein aggregates of relevance in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  9. In Vitro Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of DIAGNOdent and Digital Radiography for Detection of Secondary Proximal Caries Adjacent to Composite Restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoncheh, Zahra; Zonouzy, Zahra; Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Kharazifar, Mohammad Javad; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Early detection of secondary proximal caries is critical for the preservation of tooth vitality. This study sought to assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent and digital radiography for detection of secondary proximal caries adjacent to composite restorations.

  10. Detection of serological biomarkers by proximity extension assay for detection of colorectal neoplasias in symptomatic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch Thorsen, Stine; Lundberg, Martin; Villablanca, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    of biomarkers from the bench to clinical practice we initiated a biomarker study focusing on a novel technique, the proximity extension assay, with multiplexing capability and the possible additive effect obtained from biomarker panels. We performed a screening of 74 different biomarkers in plasma derived from...... a case–control sample set consisting of symptomatic individuals representing CRC patients, patients with adenoma, patients with non-neoplastic large bowel diseases and healthy individuals. After statistical evaluation we found 12 significant indicators of CRC and the receiver operating characteristic...

  11. Minimally invasive percutaneous plating of proximal humeral shaft fractures with the Proximal Humerus Internal Locking System (PHILOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Alexander; Thormann, Sebastian; Babst, Reto

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated our results after minimally invasive percutaneous plating of proximal humeral shaft fractures with the Proximal Humerus Internal Locking System (PHILOS, Synthes, Switzerland). Between 2005 and 2008, 15 patients with unilateral displaced proximal humeral shaft fractures were treated and followed up over a median period of 27 months (range, 12-38 months). The final follow-up included anteroposterior and lateral x-rays, range of shoulder motion, pain by visual analog scale (VAS), the Constant-Murley shoulder score, the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Elbow (DASH) score, and the Short Form 36 (SF36) assessment. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. No secondary fracture displacement or radial neuropathy was observed postoperatively. One patient had open reduction and internal fixation for pseudoarthrosis 16 months after the initial surgery. At the final follow-up, the median range of motion of the operated shoulder was flexion, 145°; extension, 45°; internal rotation, 40°; external rotation, 70°; and abduction, 135°. Median results on outcome assessments were VAS pain score, 0 points; Constant-Murley score, 74 points, representing 87.5% of the median Constant-Murley score of the unaffected shoulder; DASH score, 34 points, and the SF36, 83 points. Minimally invasive percutaneous plating with the PHILOS offers a valid option in the treatment of proximal humeral shaft fractures with comparable rates of nonunion and lower rates of radial neuropathy compared with open procedures. Furthermore, the results indicate that this method is associated with lower rates of wound infection and a shorter stay in the hospital for the patient. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparison between conventional radiography and digitized image accuracy in proximal caries detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangnoosh M

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Computer Sciences, in radiology, like other fields, is of high importance. It should"nalso be noted that the accuracy of the technique and work conditions affects the radiographs information"nconsiderably. There for, in order to get more accurate diagnostic information, it seems necessary to investigate"ndifferent digitized radiographic techniques and to compare them with the conventional technique."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of conventional and digitized radiographic"nimages by three digitization techniques in proximal caries detection."nMaterial and Methods: In this research study, sixty extracted human canines, premolars and molars were"nmounted in blocks and imaged on E-Kodak film, similar to bitewing radiographs. Ten bitewing radiographs"nwere then scanned at 600 d.p.i with flat bed scanner and a digital camera, then digitized at 300 d.p.i with"nanother digital camera. The digitized images were displayed randomly on a high-resolution monitor. Six"nobservers assessed the caries status of 120 proximal surfaces by conventional and digitized images. The"nobserver's scores were compared with the results of the macroscopic examination. Reliability of each"ntechnique was calculated. Data were analyzed using chi-square and ANOVA tests."nResults: No significant differences were detected between different techniques in intact proximal surfaces and"nenamel caries diagnosis. However, digital techniques were more sensitive in dentin caries detection (P<0.05."nConclusions: When conventional film images are digitized, medium resolution (300 d.p.i seems to be"nsufficient. At this resolution the file size is decreased and there is no significant loss of the information"nnecessary for caries diagnosis.

  13. The effect of image enhancements and dual observers on proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Benjamin M; Mol, Andre; Zandona, Andrea; Tyndall, Don

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the use of certain image enhancements and dual observers had an effect on the detection of caries, dentin extension, and cavitation. Seven observers viewed unenhanced and enhanced images taken on photostimulable phosphor plates (PSP) and Schick 33 sensors and were asked to determine whether proximal caries lesions, dentin extension, and cavitation were present. Pairs of observers also evaluated the unenhanced PSP images and recorded their confidence. Micro-computed tomography was used as the gold standard. For caries lesion detection, PSP outperformed Schick sensors, although the differences are most likely not clinically significant. Observers (single and dual) and filters had no effect on any of the diagnostic tasks. Schick sensors and unfiltered images were more specific for dentin extension. Caries detection was statistically greater with the PSP plate, but both detectors allowed for high accuracy. Expensive software or time-consuming consultations did not improve outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Proximal caries detection accuracy using intraoral bitewing radiography, extraoral bitewing radiography and panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamburoglu, K; Kolsuz, E; Murat, S; Yüksel, S; Ozen, T

    2012-09-01

    To compare proximal caries detection using intraoral bitewing, extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography. 80 extracted human premolar and molar teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intraoral radiographs were taken with Kodak Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) using the bitewing technique. Extraoral bitewing and panoramic images were obtained using a Planmeca Promax Digital Panoramic X-ray unit (Planmeca Inc., Helsinki, Finland). Images were evaluated by three observers twice. In total, 160 proximal surfaces were assessed. Intra- and interobserver kappa coefficients were calculated. Scores obtained from the three techniques were compared with the histological gold standard using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Az values for each image type, observer and reading were compared using z-tests, with a significance level of α = 0.05. Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.883 to 0.963 for the intraoral bitewing, from 0.715 to 0.893 for the extraoral bitewing, and from 0.659 to 0.884 for the panoramic radiography. Interobserver agreements for the first and second readings for the intraoral bitewing images were between 0.717 and 0.780, the extraoral bitewing readings were between 0.569 and 0.707, and the panoramic images were between 0.477 and 0.740. The Az values for both readings of all three observers were highest for the intraoral bitewing. Az values for the extraoral bitewing images were higher than those of the panoramic images without statistical significance (p > 0.05). Intraoral bitewing radiography was superior to extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography in diagnosing proximal caries of premolar and molar teeth ex vivo. Similar intra- and interobserver coefficients were calculated for extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of digital images for detection of artificial chemical proximal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Geum Mee; Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection between Kodak Insight film and the Biomedisys CDX2000HQ digital (CCD) sensor. 156 proximal surfaces of extracted teeth, 78 of which had chemical artificial caries, were used in this study. Four observers interpreted the radiographs using a five-point confidence rating scale to record their diagnoses. The results were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves, ANOVA and Kappa values. Analysis using receiver operating characteristic curves revealed the areas under each curve which indicated a diagnostic accuracy of 0.951 in Insight and 0.952 in CDX2000HQ digital sensor. ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the two images with respect to caries detection. Kappa values indicated that the mean intra-observer agreement was 0.85 and inter-observer agreement 0.71 in conventional radiography. In digital radiography, the mean intra-observer agreement was 0.84 and inter-observer agreement 0.72. The results suggest that no significant difference exists between the two modalities for artificial caries detection and that CDX2000HQ was as good as Insight film for this purpose.

  16. The Efficiency of Operating Microscope Compared with Unaided Visual Examination, Conventional and Digital Intraoral Radiography for Proximal Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkay Peker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of operating microscope compared with unaided visual examination, conventional and digital intraoral radiography for proximal caries detection. Materials and Methods. The study was based on 48 extracted human posterior permanent teeth. The teeth were examined with unaided visual examination, operating microscope, conventional bitewing and digital intraoral radiographs. Then, true caries depth was determined by histological examination. The extent of the carious lesions was assessed by three examiners independently. One way variance of analysis (ANOVA and Scheffe test were performed for comparison of observers, and the diagnostic accuracies of all systems were assessed from the area under the ROC curve (Az. Results. Statistically significant difference was found between observers (P<.01. There was a statistically significant difference between operating microscope-film radiography, operating microscope-RVG, unaided visual examination-film radiography, and unaided visual examination-RVG according to pairwise comparison (P<.05. Conclusion. The efficiency of operating microscope was found statistically equal with unaided visual examination and lower than radiographic systems for proximal caries detection.

  17. Observing Complex Systems Thinking in the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Joshua; Saleh, Asmalina; Andrade, Alejandro; Bryan, Branden

    2017-01-01

    Our paper builds on the construct of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) (Vygotsky in Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1978) to analyze the relationship between students' answers and the help they receive as they construct them. We report on a secondary analysis of…

  18. Interior intrusion detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dry, B. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Double line sign: a helpful sonographic sign to detect occult fractures of the proximal humerus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M.; Jager, Gerrit J. [Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Waal malefijt, Maarten C. de [University Medical Center Nijmegen, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Blickman, Johan G. [University Medical Center Nijmegen, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    The aim of this study was to describe a new sonographic sign of bone fracture and to determine if it can be helpful in decreasing the number of missed fractures of the proximal humerus. Ultrasound (US) of the shoulder was performed in 57 consecutive patients with shoulder pain and/or disability following trauma. All cases were prospectively reviewed for the presence of a humeral fracture. Sonographic signs of fractures, with special emphasis on what was termed the 'double line sign' (DLS), were assessed. Plain radiography was considered the standard of reference and in equivocal cases magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-eight patients had a tuberosity complex fracture, which were all detected at US examination. Sonographic features of a fracture were periosteal elevation, corticol bone discontinuity, step-off deformity or a combination of these findings. This study showed that in 26 (93%) patients an additional sonographic feature, a DLS, could be demonstrated. The DLS is a helpful and probably reliable sonographic sign to indicate a humeral fracture. High-spatial-resolution US substantially increases the detection of fractures of the proximal humerus and should be considered as an alternative diagnostic tool prior to computed tomography (CT), MRI and arthroscopy in patients with persisting shoulder pain and/or disability following trauma. (orig.)

  20. Performance of RVGui sensor and Kodak Ektaspeed Plus film for proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M; Mol, A; Ludlow, J B

    2001-03-01

    A high-resolution charge-coupled device was used to compare the diagnostic performances obtained with Trophy's new RVGui sensor and Kodak Ektaspeed Plus film with respect to caries detection. Three acquisition modes of the Trophy RVGui sensor were compared with Kodak Ektaspeed Plus film. Images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth were evaluated by 6 observers. The presence or absence of caries was scored by means of a 5-point confidence scale. The actual caries status of each surface was determined through ground-section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic analysis. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (A(Z)) were assessed through analysis of variance. The mean A(Z) scores were 0.85 for film, 0.84 for the high-resolution caries mode, and 0.82 for both the low resolution caries mode and the high-resolution periodontal mode. These differences were not statistically significant (P =.70). The differences among observers also were not statistically significant (P =.23). The performance of the RVGui sensor in high- and low-resolution modes for proximal caries detection is comparable to that of Ektaspeed Plus film.

  1. Diagnostic Accuracy of Digitized Conventional Radiographs by Camera and Scanner in Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Valizadeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Digital radiographs have some advantages over conventional ones. Application of digital receptors is not routine yet. Therefore, there is a need for digitizing conventional radiographs. The aim of the present study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of digitized conventional radiographs by scanner and camera in detection of proximal caries. Material and methods. Three hundred and sixteen surfaces of 158 extracted posterior teeth were radiographed. The radiographs were digitized using a digital camera and a scanner. Five observers scored the images for the presence and depth of caries. Histopathologic sections were the gold standard. Kappa agreement coefficient was used for statistical analysis. Results. Kappa agreement coefficients between the camera and the scanner and also between each one with the gold standard in detecting the depth of caries were 0.504, 0.557 and 0.454, respectively. In detection of caries, the indexes were 0.571, 0.553 and 0.527, respectively. Conclusion. Diagnostic accuracy of camera images in caries detection was more than that of scanned images, but there was also a moderate consistency between them. The consistency of detecting the presence of caries was more than that of detecting their depths. It seems that both digital cameras and scanners can be used interchangeably.

  2. Detection of proximal caries in conventional and digital radiographs: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockenbach, Maria Ivete; Veeck, Elaine Bauer; da Costa, Nilza Pereira

    2008-01-01

    To compare digital images to conventional film radiography in the diagnosis of proximal caries. Fifty-one molars and 24 premolars were studied and divided in groups of three teeth. They were fixed in silicone and radiographed using InSight film (Kodak) and the digital systems Digora (Soredex), DenOptix (Gendex) and CygnusRay MPS (Progeny). Twenty-five radiographs were obtained in each modality and four proximal surfaces were analyzed in each radiograph. Radiographs were interpreted individually by one observer at three different sessions for each imaging modality. Caries lesions were classified according to their depth: (0) absent; (1) restricted to enamel; (2) reaching the dentino-enamel junction; and (3) reaching the dentin. The teeth were sectioned and ground in order to obtain the gold standard and were examined histologically by stereomicroscopy. The Kendall test was employed and showed a good intra-observer agreement among the three evaluations implemented. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were all calculated, and there were no significant differences observed among the four imaging modalities studied (ANOVA, pdetection of proximal caries.

  3. [Accuracy of computer aided measurement for detecting dental proximal caries lesions in images of cone-beam computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z L; Li, J P; Li, G; Ma, X C

    2017-02-09

    Objective: To establish and validate a computer program used to aid the detection of dental proximal caries in the images cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Methods: According to the characteristics of caries lesions in X-ray images, a computer aided detection program for proximal caries was established with Matlab and Visual C++. The whole process for caries lesion detection included image import and preprocessing, measuring average gray value of air area, choosing region of interest and calculating gray value, defining the caries areas. The program was used to examine 90 proximal surfaces from 45 extracted human teeth collected from Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. The teeth were then scanned with a CBCT scanner (Promax 3D). The proximal surfaces of the teeth were respectively detected by caries detection program and scored by human observer for the extent of lesions with 6-level-scale. With histologic examination serving as the reference standard, the caries detection program and the human observer performances were assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Student t -test was used to analyze the areas under the ROC curves (AUC) for the differences between caries detection program and human observer. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to analyze the detection accuracy of caries depth. Results: For the diagnosis of proximal caries in CBCT images, the AUC values of human observers and caries detection program were 0.632 and 0.703, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the AUC values ( P= 0.023). The correlation between program performance and gold standard (correlation coefficient r (s)=0.525) was higher than that of observer performance and gold standard ( r (s)=0.457) and there was a statistically significant difference between the correlation coefficients ( P= 0.000). Conclusions: The program that automatically detects dental proximal caries lesions could improve the

  4. Evaluation of a proximity extension assay for the detection of H1 2009 pandemic influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wesenbeeck, Liesbeth; Meeuws, Hanne; De Wolf, Hans; Stuyver, Lieven

    2013-10-01

    The rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) are widely distributed, simple to use, but often lack sensitivity as compared to gold standard methods (viral culture and nucleic acid detection technologies). Applying RIDTs outside of epidemic or pandemic infections results in large numbers of false negatives. Hence, a sensitive RIDT that would reduce the number of false negatives would result in an increased clinical value. We evaluated the potential of a proximity extension assay (PEA) for the detection of influenza A H1 viruses. This technology makes use of antibodies to capture the pathogen, followed by molecular detection. Forty-seven nasopharyngeal swab samples, all confirmed infections of the H1 2009 pandemic influenza virus, were evaluated. The performance of PEA was compared to the RIDT Quickvue Influenza A+B assay. The success rate of the comparative assays was modeled by means of a binary logistic response model. Both assays performed equally well within the current range of viral particles, expressed as log10 copies/ml. When the actual input of viral particles was taken into account, the 95% hitrate of PEA lies within the range of 4.60-7.02 log10 copies/reaction, which is an almost 2 log10 sensitivity improvement over the 95% hitrate of the Quickvue RIDT, ranging from 6.86 to 9.37 log10 copies/reaction. The PEA method holds promise to improve sensitive detection of influenza viruses in clinical samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of proximal secondary caries at cervical class II-amalgam restoration margins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, K W; Rodrigues, J A; Seemann, R; Lussi, A

    2012-06-01

    To compare the performance of LFpen (DIAGNOdent pen) with two different wedge-shaped tips to conventional bitewing radiography (BW) for detecting proximal secondary caries at the cervical margin of amalgam restorations in vitro. Seventy-five molars with class II amalgam restorations were selected. Depending on the marginal filling extension, data was subdivided into a crown group (C), when the filling ended in enamel, and into a root group (R), when the filling ended beyond the cementum-enamel junction. Bayesian analysis including calculation of the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) was performed. Furthermore, Spearman correlations between caries and cofactors, such as presence of plaque or stain, occlusal ditching, marginal gap size, filling overhangs, and shortfalls, were calculated. Additionally, for group R the correlation coefficient between LFpen measurements and lesion depth was calculated. Histology served as gold standard. In group C both at the D1 and D3 levels, LFpen with two different tips showed a better performance than bitewing radiography (AUC at D1: 0.83/0.79 (LFpen) and 0.63 (BW); at D3: 0.66/0.66 (LFpen) and 0.53 (BW)). In group R, the respective AUC values were 0.53/0.56 (LF) and 0.59 (BW). A significant medium correlation was observed for occlusal ditching and proximal caries. Stain accumulation at the restoration margins especially in combination with filling overhangs interfered with LFpen readings, resulting in false positive measurements. Compared to BW, LFpen enhances the detection of secondary caries lesions at the cervical margin of amalgam restorations that do not extend below the cementum-enamel junction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison between RVG UI sensor and Kodak InSight film for detection of incipient proximal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Yukiko; Hanazawa, Tomomi; Seki, Kenji; Araki, Kazuyuki; Okano, Tomohiro [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the four combination modes of Trophy Radio Visio Graphy (RVG) UI sensor (Trex-Trophy Radiology Inc., Marne-la-Valee, France) and Kodak InSight film (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) for detecting proximal dental caries. Thirty extracted human upper premolars were selected. Of 60 surfaces, 25 had carious lesions in the form of small cavities, and the rest showed no evidence of caries as verified by a micro computed tomogram (micro CT; XCT Research SA+, Stratec Medizintechnik GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany). All teeth were radiographed with the paralleling technique (60 kV, 40 cm focus-to-sensor distance). Four combination modes (high-resolution caries mode-HRC; high-sensitivity caries mode-HSC; high-resolution periodontal mode-HRP; and high-resolution endo mode-HRE) were used. Exposure was set at 0.12 sec for HRC, 0.08 sec for HSC, 0.16 sec for HRP, 0.12 sec for HRE, and 0.16 sec for the Kodak InSight film. The resulting images were evaluated by three oral radiologists. The same three observers evaluated the digital images, and were allowed to use the contrast and brightness controls in doing so. Possible differences in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve areas among image modalities were assessed by the Friedman test. The mean ROC curve areas were 0.66{+-}0.11 for HRC, 0.78{+-}0.02 for HSC, 0.76{+-}0.04 for HRE, 0.77{+-}0.04 for HRP, and 0.71{+-}0.09 for the Kodak InSight film. There were no statistically significant differences between HRC, HSC, HRE, HRP and the Kodak InSight film in terms of proximal caries detection. The four modes of RVG UI system are each a viable alternative to intraoral film for the detection of incipient dental caries. (author)

  7. Accuracy of Digital Bitewing Radiography versus Different Views of Digital Panoramic Radiography for Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Abdinian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dental caries are common and have a high incidence among populations. Radiographs are essential for detecting proximal caries. The best technique should be recognized for accurate detection of caries. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of detection of proximal caries using intra oral bitewing, extra oral bitewing, improved interproximal panoramic, improved orthogonality panoramic and digital con- ventional panoramic radiographs.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 100 extracted human teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intra and extra oral radiographs were taken. Images were evaluated and scored by two observers. Scores were compared with the histological gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of radiographs was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis (P<0.05.Results: Microscopic evaluation of proximal surfaces revealed that 54.8% of the sur- faces were sound and 45.2% were carious (with different depths. The differences in the area under the ROC curve (Az value among the five techniques were not statisti- cally significant.Conclusion: Improved interproximal panoramic and extra oral bitewing radiographs were superior to conventional panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries ex vivo and should be considered for patients with contraindications for intra oral radi- ographs.

  8. Vegetation cover analysis using a low budget hyperspectral proximal sensing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Daquino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the implementation of a hyperspectral proximal sensing low-budget acquisition system and its application to the detection of terrestrian vegetation cover anomalies in sites of high environmental quality. Anomalies can be due to stress for lack of water and/or pollution phenomena and weed presence in agricultural fields. The hyperspectral cube (90-bands ranging from 450 to 900 nm was acquired from the hill near Segni (RM, approximately 500 m far from the target, by means of electronically tunable filters and 8 bit CCD cameras. Spectral libraries were built using both endmember identification method and extraction of centroids of the clusters obtained from a k-means analysis of the image itself. Two classification methods were applied on the hyperspectral cube: Spectral Angle Mapper (hard and Mixed Tuned Matching Filters (MTMF. Results show the good capability of the system in detecting areas with an arboreal, shrub or leafage cover, distinguishing between zones with different spectral response. Better results were obtained using spectral library originated by the k-means method. The detected anomalies not correlated to seasonal phenomena suggest a ground true analysis to identify their origin.

  9. Semiconductor radiation detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Covers research in semiconductor detector and integrated circuit design in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explores other applications of semiconductor radiation detection systems in security applications such as luggage scanning, dirty bomb detection and border control.

  10. Numerical Optimization of the Position in Femoral Head of Proximal Locking Screws of Proximal Femoral Nail System; Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konya, Mehmet Nuri; Verim, Özgür

    2017-09-29

    Proximal femoral fracture rates are increasing due to osteoporosis and traffic accidents. Proximal femoral nails are routinely used in the treatment of these fractures in the proximal femur. To compare various combinations and to determine the ideal proximal lag screw position in pertrochanteric fractures (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen classification 31-A1) of the femur by using optimized finite element analysis. Biomechanical study. Computed tomography images of patients' right femurs were processed with Mimics. Afterwards a solid femur model was created with SolidWorks 2015 and transferred to ANSYS Workbench 16.0 for response surface optimization analysis which was carried out according to anterior-posterior (-10°0) and posterior-anterior directions of the femur neck significantly increased these stresses. The most suitable position of the proximal lag screw was confirmed as the middle of the femoral neck by using optimized finite element analysis.

  11. Training improves agreement among doctors using the Neer system for proximal humeral fractures in a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review studies of observer agreement among doctors classifying proximal humeral fractures according to the Neer system. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A systematic review. We searched for observational studies in which doctors classified proximal humeral fractures according...

  12. Underwater laser detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Walid; El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2015-02-01

    The conventional method used to detect an underwater target is by sending and receiving some form of acoustic energy. But the acoustic systems have limitations in the range resolution and accuracy; while, the potential benefits of a laserbased underwater target detection include high directionality, high response, and high range accuracy. Lasers operating in the blue-green region of the light spectrum(420 : 570nm)have a several applications in the area of detection and ranging of submersible targets due to minimum attenuation through water ( less than 0.1 m-1) and maximum laser reflection from estimated target (like mines or submarines) to provide a long range of detection. In this paper laser attenuation in water was measured experimentally by new simple method by using high resolution spectrometer. The laser echoes from different targets (metal, plastic, wood, and rubber) were detected using high resolution CCD camera; the position of detection camera was optimized to provide a high reflection laser from target and low backscattering noise from the water medium, digital image processing techniques were applied to detect and discriminate the echoes from the metal target and subtract the echoes from other objects. Extraction the image of target from the scattering noise is done by background subtraction and edge detection techniques. As a conclusion, we present a high response laser imaging system to detect and discriminate small size, like-mine underwater targets.

  13. The efficacy of the reverse contrast mode in digital radiography for the detection of proximal dentinal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Shimasadat; Mehralizadeh, Sandra; Sadri, Donya; Motamedi, Mahmood Reza Kalantar; Soltani, Parisa

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the reverse contrast mode in intraoral digital radiography for the detection of proximal dentinal caries, in comparison with the original digital radiographs. Eighty extracted premolars with no clinically apparent caries were selected, and digital radiographs of them were taken separately in standard conditions. Four observers examined the original radiographs and the same radiographs in the reverse contrast mode with the goal of identifying proximal dentinal caries. Microscopic sections 5 µm in thickness were prepared from the teeth in the mesiodistal direction. Four slides prepared from each sample used as the diagnostic gold standard. The data were analyzed using SPSS (α=0.05). Our results showed that the original radiographs in order to identify proximal dentinal caries had the following values for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy, respectively: 72.5%, 90%, 87.2%, 76.5%, and 80.9%. For the reverse contrast mode, however, the corresponding values were 63.1%, 89.4%, 87.1%, 73.5%, and 78.8%, respectively. The sensitivity of original digital radiograph for detecting proximal dentinal caries was significantly higher than that of reverse contrast mode (p0.05). The sensitivity of the original digital radiograph for detecting proximal dentinal caries was significantly higher than that of the reversed contrast images. However, no statistically significant differences were found between these techniques regarding specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, or accuracy.

  14. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors. [hand mounted IR device to detect nearby objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    Optical proximity sensing devices suitable for hand mounting on a manipulator are described, which use near IR LED light sources operating at 0.94 micron and silicon detectors, with appropriate signal processing so that the data are unaffected by ambient light. Laboratory tests with simple proximity sensors are described. Extension of the same techniques to yield multipoint or digital sensors is also discussed. A cooperative proximity sensor concept is described, which employs a composite mirror attached to the work piece to generate an unambiguous set of position and orientation signals. A very rudimentary experiment in local control of a manipulator with a pair of hand mounted proximity sensors is also described.

  15. Proximal Detection of Traces of Energetic Materials with an Eye-Safe UV Raman Prototype Developed for Civil Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Chirico

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new Raman-based apparatus for proximal detection of energetic materials on people, was developed and tested for the first time. All the optical and optoelectronics components of the apparatus, as well as their optical matching, were carefully chosen and designed to respect international eye-safety regulations. In this way, the apparatus is suitable for civil applications on people in public areas such as airports and metro or railway stations. The acquisition software performs the data analysis in real-time to provide a fast response to the operator. Moreover, it allows for deployment of the apparatus either as a stand alone device or as part of a more sophisticated warning system architecture made up of several sensors. Using polyamide as substrate, the apparatus was able to detect surface densities of ammonium nitrate (AN, 2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNT, 3-nitrooxy-2,2-bis(nitrooxymethylpropyl] nitrate (PETN and urea nitrate (UN in the range of 100–1000 μg/cm2 at a distance of 6.4 m using each time a single laser pulse of 3 mJ/cm2. The limit of detection calculated for AN is 289 μg/cm2. AN and UN provided the highest percentages of true positives (>82% for surface densities of 100–400 μg/cm2 and fingerprints followed by TNT and PETN (17%–70% for surface densities of 400–1000 μg/cm2 and fingerprints.

  16. Solar system fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  17. Multiplex detection of homo- and heterodimerization of g protein-coupled receptors by proximity biotinylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Elisabeth; Murray, Victoria L; Liu, Allen P

    2014-01-01

    Dimerization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represents a potential mechanism by which GPCR functions are regulated. Several resonance energy transfer (RET)-based methods have revealed GPCR homo- and heterodimerization. However, interpretation of an increase in FRET efficiency could be attributed to either dimerization/oligomerization events or conformational changes within an already dimerized/oligomerized receptor complex. Furthermore, RET-based methods can only measure pairwise dimerization, and cannot easily achieve multiplex detection. In this study, we applied proximity-based biotinylation for detecting receptor dimerization by utilizing a specific enzyme-substrate pair that are fused to GPCRs. The biotin ligase BirA is fused to CXCR4 and site-specifically biotinylates an acceptor peptide (AP) in the presence of biotin. As a test case for our newly developed assay, we have characterized the homo-dimerization of chemokine receptor CXCR4 and heterodimerization of CXCR4 with CCR2 or CCR5. The degree of biotinylation varies with the amount of GPCR-AP as well as biotinylation time. Using enzyme/substrate receptor pairs and measuring receptor biotinylation, we demonstrate that CXCR4 can homo-dimerize and hetero-dimerize with CCR2 and CCR5. The effect of CXCL12, agonist for CXCR4, was found to decrease surface biotinylation of CXCR4-AP. This effect is due to a combination of CXCR4 endocytosis and stabilization of CXCR4 homodimers. Finally, when CXCR4-AP, CCR2-AP, and CCR5-AP were expressed together, we observed CXCR4-CXCR4 homodimers and CXCR4-CCR2 and CXCR4-CCR5 heterodimers. The newly developed assay opens new opportunity for multiplex detection for GPCR homo- and heterodimerization within the same cellular context.

  18. Multiplex detection of homo- and heterodimerization of g protein-coupled receptors by proximity biotinylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Steel

    Full Text Available Dimerization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs represents a potential mechanism by which GPCR functions are regulated. Several resonance energy transfer (RET-based methods have revealed GPCR homo- and heterodimerization. However, interpretation of an increase in FRET efficiency could be attributed to either dimerization/oligomerization events or conformational changes within an already dimerized/oligomerized receptor complex. Furthermore, RET-based methods can only measure pairwise dimerization, and cannot easily achieve multiplex detection. In this study, we applied proximity-based biotinylation for detecting receptor dimerization by utilizing a specific enzyme-substrate pair that are fused to GPCRs. The biotin ligase BirA is fused to CXCR4 and site-specifically biotinylates an acceptor peptide (AP in the presence of biotin. As a test case for our newly developed assay, we have characterized the homo-dimerization of chemokine receptor CXCR4 and heterodimerization of CXCR4 with CCR2 or CCR5. The degree of biotinylation varies with the amount of GPCR-AP as well as biotinylation time. Using enzyme/substrate receptor pairs and measuring receptor biotinylation, we demonstrate that CXCR4 can homo-dimerize and hetero-dimerize with CCR2 and CCR5. The effect of CXCL12, agonist for CXCR4, was found to decrease surface biotinylation of CXCR4-AP. This effect is due to a combination of CXCR4 endocytosis and stabilization of CXCR4 homodimers. Finally, when CXCR4-AP, CCR2-AP, and CCR5-AP were expressed together, we observed CXCR4-CXCR4 homodimers and CXCR4-CCR2 and CXCR4-CCR5 heterodimers. The newly developed assay opens new opportunity for multiplex detection for GPCR homo- and heterodimerization within the same cellular context.

  19. A new computerized impedance plethysmograph: accuracy in the detection of proximal deep-vein thrombosis in symptomatic outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prandoni, P.; Lensing, A. W.; Huisman, M. V.; Jonker, J. J.; Vigo, M.; Borm, J. J.; Büller, H. R.; Sing, A. K.; Carta, M.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the lack of specificity of the clinical diagnosis it is appropriate in patients with clinically suspected deep-vein thrombosis to apply an objective test before starting anticoagulant treatment. Impedance plethysmography is a highly accurate technique for the detection of proximal-vein

  20. Accuracy of Digital Bitewing Radiography versus Different Views of Digital Panoramic Radiography for Detection of Proximal Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdinian, Mehrdad; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Faghihian, Reyhaneh; Samety, Amir Abbas; Faghihian, Elham

    2015-04-01

    Dental caries are common and have a high incidence among populations. Radiographs are essential for detecting proximal caries. The best technique should be recognized for accurate detection of caries. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of detection of proximal caries using intraoral bitewing, extraoral bitewing, improved interproximal panoramic, improved orthogonality panoramic and conventional panoramic radiographs. In this descriptive cross sectional study, 100 extracted human teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intra and extraoral radiographs were taken. Images were evaluated and scored by two observers. Scores were compared with the histological gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of radiographs was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (Pproximal surfaces revealed that 54.8% of the surfaces were sound and 45.2% were carious (with different depths). The differences in the area under the ROC curve (Az value) among the five techniques were not statistically significant. Improved interproximal panoramic and extraoral bitewing radiographs were superior to conventional panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries ex vivo and should be considered for patients with contraindications for intraoral radiographs.

  1. Dressed topological insulators. Rashba impurity, Kondo effect, magnetic impurities, proximity-induced superconductivity, hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posske, Thore Hagen

    2016-02-26

    Topological insulators are electronic phases that insulate in the bulk and accommodate a peculiar, metallic edge liquid with a spin-dependent dispersion. They are regarded to be of considerable future use in spintronics and for quantum computation. Besides determining the intrinsic properties of this rather novel electronic phase, considering its combination with well-known physical systems can generate genuinely new physics. In this thesis, we report on such combinations including topological insulators. Specifically, we analyze an attached Rashba impurity, a Kondo dot in the two channel setup, magnetic impurities on the surface of a strong three-dimensional topological insulator, the proximity coupling of the latter system to a superconductor, and hybrid systems consisting of a topological insulator and a semimetal. Let us summarize our primary results. Firstly, we determine an analytical formula for the Kondo cloud and describe its possible detection in current correlations far away from the Kondo region. We thereby rely on and extend the method of refermionizable points. Furthermore, we find a class of gapless topological superconductors and semimetals, which accommodate edge states that behave similarly to the ones of globally gapped topological phases. Unexpectedly, we also find edge states that change their chirality when affected by sufficiently strong disorder. We regard the presented research helpful in future classifications and applications of systems containing topological insulators, of which we propose some examples.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy in detecting tears in the proximal biceps tendon using standard nonenhancing shoulder MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubrow SA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Samuel A Dubrow,1 Jonathan J Streit,2 Yousef Shishani,2 Mark R Robbin,3 Reuben Gobezie21Department of Orthopedics, Alegent Creighton Clinic, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA; 2Department of Orthopedics, Cleveland Shoulder Institute, 3Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH, USABackground: There is a paucity of data in the literature evaluating the performance of noncontrast MRI in the diagnosis of partial and complete tears of the proximal portion of the long head of the biceps (LHB tendon. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI compared to arthroscopy for the diagnosis of pathology involving the intra-articular portion of the LHB tendon.Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 66 patients (mean age 57.8 years, range 43–70 years who underwent shoulder arthroscopy and evaluation of the LHB tendon after having had a noncontrast MRI of the shoulder. Biceps pathology was classified by both MRI and direct arthroscopic visualization as either normal, partial tearing, or complete rupture, and arthroscopy was considered to be the gold standard. We then determined the sensitivity, specificity, and positive- and negative-predictive values of MRI for the detection of partial and complete LHB tears.Results: MRI identified 29/66 (43.9% of patients as having a pathologic lesion of the LHB tendon (19 partial and ten complete tears while diagnostic arthroscopy identified tears in 59/66 patients (89.4%; 50 partial and 16 complete. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI for detecting partial tearing of the LHB were 27.7% and 84.2%, respectively (positive predictive value =81.2%, negative predictive value =32.0%. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI for complete tears of the LHB were 56.3% and 98.0%, respectively (positive predictive value =90.0%, negative predictive value =87.5%.Conclusion: Standard noncontrast MRI of the shoulder

  3. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) as an Emergent System: A Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Aghdam, Saeed

    2017-03-01

    This paper sets out to present a novel construal of one of the notions of Vygotskian cultural-historical theory viz., zone of proximal development (ZPD) drawing upon dynamic systems theory. The principal thesis maintains that ZDP is an emergent and dynamic system which is engendered by a dialectical concatenation of psychogenesic and sociogenesic facets of human development over time. It is reasoned that Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development, by invoking dialectical logic, has transcended Cartesian substance dualism and in turn has proffered a monistic and process-anchored ontology for emerging becoming of human consciousness. Likewise, it is contended that dynamic systems theory, having assumed fluent flux of reality with a capital R as its ontological axiom, entails a consilience of cognitive and contextual conceptual schemes to describe, explain, and optimize human development. The paper concludes by drawing some interpretive conclusions in regard to ZPD from dynamic systems theory perspective.

  4. The efficacy of the reverse contrast mode in digital radiography for the detection of proximal dentinal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miri, Shimasadat [Dept. of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrailzadeh, Sandra; Sadri, Donya [School of Dentistry, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Motamedi, Mahmood Reza Kalantar [Dept. of Research, School of Dentistry, Isfahan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltani, Parisa [Dental Students Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the reverse contrast mode in intraoral digital radiography for the detection of proximal dentinal caries, in comparison with the original digital radiographs. Eighty extracted premolars with no clinically apparent caries were selected, and digital radiographs of them were taken separately in standard conditions. Four observers examined the original radiographs and the same radiographs in the reverse contrast mode with the goal of identifying proximal dentinal caries. Microscopic sections 5 µm in thickness were prepared from the teeth in the mesiodistal direction. Four slides prepared from each sample used as the diagnostic gold standard. The data were analyzed using SPSS (α=0.05). Our results showed that the original radiographs in order to identify proximal dentinal caries had the following values for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy, respectively: 72.5%, 90%, 87.2%, 76.5%, and 80.9%. For the reverse contrast mode, however, the corresponding values were 63.1%, 89.4%, 87.1%, 73.5%, and 78.8%, respectively. The sensitivity of original digital radiograph for detecting proximal dentinal caries was significantly higher than that of reverse contrast mode (p<0.05). However, no statistically significant differences were found regarding specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, or accuracy (p>0.05). The sensitivity of the original digital radiograph for detecting proximal dentinal caries was significantly higher than that of the reversed contrast images. However, no statistically significant differences were found between these techniques regarding specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, or accuracy.

  5. Subsurface Intrusion Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-25

    fre­ quency seismic vibrations and can therefore detect even rela­ tively small vibrations associated with tunneling or other subsurface activity...may indicate a surreptitious attempt to cross the boundary protected by system 100. Activity in digging or moving within tunnel 160 creates seismic ...magnitude of seismic vibrations associated with subsurface activity indicative of unauthorized attempts to tunnel across the boundary protected by

  6. Gas Flow Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Thomas; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Slack, Barry

    2010-01-01

    This system provides a portable means to detect gas flow through a thin-walled tube without breaking into the tubing system. The flow detection system was specifically designed to detect flow through two parallel branches of a manifold with only one inlet and outlet, and is a means for verifying a space shuttle program requirement that saves time and reduces the risk of flight hardware damage compared to the current means of requirement verification. The prototype Purge Vent and Drain Window Cavity Conditioning System (PVD WCCS) Flow Detection System consists of a heater and a temperature-sensing thermistor attached to a piece of Velcro to be attached to each branch of a WCCS manifold for the duration of the requirement verification test. The heaters and thermistors are connected to a shielded cable and then to an electronics enclosure, which contains the power supplies, relays, and circuit board to provide power, signal conditioning, and control. The electronics enclosure is then connected to a commercial data acquisition box to provide analog to digital conversion as well as digital control. This data acquisition box is then connected to a commercial laptop running a custom application created using National Instruments LabVIEW. The operation of the PVD WCCS Flow Detection System consists of first attaching a heater/thermistor assembly to each of the two branches of one manifold while there is no flow through the manifold. Next, the software application running on the laptop is used to turn on the heaters and to monitor the manifold branch temperatures. When the system has reached thermal equilibrium, the software application s graphical user interface (GUI) will indicate that the branch temperatures are stable. The operator can then physically open the flow control valve to initiate the test flow of gaseous nitrogen (GN2) through the manifold. Next, the software user interface will be monitored for stable temperature indications when the system is again at

  7. Comparison of direct digital and conventional radiography for the detection of proximal surface caries in the mixed dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprichard, K K; Potter, B J; Russell, C M; Schafer, T E; Adair, S; Weller, R N

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of direct digital radiography and traditional dental radiography for the detection of proximal surface dental caries in the mixed dentition. 15 quadrants of extracted teeth, arranged from the primary canine to permanent first molar, were imaged using direct digital (Schick Technologies, Long Island City, NY, USA) and conventional films (D-speed and E-speed Plus; Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY, USA). Five pediatric dentists viewed the images and scored the 270 proximal surfaces for presence of caries on a 5 point scale and extent of caries on a 4 point scale. The teeth were sectioned and viewed microscopically to determine the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to evaluate the viewer's performance for detecting proximal caries using the 3 different image receptor types. Experienced examiners were significantly more accurate in diagnosis of proximal surface caries using either D-speed or E-speed Plus films than they were using the direct digital receptor. The mean areas under the ROC curve (Az) for the viewers were 0.7595 for D-speed film, 0.7557 for E-speed Plus film, and 0.5928 for the direct digital receptor. The results also indicated that selected viewers' accuracy increased when viewing the direct digital images a second time. CCD based direct digital radiography was not as accurate as conventional film images for the purpose of diagnosing proximal surface caries in the mixed dentition. However, the results imply that with increased experience, direct digital images may be as accurate as conventional film based images for diagnosis.

