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Sample records for proximity correction opc

  1. Optical proximity correction for anamorphic extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Chris; Lam, Michael; Raghunathan, Ananthan; Jiang, Fan; Fenger, Germain; Adam, Kostas

    2017-10-01

    The change from isomorphic to anamorphic optics in high numerical aperture (NA) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) scanners necessitates changes to the mask data preparation flow. The required changes for each step in the mask tape out process are discussed, with a focus on optical proximity correction (OPC). When necessary, solutions to new problems are demonstrated, and verified by rigorous simulation. Additions to the OPC model include accounting for anamorphic effects in the optics, mask electromagnetics, and mask manufacturing. The correction algorithm is updated to include awareness of anamorphic mask geometry for mask rule checking (MRC). OPC verification through process window conditions is enhanced to test different wafer scale mask error ranges in the horizontal and vertical directions. This work will show that existing models and methods can be updated to support anamorphic optics without major changes. Also, the larger mask size in the Y direction can result in better model accuracy, easier OPC convergence, and designs which are more tolerant to mask errors.

  2. Geometrical E-beam proximity correction for raster scan systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belic, Nikola; Eisenmann, Hans; Hartmann, Hans; Waas, Thomas

    1999-04-01

    High pattern fidelity is a basic requirement for the generation of masks containing sub micro structures and for direct writing. Increasing needs mainly emerging from OPC at mask level and x-ray lithography require a correction of the e-beam proximity effect. The most part of e-beam writers are raster scan system. This paper describes a new method for geometrical pattern correction in order to provide a correction solution for e-beam system that are not able to apply variable doses.

  3. Integrated model-based retargeting and optical proximity correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Kanak B.; Banerjee, Shayak

    2011-04-01

    Conventional resolution enhancement techniques (RET) are becoming increasingly inadequate at addressing the challenges of subwavelength lithography. In particular, features show high sensitivity to process variation in low-k1 lithography. Process variation aware RETs such as process-window OPC are becoming increasingly important to guarantee high lithographic yield, but such techniques suffer from high runtime impact. An alternative to PWOPC is to perform retargeting, which is a rule-assisted modification of target layout shapes to improve their process window. However, rule-based retargeting is not a scalable technique since rules cannot cover the entire search space of two-dimensional shape configurations, especially with technology scaling. In this paper, we propose to integrate the processes of retargeting and optical proximity correction (OPC). We utilize the normalized image log slope (NILS) metric, which is available at no extra computational cost during OPC. We use NILS to guide dynamic target modification between iterations of OPC. We utilize the NILS tagging capabilities of Calibre TCL scripting to identify fragments with low NILS. We then perform NILS binning to assign different magnitude of retargeting to different NILS bins. NILS is determined both for width, to identify regions of pinching, and space, to locate regions of potential bridging. We develop an integrated flow for 1x metal lines (M1) which exhibits lesser lithographic hotspots compared to a flow with just OPC and no retargeting. We also observe cases where hotspots that existed in the rule-based retargeting flow are fixed using our methodology. We finally also demonstrate that such a retargeting methodology does not significantly alter design properties by electrically simulating a latch layout before and after retargeting. We observe less than 1% impact on latch Clk-Q and D-Q delays post-retargeting, which makes this methodology an attractive one for use in improving shape process windows

  4. Modeling OPC complexity for design for manufacturability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Puneet; Kahng, Andrew B.; Muddu, Swamy; Nakagawa, Sam; Park, Chul-Hong

    2005-11-01

    Increasing design complexity in sub-90nm designs results in increased mask complexity and cost. Resolution enhancement techniques (RET) such as assist feature addition, phase shifting (attenuated PSM) and aggressive optical proximity correction (OPC) help in preserving feature fidelity in silicon but increase mask complexity and cost. Data volume increase with rise in mask complexity is becoming prohibitive for manufacturing. Mask cost is determined by mask write time and mask inspection time, which are directly related to the complexity of features printed on the mask. Aggressive RET increase complexity by adding assist features and by modifying existing features. Passing design intent to OPC has been identified as a solution for reducing mask complexity and cost in several recent works. The goal of design-aware OPC is to relax OPC tolerances of layout features to minimize mask cost, without sacrificing parametric yield. To convey optimal OPC tolerances for manufacturing, design optimization should drive OPC tolerance optimization using models of mask cost for devices and wires. Design optimization should be aware of impact of OPC correction levels on mask cost and performance of the design. This work introduces mask cost characterization (MCC) that quantifies OPC complexity, measured in terms of fracture count of the mask, for different OPC tolerances. MCC with different OPC tolerances is a critical step in linking design and manufacturing. In this paper, we present a MCC methodology that provides models of fracture count of standard cells and wire patterns for use in design optimization. MCC cannot be performed by designers as they do not have access to foundry OPC recipes and RET tools. To build a fracture count model, we perform OPC and fracturing on a limited set of standard cells and wire configurations with all tolerance combinations. Separately, we identify the characteristics of the layout that impact fracture count. Based on the fracture count (FC) data

  5. SOFT: smooth OPC fixing technique for ECO process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Shi, Zheng

    2007-03-01

    SOFT (Smooth OPC Fixing Technique) is a new OPC flow developed from the basic OPC framework. It provides a new method to reduce the computation cost and complexities of ECO-OPC (Engineering Change Order - Optical Proximity Correction). In this paper, we introduce polygon comparison to extract the necessary but possibly lost fragmentation and offset information of previous post-OPC layout. By reusing these data, we can start the modification on each segment from a more accurate initial offset. In addition, the fragmentation method in the boundary of the patch in the previous OPC process is therefore available for engineers to stitch the regional ECO-OPC result back to the whole post-OPC layout seamlessly. For the ripple effect in the OPC, by comparing each segment's movement in each loop, we much free the fixing speed from the limitation of patch size. We handle layout remodification, especially in three basic kinds of ECO-OPC processes, while maintaining other design closure. Our experimental results show that, by utilizing the previous post-OPC layout, full-chip ECO-OPC can realize an over 5X acceleration and the regional ECO-OPC result can also be stitched back into the whole layout seamlessly with the ripple effect of the lithography interaction.

  6. Enabling full-field physics-based optical proximity correction via dynamic model generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael; Clifford, Chris; Raghunathan, Ananthan; Fenger, Germain; Adam, Kostas

    2017-07-01

    As extreme ultraviolet lithography becomes closer to reality for high volume production, its peculiar modeling challenges related to both inter and intrafield effects have necessitated building an optical proximity correction (OPC) infrastructure that operates with field position dependency. Previous state-of-the-art approaches to modeling field dependency used piecewise constant models where static input models are assigned to specific x/y-positions within the field. OPC and simulation could assign the proper static model based on simulation-level placement. However, in the realm of 7 and 5 nm feature sizes, small discontinuities in OPC from piecewise constant model changes can cause unacceptable levels of edge placement errors. The introduction of dynamic model generation (DMG) can be shown to effectively avoid these dislocations by providing unique mask and optical models per simulation region, allowing a near continuum of models through the field. DMG allows unique models for electromagnetic field, apodization, aberrations, etc. to vary through the entire field and provides a capability to precisely and accurately model systematic field signatures.

  7. An optimized OPC and MDP flow for reducing mask write time and mask cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ellyn; Li, Cheng He; Park, Se Jin; Zhu, Yu; Guo, Eric

    2010-09-01

    In the process of optical proximity correction, layout edge or fragment is migrating to proper position in order to minimize edge placement error (EPE). During this fragment migration, several factors other than EPE can be also taken into account as a part of cost function for optimal fragment displacement. Several factors are devised in favor of OPC stability, which can accommodate room for high mask error enhancement factor (MEEF), lack of process window, catastrophic pattern failure such as pinch/bridge and improper fragmentation. As technology node becomes finer, there happens conflict between OPC accuracy and stability. Especially for metal layers, OPC has focused on the stability by loss of accurate OPC results. On this purpose, several techniques have been introduced, which are target smoothing, process window aware OPC, model-based retargeting and adaptive OPC. By utilizing those techniques, OPC enables more stabilized patterning, instead of realizing design target exactly on wafer. Inevitably, post-OPC layouts become more complicated because those techniques invoke additional edge, or fragments prior to correction or during OPC iteration. As a result, jogs of post OPC layer can be dramatically increased, which results in huge number of shot count after data fracturing. In other words, there is trade-off relationship between data complexity and various methods for OPC stability. In this paper, those relationships have been investigated with respect to several technology nodes. The mask shot count reduction is achieved by reducing the number of jogs with which EPE difference are within pre-specified value. The effect of jog smoothing on OPC output - in view of OPC performance and mask data preparation - was studied quantitatively for respective technology nodes.

  8. Proximity correction of high-dosed frame with PROXECCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Hans; Waas, Thomas; Hartmann, Hans

    1994-05-01

    Usefulness of electron beam lithography is strongly related to the efficiency and quality of methods used for proximity correction. This paper addresses the above issue by proposing an extension to the new proximity correction program PROXECCO. The combination of a framing step with PROXECCO produces a pattern with a very high edge accuracy and still allows usage of the fast correction procedure. Making a frame with a higher dose imitates a fine resolution correction where the coarse part is disregarded. So after handling the high resolution effect by means of framing, an additional coarse correction is still needed. Higher doses have a higher contribution to the proximity effect. This additional proximity effect is taken into account with the help of the multi-dose input of PROXECCO. The dose of the frame is variable, depending on the deposited energy coming from backscattering of the proximity. Simulation proves the very high edge accuracy of the applied method.

  9. Geometrical correction of the e-beam proximity effect for raster scan systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belic, Nikola; Eisenmann, Hans; Hartmann, Hans; Waas, Thomas

    1999-06-01

    Increasing demands on pattern fidelity and CD accuracy in e- beam lithography require a correction of the e-beam proximity effect. The new needs are mainly coming from OPC at mask level and x-ray lithography. The e-beam proximity limits the achievable resolution and affects neighboring structures causing under- or over-exposion depending on the local pattern densities and process settings. Methods to compensate for this unequilibrated does distribution usually use a dose modulation or multiple passes. In general raster scan systems are not able to apply variable doses in order to compensate for the proximity effect. For system of this kind a geometrical modulation of the original pattern offers a solution for compensation of line edge deviations due to the proximity effect. In this paper a new method for the fast correction of the e-beam proximity effect via geometrical pattern optimization is described. The method consists of two steps. In a first step the pattern dependent dose distribution caused by back scattering is calculated by convolution of the pattern with the long range part of the proximity function. The restriction to the long range part result in a quadratic sped gain in computing time for the transformation. The influence of the short range part coming from forward scattering is not pattern dependent and can therefore be determined separately in a second step. The second calculation yields the dose curve at the border of a written structure. The finite gradient of this curve leads to an edge displacement depending on the amount of underground dosage at the observed position which was previously determined in the pattern dependent step. This unintended edge displacement is corrected by splitting the line into segments and shifting them by multiples of the writers address grid to the opposite direction.

  10. OPC unified architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Mahnke, Wolfgang; Damm, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The OPC Foundation defines standards for online data exchange between automation systems. They address access to current data (OPC DA), alarms and events (OPC A&E) and historical data (OPC HDA). This book presents an introduction into OPC UA and explains the concepts of the standard and other topics that are not directly addressed by the standard.

  11. Correction of Misclassifications Using a Proximity-Based Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulevich Ilya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimation method for correcting misclassifications in signal and image processing is presented. The method is based on the use of context-based (temporal or spatial information in a sliding-window fashion. The classes can be purely nominal, that is, an ordering of the classes is not required. The method employs nonlinear operations based on class proximities defined by a proximity matrix. Two case studies are presented. In the first, the proposed method is applied to one-dimensional signals for processing data that are obtained by a musical key-finding algorithm. In the second, the estimation method is applied to two-dimensional signals for correction of misclassifications in images. In the first case study, the proximity matrix employed by the estimation method follows directly from music perception studies, whereas in the second case study, the optimal proximity matrix is obtained with genetic algorithms as the learning rule in a training-based optimization framework. Simulation results are presented in both case studies and the degree of improvement in classification accuracy that is obtained by the proposed method is assessed statistically using Kappa analysis.

  12. Optimal proximity correction: application for flash memory design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. O.; Huang, D. L.; Sung, K. T.; Chiang, J. J.; Yu, M.; Teng, F.; Chu, Lung; Rey, Juan C.; Bernard, Douglas A.; Li, Jiangwei; Li, Junling; Moroz, V.; Boksha, Victor V.

    1998-06-01

    Proximity Correction is the technology for which the most of IC manufacturers are committed already. The final intended result of correction is affected by many factors other than the optical characteristics of the mask-stepper system, such as photoresist exposure, post-exposure bake and development parameters, etch selectivity and anisotropy, and underlying topography. The most advanced industry and research groups already reported immediate need to consider wafer topography as one of the major components during a Proximity Correction procedure. In the present work we are discussing the corners rounding effect (which eventually cause electrical leakage) observed for the elements of Poly2 layer for a Flash Memory Design. It was found that the rounding originated by three- dimensional effects due to variation of photoresist thickness resulting from the non-planar substrate. Our major goal was to understand the reasons and correct corner rounding. As a result of this work highly effective layout correction methodology was demonstrated and manufacturable Depth Of Focus was achieved. Another purpose of the work was to demonstrate complete integration flow for a Flash Memory Design based on photolithography; deposition/etch; ion implantation/oxidation/diffusion; and device simulators.

  13. Evaluation of a fast and flexible OPC package: OPTISSIMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Wilhelm; Waas, Thomas; Eisenmann, Hans

    1996-12-01

    It is out of question, that current state-of-the-art lithography--printing 350 nm structures with i-line tools or 250 nm structures with DUV tools--needs to correct for proximity effects (OPC). Otherwise, all the well-known effects like line-end shortening, linewidth variation as a function of adjacent patterns, linewidth non-linearity, etc. will produce a pattern, that is significantly different from the intended design. In this paper, we report first evaluation results of OPTISSIMO, a software package for automatic proximity correction. Besides the ability to handle full-chip designs by preserving as much as possible of the original data-hierarchy, there are significant options for the user. A large number of choices can be made to balance between the precision of the correction and the complexity of the corrected design. The main target of our evaluations was to check for full-chip OPC for the gate level of a state-of-the-art design. This corresponds to print either linewidths in the 350 nm to 400 nm range with i-line lithography or 250 nm/300 nm linewidth with DUV lithography. Taking 400 nm i-line lithography as an example, 3% precision OPC which has been demonstrated. By using hierarchical data handling, it was shown, that even the data complexity of a 256 M DRAM can be managed within reasonable time.

  14. An efficient dose-compensation method for proximity effect correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Han Weihua; Yang Xiang; Zhang Yang; Yang Fuhua; Zhang Renping

    2010-01-01

    A novel simple dose-compensation method is developed for proximity effect correction in electron-beam lithography. The sizes of exposed patterns depend on dose factors while other exposure parameters (including accelerate voltage, resist thickness, exposing step size, substrate material, and so on) remain constant. This method is based on two reasonable assumptions in the evaluation of the compensated dose factor: one is that the relation between dose factors and circle-diameters is linear in the range under consideration; the other is that the compensated dose factor is only affected by the nearest neighbors for simplicity. Four-layer-hexagon photonic crystal structures were fabricated as test patterns to demonstrate this method. Compared to the uncorrected structures, the homogeneity of the corrected hole-size in photonic crystal structures was clearly improved. (semiconductor technology)

  15. Scanner OPC signatures: automatic vendor-to-vendor OPE matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Stephen P.

    2009-03-01

    As 193nm lithography continues to be stretched and the k1 factor decreases, optical proximity correction (OPC) has become a vital part of the lithographer's tool kit. Unfortunately, as is now well known, the design variations of lithographic scanners from different vendors cause them to have slightly different optical-proximity effect (OPE) behavior, meaning that they print features through pitch in distinct ways. This in turn means that their response to OPC is not the same, and that an OPC solution designed for a scanner from Company 1 may or may not work properly on a scanner from Company 2. Since OPC is not inexpensive, that causes trouble for chipmakers using more than one brand of scanner. Clearly a scanner-matching procedure is needed to meet this challenge. Previously, automatic matching has only been reported for scanners of different tool generations from the same manufacturer. In contrast, scanners from different companies have been matched using expert tuning and adjustment techniques, frequently requiring laborious test exposures. Automatic matching between scanners from Company 1 and Company 2 has remained an unsettled problem. We have recently solved this problem and introduce a novel method to perform the automatic matching. The success in meeting this challenge required three enabling factors. First, we recognized the strongest drivers of OPE mismatch and are thereby able to reduce the information needed about a tool from another supplier to that information readily available from all modern scanners. Second, we developed a means of reliably identifying the scanners' optical signatures, minimizing dependence on process parameters that can cloud the issue. Third, we carefully employed standard statistical techniques, checking for robustness of the algorithms used and maximizing efficiency. The result is an automatic software system that can predict an OPC matching solution for scanners from different suppliers without requiring expert intervention.

  16. Pixel-based OPC optimization based on conjugate gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xu; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2011-01-31

    Optical proximity correction (OPC) methods are resolution enhancement techniques (RET) used extensively in the semiconductor industry to improve the resolution and pattern fidelity of optical lithography. In pixel-based OPC (PBOPC), the mask is divided into small pixels, each of which is modified during the optimization process. Two critical issues in PBOPC are the required computational complexity of the optimization process, and the manufacturability of the optimized mask. Most current OPC optimization methods apply the steepest descent (SD) algorithm to improve image fidelity augmented by regularization penalties to reduce the complexity of the mask. Although simple to implement, the SD algorithm converges slowly. The existing regularization penalties, however, fall short in meeting the mask rule check (MRC) requirements often used in semiconductor manufacturing. This paper focuses on developing OPC optimization algorithms based on the conjugate gradient (CG) method which exhibits much faster convergence than the SD algorithm. The imaging formation process is represented by the Fourier series expansion model which approximates the partially coherent system as a sum of coherent systems. In order to obtain more desirable manufacturability properties of the mask pattern, a MRC penalty is proposed to enlarge the linear size of the sub-resolution assistant features (SRAFs), as well as the distances between the SRAFs and the main body of the mask. Finally, a projection method is developed to further reduce the complexity of the optimized mask pattern.

  17. Automated sample plan selection for OPC modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Nathalie; Gabrani, Maria; Viswanathan, Ramya; Bayraktar, Zikri; Jaiswal, Om; DeMaris, David; Abdo, Amr Y.; Oberschmidt, James; Krause, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    It is desired to reduce the time required to produce metrology data for calibration of Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) models and also maintain or improve the quality of the data collected with regard to how well that data represents the types of patterns that occur in real circuit designs. Previous work based on clustering in geometry and/or image parameter space has shown some benefit over strictly manual or intuitive selection, but leads to arbitrary pattern exclusion or selection which may not be the best representation of the product. Forming the pattern selection as an optimization problem, which co-optimizes a number of objective functions reflecting modelers' insight and expertise, has shown to produce models with equivalent quality to the traditional plan of record (POR) set but in a less time.

  18. Phase holograms in PMMA with proximity effect correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Paul D.; Muller, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Complex computer generated phase holograms (CGPH's) have been fabricated in PMMA by partial e-beam exposure and subsequent partial development. The CGPH was encoded as a sequence of phase delay pixels and written by the JEOL JBX-5D2 E-beam lithography system, a different dose being assigned to each value of phase delay. Following carefully controlled partial development, the pattern appeared rendered in relief in the PMMA, which then acts as the phase-delay medium. The exposure dose was in the range 20-200 micro-C/sq cm, and very aggressive development in pure acetone led to low contrast. This enabled etch depth control to better than plus or minus lambda(sub vis)/60. That result was obtained by exposing isolated 50 micron square patches and measuring resist removal over the central area where the proximity effect dose was uniform and related only to the local exposure. For complex CGPH's with pixel size of the order of the e-beam proximity effect radius, the patterns must be corrected for the extra exposure caused by electrons scattered back up out of the substrate. This has been accomplished by deconvolving the two-dimensional dose deposition function with the desired dose pattern. The deposition function, which plays much the same role as an instrument response function, was carefully measured under the exact conditions used to expose the samples. The devices fabricated were designed with 16 equal phase steps per retardation cycle, were up to 1 cm square, and consisted of up to 100 million 0.3-2.0 micron square pixels. Data files were up to 500 MB long and exposure times ranged to tens of hours. A Fresnel phase lens was fabricated that had diffraction limited optical performance with better than 85 percent efficiency.

  19. Improvement on post-OPC verification efficiency for contact/via coverage check by final CD biasing of metal lines and considering their location on the metal layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmi; Choi, Jae-Young; Choi, Kwangseon; Choi, Jung-Hoe; Lee, Sooryong

    2011-04-01

    As IC design complexity keeps increasing, it is more and more difficult to ensure the pattern transfer after optical proximity correction (OPC) due to the continuous reduction of layout dimensions and lithographic limitation by k1 factor. To guarantee the imaging fidelity, resolution enhancement technologies (RET) such as off-axis illumination (OAI), different types of phase shift masks and OPC technique have been developed. In case of model-based OPC, to cross-confirm the contour image versus target layout, post-OPC verification solutions continuously keep developed - contour generation method and matching it to target structure, method for filtering and sorting the patterns to eliminate false errors and duplicate patterns. The way to detect only real errors by excluding false errors is the most important thing for accurate and fast verification process - to save not only reviewing time and engineer resource, but also whole wafer process time and so on. In general case of post-OPC verification for metal-contact/via coverage (CC) check, verification solution outputs huge of errors due to borderless design, so it is too difficult to review and correct all points of them. It should make OPC engineer to miss the real defect, and may it cause the delay time to market, at least. In this paper, we studied method for increasing efficiency of post-OPC verification, especially for the case of CC check. For metal layers, final CD after etch process shows various CD bias, which depends on distance with neighbor patterns, so it is more reasonable that consider final metal shape to confirm the contact/via coverage. Through the optimization of biasing rule for different pitches and shapes of metal lines, we could get more accurate and efficient verification results and decrease the time for review to find real errors. In this paper, the suggestion in order to increase efficiency of OPC verification process by using simple biasing rule to metal layout instead of etch model

  20. Proximity formulae for folding potentials. [Saxon-Woods form factors, first order corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, H; Canto, L F [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1979-03-05

    The proximity formulae of Brink and Stancu are applied to folding potentials. A numerical study is made for the case of single folding potentials with Saxon-Woods form factors. It is found that a proximity formula is accurate to 1-2% at separations of the order of the radius of the Coulomb barrier and that first order corrections due to first curvature are important. The approximations involved are discussed.

  1. Late Proximal Pedicle Hook Migration Into Spinal Canal After Posterior Correction Surgery of Scoliosis Causing Neurologic Deficit: "Proximal Junctional Scoliosis"? Case Series and a Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, I.M.P.; de Kleuver, M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design: Case series. Objectives: We describe 4 patients with proximal pedicle hook migration as a late complication (greater than 12 months postoperatively) of posterior correction surgery in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. We studied failure mechanisms and propose strategies for revision

  2. Evaluation of Hallux Valgus Correction With Versus Without Akin Proximal Phalanx Osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Thorud, Jakob C; Martin, Lanster R; Plemmons, Britton S; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Although the efficacy of Akin proximal phalanx closing wedge osteotomy as a sole procedure for correction of hallux valgus deformity is questionable, when used in combination with other osseous corrective procedures, the procedure has been believed to be efficacious. However, a limited number of comparative studies have confirmed the value of this additional procedure. We identified patients who had undergone osseous hallux valgus correction with first metatarsal osteotomy or first tarsometatarsal joint arthrodesis with (n = 73) and without (n = 81) Akin osteotomy and evaluated their radiographic measurements at 3 points (preoperatively, within 3 months after surgery, and ≥6 months after surgery). We found that those people who had undergone the Akin procedure tended to have a larger hallux abduction angle and a more laterally deviated tibial sesamoid position preoperatively. Although the radiographic correction of the deformity was promising immediately after corrective surgery with the Akin osteotomy, maintenance of the correction was questionable in our cohort. The value of additional Akin osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity is uncertain. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Humeral lengthening and proximal deformity correction with monorail external fixator in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Hongjiang; Zhu, Yi; Liu, Shen; Kang, Qinglin

    2018-05-01

    Several humeral lengthening or simultaneous deformity corrections through one osteotomy using various external fixators were reported, while literature regarding correction of shortening and proximal varus deformity is scarce. This retrospective clinical study evaluated the results of preforming an acute correction and delayed lengthening in young adults through two osteotomies using monorail external fixator. We report seven patients with various pathologies who underwent humeral proximal deformity correction and lengthening between 2009 and 2015. Pre-operative and post-operative clinical and radiographic data were collected. The mean follow-up time was 33.4 months (25-46 months). The humeral neck-shaft angle improved from 97.9° (85-110°) to 138.6° (135-145°). The magnitude of lengthening achieved was average 7.6 cm (range, 6-10 cm) at an average healing index of lengthening of 30.2 days/cm (range, 27.7-35.4 days/cm). There was a significant increase in range of shoulder abduction, and active abduction improved from pre-operative 136.4° (range, 95-160°) to post-operative 166.4° (range, 150-180°). The DASH score improved significance from 23.29 ± 8.36 to 6.57 ± 3.65 (t = 4.848; p monorail external fixator can be used for humeral shortening and proximal varus angular deformity. Functional improvement is expected after surgery and post-operative therapy.

  4. [Humerus varus: correction by proximal valgus osteotomy with precontourned plate fixation in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallón-López, J; Domínguez-Amador, J J; Andrés-García, J A

    2014-01-01

    Varus deformity of the proximal humerus in children is a little known pathology due to its low incidence of presentation. Progress has been made in recent years in understanding the possible etiology and pathophysiological causes. Radiological criteria for diagnosis and functional impairment that occurs have also been defined. However, there are few reports in the literature about the surgical treatment of this deformity in children. In this paper we present a case of surgical treatment of this deformity by corrective osteotomy fixed with precontoured external maleolar plate osteosynthesis. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. OPC from data access to unified architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Jurgen; Burke, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    OPC stands for Openness, Productivity, and Collaboration, symbolizing the new possibilities opening up in automation technology. The main objective of the new OPC generation Unified Architecture is to facilitate global interoperability and to define an information and data-exchange mechanism that is service oriented, multivendor, and cross-platform capable – from the field device on the shop floor to the ERP system on the factory level. This book includes information on: - the birth, objectives, and fundamentals of OPC and OPC UA, - the technical specifications that currently exist and those that are in preparation, - the procedures for designing and implementing components, - a transparent presentation of the technology through application possibilities and examples, and - the outlook for the future of OPC and OPC UA. Important perspectives and updates in this new edition include - the new era and the exciting application possibilities developing with OPC UA, - the new OPC UA specifications, - the devel...

  6. Correction of Hallux Valgus Interphalangeus With an Osteotomy of the Distal End of the Proximal Phalanx (Distal Akin Osteotomy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Griend, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Operative correction of a symptomatic hallux valgus interphalangeus (HVI) deformity is often achieved with an osteotomy at the proximal end of the proximal phalanx (Akin osteotomy). However, the apex of the typical HVI deformity (center of rotation angle) is at the interphalangeal joint of the hallux. This study was done to evaluate the results of performing a medial closing wedge osteotomy at the distal end of the proximal phalanx. Thirty-three patients (33 feet) underwent an osteotomy at the distal end of the proximal phalanx for correction of HVI. All of the patients had other forefoot deformities which were corrected at the same time. Eight of these were revision procedures of prior forefoot operations. The length of follow-up was determined by the associated procedures with a minimum follow-up of 4 months. The preoperative hallux valgus interphalangeus angle averaged 16 degrees of valgus (range 7-32 degrees) and was corrected to an average of 2 degrees of valgus (range 5 degrees valgus to 5 degrees varus). All of the patients were satisfied with the postoperative appearance and function of the first toe. Because of simultaneous correction of numerous other forefoot problems, it was not possible to specifically isolate or evaluate the effects and benefits of this osteotomy using outcomes measures. There was one intraoperative complication resulting in a fracture extending into the adjacent IP joint. Correction of an HVI deformity can be achieved with an osteotomy at the distal end of the proximal phalanx. This was a safe technique with few complications and with good results in terms of both correction and patient satisfaction. Level IV, retrospective case series.

  7. High Rate of Recurrence Following Proximal Medial Opening Wedge Osteotomy for Correction of Moderate Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Sravisht; Demetracopoulos, Constantine A; Sofka, Carolyn M; Ellis, Scott J

    2015-07-01

    The proximal medial opening wedge (PMOW) osteotomy has become more popular to treat moderate to severe hallux valgus with the recent development of specifically designed, low-profile modular plates. Despite the promising results previously reported in the literature, we have noted a high incidence of recurrence in patients treated with a PMOW. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical and radiographic outcomes of an initial cohort of patients treated with a PMOW osteotomy for moderate hallux valgus. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively gathered data on a cohort of 17 consecutive patients who were treated by the senior author using a PMOW osteotomy for moderate hallux valgus deformity. Average time to follow-up was 2.4 years (range, 1.0-3.5 years). The intermetatarsal angle (IMA), the hallux valgus angle (HVA), and the distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA) were assessed on standard weightbearing radiographs of the foot preoperatively and at all follow-up visits. The Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) was collected on all patients preoperatively and at final follow-up. Despite demonstrating good correction of their deformity initially, 11 of the 17 patients (64.7%) had evidence of recurrence of their hallux valgus deformity at final follow-up. Patients who recurred had a greater preoperative HVA (P = .023) and DMAA (P = .049) than patients who maintained their correction. Improvement in the quality-of-life subscale of the FAOS was noted at final follow-up for all patients (P = .05). There was no significant improvement in any of the other FAOS subscales. There was a high rate of recurrence of the hallux valgus deformity in this cohort of patients. Recurrence was associated with greater preoperative deformity and an increased preoperative DMAA. The PMOW without a concomitant distal metatarsal osteotomy may be best reserved for patients with mild hallux valgus deformity without an increased DMAA. Level IV, retrospective case series. © The Author

  8. Impact of a Geometric Correction for Proximal Flow Constraint on the Assessment of Mitral Regurgitation Severity Using the Proximal Flow Convergence Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jeong Yoon; Kang, Joon-Won; Yang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Sahmin; Sun, Byung Joo; Kim, Dae-Hee; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan

    2018-03-01

    Overestimation of the severity of mitral regurgitation (MR) by the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method has been reported. We sought to test whether angle correction (AC) of the constrained flow field is helpful to eliminate overestimation in patients with eccentric MR. In a total of 33 patients with MR due to prolapse or flail mitral valve, both echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance image (CMR) were performed to calculate regurgitant volume (RV). In addition to RV by conventional PISA (RV PISA ), convergence angle (α) was measured from 2-dimensional Doppler color flow maps and RV was corrected by multiplying by α/180 (RV AC ). RV measured by CMR (RV CMR ) was used as a gold standard, which was calculated by the difference between total stroke volume measured by planimetry of the short axis slices and aortic stroke volume by phase-contrast image. The correlation between RV CMR and RV by echocardiography was modest [RV CMR vs. RV PISA (r = 0.712, p < 0.001) and RV CMR vs. RV AC (r = 0.766, p < 0.001)]. However, RV PISA showed significant overestimation (RV PISA - RV CMR = 50.6 ± 40.6 mL vs. RV AC - RV CMR = 7.7 ± 23.4 mL, p < 0.001). The overall accuracy of RV PISA for diagnosis of severe MR, defined as RV ≥ 60 mL, was 57.6% (19/33), whereas it increased to 84.8% (28/33) by using RV AC ( p = 0.028). Conventional PISA method tends to provide falsely large RV in patients with eccentric MR and a simple geometric AC of the proximal constraint flow largely eliminates overestimation.

  9. Effectiveness of Percutaneous Proximal Closing Wedge Osteotomy With Akin Osteotomy to Correct Severe Hallux Valgus Determined by Radiographic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, Toshinori; Suzuki, Seiichi

    2017-04-01

    Some authors reported the results from percutaneous distal metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus recently. On the other hand, there are few reports of percutaneous proximal metatarsal osteotomy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the radiographic results of percutaneous proximal closing wedge osteotomy with Akin osteotomy for correction of severe hallux valgus and increasing longitudinal arch height. Consecutive 17 feet (mean age = 70.8 years) were investigated. The mean follow-up was 22 months. Excision of medial eminence, distal soft tissue release, and Akin osteotomy were all performed percutaneously and concurrently. Weight-bearing anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the feet were acquired preoperatively and at final follow-up. On the anteroposterior radiographs, hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, and first metatarsal shortening were measured. On the lateral radiographs, talometatarsal angle, calcaneal pitch angle, and first metatarsal dorsiflexion were measured. The average improvements in hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle were 27.6° and 9.9°, respectively. The average first metatarsal shortening was 2.7 mm. The first metatarsal dorsiflexion improved by 2.2°; however, other parameters did not improve significantly. In conclusion, percutaneous proximal closing wedge osteotomy with Akin osteotomy corrects severe hallux valgus; however, the procedure does not increase the medial longitudinal arch. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series.

  10. Investigation on the immobilisation of carbon in OPC-BFS and OPC-PFA systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, H.; Borges, P. H. R.; Utton, C. A.; Milestone, N. B.; Lynsdale, C.

    2008-01-01

    The reaction of CO 2 gas with OPC, OPC-BFS and OPC-PFA composite cement systems were studied using XRD, SEM and TG to investigate the applicability of these materials to immobilise carbon arising from graphite waste. XRD results suggested that calcite formed in OPC system after the carbonation reaction, whereas calcite and vaterite were observed in OPC-BFS and OPC-PFA systems. In OPC system, nearly half of Ca(OH) 2 was consumed to form CaCO 3 . In OPC-BFS and OPC-PFA systems, the amount of CaCO 3 formed, corresponded to the consumption of greater than 100% of Ca(OH) 2 initially present, suggesting that other hydration products e.g. C-S-H were also consumed, either directly or indirectly during the carbonation process. The OPC-BFS system became more porous after carbonation. OPC-PFA system indicated a high efficiency on the conversion of Ca in the system into CaCO 3 . (authors)

  11. Correction of moderate to severe hallux valgus with combined proximal opening wedge and distal chevron osteotomies: a reliable technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaseelan, L; Chandrashekar, S; Mulligan, A; Bosman, H A; Watson, A J S

    2016-09-01

    The mainstay of surgical correction of hallux valgus is first metatarsal osteotomy, either proximally or distally. We present a technique of combining a distal chevron osteotomy with a proximal opening wedge osteotomy, for the correction of moderate to severe hallux valgus. We reviewed 45 patients (49 feet) who had undergone double osteotomy. Outcome was assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) and the Short Form (SF) -36 Health Survey scores. Radiological measurements were undertaken to assess the correction. The mean age of the patients was 60.8 years (44.2 to 75.3). The mean follow-up was 35.4 months (24 to 51). The mean AOFAS score improved from 54.7 to 92.3 (p hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angles were improved from 41.6(o) to 12.8(o) (p < 0.001) and from 22.1(o) to 7.1(o), respectively (p < 0.001). The mean distal metatarsal articular angle improved from 23(o) to 9.7(o). The mean sesamoid position, as described by Hardy and Clapham, improved from 6.8 to 3.5. The mean length of the first metatarsal was unchanged. The overall rate of complications was 4.1% (two patients). These results suggest that a double osteotomy of the first metatarsal is a reliable, safe technique which, when compared with other metatarsal osteotomies, provides strong angular correction and excellent outcomes with a low rate of complications. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1202-7. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  12. Novel anthropomorphic hip phantom corrects systemic interscanner differences in proximal femoral vBMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaretti, S; Saeed, I; Burghardt, A J; Lang, T; Carpenter, R D; Yu, L; Bruesewitz, M; Khosla, S

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) is increasingly used in osteoporosis studies to assess volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone quality and strength. However, QCT is confronted by technical issues in the clinical research setting, such as potentially confounding effects of body size on vBMD measurements and lack of standard approaches to scanner cross-calibration, which affects measurements of vBMD in multicenter settings. In this study, we addressed systematic inter-scanner differences and subject-dependent body size errors using a novel anthropomorphic hip phantom, containing a calibration hip to estimate correction equations, and a contralateral test hip to assess the quality of the correction. We scanned this phantom on four different scanners and we applied phantom-derived corrections to in vivo images of 16 postmenopausal women scanned on two scanners. From the phantom study, we found that vBMD decreased with increasing phantom size in three of four scanners and that inter-scanner variations increased with increasing phantom size. In the in vivo study, we observed that inter-scanner corrections reduced systematic inter-scanner mean vBMD differences but that the inter-scanner precision error was still larger than expected from known intra-scanner precision measurements. In conclusion, inter-scanner corrections and body size influence should be considered when measuring vBMD from QCT images. (paper)

  13. First Metatarsal Proximal Opening Wedge Osteotomy for Correction of Hallux Valgus Deformity: Comparison of Straight versus Oblique Osteotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Hwan; Park, Eui Hyun; Jo, Joon; Koh, Yong Gon; Lee, Jin Woo; Choi, Woo Jin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare clinical and radiographic outcomes of proximal opening wedge osteotomy using a straight versus oblique osteotomy. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 104 consecutive first metatarsal proximal opening wedge osteotomies performed in 95 patients with hallux valgus deformity. Twenty-six feet were treated using straight metatarsal osteotomy (group A), whereas 78 feet were treated using oblique metatarsal osteotomy (group B). The hallux valgus angle (HVA), intermetatarsal angle (IMA), distal metatarsal articular angle, and distance from the first to the second metatarsal (distance) were measured for radiographic evaluation, whereas the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) forefoot score was used for clinical evaluation. Results Significant corrections in the HVA, IMA, and distance from the first to the second metatarsal were obtained in both groups at the last follow-up (p<0.001). There was no difference in the mean IMA correction between the 2 groups (6.1±2.7° in group A and 6.0±2.1° in group B). However, a greater correction in the HVA and distance from the first to the second metatarsal were found in group B (HVA, 13.2±8.2°; distance, 25.1±0.2 mm) compared to group A (HVA, 20.9±7.7°; distance, 28.1±0.3 mm; p<0.001). AOFAS scores were improved in both groups. However, group B demonstrated a greater improvement relative to group A (p=0.005). Conclusion Compared with a straight first metatarsal osteotomy, an oblique first metatarsal osteotomy yielded better clinical and radiological outcomes. PMID:25837181

  14. Bunion correction using proximal chevron osteotomy: a single-incision technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, G J; Russo-Alesi, F G

    1998-07-01

    Proximal chevron first metatarsal osteotomy with lateral capsulotomy, adductor tenotomy, and binding of the first and second metatarsals was reviewed in 88 consecutive cases. Seventy-two cases in 55 patients are reported, with an average clinical follow-up of 41 months. The hallux valgus angle improved an average of 15 degrees , from 32.0 degrees preoperatively to an average of 17.0 degrees postoperatively. The intermetatarsal I-II angle improved an average of 5.5 degrees, from 15.3 degrees preoperatively to 9.0 degrees postoperatively. The lateral plantar first metatarsal angle did not change. First metatarsal length was decreased by 2.0 mm. Union occurred at an average of 2 months. Sesamoid position improved 49%, from a preoperative average subluxation of 80% to a postoperative average subluxation of 29%. Subjective foot score profiles improved from a preoperative average of 70.1/100 to a postoperative average of 94.4/100 with respect to pain, deformity, motion, disability, and cosmesis. There were 10 patients with complications, including three patients with delayed unions, two with second metatarsal stress fractures, one with hallux varus, two with hallux limitus, one with progressive arthritis, one with cellulitis, and one with hallux elevatus. Eighty-four percent of the patients stated that they would undergo the procedure again without reservation, 9% would proceed with reservation, and 7% would not proceed with surgery again if offered. This technique provides reliable successful long-term results for the treatment of moderate and severe symptomatic bunion, hallux valgus, and metatarsus primus varus.

  15. First Metatarsophalangeal Contact Properties Following Proximal Opening Wedge and Scarf Osteotomies for Hallux Valgus Correction: A Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Cameron; Yoshida, Ryu; Cote, Mark; DiVenere, Jessica; Geaney, Lauren E

    2017-04-01

    Proximal opening wedge osteotomy (POWO) is an established procedure for moderate to severe hallux valgus. A common concern of this procedure is that it results in lengthening of the first metatarsal, which could cause increased intra-articular pressure of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP) and may ultimately lead to arthritis because of these altered mechanics. The purpose of this study was to use a cadaveric model to compare intra-articular pressures and articulating contact properties of the MTP joint following either scarf osteotomy or POWO. Fresh-frozen cadaveric below-knee specimens with pre-existing hallux valgus (n = 12) and specimens without hallux valgus (n = 6, control group) were used. The hallux valgus specimens were stratified into 2 groups (n = 6 each): POWO or scarf osteotomy. The groups were matched based on the degree of deformity. Peak intra-articular pressure, force, and area were measured in all normal, preoperative, and postoperative specimens with a simulated weightbearing model. These measurements were made with a pressure transducer placed within the first MTP joint. Postoperatively POWO group had slightly higher contact forces and pressures compared to the scarf group and lower contact forces and pressures than those of the normal group but were not statistically significant ( P > .05). Normal specimens had higher intra-articular force, pressure, and area than postoperative specimens but the difference was not found to be significant. First metatarsal lengthening was found in both the scarf and POWO specimens; however, neither increase was found to be significant ( P > .05). The results from this study show that after operative correction, contact properties of the fist MTP joint among normal, POWO, and scarf osteotomy groups revealed no significant differences. First MTP joints in those with hallux valgus had significantly lower contact force and pressure compared to those without hallux valgus. With little long-term outcomes of

  16. Patients with proximal junctional kyphosis requiring revision surgery have higher postoperative lumbar lordosis and larger sagittal balance corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Jo; Bridwell, Keith H; Lenke, Lawrence G; Park, Moon Soo; Song, Kwang Sup; Piyaskulkaew, Chaiwat; Chuntarapas, Tapanut

    2014-04-20

    Case control study. To evaluate risk factors in patients in 3 groups: those without proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) (N), with PJK but not requiring revision (P), and then those with PJK requiring revision surgery (S). It is becoming clear that some patients maintain stable PJK angles, whereas others progress and develop severe PJK necessitating revision surgery. A total of 206 patients at a single institution from 2002 to 2007 with adult scoliosis with 2-year minimum follow-up (average 3.5 yr) were analyzed. Inclusion criteria were age more than 18 years and primary fusions greater than 5 levels from any thoracic upper instrumented vertebra to any lower instrumented vertebrae. Revisions were excluded. Radiographical assessment included Cobb measurements in the coronal/sagittal plane and measurements of the PJK angle at postoperative time points: 1 to 2 months, 2 years, and final follow-up. PJK was defined as an angle greater than 10°. The prevalence of PJK was 34%. The average age in N was 49.9 vs. 51.3 years in P and 60.1 years in S. Sex, body mass index, and smoking status were not significantly different between groups. Fusions extending to the pelvis were 74%, 85%, and 91% of the cases in groups N, P, and S. Instrumentation type was significantly different between groups N and S, with a higher number of upper instrumented vertebra hooks in group N. Radiographical parameters demonstrated a higher postoperative lumbar lordosis and a larger sagittal balance change, with surgery in those with PJK requiring revision surgery. Scoliosis Research Society postoperative pain scores were inferior in group N vs. P and S, and Oswestry Disability Index scores were similar between all groups. Patients with PJK requiring revision were older, had higher postoperative lumbar lordosis, and larger sagittal balance corrections than patients without PJK. Based on these data, it seems as though older patients with large corrections in their lumbar lordosis and sagittal balance

  17. Interoperability between OPC UA and AutomationML

    OpenAIRE

    Henßen, Robert; Schleipen, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    OPC UA (OPC Unified Architecture) is a platform-independent standard series (IEC 62541) [1], [2] for communication of industrial automation devices and systems. The OPC Unified Architecture is an advanced communication technology for process control. Certainly the launching costs for the initial information model are quite high. AutomationML (Automation Markup Language) is an upcoming open standard series (IEC 62714) [3], [4] for describing production plants or plant components. The goal of t...

  18. Customizing Extensor Reconstruction in Vascularized Toe Joint Transfers to Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joints: A Strategic Approach for Correcting Extensor Lag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Shih-Heng; Lien, Shwu-Huei; Lin, Chih-Hung; Wei, Fu-Chan; Lin, Yu-Te

    2017-04-01

    Vascularized toe proximal interphalangeal joint transfer allows the restoration of damaged joints. However, extensor lag and poor arc of motion have been reported. The authors present their outcomes of treatment according to a novel reconstructive algorithm that addresses extensor lag and allows for consistent results postoperatively. Vascularized toe joint transfers were performed in a consecutive series of 26 digits in 25 patients. The average age was 30.5 years, with 14 right and 12 left hands. Reconstructed digits included eight index, 10 middle, and eight ring fingers. Simultaneous extensor reconstructions were performed and eight were centralization of lateral bands, five were direct extensor digitorum longus-to-extensor digitorum communis repairs, and 13 were central slip reconstructions. The average length of follow-up was 16.7 months. The average extension lag was 17.9 degrees. The arc of motion was 57.7 degrees (81.7 percent functional use of pretransfer toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion). There was no significant difference in the reconstructed proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion for the handedness (p = 0.23), recipient digits (p = 0.37), or surgical experience in vascularized toe joint transfer (p = 0.25). The outcomes of different techniques of extensor mechanism reconstruction were similar in terms of extensor lag, arc of motion, and reconstructed finger arc of motion compared with the pretransfer toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion. With this treatment algorithm, consistent outcomes can be produced with minimal extensor lag and maximum use of potential toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion. Therapeutic, IV.

  19. Evaluation of a low-cost optical particle counter (Alphasense OPC-N2) for ambient air monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Leigh R.; Shaw, Marvin; Pound, Ryan; Kramer, Louisa J.; Price, Robin; Young, Stuart; Lewis, Alastair C.; Pope, Francis D.

    2018-02-01

    A fast-growing area of research is the development of low-cost sensors for measuring air pollutants. The affordability and size of low-cost particle sensors makes them an attractive option for use in experiments requiring a number of instruments such as high-density spatial mapping. However, for these low-cost sensors to be useful for these types of studies their accuracy and precision need to be quantified. We evaluated the Alphasense OPC-N2, a promising low-cost miniature optical particle counter, for monitoring ambient airborne particles at typical urban background sites in the UK. The precision of the OPC-N2 was assessed by co-locating 14 instruments at a site to investigate the variation in measured concentrations. Comparison to two different reference optical particle counters as well as a TEOM-FDMS enabled the accuracy of the OPC-N2 to be evaluated. Comparison of the OPC-N2 to the reference optical instruments shows some limitations for measuring mass concentrations of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. The OPC-N2 demonstrated a significant positive artefact in measured particle mass during times of high ambient RH (> 85 %) and a calibration factor was developed based upon κ-Köhler theory, using average bulk particle aerosol hygroscopicity. Application of this RH correction factor resulted in the OPC-N2 measurements being within 33 % of the TEOM-FDMS, comparable to the agreement between a reference optical particle counter and the TEOM-FDMS (20 %). Inter-unit precision for the 14 OPC-N2 sensors of 22 ± 13 % for PM10 mass concentrations was observed. Overall, the OPC-N2 was found to accurately measure ambient airborne particle mass concentration provided they are (i) correctly calibrated and (ii) corrected for ambient RH. The level of precision demonstrated between multiple OPC-N2s suggests that they would be suitable devices for applications where the spatial variability in particle concentration was to be determined.

  20. Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Cromer, Deborah; Tolstrup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005000.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005740.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005679.].......[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005000.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005740.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005679.]....

  1. Correction of Residual Ventral Penile Curvature After Division of the Urethral Plate in the First Stage of a 2-Stage Proximal Hypospadias Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlomer, Bruce J

    2017-02-01

    The first stage of a 2-stage proximal hypospadias repair involves division of the urethral plate and correction of any residual ventral penile curvature (VPC). Options to correct residual VPC include dorsal corporal shortening or ventral corporal lengthening techniques. This review discusses these options and suggests an approach to management. Recent reports of 2-stage proximal hypospadias repairs indicate low rates of recurrent VPC with either dorsal corporal shortening or ventral corporal lengthening. Dorsal corporal shortening with dorsal plication may be preferentially used for mild to moderate residual VPC after division of urethral plate and ventral corporal lengthening reserved for severe residual VPC. Ventral corporal lengthening with grafts has been associated with urethroplasty complications after the second stage hypospadias surgery. Ventral corporal lengthening with relaxing incisions of corpora has been reported, but concerns about adverse effects require longer term studies. Little guidance exists to choose the best technique for VPC correction during first stage hypospadias repair after division of urethral plate. Reported literature suggests good results with dorsal plication techniques and ventral corporal lengthening. A practical approach is to use dorsal plication techniques for mild to moderate residual VPC after division of urethral plate (lengthening for severe residual VPC (>45°).

  2. Dynamic mapping of EDDL device descriptions to OPC UA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta Nsiah, Kofi; Schappacher, Manuel; Sikora, Axel

    2017-07-01

    OPC UA (Open Platform Communications Unified Architecture) is already a well-known concept used widely in the automation industry. In the area of factory automation, OPC UA models the underlying field devices such as sensors and actuators in an OPC UA server to allow connecting OPC UA clients to access device-specific information via a standardized information model. One of the requirements of the OPC UA server to represent field device data using its information model is to have advanced knowledge about the properties of the field devices in the form of device descriptions. The international standard IEC 61804 specifies EDDL (Electronic Device Description Language) as a generic language for describing the properties of field devices. In this paper, the authors describe a possibility to dynamically map and integrate field device descriptions based on EDDL into OPCUA.

  3. OPC model generation procedure for different reticle vendors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Andrew M.; Belova, Nadya; Callan, Neal P.

    2003-12-01

    The challenge of delivering acceptable semiconductor products to customers in timely fashion becomes more difficult as design complexity increases. The requirements of current generation designs tax OPC engineers greater than ever before since the readiness of high-quality OPC models can delay new process qualifications or lead to respins, which add to the upward-spiraling costs of new reticle sets, extend time-to-market, and disappoint customers. In their efforts to extend the printability of new designs, OPC engineers generally focus on the data-to-wafer path, ignoring data-to-mask effects almost entirely. However, it is unknown whether reticle makers' disparate processes truly yield comparable reticles, even with identical tools. This approach raises the question of whether a single OPC model is applicable to all reticle vendors. LSI Logic has developed a methodology for quantifying vendor-to-vendor reticle manufacturing differences and adapting OPC models for use at several reticle vendors. This approach allows LSI Logic to easily adapt existing OPC models for use with several reticle vendors and obviates the generation of unnecessary models, allowing OPC engineers to focus their efforts on the most critical layers.

  4. Machine learning (ML)-guided OPC using basis functions of polar Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Suhyeong; Shim, Seongbo; Shin, Youngsoo

    2016-03-01

    With shrinking feature size, runtime has become a limitation of model-based OPC (MB-OPC). A few machine learning-guided OPC (ML-OPC) have been studied as candidates for next-generation OPC, but they all employ too many parameters (e.g. local densities), which set their own limitations. We propose to use basis functions of polar Fourier transform (PFT) as parameters of ML-OPC. Since PFT functions are orthogonal each other and well reflect light phenomena, the number of parameters can significantly be reduced without loss of OPC accuracy. Experiments demonstrate that our new ML-OPC achieves 80% reduction in OPC time and 35% reduction in the error of predicted mask bias when compared to conventional ML-OPC.

  5. Solubility of chromate in a hydrated OPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisinger, Sabine M.; Bhatnagar, Amit; Lothenbach, Barbara; Johnson, C. Annette

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solid solutions exist between gypsum and calcium chromate. • The cementitious matrix can bind chromate concentrations up to 0.1 mol/kg. • The chromate binding phase in the cementitious matrix is CrO 4 -ettringite. - Abstract: The knowledge of the chromate binding mechanisms is essential for the prediction of the long-term leachability of cement-based solidified waste containing increased chromate concentrations because of its toxicity and high mobility. In this paper pore water concentrations from OPC doped with varying CaCrO 4 concentrations (0.01–0.8 mol/kg), equilibrated for 28 days were reported. It could be shown that the cementitious matrix can bind chromate concentrations up to 0.1 mol/kg and that the chromate solubility limiting phase was CrO 4 -ettringite, while chromate containing AFm (monochromate) was unstable. Comparison with thermodynamic modelling indicated that at lower chromate dosages chromate was mainly bound by CrO 4 -ettringite while at very high dosages also a mixed CaCrO 4 –CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O phase precipitated. Additional experiments indicated a solubility product of 10 −3.66 for CaCrO 4 and verified the solid solution formation with CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O. Leaching tests indicated a strong chromate binding mainly in the pH range 10.5–13.5, while at pH < 10 very little chromate was bound as ettringite, monocarbonate and C–S–H phases were destabilized. Generally the thermodynamic modeling underestimated chromate uptake indicating that an additional chromate binding possibly on C–S–H or on mixed chromate–carbonate–hydroxide AFm phases

  6. Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Tile Calorimeter modules stored at CERN. The larger modules belong to the Barrel, whereas the smaller ones are for the two Extended Barrels. (The article was about the completion of the 64 modules for one of the latter.) The photo on the first page of the Bulletin n°26/2002, from 24 July 2002, illustrating the article «The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter gets into shape» was published with a wrong caption. We would like to apologise for this mistake and so publish it again with the correct caption.

  7. Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Gorelik, G., & Shackelford, T.K. (2011. Human sexual conflict from molecules to culture. Evolutionary Psychology, 9, 564–587: The authors wish to correct an omission in citation to the existing literature. In the final paragraph on p. 570, we neglected to cite Burch and Gallup (2006 [Burch, R. L., & Gallup, G. G., Jr. (2006. The psychobiology of human semen. In S. M. Platek & T. K. Shackelford (Eds., Female infidelity and paternal uncertainty (pp. 141–172. New York: Cambridge University Press.]. Burch and Gallup (2006 reviewed the relevant literature on FSH and LH discussed in this paragraph, and should have been cited accordingly. In addition, Burch and Gallup (2006 should have been cited as the originators of the hypothesis regarding the role of FSH and LH in the semen of rapists. The authors apologize for this oversight.

  8. Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photo on the second page of the Bulletin n°48/2002, from 25 November 2002, illustrating the article «Spanish Visit to CERN» was published with a wrong caption. We would like to apologise for this mistake and so publish it again with the correct caption.   The Spanish delegation, accompanied by Spanish scientists at CERN, also visited the LHC superconducting magnet test hall (photo). From left to right: Felix Rodriguez Mateos of CERN LHC Division, Josep Piqué i Camps, Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, César Dopazo, Director-General of CIEMAT (Spanish Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology), Juan Antonio Rubio, ETT Division Leader at CERN, Manuel Aguilar-Benitez, Spanish Delegate to Council, Manuel Delfino, IT Division Leader at CERN, and Gonzalo León, Secretary-General of Scientific Policy to the Minister.

  9. Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Tagler, M. J., and Jeffers, H. M. (2013. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity. Evolutionary Psychology, 11, 821–832: The authors wish to correct values in the originally published manuscript. Specifically, incorrect 95% confidence intervals around the Cohen's d values were reported on page 826 of the manuscript where we reported the within-sex simple effects for the significant Participant Sex × Infidelity Type interaction (first paragraph, and for attitudes toward partner infidelity (second paragraph. Corrected values are presented in bold below. The authors would like to thank Dr. Bernard Beins at Ithaca College for bringing these errors to our attention. Men rated sexual infidelity significantly more distressing (M = 4.69, SD = 0.74 than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 4.32, SD = 0.92, F(1, 322 = 23.96, p < .001, d = 0.44, 95% CI [0.23, 0.65], but there was little difference between women's ratings of sexual (M = 4.80, SD = 0.48 and emotional infidelity (M = 4.76, SD = 0.57, F(1, 322 = 0.48, p = .29, d = 0.08, 95% CI [−0.10, 0.26]. As expected, men rated sexual infidelity (M = 1.44, SD = 0.70 more negatively than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 2.66, SD = 1.37, F(1, 322 = 120.00, p < .001, d = 1.12, 95% CI [0.85, 1.39]. Although women also rated sexual infidelity (M = 1.40, SD = 0.62 more negatively than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 2.09, SD = 1.10, this difference was not as large and thus in the evolutionary theory supportive direction, F(1, 322 = 72.03, p < .001, d = 0.77, 95% CI [0.60, 0.94].