  8. The Efficiency of Operating Microscope Compared with Unaided Visual Examination, Conventional and Digital Intraoral Radiography for Proximal Caries Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Peker, Ilkay; Toraman Alkurt, Meryem; Bala, Oya; Altunkaynak, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of operating microscope compared with unaided visual examination, conventional and digital intraoral radiography for proximal caries detection. Materials and Methods. The study was based on 48 extracted human posterior permanent teeth. The teeth were examined with unaided visual examination, operating microscope, conventional bitewing and digital intraoral radiographs. Then, true caries depth was determined by histological ex...

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of direct digital radiography and conventional radiography for proximal caries detection in primary teeth: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Bhumireddy, Jayachandra Reddy; Kamatham, Rekhalakshmi; Mallineni, Sreekanth Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to uncover the diagnostic accuracy of digital versus conventional radiographic methods for the detection of proximal caries in primary teeth. Two researchers independently involved in the search process to explore Medical Subject Heading terms "dental digital radiography," "dental radiography," "bitewing," "dental caries," and "primary teeth" using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Ovid SP, and SIGLE databases. Search was confined to the articles published in English language only, with time period limit January 1996 to April 2014 and a hand search was performed to retrieve additional citations. Explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to eliminate undesired studies. Critical appraisal of the retrieved articles was done using the quality rating based on Bader and co-workers criteria. A total of 129 articles were retrieved, among which 4 articles were included. All the four studies included were in vitro, of which two studies attained a high-quality score, whereas the other two attained average, and low scores based on Bader et al.'s criteria. A big lacuna exists in the literature, regarding the evaluation of radiographic systems in primary teeth, suggesting an immediate need for well conducted in vivo studies. The quality of available evidence can be regarded as fair but cannot be suggested to set a baseline, indicating a need to perform high-quality studies in a randomized sample to find out the accuracy of digital and conventional radiographs.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of direct digital radiography and conventional radiography for proximal caries detection in primary teeth: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to uncover the diagnostic accuracy of digital versus conventional radiographic methods for the detection of proximal caries in primary teeth. Methods: Two researchers independently involved in the search process to explore Medical Subject Heading terms "dental digital radiography," "dental radiography," "bitewing," "dental caries," and "primary teeth" using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Ovid SP, and SIGLE databases. Search was confined to the articles published in English language only, with time period limit January 1996 to April 2014 and a hand search was performed to retrieve additional citations. Explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to eliminate undesired studies. Critical appraisal of the retrieved articles was done using the quality rating based on Bader and co-workers criteria. Results: A total of 129 articles were retrieved, among which 4 articles were included. All the four studies included were in vitro, of which two studies attained a high-quality score, whereas the other two attained average, and low scores based on Bader et al.′s criteria. Conclusions: A big lacuna exists in the literature, regarding the evaluation of radiographic systems in primary teeth, suggesting an immediate need for well conducted in vivo studies. The quality of available evidence can be regarded as fair but cannot be suggested to set a baseline, indicating a need to perform high-quality studies in a randomized sample to find out the accuracy of digital and conventional radiographs.

  11. Double line sign: a helpful sonographic sign to detect occult fractures of the proximal humerus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.C.M.; Jager, G.J.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Blickman, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a new sonographic sign of bone fracture and to determine if it can be helpful in decreasing the number of missed fractures of the proximal humerus. Ultrasound (US) of the shoulder was performed in 57 consecutive patients with shoulder pain and/or disability

  12. Passive intrusion detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, E. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detection system is described in which crystal oscillators are used to provide a frequency which varies as a function of fluctuations of a particular environmental property of the atmosphere, e.g., humidity, in the protected volume. The system is based on the discovery that the frequency of an oscillator whose crystal is humidity sensitive, varies at a frequency or rate which is within a known frequency band, due to the entry of an intruder into the protected volume. The variable frequency is converted into a voltage which is then filtered by a filtering arrangement which permits only voltage variations at frequencies within the known frequency band to activate an alarm, while inhibiting the alarm activation when the voltage frequency is below or above the known frequency band.

  13. Performance of a proximity cryogenic system for the ATLAS central solenoid magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Y; Makida, Y; Kondo, Y; Kawai, M; Aoki, K; Haruyama, T; Kondo, T; Mizumaki, S; Wachi, Y; Mine, S; Haug, F; Delruelle, N; Passardi, Giorgio; ten Kate, H H J

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS central solenoid magnet has been designed and constructed as a collaborative work between KEK and CERN for the ATLAS experiment in the LHC project The solenoid provides an axial magnetic field of 2 Tesla at the center of the tracking volume of the ATLAS detector. The solenoid is installed in a common cryostat of a liquid-argon calorimeter in order to minimize the mass of the cryostat wall. The coil is cooled indirectly by using two-phase helium flow in a pair of serpentine cooling line. The cryogen is supplied by the ATLAS cryogenic plant, which also supplies helium to the Toroid magnet systems. The proximity cryogenic system for the solenoid has two major components: a control dewar and a valve unit In addition, a programmable logic controller, PLC, was prepared for the automatic operation and solenoid test in Japan. This paper describes the design of the proximity cryogenic system and results of the performance test. (7 refs).

  14. Boomerang mobile counter shooter detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Jeffrey A.; Barger, James E.; Brinn, Marshall; Mullen, Richard J.; Price, David; Ritter, Scott E.; Schmitt, Dave

    2005-05-01

    Boomerang is an acoustic system installed on military vehicles that is designed to detect relative shooter azimuth/range/elevation from incoming small arms fire. It performs passive acoustic detection and computer-based signal processing. Aural and visual alerts are used to 1) inform vehicle occupants that a bullet has passed within close proximity to the vehicle and 2) indicate the position of the shooter relative to the vehicle"s direction of travel. Boomerang operates when the vehicle is stationary or moving (no motion compensation) using a single, compact, mast-mounted array of microphones. The system is calibrated to detect infantry small arms. This calibration, however, does not preclude the system from detecting larger and smaller supersonic rounds. In this paper, we discuss the design, development, testing and production of 50 Boomerang I systems over a 65-day period in late 2003/early 2004. These systems were deployed during Operation Iraqi Freedom II with Marine and Army units. Feedback from operational units identified specific deficiencies and desired improvements that were incorporated into a system re-design effort, Boomerang II. The Boomerang II system has been extensively tested for performance and environmental fitness regarding RF compatibility with tactical radios (SINCGARS), heat, cold, shock and vibration. The US Army Aberdeen Proving Grounds conducted successful RF compatibility tests, road tests and 'live fire' testing. Summary results of open field 'live fire' static tests are presented as well as performance results on a remote-controlled HMMWV operating at 45 MPH.

  15. A clinical comparison of extraoral panoramic and intraoral radiographic modalities for detecting proximal caries and visualizing open posterior interproximal contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Glenn L; Noujeim, Marcel; Langlais, Robert P; Moore, William S; Prihoda, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare extraoral panoramic bitewings (BWs) to intraoral photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate BWs for the detection of proximal surface caries and to establish if there was any difference between extraoral BWs, intraoral BWs and panoramic radiographs in visualizing open posterior interproximal contacts. Extraoral panoramic and intraoral BW images were acquired on each of 20 patients, resulting in 489 total non-restored, readable surfaces that were evaluated by 4 observers. The ANOVA analysis to determine diagnostic variability between and within each subject was utilized. The surfaces included in the study extended from the distal of each canine to the last posterior contact in each arch with non-readable proximal surfaces excluded (i.e.surfaces where over half the enamel layer was overlapped or where those surfaces were not visible in one or both modalities). The statistical analysis indicated that the overall mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curves across all observers for the intraoral BWs and extraoral panoramic BWs were 0.832 and 0.827, respectively, and the difference of 0.005 was not significant at p = 0.7781. The percentage of non-readable proximal surfaces across the three modalities was 4.1% for intraoral BWs, 18.3% for extraoral panoramic BWs and 51.5% for the standard panoramic images. The investigators concluded there was no significant difference in posterior proximal surface caries detection between the modalities. Extraoral panoramic BWs were much better than panoramic radiographs in visualizing open posterior interproximal contacts, 81.7% vs 48.5%, but below the 95.9% value for intraoral BWs.

  16. Proximity systems: Analysis of health risks; Varchi magneticianalysis of health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbaro, V.; Bartolini, P.; Donato, A. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Ingegneria Biomedica; Militello, C.; Polichetti, A.; Vecchia, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Fisica

    1996-03-01

    The results of a study on the magnetic fields generated by proximity systems for the controlled access of personnel are reported. Besides data from experimental measurements, the results are presented of theoretical calculations of induced currents inside the body. Health risks are also evaluated based on a comparison with the most advanced international standards. Finally, possible effects of interference with implanted pacemakers are analyzed in detail.

  17. Effectiveness of sealing active proximal caries lesions with an adhesive system: 1-year clinical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse Abuchaim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a therapeutic sealant to arrest non-cavitated proximal carious lesion progression. The study population comprised 44 adolescents who had bitewing radiographs taken for caries diagnosis. Non-cavitated lesions extending up to half of dentin thickness were included in the sample. In the experimental group (n = 33, the proximal caries-lesion surfaces were sealed with an adhesive (OptiBond Solo, Kerr after tooth separation. The control group (n = 11 received no treatment, except for oral hygiene instructions including use of dental floss. Follow-up radiographs were taken after one year and were analyzed in comparison with baseline radiographs. In a blind study setting, visual readings were performed by two examiners, blinded to whether the examined radiograph was baseline or follow-up, and whether it concerned a test or control lesion. The efficacy of sealing treatment was evaluated by the McNemar test (0.05. About 22% of the sealed lesions showed reduction, 61% showed no change and 16% showed progression. For the control lesions, the corresponding values were 27%, 36% and 36% respectively. The number of lesions that showed reduction and no changes were merged and therefore 83.3% of the sealed lesions and 63.6% of the control lesions were considered clinically successful. No statistical significance was detected (p > 0.05. In the course of 1 year, sealing proximal caries lesions was not shown to be superior to lesion monitoring.

  18. Effect of Filtration and Thickness of Cross-Sections of Cone Beam Computed Tomography Images on Detection of Proximal Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdinian, Mehrdad; Nazeri, Rahman; Ghaiour, Marzieh

    2017-07-01

    When a patient has cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images based on the treatment plan, it is possible to use these images for evaluation of caries, and there is no need for new radiographs, according to the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) principle. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of filtration and thickness of CBCT cross-sections on detection of proximal caries. In this in-vitro study, 100 teeth were placed in the dental sockets of a dry skull, and were fixed in normal proximal contacts. CBCT images were taken and were evaluated by two observers on the panoramic view at 1-, 3- and 5-mm-thick cross-sections, with the use of filtrations 0, 1 and 2. Afterwards, the samples were sectioned and underwent a histological evaluation. McNemar's test was used to compare the findings on CBCT images and histological evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and logistic regression were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different cross-sections. The maximum AZ-value was achieved at 3-mm thickness/filtration 2. However, the differences between 1-mm thickness/filtration 2 and 1-mm thickness/filtration 1 were not significant (P=0.728 and 0.868, respectively). The minimum AZ-value was achieved at 5-mm thickness/filtration 0. Although CBCT is not sufficiently effective in detecting caries, the best cross-sections for detection of proximal caries were achieved at 3-mm thickness/filtration 2, 1-mm thickness/filtration 2 and 1-mm thickness/filtration 1.

  19. Effect of Filtration and Thickness of Cross-Sections of Cone Beam Computed Tomography Images on Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Abdinian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: When a patient has cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images based on the treatment plan, it is possible to use these images for evaluation of caries, and there is no need for new radiographs, according to the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA principle. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of filtration and thickness of CBCT cross-sections on detection of proximal caries.Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 100 teeth were placed in the dental sockets of a dry skull, and were fixed in normal proximal contacts. CBCT images were taken and were evaluated by two observers on the panoramic view at 1-, 3- and 5-mm-thick cross-sections, with the use of filtrations 0, 1 and 2. Afterwards, the samples were sectioned and underwent a histological evaluation. McNemar’s test was used to compare the findings on CBCT images and histological evaluation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and logistic regression were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different cross-sections.Results: The maximum AZ-value was achieved at 3-mm thickness/filtration 2. However, the differences between 1-mm thickness/filtration 2 and 1-mm thickness/filtration 1 were not significant (P=0.728 and 0.868, respectively. The minimum AZ-value was achieved at 5-mm thickness/filtration 0.Conclusions: Although CBCT is not sufficiently effective in detecting caries, the best cross-sections for detection of proximal caries were achieved at 3-mm thickness/filtration 2, 1-mm thickness/filtration 2 and 1-mm thickness/filtration 1.

  20. Statistical Detection of the He ii Transverse Proximity Effect: Evidence for Sustained Quasar Activity for >25 Million Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias M. Schmidt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The reionization of helium at z ~ 3 is the final phase transition of the intergalactic medium and supposed to be driven purely by quasars. The He ii transverse proximity effect—enhanced He ii transmission in a background sightline caused by the ionizing radiation of a foreground quasar—therefore offers a unique opportunity to probe the morphology of He ii reionization and to investigate the emission properties of quasars, e.g., ionizing emissivity, lifetime and beaming geometry. We use the most-recent HST/COS far-UV dataset of 22 He ii absorption spectra and conduct our own dedicated optical spectroscopic survey to find foreground quasars around these He ii sightlines. Based on a set of 66 foreground quasars, we perform the first statistical analysis of the He ii transverse proximity effect. Despite a large object-to-object variance, our stacking analysis reveals an excess in the average He ii transmission near the foreground quasars at 3σ significance. This statistical evidence for the transverse proximity effect is corroborated by a clear dependence of the signal strength on the inferred He ii ionization rate at the background sightline. Our detection places, based on the transverse light crossing time, a geometrical limit on the quasar lifetime of tQ > 25 Myr. This evidence for sustained activity of luminous quasars is relevant for the morphology of H i and He ii reionization and helps to constrain AGN triggering mechanisms, accretion physics and models of black hole mass assembly. We show how future modeling of the transverse proximity effect can additionally constrain quasar emission geometries and e.g., clarify if the large observed object-to-object variance can be explained by current models of quasar obscuration.

  1. Detection of proximal caries using quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital and laser fluorescence: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung-In; Yoo, Min-Jeong; Park, Eun-Jin

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro validity of quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D) and laser fluorescence (DIAGNOdent) for assessing proximal caries in extracted premolars, using digital radiography as reference method. A total of 102 extracted premolars with similar lengths and shapes were used. A single operator conducted all the examinations using three different detection methods (bitewing radiography, QLF-D, and DIAGNOdent). The bitewing x-ray scale, QLF-D fluorescence loss (ΔF), and DIAGNOdent peak readings were compared and statistically analyzed. Each method showed an excellent reliability. The correlation coefficient between bitewing radiography and QLF-D, DIAGNOdent were -0.644 and 0.448, respectively, while the value between QLF-D and DIAGNOdent was -0.382. The kappa statistics for bitewing radiography and QLF-D had a higher diagnosis consensus than those for bitewing radiography and DIAGNOdent. The QLF-D was moderately to highly accurate (AUC = 0.753 - 0.908), while DIAGNOdent was moderately to less accurate (AUC = 0.622 - 0.784). All detection methods showed statistically significant correlation and high correlation between the bitewing radiography and QLF-D. QLF-D was found to be a valid and reliable alternative diagnostic method to digital bitewing radiography for in vitro detection of proximal caries.

  2. Functional outcome of closed fractures of proximal humerus managed by Joshi′s external stabilizing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proximal humeral fractures account for 4-5% of all fractures; most of them involving elderly and osteoporotic people. 1 51% of such fractures are displaced. Two Fractures with minimal displacement, regardless of the number of fracture lines, can be treated with closed reduction and early mobilization, but anatomical reduction in displaced fractures is difficult to obtain and the incidence of pseudarthrosis is high 3-5. We evaluated the functional results of closed Neer′s 2- and 3-part proximal humerus fractures treated by Joshi′s external stabilizing system. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients with proximal humeral fractures were managed from 2008 to 2010 by Joshi′s stabilizing external fixation. They were 10 males and 6 females, with a mean age of 57.5 years. Based on Neer′s classification, there were eleven 3-part fractures and five 2-part fractures. The mechanism of injuries included seven road traffic accidents and nine fall. Shoulder mobilization exercises were started within 1 week after stabilization with JESS. External fixation was removed after the evidence of union (6-8 weeks. Pain was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS and shoulder range of motion was evaluated by Constant Scoring System. Followup was done at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks, and then at every 4 weeks. Results: Mean followup was of 20.5 months (range 9-30 months. Postoperative mean VAS score and Constant Score of patients was 2.1 (±0.73 and 78.1 (±9.61 at an average followup of 6 months. Mean duration for union was 6.5 (±1.18 weeks. One case of K-wire loosening and one case of pin tract infection were the complications noted. Conclusion: External fixation by JESS is an alternative option to treat Neer′s 2 and 3 part proximal humerus fractures with good results.

  3. In Vitro Evaluation of Proximal Carious Lesions Using Digital Radiographic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayana Soares Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of digital radiographic systems for the diagnosis of proximal carious lesions. Extracted human teeth (3 canines, 3 premolars, and 3 molars were submitted to one of three types of proximal lesions (demineralized area, cavity affecting the enamel alone, and cavity affecting enamel and dentin. Bitewing radiographs were obtained from each system (Sirona, Kodak, and Schick and evaluated by 12 raters (4 dental students, 4 radiology specialists, and 4 dentists. The chi-squared test was used to determine the frequency of correct diagnoses among the different systems, raters, teeth, and types of lesion. Sensitivity and specificity regarding demineralized areas were calculated for each system. The frequencies of correct diagnoses were found: Schick (70.8%, Kodak (63.9%, Sirona (59.0%, specialists (69.4%, students (62.5%, dentists (61.8%, premolars (70.1%, canines (65.3%, and molars (58.3%. No significant differences were found among the different systems, raters, or teeth (P>0.05. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.64 and 0.47 (Schick, 0.56 and 0.50 (Sirona, and 0.48 and 0.58 (Kodak. The most correct diagnoses were achieved using the Schick digital system on premolars and evaluated by specialists in radiology. The systems demonstrated low sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of demineralized areas.

  4. Effects from magnetic boundary conditions in superconducting-magnetic proximity systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Baker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A superconductor-magnetic proximity system displays singlet-triplet pair correlations in the magnetization as a function of inhomogeneities of the magnetic profile. We discuss how the magnetic boundary conditions affects differently the curvature and winding number of rotating magnetizations in the three commonly used structures to generate long range triplet components: an exchange spring, a helical structure and a misaligned magnetic multilayer. We conclude that the choice of the system is dictated by the goal one wishes to achieve in designing a spintronic device but note that only the exchange spring presently offers an experimentally realizable magnetic profile that is tunable.

  5. Synthesis of visibility detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Visibility is a critical component to the task of driving on all types of roads. The visibility detection and warning systems provide real-time, automated detection as well as appropriate responses to counteract reduced visibility conditions due to f...

  6. Intrusion detection: systems and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, J. S.; Dearmond, T. G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper puts forward a review of state of the art and state of the applicability of intrusion detection systems, and models. The paper also presents a classfication of literature pertaining to intrusion detection.

  7. Introduction to detection systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    Presentation of the information processing pipleline for detection including discussing of various issues and the use of mathematical modeling. A simple example of detection a signal in noise illustrated that simple modeling outperforms human visual and auditory perception. Particiants are going...

  8. A proximity ligation assay using transiently transfected, epitope-tagged proteins: application for in situ detection of dimerized receptor tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajadhar, Aaron; Guha, Abhijit

    2010-02-01

    The development of small molecule and antibody inhibitors targeting the interaction of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is of high pharmacological and biological interest. Unfortunately, conventional biochemical techniques using cell or tissue lysates and co-immunoprecipitation experiments to investigate EGFR dimerization are not always conclusive. Here we describe a series of technical and biological validation experiments demonstrating the utility of a proximity ligation assay (PLA)-based methodology for in situ visualization and quantification of ligand-dependent EGFR receptor dimerization in intact cells. Using the PLA approach combined with a universally applicable epitope tagging strategy, we detected EGFR dimers in cells transiently co-expressing FLAG-tagged and MYC-tagged human EGFRs. Our data strongly suggest that PLA can be used to detect ligand-dependent EGFR dimerization and this signal is generated in a protein interaction-based manner, rather than solely due to proximity of target proteins. This application represents a generalized RTK expression strategy for protein-interaction analysis in a transient expression system where antibody epitopes are not known or not unique enough to discriminate between interaction partners. This assay also holds promise as a general RTK dimerization screening tool in tissue specimens to identify potential dimerization inhibitors with clinical relevance.

  9. Use of a low cut-off value for the fecal immunochemical test enables better detection of proximal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Myung; Lee, Joung Il; Joo, Kwang Ro; Shin, Hyun Phil; Jeun, Jung Won; Lim, Jun Uk

    2013-11-01

    The advantage of the quantitative fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is the flexibility to set the positivity threshold. However, the diagnostic success of the FIT has not been compared for standard and low cut-off thresholds. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic success of FIT for standard and low cut-off thresholds. In 2009 and 2010 a standard cut-off threshold (20 μg Hb/g feces) was used as positivity criterion for the FIT; in 2012 a low cut-off (10 μg Hb/g feces) was used. Diagnostic success was compared between the two groups. Of the total of 14,289 participants, 195 (1.4 %) had positive FIT results. Positivity of the FIT was significantly higher in the low cut-off group than in the standard cut-off group (1.8 vs. 1.0 %, p = 0.000). Although detection of advanced neoplasia lesions was comparable, proximal neoplasia was more frequently detected in the low cut-off group (33.3 vs. 20.9 %, p = 0.016). With the low cut-off threshold, 39 (0.7 %) participants were also classified as having positive results, and 18 (46.2 %) of these had colorectal neoplasias. The number of positive results from the FIT was increased by 54.9 %, and detection of advanced neoplasia was increased by 60 % with the low cut-off threshold compared with the standard cut-off. A low cut-off threshold for the FIT resulted in better detection of proximal neoplasia in population-based screening. These results indicate the cut-off threshold for positive FIT should be properly chosen and adjusted in colorectal cancer screening.

  10. Proximal caries lesion detection in primary teeth: does this justify the association of diagnostic methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussaneli, D G; Restrepo, M; Boldieri, T; Albertoni, T H; Santos-Pinto, L; Cordeiro, R C L

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate and compare the performance of visual exam with use of the Nyvad criteria (visual examination - (VE)), interproximal radiography (BW), laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent Pen-DDPen), and their association in the diagnosis of proximal lesions in primary teeth. For this purpose, 45 children (n = 59 surfaces) of both sexes, aged between 5 and 9 years were selected, who presented healthy primary molars or primary molars with signs suggestive of the presence of caries lesions. The surfaces were clinically evaluated and coded according to the Nyvad criteria and immediately afterwards with the DDPen. Radiographic exam was performed only on the surfaces coded with Nyvad scores 2, 3, 5, or 6. Active caries lesions and/or those with discontinuous surfaces were restored, considering the depth of lesion as reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under ROC curve were calculated for each technique and its associations. Visual exam with Nyvad criteria presented the highest specificity, accuracy, and area under ROC curve values. The DDPen presented the highest sensitivity values. Association with one or more methods resulted in an increase in specificity. The performance of visual, radiographic, and DDpen exams and their associations were good; however, the clinical examination with the Nyvad criteria was sufficient for the diagnosis of interproximal lesions in primary teeth.

  11. Accuracy of extraoral bite-wing radiography in detecting proximal caries and crestal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Micah; Dadul, Tenzin; Langlais, Robert; Russell, David; Ahmad, Mansur

    2018-01-01

    Extraoral bite-wing (EB) radiography is an imaging technology used in dentistry. The authors conducted an in vivo study comparing the accuracy of intraoral bitewing (IB) radiographs and EB radiographs for proximal caries and bone loss diagnosis. The authors recruited 116 patients who received IB radiographs to receive EB radiographs. The 5 calibrated authors made a consensus radiographic diagnosis of proximal caries and crestal bone loss. For this study, they assumed IB radiographs as the criterion standard. Next, they obtained EB radiographs for the 116 patients and calculated sensitivity, specificity, and false-positive rates against each patient's IB radiograph. The patients' EB radiographs revealed a significantly greater number of caries and crestal bone loss findings compared with their IB radiographs. The EB radiographs had a high to excellent sensitivity and moderate to low specificity of caries and crestal bone loss findings, respectively. Considering IB radiographs to be the criterion standard, the false-positive rate for EB radiographs was moderate for caries and high for bone loss diagnosis. The EB radiographs, which generate fewer images of overlapping proximal surfaces, have the advantage of detecting more carious lesions and bone loss findings than the IB radiographs do, but with the disadvantage of more false-positive diagnoses. Further research is needed to evaluate if the false-positive findings represent true carious lesions and bone loss. EB radiography is a promising technology, which has several advantages over traditional IB radiography. Clinicians should be aware of false-positive diagnosis of caries and bone loss with EB radiography. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing the performance of storage phosphor plate and Insight film images for the detection of proximal caries depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, K; Parker, M E; Nortje, C J; Sanderink, G C H

    2009-11-01

    To compare proximal caries depth between conventional film images, unenhanced and enhanced storage phosphor plate images. Bitewing radiographs were taken on 100 patients presenting for Conservative and Periodontal treatment. Only one bitewing was taken on a patient either the right or left hand side of the patient A DenOptics storage phosphor plate and size 3 Kodak Insight film were simultaneously placed into a Rinn bitewing holder. The Insight film was placed behind the phosphor plate. Both were simultaneously exposed to radiation. The unenhanced phosphor plate images were copied four times. Contrast and brightness were either increased or decreased on the copied images. A five point scale was chosen for proximal caries depth: 0--sound, 1--caries in enamel, 2--caries reaching dentino-enamel junction, 3--caries into dentine, 4--caries in a restored area. The bitewing images were evaluated by 4 clinicians. Images with technical errors were excluded from the study. Altogether 1848 tooth surfaces were evaluated of which 136 surfaces were excluded due to technical errors. The results show that for the detection of proximal caries there is no significant difference in accuracy between unenhanced storage phosphor plate and Kodak Insight film images (p > 0.001). When decreasing both contrast and brightness there was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy (p > 0.001) between unenhanced and enhanced storage phosphor plate images. More surfaces were analyzed for caries into the dentine on the enhanced images when both contrast and brightness were increased. Although contrast-enhanced and brightness-enhanced images retween conventional film, unenhanced and enhanced images.

  13. Instrument access device for instrument access system, has connector member connecting proximal member with instrument seals, where proximal member and connector member are configured to retain proximal end of retractor member

    OpenAIRE

    Bonadio, Frank; Vaugh, Trevor; McManus, Ronan; MacNally, Shane

    2010-01-01

    The device (203) has instrument seals sealingly arranged in a body of a patient, and a distal anchoring member located in a wound interior. A retractor member is proximally extended from a distal anchoring member to retract sides of a wound opening. A proximal member is adopted for locating an external part of the wound opening. A connector member connects the proximal member with the instrument seals. The proximal member and the connector member are configured to retain a proximal end of the...

  14. Asymmetry and structural system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis: osteoarticular anatomical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baydoun Safaa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human femur is commonly considered as a subsystem of the locomotor apparatus with four conspicuous levels of organization. This phenomenon is the result of the evolution of the locomotor apparatus, which encompasses both constitutional and individual variability. The work therein reported, therefore, underlies the significance of observing anatomical system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis in normal conditions, according to the anatomic positioning with respect to the right or left side of the body, and the presence of system asymmetry in the meta-epiphysis structure, thus indicating structural and functional asymmetry. Methods A total of 160 femur bones of both sexes were compiled and a morphological study of 15 linear and angulated parameters of proximal femur epiphysis was produced, thus defining the linear/angulated size of tubular bones. The parameters were divided into linear and angulated groups, while maintaining the motion of the hip joint and transmission of stress to the unwanted parts of the limb. Furthermore, the straight and vertical diameters of the femoral head and the length of the femoral neck were also studied. The angle between the neck and diaphysis, the neck antiversion and angle of rotation of the femoral neck were subsequently measured. Finally, the condylo-diaphyseal angle with respect to the axis of extremity was determined. To visualize the force of intersystem ties, we have used the method of correlation galaxy construction. Results The absolute numeral values of each linear parameter were transformed to relative values. The values of superfluity coefficient for each parameter in the right and left femoral bone groups were estimated and Pearson's correlation coefficient has been calculated (> 0.60. Retrospectively, the observed results have confirmed the presence of functional asymmetry in the proximal femur meta-epiphysis. On the basis of compliance or insignificant difference in

  15. Asymmetry and structural system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis: osteoarticular anatomical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, Ali A; Ivanov, Alexander V; Haddad, John J; Kolesnik, Alexander I; Baydoun, Safaa; Arabi, Maher R; Yashina, Irena N; Samaha, Rana A; Ivanov, Dimetry A

    2008-02-27

    The human femur is commonly considered as a subsystem of the locomotor apparatus with four conspicuous levels of organization. This phenomenon is the result of the evolution of the locomotor apparatus, which encompasses both constitutional and individual variability. The work therein reported, therefore, underlies the significance of observing anatomical system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis in normal conditions, according to the anatomic positioning with respect to the right or left side of the body, and the presence of system asymmetry in the meta-epiphysis structure, thus indicating structural and functional asymmetry. A total of 160 femur bones of both sexes were compiled and a morphological study of 15 linear and angulated parameters of proximal femur epiphysis was produced, thus defining the linear/angulated size of tubular bones. The parameters were divided into linear and angulated groups, while maintaining the motion of the hip joint and transmission of stress to the unwanted parts of the limb. Furthermore, the straight and vertical diameters of the femoral head and the length of the femoral neck were also studied. The angle between the neck and diaphysis, the neck antiversion and angle of rotation of the femoral neck were subsequently measured. Finally, the condylo-diaphyseal angle with respect to the axis of extremity was determined. To visualize the force of intersystem ties, we have used the method of correlation galaxy construction. The absolute numeral values of each linear parameter were transformed to relative values. The values of superfluidity coefficient for each parameter in the right and left femoral bone groups were estimated and Pearson's correlation coefficient has been calculated (> 0.60). Retrospectively, the observed results have confirmed the presence of functional asymmetry in the proximal femur meta-epiphysis. On the basis of compliance or insignificant difference in the confidence interval of the linear parameters, we

  16. Diagnostic ability of the periapical radiographs and digital image in the detection of the artificial proximal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Min Suk; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-15

    Recently, the digital image was introduced into radiological image. The digital image has the power of contrast enhancement, histogram control, and other digitally enhancement. At the point of the resolution, periapical radiograph is superior to the digital image, but enhanced digital procedure improves the diagnostic ability of the digital image. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries in conventional radiographs, digital radiographs and enhanced digital radiographs (histogram specification). ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and paired t-test were used for the evaluation of detectability, and following results were acquired: 1. The mean ROC area of conventional radiographs was 0.9274. 2. The mean ROC area of unenhanced digital image was 0.9168. 3. The mean ROC area of enhanced digital image was 0.9339. 4. The diagnostic ability of three imaging methods was not significant difference (p>0.05). So, the digital images had similar diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries to conventional radiographs. If properly enhanced digital image, it may be superior to conventional radiographs.

  17. In Vitro Comparison of D and F Speed Intraoral Radiographic Films in the Detection of Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliehsadat Javadzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of fast films is one of the major factors contributing to dose reduction. However, the diagnostic ability of fast film must be determined before current use of the films. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of D and F speed films in the diagnosis of proximal caries.Materials & Methods: Eighty proximal surfaces in 40 extracted unrestored premolars were undergone radiography in standardized conditions using D- and F-speed flowdental intraoral films. True caries diagnosis was based on histological assessment of the surfaces after sectioning the teeth. Two observers read the radiographs using a four-point scale to record their diagnosis. Observer responses were evaluated using ROC analysis and areas under the ROC Curves (Az was microscopical assessed by pairwise comparison of ROC Curve.Results: D and F speed films had a mean Az of 0.934 and 0.920 respectively. The difference was not statistically significant (P=0.548 Difference between observers was also not statistically significant.Conclusion: The efficiency of the new F-Speed films was not statistically different from that D Speed films in caries detection. This film shows the ability of reducing patient’s dose while maintaining diagnostic quality.

  18. Protein detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruetel, Julie A [Livermore, CA; Fiechtner, Gregory J [Bethesda, MD; Kliner, Dahv A. V. [San Ramon, CA; McIlroy, Andrew [Livermore, CA

    2009-05-05

    The present embodiment describes a miniature, microfluidic, absorption-based sensor to detect proteins at sensitivities comparable to LIF but without the need for tagging. This instrument utilizes fiber-based evanescent-field cavity-ringdown spectroscopy, in combination with faceted prism microchannels. The combination of these techniques will increase the effective absorption path length by a factor of 10.sup.3 to 10.sup.4 (to .about.1-m), thereby providing unprecedented sensitivity using direct absorption. The coupling of high-sensitivity absorption with high-performance microfluidic separation will enable real-time sensing of biological agents in aqueous samples (including aerosol collector fluids) and will provide a general method with spectral fingerprint capability for detecting specific bio-agents.

  19. Diagnostic Value of Conventional and Digital Radiography for Detection of Cavitated and Non-Cavitated Proximal Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mahdieh; Barzegari, Rasool; Tabatabai, Hosein

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of conventional and digital radiography for detection of cavitated and non-cavitated proximal caries. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted human premolars and molars were mounted in a silicone block. Charge-coupled device (CCD) and photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP) receptors and intra-oral films were exposed with 60 and 70 kVp with parallel technique. Two observers interpreted the radiographs twice with a two-week interval using a 5-point scale. Teeth were then serially sectioned in mesiodistal direction and evaluated under a stereomicroscope (gold standard). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated. Results: Sensitivity of all three receptors for detection of enamel lesions was low (5.5–44.4%) but it was higher for dentin lesions (42.8–62.8%); PSP with 70 kVp and 0.03s exposure time had the highest sensitivity for enamel lesions, but the difference among receptors was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Sensitivity of all three receptors for detection of non-cavitated lesions was lower than that for cavitated lesions; PSP with 60 kVp and 0.07s exposure time had higher sensitivity and lower patient radiation dose for detection of cavitated and non-cavitated lesions, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Conclusions: Digital radiography using PSP receptor with 70 kVp is recommended to detect initial enamel caries. For detection of non-cavitated and cavitated dentin caries, PSP with 60 kVp is more appropriate. Change in kVp did not affect the diagnostic accuracy for detection of caries, and type of receptor was a more important factor. PMID:28828014

  20. Diagnostic Value of Conventional and Digital Radiography for Detection of Cavitated and Non-Cavitated Proximal Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Dehghani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of conventional and digital radiography for detection of cavitated and non-cavitated proximal caries.Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted human premolars and molars were mounted in a silicone block. Charge-coupled device (CCD and photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP receptors and intra-oral films were exposed with 60 and 70 kVp with parallel technique. Two observers interpreted the radiographs twice with a two-week interval using a 5-point scale. Teeth were then serially sectioned in mesiodistal direction and evaluated under a stereomicroscope (gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated.Results: Sensitivity of all three receptors for detection of enamel lesions was low (5.5-44.4% but it was higher for dentin lesions (42.8-62.8%; PSP with 70 kVp and 0.03s exposure time had the highest sensitivity for enamel lesions, but the difference among receptors was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Sensitivity of all three receptors for detection of non-cavitated lesions was lower than that for cavitated lesions; PSP with 60 kVp and 0.07s exposure time had higher sensitivity and lower patient radiation dose for detection of cavitated and non-cavitated lesions, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05.Conclusions: Digital radiography using PSP receptor with 70 kVp is recommended to detect initial enamel caries. For detection of non-cavitated and cavitated dentin caries, PSP with 60 kVp is more appropriate. Change in kVp did not affect the diagnostic accuracy for detection of caries, and type of receptor was a more important factor.Keywords: Dental Caries; Diagnostic Imaging; Radiography, Dental, Digital

  1. Diagnostic Value of Conventional and Digital Radiography for Detection of Cavitated and Non-Cavitated Proximal Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mahdieh; Barzegari, Rasool; Tabatabai, Hosein; Ghanea, Sahar

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of conventional and digital radiography for detection of cavitated and non-cavitated proximal caries. Fifty extracted human premolars and molars were mounted in a silicone block. Charge-coupled device (CCD) and photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP) receptors and intra-oral films were exposed with 60 and 70 kVp with parallel technique. Two observers interpreted the radiographs twice with a two-week interval using a 5-point scale. Teeth were then serially sectioned in mesiodistal direction and evaluated under a stereomicroscope (gold standard). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated. Sensitivity of all three receptors for detection of enamel lesions was low (5.5-44.4%) but it was higher for dentin lesions (42.8-62.8%); PSP with 70 kVp and 0.03s exposure time had the highest sensitivity for enamel lesions, but the difference among receptors was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Sensitivity of all three receptors for detection of non-cavitated lesions was lower than that for cavitated lesions; PSP with 60 kVp and 0.07s exposure time had higher sensitivity and lower patient radiation dose for detection of cavitated and non-cavitated lesions, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Digital radiography using PSP receptor with 70 kVp is recommended to detect initial enamel caries. For detection of non-cavitated and cavitated dentin caries, PSP with 60 kVp is more appropriate. Change in kVp did not affect the diagnostic accuracy for detection of caries, and type of receptor was a more important factor.

  2. Intrusion Detection Systems with Live Knowledge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-31

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0058 Intrusion Detection Systems with Live Knowledge System Byeong Ho Kang UNIVERSITY OF TASMANIA Final Report 05/31/2016...COVERED (From - To) 20 May 2015 to 19 May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Intrusion Detection Systems with Live Knowledge System 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...298 10/26/2016https://livelink.ebs.afrl.af.mil/livelink/llisapi.dll Final Report for AOARD Grant FA2386-15-1-4061 “ Intrusion Detection Systems with

  3. Inter- and intraexaminer reliability of bitewing radiography and near-infrared light transillumination for proximal caries detection and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzenburger, Friederike; Heck, Katrin; Pitchika, Vinay; Neuhaus, Klaus W; Jost, Fabian N; Hickel, Reinhard; Jablonski-Momeni, Anahita; Welk, Alexander; Lederer, Alexander; Kühnisch, Jan

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the inter- and intraexaminer reliability of digital bitewing (DBW) radiography and near-infrared light transillumination (NIRT) for proximal caries detection and assessment in posterior teeth. From a pool of 85 patients, 100 corresponding pairs of DBW and NIRT images (~1/3 healthy, ~1/3 with enamel caries and ~1/3 with dentin caries) were chosen. 12 dentists with different professional status and clinical experience repeated the evaluation in two blinded cycles. Two experienced dentists provided a reference diagnosis after analysing all images independently. Statistical analysis included the calculation of simple (κ) and weighted Kappa (wκ) values as a measure of reliability. Logistic regression with a backward elimination model was used to investigate the influence of the diagnostic method, evaluation cycle, type of tooth, and clinical experience on reliability. Altogether, inter- and intraexaminer reliability exhibited good to excellent κ and wκ values for DBW radiography (Inter: κ = 0.60/ 0.63; wκ = 0.74/0.76; Intra: κ = 0.64; wκ = 0.77) and NIRT (Inter: κ = 0.74/0.64; wκ = 0.86/0.82; Intra: κ = 0.68; wκ = 0.84). The backward elimination model revealed NIRT to be significantly more reliable than DBW radiography. This study revealed a good to excellent inter- and intraexaminer reliability for proximal caries detection using DBW and NIRT images. The logistic regression analysis revealed significantly better reliability for NIRT. Additionally, the first evaluation cycle was more reliable according to the reference diagnoses.

  4. Analysis and Results from a Flush Airdata Sensing System in Close Proximity to Firing Rocket Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aliyah N.; Borrer, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents information regarding the nosecap Flush Airdata Sensing (FADS) system on Orion’s Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) vehicle. The purpose of the nosecap FADS system was to test whether or not useful data could be obtained from a FADS system if it was placed in close proximity to firing rocket nozzles like the Attitude Control Motor (ACM) nozzles on the PA-1 Launch Abort System. The nosecap FADS system used pressure measurements from a series of pressure ports which were arranged in a cruciform pattern and flush with the surface of the vehicle to estimate values of angle of attack, angle of sideslip, Mach number, impact pressure, and freestream static pressure. This paper will present the algorithms employed by the FADS system along with the development of the calibration datasets and a comparison of the final results to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET) data for PA-1. Also presented in this paper is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study to explore the impact of the ACM on the nosecap FADS system. The comparison of the nosecap FADS system results to the BET and the CFD study showed that more investigation is needed to quantify the impact of the firing rocket motors on the FADS system.