  10. Ensuring production-worthy OPC recipes using large test structure arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, Christopher; Zimmermann, Rainer; Mei, Xin; Shahin, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    The continual shrinking of design rules as the industry follows Moore's Law and the associated need for low k1 processes, have resulted in more layout configurations becoming difficult to print within the required tolerances. OPC recipes have needed to become more complex as tolerances decreased and acceptable corrections harder to find with simple algorithms. With this complexity comes the possibility of coding errors and ensuring the solutions are truly general. OPC Verification tools can check the quality of a correction based on pre-determined specifications for CD variation, line-end pullback and Edge Placement Error and then highlight layout configuration where violations are found. The problem facing a Mask Tape-Out group is that they usually have little control over the Design Styles coming in. Different approaches to eliminating problematic layouts have included highly restrictive Design Rules [1], whereby certain pitches or orientations are disallowed. Now these design rules are either becoming too complex or they overly restrict the designer from benefiting from the reduced pitch of the new node. The tight link between Design and Mask Tape-Out found in Integrated Device Manufacturers [2] (IDMs) i.e. companies that control both design and manufacturing can do much to dictate manufacturing friendly layout styles, and push ownership of problem resolution back to design groups. In fact this has been perceived as such an issue that a new class of products for designers that perform Lithographic Compliance Check on design layout is an emerging technology [3]. In contrast to IDMs, Semiconductor Foundries are presented with a much larger variety of design styles and a set of Fabless customers who generally are less knowledgeable in terms of understanding the impact of their layout on manufacturability and how to correct issues. The robustness requirements of a foundry's OPC correction recipe, therefore needs to be greater than that for an IDM's tape-out group

  11. Thermal durability of OPC pastes admixed with nano iron oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Amer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology helps in producing materials with prospective properties, for each field of science (physics, chemistry, bio-science as well as construction materials. Nanoparticles belong to the materials in the field of civil engineering which have a high surface area to provide high chemical reactivity. Some researchers have employed nanoparticles into cementitious materials based on ordinary Portland cement to modify the properties of this system. They have important advantages for the hydration and microstructure of cement paste to increase the rate of hydration and the amount of formed CSH gel. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of NF on the fire resistance of OPC pastes. The NF was synthesized by thermal decomposition of basic ferric acetate fired at 275, 600 and 800 °C. The crystal size of the prepared NF as previously determined was 14.6, 16.98 and 18.68 nm, respectively. OPC admixed with 1 wt% NF prepared at 275 °C gives the higher fire resistance than those admixed with 2 or 3 wt%. It shows the higher bulk density, compressive strength and lower porosity up to 450 °C than the blank OPC. As the firing temperature of NF increases the fire resistance diminishes.

  12. Polymer and bitumen modified OPC for the immobilisation of ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.I.; Worrall, G.; Phillips, D.C.

    1986-05-01

    A detailed study has been made of the modification of ordinary Portland cement with polymeric additives, and of the properties of waste forms based on these matrix materials. The additives were styrene butadiene and bitumen emulsions, and epoxide and polyurethane resins: the simulated wastes were organic ion exchanger beads, PWR evaporator concentrate, reprocessing concentrate and Magnox metal. The effect of polymer:cement (p:c) and water:cement ratios on the properties of the hardened cement paste has been comprehensively investigated. Substantial increases in strain to failure, and modest reductions in permeability to water and leach rates for 137 Cs, are obtained at p:c >= 0.2. Much larger volume fractions of organic ion exchange beads can be encapsulated in polymer modified OPC than in unmodified OPC, perhaps because of their better strain capability. The radiation stability of cemented PWR evaporator concentrate is better for a polymer modified matrix than an unmodified OPC matrix. Two hundred litre trials have been successfully demonstrated. (author)

  13. Enabling full field physics based OPC via dynamic model generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael; Clifford, Chris; Raghunathan, Ananthan; Fenger, Germain; Adam, Kostas

    2017-03-01

    As EUV lithography marches closer to reality for high volume production, its peculiar modeling challenges related to both inter- and intra- field effects has necessitated building OPC infrastructure that operates with field position dependency. Previous state of the art approaches to modeling field dependency used piecewise constant models where static input models are assigned to specific x/y-positions within the field. OPC and simulation could assign the proper static model based on simulation-level placement. However, in the realm of 7nm and 5nm feature sizes, small discontinuities in OPC from piecewise constant model changes can cause unacceptable levels of EPE errors. The introduction of Dynamic Model Generation (DMG) can be shown to effectively avoid these dislocations by providing unique mask and optical models per simulation region, allowing a near continuum of models through field. DMG allows unique models for EMF, apodization, aberrations, etc to vary through the entire field and provides a capability to precisely and accurately model systematic field signatures.

  14. Proximal Humerus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diercks, Ron L.; Bain, Gregory; Itoi, Eiji; Di Giacomo, Giovanni; Sugaya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the bony structures of the proximal humerus. The proximal humerus is often regarded as consisting of four parts, which assists in understanding function and, more specially, describes the essential parts in reconstruction after fracture or in joint replacement. These are the

  15. A comparison of proximal and distal Chevron osteotomy, both with lateral soft-tissue release, for moderate to severe hallux valgus in patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral correction: a prospective randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K B; Cho, N Y; Park, H W; Seon, J K; Lee, S H

    2015-02-01

    Moderate to severe hallux valgus is conventionally treated by proximal metatarsal osteotomy. Several recent studies have shown that the indications for distal metatarsal osteotomy with a distal soft-tissue procedure could be extended to include moderate to severe hallux valgus. The purpose of this prospective randomised controlled trial was to compare the outcome of proximal and distal Chevron osteotomy in patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral correction of moderate to severe hallux valgus. The original study cohort consisted of 50 female patients (100 feet). Of these, four (8 feet) were excluded for lack of adequate follow-up, leaving 46 female patients (92 feet) in the study. The mean age of the patients was 53.8 years (30.1 to 62.1) and the mean duration of follow-up 40.2 months (24.1 to 80.5). After randomisation, patients underwent a proximal Chevron osteotomy on one foot and a distal Chevron osteotomy on the other. At follow-up, the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hallux metatarsophalangeal interphalangeal (MTP-IP) score, patient satisfaction, post-operative complications, hallux valgus angle, first-second intermetatarsal angle, and tibial sesamoid position were similar in each group. Both procedures gave similar good clinical and radiological outcomes. This study suggests that distal Chevron osteotomy with a distal soft-tissue procedure is as effective and reliable a means of correcting moderate to severe hallux valgus as proximal Chevron osteotomy with a distal soft-tissue procedure. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  16. New Direction Treatment in Antidote Treatment of OPC Intoxications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dishovsky, C.

    2007-01-01

    The toxic effect of organophosphorus compounds (OPC) is based on inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), enzyme which plays an important physiological role in the cholinergic nervous system. The drug therapy on intoxication with OPC included mainly combination of cholinesterase reactivators and cholinolytics. There is no single AChE reactivator having the ability to sufficiently reactivate inhibited enzyme due to the high variability of chemical structure of the inhibitors. The classic oximes have antidote effect against intoxication with sarin, Vx and tabun, but are not effective against soman. HI-6 (Bulgarian ampoule form T oxidin ) has an effect against sarin, soman and Vx, and to a lesser degree against tabun. In order to improve the treatment of poisoning with highly toxic OPC, in ours laboratory we synthesized a variety of mono- and dioximes. We use different numbers of pyridinium or heterocyclic rings, different length and shape of the connecting chain between pyridinium or pyridinium-heterocyclic rings; different number and position of the oxime groups at the pyridinium rings and others. The investigations of some authors and our research showed that the compounds which present a combination between HI-6 and TMB-4 have a better antidote activity against tabun intoxications. The important finding of this study is that we synthesized complex compounds, reactivators of cholinesterase activity (including HI-6) with AMP / ATP and polycarboxilats, which have prolonged action in organism compared with original oximes. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that they are eliminated more slowly. The antidotal efficacy of these compounds after soman poisoning in rats was similar like that of the original oximes. The same tendency showed and the other pharmacological (blood pressure, EKG, breathing, neuromuscular transmission), and biochemical (ChE) investigations. (author)

  17. Estimates of zooplankton abundance and size distribution with the Optical Plankton Counter (OPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Petersen, D.; Schnack, D.

    1997-01-01

    The capability of the Optical Plankton Count er (OPC) to examine the abundance and size distribution of zooplankton was tested in Storfjorden, Norway, in June 1993. Selected material obtained from net sampling was measured with a laboratory version of the OPC and compared with microscope analysis...

  18. Security Implications of OPC, OLE, DCOM, and RPC in Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-01-01

    OPC is a collection of software programming standards and interfaces used in the process control industry. It is intended to provide open connectivity and vendor equipment interoperability. The use of OPC technology simplifies the development of control systems that integrate components from multiple vendors and support multiple control protocols. OPC-compliant products are available from most control system vendors, and are widely used in the process control industry. OPC was originally known as OLE for Process Control; the first standards for OPC were based on underlying services in the Microsoft Windows computing environment. These underlying services (OLE [Object Linking and Embedding], DCOM [Distributed Component Object Model], and RPC [Remote Procedure Call]) have been the source of many severe security vulnerabilities. It is not feasible to automatically apply vendor patches and service packs to mitigate these vulnerabilities in a control systems environment. Control systems using the original OPC data access technology can thus inherit the vulnerabilities associated with these services. Current OPC standardization efforts are moving away from the original focus on Microsoft protocols, with a distinct trend toward web-based protocols that are independent of any particular operating system. However, the installed base of OPC equipment consists mainly of legacy implementations of the OLE for Process Control protocols.

  19. Auto-Mapping and Configuration Method of IEC 61850 Information Model Based on OPC UA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Jae Shin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The open-platform communication (OPC unified architecture (UA (IEC62541 is introduced as a key technology for realizing a variety of smart grid (SG use cases enabling relevant automation and control tasks. The OPC UA can expand interoperability between power systems. The top-level SG management platform needs independent middleware to transparently manage the power information technology (IT systems, including the IEC 61850. To expand interoperability between the power system for a large number of stakeholders and various standards, this paper focuses on the IEC 61850 for the digital substation. In this paper, we propose the interconnection method to integrate communication with OPC UA and convert OPC UA AddressSpace using system configuration description language (SCL of IEC 61850. We implemented the mapping process for the verification of the interconnection method. The interconnection method in this paper can expand interoperability between power systems for OPC UA integration for various data structures in the smart grid.

  20. Feasibility of compensating for EUV field edge effects through OPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Chris; Word, James; Fenger, Germain L.; Niroomand, Ardavan; Lorusso, Gian F.; Jonckheere, Rik; Hendrickx, Eric; Smith, Bruce W.

    2014-04-01

    implementation of these measurements allow for further mitigation, i.e., compensation by OPC. Mentor Graphics' Calibre software uses the scanner's point spread function and convolves it with the mask layout to generate a flare map. It also has the capability to add additional dose to the image border which can be optimized to fit the experimental data. This includes the transition region between the image field and border that results in a linear rolloff of dose due to partial shadowing of the REMA blades. By applying this flaremap that accounts for neighboring die to the already calibrated optical and resist models, OPC can now be enabled to compensate for field edge effects. This study has two goals. First, we will show that OPC can be used to compensate both for field edge effects with and without a etched ML border. The second is to investigate the limitations that exist for OPC in the areas altered by neighboring die. This will predict when a process to mitigate the field edge effect is needed to enable EUV HVM.

  1. Primary Spinal OPC Culture System from Adult Zebrafish to Study Oligodendrocyte Differentiation In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Kroehne

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs are a promising target to improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI by remyelinating denuded, and therefore vulnerable, axons. Demyelination is the result of a primary insult and secondary injury, leading to conduction blocks and long-term degeneration of the axons, which subsequently can lead to the loss of their neurons. In response to SCI, dormant OPCs can be activated and subsequently start to proliferate and differentiate into mature myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs. Therefore, researchers strive to control OPC responses, and utilize small molecule screening approaches in order to identify mechanisms of OPC activation, proliferation, migration and differentiation. In zebrafish, OPCs remyelinate axons of the optic tract after lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC-induced demyelination back to full thickness myelin sheaths. In contrast to zebrafish, mammalian OPCs are highly vulnerable to excitotoxic stress, a cause of secondary injury, and remyelination remains insufficient. Generally, injury induced remyelination leads to shorter internodes and thinner myelin sheaths in mammals. In this study, we show that myelin sheaths are lost early after a complete spinal transection injury, but are re-established within 14 days after lesion. We introduce a novel, easy-to-use, inexpensive and highly reproducible OPC culture system based on dormant spinal OPCs from adult zebrafish that enables in vitro analysis. Zebrafish OPCs are robust, can easily be purified with high viability and taken into cell culture. This method enables to examine why zebrafish OPCs remyelinate better than their mammalian counterparts, identify cell intrinsic responses, which could lead to pro-proliferating or pro-differentiating strategies, and to test small molecule approaches. In this methodology paper, we show efficient isolation of OPCs from adult zebrafish spinal cord and describe culture conditions that enable

  2. Reactivity of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) grout and various lithologies from the Harwell research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milodowski, A.E.; George, I.A.; Bloodworth, A.J.; Robins, N.S.

    1985-08-01

    Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) has been used in the completion of boreholes on the Harwell Research Site, AERE, Oxfordshire. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of OPC and the alkaline pore fluids generated during its setting on the various lithological types encountered in the boreholes. To facilitate this, samples of core representing the various rock types were selected and cement-rock composites were prepared from these in the laboratory to simulate the borehole cements. After a curing period of 15 months the cores and associated cement plugs were examined for any signs of reactivity or bonding. The best cement-rock bonding was shown by naturally well-cemented sandstone and limestone lithologies. Although no significant chemical reaction was seen to have occurred between OPC and rock, the OPC appears able to bind onto the rock surface because of the rigidity of the rock surface. Therefore, the best cement rock bonding and seal with OPC may be expected in the limestones of the Great Oolite Group, Inferior Oolite Group and parts of the Corallian Beds. Because of the reactivity of OPC towards certain lithologies a better borehole seal in such a sedimentary sequence might be achieved using a bentonite backfill in those parts of the sequence which either react with or bond only weakly to OPC. (author)

  3. Comparative performance of conventional OPC concrete and HPC designed by densified mixture design algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Trong-Phuoc; Hwang, Chao-Lung; Yang, Shu-Ti

    2017-12-01

    This experimental study evaluated the performance of normal ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete and high-performance concrete (HPC) that were designed by the conventional method (ACI) and densified mixture design algorithm (DMDA) method, respectively. Engineering properties and durability performance of both the OPC and HPC samples were studied using the tests of workability, compressive strength, water absorption, ultrasonic pulse velocity, and electrical surface resistivity. Test results show that the HPC performed good fresh property and further showed better performance in terms of strength and durability as compared to the OPC.

  4. Round-Trip Delay Estimation in OPC UA Server-Client Communication Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Nakutis, Zilvinas; Deksnys, Vytautas; Jarusevicius, Ignas; Dambrauskas, Vilius; Cincikas, Gediminas; Kriauceliunas, Alenas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an estimation of round-trip delay (RTD) in OPC UA server-client channel was investigated in various data communication networks including Ethernet, WiFi, and 3G. Testing was carried out using the developed IoT gateway device running OPC UA server and remote computer running OPC UA client. The server and the client machines were configured to operate in Virtual Private Network powered by OpenVPN. Experimental analysis revealed that RTD values are distributed in the wide range exh...

  5. CD-SEM real time bias correction using reference metrology based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukraintsev, V.; Banke, W.; Zagorodnev, G.; Archie, C.; Rana, N.; Pavlovsky, V.; Smirnov, V.; Briginas, I.; Katnani, A.; Vaid, A.

    2018-03-01

    Accuracy of patterning impacts yield, IC performance and technology time to market. Accuracy of patterning relies on optical proximity correction (OPC) models built using CD-SEM inputs and intra die critical dimension (CD) control based on CD-SEM. Sub-nanometer measurement uncertainty (MU) of CD-SEM is required for current technologies. Reported design and process related bias variation of CD-SEM is in the range of several nanometers. Reference metrology and numerical modeling are used to correct SEM. Both methods are slow to be used for real time bias correction. We report on real time CD-SEM bias correction using empirical models based on reference metrology (RM) data. Significant amount of currently untapped information (sidewall angle, corner rounding, etc.) is obtainable from SEM waveforms. Using additional RM information provided for specific technology (design rules, materials, processes) CD extraction algorithms can be pre-built and then used in real time for accurate CD extraction from regular CD-SEM images. The art and challenge of SEM modeling is in finding robust correlation between SEM waveform features and bias of CD-SEM as well as in minimizing RM inputs needed to create accurate (within the design and process space) model. The new approach was applied to improve CD-SEM accuracy of 45 nm GATE and 32 nm MET1 OPC 1D models. In both cases MU of the state of the art CD-SEM has been improved by 3x and reduced to a nanometer level. Similar approach can be applied to 2D (end of line, contours, etc.) and 3D (sidewall angle, corner rounding, etc.) cases.

  6. Adhesion characterization of tungsten mine waste geopolymeric binder. Influence of OPC concrete substance surface treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten mine waste mud (TMWM) was investigated for its potential use as repair material of ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete. Bond strength between OPC concrete substrate and three repair materials was analysed. TMWM geopolymeric binder and two commercial repair products were used as repair materials. Bond strength behaviour was assessed from slant shear tests. A total of 128 slant shear specimens were made in order to evaluate bond strength at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days curing. Four ki...

  7. Research and Development of Protection OPC server for China advanced research reactor digital monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Yuwen; Xu Qiguo

    2012-01-01

    OPC server was developed as I/O driver to communicate the digital monitoring system of China Advanced Research Reactor iFIX and protection system. The framework and working principle of the OPC server were researched, and an effective method was developed to resolve the special communication protocol. After commissioning and testing, the results show that this method is reliable and stable, makes the system easy to configure, and can reduce the complexity of the system. (authors)

  8. Characterization of titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) thin films by microscopic and spectroscopic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skonieczny, R.; Makowiecki, J.; Bursa, B.; Krzykowski, A.; Szybowicz, M.

    2018-02-01

    The titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) thin film deposited on glass, silicon and gold substrate have been studied using Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), absorption and profilometry measurements. The TiOPc thin layers have been deposited at room temperature by the quasi-molecular beam evaporation technique. The Raman spectra have been recorded using micro Raman system equipped with a confocal microscope. Using surface Raman mapping techni que with polarized Raman spectra the polymorphic forms of the TiOPc thin films distribution have been obtained. The AFM height and phase image were examined in order to find surface features and morphology of the thin films. Additionally to compare experimental results, structure optimization and vibrational spectra calculation of single TiOPc molecule were performed using DFT calculations. The received results showed that the parameters like polymorphic form, grain size, roughness of the surface in TiOPc thin films can well characterize the obtained organic thin films structures in terms of their use in optoelectronics and photovoltaics devices.

  9. Compressive strength of different brands of cement (OPC) in province of Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaskheli, G.B.; Kumar, A.; Sheikh, A.

    2009-01-01

    OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) is the most common type of cement used in construction industry. Three major brands of OPC are normal OPC, SRC (Sulphate Resisting Cement) and SC (Slag Cement). It is seen that the variation in constituents of cement may cause serious effects on the quality of cement. Thus the motivation of this research is to study the basic properties (consistency, setting time, and fineness), compressive strength (cement mortar and concrete cubes) and modulus of elasticity of all the OPC brands (OPC, SRC and SC) manufactured in Sindh. In total 10 cement factories, altogether 21 different brands of cement, were studied in the light of BS and ASTM Code specifications. In total 126 mortar cubes (1:3), 252 concrete cubes (126 for 3000 psi mix design and remaining for 5000 psi) and 126 concrete cylinders (6 for the each brand of cement pertaining to 3000 psi and 5000 psi mix design) were manufactured and tested. Experimental results demonstrated that all the cement brands fulfilled the BS and ASTM Code requirements for (i) basic properties (ii) compressive strength of mortar cubes at 3 and 28 days curing age (iii) compressive strength of concrete cubes at 28 days curing age, and (iv) modulus of elasticity. Some of the cements did not fulfill the BS and ASTM Code requirements for compressive strength of concrete cubes at 7 days curing age. (author)

  10. Suitability assessment of OPC UA as the backbone of ground-based observatory control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessemier, W.; Raskin, G.; Van Winckel, H.; Deconinck, G.; Saey, P.

    2012-01-01

    A common requirement of modern observatory control systems is to allow interaction between various heterogeneous subsystems in a transparent way. However, the integration of off-the-shelf (OTS) industrial products - such as Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) and Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) software - has long been hampered by the lack of an adequate interfacing method. With the advent of the Unified Architecture (UA) version of OPC (Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control), the limitations of the original industry accepted interface are now lifted, and also much more functionality has been defined. In this paper the most important features of OPC UA are matched against the requirements of ground-based observatory control systems in general and in particular of the 1.2 m Mercator Telescope. We investigate the opportunities of the 'information modelling' idea behind OPC UA, which could allow an extensive standardization in the field of astronomical instrumentation, similar to the efforts emerging in several industry domains. Because OPC UA is designed for both horizontal and vertical integration of heterogeneous subsystems, we explore its capabilities to serve as the backbone of a dependable and scalable observatory control system, treating industrial components like PLCs no differently than custom software components. Performance measurements and tests with a sample of OTS OPC UA products are presented. (authors)

  11. Electric Signals Regulate the Directional Migration of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells (OPCs via β1 Integrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangfu Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The guided migration of neural cells is essential for repair in the central nervous system (CNS. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs will normally migrate towards an injury site to re-sheath demyelinated axons; however the mechanisms underlying this process are not well understood. Endogenous electric fields (EFs are known to influence cell migration in vivo, and have been utilised in this study to direct the migration of OPCs isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. The OPCs were exposed to physiological levels of electrical stimulation, and displayed a marked electrotactic response that was dependent on β1 integrin, one of the key subunits of integrin receptors. We also observed that F-actin, an important component of the cytoskeleton, was re-distributed towards the leading edge of the migrating cells, and that this asymmetric rearrangement was associated with β1 integrin function.

  12. The CD control improvement by using CDSEM 2D measurement of complex OPC patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, William; Cheng, Jeffrey; Lee, Adder; Cheng, James; Tzeng, Alex C.; Lu, Colbert; Yang, Ray; Lee, Hong Jen; Bandoh, Hideaki; Santo, Izumi; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Chien Kang

    2016-10-01

    As the process node becomes more advanced, the accuracy and precision in OPC pattern CD are required in mask manufacturing. CD SEM is an essential tool to confirm the mask quality such as CD control, CD uniformity and CD mean to target (MTT). Unfortunately, in some cases of arbitrary enclosed patterns or aggressive OPC patterns, for instance, line with tiny jogs and curvilinear SRAF, CD variation depending on region of interest (ROI) is a very serious problem in mask CD control, even it decreases the wafer yield. For overcoming this situation, the 2-dimensional (2D) method by Holon is adopted. In this paper, we summarize the comparisons of error budget between conventional (1D) and 2D data using CD SEM and the CD performance between mask and wafer by complex OPC patterns including ILT features.

  13. Communication Test for ‘MatrikonOPC Server for SCADA DNP 3’ with RTDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Cha, Seung-Tae; Saleem, Arshad

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the communication test for ‘MatrikonOPC server for SCADA DNP 3’ with RTDS is to verify the data exchange between the ‘MatrikonOPC server for SCADA DNP 3’ and the RTDS using the DNP 3 protocol.The communication test is part of the work for the ‘Wind in Øresund’ project. The objective...... of the ‘Wind in Øresund’ project is to build a demonstration and education system of power system operation and control with a RTDS and a SCADA system....

  14. A novel OPC method to reduce mask volume with yield-aware dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chunlei; Chen Ye; Shi Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Growing data volume of masks tremendously increases manufacture cost. The cost increase is partially due to the complicated optical proximity corrections applied on mask design. In this paper, a yield-aware dissection method is presented. Based on the recognition of yield related mask context, the dissection result provides sufficient degrees of freedom to keep fidelity on critical sites while still retaining the frugality of modified designs. Experiments show that the final mask volume using the new method is reduced to about 50% of the conventional method. (semiconductor technology)

  15. Durability of low-pH cementitious materials based on OPC or CAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Calvo, J.L.; Sanchez, M.; Alonso, M.C.; Fernandez Luco, L.

    2015-01-01

    Low pH cementitious materials are considered to be used in underground repositories for high level waste but there are still some characteristics related to their long-term durability that must be analyzed in depth. In this sense, different shrinkage tests have been made using low-pH cement formulations based on Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) or Calcium Aluminate Cement (CAC), on mortar and concrete specimens. The obtained results show that, regarding the autogenous shrinkage, low-pH cementitious materials show similar values than those observed in the reference samples. In fact, the main shrinkage problems in the low-pH materials are related with those based on OPC with high silica fume contents in drying conditions. Besides, as the use of reinforced concrete can be required in underground repositories, the susceptibility of reinforcements to corrosion when using low-pH cementitious materials based on OPC was analyzed, using two different reinforcements: carbon steel and galvanized steel. The lower pore solution pH of the low-pH OPC based materials generates the corrosion of the carbon steel reinforcement. However, when galvanized steels are used, any corrosion problem is detected regardless of the cement formulation. (authors)

  16. Integration of Sensors, Controllers and Instruments Using a Novel OPC Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Isaías; Calderón, Antonio José; Barragán, Antonio Javier; Andújar, José Manuel

    2017-06-27

    The interconnection between sensors, controllers and instruments through a communication network plays a vital role in the performance and effectiveness of a control system. Since its inception in the 90s, the Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control (OPC) protocol has provided open connectivity for monitoring and automation systems. It has been widely used in several environments such as industrial facilities, building and energy automation, engineering education and many others. This paper presents a novel OPC-based architecture to implement automation systems devoted to R&D and educational activities. The proposal is a novel conceptual framework, structured into four functional layers where the diverse components are categorized aiming to foster the systematic design and implementation of automation systems involving OPC communication. Due to the benefits of OPC, the proposed architecture provides features like open connectivity, reliability, scalability, and flexibility. Furthermore, four successful experimental applications of such an architecture, developed at the University of Extremadura (UEX), are reported. These cases are a proof of concept of the ability of this architecture to support interoperability for different domains. Namely, the automation of energy systems like a smart microgrid and photobioreactor facilities, the implementation of a network-accessible industrial laboratory and the development of an educational hardware-in-the-loop platform are described. All cases include a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to automate and control the plant behavior, which exchanges operative data (measurements and signals) with a multiplicity of sensors, instruments and supervisory systems under the structure of the novel OPC architecture. Finally, the main conclusions and open research directions are highlighted.

  17. Design of Real Time Data Acquisition System Framework for Production Workshop Based on OPC Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Yue-xin Yang; Gong-chang Ren

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the low level of production management information in a hydraulic torque converter enterprise is presented. It is needed to develop a digital assembly shop MES to solve this problem. There is a high demand for the real-time data acquisition of the production line in the digital assembly shop MES. According to the actual needs of MES in digital assembly workshop, a real time data acquisition system framework based on OPC technology and database technology is proposed. The framew...

  18. In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of OPC-20011, a Novel Parenteral Broad-Spectrum 2-Oxaisocephem Antibiotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Makoto; Tamaoka, Hisashi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Mikio

    1998-01-01

    OPC-20011, a new parenteral 2-oxaisocephem antibiotic, has an oxygen atom at the 2- position of the cephalosporin frame. OPC-20011 had the best antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecalis, and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited were 6.25, 6.25, and 0.05 μg/ml, respectively. Its activity is due to a high affinity of the penicillin-binding protein 2′ in MRSA, an affinity which was approximately 1,050 times as high as that for flomoxef. Against gram-negative bacteria, OPC-20011 also showed antibacterial activities similar to those of ceftazidime. The in vivo activities of OPC-20011 were comparable to or greater than those of reference compounds in murine models of systemic infection caused by gram-positive and -negative pathogens. OPC-20011 was up to 10 times as effective as vancomycin against MRSA infections in mice. This better in vivo efficacy is probably due to the bactericidal activity of OPC-20011, while vancomycin showed bacteriostatic activity against MRSA. OPC-20011 produced a significant decrease of viable counts in lung tissue at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg of body weight, an efficacy similar to that of ampicillin at a dose of 10 to 20 mg/kg on an experimental murine model of respiratory tract infection caused by non-ampicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae T-0005. The better therapeutic efficacy of OPC-20011 was considered to be due to its potent antibacterial activity and low affinity for serum proteins of experimental animals (29% in mice and 6.4% in rats). PMID:9797230

  19. OPC Server and BridgeView Application for High Voltage Power Supply Lecroy 1458

    CERN Document Server

    Swoboda, D; CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this project was to develop an OPC server to communicate over an RS232 serial line. This communication media is commonly used with commercial instruments. The development was made for a High Voltage power supply in the context of the Alice [1] experiment. In addition, the structured modular concept will allow changing the transmission media or power supply type with little effort. The high voltage power supply should be accessible remotely through a network. OPC[2] is an acronym for OLE[3] for Process Control. OPC is based on the DCOM [3] communication protocol, which allows communication with any computer running a Windows based OS. This standard is widely used in industry to access device data through Windows applications. The concept is based on the client-server architecture. The hardware and the software architecture are described. Subsequently details of the implemented programs are given with emphasis on the possibility to replace parts of the software in order to use differ...

  20. Optical and electrical properties of TiOPc doped Alq{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramar, M.; Suman, C. K., E-mail: sumanck@nplindia.org; Tyagi, Priyanka; Srivastava, R. [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy CSIR - National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi -110012 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The Titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) was doped in Tris (8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum (Alq3) with different concentration. The thin film of optimized doping concentration was studied extensively for optical and electrical properties. The optical properties, studied using ellipsometry, absorption and photoluminescence. The absorption peak of Alq{sub 3} and TiOPc was observed at 387 nm and 707 nm and the photo-luminescence intensity (PL) peak of doped thin film was observed at 517 nm. The DC and AC electrical properties of the thin film were studied by current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics and impedance over a frequency range of 100 Hz - 1 MHz. The electron mobility calculated from trap-free space-charge limited region (SCLC) is 0.17×10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/Vs. The Cole-Cole plots shows that the TiOPc doped Alq{sub 3} thin film can be represented by a single parallel resistance R{sub P} and capacitance C{sub P} network with a series resistance R{sub S} (10 Ω). The value of R{sub P} and C{sub P} at zero bias was 1587 Ω and 2.568 nF respectively. The resistance R{sub P} decreases with applied bias whereas the capacitance C{sub P} remains almost constant.

  1. Polymer and bitumen-modified OPC for the immobilization of ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.I.; Worrall, G.; Phillips, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed study has been made of the modification of ordinary Portland cement with polymeric additives, and of the properties of waste forms based on these matrix materials. The additives were styrene butadiene and bitumen emulsions, and epoxide and polyurethane resins: the simulated wastes were organic ion exchanger beads, PWR evaporator concentrate, reprocessing concentrate and Magnox metal. The effect of polymer: cement (p:c) and water:cement ratios on the properties of the hardened cement paste has been comprehensively investigated. Substantial increases in strain to failure, and modest reductions in permeability to water and leach rates for Cs 137 , are obtained at p:c > 0.2. Much larger volume fractions of organic ion exchange beads can be encapsulated in polymer modified OPC than in unmodified OPC, perhaps because of their better strain capability. The radiation stability of cemented PWR evaporator concentrate is better for a polymer-modified matrix than an unmodified OPC matrix. Two hundred litre trials have been successfully demonstrated. 20 refs, 20 tabs, 10 figs

  2. Proximity credentials: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, L.J.

    1987-04-01

    Credentials as a means of identifying individuals have traditionally been a photo badge and more recently, the coded credential. Another type of badge, the proximity credential, is making inroads in the personnel identification field. This badge can be read from a distance instead of being veiewed by a guard or inserted into a reading device. This report reviews proximity credentials, identifies the companies marketing or developing proximity credentials, and describes their respective credentials. 3 tabs

  3. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  4. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) modulating radiation-induced oxidative stress on functional and structural performance of eye in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, U.Z.; Soliman, S.M.; Azab, Kh.Sh.; El-Tahawy, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    Eye oxidative stress may play a major role in the etiology and pathogenesis of eye disorders such as macular degeneration and photic injury of retinal degeneration that lead to vision loss. Proanthocyanidins derived from pine bark and from grape seeds have various anti pathophysiological functions. This study was performed to evaluate the role of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) on the radiation-induced changes in rat eye tissues. OPCs were supplemented to rats (100 mg /kg body weight/ day) for 14 successive days before and 7 successive days after exposure to 7 Gy (single dose) of whole body gamma irradiation. The results revealed radiation-induced depletion in the activities of eye endogenous antioxidant enzymes and rise in pro-oxidant levels. Supplementation of OPCs pre- and post-irradiation has significantly reduced the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, xanthine oxidase, and significantly ameliorated the activities of xanthine dehydrogenase and reactive oxygen scavenging enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in eye tissues. OPCs significantly ameliorated the radiation-induced changes in levels of insulin and glucose in the serum. The oxidative stress induced cellular damage as indicated by retardation in the responses of eye to photo stimulation as well as histopathological changes in the eye tissues. Severe intra-retinal hemorrhages, cornea swelling, disruption of photoreceptor layer of the retina and epithelial necrosis were seen. The eye tissues of rats that received OPCs supplement showed significant less severe histological damage and remarkable improvement in photo stimulation responses when compared to irradiated rats on the 7 T h and 21 s t days after exposure to gamma irradiation. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that OPCs might protect the eye tissues from the oxidative stress possibly by virtue of its anti oxidative activity through augmentation of antioxidant

  5. Cost effective solution using inverse lithography OPC for DRAM random contact layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jinhyuck; Hwang, Jaehee; Choi, Jaeseung; Oh, Seyoung; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Dam, Thuc; Do, Munhoe; Lee, Dong Chan; Xiao, Guangming; Choi, Jung-Hoe; Lucas, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Many different advanced devices and design layers currently employ double patterning technology (DPT) as a means to overcome lithographic and OPC limitations at low k1 values. Certainly device layers with k1 value below 0.25 require DPT or other pitch splitting methodologies. DPT has also been used to improve patterning of certain device layers with k1 values slightly above 0.25, due to the difficulty of achieving sufficient pattern fidelity with only a single exposure. Unfortunately, this broad adoption of DPT also came with a significant increase in patterning process cost. In this paper, we discuss the development of a single patterning technology process using an integrated Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) flow for mask synthesis. A single pattering technology flow will reduce the manufacturing cost for a k1 > 0.25 full chip random contact layer in a memory device by replacing the more expensive DPT process with ILT flow, while also maintaining good lithographic production quality and manufacturable OPC/RET production metrics. This new integrated flow consists of applying ILT to the difficult core region and traditional rule-based assist features (RBAFs) with OPC to the peripheral region of a DRAM contact layer. Comparisons of wafer results between the ILT process and the non-ILT process showed the lithographic benefits of ILT and its ability to enable a robust single patterning process for this low-k1 device layer. Advanced modeling with a negative tone develop (NTD) process achieved the accuracy levels needed for ILT to control feature shapes through dose and focus. Details of these afore mentioned results will be described in the paper.

  6. Design of Real Time Data Acquisition System Framework for Production Workshop Based on OPC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-xin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the low level of production management information in a hydraulic torque converter enterprise is presented. It is needed to develop a digital assembly shop MES to solve this problem. There is a high demand for the real-time data acquisition of the production line in the digital assembly shop MES. According to the actual needs of MES in digital assembly workshop, a real time data acquisition system framework based on OPC technology and database technology is proposed. The framework can be used to meet the actual needs of the real time monitoring system and production business information processing in MES.

  7. Vertical Integration in factories using OPC-UA and IEC-61499

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo V. García

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, factory automation systems need to cope with very different challenges, such as big data, IIoT, etc. These challenges lead to a new generation of automation systems based on the so-called Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPS globally connected to form a flexible System of Cyber-Physical Production Systems (SoCPPS. CPPSs require acquisition of production system data and smart data processing to extract information to improve the overall system performance. To achieve that it is needed to bridge the gap between the control systems and higher layers. This paper discusses an approach to use the IEC 61499 function block concept to exchange data between plant floor and higher layers using an industrial standard like OPC UA. The OPC UA server offers subscription mechanisms, making possible the integration of several resources residing at plant floor. As it runs on embedded devices, the proposal makes possible to acquire plant information at low cost, enabling at the same time, a component-based design for enterprise plant floor control with independence of the hardware platform used

  8. Rapid generation of OPC-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells for treating spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Sung; Jung, Se Jung; Lee, Jae Souk; Lim, Bo Young; Kim, Hyun Ah; Yoo, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Dong-Wook; Leem, Joong Woo

    2017-07-28

    Remyelination via the transplantation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) has been considered as a strategy to improve the locomotor deficits caused by traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). To date, enormous efforts have been made to derive OPCs from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), and significant progress in the transplantation of such cells in SCI animal models has been reported. The current methods generally require a long period of time (>2 months) to obtain transplantable OPCs, which hampers their clinical utility for patients with SCI. Here we demonstrate a rapid and efficient method to differentiate hPSCs into neural progenitors that retain the features of OPCs (referred to as OPC-like cells). We used cell sorting to select A2B5-positive cells from hPSC-derived neural rosettes and cultured the selected cells in the presence of signaling cues, including sonic hedgehog, PDGF and insulin-like growth factor-1. This method robustly generated neural cells positive for platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα) and NG2 (~90%) after 4 weeks of differentiation. Behavioral tests revealed that the transplantation of the OPC-like cells into the spinal cords of rats with contusive SCI at the thoracic level significantly improved hindlimb locomotor function. Electrophysiological assessment revealed enhanced neural conduction through the injury site. Histological examination showed increased numbers of axon with myelination at the injury site and graft-derived myelin formation with no evidence of tumor formation. Our method provides a cell source from hPSCs that has the potential to recover motor function following SCI.

  9. Microbial Activity in Peat Soil Treated With Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Coal Ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, J. A.; Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Peat soil is a cumulative of decayed plant fragment which developed as a result of microbial activity. The microbes degrade the organic matter in the peat soils by the production of hydrolysis enzyme. The least decomposed peat, known as fibric peat has big particles and retain lots of water. This made peat having high moisture content, up to 1500 %. The most decomposed peat known as sapric peat having fines particles and less void ratio. The present study aimed to understand the effects of solidification process on the bacterial growth and cellulase (CMCase) enzyme activity. Two types of mixing were designed for fibric, hemic and sapric peats; (i) Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) at an equal amount of dry peat, with 25 % of fly ash (FA) and total of coarse particle, a combination of bottom ash and fibre of 22 – 34 %, (ii) fibric peat was using water-to-binder ratio (w/b) = 1, 50% OPC, 25 % bottom ash (BA) and 25 % FA. For hemic and sapric peat, w/b=3 with 50 % OPC and 50 % BA were used. All samples were prepared triplicates, and were cured for 7, 14, 28 and 56 days in a closed container at room temperature. The results revealed that the first mix design giving a continuous strength development. However, the second mix design shows a decreased in strength pattern after day 28. The influence of the environment factors such as alkaline pH, reduction of the water content and peat temperature has no significant on the reduction amount of native microbes in the peat. The microbes survived in the solidified peat but the amount of microbes were found reduced for all types of mixing Fibric Mixed 1 (FM1), Hemic Mixed 1(HM1) and Sapric Mixed 1 (SM1) were having good strength increment for about 330 – 1427 % with enzymatic activity recorded even after D56. Nevertheless, with increase in the strength development through curing days, the enzymatic activities were reduced. For the time being, it can be concluded that the microbes have the ability to adapt with new environment

  10. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  11. Chloride Transport in OPC Concrete Subjected to the Freeze and Thaw Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Yong Ann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To predict the durability of a concrete structure under the coupling degradation consisting of the frosting and chloride attack, microstructural analysis of the concrete pore structure should be accompanied. In this study, the correlation between the pore structure and chloride migration for OPC concrete was evaluated at the different cement content in the concrete mix accounting for 300, 350, and 400 kg/m3 at 0.45 of a free water cement ratio. The influence of frosting damage on the rate of chloride transport was assessed by testing with concrete specimens subjected to a rapid freezing and thawing cyclic environment. As a result, it was found that chloride transport was accelerated by frost damage, which was more influential at the lower cement content. The microscopic examination of the pore structure showed that the freezing environment increased the volume of the large capillary pore in the concrete matrix.

  12. Factors affecting early compressive strength of alkali activated fly ash (OPC-free concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo, A.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of experimental research into the chief characteristics of a new type of concrete made solely with alkali activated fly ash (AAFA: i.e., free of ordinary Portland cement (OPC. The results of testing to determine specific properties of the fresh concrete and the development of its mechanical strength showed that most of the factors that affect the manufacture and final properties of Portland cement concrete (water/cement ratio, curing conditions, etc. also impact the preparation and final quality of this new material. A number of parameters specific to AAFA concrete (nature and concentration of alkali present in the system were also explored to determine their role in the setting and hardening process.Este trabajo presenta los resultados de una investigación experimental llevada a cabo para evaluar las principales características de un nuevo tipo de hormigón fabricado solamente con ceniza volante activada alcalinamente (AAFA; es decir, sin cemento Portland comercial (OPC. Los resultados de los ensayos realizados para determinar las propiedades específicas del hormigón fresco y el desarrollo de resistencias mecánicas mostraron que la mayoría de los factores que afectan al proceso de fabricación y a las propiedades finales de los hormigones de cemento Portland (relación agua/cemento, condiciones de curado, etc. también afectan a la preparación y calidad final de estos nuevos materiales. También fueron estudiados otros parámetros específicos de los hormigones de AAFA (la naturaleza y concentración del álcali presente en el sistema para determinar su papel en el proceso de fraguado y endurecimiento.

  13. Proximal collagenous gastroenteritides:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Riis, Lene Buhl; Danese, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: While collagenous colitis represents the most common form of the collagenous gastroenteritides, the collagenous entities affecting the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract are much less recognized and possibly overlooked. The aim was to summarize the latest information through a syste...

  14. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  15. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  16. Sealing of exploratory boreholes in clay reactivity of ordinary portland cement (OPC) grouts and various lithologies from the Harwell research site. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milodowski, A.E.; George, I.A.; Bloodworth, A.J.; Robins, N.S.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a research programme on the disposal of radioactive wastes in clay, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) has been used in the completion of boreholes on the Harwell Research Site, AERE, Oxfordshire. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of OPC and the alkaline pore fluids generated during its setting on the various lithological types encountered in the boreholes. To facilitate this, samples of core representing the various rock types were selected and cement-rock composites were prepared from these in the laboratory to simulate the borehole cements. After a curing period of 15 months the cores and associated cement plugs were examined for any signs of reactivity or bonding. The best cement-rock bonding was shown by naturally well-cemented sandstone and limestone lithologies. Although no significant chemical reaction was seen to have occurred between OPC and rock, the OPC appears able to bind onto the rock surface because of the rigidity of the rock surface. Therefore, the best cement rock bonding and seal with OPC may be expected in the limestones of the Great Oolite Group, Inferior Oolite Group and parts of the Corallian beds. Because of the reactivity of OPC towards certain lithologies a better borehole seal in such a sedimentary sequence might be achieved using a bentonite backfill in those parts of the sequence which either react with or bond only weakly to OPC

  17. Quantum Proximity Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that at long wavelengths λ an s-wave scatterer can have a scattering cross section σ on the order of λ 2 , much larger than its physical size, as measured by the range of its potential. Very interesting phenomena can arise when two or more identical scatterers are placed close together, well within one wavelength. We show that, for a pair of identical scatterers, an extremely narrow p-wave open-quote open-quote proximity close-quote close-quote resonance develops from a broader s-wave resonance of the individual scatterers. A new s-wave resonance of the pair also appears. The relation of these proximity resonances (so called because they appear when the scatterers are close together) to the Thomas and Efimov effects is discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Shrinkage behaviour and related corrosion performance of low-pH cementitious materials based on OPC or CAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Calvo, J. L.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior to using low-pH cementitious materials in underground repositories for high level waste, the characteristics determining their long-term durability must be analysed in depth. In this sense, different shrinkage tests have been made on mortar and concrete specimens using low-pH cement formulations based on ordinary portland cement (OPC or calcium aluminate cement (CAC, with high mineral admixtures contents. They showed similar autogenous shrinkage than samples without mineral admixtures but higher drying shrinkage when materials based on OPC with high silica fume contents were considered. Besides, as the use of reinforced concrete could be required in underground repositories, the susceptibility of reinforcement to corrosion when using low-pH cementitious materials based on OPC was analyzed, considering carbon steel and galvanized steel. In the formers corrosion was detected due to the low pore solution pH but any problem was detected when galvanized reinforcement were used.Previo al empleo de materiales con cementos de bajo pH en almacenamientos geológicos profundos (AGP de residuos radiactivos de alta actividad, características relacionadas con su durabilidad a largo plazo deben ser verificadas. Así, su estabilidad volumétrica se ha analizado en morteros y hormigones de bajo pH basados en OPC o CAC, con elevados contenidos de adiciones minerales. Estos presentaron retracciones autógenas similares a las medidas en materiales convencionales, pero retracciones por secado mayores en los basados en OPC y altos contenidos de humo de sílice. Dado que en zonas de los AGP podría emplearse hormigón armado, también se evaluó la susceptibilidad a la corrosión de aceros al carbono y aceros galvanizados en materiales de bajo pH basados en OPC. Se detectó un inicio temprano de corrosión en los primeros debido al bajo pH presente en el fluido de los poros de estos materiales, sin detectarse problemas al emplear aceros galvanizados.

  19. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or decreased alertness Dehydration Fatigue Increased breathing rate Osteomalacia (softening of the bones) Muscle pain Weakness Other ... correct bone disorders and reduce the risk of osteomalacia and osteopenia in adults. Some adults may need ...

  20. Proximity friction reexamined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krappe, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    The contribution of inelastic excitations to radial and tangential friction form-factors in heavy-ion collisions is investigated in the frame-work of perturbation theory. The dependence of the form factors on the essential geometrical and level-density parameters of the scattering system is exhibited in a rather closed form. The conditions for the existence of time-local friction coefficients are discussed. Results are compared to form factors from other models, in particular the transfer-related proximity friction. For the radial friction coefficient the inelastic excitation mechanism seems to be the dominant contribution in peripheral collisions. (orig.)

  1. Proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Lawrence X

    2002-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal femur include fractures of the head, neck, intertrochanteric, and subtrochanteric regions. Head fractures commonly accompany dislocations. Neck fractures and intertrochanteric fractures occur with greatest frequency in elderly patients with a low bone mineral density and are produced by low-energy mechanisms. Subtrochanteric fractures occur in a predominantly strong cortical osseous region which is exposed to large compressive stresses. Implants used to address these fractures must be able to accommodate significant loads while the fractures consolidate. Complications secondary to these injuries produce significant morbidity and include infection, nonunion, malunion, decubitus ulcers, fat emboli, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, stroke, and death.

  2. Development of remote data acquisition system based on OPC for brake test bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwei; Wu, Mengling; Tian, Chun; Ma, Tianhe

    2017-08-01

    The 1:1 train brake system test bench can be used to carry out brake-related adhesion-slid control, stability test, noise test and dynamic test. To collect data of the test bench, a data acquisition method is needed. In this paper, the remote data acquisition system of test bench is built by LabVIEW based on OPC technology. Unlike the traditional hardwire way connecting PLC acquisition module with sensors, the novel method is used to collect data and share them through the internal LAN built by Ethernet switches, which avoids the complex wiring interference in an easy, efficient and flexible way. The system has been successfully applied to the data acquisition activities of the comprehensive brake system test bench of CRRC Nanjing Puzhen Haitai Brake Equipment Co., Ltd., and the relationship test between the adhesion coefficient and the slip-ratio is realized. The speed signal, torque signal and brake disc temperature can be collected and displayed. The results show that the system is reliable, convenient, and efficient, and can meet the requirements of data acquisition.

  3. Ultimate and proximate explanations of strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, Jack

    2017-08-23

    Strong reciprocity (SR) has recently been subject to heated debate. In this debate, the "West camp" (West et al. in Evol Hum Behav 32(4):231-262, 2011), which is critical of the case for SR, and the "Laland camp" (Laland et al. in Science, 334(6062):1512-1516, 2011, Biol Philos 28(5):719-745, 2013), which is sympathetic to the case of SR, seem to take diametrically opposed positions. The West camp criticizes advocates of SR for conflating proximate and ultimate causation. SR is said to be a proximate mechanism that is put forward by its advocates as an ultimate explanation of human cooperation. The West camp thus accuses advocates of SR for not heeding Mayr's original distinction between ultimate and proximate causation. The Laland camp praises advocates of SR for revising Mayr's distinction. Advocates of SR are said to replace Mayr's uni-directional view on the relation between ultimate and proximate causes by the bi-directional one of reciprocal causation. The paper argues that both the West camp and the Laland camp misrepresent what advocates of SR are up to. The West camp is right that SR is a proximate cause of human cooperation. But rather than putting forward SR as an ultimate explanation, as the West camp argues, advocates of SR believe that SR itself is in need of ultimate explanation. Advocates of SR tend to take gene-culture co-evolutionary theory as the correct meta-theoretical framework for advancing ultimate explanations of SR. Appearances notwithstanding, gene-culture coevolutionary theory does not imply Laland et al.'s notion of reciprocal causation. "Reciprocal causation" suggests that proximate and ultimate causes interact simultaneously, while advocates of SR assume that they interact sequentially. I end by arguing that the best way to understand the debate is by disambiguating Mayr's ultimate-proximate distinction. I propose to reserve "ultimate" and "proximate" for different sorts of explanations, and to use other terms for distinguishing

  4. Echosonography with proximity sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaisiam, W; Laithong, T; Meekhun, S; Chaiwathyothin, N; Thanlarp, P; Danworaphong, S

    2013-01-01

    We propose the use of a commercial ultrasonic proximity sensor kit for profiling an altitude-varying surface by employing echosonography. The proximity sensor kit, two identical transducers together with its dedicated operating circuit, is used as a profiler for the construction of an image. Ultrasonic pulses are emitted from one of the transducers and received by the other. The time duration between the pulses allows us to determine the traveling distance of each pulse. In the experiment, the circuit is used with the addition of two copper wires for directing the outgoing and incoming signals to an oscilloscope. The time of flight of ultrasonic pulses can thus be determined. Square grids of 5 × 5 cm 2 are made from fishing lines, forming pixels in the image. The grids are designed to hold the detection unit in place, about 30 cm above a flat surface. The surface to be imaged is constructed to be height varying and placed on the flat surface underneath the grids. Our result shows that an image of the profiled surface can be created by varying the location of the detection unit along the grid. We also investigate the deviation in relation to the time of flight of the ultrasonic pulse. Such an experiment should be valuable for conveying the concept of ultrasonic imaging to physical and medical science undergraduate students. Due to its simplicity, the setup could be made in any undergraduate laboratory relatively inexpensively and it requires no complex parts. The results illustrate the concept of echosonography. (paper)

  5. Effect of (OPC) oligomeric pronthocyanidine extracted of grape seed on chromosomal aberrations for Tc 99m sulfur colloid in laboratory animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwan, I. F.; Ahmed, A.M.; Mohamad, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    The aims study to assess the protective material (OPC) oligomeric pronthocyanidine grape seed extract, to decrease the effect of Technetium 99 m radiation used in on the (Chromosomal Aberration) in the genes for bone marrow in laboratory animals. Been diagnosed by a composite (OPC) optical spectrometer (UV.vis) to determine the wavelength of the compound, for the purpose of examination and analysis by a high-purity HPLC to determine the components of grape seed extract. Has been handing laboratory animals, grape seed extract material (OPC) at a dose (150 mg/kg) for two weeks and then were injected to the solution of sulfur colloidal label with Tc 99 m doses of radiation to the following quantity (400 u ci, 250 u ci, 150 u ci / 0.1 m1). The treated animals by extract (OPC) showed decrease in the proportion of chromosomal changes resulting from the impact of injection differences dose compared to animals injected to the same radiation dose and non treated animal with (OPC). The result indicated there are significant differences (p>0.05) at the level of changes in chromosomal in genes of animals untreated compared with the group of animals treated with (OPC) and injected with the same radiation dose compared a control animal group. (Author)

  6. Hierarchical Cr_2O_3@OPC composites with octahedral shape for rechargeable nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Yongqing; Lai, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhian; Chen, Wei; Du, Ke; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The development of catalyst materials is the most significant issue that hinders the practical applications of Li-O_2 batteries. Herein we show the design and synthesis of the hierarchical chromic oxide-octahedral porous carbon (Cr_2O_3@OPC) composites catalyst with octahedral shape that derived from Cr-based metal-organic frameworks (MIL-101(Cr)) precursor. When applied as cathode catalysts in rechargeable Li-O_2 batteries, the electrode with Cr_2O_3@OPC composites catalyst exhibits a low charge and discharge over-potential, high discharge capacity and excellent cycling stability. What's more, the electrode with Cr_2O_3@OPC composite shows a discharge capacity up to ∼4800 mAh g_(_c_a_t_a_l_y_s_t _+ _c_a_r_b_o_n_)"−"1 at a current density of 0.1 mA cm"−"2, and exhibits a very stable discharge voltage plateau of 2.7 V and a charge voltage plateau of ∼3.9 V. With the addition of Cr_2O_3@OPC composite, the Li-O_2 batteries can obtain good cycle performance over 50 cycles at a fixed capacity of 800 mAh g_(_c_a_t_a_l_y_s_t _+ _c_a_r_b_o_n_)"−"1. These results indicating that the Cr_2O_3@OPC composite derived from MIL-101(Cr) would be a promising catalyst for Li-O_2 batteries. - Highlights: • The Cr_2O_3@C composites were prepared by the pyrolysis of Cr-MIL-101. • The Cr_2O_3@C composites possess octahedral shape consisted of Cr_2O_3@C nanoparticle. • The Cr_2O_3@C composites have mesoporous structure with large specific area. • The Cr_2O_3@C composites have an excellent intrinsic electrocatalytic activity. • The Cr_2O_3@C electrode exhibits great cycling performance.

  7. Children's proximal societal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    2018-01-01

    that is above or outside the institutional setting or the children’s everyday life, but something that is represented through societal structures and actual persons participating (in political ways) within the institutional settings, in ways that has meaning to children’s possibilities to participate, learn...... and develop. Understanding school or kindergarten as (part of) the children’s proximal societal conditions for development and learning, means for instance that considerations about an inclusive agenda are no longer simply thoughts about the school – for economic reasons – having space for as many pupils...... as possible (schools for all). Such thoughts can be supplemented by reflections about which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to present our children with, and which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to set up as the condition for children’s participation and development. The point is to clarify or sharpen...

  8. Proximity detection system underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Kent [Mine Site Technologies (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Mine Site Technologies (MST) with the support ACARP and Xstrata Coal NSW, as well as assistance from Centennial Coal, has developed a Proximity Detection System to proof of concept stage as per plan. The basic aim of the project was to develop a system to reduce the risk of the people coming into contact with vehicles in an uncontrolled manner (i.e. being 'run over'). The potential to extend the developed technology into other areas, such as controls for vehicle-vehicle collisions and restricting access of vehicle or people into certain zones (e.g. non FLP vehicles into Hazardous Zones/ERZ) was also assessed. The project leveraged off MST's existing Intellectual Property and experience gained with our ImPact TRACKER tagging technology, allowing the development to be fast tracked. The basic concept developed uses active RFID Tags worn by miners underground to be detected by vehicle mounted Readers. These Readers in turn provide outputs that can be used to alert a driver (e.g. by light and/or audible alarm) that a person (Tag) approaching within their vicinity. The prototype/test kit developed proved the concept and technology, the four main components being: Active RFID Tags to send out signals for detection by vehicle mounted receivers; Receiver electronics to detect RFID Tags approaching within the vicinity of the unit to create a long range detection system (60 m to 120 m); A transmitting/exciter device to enable inner detection zone (within 5 m to 20 m); and A software/hardware device to process & log incoming Tags reads and create certain outputs. Tests undertaken in the laboratory and at a number of mine sites, confirmed the technology path taken could form the basis of a reliable Proximity Detection/Alert System.

  9. Generalization of the photo process window and its application to OPC test pattern design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Hans; Peter, Kai; Strojwas, Andrzej J.