  5. Broken leads with proximal endings in the cardiovascular system: serious consequences and extraction difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutarski, Andrzej; Małecka, Barbara; Ząbek, Andrzej; Pietura, Radosław

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of effectiveness, technical problems, and complications of transvenous extraction of leads with the free endings migrated to the cardiovascular system (CVS). A 5-year-old database of transvenous lead extraction (TLE) procedures comprising 906 patients with 1563 leads being removed was analyzed. TLE procedures of leads migrated in the CVS were compared with TLE procedures of leads with their proximal ends accessible in the pacemaker/implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (PM/ICD) pocket. In our material, the phenomenon of leads migration occurred in 5% of patients referred for TLE and affected most frequently unipolar and atrial leads. The presence of migrating leads was associated with local venous occlusion in 64% of patients. Removal of migrating leads required other techniques than extraction of leads with their proximal ends accessible in the PM/ICD pocket. More than 95% of migrating leads were extracted transvenously, but procedures were significantly longer. The presence of other leads made extraction of migrated leads even more complicated. Effectiveness and complication rates for removal of migrated leads and leads accessible in the PM/ICD pocket were similar. We postulate that every lead migrating in the CVS should be considered for TLE. However, this extraction is technically more difficult and challenging than extraction of leads accessible in the PM/ICD pocket.

  6. Diagnostic Value of Senior Dental Students in Yazd About of Detection the Proximal Caries on Panoramic Radiographs Compared to Detection of Experts in 1394

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Romoozi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of man in the world and dentists should receive the capability to accurately diagnose of tooth decay during the training courses. In addition to clinical examination, the panoramic view and intraoral radiography is usually used for the caries detection. Therefore, the detection of caries on X-ray images can have a role in treatment planning. Methods: In this analytical study, 10 panoramic radiographies that randomly selected, separately given to 30 senior dental students and 2 professors (in order to determine the gold standard. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17 software, diagnostic tables and indexes were prepared and the results were analyzed by Kappa test. Moreover, in order to determine the agreement between the professors and students about the depth of the decay the weighted kappa coefficient was used. Results: The kappa value about detection of presence or absence of proximal caries between professors and students's diagnosis was 0.428 (P value=0.001. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value obtained by students in caries detection were %47, %91.9, %63 and %85.3, respectively. Coefficient of agreement in detection of depth diagnosis obtained by professors and students was 0.361(p value=0.000. Conclusion: The diagnostic capability of senior dental students about caries detection was fair and depth diagnosis was slight.

  7. Fault Detection for Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a general method for designing fault detection and isolation (FDI) systems for nonlinear processes. For a rich class of nonlinear systems, a nonlinear FDI system can be designed using convex optimization procedures. The proposed method is a natural extension of methods based...

  8. APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D

    2002-02-14

    An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

  9. Effectiveness of a worker-worn electric-field sensor to detect power-line proximity and electrical-contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shengke; Powers, John R; Newbraugh, Bradley H

    2010-06-01

    Construction workers suffer the most electrocutions among all industries. Currently, there are no electrical contact warning devices on the market to protect workers. This paper proposes a worker-worn electric-field sensor. As the worker is in proximity to, or in contact with, a live power-circuit, the sensor sets off an audible/visual warning alarm. The sensor also has the potential to wirelessly trip a wireless-capable circuit breaker, and to trigger a wireless transmitter to notify emergency response of an electrical contact. An experiment was conducted to measure electric-field variation on simulated human-wrists (10 defrosted hog-legs) in various proximities and in electrical-contact to a simulated power-circuit. The purpose of these tests was to determine the feasibility of developing a worker-worn electric-field detection sensor for use in protecting workers from contact with energized electrical conductors. This study observed a significant electric-field-magnitude increase as a hog-leg approaches the live-circuit, and the distinct electric-field-magnitude jump as the leg contacts with the live-circuit. The observation indicates that this sensor can be an effective device to warn the workers of electrical hazards. Additionally, the sensor has the potential to wirelessly trip a wireless-capable circuit-breaker and trigger a wireless transmitter (such as a cell phone) to notify an emergency response. The prompt notification prevents the worker from further injury caused by postponed medical-care. Widespread use of this sensor could lower electrocution and electrically related injury rates in the construction industry. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ferromagnetic Objects Magnetovision Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a weak magnetic fields magnetovision scanning system for detection of dangerous ferromagnetic objects. A measurement system was developed and built to study the magnetic field vector distributions. The measurements of the Earth’s field distortions caused by various ferromagnetic objects were carried out. The ability for passive detection of hidden or buried dangerous objects and the determination of their location was demonstrated.

  11. Query Refinement: Negation Detection and Proximity Learning Georgetown at TREC 2014 Clinical Decision Support Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Active Substance; Anatomical abnormality; Body Location or Region; Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component; Body System; Cell; Disease or Syndrome...symptoms to a large number of diseases . We believe it is more important to give greater weight to less common symptoms such as the presence of...inference process. SIGIR 1993. 3. W. B. Croft, D. Metzler, and T. Strohman. Search engines: Information retrieval in practice. Addison - Wesley Reading

  12. Advanced LWIR hyperspectral sensor for on-the-move proximal detection of liquid/solid contaminants on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Jay P.; Dixon, John; Dupuis, Julia R.; Cosofret, Bogdan R.; Marinelli, William J.

    2017-05-01

    Sensor technologies capable of detecting low vapor pressure liquid surface contaminants, as well as solids, in a noncontact fashion while on-the-move continues to be an important need for the U.S. Army. In this paper, we discuss the development of a long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-10.5 μm) spatial heterodyne spectrometer coupled with an LWIR illuminator and an automated detection algorithm for detection of surface contaminants from a moving vehicle. The system is designed to detect surface contaminants by repetitively collecting LWIR reflectance spectra of the ground. Detection and identification of surface contaminants is based on spectral correlation of the measured LWIR ground reflectance spectra with high fidelity library spectra and the system's cumulative binary detection response from the sampled ground. We present the concepts of the detection algorithm through a discussion of the system signal model. In addition, we present reflectance spectra of surfaces contaminated with a liquid CWA simulant, triethyl phosphate (TEP), and a solid simulant, acetaminophen acquired while the sensor was stationary and on-the-move. Surfaces included CARC painted steel, asphalt, concrete, and sand. The data collected was analyzed to determine the probability of detecting 800 μm diameter contaminant particles at a 0.5 g/m2 areal density with the SHSCAD traversing a surface.

  13. Cirlularly Polarized Proximity- Fed Microstrip Array Antenna for LAPAN TUBSAT Micro Satellite System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Wijaya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The design microstrip of array antenna circular polarization characteristic developed for support LAPAN TUBSAT micro satellite system. The antenna on the micro satellite systems transmit data to ground stations operating at S band frequencies.The antenna is designed for impedance matching at frequencies of 2:25 GHz.The four elements of the square patch antenna array composed using linear methods, where the design of the transmission lines used by federal corporate structure model network consisting of three elements of the quarter wave transformer of a power divider. The feeding techniques for antenna designed using proximity coupling method, which for the type of substrate material used is similar. Circularly polarized antenna characteristics are influenced by the truncated corner pieces on the patch. To design the overall antenna used simulated method of moments in microwave office software applications. The results of measurements and simulations obtained antenna parameters, such as: bandwidth of return loss under 10 dB is 200 MHz (shifted 35%, bandwidth of axial ratio under 3dB is 1.7% and maximum gain directivity is 9 dB. Overall results obtained antenna parameters to meet the specifications of LAPAN TUBSAT micro satellite system.

  14. PROXIMITY DEGREE FOR SIMPLE AND MULTIPLE STRUCTURES OF THE EIGENVALUES: OVERSHOOT MINIMIZATION FOR FREE MOTION TRAJECTORIES OF APERIODIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Akunov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with steady aperiodic continuous system, state matrix of which has a real spectrum of the eigenvalues which absolute value is less than unity. The latest authors’ works show that for such absolute values and multiple structure of eigenvalues on the free motion trajectories of the system by norm of the state vector the significant overshoot is detected, alternated by monotonous motion toward a state of rest. In order to minimize the overshoot value, it is proposed to modify the structure of the eigenvalues, transforming it into a simple one. The result of structure modification is the following: initial eigenvalue and shifted along the real axis of the complex plane to the left by a fixed value relative to the adjacent eigenvalues; each of them has unit multiplicity. Such modification gives the possibility to form the estimation of the proximity degree of eigenvalues simple structure to the multiple one. Moreover, it can be defined in a relative form, which guarantees the reduction of the above overshoot for the free motion trajectory. Results of computer experiments illustrate the issues of the paper.

  15. Spatial resolution of the pain system: a proximal-to-distal gradient of sensitivity revealed with psychophysical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Brayer-Zwi, Nurit; Defrin, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The spatial resolution of the pain system has not been studied in depth, and results are contradictory regarding the gradient of spatial resolution. Microneurographic recordings have revealed smaller receptive fields and higher density of nociceptors in more distal than proximal leg regions, whereas histological studies report higher density of C-fibers in more proximal than distal body regions. Due to this controversy, we conducted various psychophysical tests in order to examine the nociceptive spatial resolution and its gradient. Heat-pain threshold (HPT), perceived pain intensity, spatial summation (SS) of pain, two-point discrimination (2PD) of pain, and pain localization were measured in four body regions: upper back, thigh, lower leg, and foot. The highest HPT was demonstrated in the lower leg as compared with more proximal regions (P resolution has a proximal-to-distal pattern of performance, namely that the spatial resolution of pain is finer in more distal than proximal body regions, similar to that of the touch system.

  16. External fixation by Joshi′s external stabilizing system in cases of proximal humerus fractures in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fracture of the proximal humerus is a common and debilitating injury occurring mainly in elderly females and accounts for 4-5% of all adult fractures. Patients with displaced, unstable proximal humeral fractures may have improved outcomes if managed operatively. Objectives: To study the effect of using Joshi′s external stabilizing system (JESS for the management of fractures of proximal humerus in elderly. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in West Bengal on 28 subjects with proximal humerus fractures. As per Neer′s classification, 3- and 4-part fractures were included and prepared for JESS fixation. The results of the treatment were evaluated as per Neer′s criteria. Patients were followed up for 10 − 12 months. Results: Among 18 females and 10 males, 22 had 3-part fracture and 6 had 4-part fracture. Mean duration of JESS application was 10 weeks. Among patients with 3-part fractures 4 cases had excellent result, 12 had satisfactory result, 4 had unsatisfactory result and treatment failed in 2 cases. With 4-part fractures, 2 cases had unsatisfactory result and 4 cases were failures. Conclusion: JESS is an alternative option for the treatment of proximal humerus fractures, especially in elderly patients with osteoporosis, showing excellent to good results in cases of Neer′s type 3-part fracture.

  17. Optical detection in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2009-01-01

    Optical detection schemes continue to be favoured for measurements in microfluidic systems. A selection of the latest progress mainly within the last two years is critically reviewed. Emphasis is on integrated solutions, such as planar waveguides, coupling schemes to the outside world, evanescent...

  18. System for detecting microbial contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritse, J.; Groenestijn, J.W.; Zegers, N.D.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for detecting microbial contamination of a liquid specimen comprising a device for concentrating micro-organisms from a liquid specimen, having (i) a hypobaric chamber, (ii) a filter housing comprising a liquid-permeable bed of an adsorbent material and

  19. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  20. Effects of winter stocker growth rate and finishing system on: III. Tissue proximate, fatty acid, vitamin, and cholesterol content

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duckett, S. K; Neel, J. P. S; Fontenot, J. P; Clapham, W. M

    2009-01-01

    ...{at}clemson.edu Angus-cross steers (n = 198; 270 kg of BW; 8 mo) were used in a 3-yr study to assess the effects of winter stocker growth rate and finishing system on LM proximate, fatty acid, cholesterol, vitamin, and mineral composition...

  1. A Multiband Proximity-Coupled-Fed Flexible Microstrip Antenna for Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Andrea Casula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiband printed microstrip antenna for wireless communications is presented. The antenna is fed by a proximity-coupled microstrip line, and it is printed on a flexible substrate. The antenna has been designed using a general-purpose 3D computer-aided design software (CAD, CST Microwave Studio, and then realized. The comparison between simulated and measured results shows that the proposed antenna can be used for wireless communications for WLAN systems, covering both the WLAN S-band (2.45 GHz and C-band (5.2 GHz, and the Wi-Max 3.5 GHz band, with satisfactory input matching and broadside radiation pattern. Moreover, it has a compact size, is very easy to realize, and presents a discrete out-of-band rejection, without requiring the use of stop-band filters. The proposed structure can be used also as a conformal antenna, and its frequency response and radiated field are satisfactory for curvatures up to 65°.

  2. Morphological Evaluation of Proximal Anastomosis by PAS-Port(®) System in Patients with Long-Term Patent Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Muneyasu; Fujii, Takeshiro; Hara, Masanori; Sasaki, Yuki; Katayanagi, Tomoyuki; Okuma, Shinnosuke; Watanabe, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    We examined grafts employing for morphological analysis of early and long-term results on proximal anastomosis with the PAS-Port(®). One hundred and four patients treated by OPCAB with PAS-Port(®) were performed postoperative MDCT. Morphological evaluation of the proximal anastomotic region was classified into three groups (A; graft was anastomosed almost perpendicularly to the aortic wall, B; graft was same type A, but subsequently curved to form an acute angle with the aortic wall, C; graft take off acute angle with the aortic wall) evaluated on planar and sagittal sections. One hundred twenty-six PAS-Port(®) were used. Patency rate was 99.0% at discharge, 94.7% at 1 year, and no blockages were detected thereafter in patients examined. The morphology rate was A 50.6%, B 15.3% and C 34.1% on planar sections, and A 58.8%, B 10.6% and C 30.6% on sagittal sections. The morphological evaluation of grafts revealed the degree of freedom in graft design to be relatively high and long-term patency posed no particular problem even if the layout of the proximal anastomotic region involved a relatively acute angle. The PAS-Port(®) was considered to be a highly reliable device which performed appropriate proximal anastomosis and improved the patency of vein grafting to the aortic wall.

  3. A manned maneuvering unit proximity operations planning and flight guidance display and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershzohn, Gary R.; Sirko, Robert J.; Zimmerman, K.; Jones, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    This task concerns the design, development, testing, and evaluation of a new proximity operations planning and flight guidance display and control system for manned space operations. A forecast, derivative manned maneuvering unit (MMU) was identified as a candidate for the application of a color, highway-in-the-sky display format for the presentation of flight guidance information. A silicon graphics 4D/20-based simulation is being developed to design and test display formats and operations concepts. The simulation includes the following: (1) real-time color graphics generation to provide realistic, dynamic flight guidance displays and control characteristics; (2) real-time graphics generation of spacecraft trajectories; (3) MMU flight dynamics and control characteristics; (4) control algorithms for rotational and translational hand controllers; (5) orbital mechanics effects for rendezvous and chase spacecraft; (6) inclusion of appropriate navigation aids; and (7) measurement of subject performance. The flight planning system under development provides for: (1) selection of appropriate operational modes, including minimum cost, optimum cost, minimum time, and specified ETA; (2) automatic calculation of rendezvous trajectories, en route times, and fuel requirements; (3) and provisions for manual override. Man/machine function allocations in planning and en route flight segments are being evaluated. Planning and en route data are presented on one screen composed of two windows: (1) a map display presenting a view perpendicular to the orbital plane, depicting flight planning trajectory and time data attitude display presenting attitude and course data for use en route; and (2) an attitude display presenting local vertical-local horizontal attitude data superimposed on a highway-in-the-sky or flight channel representation of the flight planned course. Both display formats are presented while the MMU is en route. In addition to these displays, several original display

  4. Lightning Protection and Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Woodard, Marie (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor); Wang, Chuantong (Inventor); Mielnik, John J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A lightning protection and detection system includes a non-conductive substrate material of an apparatus; a sensor formed of a conductive material and deposited on the non-conductive substrate material of the apparatus. The sensor includes a conductive trace formed in a continuous spiral winding starting at a first end at a center region of the sensor and ending at a second end at an outer corner region of the sensor, the first and second ends being open and unconnected. An electrical measurement system is in communication with the sensor and receives a resonant response from the sensor, to perform detection, in real-time, of lightning strike occurrences and damage therefrom to the sensor and the non-conductive substrate material.

  5. Proximal Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  6. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  7. In Vitro Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of DIAGNOdent and Digital Radiography for Detection of Secondary Proximal Caries Adjacent to Composite Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Zahra; Zonouzy, Zahra; Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Kharazifar, Mohammad Javad; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Early detection of secondary proximal caries is critical for the preservation of tooth vitality. This study sought to assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent and digital radiography for detection of secondary proximal caries adjacent to composite restorations. Methods: Sixty extracted molars including 30 teeth with carious lesions and 30 sound teeth were randomly selected. Class II cavities were prepared in all teeth and carious dentin was intentionally left in the gingival floor of cavities in 30 carious teeth. All cavities were restored with composite resin. The teeth were mounted in wax blocks (three teeth per block) and examined for caries using (DIAGNOdent kaVo Dental, Biberach, Germany). Digital radiographs using DIGORA photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plates (Soredex Corporation, Helsinki, Finland) were obtained from all teeth using the parallel technique and were evaluated by 4 observers. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to calculate sensitivity and specificity values of the two diagnostic techniques. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for DIAGNOdent results and based on that, the cutoff points were determined. Results: The sensitivity and specificity values at the cut-off point of 10.5 were 0.622±0.038 and 0.822±0.077 for DIAGNOdent and 0.591±0.093 and 0.891±0.083 for digital radiography, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.7 for DIAGNOdent. Weighted kappa revealed moderate to almost perfect intra-observer agreement (0.46-0.99). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for DIAGNOdent was calculated to be 0.88. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was noted in diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent and digital radiography for detection of secondary proximal caries adjacent to composite restorations. Thus, DIAGNOdent may be used as an adjunct diagnostic tool for detection of secondary proximal caries beneath composite restorations.

  8. Fusion of spatio-temporal UAV and proximal sensing data for an agricultural decision support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsigiannis, P.; Galanis, G.; Dimitrakos, A.; Tsakiridis, N.; Kalopesas, C.; Alexandridis, T.; Chouzouri, A.; Patakas, A.; Zalidis, G.

    2016-08-01

    Over the last few years, multispectral and thermal remote sensing imagery from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has found application in agriculture and has been regarded as a means of field data collection and crop condition monitoring source. The integration of information derived from the analysis of these remotely sensed data into agricultural management applications facilitates and aids the stakeholder's decision making. Whereas agricultural decision support systems (DSS) have long been utilised in farming applications, there are still critical gaps to be addressed; as the current approach often neglects the plant's level information and lacks the robustness to account for the spatial and temporal variability of environmental parameters within agricultural systems. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of a custom built autonomous UAV platform in providing critical information for an agricultural DSS. This hexacopter UAV bears two cameras which can be triggered simultaneously and can capture both the visible, near-infrared (VNIR) and the thermal infrared (TIR) wavelengths. The platform was employed for the rapid extraction of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the crop water stress index (CWSI) of three different plantations, namely a kiwi, a pomegranate, and a vine field. The simultaneous recording of these two complementary indices and the creation of maps was advantageous for the accurate assessment of the plantation's status. Fusion of UAV and soil scanner system products pinpointed the necessity for adjustment of the irrigation management applied. It is concluded that timely CWSI and NDVI measures retrieved for different crop growing stages can provide additional information and can serve as a tool to support the existing irrigation DSS that had so far been exclusively based on telemetry data from soil and agrometeorological sensors. Additionally, the use of the multi-sensor UAV was found to be beneficial in collecting timely, spatio

  9. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  10. Ultrasonic System Approach to Obstacle Detection and Edge Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Thu Win

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, ultrasonic system approach to obstacle detection and edge detection for industrial and rescue operations has been presented. The developed system consists of tough sonic sensor configure with personal computer for monitoring. First, the mathematical model has been presented for the object detection system. Then the numerical simulation has been performed using Matlab platform. The experiments have been conducted using ultrasonic frequency. The curtain, paper and bamboo sheet have been considered as a media during experiments. The presented system is highly accurate for object detection and edge detection behind the obstacle.

  11. Capillary Electrophoresis - Optical Detection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepaniak, M. J.

    2001-08-06

    Molecular recognition systems are developed via molecular modeling and synthesis to enhance separation performance in capillary electrophoresis and optical detection methods for capillary electrophoresis. The underpinning theme of our work is the rational design and development of molecular recognition systems in chemical separations and analysis. There have been, however, some subtle and exciting shifts in our research paradigm during this period. Specifically, we have moved from mostly separations research to a good balance between separations and spectroscopic detection for separations. This shift is based on our perception that the pressing research challenges and needs in capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography relate to the persistent detection and flow rate reproducibility limitations of these techniques (see page 1 of the accompanying Renewal Application for further discussion). In most of our work molecular recognition reagents are employed to provide selectivity and enhance performance. Also, an emerging trend is the use of these reagents with specially-prepared nano-scale materials. Although not part of our DOE BES-supported work, the modeling and synthesis of new receptors has indirectly supported the development of novel microcantilevers-based MEMS for the sensing of vapor and liquid phase analytes. This fortuitous overlap is briefly covered in this report. Several of the more significant publications that have resulted from our work are appended. To facilitate brevity we refer to these publications liberally in this progress report. Reference is also made to very recent work in the Background and Preliminary Studies Section of the Renewal Application.

  12. Association between findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images and detection of a fracture in the proximal sesamoid bones of forelimbs obtained from cadavers of racing Thoroughbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthenill, Lucy A; Stover, Susan M; Gardner, Ian A; Hill, Ashley E; Lee, Christina M; Anderson, Mark L; Barr, Bradd C; Read, Deryck H; Johnson, Bill J; Woods, Leslie W; Daft, Barbara M; Kinde, Hailu; Moore, Janet D; Farman, Cynthia A; Odani, Jenee S; Pesavento, Patricia A; Uzal, Francisco A; Case, James T; Ardans, Alex A

    2006-05-01

    To determine the distribution for limbs and bones in horses with fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones and relationships with findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images. Proximal sesamoid bones obtained from both forelimbs of cadavers of 328 racing Thoroughbreds. Osteophytes; large vascular channels; and fracture location, orientation, configuration, and margin distinctness were categorized by use of high-detail contact palmarodorsal radiographs. Distributions of findings were determined. Relationships between radiographic findings and fracture characteristics were examined by use of chi2 and logistic regression techniques. Fractures were detected in 136 (41.5%) horses. Biaxial fractures were evident in 109 (80%) horses with a fracture. Osteophytes and large vascular channels were evident in 266 (81%) and 325 (99%) horses, respectively. Medial bones typically had complete transverse or split transverse simple fractures, indistinct fracture margins, > 1 vascular channel that was > 1 mm in width, and osteophytes in abaxial wing and basilar middle or basilar abaxial locations. Lateral bones typically had an oblique fracture and distinct fracture margins. Odds of proximal sesamoid bone fracture were approximately 2 to 5 times higher in bones without radiographic evidence of osteophytes or large vascular channels, respectively. Biaxial fractures of proximal sesamoid bones were common in cadavers of racing Thoroughbreds. Differences between medial and lateral bones for characteristics associated with fracture may relate to differences in fracture pathogeneses for these bones. Osteophytes and vascular channels were common findings; however, fractures were less likely to occur in bones with these features.

  13. Anti-Sweep Jamming Design and Implementation Using Multi-Channel Harmonic Timing Sequence Detection for Short-Range FMCW Proximity Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Kong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW proximity sensors are widely used. However, they suffer from a serious sweep jamming problem, which significantly reduces the ranging performance. To improve its anti-jamming capability, this paper analyzed the response mechanism of a proximity sensor with the existence of real target echo signals and sweep jamming, respectively. Then, a multi-channel harmonic timing sequence detection method, using the spectrum components’ distribution difference between the real echo signals and sweep jamming, is proposed. Moreover, a novel fast Fourier transform (FFT-based implementation was employed to extract multi-channel harmonic information. Compared with the traditional band-pass filter (BPF implementation, this novel realization scheme only computes FFT once, in each transmission cycle, which significantly reduced hardware resource consumption and improved the real-time performance of the proximity sensors. The proposed method was implemented and proved to be feasible through the numerical simulations and prototype experiments. The results showed that the proximity sensor utilizing the proposed method had better anti-sweep jamming capability and ranging performance.

  14. An arc fault detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1997-12-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn, opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  15. Osteosynthesis of a periprosthetic fracture of the proximal femur with the distal femur LISS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnowski, Jan Robert; Holck, Kim

    2008-01-01

    In this case report, we show how it is possible to perform osteosynthesis using minimal invasive techniques instead of conventional methods. In this instance the osteosynthesis was performed on a patient in poor general condition who had presented a periprosthetic fracture of the proximal femur. ...

  16. Effect of locking plate internal fixation system treatment on the levels of bone turnover biomarkers and inflammatory factors in patients with proximal humeral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Cong Huang1,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of locking plate internal fixation system treatment on the levels of bone turnover biomarkers and inflammatory factors in patients with proximal humeral fractures. Methods: 62 patients with proximal humeral fractures who received surgical treatment in the hospital between May 2013 and February 2016 were selected and divided into the control group (n=34 who received traditional common anatomical bone plate internal fixation treatment and the observation group (n=28 who received locking plate internal fixation system treatment. 4 weeks after operation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect the serum levels of bone formation indexes, bone resorption indexes, pro-inflammatory factors and anti-inflammatory factors of two groups of patients. Results: 4 weeks after operation, serum bone formation indexes osteocalcin (OC, N-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (P1NP, bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP and bone gla protein (BGP levels of observation group were higher than those of control group while bone resorption indexes pyridinoline (PYD, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, cross-linked C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX and deoxypyridinoline crosslink (D-pyr levels were lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum pro-inflammatory factors interleukin 1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-22 (IL-22 levels of observation group were lower than those of control group while anti-inflammatory factors soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNF-RI, interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interleukin-13 (IL-13 levels were higher than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Locking plate internal fixation system treatment of proximal humeral fractures can promote the fracture end healing and improve the bone metabolism without causing strong systemic inflammatory reaction.

  17. Optical fibre gas detections systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culshaw, Brian

    2016-05-01

    This tutorial review covers the principles of and prospects for fibre optic sensor technology in gas detection. Many of the potential benefits common to fibre sensor technology also apply in the context of gas sensing - notably long distance - many km - access to multiple remote measurement points; invariably intrinsic safety; access to numerous important gas species and often uniquely high levels of selectivity and/or sensitivity. Furthermore, the range of fibre sensor network architectures - single point, multiple point and distributed - enable unprecedented flexibility in system implementation. Additionally, competitive technologies and regulatory issues contribute to final application potential.

  18. Accelerations in the Lactonization of Trimethyl Lock Systems Are due to Proximity Orientation and not to Strain Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Karaman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available DFT at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p and HF at 6-31G and AM1 semiempirical calculations of thermodynamc and kinetic parameters for the trimethyl lock system (an important enzyme model indicate that the remarkable enhancement in the lactonizations is largely the result of a proximity orientation as opposed to the currently advanced strain effect.

  19. Gastric Stump Cancer: More Than Just Another Proximal Gastric Cancer and Demanding a More Suitable TNM Staging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Costa-Pinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Considerable controversy persists about the biological behavior of gastric stump cancer (GSC. The aim of this study is to clarify if this cancer is just another proximal gastric cancer or if it emerges as a distinctive clinicopathologic entity. Methods. This review of a prospectively collected gastric cancer database identified 73 patients with GSC in a single institution between January 1980 and June 2012 and compared them with 328 patients with proximal gastric cancer (PGC and 291 patients with esophagogastric junction cancer (EGJC. Results. Patients with GSC were predominantly males. Eighty-three percent of GSC penetrated the subserosal or the serosal layers. The median number of lymph nodes retrieved in GSC patients was significantly lower than in PGC patients or in EGJC patients. Cumulative survival curves were not different between GSC, PGC, or EGJC patients. Unlike that observed in PGC and in EGJC, no significant differences in cumulative survival according to the TNM staging system were observed in GSC cases. Conclusions. The outcome of patients with GSC displayed significant differences when compared to those with other proximal gastric cancers concerning the lack of survival association with the TNM staging system. Therefore a more suitable staging system should be designed for these unique cancers.

  20. INJURIES OF THE SAGITTAL GROOVE OF THE PROXIMAL PHALANX IN WARMBLOOD HORSES DETECTED WITH LOW-FIELD MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING: 19 CASES (2007-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Sarah J; Werpy, Natasha M; Gutierrez-Nibeyro, Santiago D

    2017-05-01

    Sagittal groove injuries of the proximal phalanx are an important cause of lameness in performance horses. The purpose of this retrospective case series study was to describe standing low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of these injuries in a group of Warmblood horses. Horses with an MRI diagnosis of sagittal groove injuries involving the proximal phalanx and that had follow-up MRI and clinical outcome information were included. Findings from clinical examinations, diagnostic tests, and other imaging modalities were recorded. All MRI studies were retrieved for re-evaluation by an experienced, board-certified veterinary radiologist. A total of 19 horses met inclusion criteria. All horses had MRI lesions consistent with unilateral or bilateral sagittal groove injuries of the proximal phalanx and abnormal mineralization of the sagittal ridge of the third metacarpal/metatarsal bone. Fifteen horses (79%) had concurrent osteoarthritis of the affected metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal joint. Eighteen horses received conservative therapy and all horses still had osseous abnormalities detected at the time of follow-up MRI. Thirteen horses (68.5%) were still lame at the time of follow-up, whereas the other six horses (31.5%) had become sound and returned to the previous level of exercise. Findings indicated that, for mature Warmblood horses, acute or chronic injuries of the sagittal groove of the proximal phalanx may have variable standing low-field MRI characteristics. Based on this sample of 19 horses, findings also indicated that the prognosis for performance soundness in horses diagnosed with sagittal groove injury of the proximal phalanx and concurrent osteoarthritis is poor. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  1. Tuning the Proximity Effect through Interface Engineering in a Pb/Graphene/Pt Trilayer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xiangmin; Xiao, Wende; Yang, Kai; Liu, Liwei; Pan, Jinbo; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Chendong; Shih, Chih-Kang; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hongjun

    2016-04-26

    The fate of superconductivity of a nanoscale superconducting film/island relies on the environment; for example, the proximity effect from the substrate plays a crucial role when the film thicknesses is much less than the coherent length. Here, we demonstrate that atomic-scale tuning of the proximity effects can be achieved by one atomically thin graphene layer inserted between the nanoscale Pb islands and the supporting Pt(111) substrate. By using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, we show that the coupling between the electron in a normal metal and the Cooper pair in an adjacent superconductor is dampened by 1 order of magnitude via transmission through a single-atom-thick graphene. More interestingly, the superconductivity of the Pb islands is greatly affected by the moiré patterns of graphene, showing the intriguing influence of the graphene-substrate coupling on the superconducting properties of the overlayer.

  2. Accuracy of Proximal Caries Depth Measurements: Comparison of Two Computed Cone Beam Tomography and Storage Phosphor Plate Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Şener

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of NewTom 9000 [cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT], Accu-I-Tomo [limited CBTC (LCBCT] and Digora Optime [storage phosphor plate (SPP] imaging systems in assessing the depths of defects with different shapes and sizes on the proximal surfaces of teeth. Materials and Methods: Thirty out of 50 incisive teeth with sound proximal surfaces were divided into three equal groups. Mechanical defects of different sizes and depths were created on their proximal surfaces and teeth were placed in acrylic blocks with approximal contacts. Radiographs of the blocks were obtained with CBCT, LCBCT and SPP systems. The depth measurements of 60 artificial defects were performed by 3 radiologists in the digital radiographs. The gold standard (true measure was defined as the mean of the 2 observers' measurements on the microscopic sections. Results from imaging systems and true depths were compared using Bland-Altman plots. The agreement was determined with intra-class correlation coefficient. Results: Maximum deviation from the true length in axial and sagittal slices of CBCT system was 2 mm [95% confidence interval (CI 2.60-0.60] and 1.5 mm (95% CI 0.30-2.30 respectively while the deviation of LCBCT was 0.66 mm (95% CI 0.53-2.22 and 0.37 mm (95% CI 0.50-2.25. The deviation from truth for SPP was 0.66 mm (95% CI 0.33-2.25. Correlation among observers was 0.487 and 0.700 respectively, for CBCT axial and sagittal slices; while it was 0.979 and 0.985 for LCBCT and 0.979 for SPP. Conclusion: Images obtained with the Accu-I-Tomo LCBCT system were more accurate than Newtom CBCT and Digora SPP system for measurement of caries lesion depth. Correlation among observers was higher for LCBCT and SPP systems compared with CBCT system.

  3. Radiographic detection of initial carious lesions on the proximal surfaces of teeth. Part I. The influence of exposure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, L.V.

    1987-08-01

    The relationship between a number of technical exposure conditions and the diagnostic value of bitewing radiographs in the interpretation of initial proximal carious lesions was evaluated. The most important exposure factors for radiographs are tube voltage, filtration, and exposure time. Tube voltage and filtration were found to have an insignificant influence on the diagnostic quality. Exposure time proved to be the most critical factor in influencing diagnostic quality. The greatest difference in diagnostic quality, however, was caused by differences between observers.

  4. Thermal animal detection system (TADS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desholm, M.

    2003-03-01

    This report presents data from equipment tests and software development for the Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS) development project: 'Development of a method for estimating collision frequency between migrating birds and offshore wind turbines'. The technical tests were performed to investigate the performance of remote controlling, video file compression tool and physical stress of the thermal camera when operating outdoors and under the real time vibration conditions at a 2 MW turbine. Furthermore, experimental tests on birds were performed to describe the decreasing detectability with distance on free flying birds, the performance of the thermal camera during poor visibility, and finally, the performance of the thermal sensor software developed for securing high -quality data. In general, it can be concluded that the thermal camera and its related hardware and software, the TADS, are capable of recording migrating birds approaching the rotating blades of a turbine, even under conditions with poor visibility. If the TADS is used in a vertical viewing scenario it would comply with the requirements for a setup used for estimating the avian collision frequency at offshore wind turbines. (au)

  5. Implementing the Zone of Proximal Development: From the Pedagogical Experiment to the Developmental Education System of Leonid Zankov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila G. GUSEVA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article overviews the theoretical and applied works of the psychologist and pedagogue Leonid Zankov. Zankov’s model of teaching is based on Vygotsky’s theory that appropriate teaching methods stimulate cognitive development, whose core notion is the Zone of Proximal Development. This educational psychology research was verified by large scale pedagogical experiments conducted in 1970s at public schools in Russia. Over several decades L.V. Zankov with co-workers and followers created the comprehensive system of developmental education for elementary school. The Zankov education system is used now at public schools in Russia. Its main principles and properties are described.

  6. Geographies of Origin and Proximity: Approaches to Local Agro-Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Cañada, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to provide a critical review with respect to the literature on Local Agro-Food Systems (LAFS in America and Europe over the last two decades, devoted to investigating the geographies of the relationships between territory and identity-based food products. In studies on LAFS, the concept of origin of food products is based upon a historical and bio-cultural analysis of food identity. Debates on territorial anchorage focus on the causal factors —natural, cultural and socio-economic— that a distinctive territory imprints on the specific attributes of identity-based foods. Moreover, the notion of geographical and organisational proximity aligns with a socio-cultural and economic approach to collective action aiming at rural development. A LAFS implies a certain spatial density and a network of mutually cooperating farms, firms and institutions, specialised in producing and marketing an identity-based food product, what can in turn be used to valorise the food identity both on the markets and also by contributing to the creation of common and public goods. A transdisciplinary view is required both for comprehending the emergence and evolution over centuries of the identity-based foods and also for understanding the role they play in constructing more sustainable rural development in the future.El artículo tiene como objetivo efectuar una revisión crítica de la literatura aparecida en las dos últimas décadas sobre los Sistemas Agroalimentarios Locales (SIAL en América y en Europa, que investiga la geografía de las relaciones existentes entre el territorio y los productos alimentarios identitarios. En los estudios sobre SIAL, el concepto de origen está basado en un análisis histórico y bio-cultural de la identidad de los alimentos. Los debates sobre el anclaje territorial se focalizan en los factores causales —naturales, culturales y socioeconómicos— que un territorio distintivo incide en los atributos espec

  7. Distributed Impact Detection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated impact detection and characterization on manned spacecraft has been an elusive goal due to the transitory nature of the detectable high-frequency signals....

  8. Optimization of lithography and CD control using GHOST proximity correction with a MEBES 4500 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robert L.

    1996-12-01

    Experiments were initiated that examined parameters for optimum proximity effect correction using GHOST with 400 nm of PBS and the standard PBS process. Parameters examined included the size of the correction spot and the ratio of the correction dose to the primary dose. Critical dimension CD deviations from the mean in proximity tower patterns were used to determine optimum parameters. Results show that without data bias, the minimum feature size that can be achieved with GHOST within +/- 5% of the mean CD at 10 keV and 400 nm of resist is 300 nm. The correction scheme begins to degrade rapidly with smaller features. CD control at optimum GHOST parameters can be achieved by introducing data bias of 100 nm per side of a line to account for the wet etch undercut in the PBS process. This effectively increases the minimum feature size achievable from 300 nm to 500 nm. A resist that can be dry etched, thereby eliminating the wet etch undercut, will alleviate this problem.

  9. Analysis and Results from a Flush Airdata Sensing (FADS) System in Close Proximity to Firing Rocket Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aliyah N.; Borrer, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation presents information regarding the nose-cap flush airdata sensing (FADS) system on Orion's Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) vehicle. The purpose of the nose-cap FADS system was to test whether or not useful data could be obtained from a FADS system if it was placed in close proximity to firing rockets nozzles like the attitude control motor (ACM) nozzles on the PA-1 launch abort system (LAS). The nose-cap FADS systems use pressure measurements from a series of pressure ports which are arranged in a cruciform pattern and flush with the surface of the vehicle to estimate values of angle of attack, angle of side-slip, Mach number, impact pressure and free-stream static pressure.

  10. Gyrate atrophy of choroid and retina with myopia, cataract and systemic proximal myopathy: A rare case report from rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Bangal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGyrate atrophy is a rare metabolic disease with autosomal recessive inheritance pattern characterised by hyperornithinemia and typical ocular findings. This report presents a 17-year-old intellectually challenged girl consulting for a progressive fall of visual acuity with night blindness. Fundus examination showed patches of chorioretinal atrophy with typical scalloped borders and peri vascular pigmentation in the equatorial region. Fundus fluroscein angiography revealed characteristic staining pattern. Other ocular associations included myopia and posterior sub capsular cataract. Progressive systemic proximal myopathy was one of the associated features. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B6 was advised.

  11. NIST Special Publication on Intrusion Detection Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bace, Rebecca Gurley

    2001-01-01

    Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are software or hardware systems that automate the process of monitoring the events occurring in a computer system or network, analyzing them for signs of security problems...

  12. A flexible proximity sensor formed by duplex screen/screen-offset printing and its application to non-contact detection of human breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Kaji, Ryosaku; Iwata, Shiro; Otao, Shinobu; Imawaka, Naoto; Yoshino, Katsumi; Mitsui, Ryosuke; Sato, Junya; Takahashi, Seiya; Nakajima, Shin-Ichiro; Ushijima, Hirobumi

    2016-01-01

    We describe a flexible capacitance-type sensor that can detect an approaching human without contact, fabricated by developing and applying duplex conductive-ink printing to a film substrate. The results of our calculations show that the difference in size between the top and bottom electrodes of the sensor allows for the spatial extension of the electric field distribution over the electrodes. Hence, such a component functions as a proximity sensor. This thin and light device with a large form factor can be arranged at various places, including curved surfaces and the back of objects such that it is unnoticeable. In our experiment, we attached it to the back of a bed, and found that our device successfully detected the breathing of a subject on the bed without contacting his body. This should contribute to reducing the physical and psychological discomfort among patients during medical checks, or when their condition is being monitored.