    2003-07-01

    From the early development phase up to the production phase, test pattern play a key role for microlithography. The requirement for test pattern is to represent the design well and to cover the space of all process conditions, e.g. to investigate the full process window and all other process parameters. This paper shows that the current state-of-the-art test pattern do not address these requirements sufficiently and makes suggestions for a better selection of test pattern. We present a new methodology to analyze an existing layout (e.g. logic library, test pattern or full chip) for critical layout situations which does not need precise process data. We call this method "process space decomposition", because it is aimed at decomposing the process impact to a layout feature into a sum of single independent contributions, the dimensions of the process space. This is a generalization of the classical process window, which examines defocus and exposure dependency of given test pattern, e.g. CD value of dense and isolated lines. In our process space we additionally define the dimensions resist effects, etch effects, mask error and misalignment, which describe the deviation of the printed silicon pattern from its target. We further extend it by the pattern space using a product based layout (library, full chip or synthetic test pattern). The criticality of pattern is defined by their deviation due to aerial image, their sensitivity to the respective dimension or several combinations of these. By exploring the process space for a given design, the method allows to find the most critical patterns independent of specific process parameters. The paper provides examples for different applications of the method: (1) selection of design oriented test pattern for lithography development (2) test pattern reduction in process characterization (3) verification/optimization of printability and performance of post processing procedures (like OPC) (4) creation of a sensitive process

  10. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  11. Keldysh proximity action for disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigel'man, M.V.; Larkin, A.I.; Skvortsov, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We review a novel approach to the superconductive proximity effect in disordered normal-superconducting (N-S) structures. The method is based on the multicharge Keldysh action and is suitable for the treatment of interaction and fluctuation effects. As an application of the formalism, we study the subgap conductance and noise in two-dimensional N-S system in the presence of the electron-electron interaction in the Cooper channel. It is shown that singular nature of the interaction correction at large scales leads to a nonmonotonous temperature, voltage and magnetic field dependence of the Andreev conductance. (author)

  12. [Augmentation technique on the proximal humerus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, A; Gebhard, F; Röderer, G

    2015-09-01

    The treatment of osteoporotic fractures is still a challenge. The advantages of augmentation with respect to primary in vitro stability and the clinical use for the proximal humerus are presented in this article. In this study six paired human humeri were randomized into an augmented and a non-augmented group. Osteosynthesis was performed with a PHILOS plate (Synthes®). In the augmented group the two screws finding purchase in the weakest cancellous bone were augmented. The specimens were tested in a 3-part fracture model in a varus bending test. The augmented PHILOS plates withstood significantly more load cycles until failure. The correlation to bone mineral density (BMD) showed that augmentation could partially compensate for low BMD. The augmentation of the screws in locked plating in a proximal humerus fracture model is effective in improving the primary stability in a cyclic varus bending test. The targeted augmentation of two particular screws in a region of low bone quality within the humeral head was almost as effective as four screws with twice the amount of bone cement. Screw augmentation combined with a knowledge of the local bone quality could be more effective in enhancing the primary stability of a proximal humerus locking plate because the effect of augmentation can be exploited more effectively limiting it to the degree required. The technique of augmentation is simple and can be applied in open and minimally invasive procedures. When the correct procedure is used, complications (cement leakage into the joint) can be avoided.

  13. 7-[3-(4-[2,3-dimethylphenyl]piperazinyl)propoxy]-2 (1H)-quinolinone (OPC-4392), a presynaptic dopamine autoreceptor agonist and postsynaptic D2 receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Y.; Kikuchi, T.; Suzuki, S.; Tsutsui, M.; Yamada, K.; Hiyama, T.

    1988-01-01

    The assertion that OPC-4392 acts as an agonist at presynaptic dopamine autoreceptors is supported by the following behavioral and biochemical observations: OPC-4392, 3-PPP and apomorphine inhibited the reserpine-induced increase in DOPA accumulation in the forebrain of mice and in the frontal cortex, limbic forebrain and striatum of rats. In addition, the gamma-butyrolactone (GBL)-induced increase in DOPA accumulation in the mouse forebrain was also inhibited by OPC-4392, 3-PPP and apomorphine. The inhibitory effect of OPC-4392 on GBL-induced DOPA accumulation lasted for at least 8 hours after oral administration to mice, while that of 3-PPP and apomorphine disappeared in 4 hours after subcutaneous injection. OPC-4392 failed to increase spontaneous motor activity in reserpinized mice, enhance spontaneous ipsilateral rotation in rats with unilateral striatal kainic acid (KA) lesions, induce contralateral rotation in rats with unilateral striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions and inhibit 14 C-acetylcholine (Ach) release stimulated by 20 mM KCl in rat striatal slices

  14. ProxImaL: efficient image optimization using proximal algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix; Diamond, Steven; Nieß ner, Matthias; Ragan-Kelley, Jonathan; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Wetzstein, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    domain-specific language and compiler for image optimization problems that makes it easy to experiment with different problem formulations and algorithm choices. The language uses proximal operators as the fundamental building blocks of a variety

  15. A proximal point algorithm with generalized proximal distances to BEPs

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, G. C.; Neto, J. X. Cruz; Lopes, J. O.; Soares Jr, P. A.; Soubeyran, A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a bilevel problem involving two monotone equilibrium bifunctions and we show that this problem can be solved by a proximal point method with generalized proximal distances. We propose a framework for the convergence analysis of the sequences generated by the algorithm. This class of problems is very interesting because it covers mathematical programs and optimization problems under equilibrium constraints. As an application, we consider the problem of the stability and change dyna...

  16. Preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Amilal; Gandhi, Ajay; Saxena, Gajendra; Choudhary, Gautam Ram

    2010-01-01

    Aims : Objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and results of preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIP) in patients of proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature. Materials and Methods : Twenty-seven patients of proximal hypospadias who underwent preputioplasty with TIP were evaluated retrospectively. Ventral curvature was corrected by mobilization of the urethral plate with the corpus spongiosum and the proximal urethra; dorsal plica...

  17. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis...

  18. Comprehensive Identification of Long Non-coding RNAs in Purified Cell Types from the Brain Reveals Functional LncRNA in OPC Fate Determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Dong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs (> 200 bp play crucial roles in transcriptional regulation during numerous biological processes. However, it is challenging to comprehensively identify lncRNAs, because they are often expressed at low levels and with more cell-type specificity than are protein-coding genes. In the present study, we performed ab initio transcriptome reconstruction using eight purified cell populations from mouse cortex and detected more than 5000 lncRNAs. Predicting the functions of lncRNAs using cell-type specific data revealed their potential functional roles in Central Nervous System (CNS development. We performed motif searches in ENCODE DNase I digital footprint data and Mouse ENCODE promoters to infer transcription factor (TF occupancy. By integrating TF binding and cell-type specific transcriptomic data, we constructed a novel framework that is useful for systematically identifying lncRNAs that are potentially essential for brain cell fate determination. Based on this integrative analysis, we identified lncRNAs that are regulated during Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cell (OPC differentiation from Neural Stem Cells (NSCs and that are likely to be involved in oligodendrogenesis. The top candidate, lnc-OPC, shows highly specific expression in OPCs and remarkable sequence conservation among placental mammals. Interestingly, lnc-OPC is significantly up-regulated in glial progenitors from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE mouse models compared to wild-type mice. OLIG2-binding sites in the upstream regulatory region of lnc-OPC were identified by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation-Sequencing and validated by luciferase assays. Loss-of-function experiments confirmed that lnc-OPC plays a functional role in OPC genesis. Overall, our results substantiated the role of lncRNA in OPC fate determination and provided an unprecedented data source for future functional investigations in CNS cell types. We present our datasets and

  19. Publisher Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcot, Valérie; Lu, Yingchang; Highland, Heather M

    2018-01-01

    In the published version of this paper, the name of author Emanuele Di Angelantonio was misspelled. This error has now been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.......In the published version of this paper, the name of author Emanuele Di Angelantonio was misspelled. This error has now been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article....

  20. Author Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundle, D S; Löscher, C R; Krahmann, G

    2018-01-01

    A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.......A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper....

  1. Superconducting proximity effect in mesoscopic superconductor/normal-metal junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Takayanagi, H; Toyoda, E

    1999-01-01

    The superconducting proximity effect is discussed in mesoscopic superconductor/normal-metal junctions. The newly-developed theory shows long-range phase-coherent effect which explaines early experimental results of giant magnetoresistance oscillations in an Andreev interferometer. The theory also shows that the proximity correction to the conductance (PCC) has a reentrant behavior as a function of energy. The reentrant behavior is systematically studied in a gated superconductor-semiconductor junction. A negative PCC is observed in the case of a weak coupling between the normal metal and the external reservoir. Phase coherent ac effect is also observed when rf is irradiated to the junction.

  2. Preliminary study on leadership proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinea Valentina Mihaela

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, it is agreed that effective leadership requires a certain degree of proximity, either physical or mental, which enables leaders to maintain control over their followers and communicate their vision. Although we agree with the leadership proximity principles which states that leaders are able to efficiently serve only those people with whom they interact frequently, in this article we focus instead on the disadvantages of being too close and the way in which close proximity can actually hurt the effectiveness of leadership. The main effects that we discuss regard the way in which proximity and familiarity allow followers to see the weaknesses and faults of the leader much more easily and thus diminish the leader’s heroic aura, and the emotional bias that results from a leader being too familiar with his followers which will impede the process of rational decision making. As a result, we argue that there exists a functional proximity which allows the leader the necessary space in which to perform effective identity work and to hide the backstage aspects of leadership, while also allowing him an emotional buffer zone which will enable him to maintain the ability to see clearly and make rational decisions.

  3. Relation between speckle decorrelation and optical phase conjugation (OPC)-based turbidity suppression through dynamic scattering media: a study on in vivo mouse skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mooseok; Ruan, Haowen; Vellekoop, Ivo M.; Judkewitz, Benjamin; Chung, Euiheon; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    Light scattering in biological tissue significantly limits the accessible depth for localized optical interrogation and deep-tissue optical imaging. This challenge can be overcome by exploiting the time-reversal property of optical phase conjugation (OPC) to reverse multiple scattering events or suppress turbidity. However, in living tissue, scatterers are highly movable and the movement can disrupt time-reversal symmetry when there is a latency in the OPC playback. In this paper, we show that the motion-induced degradation of the OPC turbidity-suppression effect through a dynamic scattering medium shares the same decorrelation time constant as that determined from speckle intensity autocorrelation – a popular conventional measure of scatterer movement. We investigated this decorrelation characteristic time through a 1.5-mm-thick dorsal skin flap of a living mouse and found that it ranges from 50 ms to 2.5 s depending on the level of immobilization. This study provides information on relevant time scales for applying OPC to living tissues. PMID:25657876

  4. Diffusion of He in OPC paste and low-heat Portland cement paste containing fly-ash in contact with aqueous phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Fuminori; Miwata, Chikanori; Noda, Natsuko; Sato, Seichi; Kozaki, Tamotsu; Higashihara, Tomohiro; Hironaga, Michihiko; Kawanishi, Motoi

    2008-01-01

    As a part of gas migration studies in concrete package for nuclear waste surrounded by water-saturated rock, the helium diffusion in ordinary Portland cement paste (OPC) was studied using disk form specimen at various water-to-cement (w/c) ratios. The helium diffusion in low-heat Portland cement paste containing fly-ash (LPF) was also studied. Apparent diffusion coefficients of helium in OPC paste were ∼1 x 10 -10 m 2 s -1 at 0.4 w/c ratio, independent of increase of w/c ratio. It is likely that the materials formation such as C-S-H and CH in capillary pores in OPC plays an important role on the helium diffusion rather than porosity increase. Apparent diffusion coefficient of helium in LPF was two orders of magnitude smaller than that in OPC. It is quite possible that the addition of fly-ash contributes to the formation of hydration products which markedly enhance discontinuity of capillary pore. The results of the present study on the two kinds of cement pastes give us valuable information about alternatives to release gas from cement package. (author)

  5. Tibial rotational osteotomy for idiopathic torsion. A comparison of the proximal and distal osteotomy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krengel, W F; Staheli, L T

    1992-10-01

    A retrospective analysis was done of 52 rotational tibial osteotomies (RTOs) performed on 35 patients with severe idiopathic tibial torsion. Thirty-nine osteotomies were performed at the proximal or midtibial level. Thirteen were performed at the distal tibial level with a technique previously described by one of the authors. Serious complications occurred in five (13%) of the proximal and in none of the distal RTOs. For severe and persisting idiopathic tibial torsion, the authors recommend correction by RTO at the distal level. Proximal level osteotomy is indicated only when a varus or valgus deformity required concurrent correction.

  6. The maximum percentage of fly ash to replace part of original Portland cement (OPC) in producing high strength concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallisa, Harun; Turuallo, Gidion

    2017-11-01

    This research investigates the maximum percent of fly ash to replace part of Orginal Portland Cement (OPC) in producing high strength concrete. Many researchers have found that the incorporation of industrial by-products such as fly ash as in producing concrete can improve properties in both fresh and hardened state of concrete. The water-binder ratio was used 0.30. The used sand was medium sand with the maximum size of coarse aggregate was 20 mm. The cement was Type I, which was Bosowa Cement produced by PT Bosowa. The percentages of fly ash to the total of a binder, which were used in this research, were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%; while the super platicizer used was typed Naptha 511P. The results showed that the replacement cement up to 25 % of the total weight of binder resulted compressive strength higher than the minimum strength at one day of high-strength concrete.

  7. First Experience with PLC, OPC and BridgeVIEW in the context of the HMPID liquid distribution prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Maatta, E; CERN. Geneva; Swoboda, Detlef; Lecoeur, G

    1999-01-01

    The TESt (Test and Evaluation Station) [3] project consists in the construction of a stand alone unit for a specific sub-system of an ALICE detector in order to gain first experience with commercial products for detector control. Although the control system includes only a small number of devices and is designed for a particular application, it covers nevertheless all layers of a complete system and can be extended or used in different applications. The control system prototype has been implemented for the Perfluorohexane (C6F14) liquid distribution of the ALICE-HMPID (High-Momentum Particle IDentification)[5]. This report presents the experience acquired while developing the control system with off the shelf items: National Instruments BridgeVIEW [6] supervision software, SIEMENS PLC S7-300 [7] and the programming tool STEP 7. The OPC standard (OLE [12] for Process Control) [8] was used for the communication between BridgeVIEW and the PLC.

  8. Aplicación cliente-servidor MatLab®-WinCC® empleando comunicación OPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel González Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Se presenta una aplicación desarrollada con el sistema SCADA WinCC®. La aplicación permite el control proporcional integral de una red RC de primer orden, la identificación de un motor de corriente continua para la detección de fallos y el análisis de sensibilidad de las condiciones iniciales en un reactor semi-batch. La principal ventaja de la aplicación demostrativa realizada es mostrar las potencialidades que pueden adquirir las aplicaciones SCADAs, implantadas actualmente en la industria, cuando interactúan a través de la comunicación OPC con otras aplicaciones específicas de mayor potencial en materia de cálculo numérico como las desarrolladas en el Simulink de MatLab®. Palabras claves: Comunicación OPC, control, detección de fallos, identificación, MatLab®, WinCC®

  9. Publisher Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Blaser, Martin J.; Thorsen, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    The originally published version of this Article contained an incorrect version of Figure 3 that was introduced following peer review and inadvertently not corrected during the production process. Both versions contain the same set of abundance data, but the incorrect version has the children...

  10. Publisher Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachsbart, Friederike; Dose, Janina; Gentschew, Liljana

    2018-01-01

    The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Robert Häsler, which was incorrectly given as Robert Häesler. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article....

  11. Correction to

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roehle, Robert; Wieske, Viktoria; Schuetz, Georg M

    2018-01-01

    The original version of this article, published on 19 March 2018, unfortunately contained a mistake. The following correction has therefore been made in the original: The names of the authors Philipp A. Kaufmann, Ronny Ralf Buechel and Bernhard A. Herzog were presented incorrectly....

  12. ProxImaL: efficient image optimization using proximal algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2016-07-11

    Computational photography systems are becoming increasingly diverse, while computational resources-for example on mobile platforms-are rapidly increasing. As diverse as these camera systems may be, slightly different variants of the underlying image processing tasks, such as demosaicking, deconvolution, denoising, inpainting, image fusion, and alignment, are shared between all of these systems. Formal optimization methods have recently been demonstrated to achieve state-of-the-art quality for many of these applications. Unfortunately, different combinations of natural image priors and optimization algorithms may be optimal for different problems, and implementing and testing each combination is currently a time-consuming and error-prone process. ProxImaL is a domain-specific language and compiler for image optimization problems that makes it easy to experiment with different problem formulations and algorithm choices. The language uses proximal operators as the fundamental building blocks of a variety of linear and nonlinear image formation models and cost functions, advanced image priors, and noise models. The compiler intelligently chooses the best way to translate a problem formulation and choice of optimization algorithm into an efficient solver implementation. In applications to the image processing pipeline, deconvolution in the presence of Poisson-distributed shot noise, and burst denoising, we show that a few lines of ProxImaL code can generate highly efficient solvers that achieve state-of-the-art results. We also show applications to the nonlinear and nonconvex problem of phase retrieval.

  13. Electromagnetic properties of proximity systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresin, Vladimir Z.

    1985-07-01

    Magnetic screening in the proximity system Sα-Mβ, where Mβ is a normal metal N, semiconductor (semimetal), or a superconductor, is studied. Main attention is paid to the low-temperature region where nonlocality plays an important role. The thermodynamic Green's-function method is employed in order to describe the behavior of the proximity system in an external field. The temperature and thickness dependences of the penetration depth λ are obtained. The dependence λ(T) differs in a striking way from the dependence in usual superconductors. The strong-coupling effect is taken into account. A special case of screening in a superconducting film backed by a size-quantizing semimetal film is considered. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data.

  14. Electromagnetic properties of proximity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresin, V.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic screening in the proximity system S/sub α/-M/sub β/, where M/sub β/ is a normal metal N, semiconductor (semimetal), or a superconductor, is studied. Main attention is paid to the low-temperature region where nonlocality plays an important role. The thermodynamic Green's-function method is employed in order to describe the behavior of the proximity system in an external field. The temperature and thickness dependences of the penetration depth lambda are obtained. The dependence lambda(T) differs in a striking way from the dependence in usual superconductors. The strong-coupling effect is taken into account. A special case of screening in a superconducting film backed by a size-quantizing semimetal film is considered. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data

  15. Proximity effect at Millikelvin temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Proximity effects have been studied extensively for the past 25 years. Typically, they are in films several thousand angstroms thick at temperatures not so far below T/sub CNS/, the transition temperature of the NS system. Interesting is, however, the proximity effect at temperatures much lower than T/sub CNS/. In this case, the Cooper-pair amplitudes are not small and very long pair penetration lengths into the normal metal can be expected. Thus, we have observed pair penetration lengths. For these investigations very suitable specimens are commercial wires of one filament of NbTi or Nb embedded in a copper matrix. The reasons are the high transmission coefficient at the interface between the copper and the superconductor and the fact that the copper in these commercial wires is rather clean with electron free paths between 5 to 10 μm long. In this paper, the magnetic properties of thick proximity systems in the range of temperatures between T/sub CNS/ and 5 x 10/sup -4/ T/sub CNS/ in both low and high magnetic fields are discussed

  16. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment of jaws ... out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment of jaws ...

  17. Ligament augmentation for prevention of proximal junctional kyphosis and proximal junctional failure in adult spinal deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaee, Michael M; Deviren, Vedat; Dalle Ore, Cecilia; Scheer, Justin K; Lau, Darryl; Osorio, Joseph A; Nicholls, Fred; Ames, Christopher P

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a well-recognized, yet incompletely defined, complication of adult spinal deformity surgery. There is no standardized definition for PJK, but most studies describe PJK as an increase in the proximal junctional angle (PJA) of greater than 10°-20°. Ligament augmentation is a novel strategy for PJK reduction that provides strength to the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) and adjacent segments while also reducing junctional stress at those levels. METHODS In this study, ligament augmentation was used in a consecutive series of adult spinal deformity patients at a single institution. Patient demographics, including age; sex; indication for surgery; revision surgery; surgical approach; and use of 3-column osteotomies, vertebroplasty, or hook fixation at the UIV, were collected. The PJA was measured preoperatively and at last follow-up using 36-inch radiographs. Data on change in PJA and need for revision surgery were collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with change in PJA and proximal junctional failure (PJF), defined as PJK requiring surgical correction. RESULTS A total of 200 consecutive patients were included: 100 patients before implementation of ligament augmentation and 100 patients after implementation of this technique. The mean age of the ligament augmentation cohort was 66 years, and 67% of patients were women. Over half of these cases (51%) were revision surgeries, with 38% involving a combined anterior or lateral and posterior approach. The mean change in PJA was 6° in the ligament augmentation group compared with 14° in the control group (p historical cohort, ligament augmentation is associated with a significant decrease in PJK and PJF. These data support the implementation of ligament augmentation in surgery for adult spinal deformity, particularly in patients with a high risk of developing PJK and PJF.

  18. Electroweak corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beenakker, W.J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The prospect of high accuracy measurements investigating the weak interactions, which are expected to take place at the electron-positron storage ring LEP at CERN and the linear collider SCL at SLAC, offers the possibility to study also the weak quantum effects. In order to distinguish if the measured weak quantum effects lie within the margins set by the standard model and those bearing traces of new physics one had to go beyond the lowest order and also include electroweak radiative corrections (EWRC) in theoretical calculations. These higher-order corrections also can offer the possibility of getting information about two particles present in the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model (GSW), but not discovered up till now, the top quark and the Higgs boson. In ch. 2 the GSW standard model of electroweak interactions is described. In ch. 3 some special techniques are described for determination of integrals which are responsible for numerical instabilities caused by large canceling terms encountered in the calculation of EWRC effects, and methods necessary to get hold of the extensive algebra typical for EWRC. In ch. 4 various aspects related to EWRC effects are discussed, in particular the dependence of the unknown model parameters which are the masses of the top quark and the Higgs boson. The processes which are discussed are production of heavy fermions from electron-positron annihilation and those of the fermionic decay of the Z gauge boson. (H.W.). 106 refs.; 30 figs.; 6 tabs.; schemes

  19. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-01-01

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors)

  20. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-12-31

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  1. Hierarchical Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}@OPC composites with octahedral shape for rechargeable nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Yongqing; Lai, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhian, E-mail: zhangzhian@csu.edu.cn; Chen, Wei; Du, Ke; Li, Jie

    2016-04-25

    The development of catalyst materials is the most significant issue that hinders the practical applications of Li-O{sub 2} batteries. Herein we show the design and synthesis of the hierarchical chromic oxide-octahedral porous carbon (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}@OPC) composites catalyst with octahedral shape that derived from Cr-based metal-organic frameworks (MIL-101(Cr)) precursor. When applied as cathode catalysts in rechargeable Li-O{sub 2} batteries, the electrode with Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}@OPC composites catalyst exhibits a low charge and discharge over-potential, high discharge capacity and excellent cycling stability. What's more, the electrode with Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}@OPC composite shows a discharge capacity up to ∼4800 mAh g{sub (catalyst} {sub +} {sub carbon)}{sup −1} at a current density of 0.1 mA cm{sup −2}, and exhibits a very stable discharge voltage plateau of 2.7 V and a charge voltage plateau of ∼3.9 V. With the addition of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}@OPC composite, the Li-O{sub 2} batteries can obtain good cycle performance over 50 cycles at a fixed capacity of 800 mAh g{sub (catalyst} {sub +} {sub carbon)}{sup −1}. These results indicating that the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}@OPC composite derived from MIL-101(Cr) would be a promising catalyst for Li-O{sub 2} batteries. - Highlights: • The Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C composites were prepared by the pyrolysis of Cr-MIL-101. • The Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C composites possess octahedral shape consisted of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C nanoparticle. • The Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C composites have mesoporous structure with large specific area. • The Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C composites have an excellent intrinsic electrocatalytic activity. • The Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C electrode exhibits great cycling performance.

  2. Adaptive Proximal Point Algorithms for Total Variation Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Image restoration is a fundamental problem in various areas of imaging sciences. This paper presents a class of adaptive proximal point algorithms (APPA with contraction strategy for total variational image restoration. In each iteration, the proposed methods choose an adaptive proximal parameter matrix which is not necessary symmetric. In fact, there is an inner extrapolation in the prediction step, which is followed by a correction step for contraction. And the inner extrapolation is implemented by an adaptive scheme. By using the framework of contraction method, global convergence result and a convergence rate of O(1/N could be established for the proposed methods. Numerical results are reported to illustrate the efficiency of the APPA methods for solving total variation image restoration problems. Comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrate that the proposed methods are comparable and promising.

  3. Realities of proximity facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMott, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Numerous commercial nuclear power plant sites have 2 to 3 reactors located together, and a group of Facilities with capabilities for fuel fabrication, a nuclear reactor, a storage area for spent fuel, and a maintenance area for contaminated equipment and radioactive waste storage are being designed and constructed in the US. The proximity of these facilities to each other provides that the ordinary flow of materials remain within a limited area. Interactions between the various facilities include shared resources such as communication, fire protection, security, medical services, transportation, water, electrical, personnel, emergency planning, transport of hazardous material between facilities, and common safety and radiological requirements between facilities. This paper will explore the advantages and disadvantages of multiple facilities at one site. Problem areas are identified, and recommendations for planning and coordination are discussed

  4. Proximal supination osteotomy of the first metatarsal for hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Toshito; Okuda, Ryuzo; Jotoku, Tsuyoshi; Shima, Hiroaki; Hida, Takashi; Neo, Masashi

    2015-06-01

    Risk factors for hallux valgus recurrence include postoperative round-shaped lateral edge of the first metatarsal head and postoperative incomplete reduction of the sesamoids. To prevent the occurrence of such conditions, we developed a proximal supination osteotomy of the first metatarsal. Our aim was to describe this novel technique and report the outcomes in this report. Sixty-six patients (83 feet) underwent a distal soft tissue procedure combined with a proximal supination osteotomy. After the proximal crescentic osteotomy, the proximal fragment was pushed medially, and the distal fragment was abducted, and then the distal fragment of the first metatarsal was manually supinated. Outcomes were assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score and radiographic examinations. The average follow-up duration was 34 (range, 25 to 52) months. The mean AOFAS score improved significantly from 58.0 points preoperatively to 93.8 points postoperatively (P hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angle decreased significantly from 38.6 and 18.0 degrees preoperatively to 11.0 and 7.9 degrees postoperatively, respectively (both, P hallux valgus, defined as a hallux valgus angle ≥ 25 degrees. The rates of occurrence of a positive round sign and incomplete reduction of the sesamoids significantly decreased postoperatively, which may have contributed to the low hallux valgus recurrence rates. We conclude that a proximal supination osteotomy was an effective procedure for correction of hallux valgus and can achieve a low rate of hallux valgus recurrence. Level IV, retrospective case series. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Comparative, proximate composition, antioxidant vitamins, honey. INTRODUCTION ... solution of inverted sugars and complex mixture of other saccharides ... enzymatic browning in apple slices and grape juice. (Khan, 1985).

  6. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Keywords: Dioscorea dumetorum, proximate composition, mineral analysis, phytochemical screening ... were analyzed using atomic absorption ... determined using a Hack Dr/200 Spectrophotometer. ... Lead Acetate. +. +. + .... cosmetics.

  7. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  8. Transverse and Longitudinal proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, Pryianka; Chand, Hum; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2018-04-01

    With close pairs (˜1.5arcmin) of quasars (QSOs), absorption in the spectra of a background quasar in the vicinity of a foreground quasar can be used to study the environment of the latter quasar at kpc-Mpc scales. For this we used a sample of 205 quasar pairs from the Sloan Digital Sky-Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12) in the redshift range of 2.5 to 3.5 by studying their H I Ly-α absorption. We study the environment of QSOs both in the longitudinal as well as in the transverse direction by carrying out a statistical comparison of the Ly-α absorption lines in the quasar vicinity to that of the absorption lines caused by the inter-galactic medium (IGM). This comparison was done with IGM, matched in absorption redshift and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to that of the proximity region. In contrast to the measurements along the line-of-sight, the regions transverse to the quasars exhibit enhanced H I Ly-α absorption. This discrepancy can either be interpreted as due to an anisotropic emission from the quasars or as a consequence of their finite lifetime.