  13. Fusion of Heterogeneous Intrusion Detection Systems for Network Attack Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliappan, Jayakumar; Thiagarajan, Revathi; Sundararajan, Karpagam

    2015-01-01

    An intrusion detection system (IDS) helps to identify different types of attacks in general, and the detection rate will be higher for some specific category of attacks. This paper is designed on the idea that each IDS is efficient in detecting a specific type of attack. In proposed Multiple IDS Unit (MIU), there are five IDS units, and each IDS follows a unique algorithm to detect attacks. The feature selection is done with the help of genetic algorithm. The selected features of the input traffic are passed on to the MIU for processing. The decision from each IDS is termed as local decision. The fusion unit inside the MIU processes all the local decisions with the help of majority voting rule and makes the final decision. The proposed system shows a very good improvement in detection rate and reduces the false alarm rate.

  14. Fusion of Heterogeneous Intrusion Detection Systems for Network Attack Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Kaliappan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS helps to identify different types of attacks in general, and the detection rate will be higher for some specific category of attacks. This paper is designed on the idea that each IDS is efficient in detecting a specific type of attack. In proposed Multiple IDS Unit (MIU, there are five IDS units, and each IDS follows a unique algorithm to detect attacks. The feature selection is done with the help of genetic algorithm. The selected features of the input traffic are passed on to the MIU for processing. The decision from each IDS is termed as local decision. The fusion unit inside the MIU processes all the local decisions with the help of majority voting rule and makes the final decision. The proposed system shows a very good improvement in detection rate and reduces the false alarm rate.

  15. Proximal enterectomy provides a stronger systemic stimulus to intestinal adaptation than distal enterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, G V; Bristol, J B; Williamson, R C

    1987-01-01

    Enteroglucagon has been implicated as a tropic hormone in the control of intestinal adaptation. Because cells producing enteroglucagon are located mainly in the distal small bowel (and colon), ileal resection might be expected to produce less adaptive change than a jejunal resection of equivalent length. This hypothesis was tested in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 40) weighing 184.0 +/- 7.3 g and receiving a Thiry-Vella fistula (TVF) of the mid-60% of the small intestine. One group had concomitant resection of the jejunum proximal to the TVF (n = 12), another had resection of the ileum distal to the TVF (n = 13), while controls had a TVF alone (n = 15). When killed 10 days postoperatively rats with ileal resection weighed only 81% of controls (p less than 0.001) and 85% of those with jejunal resection (p less than 0.01). Jejunal resection produced an 81% increase in crypt cell production rate (measured by a stathmokinetic technique) over control values (28.5 +/- 4.2 v 15.8 +/- 2.3 cells/crypt/h: p = 0.025), whereas ileal resection had no demonstrable effect (17.5 +/- 2.3 cells/crypt/h). Adaptive hyperplasia in isolated small bowel is modulated by factors localised to the distal small intestine, enteroglucagon being a plausible candidate.

  16. Toward detecting deception in intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Johnson, Gregory, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Contemporary decision makers often must choose a course of action using knowledge from several sources. Knowledge may be provided from many diverse sources including electronic sources such as knowledge-based diagnostic or decision support systems or through data mining techniques. As the decision maker becomes more dependent on these electronic information sources, detecting deceptive information from these sources becomes vital to making a correct, or at least more informed, decision. This applies to unintentional disinformation as well as intentional misinformation. Our ongoing research focuses on employing models of deception and deception detection from the fields of psychology and cognitive science to these systems as well as implementing deception detection algorithms for probabilistic intelligent systems. The deception detection algorithms are used to detect, classify and correct attempts at deception. Algorithms for detecting unexpected information rely upon a prediction algorithm from the collaborative filtering domain to predict agent responses in a multi-agent system.

  17. An automatically tuning intrusion detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenwei; Tsai, Jeffrey J P; Weigert, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a security layer used to detect ongoing intrusive activities in information systems. Traditionally, intrusion detection relies on extensive knowledge of security experts, in particular, on their familiarity with the computer system to be protected. To reduce this dependence, various data-mining and machine learning techniques have been deployed for intrusion detection. An IDS is usually working in a dynamically changing environment, which forces continuous tuning of the intrusion detection model, in order to maintain sufficient performance. The manual tuning process required by current systems depends on the system operators in working out the tuning solution and in integrating it into the detection model. In this paper, an automatically tuning IDS (ATIDS) is presented. The proposed system will automatically tune the detection model on-the-fly according to the feedback provided by the system operator when false predictions are encountered. The system is evaluated using the KDDCup'99 intrusion detection dataset. Experimental results show that the system achieves up to 35% improvement in terms of misclassification cost when compared with a system lacking the tuning feature. If only 10% false predictions are used to tune the model, the system still achieves about 30% improvement. Moreover, when tuning is not delayed too long, the system can achieve about 20% improvement, with only 1.3% of the false predictions used to tune the model. The results of the experiments show that a practical system can be built based on ATIDS: system operators can focus on verification of predictions with low confidence, as only those predictions determined to be false will be used to tune the detection model.

  18. Damage Detection and Deteriorating Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Lijia; Thöns, Sebastian; Döhler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    . The approach of the quantification the value of damage detection information builds upon the Bayesian decision theory facilitating the utilization of damage detection performance models, which describe the information and its precision on structural system level, facilitating actions to ensure the structural...... integrity and facilitating to describe the structural system performance and its functionality throughout the service life. The structural system performance is described with its functionality, its deterioration and its behavior under extreme loading. The structural system reliability given the damage...

  19. Hydrogen Fire Detection System Features Sharp Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, C. S.

    1966-01-01

    Hydrogen fire detection system discovers fires by detecting the flickering ultraviolet radiation emitted by the OH molecule, a short-lived intermediate combustion product found in hydrogen-air flames. In a space application, the system discriminates against false signals from sunlight and rocket engine exhaust plume radiation.

  20. Basement and climate controls on proximal depositional systems in continental settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventra, D.

    2011-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation discusses the sedimentology and dynamics of selected, modern and ancient clastic depositional systems (alluvial fans and colluvial aprons) at continental basin margins. The focus on single depositional systems gave the opportunity to devote particular attention to

  1. Damage Detection and Deteriorating Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Lijia; Thöns, Sebastian; Döhler, Michael

    2017-01-01

    integrity and facilitating to describe the structural system performance and its functionality throughout the service life. The structural system performance is described with its functionality, its deterioration and its behavior under extreme loading. The structural system reliability given the damage...... detection information is determined utilizing Bayesian updating. The damage detection performance is described with the probability of indication for different component and system damage states taking into account type 1 and type 2 errors. The value of damage detection information is then calculated......This paper addresses the quantification of the value of damage detection system and algorithm information on the basis of Value of Information (VoI) analysis to enhance the benefit of damage detection information by providing the basis for its optimization before it is performed and implemented...

  2. Development of the environmental neutron detection system

    CERN Document Server

    Kume, K

    2002-01-01

    Environmental neutron detection system was proposed and developed. The main goal of this system was set to detect fast and thermal neutrons with the identical detectors setup without degraders. This system consists of a sup 1 sup 0 B doped liquid scintillator for n detection and CsI scintillators for simultaneous gamma emission from sup 1 sup 0 B doped in the liquid scintillator after the n capture reaction. The first setup was optimized for the thermal n detection, while the second setup was for the fast n detection. It was shown that the thermal n flux was obtained in the first setup by using the method of the gamma coincidence method with the help of the Monte Carlo calculation. The second setup was designed to improve the detection efficiency for the fast n, and was shown qualitatively that both the pulse shape discrimination and the coincidence methods are efficient. There will be more improvements, particularly for the quantitative discussion.

  3. Solar electric and thermal conversion system in close proximity to the consumer. [solar panels on house roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeer, K. W.

    1975-01-01

    Solar cells may be used to convert sunlight directly into electrical energy and into lowgrade heat to be used for large-scale terrestrial solar-energy conversion. Both forms of energy can be utilized if such cells are deployed in close proximity to the consumer (rooftop). Cadmium-sulfide/copper-sulfide (CdS/Cu2S) solar cells are an example of cells which may be produced inexpensively enough to become economically attractive. Cell parameters relevant for combined solar conversion are presented. Critical issues, such as production yield, life expectancy, and stability of performance, are discussed. Systems-design parameters related to operating temperatures are analyzed. First results obtained on Solar One, the experimental house of the University of Delaware, are given. Economic aspects are discussed. Different modes of operation are discussed in respect to the power utility and consumer incentives.

  4. Deep Water Munitions Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    signal to noise ratios which are shown in Figure 5. The signal to noise was calculated using an algorithm that is part of the Oasis montaj software...using an algorithm that is part of the Oasis montaj software suite. The signal strength of an anomaly is calculated as the sum of the squares of...Process Software extension for Geosoft Oasis Montaj , version 6.4, May 28, 2007 8. DeProspo,D. and R. DiMarco, “Automatic Detection and

  5. System and Method for Detecting Cracks and their Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and method are provided for detecting cracks and their location in a structure. A circuit coupled to a structure has capacitive strain sensors coupled sequentially and in parallel to one another. When excited by a variable magnetic field, the circuit has a resonant frequency that is different for unstrained and strained states. In terms of strained states, the resonant frequency is indicative of a region of the circuit that is experiencing strain induced by strain in a region of the structure in proximity to the region of the circuit. An inductor is electrically coupled to one end of each circuit. A magnetic field response recorder wirelessly transmits the variable magnetic field to the inductor and senses the resonant frequency of the circuit so-excited by the variable magnetic field.

  6. Anomaly Detection for Complex Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In performance maintenance in large, complex systems, sensor information from sub-components tends to be readily available, and can be used to make predictions about...

  7. Embedded Systems - Missile Detection/Interception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cintron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Missile defense systems are often related to major military resources aimed at shielding a specific region from incoming attacks. They are intended to detect, track, intercept, and destruct incoming enemy missiles. These systems vary in cost, efficiency, dependability, and technology. In present times, the possession of these types of systems is associated with large capacity military countries. Demonstrated here are the mathematical techniques behind missile systems which calculate trajectories of incoming missiles and potential intercept positions after initial missile detection. This procedure involved the use of vector-valued functions, systems of equations, and knowledge of projectile motion concepts.

  8. Active fault detection in MIMO systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on active fault detection (AFD) for MIMO systems with parametric faults. The problem of design of auxiliary inputs with respect to detection of parametric faults is investigated. An analysis of the design of auxiliary inputs is given based on analytic transfer functions...

  9. Statistical fault detection in photovoltaic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Garoudja, Elyes

    2017-05-08

    Faults in photovoltaic (PV) systems, which can result in energy loss, system shutdown or even serious safety breaches, are often difficult to avoid. Fault detection in such systems is imperative to improve their reliability, productivity, safety and efficiency. Here, an innovative model-based fault-detection approach for early detection of shading of PV modules and faults on the direct current (DC) side of PV systems is proposed. This approach combines the flexibility, and simplicity of a one-diode model with the extended capacity of an exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart to detect incipient changes in a PV system. The one-diode model, which is easily calibrated due to its limited calibration parameters, is used to predict the healthy PV array\\'s maximum power coordinates of current, voltage and power using measured temperatures and irradiances. Residuals, which capture the difference between the measurements and the predictions of the one-diode model, are generated and used as fault indicators. Then, the EWMA monitoring chart is applied on the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the one-diode model to detect and identify the type of fault. Actual data from the grid-connected PV system installed at the Renewable Energy Development Center, Algeria, are used to assess the performance of the proposed approach. Results show that the proposed approach successfully monitors the DC side of PV systems and detects temporary shading.

  10. IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMPROVING CAUSE DETECTION SYSTEMS WITH ACTIVE LEARNING ISAAC PERSING AND VINCENT NG Abstract. Active learning has been successfully applied to many natural language...

  11. Omnidirectional regeneration (ODR) of proximity sensor signals for robust diagnosis of journal bearing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joon Ha; Jeon, Byung Chul; Youn, Byeng D.; Kim, Myungyon; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Yeonwhan

    2017-06-01

    Some anomaly states of journal bearing rotor systems are direction-oriented (e.g., rubbing, misalignment). In these situations, vibration signals vary according to the direction of the sensors and the health state. This makes diagnosis difficult with traditional diagnosis methods. This paper proposes an omnidirectional regeneration method to develop a robust diagnosis algorithm for rotor systems. The proposed method can generate vibration signals in arbitrary directions without using extra sensors. In this method, signals are generated around the entire circumference of the rotor to consider all possible directions. Then, the directionality of each state is proved by mathematically and is evaluated using a proposed metric. When a directional state is determined, the classification is carried out on all of the generated signals. When a non-directional state is found, the classification is performed on only one of the generated signals to minimize computational load without sacrificing accuracy. The proposed ODR method was validated using experimental data. The classification results show that the proposed method generally outperforms the conventional classification method. The results support the proposed concept of using ODR signals in diagnosis procedures for journal bearing systems.

  12. Detection and intelligent systems for homeland security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Detection and Intelligent Systems for Homeland Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering advanced technology for image and video interpretation systems used for surveillance, which help in solving such problems as identifying faces from live streaming or stored videos. Biometrics for human identification, including eye retinas and irises, and facial patterns are also presented. The book then provides information on sensors for detection of explosive and radioactive materials and methods for sensing chemical

  13. Probabilistic Anomaly Detection in Dynamic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Padhraic

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes probabilistic methods for novelty detection when using pattern recognition methods for fault monitoring of dynamic systems. The problem of novelty detection is particularly acute when prior knowledge and data only allow one to construct an incomplete prior model of the system. Hence, some allowance must be made in model design so that a classifier will be robust to data generated by classes not included in the training phase.

  14. Heartbeat detection system using piezoelectric transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamonangan, Yosua; Purnamaningsih, Wigajatri

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a simple piezoelectric based heartbeat detection system. The signal produced by the piezoelectric will undergo signal conditioning and then converted into digital data by Arduino Nano. Using serial communication, the data will be sent to a computer for display and further analysis. The detection of heartbeat is carried out on three locations; wrist, chest, and diaphragm. From the measurement results, it is shown that the system work best when the piezoelectric is placed on wrist.

  15. Multispectral imaging system for contaminant detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Gavin H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An automated inspection system for detecting digestive contaminants on food items as they are being processed for consumption includes a conveyor for transporting the food items, a light sealed enclosure which surrounds a portion of the conveyor, with a light source and a multispectral or hyperspectral digital imaging camera disposed within the enclosure. Operation of the conveyor, light source and camera are controlled by a central computer unit. Light reflected by the food items within the enclosure is detected in predetermined wavelength bands, and detected intensity values are analyzed to detect the presence of digestive contamination.

  16. Intrusion Detection amp Prevention Systems - Sourcefire Snort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Vuppala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information security is a challenging issue for all business organizations today amidst increasing cyber threats. While there are many alternative intrusion detection amp prevention systems available to choose from selecting the best solution to implement to detect amp prevent cyber-attacks is a difficult task. The best solution is of the one that gets the best reviews and suits the organizations needs amp budget. In this review paper we summarize various classes of intrusion detection and prevention systems compare features of alternative solutions and make recommendation for implementation of one as the best solution for business organization in Fiji.

  17. Environmental and Social Sustainability of the Proximity Waste Collection System: A Case-Study Evaluation at an Italian Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Carchesio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In an urban or suburban area, the sustainability of a waste management process is expected to be closely related to the territorial context and the local citizens’ behaviour. From this perspective, the implementation of the peculiar proximity waste collection system in a small town in Central Italy (San Costanzo was considered. As compared to the previous road collection system in the same municipality, its environmental performance in terms of Source Separation Level (SSL, Waste Generation or Collection Rate (WGR or WCR and Interception Rate (IR was evaluated. An original analysis of the citizens’ monthly frequency and of their participation rate both in relation to the setting out of the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW was also carried out. Following the full implementation of the new waste collection scheme, the SSL achieved almost 79%, the WCR of the URW decreased by about 82% and the most IR values resulted above 83%. From a social point of view, the study further highlighted that, with the new waste collection scheme active, more than 50% of users were accustomed to set out the URW at most 5 times per month and the corresponding participation rate to set out the URW was around 62%.

  18. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply, testing, installation and commissioning of the proximity cryogenic system for the ATLAS toroid magnet system

    CERN Document Server

    European Organization for Nuclear Research

    2002-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply, testing, installation and commissioning of the proximity cryogenic system for the ATLAS toroid magnet system. Following a market survey carried out among 61 firms in ten Member States and 14 firms in three non-Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2624/EP/ATLAS) was sent on 19 April 2002 to four firms and three consortia in six Member States and two firms in one non-Member State. By the closing date, CERN had received three tenders. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with AIR LIQUIDE ITALIA (IT), the lowest bidder, for the supply, testing, installation and commissioning of the proximity cryogenic system for the ATLAS toroid magnet system for a total amount not exceeding 2 840 000 euros (4 191 300 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange which has been used is that stipulated in the tender. This procurement will be financed by the ATLAS Common Fund and CERN's contribution will not exceed 8...

  19. Transport of polymeric nanoparticulate drug delivery systems in the proximity of silica and sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Cheng; Zhang, Ming; Teipel, Blake; de Araujo, Isa Silveira; Yegin, Yagmur; Akbulut, Mustafa

    2015-03-17

    The contamination of the environment with traditional therapeutics due to metabolic excretion, improper disposal, and industrial waste has been well-recognized. However, knowledge of the environmental distribution and fate of emerging classes of nanomedicine is scarce. This work investigates the effect of surface chemistry of polymeric nanoparticulate drug delivery systems (PNDDS) on their adsorption dynamics and transport in the vicinity of environmentally relevant surfaces for a concentration comparable with hospital and pharmaceutical manufacturing effluents. To this end, five different types of paclitaxel-based nanomedicine having different polymer stabilizers were employed. Their transport behavior was characterized via quartz crystal microbalance, sand column, spectrofluorometry, and dynamic light scattering techniques. PNDDS having positive zeta-potential displayed strong adsorption onto silica surfaces and no mobility in porous media of quartz sand, even in the presence of humic acid. The mobility of negatively charged PNDDS strongly depended on the amount and type of salt present in the aqueous media: Without any salt, such PNDDS demonstrated no adsorption on silica surfaces and high levels of mobility in sand columns. The presence of CaCl2 and CaSO4, even at low ionic strengths (i.e. 10 mM), induced PNDDS adsorption on silica surfaces and strongly limited the mobility of such PNDSS in sand columns.

  20. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  1. Fault Detection in Singular Bilinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mansouri Nasab

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Singular systems naturally exist in many physicall and practical systems in control issues. Also, a big group of nonlinear systems which can not be estimated by linear systems are carfully estimated by bilinear systems. On the other hand, if the user in sensetive systems dose not detect the fault on time,a considerable amount of facilities and information will be damaged and destroyed; therefore,the fault detection and recognition in singular bilinear systems with unknown input disturbances and faults by using bilinear sliding mode observer, is done in this paper because of the importance that singular bilinear systems have in modeling physical systems and undesirable effect of fault on performances of systems. For this perpose, have at first singular bilinear system is decomposed, then a sliding mode observer is considered for it. More over, a method is given for fault detection and isolation base on sliding mode observer. And at the end, we have a simulation for a numeral example to illustrate the effect of given method.

  2. Finite Element Modelling of a Field-Sensed Magnetic Suspended System for Accurate Proximity Measurement Based on a Sensor Fusion Algorithm with Unscented Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Amor; Sarjaš, Andrej

    2016-09-15

    The presented paper describes accurate distance measurement for a field-sensed magnetic suspension system. The proximity measurement is based on a Hall effect sensor. The proximity sensor is installed directly on the lower surface of the electro-magnet, which means that it is very sensitive to external magnetic influences and disturbances. External disturbances interfere with the information signal and reduce the usability and reliability of the proximity measurements and, consequently, the whole application operation. A sensor fusion algorithm is deployed for the aforementioned reasons. The sensor fusion algorithm is based on the Unscented Kalman Filter, where a nonlinear dynamic model was derived with the Finite Element Modelling approach. The advantage of such modelling is a more accurate dynamic model parameter estimation, especially in the case when the real structure, materials and dimensions of the real-time application are known. The novelty of the paper is the design of a compact electro-magnetic actuator with a built-in low cost proximity sensor for accurate proximity measurement of the magnetic object. The paper successively presents a modelling procedure with the finite element method, design and parameter settings of a sensor fusion algorithm with Unscented Kalman Filter and, finally, the implementation procedure and results of real-time operation.

  3. Finite Element Modelling of a Field-Sensed Magnetic Suspended System for Accurate Proximity Measurement Based on a Sensor Fusion Algorithm with Unscented Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Amor; Sarjaš, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    The presented paper describes accurate distance measurement for a field-sensed magnetic suspension system. The proximity measurement is based on a Hall effect sensor. The proximity sensor is installed directly on the lower surface of the electro-magnet, which means that it is very sensitive to external magnetic influences and disturbances. External disturbances interfere with the information signal and reduce the usability and reliability of the proximity measurements and, consequently, the whole application operation. A sensor fusion algorithm is deployed for the aforementioned reasons. The sensor fusion algorithm is based on the Unscented Kalman Filter, where a nonlinear dynamic model was derived with the Finite Element Modelling approach. The advantage of such modelling is a more accurate dynamic model parameter estimation, especially in the case when the real structure, materials and dimensions of the real-time application are known. The novelty of the paper is the design of a compact electro-magnetic actuator with a built-in low cost proximity sensor for accurate proximity measurement of the magnetic object. The paper successively presents a modelling procedure with the finite element method, design and parameter settings of a sensor fusion algorithm with Unscented Kalman Filter and, finally, the implementation procedure and results of real-time operation. PMID:27649197

  4. Improved biosensor-based detection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Described is a new biosensor-based detection system for effector compounds, useful for in vivo applications in e.g. screening and selecting of cells which produce a small molecule effector compound or which take up a small molecule effector compound from its environment. The detection system...... comprises a protein or RNA-based biosensor for the effector compound which indirectly regulates the expression of a reporter gene via two hybrid proteins, providing for fewer false signals or less 'noise', tuning of sensitivity or other advantages over conventional systems where the biosensor directly...

  5. Multichannel leak detection system for electrochemical etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammed, R.; Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Jarallah, M.I. (King Fahd Univ. for Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1988-01-01

    A multichannel leak detection system has been developed to detect any chemical leak during the electrochemical etching process. It gives an audible and a visible warning when there is a leak at any part of the system. This greatly helps in isolating the defective sample quickly. It can be removed during operation, while the etching process continues on other samples. The circuit is built from standard integrated circuits and has its own power supply. Provisions have been made to connect this system to the computer for recording date, time and location of the leaky unetched samples. (author).

  6. Network Intrusion Detection System using Apache Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif Manzoor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Network security implements various strategies for the identification and prevention of security breaches. Network intrusion detection is a critical component of network management for security, quality of service and other purposes. These systems allow early detection of network intrusion and malicious activities; so that the Network Security infrastructure can react to mitigate these threats. Various systems are proposed to enhance the network security. We are proposing to use anomaly based network intrusion detection system in this work. Anomaly based intrusion detection system can identify the new network threats. We also propose to use Real-time Big Data Stream Processing Framework, Apache Storm, for the implementation of network intrusion detection system. Apache Storm can help to manage the network traffic which is generated at enormous speed and size and the network traffic speed and size is constantly increasing. We have used Support Vector Machine in this work. We use Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining 1999 (KDD’99 dataset to test and evaluate our proposed solution.

  7. Fault detection and isolation for complex system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chan Shi; Bayuaji, Luhur; Samad, R.; Mustafa, M.; Abdullah, N. R. H.; Zain, Z. M.; Pebrianti, Dwi

    2017-07-01

    Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) is a method to monitor, identify, and pinpoint the type and location of system fault in a complex multiple input multiple output (MIMO) non-linear system. A two wheel robot is used as a complex system in this study. The aim of the research is to construct and design a Fault Detection and Isolation algorithm. The proposed method for the fault identification is using hybrid technique that combines Kalman filter and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The Kalman filter is able to recognize the data from the sensors of the system and indicate the fault of the system in the sensor reading. Error prediction is based on the fault magnitude and the time occurrence of fault. Additionally, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is another algorithm used to determine the type of fault and isolate the fault in the system.

  8. Space Transportation System (STS)-133/External Tank (ET)-137 Intertank (IT) Stringer Cracking Issue and Repair Assessment: Proximate Cause Determination and Material Characterization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Several cracks were detected in stringers located beneath the foam on the External Tank (ET) following the launch scrub of Space Transportation System (STS)-133 on November 5, 2010. The stringer material was aluminum-lithium (AL-Li) 2090-T83 fabricated from sheets that were nominally 0.064 inches thick. The mechanical properties of the stringer material were known to vary between different material lots, with the stringers from ET-137 (predominately lots 620853 and 620854) having the highest yield and ultimate stresses. Subsequent testing determined that these same lots also had the lowest fracture toughness properties. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) supported the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)-led investigation. The objective of this investigation was to develop a database of test results to provide validation for structural analysis models, independently confirm test results obtained from other investigators, and determine the proximate cause of the anomalous low fracture toughness observed in stringer lots 620853 and 620854. This document contains the outcome of the investigation.

  9. A comparison of film and 3 digital imaging systems for natural dental caries detection: CCD, CMOS, PSP and film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Won Jeong [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of occlusal and proximal caries detection using CCD, CMOS, PSP and film system. 32 occlusal and 30 proximal tooth surfaces were radiographed under standardized conditions using 3 digital systems; CCD (CDX-2000HQ, Biomedysis Co., Seoul, Korea), CMOS (Schick, Schick Inc., Long Island, USA), PSP (Digora FMX, Orion Co./Soredex, Helsinki, Finland) and 1 film system (Kodak Insight, Eastman Kodak, Rochester, USA). 5 observers examined the radiographs for occlusal and proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale. The presence of caries was validated histologically and radiographically. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using ROC curve areas (AZ). Analysis using ROC curves revealed the area under each curve which indicated a diagnostic accuracy. For occlusal caries, Kodak Insight film had an Az of 0.765, CCD one of 0.730, CMOS one of 0.742 and PSP one of 0.735. For proximal caries, Kodak Insight film had an Az of 0.833, CCD one of 0.832, CMOS one of 0.828 and PSP one of 0.868. No statistically significant difference was noted between any of the imaging modalities. CCD, CMOS, PSP and film performed equally well in the detection of occlusal and proximal dental caries. CCD, CMOS and PSP-based digital images provided a level of diagnostic performance comparable to Kodak Insight film.

  10. Multilayer optical disc system using homodyne detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Takahiro; Ide, Tatsuro; Tanaka, Yukinobu; Watanabe, Koichi

    2014-09-01

    A write/read system using high-productivity multilayer optical discs was developed. The recording medium used in the system consists of planar recording layers and a separated guide layer, and is fabricated by web coating and lamination process. The recording layers in the medium are made of one-photon-absorption material, on which data can be recorded with a normal laser diode. The developed system is capable of focusing and tracking on the medium and amplifying readout signals by using phase-diversity homodyne detection. A highly layer-selective focusing method using homodyne detection was also proposed. This method obtains stable focus-error signals with clearly separated S-shaped curves even when layer spacing is quite narrow, causing large interlayer crosstalk. Writing on the medium and reading with the signal amplification effect of homodyne detection was demonstrated. In addition, the effectiveness of the method was experimentally evaluated.

  11. System for particle concentration and detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Whaley, Josh A.; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Tran, Huu M.; Maurer, Scott M.; Munslow, William D.

    2013-03-19

    A new microfluidic system comprising an automated prototype insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) triggering microfluidic device for pathogen monitoring that can eventually be run outside the laboratory in a real world environment has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of automated trapping and detection of particles. The system broadly comprised an aerosol collector for collecting air-borne particles, an iDEP chip within which to temporarily trap the collected particles and a laser and fluorescence detector with which to induce a fluorescence signal and detect a change in that signal as particles are trapped within the iDEP chip.

  12. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  13. DCE Bio Detection System Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Michael A.; Batishko, Charles R.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Owsley, Stanley L.; Dunham, Glen C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2007-12-01

    The DCE (DNA Capture Element) Bio-Detection System (Biohound) was conceived, designed, built and tested by PNNL under a MIPR for the US Air Force under the technical direction of Dr. Johnathan Kiel and his team at Brooks City Base in San Antonio Texas. The project was directed toward building a measurement device to take advantage of a unique aptamer based assay developed by the Air Force for detecting biological agents. The assay uses narrow band quantum dots fluorophores, high efficiency fluorescence quenchers, magnetic micro-beads beads and selected aptamers to perform high specificity, high sensitivity detection of targeted biological materials in minutes. This final report summarizes and documents the final configuration of the system delivered to the Air Force in December 2008

  14. Lumber Scanning System for Surface Defect Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Y. Jason Hou; Richard W. Conners; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes research aimed at developing a machine vision technology to drive automated processes in the hardwood forest products manufacturing industry. An industrial-scale machine vision system has been designed to scan variable-size hardwood lumber for detecting important features that influence the grade and value of lumber such as knots, holes, wane,...

  15. An FPGA-Based People Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Clark

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an FPGA-based system for detecting people from video. The system is designed to use JPEG-compressed frames from a network camera. Unlike previous approaches that use techniques such as background subtraction and motion detection, we use a machine-learning-based approach to train an accurate detector. We address the hardware design challenges involved in implementing such a detector, along with JPEG decompression, on an FPGA. We also present an algorithm that efficiently combines JPEG decompression with the detection process. This algorithm carries out the inverse DCT step of JPEG decompression only partially. Therefore, it is computationally more efficient and simpler to implement, and it takes up less space on the chip than the full inverse DCT algorithm. The system is demonstrated on an automated video surveillance application and the performance of both hardware and software implementations is analyzed. The results show that the system can detect people accurately at a rate of about 2.5 frames per second on a Virtex-II 2V1000 using a MicroBlaze processor running at 75 MHz, communicating with dedicated hardware over FSL links.

  16. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  17. APDS: The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindson, B; Makarewicz, A; Setlur, U; Henderer, B; McBride, M; Dzenitis, J

    2004-10-04

    We have developed and tested a fully autonomous pathogen detection system (APDS) capable of continuously monitoring the environment for airborne biological threat agents. The system was developed to provide early warning to civilians in the event of a bioterrorism incident and can be used at high profile events for short-term, intensive monitoring or in major public buildings or transportation nodes for long-term monitoring. The APDS is completely automated, offering continuous aerosol sampling, in-line sample preparation fluidics, multiplexed detection and identification immunoassays, and nucleic-acid based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and detection. Highly multiplexed antibody-based and duplex nucleic acid-based assays are combined to reduce false positives to a very low level, lower reagent costs, and significantly expand the detection capabilities of this biosensor. This article provides an overview of the current design and operation of the APDS. Certain sub-components of the ADPS are described in detail, including the aerosol collector, the automated sample preparation module that performs multiplexed immunoassays with confirmatory PCR, and the data monitoring and communications system. Data obtained from an APDS that operated continuously for seven days in a major U.S. transportation hub is reported.

  18. On deadlock detection in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligor, V. D.; Shattuck, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A hierarchically organized and a distributed protocol for deadlock detection in distributed databases are presented in a previous study Menasce and Muntz (1979). In this paper, it is shown that the distributed protocol is incorrect, and possible remedies are presented. However, the distributed protocol remains impractical because 'condensations' of 'transaction-wait-for' graphs make graph updates difficult to perform. Delayed graph updates cause the occurrence of false deadlocks in this as well as in some other deadlock detection protocols for distributed systems. The performance degradation that results from false deadlocks depends on the characteristics of each protocol.

  19. Laser Schlieren System Detects Sounds Of Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakkottai, Parthasarathy P.; Alwar, A. Vijayaragavan

    1990-01-01

    Hostile environments monitored safely and noninvasively. Modified laser schlieren system acts as microphone to detect sounds of leaks remotely. Sensitive to acoustical frequencies above audible range and especially suited for monitoring leaks of high-pressure steam from boilers or chemical vapors from processing equipment. Does not require placement of delicate equipment in harsh environment monitored, and no contact needed with boiler or other unit being monitored. Detects sound waves via variation of index of refraction of air at acoustical frequencies. Used to monitor sound frequencies beyond range of human hearing.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide generation and detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackley, M W

    1983-07-01

    A test system has been devised for generation and measurement of hydrogen sulfide/air mixtures. Such a system has numerous applications, including toxicology studies, detector badge and tube evaluation, sorbent capacity measurements, and respirator cartridge or canister breakthrough testing. The system in this study utilizes an HNU photoionization analyzer for detection of H2S concentrations of 1.0 ppm to 26.0 ppm. Generation techniques for these low concentration levels, and also for much higher H2S concentrations, have been described. Special consideration has been given to H2S permeation of transfer tubing, and to the effects of water vapor interference upon the analyzer.

  1. Implementing the Zone of Proximal Development: From the Pedagogical Experiment to the Developmental Education System of Leonid Zankov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, Liudmila G.; Solomonovich, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This article overviews the theoretical and applied works of the psychologist and pedagogue Leonid Zankov. Zankov's model of teaching is based on Vygotsky's theory that appropriate teaching methods stimulate cognitive development, whose core notion is the Zone of Proximal Development. This educational psychology research was verified by large scale…

  2. Signal transmission system classification for intrusion detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacksten, R.; Barnard, R.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the classification of signal transmission system security for modern intrusion detection systems. The content of this paper is based largely on a recent study conducted by the McLean Research Center for the US Army Belvoir R and D Center. This paper has a three-part message. First, the signal transmission component of a modern intrusion detection system is an important point of hostile attack and deserves comprehensive, carefully thought-out classification procedures. However, such classification is not an easy endeavor. Second, the signal transmission system is subject to several kinds of attack, complementing different attacker operations and goals. Third, a classification system focusing on the attacker -- his skill and resources -- is needed for intelligent decision making in security system integration and design. A good place to start this is with the signal transmission system.

  3. Fault Detection for Quantized Networked Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wei Che

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fault detection problem in the finite frequency domain for networked control systems with signal quantization is considered. With the logarithmic quantizer consideration, a quantized fault detection observer is designed by employing a performance index which is used to increase the fault sensitivity in finite frequency domain. The quantized measurement signals are dealt with by utilizing the sector bound method, in which the quantization error is treated as sector-bounded uncertainty. By using the Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (GKYP Lemma, an iterative LMI-based optimization algorithm is developed for designing the quantized fault detection observer. And a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  5. Handheld microwave bomb-detecting imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo

    2017-05-01

    Proposed novel imaging technique will provide all weather high-resolution imaging and recognition capability for RF/Microwave signals with good penetration through highly scattered media: fog, snow, dust, smoke, even foliage, camouflage, walls and ground. Image resolution in proposed imaging system is not limited by diffraction and will be determined by processor and sampling frequency. Proposed imaging system can simultaneously cover wide field of view, detect multiple targets and can be multi-frequency, multi-function. Directional antennas in imaging system can be close positioned and installed in cell phone size handheld device, on small aircraft or distributed around protected border or object. Non-scanning monopulse system allows dramatically decrease in transmitting power and at the same time provides increased imaging range by integrating 2-3 orders more signals than regular scanning imaging systems.

  6. Tsunami Detection Systems for International Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    Results are presented regarding the first commercially available, fully operational, tsunami detection system to have passed stringent U.S. government testing requirements and to have successfully demonstrated its ability to detect an actual tsunami at sea. Spurred by the devastation of the December 26, 2004, Indian Ocean tsunami that killed more than 230,000 people, the private sector actively supported the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's (IOC"s) efforts to develop a tsunami warning system and mitigation plan for the Indian Ocean region. As each country in the region developed its requirements, SAIC recognized that many of these underdeveloped countries would need significant technical assistance to fully execute their plans. With the original focus on data fusion, consequence assessment tools, and warning center architecture, it was quickly realized that the cornerstone of any tsunami warning system would be reliable tsunami detection buoys that could meet very stringent operational standards. Our goal was to leverage extensive experience in underwater surveillance and oceanographic sensing to produce an enhanced and reliable deep water sensor that could meet emerging international requirements. Like the NOAA Deep-ocean Assessment and Recording of Tsunamis (DART TM ) buoy, the SAIC Tsunami Buoy (STB) system consists of three subsystems: a surfaccommunications buoy subsystem, a bottom pressure recorder subsystem, and a buoy mooring subsystem. With the operational success that DART has demonstrated, SAIC decided to build and test to the same high standards. The tsunami detection buoy system measures small changes in the depth of the deep ocean caused by tsunami waves as they propagate past the sensor. This is accomplished by using an extremely sensitive bottom pressure sensor/recorder to measure very small changes in pressure as the waves move past the buoy system. The bottom pressure recorder component includes a processor with algorithms that

  7. A System for Traffic Violation Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourdine Aliane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the framework and components of an experimental platform for an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS aimed at providing drivers with a feedback about traffic violations they have committed during their driving. The system is able to detect some specific traffic violations, record data associated to these faults in a local data-base, and also allow visualization of the spatial and temporal information of these traffic violations in a geographical map using the standard Google Earth tool. The test-bed is mainly composed of two parts: a computer vision subsystem for traffic sign detection and recognition which operates during both day and nighttime, and an event data recorder (EDR for recording data related to some specific traffic violations. The paper covers firstly the description of the hardware architecture and then presents the policies used for handling traffic violations.

  8. Byzantine Failure Detection for Dynamic Distributed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Santos De Lima, Murilo; Greve, Fabiola; Arantes, Luciana; Sens, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Byzantine failure detectors provide an elegant abstraction for implementing Byzantine fault tolerance. However, as far as we know, there is no general solution for this problem in a dynamic distributed system over wireless networks with unknown membership. This paper presents thus a first Byzantine failure detector for this context. The protocol has the interesting feature to be time-free, that is, it does not rely on timers to detect omission failures. This characteristic favors its scalabil...

  9. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Tate, Lanetra; Smith, Trent; Gibson, Tracy; Medelius, Pedro; Jolley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    An In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System (ISWDDS) has been developed that is capable of detecting damage to a wire insulation, or a wire conductor, or to both. The system will allow for realtime, continuous monitoring of wiring health/integrity and reduce the number of false negatives and false positives while being smaller, lighter in weight, and more robust than current systems. The technology allows for improved safety and significant reduction in maintenance hours for aircraft, space vehicles, satellites, and other critical high-performance wiring systems for industries such as energy production and mining. The integrated ISWDDS is comprised of two main components: (1) a wire with an innermost core conductor, an inner insulation film, a conductive layer or inherently conductive polymer (ICP) covering the inner insulation film, an outermost insulation jacket; and (2) smart connectors and electronics capable of producing and detecting electronic signals, and a central processing unit (CPU) for data collection and analysis. The wire is constructed by applying the inner insulation films to the conductor, followed by the outer insulation jacket. The conductive layer or ICP is on the outer surface of the inner insulation film. One or more wires are connected to the CPU using the smart connectors, and up to 64 wires can be monitored in real-time. The ISWDDS uses time domain reflectometry for damage detection. A fast-risetime pulse is injected into either the core conductor or conductive layer and referenced against the other conductor, producing transmission line behavior. If either conductor is damaged, then the signal is reflected. By knowing the speed of propagation of the pulse, and the time it takes to reflect, one can calculate the distance to and location of the damage.

  10. Projection image enhancement for explosive detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen

    2008-02-01

    Automated Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) utilizing Computed Tomography (CT) generate a series of 2-D projections from a series of X-ray scans OF luggage under inspection. 3-D volumetric images can also be generated from the collected data set. Extensive data manipulation of the 2-D and 3-D image sets for detecting the presence of explosives is done automatically by EDS. The results are then forwarded to human screeners for final review. The final determination as to whether the luggage contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed by trained TSA (Transportation Security Administration) screeners following an approved TSA protocol. The TSA protocol has the screeners visually inspect the resulting images and the renderings from the EDS to determine if the luggage is suspicious and consequently should be searched manually. Enhancing those projection images delivers a higher quality screening, reduces screening time and also reduces the amount of luggage that needs to be manually searched otherwise. This paper presents a novel edge detection algorithm that is geared towards, though not exclusive to, automated explosive detection systems. The goal of these enhancements is to provide a higher quality screening process while reducing the overall screening time and luggage search rates. Accurately determining the location of edge pixels within 2-D signals, often the first step in segmentation and recognition systems indicates the boundary between overlapping objects in a luggage. Most of the edge detection algorithms such as Canny, Prewitt, Roberts, Sobel, and Laplacian methods are based on the first and second derivatives/difference operators. These operators detect the discontinuities in the differences of pixels. These approaches are sensitive to the presence of noise and could produce false edges in noisy images. Including large scale filters, may avoid errors generated by noise, but often simultaneously eliminating the finer edge details as

  11. Monoaxial versus polyaxial locking systems: a biomechanical analysis of different locking systems for the fixation of proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Ralph; Müller, Thorben; Topp, Tobias; Lewan, Ulrike; Krüger, Antonio; Kühne, Christian; Ruchholtz, Steffen

    2011-08-01

    The development of locking plate systems has led to polyaxial screws and new plate designs. This study compares monoaxial head locking screws (PHILOS© by Synthes) and a new generation of polyaxial locking screws (NCB-LE© by Zimmer) with respect to biomechanical stability. On nine pairs of randomised formalin fixed humerus specimens, standardised osteotomies and osteosyntheses with nine monoaxial (group A) und nine polyaxial (group B) plate/screw systems were performed. A material testing machine by Instron (M-10 14961-DE) was used for cyclic stress tests and crash tests until defined breakup criteria as endpoints were reached. After axial cyclic stress 200 times at 90 N, plastic deformation was 1.02 mm in group A and 1.25 mm in group B. After the next cycle using 180 N the additional deformation averaged 0.23 mm in group A and 0.39 mm in group B. The deformation using 450 N was 0.72 mm in group A compared to 0.92 mm in group B. The final full power test resulted in a deformation average of 0.49 mm in group A and 0.63 mm in group B after 2,000 cycles using 450 N. When reaching the breakup criteria the plastic deformation of the NCB plate was 9.04 mm on average. The PHILOS plate was similarly deformed by 9.00 mm. As a result of the crash test, in group A the screws pulled out of the humeral head four times whereas the shaft broke one time and another time the implant was ripped out. The gap was closed four times. In group B, there were three cases of screw cut-through, four shaft fractures/screw avulsions from the shaft and two cases of gap closure. The two systems resist the cyclic duration tests and the increasing force tests in a similar manner. The considerable clinical benefits of the polyaxial system are enhanced by equal biomechanical performance.

  12. Automating Vendor Fraud Detection in Enterprise Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fraud is a multi-billion dollar industry that continues to grow annually. Many organisations are poorly prepared to prevent and detect fraud. Fraud detection strategies are intended to quickly and efficiently identify fraudulent activities that circumvent preventative measures. In this paper we adopt a Design-Science methodological framework to develop a model for detection of vendor fraud based on analysis of patterns or signatures identified in enterprise system audit trails. The concept is demonstrated be developing prototype software. Verification of the prototype is achieved by performing a series of experiments. Validation is achieved by independent reviews from auditing practitioners. Key findings of this study are: i automating routine data analytics improves auditor productivity and reduces time taken to identify potential fraud, and ii visualisations assist in promptly identifying potentially fraudulent user activities. The study makes the following contributions: i a model for proactive fraud detection, ii methods for visualising user activities in transaction data, iii a stand-alone MCL-based prototype.

  13. Global ionospheric flare detection system (GIFDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Daniela; Jakowski, Norbert; Berdermann, Jens; Mayer, Christoph; Valladares, Cesar; Heber, Bernd

    2016-02-01

    The Global Ionospheric Flare Detection System (GIFDS) is currently under development at the German Aerospace Center as a ground based detector for continuous monitoring of the solar flare activity in order to provide real time warnings on solar X-ray events. GIFDS is using Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio transmissions in the northern hemisphere which respond to enhanced ionization in the bottomside ionosphere caused by X-ray flares. Since solar flares can only be detected during daytime, VLF receivers have to be installed around the globe to guarantee continuous records at the dayside sector. GIFDS consists of a network of Perseus SDR (Software Defined Radio) receivers equipped with a MiniWhip antenna each. Reliable detection of solar flares is ensured by recording multiple frequency channels ranging from 0 to 500 kHz. The applicability of the system is demonstrated in a first analysis by comparing VLF measurements with GOES's (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) X-ray flux data. The high potential of GIFDS for a permanent monitoring of solar flares in near real time is discussed.

  14. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the system...

  15. System and method for anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Chad

    2010-06-15

    A system and method for detecting one or more anomalies in a plurality of observations is provided. In one illustrative embodiment, the observations are real-time network observations collected from a stream of network traffic. The method includes performing a discrete decomposition of the observations, and introducing derived variables to increase storage and query efficiencies. A mathematical model, such as a conditional independence model, is then generated from the formatted data. The formatted data is also used to construct frequency tables which maintain an accurate count of specific variable occurrence as indicated by the model generation process. The formatted data is then applied to the mathematical model to generate scored data. The scored data is then analyzed to detect anomalies.

  16. Intelligent Flamefinder Detection and Alert System (IFDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current hydrogen flame detection systems exhibit shortcomings ranging from limited detection range, to localization inaccuracy, limited sensitivity, false alarms,...

  17. System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreilly, D.

    1993-01-01

    The System for Anomaly and Failure Detection (SAFD) algorithm was developed as an improvement over the current redline system used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC). Simulation tests and execution against previous hot fire tests demonstrated that the SAFD algorithm can detect engine failures as much as tens of seconds before the redline system recognized the failure. Although the current algorithm only operates during steady state conditions (engine not throttling), work is underway to expand the algorithm to work during transient conditions. This task assignment originally specified developing a platform for executing the algorithm during hot fire tests at Technology Test Bed (TTB) and installing the SAFD algorithm on that platform. Two units were built and installed in the Hardware Simulation Lab and at the TTB in December 1991. Since that time, the task primarily entailed improvement and maintenance of the systems, additional testing to prove the feasibility of the algorithm, and support of hot fire testing. This document addresses the work done since the last report of June 1992. The work on the System for Anomaly and Failure Detection during this period included improving the platform and the algorithm, testing the algorithm against previous test data and in the Hardware Simulation Lab, installing other algorithms on the system, providing support for operations at the Technology Test Bed, and providing routine maintenance.

  18. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  19. Laboratorial training of examiners for using a visual caries detection system in epidemiological surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Moro, Bruna Lp; Lara, Juan S; Ardenghi, Thiago M; Guedes, Renata S; Haddad, Ana E; Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M

    2013-10-03

    In epidemiological surveys, a good reliability among the examiners regarding the caries detection method is essential. However, training and calibrating those examiners is an arduous task because it involves several patients who are examined many times. To facilitate this step, we aimed to propose a laboratory methodology to simulate the examinations performed to detect caries lesions using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in epidemiological surveys. A benchmark examiner conducted all training sessions. A total of 67 exfoliated primary teeth, varying from sound to extensive cavitated, were set in seven arch models to simulate complete mouths in primary dentition. Sixteen examiners (graduate students) evaluated all surfaces of the teeth under illumination using buccal mirrors and ball-ended probe in two occasions, using only coronal primary caries scores of the ICDAS. As reference standard, two different examiners assessed the proximal surfaces by direct visual inspection, classifying them in sound, with non-cavitated or with cavitated lesions. After, teeth were sectioned in the bucco-lingual direction, and the examiners assessed the sections in stereomicroscope, classifying the occlusal and smooth surfaces according to lesion depth. Inter-examiner reproducibility was evaluated using weighted kappa. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated at two thresholds: all lesions and advanced lesions (cavitated lesions in proximal surfaces and lesions reaching the dentine in occlusal and smooth surfaces). Regarding the reproducibility, the mean (range) of kappa values was 0.781 (0.529-0.927) for occlusal surfaces, 0.568 (0.191-0.881) for smooth surfaces, and 0.844 (0.698-0.971) for proximal surfaces. Considering all lesions, sensitivity and specificity mean values were respectively 0.724 and 0.844 for occlusal, 0.635 and 0.943 for smooth and 0.658 and 0.927 for proximal surfaces. For detecting advanced lesions, sensitivities and

  20. Resin infiltration of natural proximal caries lesions regarding different stages of disease in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Büchting, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Resin infiltration provides a treatment option for non-cavitated proximal caries lesions. Although further demineralisation of early non-cavitated lesions can be hampered by this treatment, it is uncertain; weather caries infiltration of cavitated lesions is possible. Thus, this in vitro study aimed to evaluate the performance of resin infiltration regarding proximal caries lesions (n=72) differing in International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) codes. METHOD...

  1. Cluster Based Cost Efficient Intrusion Detection System For Manet

    OpenAIRE

    Kumarasamy, Saravanan; B, Hemalatha; P, Hashini

    2013-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc networks are temporary wireless networks. Network resources are abnormally consumed by intruders. Anomaly and signature based techniques are used for intrusion detection. Classification techniques are used in anomaly based techniques. Intrusion detection techniques are used for the network attack detection process. Two types of intrusion detection systems are available. They are anomaly detection and signature based detection model. The anomaly detection model uses the historica...

  2. Optical fiber strain sensor for application in intelligent intruder detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stańczyk, Tomasz; Tenderenda, Tadeusz; Szostkiewicz, Lukasz; Bienkowska, Beata; Kunicki, Daniel; Murawski, Michal; Mergo, Pawel; Nasilowski, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays technology allows to create highly effective Intruder Detection Systems (IDS), that are able to detect the presence of an intruder within a defined area. In such systems the best performance can be achieved by combining different detection techniques in one system. One group of devices that can be applied in an IDS, are devices based on Fiber Optic Sensors (FOS). The FOS benefits from numerous advantages of optical fibers like: small size, light weight or high sensitivity. In this work we present a novel Microstructured Optical Fiber (MOF) characterized by increased strain sensitivity dedicated to distributed acoustic sensing for intelligent intruder detection systems. By designing the MOF with large air holes in close proximity to a fiber core, we increased the effective refractive index sensitivity to longitudinal strain. The presented fiber can be easily integrated in a floor system in order to detect any movement in the investigated area. We believe that sensors, based on the presented MOF, due to its numerous advantages, can find application in intelligent IDS.

  3. Automatic system for detecting pornographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kevin I. C.; Chen, Tung-Shou; Ho, Jun-Der

    2002-09-01

    Due to the dramatic growth of network and multimedia technology, people can more easily get variant information by using Internet. Unfortunately, it also makes the diffusion of illegal and harmful content much easier. So, it becomes an important topic for the Internet society to protect and safeguard Internet users from these content that may be encountered while surfing on the Net, especially children. Among these content, porno graphs cause more serious harm. Therefore, in this study, we propose an automatic system to detect still colour porno graphs. Starting from this result, we plan to develop an automatic system to search porno graphs or to filter porno graphs. Almost all the porno graphs possess one common characteristic that is the ratio of the size of skin region and non-skin region is high. Based on this characteristic, our system first converts the colour space from RGB colour space to HSV colour space so as to segment all the possible skin-colour regions from scene background. We also apply the texture analysis on the selected skin-colour regions to separate the skin regions from non-skin regions. Then, we try to group the adjacent pixels located in skin regions. If the ratio is over a given threshold, we can tell if the given image is a possible porno graph. Based on our experiment, less than 10% of non-porno graphs are classified as pornography, and over 80% of the most harmful porno graphs are classified correctly.

  4. Efficient Near Maximum-Likelihood Detection for Underdetermined MIMO Antenna Systems Using a Geometrical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arogyaswami Paulraj

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Maximum-likelihood (ML detection is guaranteed to yield minimum probability of erroneous detection and is thus of great importance for both multiuser detection and space-time decoding. For multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO antenna systems where the number of receive antennas is at least the number of signals multiplexed in the spatial domain, ML detection can be done efficiently using sphere decoding. Suboptimal detectors are also well known to have reasonable performance at low complexity. It is, nevertheless, much less understood for obtaining good detection at affordable complexity if there are less receive antennas than transmitted signals (i.e., underdetermined MIMO systems. In this paper, our aim is to develop an effcient detection strategy that can achieve near ML performance for underdetermined MIMO systems. Our method is based on the geometrical understanding that the ML point happens to be a point that is “close” to the decoding hyperplane in all directions. The fact that such proximity-close points are much less is used to devise a decoding method that promises to greatly reduce the decoding complexity while achieving near ML performance. An average-case complexity analysis based on Gaussian approximation is also given.

  5. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  6. A Novel Approach to Worm Detection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Saawy, Yazed B.; Siewe, Francois; Cau, A. (Antonio)

    2015-01-01

    Computer worms are a type of malicious malware that prey on networked machines. A number of different detection mechanisms have been presented in the literature to detect worms. However, a common drawback of these mechanisms is that any failure to detect the worms results in damaging the real machines. This study proposes a new approach to detection that goes beyond the currently available signature and behavior-based approaches. In contrast to the traditional worm detect...

  7. Distributed gas detection system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challener, William Albert; Palit, Sabarni; Karp, Jason Harris; Kasten, Ansas Matthias; Choudhury, Niloy

    2017-11-21

    A distributed gas detection system includes one or more hollow core fibers disposed in different locations, one or more solid core fibers optically coupled with the one or more hollow core fibers and configured to receive light of one or more wavelengths from a light source, and an interrogator device configured to receive at least some of the light propagating through the one or more solid core fibers and the one or more hollow core fibers. The interrogator device is configured to identify a location of a presence of a gas-of-interest by examining absorption of at least one of the wavelengths of the light at least one of the hollow core fibers.

  8. Systems and methods for detecting neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2005-08-09

    Systems and methods for detecting neutrons. One or more neutron-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material, such as polystyrene. The nano-sized particles can be compounded into the extruded plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. One or more plastic light collectors can be associated with a neutron-sensitive scintillator, such that the plastic light collector includes a central hole thereof. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within the hole. The wavelength shifting (WLS) fiber absorbs scintillation light having a wavelength thereof and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength.

  9. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  10. Introduction To Intrusion Detection System Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Tewatia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Security of a network is always an important issue. With the continuously growing network the basic security such as firewall virus scanner is easily deceived by modern attackers who are experts in using software vulnerabilities to achieve their goals. For preventing such attacks we need even smarter security mechanism which act proactively and intelligently. Intrusion Detection System is the solution of such requirement. Many techniques have been used to implement IDS. These technique basically used in the detector part of IDS such as Neural Network Clustering Pattern Matching Rule Based Fuzzy Logic Genetic Algorithms and many more. To improve the performance of an IDS these approaches may be used in combination to build a hybrid IDS so that benefits of two o more approaches may be combined.

  11. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  12. Presence detection under optimum fusion in an ultrasonic sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sriram; Pandharipande, Ashish

    2012-04-01

    Reliable presence detection is a requirement in energy-efficient occupancy-adaptive indoor lighting systems. A system of multiple ultrasonic sensors is considered for presence detection, and the performance gain from optimum fusion is studied. Two cases are considered wherein an individual sensor determines presence based on (i) local detection by processing echoes at its receiver, and (ii) the optimum Chair-Varshney fusion rule using multiple sensor detection results. The performance gains of using optimum fusion over local detection are characterized under different sensor system configurations and it is shown that improved detection sensitivity is obtained over a larger detection coverage region.

  13. Proximity and the evolution of collaboration networks: evidence from research and development projects within the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balland, P.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the influence of proximity on the evolution of collaboration networks. It determines empirically how organizations choose their partners according to their geographical, cognitive, organizational, institutional and social proximity. Relational databases are constructed from

  14. Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrissey, Wayne A

    2005-01-01

    ...) to develop a regional tsunami detection and warning network that would guard coastal populations around the Indian Ocean. Those efforts would coincide with the United States goal of upgrading and expanding its tsunami detection and early warning network.

  15. Hybrid Intrusion Detection System for DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Cepheli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS attacks are one of the major threats and possibly the hardest security problem for today’s Internet. In this paper we propose a hybrid detection system, referred to as hybrid intrusion detection system (H-IDS, for detection of DDoS attacks. Our proposed detection system makes use of both anomaly-based and signature-based detection methods separately but in an integrated fashion and combines the outcomes of both detectors to enhance the overall detection accuracy. We apply two distinct datasets to our proposed system in order to test the detection performance of H-IDS and conclude that the proposed hybrid system gives better results than the systems based on nonhybrid detection.

  16. Integration of the TDWR and LLWAS wind shear detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, Larry

    1991-01-01

    Operational demonstrations of a prototype TDWR/LLWAS (Terminal Doppler Weather Radar/Low Level Wind shear Alarm System) integrated wind shear detection system were conducted. The integration of wind shear detection systems is needed to provide end-users with a single, consensus source of information. A properly implemented integrated system provides wind shear warnings of a higher quality than stand-alone LLWAS or TDWR systems. The algorithmic concept used to generate the TDWR/LLWAS integrated products and several case studies are discussed, indicating the viability and potential of integrated wind shear detection systems. Implications for integrating ground and airborne wind shear detection systems are briefly examined.

  17. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  18. Planet Detectability in the Alpha Centauri System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lily; Fischer, Debra A.; Brewer, John; Giguere, Matt; Rojas-Ayala, Bárbara

    2018-01-01

    We use more than a decade of radial-velocity measurements for α {Cen} A, B, and Proxima Centauri from the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher, CTIO High Resolution Spectrograph, and the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph to identify the M\\sin i and orbital periods of planets that could have been detected if they existed. At each point in a mass–period grid, we sample a simulated, Keplerian signal with the precision and cadence of existing data and assess the probability that the signal could have been produced by noise alone. Existing data places detection thresholds in the classically defined habitable zones at about M\\sin i of 53 {M}\\oplus for α {Cen} A, 8.4 {M}\\oplus for α {Cen} B, and 0.47 {M}\\oplus for Proxima Centauri. Additionally, we examine the impact of systematic errors, or “red noise” in the data. A comparison of white- and red-noise simulations highlights quasi-periodic variability in the radial velocities that may be caused by systematic errors, photospheric velocity signals, or planetary signals. For example, the red-noise simulations show a peak above white-noise simulations at the period of Proxima Centauri b. We also carry out a spectroscopic analysis of the chemical composition of the α {Centauri} stars. The stars have super-solar metallicity with ratios of C/O and Mg/Si that are similar to the Sun, suggesting that any small planets in the α {Cen} system may be compositionally similar to our terrestrial planets. Although the small projected separation of α {Cen} A and B currently hampers extreme-precision radial-velocity measurements, the angular separation is now increasing. By 2019, α {Cen} A and B will be ideal targets for renewed Doppler planet surveys.

  19. Safe Detection System for Hydrogen Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, Robert A. [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Beshay, Manal [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States)

    2012-02-29

    Hydrogen is an "environmentally friendly" fuel for future transportation and other applications, since it produces only pure ("distilled") water when it is consumed. Thus, hydrogen-powered vehicles are beginning to proliferate, with the total number of such vehicles expected to rise to nearly 100,000 within the next few years. However, hydrogen is also an odorless, colorless, highly flammable gas. Because of this, there is an important need for hydrogen safety monitors that can warn of hazardous conditions in vehicles, storage facilities, and hydrogen production plants. To address this need, IOS has developed a unique intrinsically safe optical hydrogen sensing technology, and has embodied it in detector systems specifically developed for safety applications. The challenge of using light to detect a colorless substance was met by creating chemically-sensitized optical materials whose color changes in the presence of hydrogen. This reversible reaction provides a sensitive, reliable, way of detecting hydrogen and measuring its concentration using light from low-cost LEDs. Hydrogen sensors based on this material were developed in three completely different optical formats: point sensors ("optrodes"), integrated optic sensors ("optical chips"), and optical fibers ("distributed sensors") whose entire length responds to hydrogen. After comparing performance, cost, time-to-market, and relative market need for these sensor types, the project focused on designing a compact optrode-based single-point hydrogen safety monitor. The project ended with the fabrication of fifteen prototype units, and the selection of two specific markets: fuel cell enclosure monitoring, and refueling/storage safety. Final testing and development of control software for these markets await future support.

  20. Diagnosis of Proximal Caries in Primary Molars with DIAGNOdent pen

    OpenAIRE

    Ermler, Romy

    2010-01-01

    Proximal surfaces, together with fissures, are the areas where most primary caries occur. Due to the anatomy of the deciduous molars, proximal caries cannot be detected at an early stage in crowded teeth by simply using a mirror and probe. Therefore, additional methods to find early proximal caries have to be used. KaVo uses laser fluorescence to detect caries. Originally, the DIAGNOdent devices were able to detect only occlusal caries (56, 61, 62, 65, 66). New results are now also available ...

  1. Painful ultrasound detected lesion in the proximal part of the corpus cavernosum: A case of so called “partial priapism”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fabiani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial priapism is a rare disorder generally described in literature as related to an idiopathic etiology leading to the thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum. Despite his rarity, this condition has been described in the last years with an increased frequency. It is characterized by thrombosis of the proximal segment of one corpus cavernosum with perineal pain as the more frequent clinical manifestation. Few cases were associated with perineal trauma. Instrumental appearance suggests for an hematoma in the interstitium of the proximal part of corpus cavernosum. Therapy is still controversial. We report a case of a 52-years old man referred to our Section of Urology suffering from a perineal pain occurred without trauma, sexual arousal or sexual intercourse, during the working office time. Laboratory revealed a slightly elevated white blood cells count. The full blood count, protein C reactive, electrolytes, international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time and urinalysis were within normal range. Tunica albuginea was normal. The partial thrombosis of the right corpus cavernosum was hypothesized. Treatment was conservative with non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Only the clinical presentation of symptoms and perineal ultrasound scan performed with color sonography leaded to the diagnosis. Eleven days later, at the clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up visit, the patient was asymptomatic with a total clinical and instrumental disappearance of signs of the corpus cavernosum involvement previously described. Considering the rarity of the condition, we performed a literature review.

  2. Research on IPv6 intrusion detection system Snort-based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zihao; Wang, Hui

    2010-07-01

    This paper introduces the common intrusion detection technologies, discusses the work flow of Snort intrusion detection system, and analyzes IPv6 data packet encapsulation and protocol decoding technology. We propose the expanding Snort architecture to support IPv6 intrusion detection in accordance with CIDF standard combined with protocol analysis technology and pattern matching technology, and present its composition. The research indicates that the expanding Snort system can effectively detect various intrusion attacks; it is high in detection efficiency and detection accuracy and reduces false alarm and omission report, which effectively solves the problem of IPv6 intrusion detection.

  3. Distributed intrusion detection system based on grid security model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jie; Liu, Yahui

    2008-03-01

    Grid computing has developed rapidly with the development of network technology and it can solve the problem of large-scale complex computing by sharing large-scale computing resource. In grid environment, we can realize a distributed and load balance intrusion detection system. This paper first discusses the security mechanism in grid computing and the function of PKI/CA in the grid security system, then gives the application of grid computing character in the distributed intrusion detection system (IDS) based on Artificial Immune System. Finally, it gives a distributed intrusion detection system based on grid security system that can reduce the processing delay and assure the detection rates.

  4. An immunity-based anomaly detection system with sensor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Takeshi; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an immunity-based anomaly detection system with sensor agents based on the specificity and diversity of the immune system. Each agent is specialized to react to the behavior of a specific user. Multiple diverse agents decide whether the behavior is normal or abnormal. Conventional systems have used only a single sensor to detect anomalies, while the immunity-based system makes use of multiple sensors, which leads to improvements in detection accuracy. In addition, we propose an evaluation framework for the anomaly detection system, which is capable of evaluating the differences in detection accuracy between internal and external anomalies. This paper focuses on anomaly detection in user's command sequences on UNIX-like systems. In experiments, the immunity-based system outperformed some of the best conventional systems.

  5. An Immunity-Based Anomaly Detection System with Sensor Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiteru Ishida

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an immunity-based anomaly detection system with sensor agents based on the specificity and diversity of the immune system. Each agent is specialized to react to the behavior of a specific user. Multiple diverse agents decide whether the behavior is normal or abnormal. Conventional systems have used only a single sensor to detect anomalies, while the immunity-based system makes use of multiple sensors, which leads to improvements in detection accuracy. In addition, we propose an evaluation framework for the anomaly detection system, which is capable of evaluating the differences in detection accuracy between internal and external anomalies. This paper focuses on anomaly detection in user’s command sequences on UNIX-like systems. In experiments, the immunity-based system outperformed some of the best conventional systems.

  6. Detection technique of targets for missile defense system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hua-ling; Deng, Jia-hao; Cai, Ke-rong

    2009-11-01

    Ballistic missile defense system (BMDS) is a weapon system for intercepting enemy ballistic missiles. It includes ballistic-missile warning system, target discrimination system, anti-ballistic-missile guidance systems, and command-control communication system. Infrared imaging detection and laser imaging detection are widely used in BMDS for surveillance, target detection, target tracking, and target discrimination. Based on a comprehensive review of the application of target-detection techniques in the missile defense system, including infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA), ground-based radar detection technology, 3-dimensional imaging laser radar with a photon counting avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays and microchip laser, this paper focuses on the infrared and laser imaging detection techniques in missile defense system, as well as the trends for their future development.

  7. Thermal History Devices, Systems For Thermal History Detection, And Methods For Thermal History Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2015-05-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include nanowire field-effect transistors, systems for temperature history detection, methods for thermal history detection, a matrix of field effect transistors, and the like.

  8. Systems and Methods for Automated Water Detection Using Visible Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor); Bellutta, Paolo (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods are disclosed that include automated machine vision that can utilize images of scenes captured by a 3D imaging system configured to image light within the visible light spectrum to detect water. One embodiment includes autonomously detecting water bodies within a scene including capturing at least one 3D image of a scene using a sensor system configured to detect visible light and to measure distance from points within the scene to the sensor system, and detecting water within the scene using a processor configured to detect regions within each of the at least one 3D images that possess at least one characteristic indicative of the presence of water.

  9. Thutmose - Investigation of Machine Learning-Based Intrusion Detection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    THUTMOSE – INVESTIGATION OF MACHINE LEARNING-BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEMS BAE SYSTEMS INFORMATION AND SECURITY JUNE 2016...2013 – NOV 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THUTMOSE – INVESTIGATION OF MACHINE LEARNING-BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEMS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-13...Specifically, intrusion detection systems that were built with machine learning operations were studied to understand: the research behind the

  10. Photoactivated In Vivo Proximity Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David B; Bonasio, Roberto

    2017-06-19

    Identification of molecular interactions is paramount to understanding how cells function. Most available technologies rely on co-purification of a protein of interest and its binding partners. Therefore, they are limited in their ability to detect low-affinity interactions and cannot be applied to proteins that localize to difficult-to-solubilize cellular compartments. In vivo proximity labeling (IPL) overcomes these obstacles by covalently tagging proteins and RNAs based on their proximity in vivo to a protein of interest. In IPL, a heterobifunctional probe comprising a photoactivatable moiety and biotin is recruited by a monomeric streptavidin tag fused to a protein of interest. Following UV irradiation, candidate interacting proteins and RNAs are covalently biotinylated with tight spatial and temporal control and subsequently recovered using biotin as an affinity handle. Here, we describe experimental protocols to discover novel protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions using IPL. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Observer differentiation of proximal enamel mechanical defects versus natural proximal dental caries with computed dental radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, B C; Farman, A G; Scarfe, W C; Goldsmith, L J

    1996-10-01

    Various models have been used to study the accuracy of imaging systems for detection of dental caries. This study compares the ability of dentists to detect mechanically created defects versus natural dental caries cavitations on the proximal surfaces of extracted teeth with Computed Dental Radiography (Schick Industries, Long Island City, N.Y.). Detection rates are investigated according to lesion depth to permit comparisons to be made between studies in the literature with other mechanical defects or natural caries models. Discrimination of natural caries versus artificial defects with Computed Dental Radiography is also compared with a previous report that used standard dental film. Fifty-two extracted molar and premolar teeth were mounted into representative sets of maxillary and mandibular posterior arches for bite-wing radiography. There were 16 proximal surfaces with natural caries and 28 proximal surfaces with mechanical defects. An optical bench was used to ensure constant beam geometry. A 1.8 cm acrylic soft tissue equivalent attenuator was placed in front of the receptor. Thirty dentists acted independently as observers to differentiate between sound proximal tooth surfaces, natural dental caries, and mechanical defects. Evaluation of intra- and interobserver variability was made with use of the kappa statistic. The Zelen test of odds ratios was used to test for homogeneity, and the Mantel-Haenszel analysis plus stratified logistic regression were used for inference about the common odds ratio. Significance was set at p detection was 74% for mechanical defects and 67% for natural caries. The odds of detecting a mechanical defect were 1.40 times the odds of finding natural dental caries cavitation of the same depth. Lesion depth did influence the probability of correctly identifying the presence of a lesion; the odds of identifying cavitation increased 1.41 times with every 0.1 mm increase in lesion depth. Correct designation of lesion type was 1.42 times

  12. The architecture of a network level intrusion detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heady, R.; Luger, G.; Maccabe, A.; Servilla, M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1990-08-15

    This paper presents the preliminary architecture of a network level intrusion detection system. The proposed system will monitor base level information in network packets (source, destination, packet size, and time), learning the normal patterns and announcing anomalies as they occur. The goal of this research is to determine the applicability of current intrusion detection technology to the detection of network level intrusions. In particular, the authors are investigating the possibility of using this technology to detect and react to worm programs.

  13. Utilization of the less-invasive stabilization system internal fixator for open fractures of the proximal tibia: A multi-center evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stannard James

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Locked plating has become popular and has clear biomechanical advantages when compared with conventional plating. When combined with minimally invasive surgical techniques, locked plating may cause substantially less iatrogenic tissue damage when compared with conventional plating. These characteristics may make locked plating an attractive option for treating open fractures of the tibial plateau and proximal tibia for which coverage over the plate can be obtained. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the Less-Invasive Stabilization System (LISS for high-energy open fractures involving either the tibial plateau or proximal tibia. Materials and Methods: This study is a retrospective evaluation of a consecutive multicenter series of 52 consecutive patients operated by seven surgeons, who used LISS plating in open proximal tibia or tibial plateau fractures seen at one of four Level I Trauma Centers. All patients were treated using a locked plating system that was implanted using minimally invasive submuscular surgical techniques. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of deep and superficial infection. Results: Fifty-two patients with open fractures have been evaluated, with a mean follow-up of 16.8 (12-36 months. Three patients (5.8% developed deep infections. Two patients (6.3% with tibial plateau and one (4.3% of patients with a tibial shaft fracture developed deep infections. Fifteen patients required flap coverage of their open wounds. The incidence of deep infection as per Gustilo and Anderson classification was Type I and II - 0 (0%; Type IIIA - 2 (7.7%; Type IIIB - 1 (7.1%; and Type IIIC - 0 (0%. Conclusions: Biomechanically, the LISS functions as an "internal-external fixator" rather than a plate. Traditional plate osteosynthesis has yielded rates of infection between 18% and 35%. Our data indicate that locked plating using minimally invasive techniques yield deep infections rates that are no worse than

  14. System and method for detecting cells or components thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Marc D [Ames, IA; Lipert, Robert J [Ames, IA; Doyle, Robert T [Ames, IA; Grubisha, Desiree S [Corona, CA; Rahman, Salma [Ames, IA

    2009-01-06

    A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

  15. Underwater Acoustic Positioning Systems for MEC Detection and Reacquisition Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-22

    FINAL REPORT UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC POSITIONING SYSTEMS FOR MEC DETECTION AND REACQUISITION OPERATIONS ESTCP Project MR-200734...Report i January 2016 FINAL REPORT: UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC POSITIONING SYSTEMS FOR MEC DETECTION AND REACQUISITION OPERATIONS ESTCP... communication port. The approximate retail cost of a NOMAD system, including four baseline stations, is $86K. MR-200734 Final Report viii January

  16. A Magnetic Sensor System for Biological Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic biosensors detect biological targets through sensing the stray field of magnetic beads which label the targets. Commonly, magnetic biosensors employ the “sandwich” method to immobilize biological targets, i.e., the targets are sandwiched between a bio-functionalized sensor surface and bio-functionalized magnetic beads. This method has been used very successfully in different application, but its execution requires a rather elaborate procedure including several washing and incubation steps. This dissertation investigates a new magnetic biosensor concept, which enables a simple and effective detection of biological targets. The biosensor takes advantage of the size difference between bare magnetic beads and compounds of magnetic beads and biological targets. First, the detection of super-paramagnetic beads via magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors is implemented. Frequency modulation is used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, enabling the detection of a single magnetic bead. Second, the concept of the magnetic biosensor is investigated theoretically. The biosensor consists of an MTJ sensor, which detects the stray field of magnetic beads inside of a trap on top of the MTJ. A microwire between the trap and the MTJ is used to attract magnetic beads to the trapping well by applying a current to it. The MTJ sensor’s output depends on the number of beads inside the trap. If biological targets are in the sample solution, the beads will form bead compounds consisting of beads linked to the biological targets. Since bead compounds are larger than bare beads, the number of beads inside the trapping well will depend on the presence of biological targets. Hence, the output of the MTJ sensor will depend on the biological targets. The dependences of sensor signals on the sizes of the MTJ sensor, magnetic beads and biological targets are studied to find the optimum constellations for the detection of specific biological targets. The optimization is demonstrated

  17. Development of Mine Detection Robot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Aoyama

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mine Detection Robot supports the mine removal work in countries where mines are buried, such as Afghanistan. The development started from September, 2003. Considering running on rough terrains, the robot has four crawlers, and hydraulic motors in front and rear were serially connected by piping so that they could rotate synchronously. Two work arms were mounted on the robot, one was a horizontal multi-joint SCARA type with motorized 2-link arm, while the other was a vertical multi-joint manipulator with 6 degrees of freedom. Also, domestic evaluation tests were carried out from February to March, 2005, followed by overseas validation tests in Croatia from February to March, 2006. These tests were conducted with a mine detecting senor mounted on the Robot, and the detection performance was evaluated by its mine detection rate.

  18. Development of Mine Detection Robot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Satsumi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mine Detection Robot supports the mine removal work in countries where mines are buried, such as Afghanistan. The development started from September, 2003. Considering running on rough terrains, the robot has four crawlers, and hydraulic motors in front and rear were serially connected by piping so that they could rotate synchronously. Two work arms were mounted on the robot, one was a horizontal multi-joint SCARA type with motorized 2-link arm, while the other was a vertical multi-joint manipulator with 6 degrees of freedom. Also, domestic evaluation tests were carried out from February to March, 2005, followed by overseas validation tests in Croatia from February to March, 2006. These tests were conducted with a mine detecting senor mounted on the Robot, and the detection performance was evaluated by its mine detection rate.

  19. An overview to Software Architecture in Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrami, Mehdi; Bahrami, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Today by growing network systems, security is a key feature of each network infrastructure. Network Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) provide defense model for all security threats which are harmful to any network. The IDS could detect and block attack-related network traffic. The network control is a complex model. Implementation of an IDS could make delay in the network. Several software-based network intrusion detection systems are developed. However, the model has a problem with high spee...

  20. Fault Detection for Shipboard Monitoring and Decision Support Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajic, Zoran; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a basic idea of a fault-tolerant monitoring and decision support system will be explained. Fault detection is an important part of the fault-tolerant design for in-service monitoring and decision support systems for ships. In the paper, a virtual example of fault detection...... will be presented for a containership with a real decision support system onboard. All possible faults can be simulated and detected using residuals and the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) algorithm....

  1. Security Enrichment in Intrusion Detection System Using Classifier Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma R. Salunkhe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of Internet and with increasing number of people as its end users, a large number of attack categories are introduced daily. Hence, effective detection of various attacks with the help of Intrusion Detection Systems is an emerging trend in research these days. Existing studies show effectiveness of machine learning approaches in handling Intrusion Detection Systems. In this work, we aim to enhance detection rate of Intrusion Detection System by using machine learning technique. We propose a novel classifier ensemble based IDS that is constructed using hybrid approach which combines data level and feature level approach. Classifier ensembles combine the opinions of different experts and improve the intrusion detection rate. Experimental results show the improved detection rates of our system compared to reference technique.

  2. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Anomaly Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop the capability to identify anomalous conditions (indications to potential impending system failure) in ground system operations before such...

  3. Model Based Aircraft Upset Detection and Recovery System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes a system for detecting upset conditions and providing the corresponding control recovery actions to maintain flight integrity for general...

  4. Early forest fire detection using radio-acoustic sounding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires.

  5. Detecting impossible changes in infancy: a three-system account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-hua; Baillargeon, Renée

    2012-01-01

    Can infants detect that an object has magically disappeared, broken apart or changed color while briefly hidden? Recent research suggests that infants detect some but not other ‘impossible’ changes; and that various contextual manipulations can induce infants to detect changes they would not otherwise detect. We present an account that includes three systems: a physical-reasoning, an object-tracking, and an object-representation system. What impossible changes infants detect depends on what object information is included in the physical-reasoning system; this information becomes subject to a principle of persistence, which states that objects can undergo no spontaneous or uncaused change. What contextual manipulations induce infants to detect impossible changes depends on complex interplays between the physical-reasoning system and the object-tracking and object-representation systems. PMID:18078778

  6. Intelligent Signal Processing for Detection System Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, C Y; Petrich, L I; Daley, P F; Burnham, A K

    2004-12-05

    A wavelet-neural network signal processing method has demonstrated approximately tenfold improvement over traditional signal-processing methods for the detection limit of various nitrogen and phosphorus compounds from the output of a thermionic detector attached to a gas chromatograph. A blind test was conducted to validate the lower detection limit. All fourteen of the compound spikes were detected when above the estimated threshold, including all three within a factor of two above the threshold. In addition, two of six spikes were detected at levels of 1/2 the concentration of the nominal threshold. Another two of the six would have been detected correctly if we had allowed human intervention to examine the processed data. One apparent false positive in five nulls was traced to a solvent impurity, whose presence was subsequently identified by analyzing a solvent aliquot evaporated to 1% residual volume, while the other four nulls were properly classified. We view this signal processing method as broadly applicable in analytical chemistry, and we advocate that advanced signal processing methods should be applied as directly as possible to the raw detector output so that less discriminating preprocessing and post-processing does not throw away valuable signal.

  7. Fault detection and isolation in systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The problem of fault detection and isolation of parametric faults is considered in this paper. A fault detection problem based on parametric faults are associated with internal parameter variations in the dynamical system. A fault detection and isolation method for parametric faults is formulated...

  8. Attitude Determination and Control System Design for a 6U Cube Sat for Proximity Operations and Rendezvous

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-04

    USA Michael V. Nayak § Red Sky Research, Albuquerque, New Mexico , 87108, USA Thorsten Pueschl ¶ dSPACE GmbH, Paderborn, 32102, Germany The work...volume, mass, and power constraints led to the decision of eliminating the reaction wheels in favor of an RCS thruster actuated control system. A trade ...the same distur- bance scenario was presented to the thruster actuated system. The total propellant per orbit needed to reject all exterior

  9. ICDAS II CRITERIA (INTERNATIONAL CARIES DETECTION AND ASSESSMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benin DİKMEN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS is a clinical scoring system which allows detection and assessment of caries activity. ICDAS was developed for use in clinical research, clinical practice and for epidemiological purposes. A recent review of caries detection criteria systems found that there were inconsistencies among the research criteria for caries measuring systems. There is a need to an uniform system which allows comparison of data collected in different researches. ICDAS allows detection of caries process at every stage and characterization of the caries activity status of lesion. Later, the criteria were modified and ICDAS II created. The aim of this review is to inform about the ICDAS II and make a comparison between ICDAS II criteria and other caries detection systems.

  10. Tamper Detection for Active Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodore, Tsesmelis; Christensen, Lars; Fihl, Preben

    2013-01-01

    If surveillance data are corrupted they are of no use to neither manually post-investigation nor automatic video analysis. It is therefore critical to automatically be able to detect tampering events such as defocusing, occlusion and displacement. In this work we for the first time ad- dress...

  11. An automatic lightning detection and photographic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtasinski, R. J.; Holley, L. D.; Gray, J. L.; Hoover, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    Conventional 35-mm camera is activated by an electronic signal every time lightning strikes in general vicinity. Electronic circuit detects lightning by means of antenna which picks up atmospheric radio disturbances. Camera is equipped with fish-eye lense, automatic shutter advance, and small 24-hour clock to indicate time when exposures are made.

  12. Intelligent Signal Processing for Detection System Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, C Y; Petrich, L I; Daley, P F; Burnham, A K

    2004-06-18

    A wavelet-neural network signal processing method has demonstrated approximately tenfold improvement in the detection limit of various nitrogen and phosphorus compounds over traditional signal-processing methods in analyzing the output of a thermionic detector attached to the output of a gas chromatograph. A blind test was conducted to validate the lower detection limit. All fourteen of the compound spikes were detected when above the estimated threshold, including all three within a factor of two above. In addition, two of six were detected at levels 1/2 the concentration of the nominal threshold. We would have had another two correct hits if we had allowed human intervention to examine the processed data. One apparent false positive in five nulls was traced to a solvent impurity, whose presence was identified by running a solvent aliquot evaporated to 1% residual volume, while the other four nulls were properly classified. We view this signal processing method as broadly applicable in analytical chemistry, and we advocate that advanced signal processing methods be applied as directly as possible to the raw detector output so that less discriminating preprocessing and post-processing does not throw away valuable signal.