  9. Proximal Participation: A Pathway into Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Selena

    2013-01-01

    In a longitudinal case study of apprentices, the term proximal participation was coined to describe the entry process of young people, with unclear career destinations, into the trade of baking. This article unravels the significance of proximal participation in the decision-making processes of young people who enter a trade through initial…

  10. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  11. Comparative morphometric analysis of the proximal femur of African hominids and felids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gallagher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Size and shape of the mammalian proximal femur and taxon-specific distinctions in the relative proportions of the proximal articulation, the femoral neck and the proximal femoral diaphysis, are critical determinants in its adaptation to differential biomechanical stresses and observed locomotor habitus in different taxa. The morphometrics of the proximal femur are considered equally critical in the assessment of locomotor habitus of extinct fossil mammals, particularly extinct Miocene anthropoids and Plio-Pleistocene hominins. Analyses of size and shape of k=10 dimensions of the proximal femur were undertaken for a large sample series of two extant mammal families the Felidae and Hominidae using conventional multivariate statistical procedures, commonly used size-correction methods, and post-hoc tests of significance. While significant differences in form do exist, there are equally striking convergences in the functional morphology of extant hominid and felid taxa. Multivariate and bivariate allometric analyses confirm that the proximal femur of these two mammalian families share a common underlying structure manifest in a shared first common principal component. Nevertheless, while considerable convergences in general form of the proximal femur of African hominids and large-bodied felids are apparent, there exist equally discreet distinctions which are consistent with the differential structural demands imposed by their distinct locomotor and behavioural habitus.

  12. [Growth behaviour after fractures of the proximal radius: differences to the rest of the skeleton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, A K; von Laer, L

    2014-12-01

    Fractures of the proximal end of the radius in the growth phase have three characteristics: the head of the radius articulates with two joint partners and is therefore indispensable for an undisturbed function of the elbow. The blood supply of the proximal end of the radius is via periosteal vessels in the sense of a terminal circulation which makes it extremely vulnerable. Severe trauma caused either by accidents or treatment, can result in partial or complete necrosis with deformity of the head and neck region of the radius. Radioulnar synostosis and chronic epiphysiolysis are irreversible complications which can occur after excessive physiotherapy. Despite a low potency growth plate, in young patients the proximal end of the radius shows an enormous spontaneous correction of dislocations. Side to side shifts, however, will not be remodeled. Therapy should be as atraumatic as possible. Due to the blood supply situation, with the appropriate indications the spontaneous correction and a brief period of immobilization without physiotherapy should be integrated into the therapy concept. If an operation is necessary, repeated traumatic repositioning maneuvers should be avoided and in case of doubt closed or careful open repositioning can be achieved with intramedullary nailing. In order to take the special characteristics of the proximal radius into consideration, the vulnerability and correction potential must be weighed up against each other. Therapy must be as atraumatic as possible. The spontaneous correction potential should be integrated into the primary therapy without overestimating this potential with respect to the extent and age of the patient.

  13. High-temperature dynamic behavior in bulk liquid water: A molecular dynamics simulation study using the OPC and TIP4P-Ew potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, Andrea; Sant, Marco; Izadi, Saeed; Shabane, Parviz Seifpanahi; Onufriev, Alexey V.; Suffritti, Giuseppe B.

    2018-02-01

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the high-temperature (above 300 K) dynamic behavior of bulk water, specifically the behavior of the diffusion coefficient, hydrogen bond, and nearest-neighbor lifetimes. Two water potentials were compared: the recently proposed "globally optimal" point charge (OPC) model and the well-known TIP4P-Ew model. By considering the Arrhenius plots of the computed inverse diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation constants, a crossover from Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann behavior to a linear trend with increasing temperature was detected at T* ≈ 309 and T* ≈ 285 K for the OPC and TIP4P-Ew models, respectively. Experimentally, the crossover point was previously observed at T* ± 315-5 K. We also verified that for the coefficient of thermal expansion α P ( T, P), the isobaric α P ( T) curves cross at about the same T* as in the experiment. The lifetimes of water hydrogen bonds and of the nearest neighbors were evaluated and were found to cross near T*, where the lifetimes are about 1 ps. For T T*, water behaves more like a simple liquid. The fact that T* falls within the biologically relevant temperature range is a strong motivation for further analysis of the phenomenon and its possible consequences for biomolecular systems.

  14. Novel Networked Remote Laboratory Architecture for Open Connectivity Based on PLC-OPC-LabVIEW-EJS Integration. Application in Remote Fuzzy Control and Sensors Data Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Isaías; Calderón, Antonio José; Mejías, Andrés; Andújar, José Manuel

    2016-10-31

    In this paper the design and implementation of a network for integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), the Object-Linking and Embedding for Process Control protocol (OPC) and the open-source Easy Java Simulations (EJS) package is presented. A LabVIEW interface and the Java-Internet-LabVIEW (JIL) server complete the scheme for data exchange. This configuration allows the user to remotely interact with the PLC. Such integration can be considered a novelty in scientific literature for remote control and sensor data acquisition of industrial plants. An experimental application devoted to remote laboratories is developed to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of the proposed approach. The experiment to be conducted is the parameterization and supervision of a fuzzy controller of a DC servomotor. The graphical user interface has been developed with EJS and the fuzzy control is carried out by our own PLC. In fact, the distinctive features of the proposed novel network application are the integration of the OPC protocol to share information with the PLC and the application under control. The user can perform the tuning of the controller parameters online and observe in real time the effect on the servomotor behavior. The target group is engineering remote users, specifically in control- and automation-related tasks. The proposed architecture system is described and experimental results are presented.

  15. Novel Networked Remote Laboratory Architecture for Open Connectivity Based on PLC-OPC-LabVIEW-EJS Integration. Application in Remote Fuzzy Control and Sensors Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaías González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the design and implementation of a network for integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC, the Object-Linking and Embedding for Process Control protocol (OPC and the open-source Easy Java Simulations (EJS package is presented. A LabVIEW interface and the Java-Internet-LabVIEW (JIL server complete the scheme for data exchange. This configuration allows the user to remotely interact with the PLC. Such integration can be considered a novelty in scientific literature for remote control and sensor data acquisition of industrial plants. An experimental application devoted to remote laboratories is developed to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of the proposed approach. The experiment to be conducted is the parameterization and supervision of a fuzzy controller of a DC servomotor. The graphical user interface has been developed with EJS and the fuzzy control is carried out by our own PLC. In fact, the distinctive features of the proposed novel network application are the integration of the OPC protocol to share information with the PLC and the application under control. The user can perform the tuning of the controller parameters online and observe in real time the effect on the servomotor behavior. The target group is engineering remote users, specifically in control- and automation-related tasks. The proposed architecture system is described and experimental results are presented.

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of BxlA, an intracellular β-d-xylosidase from Streptomyces thermoviolaceus OPC-520

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Hideaki; Miki, Yasuhiro; Saito, Kei; Tomoo, Koji; Ishida, Toshimasa; Hasegawa, Tomokazu; Yamano, Akihito; Takada, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Katsushiro; Tsujibo, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    BxlA from Streptomyces thermoviolaceus OPC-520 (molecular weight 82 kDa) was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 289 K. BxlA from Streptomyces thermoviolaceus OPC-520, together with the extracellular BxlE and the integral membrane proteins BxlF and BxlG, constitutes a xylanolytic system that participates in the intracellular transport of xylan-degradation products and the production of xylose. To elucidate the mechanism of the hydrolytic degradation of xylooligosaccharides to xylose at the atomic level, X-ray structural analysis of BxlA was attempted. The recombinant BxlA protein (molecular weight 82 kDa) was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 289 K. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 142.2, b = 129.5, c = 101.4 Å, β = 119.8°, and contained two molecules per asymmetric unit (V M = 2.47 Å 3 Da −1 ). Diffraction data were collected to a resolution to 2.50 Å and provided a data set with an overall R merge of 8.3%

  17. Novel Networked Remote Laboratory Architecture for Open Connectivity Based on PLC-OPC-LabVIEW-EJS Integration. Application in Remote Fuzzy Control and Sensors Data Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Isaías; Calderón, Antonio José; Mejías, Andrés; Andújar, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the design and implementation of a network for integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), the Object-Linking and Embedding for Process Control protocol (OPC) and the open-source Easy Java Simulations (EJS) package is presented. A LabVIEW interface and the Java-Internet-LabVIEW (JIL) server complete the scheme for data exchange. This configuration allows the user to remotely interact with the PLC. Such integration can be considered a novelty in scientific literature for remote control and sensor data acquisition of industrial plants. An experimental application devoted to remote laboratories is developed to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of the proposed approach. The experiment to be conducted is the parameterization and supervision of a fuzzy controller of a DC servomotor. The graphical user interface has been developed with EJS and the fuzzy control is carried out by our own PLC. In fact, the distinctive features of the proposed novel network application are the integration of the OPC protocol to share information with the PLC and the application under control. The user can perform the tuning of the controller parameters online and observe in real time the effect on the servomotor behavior. The target group is engineering remote users, specifically in control- and automation-related tasks. The proposed architecture system is described and experimental results are presented. PMID:27809229

  18. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  19. Proximal Hamstring Tendinosis and Partial Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Startzman, Ashley N; Fowler, Oliver; Carreira, Dominic

    2017-07-01

    Proximal hamstring tendinosis and partial hamstring origin ruptures are painful conditions of the proximal thigh and hip that may occur in the acute, chronic, or acute on chronic setting. Few publications exist related to their diagnosis and management. This systematic review discusses the incidence, treatment, and prognosis of proximal hamstring tendinosis and partial hamstring ruptures. Conservative treatment measures include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, rest, and ice. If these measures fail, platelet-rich plasma or shockwave therapy may be considered. When refractory to conservative management, these injuries may be treated with surgical debridement and hamstring reattachment. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e574-e582.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  1. THE PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN BUSH MANGO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    Information regarding previous studies on these physico-chemical ... This behaviour may be attributed to its high myristic acid ... The authors express deep appreciation to the. Heads of ... of a typical rural processing method on the proximate ...

  2. Proximate composition and nutritional characterization of Chia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dairy product associated with several beneficial nutritional and health effects. ... The results for amino acids showed that the essential and non-essential amino ... proximate composition and nutritional (amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals ...

  3. Proximal focal femoral deficiency: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD is a rare congenital anomaly resulting in limb shortening and disability in young. The exact cause of the disease is not known and it may present as varying grades of affection involving the proximal femur and the acetabulum. Recognition of this rare abnormality on radiographs can help manage these cases better since early institution of therapy may help in achieving adequate growth of the femur.

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark (ID 680) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA...... has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds. The Panel considers that OPCs from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds are sufficiently characterised....... The claimed effect is “ocular system: OPCs play an important role in the structure and physiological functions of cornea, OPCs protect the cornea and improve visual adaptation to low luminances”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the proposed wordings...

  5. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, D.C.; Pigoski, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors

  6. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  7. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may require one or more ... find out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment ...

  8. The Development of Mathematical Prediction Model to Predict Resilient Modulus for Natural Soil Stabilized by Pofa-Opc Additive for the Use in Unpaved Road Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamil, Y. M. R.; Bakar, I. H.

    2016-07-01

    Resilient Modulus (Mr) is considered one of the most important parameters in the design of road structure. This paper describes the development of the mathematical model to predict resilient modulus of organic soil stabilized by the mix of Palm Oil Fuel Ash - Ordinary Portland Cement (POFA-OPC) soil stabilization additives. It aims to optimize the use of the use of POFA in soil stabilization. The optimization models enable to eliminate the arbitrary selection and its associated disadvantages in determination of the optimum additive proportion. The model was developed based on Scheffe regression theory. The mix proportions of the samples in the experiment were adopted from similar studies reported in the literature Twenty five samples were designed, prepared and then characterized for each mix proportion based on the MR in 28 days curing. The results are used to develop the mathematical prediction model. The model was statistically analyzed and verified for its adequacy and validity using F-test.

  9. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  10. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  11. Giant proximity effect in ferromagnetic bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Silvia; Charlton, Tim; Quintanilla, Jorge; Suter, Andreas; Moodera, Jagadeesh; Prokscha, Thomas; Salman, Zaher; Forgan, Ted

    2013-03-01

    The proximity effect is a phenomenon where an ordered state leaks from a material into an adjacent one over some finite distance, ξ. For superconductors, this distance is ~ the coherence length. Nevertheless much longer-range, ``giant'' proximity effects have been observed in cuprate junctions. This surprising effect can be understood as a consequence of critical opalescence. Since this occurs near all second order phase transitions, giant proximity effects should be very general and, in particular, they should be present in magnetic systems. The ferromagnetic proximity effect has the advantage that its order parameter (magnetization) can be observed directly. We investigate the above phenomenon in Co/EuS bilayer films, where both materials undergo ferromagnetic transitions but at rather different temperatures (bulk TC of 1400K for Co and 16.6K for EuS). A dramatic increase in the range of the proximity effect is expected near the TC of EuS. We present the results of our measurements of the magnetization profiles as a function of temperature, carried out using the complementary techniques of low energy muon rotation and polarized neutron reflectivity. Work supported by EPSRC, STFC and ONR grant N00014-09-1-0177 and NSF grant DMR 0504158.

  12. Proximity operations concept design study, task 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. N.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of using optical technology to perform the mission of the proximity operations communications subsystem on Space Station Freedom was determined. Proximity operations mission requirements are determined and the relationship to the overall operational environment of the space station is defined. From this information, the design requirements of the communication subsystem are derived. Based on these requirements, a preliminary design is developed and the feasibility of implementation determined. To support the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and National Space Transportation System, the optical system development is straightforward. The requirements on extra-vehicular activity are such as to allow large fields of uncertainty, thus exacerbating the acquisition problem; however, an approach is given that could mitigate this problem. In general, it is found that such a system could indeed perform the proximity operations mission requirement, with some development required to support extra-vehicular activity.

  13. Endomedullar nail of metacarpal and proximal phalanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Olaya, Francisco Javier; Sanchez Mesa, Pedro Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Prospective study, series of cases; it included patients with diaphysis fractures and union diaphysis-neck or union diaphysis-base of metacarpal and proximal phalanges, in whom was practiced anterograde intramedullary nailing previous closed reduction of the fracture, using prevent intramedullary nail of 1.6 mm. (cem 16) for the metacarpal fractures, and two nail prevent of 1.0 mm. (cem 10) for the proximal phalangeal fractures. Indications: transverse and oblique short fractures, spiral and with comminuting bicortical. Pursuit average is 5.7 months. Frequency surgical intervened patient: 2.2 each month, using this surgical technique a total of 20 (twenty) patients have been operated, 21 (twenty one) fractures; 16 (sixteen) metacarcal fractures and 5 (five) proximal phalangeal fractures, all of them tested using clinical and radiological parameters. Results: good 82%, regular 18%, and bad 0% obtaining bony consolidation and early rehabilitation with incorporation to their habitual works

  14. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2017-09-20

    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  15. Evaluation and Management of Proximal Humerus Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Khmelnitskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal humerus fractures are common injuries, especially among older osteoporotic women. Restoration of function requires a thorough understanding of the neurovascular, musculotendinous, and bony anatomy. This paper addresses the relevant anatomy and highlights various management options, including indication for arthroplasty. In the vast majority of cases, proximal humerus fractures may be treated nonoperatively. In the case of displaced fractures, when surgical intervention may be pursued, numerous constructs have been investigated. Of these, the proximal humerus locking plate is the most widely used. Arthroplasty is generally reserved for comminuted 4-part fractures, head-split fractures, or fractures with significant underlying arthritic changes. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is reserved for patients with a deficient rotator cuff, or highly comminuted tuberosities.

  16. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...... more when the road safety is low; the emergency service is not properly organized, and the nearest hospital has lower quality standards....

  17. Proximity functions for general right cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Distributions of distances between pairs of points within geometrical objects, or the closely related proximity functions and geometric reduction factors, have applications to dosimetric and microdosimetric calculations. For convex bodies these functions are linked to the chord-length distributions that result from random intersections by straight lines. A synopsis of the most important relations is given. The proximity functions and related functions are derived for right cylinders with arbitrary cross sections. The solution utilizes the fact that the squares of the distances between two random points are sums of independently distributed squares of distances parallel and perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. Analogous formulas are derived for the proximity functions or geometric reduction factors for a cylinder relative to a point. This requires only a minor modification of the solution

  18. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming

    2016-04-14

    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  19. [Partial replantation following proximal limb injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubert, T; Malikov, S A; Dinh, A; Kupatadze, D D; Oberlin, C; Alnot, J Y; Nabokov, B B

    2000-11-01

    Proximal replantation is a technically feasible but life-threatening procedure. Indications must be restricted to patients in good condition with a good functional prognosis. The goal of replantation must be focused not only on reimplanting the amputated limb but also on achieving a good functional outcome. For the lower limb, simple terminalization remains the best choice in many cases. When a proximal amputation is not suitable for replantation, the main aim of the surgical procedure must be to reconstruct a stump long enough to permit fitting a prosthesis preserving the function of the adjacent joint. If the proximal stump beyond the last joint is very short, it may be possible to restore some length by partial replantation of spared tissues from the amputated part. We present here the results we obtained following this policy. This series included 16 cases of partial replantations, 14 involving the lower limb and 2 the upper limb. All were osteocutaneous microsurgical transfers. For the lower limb, all transfers recovered protective sensitivity following tibial nerve repair. The functional calcaeoplantar unit was used in 13 cases. The transfer of this specialized weight bearing tissue provided a stable distal surface making higher support unnecessary. In one case, we raised a 13-cm vascularized tibial segment covered with foot skin for additional length. For the upper limb, the osteocutaneous transfer, based on the radial artery, was not reinnervated, but this lack of sensitivity did not impair prosthesis fitting. One vascular failure was finally amputated. This was the only unsuccessful result. For all other patients, the surgical procedure facilitated prosthesis fitting and preserved the proximal joint function despite an initially very proximal amputation. The advantages of partial replantation are obvious compared with simple terminalization or secondary reconstruction. There is no secondary donor site and, because there is no major muscle mass in the

  20. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies

  1. Proximity effects in ferromagnet/superconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H.L.; Sun, G.Y.; Yang, L.Y.; Xing, D.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The Nambu spinor Green's function approach is applied to study proximity effects in ferromagnet/superconductor (FM/SC) structures. They include the induced superconducting order parameter and density of states (DOS) with superconducting feature on the FM side, and spin-dependent DOS within the energy gap on the SC side. The latter indicates an appearance of gapless superconductivity and a coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in a small regime near the interface. The influence of exchange energy in FM and barrier strength at interface on the proximity effects is discussed

  2. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  3. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening results indicate the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phytosterols and phenols. Acute toxicity study showed there was no mortality at 8000 mg/kg of the extract. The results indicate that the plant is rich in phytochemicals and is relatively safe. Key words: Phytochemicals, acute toxicity, proximate ...

  4. PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. ... and 12.75 ± 3.65% respectively. Mineral contents of white grub in terms of relative concentration .... of intracellular Ca, bone mineralization, blood coagulation, and plasma membrane potential ...

  5. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  6. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  7. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  8. Modified Koyanagi Technique in Management of Proximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xp

    Modified Koyanagi Technique in Management of Proximal Hypospadias. Adham Elsaied, Basem Saied, and Mohammed El- ... All operations were performed by the authors,using fine instruments and under 3.5X loupe ... the other needed an operation to close the fistula six months later. The case with meatal recession had ...

  9. Proximity focusing RICH with TOF capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpar, S.; Adachi, I.; Fujita, K.; Fukushima, T.; Gorisek, A.; Hayashi, D.; Iijima, T.; Ikado, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawai, H.; Kozakai, Y.; Krizan, P.; Kuratani, A.; Mazuka, Y.; Nakagawa, T.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Seki, T.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Unno, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A proximity focusing RICH counter with a multi-channel micro-channel plate (MCP) PMT was tested as a time-of-flight counter. Cherenkov photons emitted in the radiator medium as well as in the entrance window of the PMT were used for the time-of-flight measurement, and an excellent performance of the counter could be demonstrated

  10. Proximate composition and mycological characterization of peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: The aim of this work was to contribute to the food safety of Ivorian consumers by investigating the proximate composition and the toxic fungal contamination of peanut butters offered for retail sale on the different markets of Abidjan. Methodology and results: Peanut butter samples (45) ...

  11. Prosthetic replacement for proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontakis, George; Tosounidis, Theodoros; Galanakis, Ioannis; Megas, Panagiotis

    2008-12-01

    The ideal management of complex proximal humeral fractures continues to be debatable. Evolution of proximal humeral fracture management, during the past decade, led to the implementation of many innovations in surgical treatment. Even though the pendulum of treatment seems to swing towards new trends such as locked plating, hemiarthroplasty remains a valid and reliable option that serves the patient's needs well. Hemiarthroplasty is indicated for complex proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients with poor bone stock and when internal fixation is difficult or unreliable. Hemiarthroplasty provides a better result when it is performed early post-injury. Stem height, retroversion and tuberosity positioning are technical aspects of utmost importance. Additionally reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is an alternative new modality that can be used as a primary solution in selected patients with proximal humeral fracture treatment. Failed hemiarthroplasty and fracture sequelae can be successfully managed with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Individual decision-making and tailored treatment that takes into consideration the personality of the fracture and the patient's characteristics should be used.

  12. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the phytochemical screening showed that alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present, while reducing sugars, tannins, oils and acid compounds were absent. Similarly, the results of the proximate analysis of the rhizome showed that ginger ...

  13. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  14. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  15. NWS Corrections to Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Form B-14 is the National Weather Service form entitled 'Notice of Corrections to Weather Records.' The forms are used to make corrections to observations on forms...

  16. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more surgeries depending on the extent of the repair needed. Click here to find out more. Corrective ... more surgeries depending on the extent of the repair needed. Click here to find out more. Corrective ...

  17. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Jaw Surgery Download Download the ebook for further information Corrective jaw, or orthognathic surgery is performed by ... your treatment. Correction of Common Dentofacial Deformities ​ ​ The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  18. A Modified Technique of Fixation for Proximal Femoral Valgus Osteotomy in Abnormal Bone: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logheswaren S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ideal size of intramedullary device to fix corrective osteotomy of proximal femur in abnormal bone in children and small patients may not be easily available. We report the successful use of Rush rod in combination with multiple Kirschner wires to fix the corrective osteotomy of coxa vara and shepherd crook deformity in two patients with osteogenesis imperfecta and fibrous dysplasia. The union was achieved on time, neck shaft angle and rotation were maintained.

  19. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  20. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.

    1989-04-01

    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  1. Isolated Proximal Tibiofibular Dislocation during Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Chiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are rarely encountered in the Emergency Department (ED. We present a case involving a man presenting to the ED with left knee pain after making a sharp left turn on the soccer field. His physical exam was only remarkable for tenderness over the lateral fibular head. His X-rays showed subtle abnormalities of the tibiofibular joint. The dislocation was reduced and the patient was discharged from the ED with orthopedic follow-up.

  2. Superconducting proximity effect in topological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeg, Christopher R.

    In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the proximity effect due to its role in the realization of topological superconductivity. In this dissertation, we discuss several results that have been obtained in the field of proximity-induced superconductivity and relate the results to the search for Majorana fermions. First, we show that repulsive electron-electron interactions can induce a non-Majorana zero-energy bound state at the interface between a conventional superconductor and a normal metal. We show that this state is very sensitive to disorder, owing to its lack of topological protection. Second, we show that Rashba spin-orbit coupling, which is one of the key ingredients in engineering a topological superconductor, induces triplet pairing in the proximity effect. When the spin-orbit coupling is strong (i.e., when the characteristic energy scale for spin-orbit coupling is comparable to the Fermi energy), the induced singlet and triplet pairing amplitudes can be comparable in magnitude. Finally, we discuss how the size of the proximity-induced gap, which appears in a low-dimensional material coupled to a superconductor, evolves as the thickness of the (quasi-)low-dimensional material is increased. We show that the induced gap can be comparable to the bulk energy gap of the underlying superconductor in materials that are much thicker than the Fermi wavelength, even in the presence of an interfacial barrier and strong Fermi surface mismatch. This result has important experimental consequences for topological superconductivity, as a sizable gap is required to isolate and detect the Majorana modes.

  3. [Proximity and breastfeeding at the maternity hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradin-Charrier, Anne-Claire

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of breastfeeding, as well as its duration, are facilitated through the proximity of the mother with her new baby. However, in maternity hospitals, breastfeeding mothers very often leave their baby in the nursery at night time. A study carried out in 2014 in several maternity hospitals put forward suggestions and highlighted areas to improve in everyday practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Proximity effects in topological insulator heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiao-Guang; Wu Guang-Fen; Zhang Gu-Feng; Culcer Dimitrie; Zhang Zhen-Yu; Chen Hua

    2013-01-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) are bulk insulators that possess robust helical conducting states along their interfaces with conventional insulators. A tremendous research effort has recently been devoted to Tl-based heterostructures, in which conventional proximity effects give rise to a series of exotic physical phenomena. This paper reviews our recent studies on the potential existence of topological proximity effects at the interface between a topological insulator and a normal insulator or other topologically trivial systems. Using first-principles approaches, we have realized the tunability of the vertical location of the topological helical state via intriguing dual-proximity effects. To further elucidate the control parameters of this effect, we have used the graphene-based heterostructures as prototypical systems to reveal a more complete phase diagram. On the application side of the topological helical states, we have presented a catalysis example, where the topological helical state plays an essential role in facilitating surface reactions by serving as an effective electron bath. These discoveries lay the foundation for accurate manipulation of the real space properties of the topological helical state in TI-based heterostructures and pave the way for realization of the salient functionality of topological insulators in future device applications. (topical review - low-dimensional nanostructures and devices)

  5. A proximity effect in adults' contamination intuitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Kim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Magical beliefs about contagion via contact (Rozin, Nemeroff, Wane, and Sherrod, 1989 may emerge when people overgeneralize real-world mechanisms of contamination beyond their appropriate boundaries (Lindeman and Aarnio, 2007. Do people similarly overextend knowledge of airborne contamination mechanisms? Previous work has shown that very young children believe merely being close to a contamination source can contaminate an item (Springer and Belk 1994; we asked whether this same hyper-avoidant intuition is also reflected in adults' judgments. In two studies, we measured adults' ratings of the desirability of an object that had made contact with a source of contamination, an object nearby that had made no contact with the contaminant, and an object far away that had also made no contact. Adults showed a clear proximity effect, wherein objects near the contamination source were perceived to be less desirable than those far away, even though a separate group of adults unanimously acknowledged that contaminants could not possibly have made contact with either the nearby or far-away object (Study 1. The proximity effect also remained robust when a third group of adults was explicitly told that no contaminating particles had made contact with the objects at any time (Study 2. We discuss implications of our findings for extending the scope of magical contagion effects beyond the contact principle, for understanding the persistence of intuitive theories despite broad acceptance of science-based theories, and for constraining interpretations of the developmental work on proximity beliefs.