  13. An Adaptive Database Intrusion Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Rita M.

    2011-01-01

    Intrusion detection is difficult to accomplish when attempting to employ current methodologies when considering the database and the authorized entity. It is a common understanding that current methodologies focus on the network architecture rather than the database, which is not an adequate solution when considering the insider threat. Recent…

  14. Online Real-Time Tribology Failure Detection System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under NASA Phase I funding, we have developed a system for the ball bearing fault detection and identification. Our system can effectively identify multiple fault...

  15. Intrusion Detection Systems in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Ali Alrajeh; Khan, S.; Bilal Shams

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes deployed in a manner to collect information about surrounding environment. Their distributed nature, multihop data forwarding, and open wireless medium are the factors that make WSNs highly vulnerable to security attacks at various levels. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) can play an important role in detecting and preventing security attacks. This paper presents current Intrusion Detection Systems and some open research problems relat...

  16. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldonate, J; Mercuri, C; Reta, J; Biurrun, J; Bonell, C; Gentiletti, G; Escobar, S; Acevedo, R [Laboratorio de Ingenieria en Rehabilitacion e Investigaciones Neuromusculares y Sensoriales (Argentina); Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios, Ruta 11 - Km 10, Oro Verde, Entre Rios (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory.

  17. Upconverting nanoparticles for optimizing scintillator based detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kross, Brian; McKisson, John E; McKisson, John; Weisenberger, Andrew; Xi, Wenze; Zom, Carl

    2013-09-17

    An upconverting device for a scintillation detection system is provided. The detection system comprises a scintillator material, a sensor, a light transmission path between the scintillator material and the sensor, and a plurality of upconverting nanoparticles particles positioned in the light transmission path.

  18. Poseidon: a 2-tier Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    BOLZONI, D.; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2005-01-01

    We present Poseidon, a new anomaly based intrusion detection system. Poseidon is payload-based, and presents a two-tier architecture: the first stage consists of a Self-Organizing Map, while the second one is a modified PAYL system. Our benchmarks on the 1999 DARPA data set show a higher detection rate and lower number of false positives than PAYL and PHAD.

  19. Revisiting Anomaly-based Network Intrusion Detection Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.

    2009-01-01

    Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are well-known and widely-deployed security tools to detect cyber-attacks and malicious activities in computer systems and networks. A signature-based IDS works similar to anti-virus software. It employs a signature database of known attacks, and a successful match

  20. 46 CFR 154.1350 - Flammable gas detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compressor room; (3) Each motor room for cargo handling machinery; (4) Each cargo control station that is not... the space where the gas detection system's readout is located and must meet § 154.1365. (h) Remote... away from all ignition sources. (o) Each flammable gas detection system must not have common sampling...

  1. Poseidon: A 2-tier Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.

    We present Poseidon, a new anomaly based intrusion detection system. Poseidon is payload-based, and presents a two-tier architecture: the first stage consists of a Self-Organizing Map, while the second one is a modified PAYL system. Our benchmarks on the 1999 DARPA data set show a higher detection

  2. Specification Mining for Intrusion Detection in Networked Control Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, M.; Zambon, Emmanuele; Amann, Johanna; Sommer, Robin; Kargl, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel approach to specification-based intrusion detection in the field of networked control systems. Our approach reduces the substantial human effort required to deploy a specification-based intrusion detection system by automating the development of its specification rules.

  3. Poseidon: A 2-tier Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2005-01-01

    We present Poseidon, a new anomaly based intrusion detection system. Poseidon is payload-based, and presents a two-tier architecture: the first stage consists of a Self-Organizing Map, while the second one is a modified PAYL system. Our benchmarks on the 1999 DARPA data set show a higher detection

  4. MCNP Simulation Benchmarks for a Portable Inspection System for Narcotics, Explosives, and Nuclear Material Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Krystal; Elsalim, Mashal; King, Michael; Strellis, Dan; Gozani, Tsahi

    2013-04-01

    MCNPX simulations have been used to guide the development of a portable inspection system for narcotics, explosives, and special nuclear material (SNM) detection. The system seeks to address these threats to national security by utilizing a high-yield, compact neutron source to actively interrogate the threats and produce characteristic signatures that can then be detected by radiation detectors. The portability of the system enables rapid deployment and proximity to threats concealed in small spaces. Both dD and dT electronic neutron generators (ENG) were used to interrogate ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) and cocaine hydrochloride, and the detector response of NaI, CsI, and LaBr3 were compared. The effect of tungsten shielding on the neutron flux in the gamma ray detectors was investigated, while carbon, beryllium, and polyethylene ENG moderator materials were optimized by determining the reaction rate density in the threats. In order to benchmark the modeling results, experimental measurements are compared with MCNPX simulations. In addition, the efficiency and die-away time of a portable differential die-away analysis (DDAA) detector using 3He proportional counters for SNM detection has been determined.

  5. Magnetic biosensor system to detect biological targets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2012-09-01

    Magneto-resistive sensors in combination with magnetic beads provide sensing platforms, which are small in size and highly sensitive. These platforms can be fully integrated with microchannels and electronics to enable devices capable of performing complex tasks. Commonly, a sandwich method is used that requires a specific coating of the sensor\\'s surface to immobilize magnetic beads and biological targets on top of the sensor. This paper concerns a micro device to detect biological targets using magnetic concentration, magnetic as well as mechanical trapping and magnetic sensing. Target detection is based on the size difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic beads with targets attached. This method remedies the need for a coating layer and reduces the number of steps required to run an experiment. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. In-situ trainable intrusion detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Christopher T.; Beaver, Justin M.; Gillen, Rob; Potok, Thomas E.

    2016-11-15

    A computer implemented method detects intrusions using a computer by analyzing network traffic. The method includes a semi-supervised learning module connected to a network node. The learning module uses labeled and unlabeled data to train a semi-supervised machine learning sensor. The method records events that include a feature set made up of unauthorized intrusions and benign computer requests. The method identifies at least some of the benign computer requests that occur during the recording of the events while treating the remainder of the data as unlabeled. The method trains the semi-supervised learning module at the network node in-situ, such that the semi-supervised learning modules may identify malicious traffic without relying on specific rules, signatures, or anomaly detection.

  7. Pothole Detection System Using a Black-box Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Youngtae; Ryu, Seungki

    2015-11-19

    Aging roads and poor road-maintenance systems result a large number of potholes, whose numbers increase over time. Potholes jeopardize road safety and transportation efficiency. Moreover, they are often a contributing factor to car accidents. To address the problems associated with potholes, the locations and size of potholes must be determined quickly. Sophisticated road-maintenance strategies can be developed using a pothole database, which requires a specific pothole-detection system that can collect pothole information at low cost and over a wide area. However, pothole repair has long relied on manual detection efforts. Recent automatic detection systems, such as those based on vibrations or laser scanning, are insufficient to detect potholes correctly and inexpensively owing to the unstable detection of vibration-based methods and high costs of laser scanning-based methods. Thus, in this paper, we introduce a new pothole-detection system using a commercial black-box camera. The proposed system detects potholes over a wide area and at low cost. We have developed a novel pothole-detection algorithm specifically designed to work with the embedded computing environments of black-box cameras. Experimental results are presented with our proposed system, showing that potholes can be detected accurately in real-time.

  8. Pothole Detection System Using a Black-box Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngtae Jo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aging roads and poor road-maintenance systems result a large number of potholes, whose numbers increase over time. Potholes jeopardize road safety and transportation efficiency. Moreover, they are often a contributing factor to car accidents. To address the problems associated with potholes, the locations and size of potholes must be determined quickly. Sophisticated road-maintenance strategies can be developed using a pothole database, which requires a specific pothole-detection system that can collect pothole information at low cost and over a wide area. However, pothole repair has long relied on manual detection efforts. Recent automatic detection systems, such as those based on vibrations or laser scanning, are insufficient to detect potholes correctly and inexpensively owing to the unstable detection of vibration-based methods and high costs of laser scanning-based methods. Thus, in this paper, we introduce a new pothole-detection system using a commercial black-box camera. The proposed system detects potholes over a wide area and at low cost. We have developed a novel pothole-detection algorithm specifically designed to work with the embedded computing environments of black-box cameras. Experimental results are presented with our proposed system, showing that potholes can be detected accurately in real-time.

  9. Capacitive proximity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  10. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  11. Detection and quantification system for monitoring instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzenitis, John M.; Hertzog, Claudia K.; Makarewicz, Anthony J.; Henderer, Bruce D.; Riot, Vincent J.

    2008-08-12

    A method of detecting real events by obtaining a set of recent signal results, calculating measures of the noise or variation based on the set of recent signal results, calculating an expected baseline value based on the set of recent signal results, determining sample deviation, calculating an allowable deviation by multiplying the sample deviation by a threshold factor, setting an alarm threshold from the baseline value plus or minus the allowable deviation, and determining whether the signal results exceed the alarm threshold.

  12. An intelligent detecting system for permeability prediction of MBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Honggui; Zhang, Shuo; Qiao, Junfei; Wang, Xiaoshuang

    2018-01-01

    The membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been widely used to purify wastewater in wastewater treatment plants. However, a critical difficulty of the MBR is membrane fouling. To reduce membrane fouling, in this work, an intelligent detecting system is developed to evaluate the performance of MBR by predicting the membrane permeability. This intelligent detecting system consists of two main parts. First, a soft computing method, based on the partial least squares method and the recurrent fuzzy neural network, is designed to find the nonlinear relations between the membrane permeability and the other variables. Second, a complete new platform connecting the sensors and the software is built, in order to enable the intelligent detecting system to handle complex algorithms. Finally, the simulation and experimental results demonstrate the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed intelligent detecting system, underlying the potential of this system for the online membrane permeability for detecting membrane fouling of MBR.

  13. Attentional System for Face Detection and Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pinto da Silva Panta Leão

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system quickly performs complex decisions due, in part, to attentional system, which positions the most relevant targets in the center of the visual field, region with greatest concentration of photoreceptor cells. The attentional system involves sensory, cognitive and also mechanical elements, because the eye and head muscles must be activated to produce movement. In this paper we present the proposal of a face detector system that, as well as the biological system, produces a coordinated movement with the purpose of positioning the target image in the center of camera's visual field. The developed system has distinct parts, one responsible for video pattern recognition and other for controlling the mechanical part, implemented as processes that communicate with each other by sockets.

  14. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1962-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  15. Identification and Damage Detection on Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Palle

    1994-01-01

    A short introduction is given to system identification and damage assessment in civil engineering structures. The most commonly used FFT-based techniques for system identification are mentioned, and the Random decrement technique and parametric methods based on ARMA models are introduced. Speed...

  16. A Sensor System for Detection of Hull Surface Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Suardíaz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sensor system for detecting defects in ship hull surfaces. The sensor was developed to enable a robotic system to perform grit blasting operations on ship hulls. To achieve this, the proposed sensor system captures images with the help of a camera and processes them in real time using a new defect detection method based on thresholding techniques. What makes this method different is its efficiency in the automatic detection of defects from images recorded in variable lighting conditions. The sensor system was tested under real conditions at a Spanish shipyard, with excellent results.

  17. Fuzzy Based Advanced Hybrid Intrusion Detection System to Detect Malicious Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupinder Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Advanced Hybrid Intrusion Detection System (AHIDS that automatically detects the WSNs attacks is proposed. AHIDS makes use of cluster-based architecture with enhanced LEACH protocol that intends to reduce the level of energy consumption by the sensor nodes. AHIDS uses anomaly detection and misuse detection based on fuzzy rule sets along with the Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network. The Feed Forward Neural Network along with the Backpropagation Neural Network are utilized to integrate the detection results and indicate the different types of attackers (i.e., Sybil attack, wormhole attack, and hello flood attack. For detection of Sybil attack, Advanced Sybil Attack Detection Algorithm is developed while the detection of wormhole attack is done by Wormhole Resistant Hybrid Technique. The detection of hello flood attack is done by using signal strength and distance. An experimental analysis is carried out in a set of nodes; 13.33% of the nodes are determined as misbehaving nodes, which classified attackers along with a detection rate of the true positive rate and false positive rate. Sybil attack is detected at a rate of 99,40%; hello flood attack has a detection rate of 98, 20%; and wormhole attack has a detection rate of 99, 20%.

  18. Development of an adaptive failure detection and identification system for detecting aircraft control element failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundick, W. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for designing a failure detection and identification (FDI) system to detect and isolate control element failures in aircraft control systems is reviewed. An FDI system design for a modified B-737 aircraft resulting from this methodology is also reviewed, and the results of evaluating this system via simulation are presented. The FDI system performed well in a no-turbulence environment, but it experienced an unacceptable number of false alarms in atmospheric turbulence. An adaptive FDI system, which adjusts thresholds and other system parameters based on the estimated turbulence level, was developed and evaluated. The adaptive system performed well over all turbulence levels simulated, reliably detecting all but the smallest magnitude partially-missing-surface failures.

  19. Chemical Detection Architecture for a Subway System [video

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio, Joselito; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School

    2014-01-01

    This proposed system process aims to improve subway safety through better enabling the rapid detection and response to a chemical release in a subway system. The process is designed to be location-independent and generalized to most subway systems despite each system's unique characteristics.

  20. An FPGA-based rapid wheezing detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Shing; Yen, Tian-Shiue

    2014-01-29

    Wheezing is often treated as a crucial indicator in the diagnosis of obstructive pulmonary diseases. A rapid wheezing detection system may help physicians to monitor patients over the long-term. In this study, a portable wheezing detection system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is proposed. This system accelerates wheezing detection, and can be used as either a single-process system, or as an integrated part of another biomedical signal detection system. The system segments sound signals into 2-second units. A short-time Fourier transform was used to determine the relationship between the time and frequency components of wheezing sound data. A spectrogram was processed using 2D bilateral filtering, edge detection, multithreshold image segmentation, morphological image processing, and image labeling, to extract wheezing features according to computerized respiratory sound analysis (CORSA) standards. These features were then used to train the support vector machine (SVM) and build the classification models. The trained model was used to analyze sound data to detect wheezing. The system runs on a Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA ML605 platform. The experimental results revealed that the system offered excellent wheezing recognition performance (0.912). The detection process can be used with a clock frequency of 51.97 MHz, and is able to perform rapid wheezing classification.

  1. Minimum detectable gas concentration performance evaluation method for gas leak infrared imaging detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Jiakun; Wang, Xia; Li, Shuo

    2017-04-01

    Thermal imaging technology is an effective means of detecting hazardous gas leaks. Much attention has been paid to evaluation of the performance of gas leak infrared imaging detection systems due to several potential applications. The minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) and the minimum detectable temperature difference (MDTD) are commonly used as the main indicators of thermal imaging system performance. This paper establishes a minimum detectable gas concentration (MDGC) performance evaluation model based on the definition and derivation of MDTD. We proposed the direct calculation and equivalent calculation method of MDGC based on the MDTD measurement system. We build an experimental MDGC measurement system, which indicates the MDGC model can describe the detection performance of a thermal imaging system to typical gases. The direct calculation, equivalent calculation, and direct measurement results are consistent. The MDGC and the minimum resolvable gas concentration (MRGC) model can effectively describe the performance of "detection" and "spatial detail resolution" of thermal imaging systems to gas leak, respectively, and constitute the main performance indicators of gas leak detection systems.

  2. Detection and Prognostics on Low Dimensional Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes the application of known and novel prognostic algorithms on systems that can be described by low dimensional, potentially nonlinear dynamics....

  3. Anomaly Detection in a Fleet of Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fleet is a group of systems (e.g., cars, aircraft) that are designed and manufactured the same way and are intended to be used the same way. For example, a fleet...

  4. Road icing forecasting and detecting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongke; Zheng, Jinnan; Li, Peiqi; Wang, Qiucai

    2017-05-01

    Regard for the facts that the low accuracy and low real-time of the artificial observation to determine the road icing condition, and it is difficult to forecast icing situation, according to the main factors influencing the road-icing, and the electrical characteristics reflected by the pavement ice layer, this paper presents an innovative system, that is, ice-forecasting of the highway's dangerous section. The system bases on road surface water salinity measurements and pavement temperature measurement to calculate the freezing point of water and temperature change trend, and then predicts the occurrence time of road icing; using capacitance measurements to verdict the road surface is frozen or not; This paper expounds the method of using single chip microcomputer as the core of the control system and described the business process of the system.

  5. Portable compton gamma-ray detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA; Oldaker, Mark E [Pleasanton, CA

    2008-03-04

    A Compton scattered gamma-ray detector system. The system comprises a gamma-ray spectrometer and an annular array of individual scintillators. The scintillators are positioned so that they are arrayed around the gamma-ray spectrometer. The annular array of individual scintillators includes a first scintillator. A radiation shield is positioned around the first scintillator. A multi-channel analyzer is operatively connected to the gamma-ray spectrometer and the annular array of individual scintillators.

  6. Statistical Outlier Detection for Jury Based Grading Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Rosas, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that was developed to identify statistical outliers from the scores of grading jury members in a large project-based first year design course. The background and requirements for the outlier detection system are presented. The outlier detection algorithm and the f......This paper presents an algorithm that was developed to identify statistical outliers from the scores of grading jury members in a large project-based first year design course. The background and requirements for the outlier detection system are presented. The outlier detection algorithm...

  7. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N

    1992-01-01

    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  8. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  9. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  10. A New Anomaly Detection System for School Electricity Consumption Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Cui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anomaly detection has been widely used in a variety of research and application domains, such as network intrusion detection, insurance/credit card fraud detection, health-care informatics, industrial damage detection, image processing and novel topic detection in text mining. In this paper, we focus on remote facilities management that identifies anomalous events in buildings by detecting anomalies in building electricity consumption data. We investigated five models within electricity consumption data from different schools to detect anomalies in the data. Furthermore, we proposed a hybrid model that combines polynomial regression and Gaussian distribution, which detects anomalies in the data with 0 false negative and an average precision higher than 91%. Based on the proposed model, we developed a data detection and visualization system for a facilities management company to detect and visualize anomalies in school electricity consumption data. The system is tested and evaluated by facilities managers. According to the evaluation, our system has improved the efficiency of facilities managers to identify anomalies in the data.

  11. [Establishment and evaluation of a computer-based software system for detection of initial approximal caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Ye, Wei-ping; Li, Yu-jing; Yu, Yang

    2006-03-01

    To establish and evaluate a computer-based software system (caries diagnosing system, CDS): CDS for better detection of initial approximal caries based on the performance of radiography. A total of 190 approximal surfaces from 95 extracted posterior teeth were examined by bite-wing radiography. After analysing and extracting the approximal lesion's characteristics of X-ray performance, using Matlab and VC language, the CDS was established. Then the proximal surfaces of these teeth were detected automatically by CDS, and scored by naked eyes of 8 experienced dentists for the extent of lesions. The histological appearance of sectioned teeth was used as the gold standard to assess sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and reproducibility. The sensitivity of CDS was 0.728, Pearson's correlation was 0.722, better than that of optic estimation. The reproducibility of CDS was good too. The CDS can report the lesion site and extension, its diagnostic level is better than that of optic estimation, it is an reasonably sensitive and accurate method for the detection of initial approximal caries in present clinic practice, and a tool of providing objective data.

  12. A Universal High-Performance Correlation Analysis Detection Model and Algorithm for Network Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In big data era, the single detection techniques have already not met the demand of complex network attacks and advanced persistent threats, but there is no uniform standard to make different correlation analysis detection be performed efficiently and accurately. In this paper, we put forward a universal correlation analysis detection model and algorithm by introducing state transition diagram. Based on analyzing and comparing the current correlation detection modes, we formalize the correlation patterns and propose a framework according to data packet timing and behavior qualities and then design a new universal algorithm to implement the method. Finally, experiment, which sets up a lightweight intrusion detection system using KDD1999 dataset, shows that the correlation detection model and algorithm can improve the performance and guarantee high detection rates.

  13. Development of radiation detection and measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, B. S.; Ham, C. S.; Chung, C. E. and others

    2000-03-01

    This report contains descriptions on the following six items. The first item is the result of a study on CsI(TI) crystals with their light emitting characteristics and the result of a study on plastic scintillators. The second item is the result of a study on advanced radiation detectors and includes experiments for the effect of using a Compton suppressor with an HPGe detector. For the third item, we describe the results of a design work done using EGS4 for a thickness gauge, a density gauge, and a level gauge. The fourth item contains descriptions on the prototype circuit systems developed for a level gauge, a thickness gauge, and for a survey meter. The fifth part contains the computed tomography algorithm and a prototype scanning system developed for a CT system. As the sixth and the last item, we describe the prototype high precision heat source and the prototype heat-voltage converter which we have designed and fabricated.

  14. Automatic lightning detection and photographic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtasinski, R. J.; Holley, L. D.; Gray, J. L.; Hoover, R. B. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A system is presented for monitoring and recording lightning strokes within a predetermined area with a camera having an electrically operated shutter with means for advancing the film in the camera after activating the shutter. The system includes an antenna for sensing lightning strikes which, in turn, generates a signal that is fed to an electronic circuit which generates signals for operating the shutter of the camera. Circuitry is provided for preventing activation of the shutter as the film in the camera is being advanced.

  15. Design of vehicle overload detection system based on geophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Siquan; Kong, Min; She, Chundong

    2017-08-01

    A vehicle overload detection system is proposed based on geophone. Under normal circumstances, when overloaded vehicles and ordinary vehicles pass through the road, the amplitude of the ground vibration will be different, and the geophone sensor can detect tiny vibrations of the ground. The system includes information acquisition module, signal conditioning module and wireless transmission module. The collected vibration data is transmitted through the wireless transmission module to the background, and the SVM algorithm is used to classify the information and determine whether the vehicle is overloaded. Experiments show that the system can detect overload accurately.

  16. A magnetic biosensor system for detection of E. coli

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2013-07-01

    This work describes a device for detecting E. coli bacteria by manipulating superparamagnetic beads to a sensing area and immobilizing them in a trapping well. The trapping well replaces the biochemical immobilization layer, which is commonly used in magnetic biosensor systems. A concept exploiting the volume difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic bead-bioanalyte compounds is utilized to detect E. coli bacteria. Trapped beads are detected by the help of a tunnel magneto-resistive sensor. Frequency modulation is employed, in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, enabling the detection of individual superparamagnetic beads of 2.8 μm in diameter. Replacing the biochemical immobilization layer by the trapping well greatly simplifies the detection process. After applying the mixture of E. coli and magnetic beads to the biosensor system, bacteria detection is achieved in a single step, within a few minutes. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Network anomaly detection system with optimized DS evidence theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Kaiyu

    2014-01-01

    Network anomaly detection has been focused on by more people with the fast development of computer network. Some researchers utilized fusion method and DS evidence theory to do network anomaly detection but with low performance, and they did not consider features of network-complicated and varied. To achieve high detection rate, we present a novel network anomaly detection system with optimized Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (ODS) and regression basic probability assignment (RBPA) function. In this model, we add weights for each sensor to optimize DS evidence theory according to its previous predict accuracy. And RBPA employs sensor's regression ability to address complex network. By four kinds of experiments, we find that our novel network anomaly detection model has a better detection rate, and RBPA as well as ODS optimization methods can improve system performance significantly.

  18. DETECT: Towards a system for detecting social polarization trends and estimating associated chances of violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah; Karampelas, Panagiotis; Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel system that can be used to detect social polarization and estimate the chances of violent radicalization associated with it. The paper indicates the required processes for such a system and analyzes how existing technologies can be integrated into the proposed system...

  19. Robust filtering and fault detection of switched delay systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Switched delay systems appear in a wide field of applications including networked control systems, power systems, memristive systems. Though the large amount of ideas with respect to such systems have generated, until now, it still lacks a framework to focus on filter design and fault detection issues which are relevant to life safety and property loss. Beginning with the comprehensive coverage of the new developments in the analysis and control synthesis for switched delay systems, the monograph not only provides a systematic approach to designing the filter and detecting the fault of switched delay systems, but it also covers the model reduction issues. Specific topics covered include: (1) Arbitrary switching signal where delay-independent and delay-dependent conditions are presented by proposing a linearization technique. (2) Average dwell time where a weighted Lyapunov function is come up with dealing with filter design and fault detection issues beside taking model reduction problems. The monograph is in...

  20. Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ankit; Nair, Pradeep R.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2015-06-09

    Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods may be configured to detect charged and non-charged particles. Such systems may include a supporting structure contacting a gate of a transistor and separating the gate from a dielectric of the transistor, and the transistor may have a near pull-in bias and a sub-threshold region bias to facilitate particle detection. The transistor may be configured to change current flow through the transistor in response to a change in stiffness of the gate caused by securing of a particle to the gate, and the transistor-based particle detection system may configured to detect the non-charged particle at least from the change in current flow.

  1. Detecting Attacks in CyberManufacturing Systems: Additive Manufacturing Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Mingtao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available CyberManufacturing System is a vision for future manufacturing where physical components are fully integrated with computational processes in a connected environment. However, realizing the vision requires that its security be adequately ensured. This paper presents a vision-based system to detect intentional attacks on additive manufacturing processes, utilizing machine learning techniques. Particularly, additive manufacturing systems have unique vulnerabilities to malicious attacks, which can result in defective infills but without affecting the exterior. In order to detect such infill defects, the research uses simulated 3D printing process images as well as actual 3D printing process images to compare accuracies of machine learning algorithms in classifying, clustering and detecting anomalies on different types of infills. Three algorithms - (i random forest, (ii k nearest neighbor, and (iii anomaly detection - have been adopted in the research and shown to be effective in detecting such defects.

  2. A model for anomaly classification in intrusion detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, V. O.; Galhardi, V. V.; Gonçalves, L. B. L.; Silva, R. C.; Cansian, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are traditionally divided into two types according to the detection methods they employ, namely (i) misuse detection and (ii) anomaly detection. Anomaly detection has been widely used and its main advantage is the ability to detect new attacks. However, the analysis of anomalies generated can become expensive, since they often have no clear information about the malicious events they represent. In this context, this paper presents a model for automated classification of alerts generated by an anomaly based IDS. The main goal is either the classification of the detected anomalies in well-defined taxonomies of attacks or to identify whether it is a false positive misclassified by the IDS. Some common attacks to computer networks were considered and we achieved important results that can equip security analysts with best resources for their analyses.

  3. Using Sequence Diagrams to Detect Communication Problems Between Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; Stratton, William C.; Sibol, Deane E.; Ray, Arnab; Yonkwa, Lyly; Kresser, Jan; Godfrey, Sally H.; Knodel, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Many software systems are evolving complex system of systems (SoS) for which inter-system communication is both mission-critical and error-prone. Such communication problems ideally would be detected before deployment. In a NASA-supported Software Assurance Research Program (SARP) project, we are researching a new approach addressing such problems. In this paper, we show that problems in the communication between two systems can be detected by using sequence diagrams to model the planned communication and by comparing the planned sequence to the actual sequence. We identify different kinds of problems that can be addressed by modeling the planned sequence using different level of abstractions.

  4. Fall Down Detection Under Smart Home System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Li-Hong; Wu, Ming-Ni

    2015-10-01

    Medical technology makes an inevitable trend for the elderly population, therefore the intelligent home care is an important direction for science and technology development, in particular, elderly in-home safety management issues become more and more important. In this research, a low of operation algorithm and using the triangular pattern rule are proposed, then can quickly detect fall-down movements of humanoid by the installation of a robot with camera vision at home that will be able to judge the fall-down movements of in-home elderly people in real time. In this paper, it will present a preliminary design and experimental results of fall-down movements from body posture that utilizes image pre-processing and three triangular-mass-central points to extract the characteristics. The result shows that the proposed method would adopt some characteristic value and the accuracy can reach up to 90 % for a single character posture. Furthermore the accuracy can be up to 100 % when a continuous-time sampling criterion and support vector machine (SVM) classifier are used.

  5. Environmentally Adaptive UXO Detection and Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    problem of discriminating UXO from non-UXO objects using manifold learning principles when applied to data collected from SAS systems. This effort...as machine learning , ATR, and information retrieval/data mining, one is interested in extracting low-dimensional data that is truly representative of... Machine Learning Research, vol. 4, pp. 119–155, December 2003. [8] K. Weinberger and L. Saul, “Unsupervised learning of image manifolds by

  6. The effect of wavelet and discrete cosine transform compression of digital radiographs on the detection of subtle proximal caries. ROC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, R K W; Richter, A; d'Hoedt, B

    2008-01-01

    The study compared diagnostic performances of 2 different image compression methods: JPEG (discrete cosine transform; Joint Photographic Experts Group compression standard) versus JPEG2000 (discrete wavelet transform), both at a compression ratio of 12:1, from the original uncompressed TIFF radiograph with respect to the detection of non-cavitated carious lesions. Therefore, 100 approximal surfaces of 50 tooth pairs were evaluated on the radiographs by 10 experienced observers using a 5-point confidence scale. Observations were carried out on a standardized viewing monitor under subdued light conditions. The proportion of diseased surfaces was balanced to approximately 50% to avoid bias. True caries status was assessed by serial ground sectioning and microscopic evaluation. A non-parametric receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed non-significant differences between the 3 image modalities, as computed from the critical ratios z not exceeding +/-2 (JPEG/JPEG2000, z = -0.0339; TIFF/JPEG2000, z = 0.251;TIFF/JPEG, z = 0.914). The mean area beneath the curve was highest for TIFF (0.604) followed by JPEG2000 (0.593) and JPEG (0.591). Both intra-rater and inter-rater agreement were significantly higher for TIFF (kappa(intra) = 0.52; kappa(inter) = 0.40) and JPEG2000 images (kappa(intra) = 0.49; kappa(inter) = 0.38) than for JPEG images (kappa(intra) = 0.33; kappa(inter) = 0.35). Our results indicate that image compression with typical compression algorithms at rates yielding storage sizes of around 50 kB is sufficient even for the challenging task of radiographic detection of non-cavitated carious approximal lesions. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Active Detection for Exposing Intelligent Attacks in Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weerakkody, Sean [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ozel, Omur [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Griffioen, Paul [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sinopoli, Bruno [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider approaches for detecting integrity attacks carried out by intelligent and resourceful adversaries in control systems. Passive detection techniques are often incorporated to identify malicious behavior. Here, the defender utilizes finely-tuned algorithms to process information and make a binary decision, whether the system is healthy or under attack. We demonstrate that passive detection can be ineffective against adversaries with model knowledge and access to a set of input/output channels. We then propose active detection as a tool to detect attacks. In active detection, the defender leverages degrees of freedom he has in the system to detect the adversary. Specifically, the defender will introduce a physical secret kept hidden from the adversary, which can be utilized to authenticate the dynamics. In this regard, we carefully review two approaches for active detection: physical watermarking at the control input, and a moving target approach for generating system dynamics. We examine practical considerations for implementing these technologies and discuss future research directions.

  8. Portable radiation detection system for pulsed high energy photon sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harker, Y.D.; Lawrence, R.S.; Yoon, W.Y. [Idaho National Engineering Lab, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Portable, battery-operated, radiation detection systems for measuring the intensity and energy characteristics of intense, pulsed photon sources (either high energy X-ray or gamma) have been developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These field-deployable, suitcase-sized detection units are designed to measure and record the characteristics of a single radiation burst or multiple bursts from a pulsed ionizing radiation source. The recorded information can then be analyzed on a simple laptop computer at a location remote from the detection system and completely independent of the ongoing data acquisition process. Two detection unit designs are described. The first, called the MARK-1, has eight bismuth germanate (BGO) radiation detectors. Four of which are unshielded and have different thicknesses (diameters). The remaining four are the same size as the largest unshielded detector but have different thicknesses of lead shielding surrounding each detector. The second unit design, called the MARK-1 A, utilizes the same detection methodology as the MARK-1 but has ten BGO detectors instead of eight and utilizes a different method of amplifying detector signals enabling reduced overall size and weight of the detection unit. Both the detection system designs have sensitivity ranges from 3 x 10{sup {minus}9} cGy to 9 x 10{sup {minus}5} cGy per radiation burst. Experimental detection results will be presented and discussed along the systems` potential for commercial applications.

  9. Detecting System of Nested Hardware Virtual Machine Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Vladimirovich Iuzbashev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Method of nested hardware virtual machine monitor detection was proposed in this work. The method is based on HVM timing attack. In case of HVM presence in system, the number of different instruction sequences execution time values will increase. We used this property as indicator in our detection.

  10. Solid-state controlled fire hazard detection and quenching system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a novel scheme to detect the fire hazard in air and ground vehicle and to quench the fire in a reliable way. Microcontrol/er based fire hazard detection and quenching .system is developed, tested and found working satisfactory. Its response is very fast to quench the fire hazard before it spreads out.

  11. Probabilistic Anomaly Detection Based On System Calls Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Maciołek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an application of probabilistic approach to the anomaly detection (PAD. Byanalyzing selected system calls (and their arguments, the chosen applications are monitoredin the Linux environment. This allows us to estimate “(abnormality” of their behavior (bycomparison to previously collected profiles. We’ve attached results of threat detection ina typical computer environment.

  12. Approaches in Anomaly-based Network Intrusion Detection Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.; Etalle, Sandro

    Anomaly-based network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs) can take into consideration packet headers, the payload, or a combination of both. We argue that payload-based approaches are becoming the most effective methods to detect attacks. Nowadays, attacks aim mainly to exploit vulnerabilities at

  13. On Emulation-Based Network Intrusion Detection Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Wetzel, Jos; Bokslag, Wouter; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Emulation-based network intrusion detection systems have been devised to detect the presence of shellcode in network traffic by trying to execute (portions of) the network packet payloads in an in- strumented environment and checking the execution traces for signs of shellcode activity.

  14. SSHCure: A Flow-Based SSH Intrusion Detection System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellemons, Laurens; Hendriks, Luuk; Hendriks, Luuk; Hofstede, R.J.; Sperotto, Anna; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    SSH attacks are a main area of concern for network managers, due to the danger associated with a successful compromise. Detecting these attacks, and possibly compromised victims, is therefore a crucial activity. Most existing network intrusion detection systems designed for this purpose rely on the

  15. Fault detection for nonlinear systems - A standard problem approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a general method for designing (nonlinear) fault detection and isolation (FDI) systems for nonlinear processes. For a rich class of nonlinear systems, a nonlinear FDI system can be designed using convex optimization procedures. The proposed method is a natural extension of met...

  16. A proposed data base system for detection, classification and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A proposed data base system for detection, classification and location of fault on electricity company of Ghana electrical distribution system. Isaac Owusu-Nyarko, Mensah-Ananoo Eugine. Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: database, classification of fault, power, distribution system, SCADA, ECG. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT ...

  17. Brief report: Using global positioning system (GPS) enabled cell phones to examine adolescent travel patterns and time in proximity to alcohol outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Morrison, Christopher N; Wiebe, Douglas J; Remer, Lillian G; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2016-07-01

    As adolescents gain freedom to explore new environments unsupervised, more time in proximity to alcohol outlets may increase risks for alcohol and marijuana use. This pilot study: 1) Describes variations in adolescents' proximity to outlets by time of day and day of the week, 2) Examines variations in outlet proximity by drinking and marijuana use status, and 3) Tests feasibility of obtaining real-time data to study adolescent proximity to outlets. U.S. adolescents (N = 18) aged 16-17 (50% female) carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week with their locations tracked. The geographic areas where adolescents spend time, activity spaces, were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding spatial buffers around routes. Proximity to outlets was greater during after school and evening hours. Drinkers and marijuana users were in proximity to outlets 1½ to 2 times more than non-users. Findings provide information about where adolescents spend time and times of greatest risk, informing prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. RF-to-DC Characteristics of Direct Irradiated On-Chip Gallium Arsenide Schottky Diode and Antenna for Application in Proximity Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahiyah Mustafa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the RF-to-DC characteristics of the integrated AlGaAs/GaAs Schottky diode and antenna under the direct injection and irradiation condition. The conversion efficiency up to 80% under direct injection of 1 GHz signal to the diode was achieved. It was found that the reduction of series resistance and parallel connection of diode and load tend to lead to the improvement of RF-to-DC conversion efficiency. Under direct irradiation from antenna-to-antenna method, the output voltage of 35 mV was still obtainable for the distance of 8 cm between both antennas in spite of large mismatch in the resonant frequency between the diode and the connected antenna. Higher output voltage in volt range is expected to be achievable for the well-matching condition. The proposed on-chip AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT Schottky diode and antenna seems to be a promising candidate to be used for application in proximity communication system as a wireless low power source as well as a highly sensitive RF detector.

  19. Detecting Fraud in Internet Auction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanlin; Zhang, Linfeng; Guan, Yong

    Fraud compromises the thriving Internet auction market. Studies have shown that fraudsters often manipulate their reputations through sophisticated collusions with accomplices, enabling them to defeat the reputation-based feedback systems that are used to combat fraud. This paper presents an algorithm that can identify colluding fraudsters in real time. Experiments with eBay transaction data show that the algorithm has low false negative and false positive rates. Furthermore, the algorithm can identify fraudsters who are innocent at the time of the data collection, but engage in fraudulent transactions soon after they accumulate good feedback ratings.

  20. Malicious Hubs: Detecting Abnormally Malicious Autonomous Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalafut, Andrew J. [Indiana University; Shue, Craig A [ORNL; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi [Indiana University

    2010-01-01

    While many attacks are distributed across botnets, investigators and network operators have recently targeted malicious networks through high profile autonomous system (AS) de-peerings and network shut-downs. In this paper, we explore whether some ASes indeed are safe havens for malicious activity. We look for ISPs and ASes that exhibit disproportionately high malicious behavior using 12 popular blacklists. We find that some ASes have over 80% of their routable IP address space blacklisted and others account for large fractions of blacklisted IPs. Overall, we conclude that examining malicious activity at the AS granularity can unearth networks with lax security or those that harbor cybercrime.

  1. Analysis of Radar and ADS-B Influences on Aircraft Detect and Avoid (DAA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Semke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Detect and Avoid (DAA systems are complex communication and locational technologies comprising multiple independent components. DAA technologies support communications between ground-based and space-based operations with aircraft. Both manned and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS rely on DAA communication and location technologies for safe flight operations. We examined the occurrence and duration of communication losses between radar and automatic dependent surveillance–broadcast (ADS-B systems with aircraft operating in proximate airspace using data collected during actual flight operations. Our objectives were to identify the number and duration of communication losses for both radar and ADS-B systems that occurred within a discrete time period. We also investigated whether other unique communication behavior and anomalies were occurring, such as reported elevation deviations. We found that loss of communication with both radar and ADS-B systems does occur, with variation in the length of communication losses. We also discovered that other unexpected behaviors were occurring with communications. Although our data were gathered from manned aircraft, there are also implications for UAS that are operating within active airspaces. We are unaware of any previously published work on occurrence and duration of communication losses between radar and ADS-B systems.

  2. Implementing an Intrusion Detection System in the Mysea Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tenhunen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    .... The objective of this thesis is to design an intrusion detection system (IDS) architecture that permits administrators operating on MYSEA client machines to conveniently view and analyze IDS alerts from the single level networks...

  3. A Driver Face Monitoring System for Fatigue and Distraction Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad-Hoseyn Sigari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver face monitoring system is a real-time system that can detect driver fatigue and distraction using machine vision approaches. In this paper, a new approach is introduced for driver hypovigilance (fatigue and distraction detection based on the symptoms related to face and eye regions. In this method, face template matching and horizontal projection of top-half segment of face image are used to extract hypovigilance symptoms from face and eye, respectively. Head rotation is a symptom to detect distraction that is extracted from face region. The extracted symptoms from eye region are (1 percentage of eye closure, (2 eyelid distance changes with respect to the normal eyelid distance, and (3 eye closure rate. The first and second symptoms related to eye region are used for fatigue detection; the last one is used for distraction detection. In the proposed system, a fuzzy expert system combines the symptoms to estimate level of driver hypo-vigilance. There are three main contributions in the introduced method: (1 simple and efficient head rotation detection based on face template matching, (2 adaptive symptom extraction from eye region without explicit eye detection, and (3 normalizing and personalizing the extracted symptoms using a short training phase. These three contributions lead to develop an adaptive driver eye/face monitoring. Experiments show that the proposed system is relatively efficient for estimating the driver fatigue and distraction.

  4. Developing nucleic acid-based electrical detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabig-Ciminska, Magdalena

    2006-03-02

    Development of nucleic acid-based detection systems is the main focus of many research groups and high technology companies. The enormous work done in this field is particularly due to the broad versatility and variety of these sensing devices. From optical to electrical systems, from label-dependent to label-free approaches, from single to multi-analyte and array formats, this wide range of possibilities makes the research field very diversified and competitive. New challenges and requirements for an ideal detector suitable for nucleic acid analysis include high sensitivity and high specificity protocol that can be completed in a relatively short time offering at the same time low detection limit. Moreover, systems that can be miniaturized and automated present a significant advantage over conventional technology, especially if detection is needed in the field. Electrical system technology for nucleic acid-based detection is an enabling mode for making miniaturized to micro- and nanometer scale bio-monitoring devices via the fusion of modern micro- and nanofabrication technology and molecular biotechnology. The electrical biosensors that rely on the conversion of the Watson-Crick base-pair recognition event into a useful electrical signal are advancing rapidly, and recently are receiving much attention as a valuable tool for microbial pathogen detection. Pathogens may pose a serious threat to humans, animal and plants, thus their detection and analysis is a significant element of public health. Although different conventional methods for detection of pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins exist and are currently being applied, improvements of molecular-based detection methodologies have changed these traditional detection techniques and introduced a new era of rapid, miniaturized and automated electrical chip detection technologies into pathogen identification sector. In this review some developments and current directions in nucleic acid-based electrical

  5. Developing nucleic acid-based electrical detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabig-Ciminska Magdalena

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Development of nucleic acid-based detection systems is the main focus of many research groups and high technology companies. The enormous work done in this field is particularly due to the broad versatility and variety of these sensing devices. From optical to electrical systems, from label-dependent to label-free approaches, from single to multi-analyte and array formats, this wide range of possibilities makes the research field very diversified and competitive. New challenges and requirements for an ideal detector suitable for nucleic acid analysis include high sensitivity and high specificity protocol that can be completed in a relatively short time offering at the same time low detection limit. Moreover, systems that can be miniaturized and automated present a significant advantage over conventional technology, especially if detection is needed in the field. Electrical system technology for nucleic acid-based detection is an enabling mode for making miniaturized to micro- and nanometer scale bio-monitoring devices via the fusion of modern micro- and nanofabrication technology and molecular biotechnology. The electrical biosensors that rely on the conversion of the Watson-Crick base-pair recognition event into a useful electrical signal are advancing rapidly, and recently are receiving much attention as a valuable tool for microbial pathogen detection. Pathogens may pose a serious threat to humans, animal and plants, thus their detection and analysis is a significant element of public health. Although different conventional methods for detection of pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins exist and are currently being applied, improvements of molecular-based detection methodologies have changed these traditional detection techniques and introduced a new era of rapid, miniaturized and automated electrical chip detection technologies into pathogen identification sector. In this review some developments and current directions in

  6. Developing nucleic acid-based electrical detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabig-Ciminska, Magdalena

    2006-01-01

    Development of nucleic acid-based detection systems is the main focus of many research groups and high technology companies. The enormous work done in this field is particularly due to the broad versatility and variety of these sensing devices. From optical to electrical systems, from label-dependent to label-free approaches, from single to multi-analyte and array formats, this wide range of possibilities makes the research field very diversified and competitive. New challenges and requirements for an ideal detector suitable for nucleic acid analysis include high sensitivity and high specificity protocol that can be completed in a relatively short time offering at the same time low detection limit. Moreover, systems that can be miniaturized and automated present a significant advantage over conventional technology, especially if detection is needed in the field. Electrical system technology for nucleic acid-based detection is an enabling mode for making miniaturized to micro- and nanometer scale bio-monitoring devices via the fusion of modern micro- and nanofabrication technology and molecular biotechnology. The electrical biosensors that rely on the conversion of the Watson-Crick base-pair recognition event into a useful electrical signal are advancing rapidly, and recently are receiving much attention as a valuable tool for microbial pathogen detection. Pathogens may pose a serious threat to humans, animal and plants, thus their detection and analysis is a significant element of public health. Although different conventional methods for detection of pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins exist and are currently being applied, improvements of molecular-based detection methodologies have changed these traditional detection techniques and introduced a new era of rapid, miniaturized and automated electrical chip detection technologies into pathogen identification sector. In this review some developments and current directions in nucleic acid-based electrical

  7. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  8. Detecting new objects and building models with active robot system

    OpenAIRE

    Stergaršek Kuzmič, Eva

    2010-01-01

    An important element of a cognitive robotic system is the ability to detect novel objects and learn their representations, which are suitable for later recognition and manipulation. The basic assumption of our work is that the detection and segmentation of new objects can be facilitated by an active robotic system, which can not only observe the objects but can also manipulate them. Manipulation supports object segmentation and the accumulation of object features, which provides the basis for...

  9. Detection systems for radioactive ion beams; Systeme de detection en ions radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savajols, H

    2002-07-01

    Two main methods are used to produce radioactive ion beams: -) the ISOL method (isotope separation on-line) in which the stable beam interacts with a thick target, the reaction products diffuse outside the target and are transferred to a source where they are ionized, a mass separator and a post-accelerator drive the selected radioactive ions to the right energy; -) the in-flight fragmentation method in which the stable beam interacts with a thin target, the reaction products are emitted from the target with a restricted angular distribution and a velocity close to that of the incident beam, the experimenter has to take advantage from the reaction kinetics to get the right particle beam. Characteristic time is far longer with the ISOL method but the beam intensity is much better because of the use of a post-accelerator. In both cases, the beam intensity is lower by several orders of magnitude than in the case of a stable beam. This article presents all the constraints imposed by radioactive beams to the detection systems of the reaction products and gives new technical solutions according to the type of nuclear reaction studied. (A.C.)

  10. Proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  11. An Indoor Video Surveillance System with Intelligent Fall Detection Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chih Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel indoor video surveillance system, capable of detecting the falls of humans. The proposed system can detect and evaluate human posture as well. To evaluate human movements, the background model is developed using the codebook method, and the possible position of moving objects is extracted using the background and shadow eliminations method. Extracting a foreground image produces more noise and damage in this image. Additionally, the noise is eliminated using morphological and size filters and this damaged image is repaired. When the image object of a human is extracted, whether or not the posture has changed is evaluated using the aspect ratio and height of a human body. Meanwhile, the proposed system detects a change of the posture and extracts the histogram of the object projection to represent the appearance. The histogram becomes the input vector of K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN algorithm and is to evaluate the posture of the object. Capable of accurately detecting different postures of a human, the proposed system increases the fall detection accuracy. Importantly, the proposed method detects the posture using the frame ratio and the displacement of height in an image. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can further improve the system performance and the fall down identification accuracy.

  12. Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for seizure detection and early seizure detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talathi, S. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Epilepsy is common neurological diseases, affecting about 0.6-0.8 % of world population. Epileptic patients suffer from chronic unprovoked seizures, which can result in broad spectrum of debilitating medical and social consequences. Since seizures, in general, occur infrequently and are unpredictable, automated seizure detection systems are recommended to screen for seizures during long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. In addition, systems for early seizure detection can lead to the development of new types of intervention systems that are designed to control or shorten the duration of seizure events. In this article, we investigate the utility of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in designing seizure detection and early seizure detection systems. We propose a deep learning framework via the use of Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) RNNs for seizure detection. We use publicly available data in order to evaluate our method and demonstrate very promising evaluation results with overall accuracy close to 100 %. We also systematically investigate the application of our method for early seizure warning systems. Our method can detect about 98% of seizure events within the first 5 seconds of the overall epileptic seizure duration.

  13. Wide area surveillance real-time motion detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book describes a system for visual surveillance using intelligent cameras. The camera uses robust techniques for detecting and tracking moving objects. The real time capture of the objects is then stored int he database. The tracking data stored in the database is analysed to study the camera view, detect and track objects, and study object behavior. These set of models provide a robust framework for coordinating the tracking of objects between overlapping and non-overlapping cameras, and recording the activity of objects detected by the system.

  14. Robust fault detection and isolation in stochastic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jemin

    2012-07-01

    This article outlines the formulation of a robust fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme that can precisely detect and isolate simultaneous actuator and sensor faults for uncertain linear stochastic systems. The given robust fault detection scheme based on the discontinuous robust observer approach would be able to distinguish between model uncertainties and actuator failures and therefore eliminate the problem of false alarms. Since the proposed approach involves estimating sensor faults, it can also be used for sensor fault identification and the reconstruction of true outputs from faulty sensor outputs. Simulation results presented here validate the effectiveness of the proposed robust FDI system.

  15. How the immune system detects lipid antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Libero, Gennaro; Mori, Lucia

    2010-04-01

    T lymphocytes are the cells of the immune system that may recognize glycolipids as antigens. T cells recognize lipids associated with the non-polymorphic molecules of the CD1 family present on the membrane of antigen-presenting cells. CD1 molecules contain hydrophobic pockets, which bind a large variety of lipid molecules in various manners. Lipid antigenicity is determined by their mode of uptake, membrane trafficking properties, degradation within endosomal compartments and capacity to form stable complexes with CD1. Extracellular and intracellular lipid binding proteins participate in lipid handling and loading on CD1 molecules within antigen-presenting cells. Recent crystal structures have disclosed how the T cell receptor contacts CD1-lipid complexes, revealing the contribution of both CD1 and lipid residues in making functionally relevant contacts. Lipid-specific T cells are important in autoimmunity, cancer surveillance, protection during infections, and in immunoregulation. The immunogenicity of lipids is being exploited in novel approaches to immunotherapy, including inhibition of autoimmunity and anti-cancer and bacterial vaccines. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. A neuromorphic system for object detection and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Deepak; Chen, Yang; Kim, Kyungnam; Cheng, Shinko Y.; Honda, Alexander L.; Zhang, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Unattended object detection, recognition and tracking on unmanned reconnaissance platforms in battlefields and urban spaces are topics of emerging importance. In this paper, we present an unattended object recognition system that automatically detects objects of interest in videos and classifies them into various categories (e.g., person, car, truck, etc.). Our system is inspired by recent findings in visual neuroscience on feed-forward object detection and recognition pipeline and mirrors that via two main neuromorphic modules (1) A front-end detection module that combines form and motion based visual attention to search for and detect "integrated" object percepts as is hypothesized to occur in the human visual pathways; (2) A back-end recognition module that processes only the detected object percepts through a neuromorphic object classification algorithm based on multi-scale convolutional neural networks, which can be efficiently implemented in COTS hardware. Our neuromorphic system was evaluated using a variety of urban area video data collected from both stationary and moving platforms. The data are quite challenging as it includes targets at long ranges, occurring under variable conditions of illuminations and occlusion with high clutter. The experimental results of our system showed excellent detection and classification performance. In addition, the proposed bio-inspired approach is good for hardware implementation due to its low complexity and mapping to off-the-shelf conventional hardware.

  17. System and Method for Outlier Detection via Estimating Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, David J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An efficient method and system for real-time or offline analysis of multivariate sensor data for use in anomaly detection, fault detection, and system health monitoring is provided. Models automatically derived from training data, typically nominal system data acquired from sensors in normally operating conditions or from detailed simulations, are used to identify unusual, out of family data samples (outliers) that indicate possible system failure or degradation. Outliers are determined through analyzing a degree of deviation of current system behavior from the models formed from the nominal system data. The deviation of current system behavior is presented as an easy to interpret numerical score along with a measure of the relative contribution of each system parameter to any off-nominal deviation. The techniques described herein may also be used to "clean" the training data.

  18. Personalization of NonEEG-based seizure detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, D; Heydarzadeh, M; Nourani, M

    2016-08-01

    Seizures affect each patient differently, so personalization is a vital part of developing a reliable nonEEG based seizure detection system. This personalization must be done while the patient is undergoing video EEG monitoring in an epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) because seizure detection by EEG is considered to be the ground truth. We propose the use of confidence interval analysis for determining how many seizures must be captured from a patient before we can reliably personalize such a seizure detection system for him/her. Our analysis indicates that 6 to 8 seizures are required. In addition, we create seizure likelihood tables for future use by said system by comparing the number of times a prespecified biosignal activity level is induced by seizure to the total number of occurrences of that level of activity. We focus on complex partial seizures in this paper because they are more difficult to detect than are generalized seizures.

  19. A UAV-BASED ROE DEER FAWN DETECTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Israel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a UAV based remote sensing system for the detection of fawns in the meadows. There is a high demand because during pasture mowing many wild animals, especially roe deer fawns are killed by mowing machines. The system was tested in several real situations especially with differing weather and iluminating conditions. Its primary sensor is a lightweight thermal infrared camera. The images are captured onboard of the flight system and also transmitted as analog video stream to the ground station, where the user can follow the camera live stream on a monitor for manual animal detection. Beside a high detection rate a fast workflow is another very important objective for this application. Therefore a waypoint planning software was developed that accelerates the workflow. At adequate illuminating and weather conditions the presented UAV-based fawn detection via thermal imaging is a comfortable, fast and reliable method.

  20. Detection of Component Failures for Smart Structure Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hiroshi

    Uncertainties in the dynamics model of a smart structure are often of significance due to model errors caused by parameter identification errors and reduced-order modeling of the system. Design of a model-based Failure Detection and Isolation (FDI) system for smart structures, therefore, needs careful consideration regarding robustness with respect to such model uncertainties. In this paper, we proposes a new method of robust fault detection that is insensitive to the disturbances caused by unknown modeling errors while it is highly sensitive to the component failures. The capability of the robust detection algorithm is examined for the sensor failure of a flexible smart beam control system. It is shown by numerical simulations that the proposed method suppresses the disturbances due to model errors and markedly improves the detection performance.

  1. Detection of forced oscillations in power systems with multichannel methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The increasing availability of high fidelity, geographically dispersed measurements in power systems improves the ability of researchers and engineers to study dynamic behaviors in the grid. One such behavior that is garnering increased attention is the presence of forced oscillations. Power system engineers are interested in forced oscillations because they are often symptomatic of the malfunction or misoperation of equipment. Though the resulting oscillation is not always large in amplitude, the root cause may be serious. In this report, multi-channel forced oscillation detection methods are developed. These methods leverage previously developed detection approaches based on the periodogram and spectral-coherence. Making use of geographically distributed channels of data is shown to improved detection performance and shorten the delay before an oscillation can be detected in the online environment. Results from simulated and measured power system data are presented.

  2. Enterprise network intrusion detection and prevention system (ENIDPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akujuobi, C. M.; Ampah, N. K.

    2007-04-01

    Securing enterprise networks comes under two broad topics: Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS). The right combination of selected algorithms/techniques under both topics produces better security for a given network. This approach leads to using layers of physical, administrative, electronic, and encrypted systems to protect valuable resources. So far, there is no algorithm, which guarantees absolute protection for a given network from intruders. Intrusion Prevention Systems like IPSec, Firewall, Sender ID, Domain Keys Identified Mail (DKIM) etc. do not guarantee absolute security just like existing Intrusion Detection Systems. Our approach focuses on developing an IDS, which will detect all intruders that bypass the IPS and at the same time will be used in updating the IPS, since the IPS fail to prevent some intruders from entering a given network. The new IDS will employ both signature-based detection and anomaly detection as its analysis strategy. It should therefore be able to detect known and unknown intruders or attacks and further isolate those sources of attack within the network. Both real-time and off-line IDS predictions will be applied under the analysis and response stages. The basic IDS architecture will involve both centralized and distributed/heterogeneous architecture to ensure effective detection. Pro-active responses and corrective responses will be employed. The new security system, which will be made up of both IDS and IPS, should be less expensive to implement compared to existing ones. Finally, limitations of existing security systems have to be eliminated with the introduction of the new security system.

  3. Perancangan dan Implementasi Instrusion Detection System di Jaringan Universitas Diponegoro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyakso Anindito Nugroho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of information technology gives the advantage of open access for its users, but a new problem arises that there is a threat from unauthorized users. Intrusion Detection System (IDS is applied to assist administrator to monitoring network security. IDS displays illegal access information in a raw form which is require more time to read the detected threats. This final project aims to design an IDS with web application which is made for pulling information on IDS sensor database, then processing and representing them in tables and graphs that are easy to understand. The web application also has IpTables firewall module to block attacker's IP address. The hardware used is Cisco IPS 4240, two computers Compaq Presario 4010F as client and gateway, and Cisco Catalyst 2960 switch. The software used is Ubuntu 12.0 LTS Precise operating system, BackTrack 5 R1 operating system, PHP 5.4 programming language, MySQL 5 database, and web-based system configuration tool Webmin. Testing is done using several BackTrack applications with the aim of Cisco IPS 4240 is capable of detecting accordance with the applicable rules. Each events of any attack attempt or threat was obtained from IDS sensor database in XML form. XML file is sent using Security Device Event Exchange (SDEE protocol. The web application is tested by looking at the output tables and graphs that displays the appropriate results of sensor detection. This study generated an intrusion detection system that is easier to monitor. Network packets copied by the Cisco 2960 switch and then forwarded to the sensor. Intruder detection is done by Cisco IPS 4240 sensor. Log detection processed by the web application into tables and graphs. Intrusion detection systems are intended to improve network security.

  4. Tension metastable fluid detection systems for special nuclear material detection and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapinskas, Joseph R.; Zielinski, Stephen M.; Webster, Jeffery A. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Taleyarkhan, Rusi P., E-mail: rusi@purdue.ed [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); McDeavitt, Sean M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Xu Yiban [Westinghouse Electric Company, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Tension metastable fluid states offer unique potential for radical transformation in radiation detection capabilities. States of tension metastability may be obtained in tailored resonant acoustic systems such as the acoustic tension metastable fluid detector (ATMFD) system or via centrifugal force based systems such as the centrifugal tension metastable fluid detector (CTMFD) system; both under development at Purdue University. In this paper we describe research results with CTMFD systems for use in the detection of key actinide isotopes constituting special nuclear materials (SNMs) in spent fuel. Tests in a CTMFD system demonstrate the ability to detect alpha activity (at {approx}100% efficiency) of U-isotopes at concentrations of {approx}100 ppb (which is unprecedented and about x100-1000 more sensitive than from conventional liquid scintillation spectroscopy). An inherent capability of TMFD systems concerns on demand tailoring of fluid tension levels allowing for energy discrimination and spectroscopy. This appears especially useful to detect the key isotopes of U and other transuranic isotopes of Pu, Np, Am, and Cm that are at different stages of nuclear fuel reprocessing (i.e., UREX+).

  5. Image Pre-processing in Vertical Traffic Signs Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid Solus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the first steps of the systems design that will be able to detect vertical traffic signs and to provide descriptions of the applied data processing methods. This system includes various functional blocks that are described in this paper. The basis of Vertical Traffic Signs Detection System is a pre-processing of a captured traffic scene ahead of vehicle. Main part of this paper contains a description of user friendly software interface for an image pre-processing.

  6. An Enhanced SAR-Based Tsunami Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre Dubois; Jihad S. Daba; H. Karam; J. Abdallah

    2014-01-01

    Tsunami early detection and warning systems have proved to be of ultimate importance, especially after the destructive tsunami that hit Japan in March 2012. Such systems are crucial to inform the authorities of any risk of a tsunami and of the degree of its danger in order to make the right decision and notify the public of the actions they need to take to save their lives. The purpose of this research is to enhance existing tsunami detection and warning systems. We first propose an automated...

  7. Active IR System for Projectile Detection and Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANCIC, I.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliable detection and tracking of high-speed projectiles is crucial in providing modern battlefield protection or to be used as a forensic tool. Subsonic projectiles fired from silenced weapons are difficult to detect, whereas reliable tracking of the projectile trajectory is hard to accomplish. Contemporary radar based counter-battery systems showed to be valuable in detection of incoming artillery fire, but are unable to provide detection at close ranges. In this paper, an active IR system is proposed that aims to detect and track incoming projectiles at close ranges. Proposed system is able to reconstruct projectile’s trajectory in space, predict impact location and estimate direction of projectile origin. Active detector system is based on a pair of high-speed cameras in stereo-configuration synced with computer and IR illuminator that emits coded IR light bursts. Innovative IR light coding enables automated detection and tracking of a nearby projectile and elimination of false positive alarms caused by distant objects.

  8. A Partially Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eung Jun; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon; Jeon, Seokhee

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of wireless sensor networks, which normally comprise several very small sensor nodes, makes their security an increasingly important issue. They can be practically and efficiently secured using intrusion detection systems. Conventional security mechanisms are not usually applicable due to the sensor nodes having limitations of computational power, memory capacity, and battery power. Therefore, specific security systems should be designed to function under constraints of energy or memory. A partially distributed intrusion detection system with low memory and power demands is proposed here. It employs a Bloom filter, which allows reduced signature code size. Multiple Bloom filters can be combined to reduce the signature code for each Bloom filter array. The mechanism could then cope with potential denial of service attacks, unlike many previous detection systems with Bloom filters. The mechanism was evaluated and validated through analysis and simulation.

  9. A Partially Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eung Jun Cho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of wireless sensor networks, which normally comprise several very small sensor nodes, makes their security an increasingly important issue. They can be practically and efficiently secured using intrusion detection systems. Conventional security mechanisms are not usually applicable due to the sensor nodes having limitations of computational power, memory capacity, and battery power. Therefore, specific security systems should be designed to function under constraints of energy or memory. A partially distributed intrusion detection system with low memory and power demands is proposed here. It employs a Bloom filter, which allows reduced signature code size. Multiple Bloom filters can be combined to reduce the signature code for each Bloom filter array. The mechanism could then cope with potential denial of service attacks, unlike many previous detection systems with Bloom filters. The mechanism was evaluated and validated through analysis and simulation.

  10. Biological Detection System Technologies Technology and Industrial Base Study. A Primer on Biological Detection Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    of chemical weapons detection systems for U.S. and Canadian defence departments was applied to develop a commercial version of the CB/Net and HPAMS ...ensuring the system and attending personnel are always in a ready state for more serious situations. The CB/Net HPAMS is a universal platform equipped...equipped with high resolution APS and FLAPS. The CB/Net HPAMS is designed to be used as a perimeter monitoring system. Several units deployed around the

  11. Inertial sensor-based system for lameness detection in trotting dogs with induced lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodin, M; Bergh, A; Gustås, P; Gómez Álvarez, C B

    2017-04-01

    Lameness detection can be challenging in dogs, as reflected in the reported low inter-rater agreement when visually assessing lameness. The aim of this study was to use an inertial sensor-based system to detect and quantify induced distal and proximal limb disturbances mimicking supporting and swinging limb lameness in dogs trotting on a treadmill by measuring vertical head and pelvic movement symmetry. Ten clinically sound dogs were equipped with inertial measurement units that were attached to the head, pelvis and right distal forelimb. Vertical head and pelvic movement symmetry were measured while dogs trotted on a treadmill, before and after the induction of moderate support or swinging fore- and hindlimb lameness. Four symmetry variables were calculated: the differences in displacement between the two lowest and between the two highest values of the head and pelvis per stride, respectively. These variables were defined as minimum head difference (HDmin), maximum head difference (HDmax), minimum pelvic difference (PDmin) and maximum pelvic difference (PDmax). Induction of supporting forelimb and hindlimb lameness produced significant changes in HDmin and PDmin, respectively. Swinging forelimb and hindlimb lameness produced significant changes in HDmax and PDmax, respectively. Additional compensatory ipsilateral forelimb and contralateral hindlimb movements were detected. Based on our findings, inertial sensor-based systems can be used to detect and quantify induced moderate lameness and differentiate between supporting and swinging limb lameness in dogs trotting on a treadmill. Further studies are needed to evaluate this method in dogs presented for clinical lameness evaluation and in overground locomotion. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Data analysis of inertial sensor for train positioning detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Jin; Park, Sung Soo; Lee, Jae Ho; Kang, Dong Hoon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Train positioning detection information is fundamental for high-speed railroad inspection, making it possible to simultaneously determine the status and evaluate the integrity of railroad equipment. This paper presents the results of measurements and an analysis of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) used as a positioning detection sensors. Acceleration and angular rate measurements from the IMU were analyzed in the amplitude and frequency domains, with a discussion on vibration and train motions. Using these results and GPS information, the positioning detection of a Korean tilting train express was performed from Naju station to Illo station on the Honam-line. The results of a synchronized analysis of sensor measurements and train motion can help in the design of a train location detection system and improve the positioning detection performance.

  13. Innovative Detection System of Ochratoxin A by Thin Film Photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Domenico; de Cesare, Giampiero; Fanelli, Corrado; Nascetti, Augusto; Ricelli, Alessandra; Scipinotti, Riccardo

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present, for the first time, a rapid, compact and innovative method for detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA) based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) sensors. 2 μl of acidified toluene containing OTA at different concentrations were spotted on the silica side of a High Performance Thin Layer Cromatography plate and aligned with a a-Si:H p-i-n photodiode deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition on a different glass substrate. As an UV radiation excites the mycotoxin, the re-emitted light is detected by the a-Si:H sensor. Results show a very good linearity between OTA concentration and the sensor photocurrent over almost three orders of magnitude. The minimum detected OTA concentration is equal to 0.1ng, showing that the presented system has the potential for a low cost system suitable for the early detection of toxins in foods.

  14. Support system and method for detecting neurodegenerative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system and a method for detection of abnormal motor activity during REM sleep, and further to systems and method for assisting in detecting neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's. One embodiment relates to a method for detection of abnormal motor activity...... during REM sleep comprising the steps of: performing polysomnographic recordings of a sleeping subject, thereby obtaining one or more electromyography (EMG) derivations, preferably surface EMG recordings, and one or more EEG derivations, and/or one or more electrooculargraphy (EOG) derivations, detecting...... one or more REM sleep stages, preferably based on the one or more EEG and/or EOG derivations, determining the level of muscle activity during the one or more REM sleep stages based on the one or more EMG derivations, wherein a subject having an increased level of muscle activity during REM sleep...

  15. Automatic Emboli Detection System for the Artificial Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steifer, T.; Lewandowski, M.; Karwat, P.; Gawlikowski, M.

    In spite of the progress in material engineering and ventricular assist devices construction, thromboembolism remains the most crucial problem in mechanical heart supporting systems. Therefore, the ability to monitor the patient's blood for clot formation should be considered an important factor in development of heart supporting systems. The well-known methods for automatic embolus detection are based on the monitoring of the ultrasound Doppler signal. A working system utilizing ultrasound Doppler is being developed for the purpose of flow estimation and emboli detection in the clinical artificial heart ReligaHeart EXT. Thesystem will be based on the existing dual channel multi-gate Doppler device with RF digital processing. A specially developed clamp-on cannula probe, equipped with 2 - 4 MHz piezoceramic transducers, enables easy system setup. We present the issuesrelated to the development of automatic emboli detection via Doppler measurements. We consider several algorithms for the flow estimation and emboli detection. We discuss their efficiency and confront them with the requirements of our experimental setup. Theoretical considerations are then met with preliminary experimental findings from a) flow studies with blood mimicking fluid and b) in-vitro flow studies with animal blood. Finally, we discuss some more methodological issues - we consider several possible approaches to the problem of verification of the accuracy of the detection system.

  16. Enhancing Tumor Detection in IR-UWB Breast Cancer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoname, Reda; Elmahdy, Abd Elmonem; Zekry, Abd Elhalim

    2017-01-01

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) microwave system for breast cancer detection is presented. The proposed system includes monocycle pulse generator, antipodal Vivaldi antenna, breast model, and calibration algorithm for tumor detection. Firstly, our pulse generator employs transmission gate in glitch generator to achieve several advantages such as low power consumption and low ringing level. Secondly, the antipodal Vivaldi antenna is designed assuming FR4 dielectric substrate material, and developed antenna element (80 × 80 mm2) features a −10 dB return loss and bandwidth ranges from 2.3 GHz to more than 11 GHz. Thirdly, the phantom breast can be modeled as a layer of skin, fat, and then tumor is inserted in this layer. Finally, subtract and add algorithm (SAD) is used as a calibration algorithm in tumor detection system. The proposed system suggested that horizontal antenna position with 90° between transmitting and receiving antennas is localized as a suitable antenna position with different rotating location and a 0.5 cm near to phantom. The mean advantages of this localization and tracking position around breast is a high received power signal approximately around mv as a higher recognized signal in tumor detection. Using our proposed system we can detect tumor in 5 mm diameter. PMID:28421208

  17. Enhancing Tumor Detection in IR-UWB Breast Cancer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fouad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-wideband (UWB microwave system for breast cancer detection is presented. The proposed system includes monocycle pulse generator, antipodal Vivaldi antenna, breast model, and calibration algorithm for tumor detection. Firstly, our pulse generator employs transmission gate in glitch generator to achieve several advantages such as low power consumption and low ringing level. Secondly, the antipodal Vivaldi antenna is designed assuming FR4 dielectric substrate material, and developed antenna element (80×80 mm2 features a −10 dB return loss and bandwidth ranges from 2.3 GHz to more than 11 GHz. Thirdly, the phantom breast can be modeled as a layer of skin, fat, and then tumor is inserted in this layer. Finally, subtract and add algorithm (SAD is used as a calibration algorithm in tumor detection system. The proposed system suggested that horizontal antenna position with 90° between transmitting and receiving antennas is localized as a suitable antenna position with different rotating location and a 0.5 cm near to phantom. The mean advantages of this localization and tracking position around breast is a high received power signal approximately around mv as a higher recognized signal in tumor detection. Using our proposed system we can detect tumor in 5 mm diameter.

  18. Embedded Sensor System for Early Pathology Detection in Building Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Santiago J. Barro; Cascon, Carlos J. Escudero

    2009-01-01

    Structure pathology detection is an important security task in building construction, which is performed by an operator by looking manually for damages on the materials. This activity could be dangerous if the structure is hidden or difficult to reach. On the other hand, embedded devices and wireless sensor networks (WSN) are becoming popular and cheap, enabling the design of an alternative pathology detection system to monitor structures based on these technologies. This article introduces a...

  19. Neuromorphic computing applications for network intrusion detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Raymond C.; Pino, Robinson E.

    2014-05-01

    What is presented here is a sequence of evolving concepts for network intrusion detection. These concepts start with neuromorphic structures for XOR-based signature matching and conclude with computationally based network intrusion detection system with an autonomous structuring algorithm. There is evidence that neuromorphic computation for network intrusion detection is fractal in nature under certain conditions. Specifically, the neural structure can take fractal form when simple neural structuring is autonomous. A neural structure is fractal by definition when its fractal dimension exceeds the synaptic matrix dimension. The authors introduce the use of fractal dimension of the neuromorphic structure as a factor in the autonomous restructuring feedback loop.

  20. A novel evaporation detection system using an impedance sensing chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Sheng; Chen, Cheng-You

    2014-11-21

    This paper presents a novel real-time impedance sensing chip for the evaporation detection of small volume solutions. Time sharing detection is performed for multiple sample measurements by a relay switching technique. In contrast to a conventional weight loss approach, the advantage of this proposed impedance sensing system is that it not only merely requires as little as 0.5 mL of test samples, but also provides high sensitivity and fast detection. More importantly, this proposed impedance sensing chip has advantages of a small chip size and easy decomposition for cleaning and reuse.

  1. Resin infiltration of proximal caries lesions differing in ICDAS codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Sebastian; Bitter, Kerstin; Naumann, Michael; Dörfer, Christof E; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik

    2011-04-01

    Resin infiltration of non-cavitated proximal caries lesions has been shown to inhibit further demineralization. However, the effect of resin infiltration in cavitated lesions is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate infiltration patterns of proximal caries lesions differing in International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) codes. Extracted human molars and premolars showing proximal caries lesions with and without cavitations (ICDAS codes 2-5) were etched with 15% hydrochloric acid gel and resin infiltrated according to the manufacturer's instructions. Three sections from each lesion were prepared and analyzed using a dual-fluorescence staining technique and confocal microscopy. The dimensions of the demineralized and cavitated lesions areas, as well as the resin-infiltrated parts within these lesions, were measured. The demineralized parts were infiltrated from 73% to 100% (median values) but the cavities were filled only negligibly (0-5%). Teeth that had an ICDAS code of 5 showed a significantly lower percentage infiltration/filling of lesions compared to teeth with ICDAS codes of 2 and 3. It was concluded that under in vitro conditions the tested infiltrant penetrates most parts of the demineralized enamel but is not capable of filling up cavities and therefore the efficacy of caries infiltration, particularly in lesions with larger cavitations, might be impaired. © 2011 Eur J Oral Sci.

  2. The waveform correlation event detection system global prototype software design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiriger, J.I.; Moore, S.G.; Trujillo, J.R.; Young, C.J.

    1997-12-01

    The WCEDS prototype software system was developed to investigate the usefulness of waveform correlation methods for CTBT monitoring. The WCEDS prototype performs global seismic event detection and has been used in numerous experiments. This report documents the software system design, presenting an overview of the system operation, describing the system functions, tracing the information flow through the system, discussing the software structures, and describing the subsystem services and interactions. The effectiveness of the software design in meeting project objectives is considered, as well as opportunities for code refuse and lessons learned from the development process. The report concludes with recommendations for modifications and additions envisioned for regional waveform-correlation-based detector.

  3. Energy detection UWB system based on pulse width modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Cui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new energy detection ultra-wideband system based on pulse width modulation is proposed. The bit error rate (BER performance of this new system is slightly worst than that of a pulse position modulation (PPM system in additive white Gaussian noise channels. In multipath channels, this system does not suffer from cross-modulation interference as PPM, so it can achieve better BER performance than PPM when cross-modulation interference occurs. In addition, when synchronisation errors occur, this system is more robust than PPM.

  4. Neighborhood detection for the identification of spatiotemporal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y; Billings, S A

    2008-06-01

    Neighborhood detection and local state vector construction for the identification of spatiotemporal systems is considered in this paper. Determining the neighborhood size both in the space and time domain can considerably reduce the complexity of the set of candidate model terms for the identification of coupled map lattice models. The computation requirements of the model identification algorithm can also be greatly reduced instead of the more direct identification approach of searching over the entire spatiotemporal neighborhood in the original space. In this paper, a new neighborhood detection method is introduced based on embedding theory for nonlinear dynamical systems to produce an initial spatiotemporal neighborhood for the identification of spatiotemporal systems. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of the new neighborhood detection method.

  5. An Android malware detection system based on machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Long; Yu, Haiyang

    2017-08-01

    The Android smartphone, with its open source character and excellent performance, has attracted many users. However, the convenience of the Android platform also has motivated the development of malware. The traditional method which detects the malware based on the signature is unable to detect unknown applications. The article proposes a machine learning-based lightweight system that is capable of identifying malware on Android devices. In this system we extract features based on the static analysis and the dynamitic analysis, then a new feature selection approach based on principle component analysis (PCA) and relief are presented in the article to decrease the dimensions of the features. After that, a model will be constructed with support vector machine (SVM) for classification. Experimental results show that our system provides an effective method in Android malware detection.

  6. Design of Gear Defect Detection System Based on Machine Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wu, Zhiheng; Duan, Xianyun; Tong, Jigang; Li, Ping; Chen, min; Lin, Qinglin

    2018-01-01

    In order to solve such problems as low efficiency, low quality and instability of gear surface defect detection, we designed a detection system based on machine vision, sensor coupling. By multisensory coupling, and then CCD camera image collection of gear products, using VS2010 to cooperate with Halcon library for a series of analysis and processing of images. At last, the results are fed back to the control end, and the rejected device is removed to the collecting box. The system has successfully identified defective gear. The test results show that this system can identify and eliminate the defects gear quickly and efficiently. It has reached the requirement of gear product defect detection line automation and has a certain application value.

  7. Performance estimation for threat detection in CT systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Trent; Karl, W. Clem; Castañón, David A.

    2017-05-01

    Detecting the presence of hazardous materials in suitcases and carry-on luggage is an important problem in aviation security. As the set of threats is expanding, there is a corresponding need to increase the capabilities of explosive detection systems to address these threats. However, there is a lack of principled tools for predicting the performance of alternative designs for detection systems. In this paper, we describe an approach for computing bounds on the achievable classification performance of material discrimination systems based on empirical statistics that estimate the f-divergence of the underlying features. Our approach can be used to examine alternative physical observation modalities and measurement configurations, as well as variations in reconstruction and feature extraction algorithms.

  8. Continuous Fraud Detection in Enterprise Systems through Audit Trail Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Best

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise systems, real time recording and real time reporting pose new and significant challenges to the accounting and auditing professions. This includes developing methods and tools for continuous assurance and fraud detection. In this paper we propose a methodology for continuous fraud detection that exploits security audit logs, changes in master records and accounting audit trails in enterprise systems. The steps in this process are: (1 threat monitoring-surveillance of security audit logs for ‘red flags’, (2 automated extraction and analysis of data from audit trails, and (3 using forensic investigation techniques to determine whether a fraud has actually occurred. We demonstrate how mySAP, an enterprise system, can be used for audit trail analysis in detecting financial frauds; afterwards we use a case study of a suspected fraud to illustrate how to implement the methodology.

  9. Estimation of coal proximate analysis factors and calorific value by multivariable regression method and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Behnamfard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The proximate analysis is the most common form of coal evaluation and it reveals the quality of a coal sample. It examines four factors including the moisture, ash, volatile matter (VM, and fixed carbon (FC within the coal sample. Every factor is determined through a distinct experimental procedure under ASTM specified conditions. These determinations are time consuming and require a significant amount of laboratory equipment. The calorific value is one of the most important properties of a solid fuel and its experimental determination requires special instrumentation and highly trained analyst to operate it. This paper develops mathematical and ANFIS models for estimation of two factors of proximate analysis based on the other two factors. Furthermore, the estimation of calorific value of coal samples based on proximate analysis factors is performed using multivariable regression, the Minitab 16 software package, and the ANFIS, Matlab software package. The results indicate that ANFIS is a more powerful tool for estimation of proximate analysis factors and calorific value than multivariable regression method. The following equation estimates the calorific value of coal samples with high precision: Calorific value (btu/lb= 12204 - 170 Moisture + 46.8 FC - 127 Ash

  10. Protein biomarker validation via proximity ligation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokzijl, A; Nong, R; Darmanis, S; Hertz, E; Landegren, U; Kamali-Moghaddam, M

    2014-05-01

    The ability to detect minute amounts of specific proteins or protein modifications in blood as biomarkers for a plethora of human pathological conditions holds great promise for future medicine. Despite a large number of plausible candidate protein biomarkers published annually, the translation to clinical use is impeded by factors such as the required size of the initial studies, and limitations of the technologies used. The proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a versatile molecular tool that has the potential to address some obstacles, both in validation of biomarkers previously discovered using other techniques, and for future routine clinical diagnostic needs. The enhanced specificity of PLA extends the opportunities for large-scale, high-performance analyses of proteins. Besides advantages in the form of minimal sample consumption and an extended dynamic range, the PLA technique allows flexible assay reconfiguration. The technology can be adapted for detecting protein complexes, proximity between proteins in extracellular vesicles or in circulating tumor cells, and to address multiple post-translational modifications in the same protein molecule. We discuss herein requirements for biomarker validation, and how PLA may play an increasing role in this regard. We describe some recent developments of the technology, including proximity extension assays, the use of recombinant affinity reagents suitable for use in proximity assays, and the potential for single cell proteomics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. © 2013.

  11. A multimodal emotion detection system during human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Malfaz, María; Sequeira, João; Gorostiza, Javier F; Salichs, Miguel A

    2013-11-14

    In this paper, a multimodal user-emotion detection system for social robots is presented. This system is intended to be used during human-robot interaction, and it is integrated as part of the overall interaction system of the robot: the Robotics Dialog System (RDS). Two modes are used to detect emotions: the voice and face expression analysis. In order to analyze the voice of the user, a new component has been developed: Gender and Emotion Voice Analysis (GEVA), which is written using the Chuck language. For emotion detection in facial expressions, the system, Gender and Emotion Facial Analysis (GEFA), has been also developed. This last system integrates two third-party solutions: Sophisticated High-speed Object Recognition Engine (SHORE) and Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT). Once these new components (GEVA and GEFA) give their results, a decision rule is applied in order to combine the information given by both of them. The result of this rule, the detected emotion, is integrated into the dialog system through communicative acts. Hence, each communicative act gives, among other things, the detected emotion of the user to the RDS so it can adapt its strategy in order to get a greater satisfaction degree during the human-robot dialog. Each of the new components, GEVA and GEFA, can also be used individually. Moreover, they are integrated with the robotic control platform ROS (Robot Operating System). Several experiments with real users were performed to determine the accuracy of each component and to set the final decision rule. The results obtained from applying this decision rule in these experiments show a high success rate in automatic user emotion recognition, improving the results given by the two information channels (audio and visual) separately.