  6. A phase 1 study of a group B meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine made from a strain with deleted lpxL2 and synX and stable expression of opcA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Paul B; Gibbs, Barnett T; Coster, Trinka S; Moran, E Ellen; Stoddard, Mark B; Labrie, Joseph E; Schmiel, Deborah H; Pinto, Valerian; Chen, Ping; Zollinger, Wendell D

    2010-10-08

    This phase 1 clinical trial assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a native outer membrane vesicle (NOMV) vaccine prepared from a lpxL2(-) synX(-) mutant of strain 44/76 with opcA expression stabilized. Thirty-four volunteers were assigned to one of the three dose groups (25 mcg, 25 mcg with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, and 50 mcg) to receive three intramuscular injections at 0, 6 and 24 weeks. Specific local and systemic adverse events (AEs) were solicited by diary and at visits on days 1, 2, 7 and 14 after each vaccination and at the end of the study at 30 weeks. Blood chemistries, complete blood count, and coagulation studies were measured on each vaccination day and again two days later. Blood for antibody measurements and bactericidal assays were drawn 0, 14, and 42 days after each vaccination. The proportion of volunteers who developed a fourfold or greater increase in serum bactericidal activity (SBA) to the wild-type parent of the vaccine strain with high opcA expression at 6 weeks after the third dose was 12/26 (0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.27-0.65). Antibody levels to OpcA were significantly higher in vaccine responders than in non-responders (p=0.008), and there was a trend for higher antibody levels to the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) (p=0.059). Bactericidal depletion assays on sera from volunteers with high-titer responses also indicate a major contribution of anti-OpcA and anti-LOS antibodies to the bactericidal response.These results suggest that genetically modified NOMV vaccines can induce protection against group B meningococcus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Amilal; Gandhi, Ajay; Saxena, Gajendra; Choudhary, Gautam Ram

    2010-10-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and results of preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIP) in patients of proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature. Twenty-seven patients of proximal hypospadias who underwent preputioplasty with TIP were evaluated retrospectively. Ventral curvature was corrected by mobilization of the urethral plate with the corpus spongiosum and the proximal urethra; dorsal plication was added according to the severity of curvature. Feasibility of preputial reconstruction was assessed by applying 3 stay sutures-the first to fix the skin at the corona, the second at the junction of the inner and outer preputial skin for pulling up the skin over the glans, and the third stay on penile skin at the level of the corona for retracting the skin. Preputial reconstruction consisted of a standard 3 layered re-approximation of the margins of the dorsal hood. Age of the patients varied from 10 months to 21 years with an average of 6 years and 4 months. Ventral curvature (mild 10, moderate 13, and severe 4 cases) was corrected by the mobilization of the urethral plate and spongiosum in 14 patients, 11 cases had mobilization of the proximal urethra in addition and 2 patients required single stitch dorsal plication with the above-mentioned steps. Two patients developed urethral fistula and 1 had preputial dehiscence. Preputioplasty with TIP is feasible in proximal hypospadias with curvature without increasing the complication rate. Postoperative phimosis can be prevented by on-table testing of the adequacy of preputial skin by 3 stay sutures.

  8. Preoperative assessment of the cancellous bone mineral density of the proximal humerus using CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krappinger, Dietmar; Roth, Tobias; Gschwentner, Martin; Suckert, Armin; Blauth, Michael; Hengg, Clemens; Kralinger, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures of the proximal humerus show an increasing incidence. Osteoporosis not only influences the fracture risk after low-energy trauma, but also affects the mechanical stability of internal fixation. Preoperative assessment of the local bone quality may be useful in the surgical treatment of patients sustaining these injuries. The aim of the present study was to present a method for the preoperative assessment of the local cancellous bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal humerus using CT data. In the first part of the study, CT scans of 30 patients with unilateral fractures of the proximal humerus after low-energy trauma were used. The local BMD was assessed on the contralateral uninjured side. All 30 patients additionally underwent dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm of the side of the uninjured proximal humerus within 6 weeks after trauma. Three independent trauma surgeons performed measurements on the uninjured proximal humerus twice with a time interval of 4 weeks in order to assess the inter- and intraobserver reliability of the method. In the second part of the study, the local BMD of 507 patients with either proximal humerus fractures or chronic shoulder instability was assessed by a single trauma surgeon. In both parts, the average HU values in standardized ROIs of the humeral head were automatically calculated after correcting for HU values below the water equivalent. A linear calibration equation was computed for the calculation from HU to BMD using a calibration device (EFP). The intra- and interobserver reliability was high (ICC > 0.95). Correlation coefficients between the local BMD of the proximal humerus and other anatomical sites were between 0.35 (lumbar spine) and 0.64 (forearm). We found a high correlation between the local BMD and age. The BMD in the fracture group was significantly lower than in the instability group. These patients were significantly older and more

  9. Preoperative assessment of the cancellous bone mineral density of the proximal humerus using CT data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krappinger, Dietmar; Roth, Tobias; Gschwentner, Martin; Suckert, Armin; Blauth, Michael; Hengg, Clemens; Kralinger, Franz [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Trauma Surgery and Sports Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    Osteoporotic fractures of the proximal humerus show an increasing incidence. Osteoporosis not only influences the fracture risk after low-energy trauma, but also affects the mechanical stability of internal fixation. Preoperative assessment of the local bone quality may be useful in the surgical treatment of patients sustaining these injuries. The aim of the present study was to present a method for the preoperative assessment of the local cancellous bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal humerus using CT data. In the first part of the study, CT scans of 30 patients with unilateral fractures of the proximal humerus after low-energy trauma were used. The local BMD was assessed on the contralateral uninjured side. All 30 patients additionally underwent dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm of the side of the uninjured proximal humerus within 6 weeks after trauma. Three independent trauma surgeons performed measurements on the uninjured proximal humerus twice with a time interval of 4 weeks in order to assess the inter- and intraobserver reliability of the method. In the second part of the study, the local BMD of 507 patients with either proximal humerus fractures or chronic shoulder instability was assessed by a single trauma surgeon. In both parts, the average HU values in standardized ROIs of the humeral head were automatically calculated after correcting for HU values below the water equivalent. A linear calibration equation was computed for the calculation from HU to BMD using a calibration device (EFP). The intra- and interobserver reliability was high (ICC > 0.95). Correlation coefficients between the local BMD of the proximal humerus and other anatomical sites were between 0.35 (lumbar spine) and 0.64 (forearm). We found a high correlation between the local BMD and age. The BMD in the fracture group was significantly lower than in the instability group. These patients were significantly older and more

  10. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  11. Treatment of proximal ulna and olecranon fractures by dorsal plating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloen, Peter; Buijze, Geert A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : Anatomic reconstruction of proximal ulna and olecranon fractures allowing early mobilization and prevention of ulnohumeral arthritis. INDICATIONS : Comminuted olecranon or proximal ulna fractures (including Monteggia fractures), olecranon fractures extending distally from the coronoid

  12. Acute proximal junctional failure in patients with preoperative sagittal imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Micah W; Annis, Prokopis; Lawrence, Brandon D; Daubs, Michael D; Brodke, Darrel S

    2015-10-01

    Proximal junctional failure (PJF) is a recognized complication of spinal deformity surgery. Acute PJF (APJF) has recently been demonstrated to be 5.6% in the adult spinal deformity (ASD) population. The incidence and rate of return to the operating room for APJF have not been specifically investigated in individuals with sagittal imbalance. The purpose of this study was to report the incidence of APJF in patients with preoperative sagittal imbalance and the rate of return to the operating room for APJF. This study is based on a retrospective review of prospectively collected database of ASD patients. One hundred seventy-three consecutive patients were included with preoperative sagittal imbalance according to one of the following common parameters: sagittal vertical axis (SVA) greater than 50 mm, global sagittal alignment greater than 45°, or pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis greater than 10°. Outcome measure was presence and/or absence of APJF defined as fracture at the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) or UIV+1, failure of UIV fixation, 15° or more proximal junctional kyphosis, or need for extension of instrumentation within 6 months of surgery. We performed radiographic measurements on X-rays at preoperative, immediate postoperative, and 6-month follow-up visits. The APJF rate was reported for the entire patient population with preoperative sagittal imbalance. Acute PJF incidence was calculated postoperatively for each of the accepted sagittal balance parameters and/or formulas. Patients with persistent postoperative sagittal imbalance were compared with the sagittally balanced group. We also assessed for threshold values. Acute PJF was observed in 60 of 173 patients (35%) and was least common in fusions with the UIV in the upper thoracic (UT) spine (p=.035). Of those who developed APJF, 21.7% required surgery. Proximal junctional kyphosis 15° or more was the most common form of APJF in fusions to the UT spine but least likely to need revision (p=.014

  13. Corrections to primordial nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, D.A.; Kolb, E.W.; Gleeson, A.M.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Teplitz, V.L.; Turner, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The changes in primordial nucleosynthesis resulting from small corrections to rates for weak processes that connect neutrons and protons are discussed. The weak rates are corrected by improved treatment of Coulomb and radiative corrections, and by inclusion of plasma effects. The calculations lead to a systematic decrease in the predicted 4 He abundance of about ΔY = 0.0025. The relative changes in other primoridal abundances are also 1 to 2%

  14. Strong Proximities on Smooth Manifolds and Vorono\\" i Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, J. F.; Guadagni, C.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces strongly near smooth manifolds. The main results are (i) second countability of the strongly hit and far-miss topology on a family $\\mathcal{B}$ of subsets on the Lodato proximity space of regular open sets to which singletons are added, (ii) manifold strong proximity, (iii) strong proximity of charts in manifold atlases implies that the charts have nonempty intersection. The application of these results is given in terms of the nearness of atlases and charts of proxim...

  15. Proximal femoral osteosarcoma: Diagnostic challenges translate into delayed and inappropriate management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, M; Anract, P; Babinet, A; Larousserie, F; Biau, D

    2017-11-01

    The proximal femuris is an uncommon site of osteosarcoma. The unusual manifestations at this site may lead to diagnostic and therapeutic mistakes. We therefore performed a retrospective study to estimate the proportions of patients with imaging study findings and/or clinical manifestations typical for osteosarcoma and/or inappropriate treatment decisions. Proximal femoral osteosarcoma often produces atypical clinical and radiological presentations. Consecutive patients who underwent surgery at our center to treat proximal femoral osteosarcoma were included. For each patient, we collected the epidemiological characteristics, clinical symptoms, imaging study findings, treatment, and tumor outcome. Proportions were computed with their confidence intervals. Twelve patients had surgery for proximal femoral osteosarcoma between 1986 and 2015. Imaging findings were typical in 1 (8%) patient; they consisted of ill-defined osteolysis in 11/12 (92%) patients, a periosteal reaction in 1/12 (8%) patient, soft tissue involvement in 7/12 (58%) patients, and immature osteoid matrix in 11/12 (92%) patients. No patient had the typical combination of pain with a soft tissue swelling. Management was inappropriate in 2/12 (17%) patients, who did not undergo all the recommended imaging studies before surgery and were treated in another center before the correct diagnosis was established. At last follow-up, 4 patients had died (after a mean of 7 years) and 8 were alive (after a mean of 4 years). Proximal femoral osteosarcoma is uncommon and rarely produces the typical clinical and imaging study findings. The atypical presentation often results in diagnostic errors and inappropriate treatments. Ill-defined osteolysis on standard radiographs should prompt computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the proximal femur. Treatment in a specialized center is imperative. IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Critical Proximity as a Methodological Move in Techno-Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Elgaard Jensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    proximity.’ Critical proximity offers an alternative to critical distance, especially with respect to avoiding premature references to abstract panoramas such as democratization and capitalist exploitation in the quest to conduct ‘critical’ analysis. Critical proximity implies, instead, granting the beings...

  17. 75 FR 5009 - Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Proximity Detection Systems for Underground Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... information regarding whether the use of proximity detection systems would reduce the risk of accidents where... . Information on MSHA-approved proximity detection systems is available on the Internet at http://www.msha.gov...

  18. Proximal sensing for soil carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Jacqueline R.; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A.

    2018-05-01

    Maintaining or increasing soil organic carbon (C) is vital for securing food production and for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, climate change, and land degradation. Some land management practices in cropping, grazing, horticultural, and mixed farming systems can be used to increase organic C in soil, but to assess their effectiveness, we need accurate and cost-efficient methods for measuring and monitoring the change. To determine the stock of organic C in soil, one requires measurements of soil organic C concentration, bulk density, and gravel content, but using conventional laboratory-based analytical methods is expensive. Our aim here is to review the current state of proximal sensing for the development of new soil C accounting methods for emissions reporting and in emissions reduction schemes. We evaluated sensing techniques in terms of their rapidity, cost, accuracy, safety, readiness, and their state of development. The most suitable method for measuring soil organic C concentrations appears to be visible-near-infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy and, for bulk density, active gamma-ray attenuation. Sensors for measuring gravel have not been developed, but an interim solution with rapid wet sieving and automated measurement appears useful. Field-deployable, multi-sensor systems are needed for cost-efficient soil C accounting. Proximal sensing can be used for soil organic C accounting, but the methods need to be standardized and procedural guidelines need to be developed to ensure proficient measurement and accurate reporting and verification. These are particularly important if the schemes use financial incentives for landholders to adopt management practices to sequester soil organic C. We list and discuss requirements for developing new soil C accounting methods based on proximal sensing, including requirements for recording, verification, and auditing.

  19. Publisher Correction: Predicting unpredictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Steven J.

    2018-06-01

    In this News & Views article originally published, the wrong graph was used for panel b of Fig. 1, and the numbers on the y axes of panels a and c were incorrect; the original and corrected Fig. 1 is shown below. This has now been corrected in all versions of the News & Views.

  20. Phonon structure in proximity tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate, H.G.; Carbotte, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    We have iterated to convergence, for the first time, a set of four coupled real axis Eliashberg equations for the superconducting gap and renormalization functions on each side of a proximity sandwich. We find that the phenomenological procedures developed to extract the size of the normal side electron-phonon interaction from tunneling data are often reasonable but may in some cases need modifications. In all the cases considered the superconducting phonon structure reflected on the normal side, as well as other structures, shows considerable agreement with experiment as to size, shape, and variation with barrier transmission coefficient. Finally, we study the effects of depairing on these structures

  1. Proximal iliotibial band syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Guadagnini Falotico

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The overuse injuries in the hip joint occur commonly in sports practitioners and currently due to technical advances in diagnostic imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, are often misdiagnosed. Recently, a group of people were reported, all female, with pain and swelling in the pelvic region.T2-weighted MRI showed increased signal in the enthesis of the iliotibial band (ITB along the lower border of the iliac tubercle. We report a case of a 34 year old woman, non-professional runner, with pain at the iliac crest with no history of trauma and whose MRI was compatible with the proximal iliotibial band syndrome.

  2. Noise measurements on proximity effect bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, S.K.; Mercereau, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Audio frequency noise density measurements were performed on weakly superconducting proximity effect bridges on using a cooled transformer and room temperature low noise preamplifier. The noise temperature of the measuring system is approximately 4 0 K for a 0.9 Ω resistor. Noise density was measured as a function of bias current and temperature for the bridges. Excess noise above that expected from Johnson noise for a resistor equal to the dynamic resistance of the bridges was observed in the region near the critical current of the device. At high currents compared to the critical current, the noise density closely approaches that given by Johnson noise

  3. Mathematical representation of the normal proximal human femur: application in planning of cam hip surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjedi, Milad; Harris, Simon J; Davda, Kinner; Cobb, Justin P

    2013-04-01

    Precise modelling of the proximal femur can be used for detecting and planning corrective surgery for subjects with deformed femurs using robotic technology or navigation systems. In this study, the proximal femoral geometry has been modelled mathematically. It is hypothesised that it is possible to fit a quadratic surface or combinations of them onto different bone surfaces with a relatively good fit. Forty-six computed tomography datasets of normal proximal femora were segmented. A least-squares fitting algorithm was used to fit a quadratic surface on the femoral head and neck such that the sum of distances between a set of points on the femoral neck and the quadratic surface was minimised. Furthermore, the position of the head-neck articular margin was also measured. The femoral neck was found to be represented as a good fit to a hyperboloid with an average root mean-squared error of 1.0 ± 0.13 mm while the shape of the femoral articular margin was a reproducible sinusoidal wave form with two peaks. The mathematical description in this study can be used for planning corrective surgery for subjects with cam-type femoroacetabular impingement.

  4. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  5. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk=0.34; 95% confidence interval=0.19, 0.63) Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

  6. Development of procedures for programmable proximity aperture lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, H.J., E-mail: harry.whitlow@he-arc.ch [Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquées Arc, Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, Eplatures-Grise 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Gorelick, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, Tietotie 3, Espoo, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Puttaraksa, N. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Napari, M.; Hokkanen, M.J.; Norarat, R. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2013-07-01

    Programmable proximity aperture lithography (PPAL) with MeV ions has been used in Jyväskylä and Chiang Mai universities for a number of years. Here we describe a number of innovations and procedures that have been incorporated into the LabView-based software. The basic operation involves the coordination of the beam blanker and five motor-actuated translators with high accuracy, close to the minimum step size with proper anti-collision algorithms. By using special approaches, such writing calibration patterns, linearisation of position and careful backlash correction the absolute accuracy of the aperture size and position, can be improved beyond the standard afforded by the repeatability of the translator end-point switches. Another area of consideration has been the fluence control procedures. These involve control of the uniformity of the beam where different approaches for fluence measurement such as simultaneous aperture current and the ion current passing through the aperture using a Faraday cup are used. Microfluidic patterns may contain many elements that make-up mixing sections, reaction chambers, separation columns and fluid reservoirs. To facilitate conception and planning we have implemented a .svg file interpreter, that allows the use of scalable vector graphics files produced by standard drawing software for generation of patterns made up of rectangular elements.

  7. Correction of Neonatal Hypovolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moskalev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of hydroxyethyl starch solution (6% refortane, Berlin-Chemie versus fresh frozen plasma used to correct neonatal hypovolemia.Materials and methods. In 12 neonatal infants with hypoco-agulation, hypovolemia was corrected with fresh frozen plasma (10 ml/kg body weight. In 13 neonates, it was corrected with 6% refortane infusion in a dose of 10 ml/kg. Doppler echocardiography was used to study central hemodynamic parameters and Doppler study was employed to examine regional blood flow in the anterior cerebral and renal arteries.Results. Infusion of 6% refortane and fresh frozen plasma at a rate of 10 ml/hour during an hour was found to normalize the parameters of central hemodynamics and regional blood flow.Conclusion. Comparative analysis of the findings suggests that 6% refortane is the drug of choice in correcting neonatal hypovolemia. Fresh frozen plasma should be infused in hemostatic disorders. 

  8. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... surgery. It is important to understand that your treatment, which will probably include orthodontics before and after ... to realistically estimate the time required for your treatment. Correction of Common Dentofacial Deformities ​ ​ The information provided ...

  9. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... misalignment of jaws and teeth. Surgery can improve chewing, speaking and breathing. While the patient's appearance may ... indicate the need for corrective jaw surgery: Difficulty chewing, or biting food Difficulty swallowing Chronic jaw or ...

  10. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Corrective Jaw ...

  11. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is performed by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) to correct a wide range of minor and ... when sleeping, including snoring) Your dentist, orthodontist and OMS will work together to determine whether you are ...

  12. ICT: isotope correction toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Neubauer, Stefan; Mairinger, Teresa; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Hann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Isotope tracer experiments are an invaluable technique to analyze and study the metabolism of biological systems. However, isotope labeling experiments are often affected by naturally abundant isotopes especially in cases where mass spectrometric methods make use of derivatization. The correction of these additive interferences--in particular for complex isotopic systems--is numerically challenging and still an emerging field of research. When positional information is generated via collision-induced dissociation, even more complex calculations for isotopic interference correction are necessary. So far, no freely available tools can handle tandem mass spectrometry data. We present isotope correction toolbox, a program that corrects tandem mass isotopomer data from tandem mass spectrometry experiments. Isotope correction toolbox is written in the multi-platform programming language Perl and, therefore, can be used on all commonly available computer platforms. Source code and documentation can be freely obtained under the Artistic License or the GNU General Public License from: https://github.com/jungreuc/isotope_correction_toolbox/ {christian.jungreuthmayer@boku.ac.at,juergen.zanghellini@boku.ac.at} Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Promoter proximal polyadenylation sites reduce transcription activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Kjølhede; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression relies on the functional communication between mRNA processing and transcription. We previously described the negative impact of a point-mutated splice donor (SD) site on transcription. Here we demonstrate that this mutation activates an upstream cryptic polyadenylation (CpA) site......, which in turn causes reduced transcription. Functional depletion of U1 snRNP in the context of the wild-type SD triggers the same CpA event accompanied by decreased RNA levels. Thus, in accordance with recent findings, U1 snRNP can shield premature pA sites. The negative impact of unshielded pA sites...... on transcription requires promoter proximity, as demonstrated using artificial constructs and supported by a genome-wide data set. Importantly, transcription down-regulation can be recapitulated in a gene context devoid of splice sites by placing a functional bona fide pA site/transcription terminator within ∼500...

  14. Children’s proximal societal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    or the children’s everyday life, but something that is represented through societal structures and actual persons participating (in political ways) within the institutional settings, in ways that has meaning to children’s possibilities to participate, learn and develop. Understanding school or daycare as (part of......) the children’s proximal societal conditions for development and learning, means for instance that considerations about an inclusive agenda in a (Danish) welfare state with well-developed school- and daycare system, are no longer simply thoughts about the school having space for as many pupils as possible...... (schools for all). Such thoughts can or should be supplemented by reflections about which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to present our children with, and which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to set up as the condition for children’s participation and development. These questions require an ethical...

  15. Proximal Opening Wedge Osteotomy Provides Satisfactory Midterm Results With a Low Complication Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravakangas, Rami; Leppilahti, Juhana; Laine, Vesa; Niinimäki, Tuukka

    2016-01-01

    Hallux valgus is one of the most common foot deformities. Proximal opening wedge osteotomy is used for the treatment of moderate and severe hallux valgus with metatarsus primus varus. However, hypermobility of the first tarsometatarsal joint can compromise the results of the operation, and a paucity of midterm results are available regarding proximal open wedge osteotomy surgery. The aim of the present study was to assess the midterm results of proximal open wedge osteotomy in a consecutive series of patients with severe hallux valgus. Thirty-one consecutive adult patients (35 feet) with severe hallux valgus underwent proximal open wedge osteotomy. Twenty patients (35.5%) and 23 feet (34.3%) were available for the final follow-up examination. The mean follow-up duration was 5.8 (range 4.6 to 7.0) years. The radiologic measurements and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux-metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scores were recorded pre- and postoperatively, and subjective questionnaires were completed and foot scan analyses performed at the end of the follow-up period. The mean hallux valgus angle decreased from 38° to 23°, and the mean intermetatarsal angle correction decreased from 17° to 10°. The mean improvement in the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal score increased from 52 to 84. Two feet (5.7%) required repeat surgery because of recurrent hallux valgus. No nonunions were identified. Proximal open wedge osteotomy provided satisfactory midterm results in the treatment of severe hallux valgus, with a low complication rate. The potential instability of the first tarsometatarsal joint does not seem to jeopardize the midterm results of the operation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In Vitro Evaluation of Proximal Carious Lesions Using Digital Radiographic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayana Soares Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of digital radiographic systems for the diagnosis of proximal carious lesions. Extracted human teeth (3 canines, 3 premolars, and 3 molars were submitted to one of three types of proximal lesions (demineralized area, cavity affecting the enamel alone, and cavity affecting enamel and dentin. Bitewing radiographs were obtained from each system (Sirona, Kodak, and Schick and evaluated by 12 raters (4 dental students, 4 radiology specialists, and 4 dentists. The chi-squared test was used to determine the frequency of correct diagnoses among the different systems, raters, teeth, and types of lesion. Sensitivity and specificity regarding demineralized areas were calculated for each system. The frequencies of correct diagnoses were found: Schick (70.8%, Kodak (63.9%, Sirona (59.0%, specialists (69.4%, students (62.5%, dentists (61.8%, premolars (70.1%, canines (65.3%, and molars (58.3%. No significant differences were found among the different systems, raters, or teeth (P>0.05. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.64 and 0.47 (Schick, 0.56 and 0.50 (Sirona, and 0.48 and 0.58 (Kodak. The most correct diagnoses were achieved using the Schick digital system on premolars and evaluated by specialists in radiology. The systems demonstrated low sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of demineralized areas.

  17. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  18. Czy nauczyciele edukacji wczesnoszkolnej potrafią bezstronnie ocenić osiągnięcia dziewcząt i chłopców z języka polskiego?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Skórska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dotychczasowe badania sugerują, że w okresie wczesnoszkolnym przy tym samym poziomie umiejętności z zakresu języka ojczystego nauczyciele wyżej oceniają osiągnięcia szkolne dziewczynek niż chłopców. Celem artykułu jest weryfikacja tej hipotezy. Wykorzystano (a oceny osiągnięć uczniów wystawione przez nauczycieli poza procesem nauczania (dla celów badawczych i (b wyniki standaryzowanych testów osiągnięć z języka polskiego. Analizy uwzględniające potencjalną stronniczość pozycji testowych ze względu na płeć ucznia przeprowadzono metodą modelowania wielu wskaźników i wielu przyczyn (MIMIC. Wykorzystano dane pochodzące z ogólnopolskiego badania 4144 uczniów trzeciej klasy szkoły podstawowej. Zgodnie z przewidywaniami, nauczyciele wyżej oceniali osiągnięcia dziewczynek niż chłopców, ale ta różnica zanikła, gdy do modelu analizy włączono wyniki standaryzowanych testów. Okazuje się więc, że nauczyciele potrafią bezstronnie ocenić osiągnięcia szkolne z języka polskiego dziewczynek i chłopców.

  19. Trafność prognostyczna wskaźników osiągnięć gimnazjalnych względem wyników maturalnych dziewcząt i chłopców

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Świst

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Artykuł został poświęcony różnicom w trafności prognostycznej wskaźników osiągnięć gimnazjalnych (oceny, średnia ocen, wyniki egzaminu w analizach przewidywania wyników maturalnych wśród dziewcząt i chłopców. Na różnice w wynikach może wpływać wiele czynników – psychologicznych, społecznych oraz związanych z właściwościami arkuszy testowych. Można więc przyjąć hipotezę o różnej mocy prognostycznej tych wskaźników wśród dziewcząt i chłopców. Przeanalizowane zostały dwie kohorty: osób zdających egzamin gimnazjalny w latach 2011 i 2012 oraz maturę w latach 2014 i 2015. Analizy przeprowadzono przy pomocy hierarchicznych modeli liniowych oraz modelowania IRT. Wyniki wskazują na różnice w funkcjonowaniu wskaźników osiągnięć w zależności od płci oraz dziedziny egzaminu (język polski, matematyka. Wyniki egzaminów i oceny szkolne pozwalają przewidywać sukces ucznia, jednak różnice w trafności prognostycznej wśród chłopców i dziewcząt są niewielkie.

  20. Automatic Generation Implementation of the Statistical Tables and Reports of Industrial Control System Based on OPC%基于OPC的工控系统报表自动生成的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝光

    2014-01-01

    In respects of the problems on generating the statistical tables and reports of industrial control system, this paper introduces a solution applied for the OPC Client which is developed by automatic generation system with the VB, ACCESS database and EXCELelectric .%针对工控系统报表生成问题,本文介绍了一种以VB、ACCESS数据库及EXCEL电子表格为平台进行自动报表系统开发的OPC客户端解决方案。

  1. Distributed Autonomous Control of Multiple Spacecraft During Close Proximity Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCamish, Shawn B

    2007-01-01

    This research contributes to multiple spacecraft control by developing an autonomous distributed control algorithm for close proximity operations of multiple spacecraft systems, including rendezvous...

  2. Robust Active Label Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...

  3. Generalised Batho correction factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddon, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    There are various approximate algorithms available to calculate the radiation dose in the presence of a heterogeneous medium. The Webb and Fox product over layers formulation of the generalised Batho correction factor requires determination of the number of layers and the layer densities for each ray path. It has been shown that the Webb and Fox expression is inefficient for the heterogeneous medium which is expressed as regions of inhomogeneity rather than layers. The inefficiency of the layer formulation is identified as the repeated problem of determining for each ray path which inhomogeneity region corresponds to a particular layer. It has been shown that the formulation of the Batho correction factor as a product over inhomogeneity regions avoids that topological problem entirely. The formulation in terms of a product over regions simplifies the computer code and reduces the time required to calculate the Batho correction factor for the general heterogeneous medium. (U.K.)

  4. THE SECONDARY EXTINCTION CORRECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachariasen, W. H.

    1963-03-15

    It is shown that Darwin's formula for the secondary extinction correction, which has been universally accepted and extensively used, contains an appreciable error in the x-ray diffraction case. The correct formula is derived. As a first order correction for secondary extinction, Darwin showed that one should use an effective absorption coefficient mu + gQ where an unpolarized incident beam is presumed. The new derivation shows that the effective absorption coefficient is mu + 2gQ(1 + cos/sup 4/2 theta )/(1 plus or minus cos/sup 2/2 theta )/s up 2/, which gives mu + gQ at theta =0 deg and theta = 90 deg , but mu + 2gQ at theta = 45 deg . Darwin's theory remains valid when applied to neutron diffraction. (auth)

  5. PROXIMAL DISABILITY AND SPINAL DEFORMITY INDEX IN PATIENTS WITH PROXIMAL FEMUR FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvio Mistro Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the quality of life related to the spine in patients with proximal femoral fractures. Methods : Study conducted in a tertiary public hospital in patients with proximal femoral fractures caused by low-energy trauma, through the Oswestry Disability Index questionnaire to asses complaints related to the spine at the time of life prior to the femoral fracture. The thoracic and lumbar spine of patients were also evaluated applying the radiographic index described by Gennant (Spinal Deformity Index, which assesses the number and severity of fractures. Results : Seventeen subjects completed the study. All had some degree of vertebral fracture. Patients were classified in the categories of severe and very severe disability in the questionnaire about quality of life. It was found that the higher SDI, the better the quality of life. Conclusion : There is a strong association of disability related to the spine in patients with proximal femoral fracture, and this complaint must be systematically evaluated in patients with appendicular fracture.