  12. A Multimodal Emotion Detection System during Human–Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Salichs

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multimodal user-emotion detection system for social robots is presented. This system is intended to be used during human–robot interaction, and it is integrated as part of the overall interaction system of the robot: the Robotics Dialog System (RDS. Two modes are used to detect emotions: the voice and face expression analysis. In order to analyze the voice of the user, a new component has been developed: Gender and Emotion Voice Analysis (GEVA, which is written using the Chuck language. For emotion detection in facial expressions, the system, Gender and Emotion Facial Analysis (GEFA, has been also developed. This last system integrates two third-party solutions: Sophisticated High-speed Object Recognition Engine (SHORE and Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT. Once these new components (GEVA and GEFA give their results, a decision rule is applied in order to combine the information given by both of them. The result of this rule, the detected emotion, is integrated into the dialog system through communicative acts. Hence, each communicative act gives, among other things, the detected emotion of the user to the RDS so it can adapt its strategy in order to get a greater satisfaction degree during the human–robot dialog. Each of the new components, GEVA and GEFA, can also be used individually. Moreover, they are integrated with the robotic control platform ROS (Robot Operating System. Several experiments with real users were performed to determine the accuracy of each component and to set the final decision rule. The results obtained from applying this decision rule in these experiments show a high success rate in automatic user emotion recognition, improving the results given by the two information channels (audio and visual separately.

  13. A Multimodal Emotion Detection System during Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Malfaz, María; Sequeira, João; Gorostiza, Javier F.; Salichs, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a multimodal user-emotion detection system for social robots is presented. This system is intended to be used during human–robot interaction, and it is integrated as part of the overall interaction system of the robot: the Robotics Dialog System (RDS). Two modes are used to detect emotions: the voice and face expression analysis. In order to analyze the voice of the user, a new component has been developed: Gender and Emotion Voice Analysis (GEVA), which is written using the Chuck language. For emotion detection in facial expressions, the system, Gender and Emotion Facial Analysis (GEFA), has been also developed. This last system integrates two third-party solutions: Sophisticated High-speed Object Recognition Engine (SHORE) and Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT). Once these new components (GEVA and GEFA) give their results, a decision rule is applied in order to combine the information given by both of them. The result of this rule, the detected emotion, is integrated into the dialog system through communicative acts. Hence, each communicative act gives, among other things, the detected emotion of the user to the RDS so it can adapt its strategy in order to get a greater satisfaction degree during the human–robot dialog. Each of the new components, GEVA and GEFA, can also be used individually. Moreover, they are integrated with the robotic control platform ROS (Robot Operating System). Several experiments with real users were performed to determine the accuracy of each component and to set the final decision rule. The results obtained from applying this decision rule in these experiments show a high success rate in automatic user emotion recognition, improving the results given by the two information channels (audio and visual) separately. PMID:24240598

  14. An artificial bioindicator system for network intrusion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Christian; Lozano, José A; Davidson, Pedro Pinacho

    2015-01-01

    An artificial bioindicator system is developed in order to solve a network intrusion detection problem. The system, inspired by an ecological approach to biological immune systems, evolves a population of agents that learn to survive in their environment. An adaptation process allows the transformation of the agent population into a bioindicator that is capable of reacting to system anomalies. Two characteristics stand out in our proposal. On the one hand, it is able to discover new, previously unseen attacks, and on the other hand, contrary to most of the existing systems for network intrusion detection, it does not need any previous training. We experimentally compare our proposal with three state-of-the-art algorithms and show that it outperforms the competing approaches on widely used benchmark data.

  15. ENSEMBLE DESIGN OF MASQUERADER DETECTION SYSTEMS FOR INFORMATION SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subbulakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Masqueraders are a category of intruders who impersonate other people on a computer system and use this entry point to use the information stored in the systems or throw other attacks into the network. This paper focuses on Ensemble Design of a Masquerader Detection System using Decision trees and Support Vector Machines for classification with two kernel functions linear and linear BSpline. The key idea is to find out specific patterns of command sequence that tells about user behaviour on a system, and use them to build classifiers that can perfectly recognize anomalous and normal behaviour. Real time truncated command line data set collected from a debian Linux server is used for performance comparison of the developed classifiers with the standard truncated command line data set of Schonlau[4]. The results show that Ensemble Design of Masquerader Detection Systems is much faster than individual Decision trees or Support Vector Machines.

  16. Stratigraphy and structure of the Sevier thrust belt and proximal foreland-basin system in central Utah: A transect from the Sevier Desert to the Wasatch Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, T.F.; Sprinkel, D.A.; Decelles, P.G.; Mitra, G.; Sussman, A.J.; Weiss, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Sevier orogenic belt in central Utah comprises four north-northwest trending thrust plates and two structural culminations that record crustal shortening and uplift in late Mesozoic and early Tertiary time. Synorogenic clastic rocks, mostly conglomerate and sandstone, exposed within the thrust belt were deposited in wedge-top and foredeep depozones within the proximal part of the foreland-basin system. The geologic relations preserved between thrust structures and synorogenic deposits demonstrate a foreland-breaking sequence of thrust deformation that was modified by minor out-of-sequence thrust displacement. Structural culminations in the interior part of the thrust belt deformed and uplifted some of the thrust sheets following their emplacement. Strata in the foreland basin indicate that the thrust sheets of central Utah were emplaced between latest Jurassic and Eocene time. The oldest strata of the foredeep depozone (Cedar Mountain Formation) are Neocomian and were derived from the hanging wall of the Canyon Range thrust. The foredeep depozone subsided most rapidly during Albian through Santonian or early Campanian time and accumulated about 2.5 km of conglomeratic strata (Indianola Group). The overlying North Horn Formation accumulated in a wedge-top basin from the Campanian to the Eocene and records propagation of the Gunnison thrust beneath the former foredeep. The Canyon Range Conglomerate of the Canyon Mountains, equivalent to the Indianola Group and the North Horn Formation, was deposited exclusively in a wedge-top setting on the Canyon Range and Pavant thrust sheets. This field trip, a three day, west-to-east traverse of the Sevier orogenic belt in central Utah, visits localities where timing of thrust structures is demonstrated by geometry of cross-cutting relations, growth strata associated with faults and folds, or deformation of foredeep deposits. Stops in the Canyon Mountains emphasize geometry of late structural culminations and relationships of

  17. Development of a Wearable-Sensor-Based Fall Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falin Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fall detection is a major challenge in the public healthcare domain, especially for the elderly as the decline of their physical fitness, and timely and reliable surveillance is necessary to mitigate the negative effects of falls. This paper develops a novel fall detection system based on a wearable device. The system monitors the movements of human body, recognizes a fall from normal daily activities by an effective quaternion algorithm, and automatically sends request for help to the caregivers with the patient’s location.

  18. A radar vehicle detection system for four-quadrant gate warning systems and blocked crossing detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Wavetronix Matrix Radar was adapted for use at four-quadrant gate railroad crossings for the purpose of influencing exit gate behavior upon the detection of vehicles, as an alternative to buried inductive loops. Two radar devices were utilized, o...

  19. Electrical breakdown detection system for dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilardi, Michele; Busfield, James J. C.; Carpi, Federico

    2017-04-01

    Electrical breakdown of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) is an issue that has to be carefully addressed when designing systems based on this novel technology. Indeed, in some systems electrical breakdown might have serious consequences, not only in terms of interruption of the desired function but also in terms of safety of the overall system (e.g. overheating and even burning). The risk for electrical breakdown often cannot be completely avoided by simply reducing the driving voltages, either because completely safe voltages might not generate sufficient actuation or because internal or external factors might change some properties of the actuator whilst in operation (for example the aging or fatigue of the material, or an externally imposed deformation decreasing the distance between the compliant electrodes). So, there is the clear need for reliable, simple and cost-effective detection systems that are able to acknowledge the occurrence of a breakdown event, making DEA-based devices able to monitor their status and become safer and "selfaware". Here a simple solution for a portable detection system is reported that is based on a voltage-divider configuration that detects the voltage drop at the DEA terminals and assesses the occurrence of breakdown via a microcontroller (Beaglebone Black single-board computer) combined with a real-time, ultra-low-latency processing unit (Bela cape an open-source embedded platform developed at Queen Mary University of London). The system was used to both generate the control signal that drives the actuator and constantly monitor the functionality of the actuator, detecting any breakdown event and discontinuing the supplied voltage accordingly, so as to obtain a safer controlled actuation. This paper presents preliminary tests of the detection system in different scenarios in order to assess its reliability.

  20. FaceID: A face detection and recognition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, M.B.; Rao, N.S.V.; Olman, V.; Uberbacher, E.C.; Mann, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    A face detection system that automatically locates faces in gray-level images is described. Also described is a system which matches a given face image with faces in a database. Face detection in an Image is performed by template matching using templates derived from a selected set of normalized faces. Instead of using original gray level images, vertical gradient images were calculated and used to make the system more robust against variations in lighting conditions and skin color. Faces of different sizes are detected by processing the image at several scales. Further, a coarse-to-fine strategy is used to speed up the processing, and a combination of whole face and face component templates are used to ensure low false detection rates. The input to the face recognition system is a normalized vertical gradient image of a face, which is compared against a database using a set of pretrained feedforward neural networks with a winner-take-all fuser. The training is performed by using an adaptation of the backpropagation algorithm. This system has been developed and tested using images from the FERET database and a set of images obtained from Rowley, et al and Sung and Poggio.

  1. Traffic Congestion Detection System through Connected Vehicles and Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Cárdenas-Benítez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the simulation and evaluation of a traffic congestion detection system which combines inter-vehicular communications, fixed roadside infrastructure and infrastructure-to-infrastructure connectivity and big data. The system discussed in this article permits drivers to identify traffic congestion and change their routes accordingly, thus reducing the total emissions of CO2 and decreasing travel time. This system monitors, processes and stores large amounts of data, which can detect traffic congestion in a precise way by means of a series of algorithms that reduces localized vehicular emission by rerouting vehicles. To simulate and evaluate the proposed system, a big data cluster was developed based on Cassandra, which was used in tandem with the OMNeT++ discreet event network simulator, coupled with the SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility traffic simulator and the Veins vehicular network framework. The results validate the efficiency of the traffic detection system and its positive impact in detecting, reporting and rerouting traffic when traffic events occur.

  2. The detection of carbonation by the Drosophila gustatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischler, Walter; Kong, Priscilla; Marella, Sunanda; Scott, Kristin

    2007-08-30

    There are five known taste modalities in humans: sweet, bitter, sour, salty and umami (the taste of monosodium glutamate). Although the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster tastes sugars, salts and noxious chemicals, the nature and number of taste modalities in this organism is not clear. Previous studies have identified one taste cell population marked by the gustatory receptor gene Gr5a that detects sugars, and a second population marked by Gr66a that detects bitter compounds. Here we identify a novel taste modality in this insect: the taste of carbonated water. We use a combination of anatomical, calcium imaging and behavioural approaches to identify a population of taste neurons that detects CO2 and mediates taste acceptance behaviour. The taste of carbonation may allow Drosophila to detect and obtain nutrients from growing microorganisms. Whereas CO2 detection by the olfactory system mediates avoidance, CO2 detection by the gustatory system mediates acceptance behaviour, demonstrating that the context of CO2 determines appropriate behaviour. This work opens up the possibility that the taste of carbonation may also exist in other organisms.

  3. Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection Systems Utilizing System Call Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    2.1.1 Viruses The first use of the term “computer virus ” is attributed to Fred Cohen in 1983. Fred Cohen originally defined a computer virus as a...agents. Once compromised, these systems become part of what is known as a “zombie” network. 2.1.3 Trojans A Trojan horse is malware pretending to...be benign or useful software. When activated, Trojans perform unauthorized actions such as collecting, modifying, and forging data. Unlike viruses

  4. Evaluation of computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman; Armato, Samuel G; Bert, Alberto; Correale, Loredana; Delsanto, Silvia; Freedman, Matthew T; Fryd, David; Gur, David; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Huo, Zhimin; Jiang, Yulei; Morra, Lia; Paquerault, Sophie; Raykar, Vikas; Samuelson, Frank; Summers, Ronald M; Tourassi, Georgia; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Zheng, Bin; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2013-08-01

    Computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) systems are increasingly being used as an aid by clinicians for detection and interpretation of diseases. Computer-aided detection systems mark regions of an image that may reveal specific abnormalities and are used to alert clinicians to these regions during image interpretation. Computer-aided diagnosis systems provide an assessment of a disease using image-based information alone or in combination with other relevant diagnostic data and are used by clinicians as a decision support in developing their diagnoses. While CAD systems are commercially available, standardized approaches for evaluating and reporting their performance have not yet been fully formalized in the literature or in a standardization effort. This deficiency has led to difficulty in the comparison of CAD devices and in understanding how the reported performance might translate into clinical practice. To address these important issues, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed the Computer Aided Detection in Diagnostic Imaging Subcommittee (CADSC), in part, to develop recommendations on approaches for assessing CAD system performance. The purpose of this paper is to convey the opinions of the AAPM CADSC members and to stimulate the development of consensus approaches and "best practices" for evaluating CAD systems. Both the assessment of a standalone CAD system and the evaluation of the impact of CAD on end-users are discussed. It is hoped that awareness of these important evaluation elements and the CADSC recommendations will lead to further development of structured guidelines for CAD performance assessment. Proper assessment of CAD system performance is expected to increase the understanding of a CAD system's effectiveness and limitations, which is expected to stimulate further research and development efforts on CAD technologies, reduce problems due to improper use, and eventually improve the utility and efficacy of CAD in

  5. Remote health monitoring system for detecting cardiac disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ayush; Kumar, Sunil; Bajpai, Anurag; Tiwari, Vijay N; Nayak, Mithun; Venkatesan, Shankar; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2015-12-01

    Remote health monitoring system with clinical decision support system as a key component could potentially quicken the response of medical specialists to critical health emergencies experienced by their patients. A monitoring system, specifically designed for cardiac care with electrocardiogram (ECG) signal analysis as the core diagnostic technique, could play a vital role in early detection of a wide range of cardiac ailments, from a simple arrhythmia to life threatening conditions such as myocardial infarction. The system that the authors have developed consists of three major components, namely, (a) mobile gateway, deployed on patient's mobile device, that receives 12-lead ECG signals from any ECG sensor, (b) remote server component that hosts algorithms for accurate annotation and analysis of the ECG signal and (c) point of care device of the doctor to receive a diagnostic report from the server based on the analysis of ECG signals. In the present study, their focus has been toward developing a system capable of detecting critical cardiac events well in advance using an advanced remote monitoring system. A system of this kind is expected to have applications ranging from tracking wellness/fitness to detection of symptoms leading to fatal cardiac events.

  6. Comparison and Characterization of Android-Based Fall Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luque

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Falls are a foremost source of injuries and hospitalization for seniors. The adoption of automatic fall detection mechanisms can noticeably reduce the response time of the medical staff or caregivers when a fall takes place. Smartphones are being increasingly proposed as wearable, cost-effective and not-intrusive systems for fall detection. The exploitation of smartphones’ potential (and in particular, the Android Operating System can benefit from the wide implantation, the growing computational capabilities and the diversity of communication interfaces and embedded sensors of these personal devices. After revising the state-of-the-art on this matter, this study develops an experimental testbed to assess the performance of different fall detection algorithms that ground their decisions on the analysis of the inertial data registered by the accelerometer of the smartphone. Results obtained in a real testbed with diverse individuals indicate that the accuracy of the accelerometry-based techniques to identify the falls depends strongly on the fall pattern. The performed tests also show the difficulty to set detection acceleration thresholds that allow achieving a good trade-off between false negatives (falls that remain unnoticed and false positives (conventional movements that are erroneously classified as falls. In any case, the study of the evolution of the battery drain reveals that the extra power consumption introduced by the Android monitoring applications cannot be neglected when evaluating the autonomy and even the viability of fall detection systems.

  7. Comparison and characterization of Android-based fall detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Rafael; Casilari, Eduardo; Morón, María-José; Redondo, Gema

    2014-10-08

    Falls are a foremost source of injuries and hospitalization for seniors. The adoption of automatic fall detection mechanisms can noticeably reduce the response time of the medical staff or caregivers when a fall takes place. Smartphones are being increasingly proposed as wearable, cost-effective and not-intrusive systems for fall detection. The exploitation of smartphones' potential (and in particular, the Android Operating System) can benefit from the wide implantation, the growing computational capabilities and the diversity of communication interfaces and embedded sensors of these personal devices. After revising the state-of-the-art on this matter, this study develops an experimental testbed to assess the performance of different fall detection algorithms that ground their decisions on the analysis of the inertial data registered by the accelerometer of the smartphone. Results obtained in a real testbed with diverse individuals indicate that the accuracy of the accelerometry-based techniques to identify the falls depends strongly on the fall pattern. The performed tests also show the difficulty to set detection acceleration thresholds that allow achieving a good trade-off between false negatives (falls that remain unnoticed) and false positives (conventional movements that are erroneously classified as falls). In any case, the study of the evolution of the battery drain reveals that the extra power consumption introduced by the Android monitoring applications cannot be neglected when evaluating the autonomy and even the viability of fall detection systems.

  8. A video surveillance system designed to detect multiple falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chih Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a fall detection system that is based on image processing technology. The system can detect falling by various humans via analysis of video frame. First, the system utilizes the method of mixture and Gaussian background model to generate information about the background, and the noise and shadow of background are eliminated to extract the possible positions of moving objects. The extraction of a foreground image generates more noise and damage. Therefore, morphological and size filters are utilized to eliminate this noise and repair the damage to the image. Extraction of the foreground image yields the locations of human heads in the image. The median point, height, and aspect ratio of the people in the image are calculated. These characteristics are utilized to trace objects. The change of the characteristics of objects among various consecutive images can be used to evaluate those persons enter or leave the scene. The method of fall detection uses the height and aspect ratio of the human body, analyzes the image in which one person overlaps with another, and detects whether a human has fallen or not. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can efficiently detect falls by multiple persons.

  9. An object detection and tracking system for unmanned surface vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Xiao, Yang; Fang, Zhiwen; Zhang, Naiwen; Wang, Li; Li, Tao

    2017-10-01

    Object detection and tracking are critical parts of unmanned surface vehicles(USV) to achieve automatic obstacle avoidance. Off-the-shelf object detection methods have achieved impressive accuracy in public datasets, though they still meet bottlenecks in practice, such as high time consumption and low detection quality. In this paper, we propose a novel system for USV, which is able to locate the object more accurately while being fast and stable simultaneously. Firstly, we employ Faster R-CNN to acquire several initial raw bounding boxes. Secondly, the image is segmented to a few superpixels. For each initial box, the superpixels inside will be grouped into a whole according to a combination strategy, and a new box is thereafter generated as the circumscribed bounding box of the final superpixel. Thirdly, we utilize KCF to track these objects after several frames, Faster-RCNN is again used to re-detect objects inside tracked boxes to prevent tracking failure as well as remove empty boxes. Finally, we utilize Faster R-CNN to detect objects in the next image, and refine object boxes by repeating the second module of our system. The experimental results demonstrate that our system is fast, robust and accurate, which can be applied to USV in practice.

  10. A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wen; Zong, Guanghua; Bi, Shusheng

    2014-06-01

    This paper proposes a bubble detection system based on the ultrasound transmission method, mainly for probing high-speed bubbles in the satellite propellant filling pipeline. First, three common ultrasonic detection methods are compared and the ultrasound transmission method is used in this paper. Then, the ultrasound beam in a vertical pipe is investigated, suggesting that the width of the beam used for detection is usually smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe, which means that when bubbles move close to the pipe wall, they may escape from being detected. A special device is designed to solve this problem. It can generate the spiral flow to force all the bubbles to ascend along the central line of the pipe. In the end, experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of this system. Bubbles of five different sizes are generated and detected. Experiment results show that the sizes and quantity of bubbles can be estimated by this system. Also, the bubbles of different radii can be distinguished from each other. The numerical relationship between the ultrasound attenuation and the bubble radius is acquired and it can be utilized for estimating the unknown bubble size and measuring the total bubble volume.

  11. Intrusion Detection System using Self Organizing Map: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruti Choksi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to usage of computer every field, Network Security is the major concerned in today’s scenario. Every year the number of users and speed of network is increasing, along with it online fraud or security threats are also increasing. Every day a new attack is generated to harm the system or network. It is necessary to protect the system or networks from various threats by using Intrusion Detection System which can detect “known” as well as “unknown” attack and generate alerts if any unusual behavior in the traffic. There are various approaches for IDS, but in this paper, survey is focused on IDS using Self Organizing Map. SOM is unsupervised, fast conversion and automatic clustering algorithm which is able to handle novelty detection. The main objective of the survey is to find and address the current challenges of SOM. Our survey shows that the existing IDS based on SOM have poor detection rate for U2R and R2L attacks. To improve it, proper normalization technique should be used. During the survey we also found that HSOM and GHSOM are advance model of SOM which have their own unique feature for better performance of IDS. GHSOM is efficient due to its low computation time. This survey is beneficial to design and develop efficient SOM based IDS having less computation time and better detection rate.

  12. Innovative Detection System of Ochratoxin A by Thin Film Photodiodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Scipinotti

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present, for the first time, a rapid, compact and innovativemethod for detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H sensors. 2 μl of acidified toluene containing OTA at different concentrations werespotted on the silica side of a High Performance Thin Layer Cromatography plate andaligned with a a-Si:H p-i-n photodiode deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical VaporDeposition on a different glass substrate. As an UV radiation excites the mycotoxin, the re-emitted light is detected by the a-Si:H sensor. Results show a very good linearity betweenOTA concentration and the sensor photocurrent over almost three orders of magnitude. Theminimum detected OTA concentration is equal to 0.1ng, showing that the presented systemhas the potential for a low cost system suitable for the early detection of toxins in foods.

  13. Evolution of a magnetic-based biomolecular detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamanaha, Cy R; Mulvaney, Shawn P; Rife, Jack C

    2009-01-01

    Amongst the plethora of affinity biosensor systems based on biomolecular recognition and labeling assays, magnetic labeling and detection has emerged as a promising approach. Magnetic labels can be detected by a wide range of non-invasive methods, are physically and chemically stable, relatively inexpensive to produce, and can be easily made biocompatible. Over a decade ago, the U. S. Naval Research Laboratory pioneered the use of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors to detect biomolecules labeled with paramagnetic microbeads. Since then, our various investigations and engineering efforts have resulted in significant improvements in both the magnetoelectronic instrumentation and the assays associated with these magnetic labels. This paper and subsequent presentation provides a synopsis of the development of our technology which has evolved into a highly sensitive detection method.

  14. Methods, systems and devices for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, Lyle Gene [Idaho Falls, ID; Kotter, Dale Kent [Shelley, ID; Rohrbaugh, David Thomas [Idaho Falls, ID; Spencer, David Frazer [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-26

    Methods for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects in a security screening system. One method includes a step of acquiring magnetic data that includes magnetic field gradients detected during a period of time. Another step includes representing the magnetic data as a function of the period of time. Another step includes converting the magnetic data to being represented as a function of frequency. Another method includes a step of sensing a magnetic field for a period of time. Another step includes detecting a gradient within the magnetic field during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a peak value of the gradient detected during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a portion of time within the period of time that represents when the peak value occurs. Another step includes configuring the portion of time over the period of time to represent a ratio.

  15. Quantitative analysis of intrusion detection systems: Snort and Suricata

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joshua S.; Fitzsimmons, Thomas; Matthews, Jeanna N.

    2013-05-01

    Given competing claims, an objective head-to-head comparison of the performance of both the Snort R and Suricata Intrusion Detection Systems is needed. In this paper, we present a comprehensive quantitative comparison of the two systems. We have developed a rigorous testing framework that examines the performance of both systems as we scale system resources. Our results show that a single instance of Suricata is able to deliver substantially higher performance than a corresponding single instance of Snort. This paper describes in detail both the testing framework capabilities, tests performed and results found.

  16. Planetary Systems Detection, Formation and Habitability of Extrasolar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Ollivier, Marc; Casoli, Fabienne; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Selsis, Franck

    2009-01-01

    Over the past ten years, the discovery of extrasolar planets has opened a new field of astronomy, and this area of research is rapidly growing, from both the observational and theoretical point of view. The presence of many giant exoplanets in the close vicinity of their star shows that these newly discovered planetary systems are very different from the solar system. New theoretical models are being developed in order to understand their formation scenarios, and new observational methods are being implemented to increase the sensitivity of exoplanet detections. In the present book, the authors address the question of planetary systems from all aspects. Starting from the facts (the detection of more than 300 extraterrestrial planets), they first describe the various methods used for these discoveries and propose a synthetic analysis of their global properties. They then consider the observations of young stars and circumstellar disks and address the case of the solar system as a specific example, different fr...

  17. Securing Cloud Computing from Different Attacks Using Intrusion Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Achbarou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new way of integrating a set of old technologies to implement a new paradigm that creates an avenue for users to have access to shared and configurable resources through internet on-demand. This system has many common characteristics with distributed systems, hence, the cloud computing also uses the features of networking. Thus the security is the biggest issue of this system, because the services of cloud computing is based on the sharing. Thus, a cloud computing environment requires some intrusion detection systems (IDSs for protecting each machine against attacks. The aim of this work is to present a classification of attacks threatening the availability, confidentiality and integrity of cloud resources and services. Furthermore, we provide literature review of attacks related to the identified categories. Additionally, this paper also introduces related intrusion detection models to identify and prevent these types of attacks.

  18. Hot Spot Detection System Using Landsat 8/OLI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S.; Nakamura, R.; Oda, A.; Iijima, A.; Kouyama, T.; Iwata, T.

    2015-12-01

    We developed a simple algorithm and a Web-based visualizing system to detect hot spots using Landsat 8 OLI multispectral data as one of the applications of the real-time processing of Landsat 8 data. An empirical equation and radiometric and reflective thresholds were derived to detect hot spots using the OLI data at band 5 (0.865 μm) and band 7 (2.200 μm) based on the increase in spectral radiance at shortwave infrared (SWIR) region due to the emission from objects with high surface temperature. We surveyed typical patterns of surface spectra using the ASTER spectral library to delineate a threshold to distinguish hot spots from background surfaces. To adjust the empirical coefficients of our detection algorithm, we visually inspected the detected hot spots using 6593 Landsat 8 scenes, which cover eastern part of East Asia, taken from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014, displayed on a dedicated Web GIS system. Eventually we determined threshold equations which can theoretically detect hot spots at temperatures above 230 °C over isothermal pixels and hot spots as small as 1 m2 at temperatures of 1000 °C as the lowest temperature and the smallest subpixel coverage, respectively, for daytime scenes. The algorithm detected hot spots including wildfires, volcanos, open burnings and factories. 30-m spatial resolution of Landsat 8 enabled to detect wild fires and open burnings accompanied by clearer shapes of fire front lines than MODIS and VIIRS fire products. Although the 16-day revisit cycle of Landsat 8 is too long to effectively find unexpected wildfire or outbreak of eruption, the revisit cycle is enough to monitor temporally stable heat sources, such as continually erupting volcanos and factories. False detection was found over building rooftops, which have relatively smooth surfaces at longer wavelengths, when specular reflection occurred at the satellite overpass.

  19. Object detection system based on multimodel saliency maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya'nan; Luo, Chongfan; Ma, Yide

    2017-03-01

    Detection of visually salient image regions is extensively applied in computer vision and computer graphics, such as object detection, adaptive compression, and object recognition, but any single model always has its limitations to various images, so in our work, we establish a method based on multimodel saliency maps to detect the object, which intelligently absorbs the merits of various individual saliency detection models to achieve promising results. The method can be roughly divided into three steps: in the first step, we propose a decision-making system to evaluate saliency maps obtained by seven competitive methods and merely select the three most valuable saliency maps; in the second step, we introduce heterogeneous PCNN algorithm to obtain three prime foregrounds; and then a self-designed nonlinear fusion method is proposed to merge these saliency maps; at last, the adaptive improved and simplified PCNN model is used to detect the object. Our proposed method can constitute an object detection system for different occasions, which requires no training, is simple, and highly efficient. The proposed saliency fusion technique shows better performance over a broad range of images and enriches the applicability range by fusing different individual saliency models, this proposed system is worthy enough to be called a strong model. Moreover, the proposed adaptive improved SPCNN model is stemmed from the Eckhorn's neuron model, which is skilled in image segmentation because of its biological background, and in which all the parameters are adaptive to image information. We extensively appraise our algorithm on classical salient object detection database, and the experimental results demonstrate that the aggregation of saliency maps outperforms the best saliency model in all cases, yielding highest precision of 89.90%, better recall rates of 98.20%, greatest F-measure of 91.20%, and lowest mean absolute error value of 0.057, the value of proposed saliency evaluation

  20. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  1. Assessment of Radiation Background Variation for Moving Detection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rennie, John Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toevs, James Waldo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Darrin J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abhold, Mark Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-07-13

    The introduction points out that radiation backgrounds fluctuate across very short distances: factors include geology, soil composition, altitude, building structures, topography, and other manmade structures; and asphalt and concrete can vary significantly over short distances. Brief descriptions are given of the detection system, experimental setup, and background variation measurements. It is concluded that positive and negative gradients can greatly reduce the detection sensitivity of an MDS: negative gradients create opportunities for false negatives (nondetection), and positive gradients create a potentially unacceptable FAR (above 1%); the location of use for mobile detection is important to understand; spectroscopic systems provide more information for screening out false alarms and may be preferred for mobile use; and mobile monitor testing at LANL accounts for expected variations in the background.

  2. AN IMMUNE AGENTS SYSTEM FOR NETWORK INTRUSIONS DETECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Noria Benyettou; Abdelkader Benyettou; Vincent Rodin

    2014-01-01

    With the development growing of network technology, computer networks became increasingly wide and opened. This evolution gave birth to new techniques allowing accessibility of networks and information systems with an aim of facilitating the transactions. Consequently, these techniques gave also birth to new forms of threats. In this article, we present the utility to use a system of intrusion detection through a presentation of these characteristics. Using as inspiration the i...

  3. Pothole Detection System Using a Black-box Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Youngtae Jo; Seungki Ryu

    2015-01-01

    Aging roads and poor road-maintenance systems result a large number of potholes, whose numbers increase over time. Potholes jeopardize road safety and transportation efficiency. Moreover, they are often a contributing factor to car accidents. To address the problems associated with potholes, the locations and size of potholes must be determined quickly. Sophisticated road-maintenance strategies can be developed using a pothole database, which requires a specific pothole-detection system that ...

  4. Information bounds and quickest change detection in decentralized decision systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Yajun

    2005-01-01

    The quickest change detection problem is studied in decentralized decision systems, where a set of sensors receive independent observations and send summary messages to the fusion center, which makes a final decision. In the system where the sensors do not have access to their past observations, the previously conjectured asymptotic optimality of a procedure with a monotone likelihood ratio quantizer (MLRQ) is proved. In the case of additive Gaussian sensor noise, if the signal-to-noise ratio...

  5. Network Intrusion Forensic Analysis Using Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Kumar; Dr. M. Hanumanthappa; Dr. T.V. Suresh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The need for computer intrusion forensics arises from the alarming increase in the number of computer crimes that are committed annually. After a computer system has been breached and an intrusion has been detected, there is a need for a computer forensics investigation to follow. Computer forensics is used to bring to justice, those responsible for conducting attacks on computer systems throughout the world. Because of this the law must be follow precisely when conducting a forensics investi...

  6. Towards Improved Airborne Fire Detection Systems Using Beetle Inspired Infrared Detection and Fire Searching Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Bousack

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Every year forest fires cause severe financial losses in many countries of the world. Additionally, lives of humans as well as of countless animals are often lost. Due to global warming, the problem of wildfires is getting out of control; hence, the burning of thousands of hectares is obviously increasing. Most important, therefore, is the early detection of an emerging fire before its intensity becomes too high. More than ever, a need for early warning systems capable of detecting small fires from distances as large as possible exists. A look to nature shows that pyrophilous “fire beetles” of the genus Melanophila can be regarded as natural airborne fire detection systems because their larvae can only develop in the wood of fire-killed trees. There is evidence that Melanophila beetles can detect large fires from distances of more than 100 km by visual and infrared cues. In a biomimetic approach, a concept has been developed to use the surveying strategy of the “fire beetles” for the reliable detection of a smoke plume of a fire from large distances by means of a basal infrared emission zone. Future infrared sensors necessary for this ability are also inspired by the natural infrared receptors of Melanophila beetles.

  7. A vision based row detection system for sugar beet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Wouters, H.; Asselt, van C.J.; Bontsema, J.; Tang, L.; Müller, J.; Straten, van G.

    2008-01-01

    One way of guiding autonomous vehicles through the field is using a vision based row detection system. A new approach for row recognition is presented which is based on grey-scale Hough transform on intelligently merged images resulting in a considerable improvement of the speed of image processing.

  8. An Astigmatic Detection System for Polymeric Cantilever-based Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwu, En-Te; Liao, Hsien-Shun; Bosco, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of an astigmatic detection system (ADS) for resonance frequency identification of polymer microcantilever sensors. The ADS technology is based on a DVD optical head combined with an optical microscope (OM). The optical head has a signal bandwidth of 80 MHz, allowing thermal...

  9. A System for Detecting Miscues in Dyslexic Read Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Højfeldt; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2009-01-01

    and long pauses between words. A system detecting miscues in dyslexic read speech is presented. It includes an ASR component employing a forced-alignment like grammar adjusted for dyslexic input and uses the GOP score and phone duration to accept or reject the read words. Experimental results show...

  10. Design and implementation of an intelligent system for detecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a drowsy driver detection system, designed using an AT89C52 microcontroller in combination with smart sensors. Drowsy driving has been discovered to be a major cause of road traffic collisions. The problem lies in the fact that a driver is usually unaware of the on-set of drowsiness. It therefore ...

  11. Biometric Authentication Systems Attacks: Liveness Detection to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    West African Journal of Industrial & Academic Research Vol.12 No.1 December 2014 30. Biometric Authentication Systems Attacks: Liveness Detection to the Rescue. Osuagwu O.E.. 1 .... is used to verify a person's identity “to authenticate that the man who claims to be. Oliver is indeed Oliver”. Identification is used to ...

  12. DELORES - A System for Detection and Localization of Structural Damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Rasmus Johan; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    that monitors the structures remotely without human involvement. DELORES (DEtection and LOcalization of RESponse anomalies) is a first version of a system, which utilizes vibration recordings from the healthy and current states of a structure to declare its current health. DELORES employs extended versions...

  13. An intrusion detection system based on fiber hydrophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junrong; Qiu, Xiufen; Shen, Heping

    2017-10-01

    This paper provides a new intrusion detection system based on fiber hydrophone, focusing beam forming figure positioning according to the near field and high precision sound source location algorithm which can accurately position the intrusion; obtaining its behavior path , obtaining the intrusion events related information such as speed form tracking intrusion trace; And analyze identification the detected intrusion behavior. If the monitor area is larger, the algorithm will take too much time once, and influence the system response time, for reduce the calculating time. This paper provides way that coarse location first, and then scanned for accuracy, so as to realize the intrusion events (such as car, etc.) the remote monitoring of positioning. The system makes up the blank in process capture of the fiber optic intrusion detection technology, and improves the understanding of the invasion. Through the capture of the process of intrusion behavior, and the fusion detection of intrusion behavior itself, thus analysis, judgment, identification of the intrusion information can greatly reduce the rate of false positives, greatly improved the reliability and practicability of the perimeter security system.

  14. Image-Based Pothole Detection System for ITS Service and Road Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-Ki Ryu; Taehyeong Kim; Young-Ro Kim

    2015-01-01

    Potholes can generate damage such as flat tire and wheel damage, impact and damage of lower vehicle, vehicle collision, and major accidents. Thus, accurately and quickly detecting potholes is one of the important tasks for determining proper strategies in ITS (Intelligent Transportation System) service and road management system. Several efforts have been made for developing a technology which can automatically detect and recognize potholes. In this study, a pothole detection method based on ...

  15. Incipient Transient Detection in Reactor Systems: Experimental and Theoretical Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefteri H. Tsoukalas; S.T. Revankar; X Wang; R. Sattuluri

    2005-09-27

    The main goal of this research was to develop a method for detecting reactor system transients at the earliest possible time through a comprehensive experimental, testing and benchmarking program. This approach holds strong promise for developing new diagnostic technologies that are non-intrusive, generic and highly portable across different systems. It will help in the design of new generation nuclear power reactors, which utilize passive safety systems with a reliable and non-intrusive multiphase flow diagnostic system to monitor the function of the passive safety systems. The main objective of this research was to develop an improved fuzzy logic based detection method based on a comprehensive experimental testing program to detect reactor transients at the earliest possible time, practically at their birth moment. A fuzzy logic and neural network based transient identification methodology and implemented in a computer code called PROTREN was considered in this research and was compared with SPRT (Sequentially Probability Ratio Testing) decision and Bayesian inference. The project involved experiment, theoretical modeling and a thermal-hydraulic code assessment. It involved graduate and undergraduate students participation providing them with exposure and training in advanced reactor concepts and safety systems. In this final report, main tasks performed during the project period are summarized and the selected results are presented. Detailed descriptions for the tasks and the results are presented in previous yearly reports (Revankar et al 2003 and Revankar et al 2004).

  16. Detection of anabolic steroid abuse using a yeast transactivation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierau, Oliver; Lehmann, Sylvi; Vollmer, Günter; Schänzer, Willhelm; Diel, Patrick

    2008-10-01

    The classical analytical method for detection of anabolic steroid abuse is gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, even molecules with a chemical structure typical for this class of substances, are sometimes not identified in routine screening by GC/MS when their precise chemical structure is still unknown. A supplementary approach to identify anabolic steroid abuse could be a structure-independent identification of anabolic steroids based on their biological activity. To test the suitability of such a system, we have analyzed the yeast androgen receptor (AR) reporter gene system to identify anabolic steroids in human urine samples. Analysis of different anabolic steroids dissolved in buffer demonstrated that the yeast reporter gene system is able to detect a variety of different anabolic steroids and their metabolites with high specificity, including the so-called 'designer steroid' tetrahydrogestrinone. In contrast, other non-androgenic steroids, like glucocordicoids, progestins, mineralocordicoids and estrogens had a low potency to stimulate transactivation. To test whether the system would also allow the detection of androgens in urine, experiments with spiked urine samples were performed. The androgen reporter gene in yeast responds very sensitive to 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), even at high urine concentrations. To examine whether the test system would also be able to detect anabolic steroids in the urine of anabolic steroid abusers, anonymous urine samples previously characterized by GCMS were analyzed with the reporter gene assay. Even when the concentration of the anabolic metabolites was comparatively low in some positive samples it was possible to identify the majority of positive samples by their biological activity. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the yeast reporter gene system detects anabolic steroids and corresponding metabolites with high sensitivity even in urine of anabolic steroid abusing athletes

  17. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  18. A Comparative Study of Data Mining Algorithms for High Detection Rate in Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Ashraf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fast growth and tradition of the internet over the last decades, the network security problems are increasing vigorously. Humans can not handle the speed of processes and the huge amount of data required to handle network anomalies. Therefore, it needs substantial automation in both speed and accuracy. Intrusion Detection System is one of the approaches to recognize illegal access and rare attacks to secure networks. In this proposed paper, Naive Bayes, J48 and Random Forest classifiers are compared to compute the detection rate and accuracy of IDS. For experiments, the KDD_NSL dataset is used.

  19. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.

  20. Novel approach for low-cost muzzle flash detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskoboinik, Asher

    2008-04-01

    A low-cost muzzle flash detection based on CMOS sensor technology is proposed. This low-cost technology makes it possible to detect various transient events with characteristic times between dozens of microseconds up to dozens of milliseconds while sophisticated algorithms successfully separate them from false alarms by utilizing differences in geometrical characteristics and/or temporal signatures. The proposed system consists of off-the-shelf smart CMOS cameras with built-in signal and image processing capabilities for pre-processing together with allocated memory for storing a buffer of images for further post-processing. Such a sensor does not require sending giant amounts of raw data to a real-time processing unit but provides all calculations in-situ where processing results are the output of the sensor. This patented CMOS muzzle flash detection concept exhibits high-performance detection capability with very low false-alarm rates. It was found that most false-alarms due to sun glints are from sources at distances of 500-700 meters from the sensor and can be distinguished by time examination techniques from muzzle flash signals. This will enable to eliminate up to 80% of falsealarms due to sun specular reflections in the battle field. Additional effort to distinguish sun glints from suspected muzzle flash signal is made by optimization of the spectral band in Near-IR region. The proposed system can be used for muzzle detection of small arms, missiles and rockets and other military applications.