  6. Initial outcome and efficacy of S3 proximal humerus locking plate in the treatment of proximal humerus fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiming; Zhu Xuesong; Bao Zhaohua; Yang Huilin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to explore the initial outcome and efficacy of S 3 proximal humerus locking plate in the treatment of proximal humerus fractures. Methods: Twenty-two patients with proximal humerus fracture were treated with the S 3 proximal humerus locking plate. Most of the fractures were complex, two-part (n=4), three-part (n=11) and four-part (n=7) fractures according to the Neer classification of the proximal humerus fractures. Results: All patients were followed up for 3∼15 months. There were no complications related to the implant including loosening or breakage of the plate. Good and excellent results were documented in 17 patients fair results in 4 patients according the Neer scores of shoulder. Conclusion: New design concepts of S 3 proximal humerus plate provide the subchondral support and the internal fixation support. With the addition of the proper exercise of the shoulder joint, the outcomes would be satisfied. (authors)

  7. Bryant J. correction formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejera R, A.; Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A.

    1990-03-01

    For the practical application of the method proposed by J. Bryant, the authors carried out a series of small corrections, related with the bottom, the dead time of the detectors and channels, with the resolution time of the coincidences, with the accidental coincidences, with the decay scheme and with the gamma efficiency of the beta detector beta and the beta efficiency beta of the gamma detector. The calculation of the correction formula is presented in the development of the present report, being presented 25 combinations of the probability of the first existent state at once of one disintegration and the second state at once of the following disintegration. (Author)

  8. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  9. Proximity Operations and Docking Sensor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Brewster, Linda L.; Lee, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been under development for the last three years as a long-range proximity operations and docking sensor for use in an Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) system. The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. That flight proved that the United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). NASA video sensors have worked well in the past: the AVGS used on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) mission operated successfully in spot mode out to 2 km, and the first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. 12 Parts obsolescence issues prevent the construction of more AVGS units, and the next generation sensor was updated to allow it to support the CEV and COTS programs. The flight proven AR&D sensor has been redesigned to update parts and add additional capabilities for CEV and COTS with the development of the Next Generation AVGS at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The obsolete imager and processor are being replaced with new radiation tolerant parts. In addition, new capabilities include greater sensor range, auto ranging capability, and real-time video output. This paper presents some sensor hardware trades, use of highly integrated laser components, and addresses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It also discusses approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements

  10. Surgical treatment of double thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with a rigid proximal thoracic curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Hideki; Abe, Yuichiro; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Iwasaki, Norimasa; Ito, Manabu

    2016-02-01

    There is limited consensus on the optimal surgical strategy for double thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Recent studies have reported that pedicle screw constructs to maximize scoliosis correction cause further thoracic spine lordosis. The objective of this study was to apply a new surgical technique for double thoracic AIS with rigid proximal thoracic (PT) curves and assess its clinical outcomes. Twenty one consecutive patients with Lenke 2 AIS and a rigid PT curve (Cobb angle ≥30º on side-bending radiographs, flexibility ≤30 %) treated with the simultaneous double-rod rotation technique (SDRRT) were included. In this technique, a temporary rod is placed at the concave side of the PT curve. Then, distraction force is applied to correct the PT curve, which reforms a sigmoid double thoracic curve into an approximate single thoracic curve. As a result, the PT curve is typically converted from an apex left to an apex right curve before applying the correction rod for PT and main thoracic curve. All patients were followed for at least 2 years (average 2.7 years). The average main thoracic and PT Cobb angle correction rate at the final follow-up was 74.7 and 58.0 %, respectively. The average preoperative T5-T12 thoracic kyphosis was 9.3°, which improved significantly to 19.0° (p corrected using SDRRT for Lenke 2 AIS with a rigid PT curve.

  11. Proximity coupling in superconductor-graphene heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2018-05-01

    This review discusses the electronic properties and the prospective research directions of superconductor-graphene heterostructures. The basic electronic properties of graphene are introduced to highlight the unique possibility of combining two seemingly unrelated physics, superconductivity and relativity. We then focus on graphene-based Josephson junctions, one of the most versatile superconducting quantum devices. The various theoretical methods that have been developed to describe graphene Josephson junctions are examined, together with their advantages and limitations, followed by a discussion on the advances in device fabrication and the relevant length scales. The phase-sensitive properties and phase-particle dynamics of graphene Josephson junctions are examined to provide an understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Josephson coupling via graphene. Thereafter, microscopic transport of correlated quasiparticles produced by Andreev reflections at superconducting interfaces and their phase-coherent behaviors are discussed. Quantum phase transitions studied with graphene as an electrostatically tunable 2D platform are reviewed. The interplay between proximity-induced superconductivity and the quantum-Hall phase is discussed as a possible route to study topological superconductivity and non-Abelian physics. Finally, a brief summary on the prospective future research directions is given.

  12. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, J M

    2012-10-01

    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asztalos, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need

  14. Imaging of rectus femoris proximal tendinopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesquer, Lionel; Poussange, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudiere, Benjamin; Feldis, Matthieu; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Graveleau, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The rectus femoris is the most commonly injured muscle of the anterior thigh among athletes, especially soccer players. Although the injury pattern of the muscle belly is well documented, less is known about the anatomy and specific lesions of the proximal tendons. For each head, three distinctive patterns may be encountered according to the location of the injury, which can be at the enthesis, within the tendon, or at the musculotendinous junction. In children, injuries correspond most commonly to avulsion of the anteroinferior iliac spine from the direct head and can lead to subspine impingement. Calcific tendinitis and traumatic tears may be encountered in adults. Recent studies have shown that traumatic injuries of the indirect head may be underdiagnosed and that injuries of both heads may have a surgical issue. Finally, in the case of tears, functional outcome and treatment may vary if the rupture involves one or both tendons and if the tear is partial or complete. Thus, it is mandatory for the radiologist to know the different ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of these lesions in order to provide accurate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this article is to recall the anatomy of the two heads of rectus femoris, describe a reliable method of assessment with ultrasound and MRI and know the main injury patterns, through our own experience and literature review. (orig.)

  15. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  16. Imaging of rectus femoris proximal tendinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesquer, Lionel; Poussange, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudiere, Benjamin; Feldis, Matthieu [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre d' Imagerie Osteo-articulaire, Merignac (France); Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand [Groupe Ramsay Generale de Sante - Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, Centre Orthopedique Santy, Lyon (France); Graveleau, Nicolas [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Sportive, Merignac (France)

    2016-07-15

    The rectus femoris is the most commonly injured muscle of the anterior thigh among athletes, especially soccer players. Although the injury pattern of the muscle belly is well documented, less is known about the anatomy and specific lesions of the proximal tendons. For each head, three distinctive patterns may be encountered according to the location of the injury, which can be at the enthesis, within the tendon, or at the musculotendinous junction. In children, injuries correspond most commonly to avulsion of the anteroinferior iliac spine from the direct head and can lead to subspine impingement. Calcific tendinitis and traumatic tears may be encountered in adults. Recent studies have shown that traumatic injuries of the indirect head may be underdiagnosed and that injuries of both heads may have a surgical issue. Finally, in the case of tears, functional outcome and treatment may vary if the rupture involves one or both tendons and if the tear is partial or complete. Thus, it is mandatory for the radiologist to know the different ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of these lesions in order to provide accurate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this article is to recall the anatomy of the two heads of rectus femoris, describe a reliable method of assessment with ultrasound and MRI and know the main injury patterns, through our own experience and literature review. (orig.)

  17. Attenuation correction for SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoba, Minoru

    1986-01-01

    Attenuation correction is required for the reconstruction of a quantitative SPECT image. A new method for detecting body contours, which are important for the correction of tissue attenuation, is presented. The effect of body contours, detected by the newly developed method, on the reconstructed images was evaluated using various techniques for attenuation correction. The count rates in the specified region of interest in the phantom image by the Radial Post Correction (RPC) method, the Weighted Back Projection (WBP) method, Chang's method were strongly affected by the accuracy of the contours, as compared to those by Sorenson's method. To evaluate the effect of non-uniform attenuators on the cardiac SPECT, computer simulation experiments were performed using two types of models, the uniform attenuator model (UAM) and the non-uniform attenuator model (NUAM). The RPC method showed the lowest relative percent error (%ERROR) in UAM (11 %). However, 20 to 30 percent increase in %ERROR was observed for NUAM reconstructed with the RPC, WBP, and Chang's methods. Introducing an average attenuation coefficient (0.12/cm for Tc-99m and 0.14/cm for Tl-201) in the RPC method decreased %ERROR to the levels for UAM. Finally, a comparison between images, which were obtained by 180 deg and 360 deg scans and reconstructed from the RPC method, showed that the degree of the distortion of the contour of the simulated ventricles in the 180 deg scan was 15 % higher than that in the 360 deg scan. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Text Induced Spelling Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaert, M.W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present TISC, a language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from a very large corpus of raw text, without supervision, and contains word

  19. Ballistic deficit correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, G.; Moszynski, M.; Curien, D.

    1991-01-01

    The EUROGAM data-acquisition has to handle a large number of events/s. Typical in-beam experiments using heavy-ion fusion reactions assume the production of about 50 000 compound nuclei per second deexciting via particle and γ-ray emissions. The very powerful γ-ray detection of EUROGAM is expected to produce high-fold event rates as large as 10 4 events/s. Such high count rates introduce, in a common dead time mode, large dead times for the whole system associated with the processing of the pulse, its digitization and its readout (from the preamplifier pulse up to the readout of the information). In order to minimize the dead time the shaping time constant τ, usually about 3 μs for large volume Ge detectors has to be reduced. Smaller shaping times, however, will adversely affect the energy resolution due to ballistic deficit. One possible solution is to operate the linear amplifier, with a somewhat smaller shaping time constant (in the present case we choose τ = 1.5 μs), in combination with a ballistic deficit compensator. The ballistic deficit can be corrected in different ways using a Gated Integrator, a hardware correction or even a software correction. In this paper we present a comparative study of the software and hardware corrections as well as gated integration

  20. Correctness of concurrent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Olderog (Ernst-Rüdiger)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractA new notion of correctness for concurrent processes is introduced and investigated. It is a relationship P sat S between process terms P built up from operators of CCS [Mi 80], CSP [Ho 85] and COSY [LTS 79] and logical formulas S specifying sets of finite communication sequences as in

  1. Error Correcting Codes -34 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    information and coding theory. A large scale relay computer had failed to deliver the expected results due to a hardware fault. Hamming, one of the active proponents of computer usage, was determined to find an efficient means by which computers could detect and correct their own faults. A mathematician by train-.

  2. Measured attenuation correction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, H.; Kuebler, W.K.; Doll, J.; Lorenz, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate attenuation correction is a prerequisite for the determination of exact local radioactivity concentrations in positron emission tomography. Attenuation correction factors range from 4-5 in brain studies to 50-100 in whole body measurements. This report gives an overview of the different methods of determining the attenuation correction factors by transmission measurements using an external positron emitting source. The long-lived generator nuclide 68 Ge/ 68 Ga is commonly used for this purpose. The additional patient dose from the transmission source is usually a small fraction of the dose due to the subsequent emission measurement. Ring-shaped transmission sources as well as rotating point or line sources are employed in modern positron tomographs. By masking a rotating line or point source, random and scattered events in the transmission scans can be effectively suppressed. The problems of measured attenuation correction are discussed: Transmission/emission mismatch, random and scattered event contamination, counting statistics, transmission/emission scatter compensation, transmission scan after administration of activity to the patient. By using a double masking technique simultaneous emission and transmission scans become feasible. (orig.)

  3. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... their surgery, orthognathic surgery is performed to correct functional problems. Jaw Surgery can have a dramatic effect on many aspects of life. Following are some of the conditions that may ... front, or side Facial injury Birth defects Receding lower jaw and ...

  4. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    successful consumer products of all time - the Compact Disc. (CD) digital audio .... We can make ... only 2 t additional parity check symbols are required, to be able to correct t .... display information (contah'ling music related data and a table.

  5. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science and Automation at ... the Reed-Solomon code contained 223 bytes of data, (a byte ... then you have a data storage system with error correction, that ..... practical codes, storing such a table is infeasible, as it is generally too large.

  6. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  7. 10. Correctness of Programs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 4. Algorithms - Correctness of Programs. R K Shyamasundar. Series Article Volume 3 ... Author Affiliations. R K Shyamasundar1. Computer Science Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India.

  8. Proximate analysis of female population of wild feather back fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... Key words: Body composition, Notopterus notopterus, condition factor, wild fish. INTRODUCTION. Proximate body composition is the analysis of water, fat, protein and ash contents of the fish (Love, 1980). Proximate composition is a good indicator of physiology which is needed for routine analysis of ...

  9. Proximate analysis of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each of the mushroom species was separated into its stipe and pileus and used for proximate analysis. There was a highly significant difference (p<0.01) in the proximate composition of the two species. P. atroumbonata had significantly higher crude protein, crude fibre and moisture content than L. squarrosulus while the ...

  10. Proximal Focal Femoral Deficiency in Ibadan a Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cultural aversion to amputation in our environment makes it difficult to employ that option of treatment. Proximal focal femoral deficiency in Ibadan a developing country's perspective and a review of the literature. Keywords: Proximal focal femoral deficiency , congenital malformations , limb malformations , lower limb ...

  11. Proximity approach to problems in topology and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Naimpally, Somashekhar

    2009-01-01

    Dieses Buch konzentriert das aktuelle Gesamtwissen zum Proximity-Konzept und stellt es dem Leser in gut strukturierter Form dar. Hauptaugenmerk liegt auf den vielfältigen Möglichkeiten, die sich aus dem Proximity-Konzept der räumlichen Nähe und seiner Verallgemeinerung im Nearness-Konzept ergeben.

  12. Systemic calciphylaxis presenting as a painful, proximal myopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelstein, C. L.; Wickham, M. K.; Kirby, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    A renal transplant patient who presented with a painful, proximal myopathy due to systemic calciphylaxis is described. The myopathy preceded the characteristic skin and soft tissue necrosis. Systemic calciphylaxis should be considered in a dialysis or a renal transplant patient presenting with a painful proximal myopathy even in the absence of necrotic skin lesions.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: proximal 18q deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... characteristic features. Most cases of proximal 18q deletion syndrome are the result of a new (de novo) deletion and are not inherited from a ... J, Fox PT, Stratton RF, Perry B, Hale DE. Recurrent interstitial deletions of proximal 18q: a new syndrome involving expressive speech delay. Am J Med Genet ...

  14. Proximal soil sensors and data fusion for precision agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    different remote and proximal soil sensors are available today that can scan entire fields and give detailed information on various physical, chemical, mechanical and biological soil properties. The first objective of this thesis was to evaluate different proximal soil sensors available today and to

  15. Two Stages repair of proximal hypospadias: Review of 33 cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HussamHassan

    Background/Purpose: Proximal hypospadias with chordee is the most challenging variant of hypospadias to reconstruct. During the last 10 years, the approach to sever hypospadias has been controversial. Materials & Methods: During the period from June 2002 to December 2009, I performed 33 cases with proximal.

  16. Study of the Microstructure Evolution of Low-pH Cements Based on Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC by Mid- and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, and Their Influence on Corrosion of Steel Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan García Olmo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-pH cements are designed to be used in underground repositories for high level waste. When they are based on Ordinary Portland Cements (OPC, high mineral admixture contents must be used which significantly modify their microstructure properties and performance. This paper evaluates the microstructure evolution of low-pH cement pastes based on OPC plus silica fume and/or fly ashes, using Mid-Infrared and Near-Infrared spectroscopy to detect cement pastes mainly composed of high polymerized C-A-S-H gels with low C/S ratios. In addition, the lower pore solution pH of these special cementitious materials have been monitored with embedded metallic sensors. Besides, as the use of reinforced concrete can be required in underground repositories, the influence of low-pH cementitious materials on steel reinforcement corrosion was analysed. Due to their lower pore solution pH and their different pore solution chemical composition a clear influence on steel reinforcement corrosion was detected.

  17. Interactive orbital proximity operations planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    An interactive graphical planning system for on-site planning of proximity operations in the congested multispacecraft environment about the space station is presented. The system shows the astronaut a bird's eye perspective of the space station, the orbital plane, and the co-orbiting spacecraft. The system operates in two operational modes: (1) a viewpoint mode, in which the astronaut is able to move the viewpoint around in the orbital plane to range in on areas of interest; and (2) a trajectory design mode, in which the trajectory is planned. Trajectory design involves the composition of a set of waypoints which result in a fuel-optimal trajectory which satisfies all operational constraints, such as departure and arrival constraints, plume impingement constraints, and structural constraints. The main purpose of the system is to present the trajectory and the constraints in an easily interpretable graphical format. Through a graphical interactive process, the trajectory waypoints are edited until all operational constraints are satisfied. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the system. Eight airline pilots with no prior background in orbital mechanics participated in the experiments. Subject training included a stand-alone training session of about 6 hours duration, in which the subjects became familiar with orbital mechanics concepts and performed a series of exercises to familiarize themselves with the control and display features of the system. They then carried out a series of production runs in which 90 different trajectory design situations were randomly addressed. The purpose of these experiments was to investigate how the planning time, planning efforts, and fuel expenditures were affected by the planning difficulty. Some results of these experiments are presented.

  18. Selective proximal vagotomy with and without pyloroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, E.

    1984-01-01

    It was the aim of the study described here to gain information relevant to the well-being of patients subjected to selective proximal vagotomy with or without pyroloplasty as soon as possible after surgery. For this purpose, particular care was taken to ascertain the frequency of recidivation and the post-operative occurrence of disturbances in the emptying of gastric contents. In 35 patients solely undergoing SPV and a further 12 individuals, where both SPV and pyroloplasty had been performed, gastric emptying was monitored using a gamma camera and computer system. All patients were given a standardised test meal consisting of 500 ml ready-made milk labeled with 2 mCi 99mTc-HSA. After the patients had been assigned to different study groups according to the gastric emptying rates established in the individual cases, it became evident that there was a correlation between gastric emptying time (T/2) and the occurrence of post-operative discomfort. In the majority of patients the gastric emptying rate was found to be increased as compared to individuals with a healthy stomach. Among a total of 8 patients showing delayed gastric emptying only one, who solely underwent SPV, reported post-operative discomfort. Markedly increased rates of gastric emptying (T/2 ≤ 5 min) were predominantly determined in patients subjected to SPV in conjunction with pyroloplasty. A dumping syndrome and diarrhea were diagnosed in every third patient. Clinical follow-up studies and questionnaires distributed among the study patients showed relapses to occur with a frequency of 6.7%, the recidivation of ulcera being confined to the group of patients merely undergoing SPV. (TRV) [de

  19. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  20. Proximally exposed A-bomb survivors. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    Methods for observing chromosomes can be chronologically divided into the era of non-differential staining technique (1962-1975) and the era of differential staining method (since 1976). This paper reviews the literature of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells found in the two eras. Findings during the era of 1962-1975 include the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells, comparison of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells and T lymphocytes, and annual variation of chromosomal aberrations. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was high in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors (90.5% and 52.6% in A-bomb survivors exposed within 500 m and at 501-1,000 m, respectively); on the contrary, it was low in those exposed far from 1,000 m (6.2% or less). The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells was lower than that in T lymphocytes (21.5% vs 27.1% in those exposed within 500 m and 14.1% vs 23% in those exposed at 501-1,000 m). Annual analysis for chromosomal aberrations has shown the somewhat dependence upon medullary hematopoiesis and virus infection. The advent of differential staining technique since 1976 has made it possible to clarify the type of chromosomal aberrations and site of breakage. Of 710 bone marrow cells taken from 13 A-bomb survivors exposed within 1,000 m, 121 cells (from 11 A-bomb survivors) exhibited chromosomal aberrations. In differential staining analysis, all 121 cells but one were found to be of stable type, such as translocation and inversion. Furthermore, the site of breakage was found to be non-randomly distributed. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells has advantages of reflecting dynamic condition of these cells and determining gradual progression into leukemia. (N.K.)

  1. Hypospadias and residential proximity to pesticide applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Wolff, Craig; Guo, Liang; Lammer, Edward J; English, Paul; Shaw, Gary M

    2013-11-01

    Experimental evidence suggests pesticides may be associated with hypospadias. Examine the association of hypospadias with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications. The study population included male infants born from 1991 to 2004 to mothers residing in 8 California counties. Cases (n = 690) were ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program; controls were selected randomly from the birth population (n = 2195). We determined early pregnancy exposure to pesticide applications within a 500-m radius of mother's residential address, using detailed data on applications and land use. Associations with exposures to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for maternal race or ethnicity and age and infant birth year. Forty-one percent of cases and controls were classified as exposed to 57 chemical groups and 292 chemicals. Despite >500 statistical comparisons, there were few elevated odds ratios with confidence intervals that excluded 1 for chemical groups or specific chemicals. Those that did were for monochlorophenoxy acid or ester herbicides; the insecticides aldicarb, dimethoate, phorate, and petroleum oils; and adjuvant polyoxyethylene sorbitol among all cases; 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides, the herbicide oxyfluorfen, and the fungicide copper sulfate among mild cases; and chloroacetanilide herbicides, polyalkyloxy compounds used as adjuvants, the insecticides aldicarb and acephate, and the adjuvant nonyl-phenoxy-poly(ethylene oxy)ethanol among moderate and severe cases. Odds ratios ranged from 1.9 to 2.9. Most pesticides were not associated with elevated hypospadias risk. For the few that were associated, results should be interpreted with caution until replicated in other study populations.

  2. Correction of refractive errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pfeifer

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spectacles and contact lenses are the most frequently used, the safest and the cheapest way to correct refractive errors. The development of keratorefractive surgery has brought new opportunities for correction of refractive errors in patients who have the need to be less dependent of spectacles or contact lenses. Until recently, RK was the most commonly performed refractive procedure for nearsighted patients.Conclusions: The introduction of excimer laser in refractive surgery has given the new opportunities of remodelling the cornea. The laser energy can be delivered on the stromal surface like in PRK or deeper on the corneal stroma by means of lamellar surgery. In LASIK flap is created with microkeratome in LASEK with ethanol and in epi-LASIK the ultra thin flap is created mechanically.

  3. PS Booster Orbit Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Chanel, M; Rumolo, G; Tomás, R; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    At the end of the 2007 run, orbit measurements were carried out in the 4 rings of the PS Booster (PSB) for different working points and beam energies. The aim of these measurements was to provide the necessary input data for a PSB realignment campaign during the 2007/2008 shutdown. Currently, only very few corrector magnets can be operated reliably in the PSB; therefore the orbit correction has to be achieved by displacing (horizontally and vertically) and/or tilting some of the defocusing quadrupoles (QDs). In this report we first describe the orbit measurements, followed by a detailed explanation of the orbit correction strategy. Results and conclusions are presented in the last section.

  4. Error-correction coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  5. Biomechanical optimization of different fixation modes for a proximal femoral L-osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hsih-Hao

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous proposed surgical techniques have had minimal success in managing greater trochanter overgrowth secondary to retarded growth of the femoral capital epiphysis. For reconstruction of residual hip deformities, a novel type of proximal femur L-osteotomy was performed with satisfactory results. Although the clinical outcome was good, the biomechanical characteristics of the femur after such an osteotomy have not been clearly elucidated. Therefore, this study presents a three dimensional finite element analysis designed to understand the mechanical characteristics of the femur after the L-osteotomy. Methods A patient with left hip dysplasia was recruited as the study model for L-osteotomy. The normal right hip was used as a reference for performing the corrective surgery. Four FEA models were constructed using different numbers of fixation screws but the same osteotomy lengths together with four FEA models with the same number of fixation screws but different osteotomy lengths. The von Mises stress distributions and femoral head displacements were analyzed and compared. Results The results revealed the following: 1. The fixation devices (plate and screws sustained most of the external loading, and the peak value of von Mises stress on the fixation screws decreased with an increasing number of screws. 2. Additional screws are more beneficial on the proximal segment than on the distal segment for improving the stability of the postoperative femur. 3. The extent of osteotomy should be limited because local stress might be concentrated in the femoral neck region with increasing length of the L-osteotomy. Conclusion Additional screw placement on the proximal segment improves stability in the postoperative femur. The cobra-type plate with additional screw holes in the proximal area might improve the effectiveness of L-osteotomies.

  6. Treatment of Unstable Trochanteric Femur Fractures: Proximal Femur Nail Versus Proximal Femur Locking Compression Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Narsaria, Nidi; G R, Arun; Srivastava, Vivek

    Unstable trochanteric femur fractures are common fractures that are difficult to manage. We conducted a prospective study to compare functional outcomes and complications of 2 different implant designs, proximal femur nail (PFN) and proximal femur locking compression plate (PFLCP), used in internal fixation of unstable trochanteric femur fractures. On hospital admission, 48 patients with unstable trochanteric fractures were randomly assigned (using a sealed envelope method) to treatment with either PFN (24 patients) or PFLCP (24 patients). Perioperative data and complications were recorded. All cases were followed up for 2 years. The groups did not differ significantly (P > .05) in operative time, reduction quality, complications, hospital length of stay, union rate, or time to union. Compared with the PFLCP group, the PFN group had shorter incisions and less blood loss. Regarding functional outcomes, there was no significant difference in mean Harris Hip Score (P = .48) or Palmer and Parker mobility score (P = .58). Both PFN and PFLCP are effective in internal fixation of unstable trochanteric femur fractures.

  7. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  8. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Siun M; Browne, Katherine; Tuite, David J; O'Shaughnessy, Michael

    2013-12-01

    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Digital contrast subtraction radiography for proximal caries diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether subtraction images utilizing contrast media can improve the diagnostic performance of proximal caries diagnosis compared to conventional periapical radiographic images. Thirty-six teeth with 57 proximal surfaces were radiographied using a size no.2 RVG-ui sensor (Trophy Radiology, Marne-la-Vallee, France). The teeth immersed in water-soluble contrast media and subtraction images were taken. Each tooth was then sectioned for histologic examination. The digital radiographic images and subtraction images were examined and interpreted by three dentists for proximal caries. The results of the proximal caries diagnosis were then verified with the results of the histologic examination. The proximal caries sensitivity using digital subtraction radiography was significantly higher than simply examining a single digital radiograph. The sensitivity of the proximal dentinal carious lesion when analyzed with the subtraction radiograph and the radiograph together was higher than with the subtraction radiograph or the radiograph alone. The use of subtraction radiography with contrast media may be useful for detecting proximal dentinal carious lesions.

  10. Effect of age on proximal esophageal response to swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira Dantas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I, 27 aged 31-50 years (group II, and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III. We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05. The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001. There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.

  11. Giant proximity effect and critical opalescence in EuS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Timothy; Ramos, Silvia; Quintanilla, Jorge; Suter, Andreas; Moodera, Jagadeesh

    2015-03-01

    The proximity effect is a type of wetting phenomenon where an ordered state, usually magnetism or superconductivity, ``leaks'' from one material into an adjacent one over some finite distance. For superconductors, the characteristic range is of the order of the coherence length, usually hundreds of nm. Nevertheless much longer, ``giant'' proximity effects have been observed in cuprate perovskite junctions. Such giant proximity effects can be understood by taking into account the divergence of the pairing susceptibility in the non-superconducting material when it is itself close to a superconducting instability: a superconducting version of critical opalescence. Since critical opalescence occurs in all second order phase transitions, giant proximity effects are expected to be general, therefor there must be a giant ferromagnetic proximity effect. Compared to its superconducting counterpart, the giant ferromagnetic proximity effect has the advantage that the order parameter (magnetization) can be observed directly. We have fabricated Co/EuS thin films and measured the magnetization profiles as a function of temperature using the complementary techniques of low energy muon relaxation and polarized neutron reflectivity. Details of the proximity effect near TCEuS will be presented.

  12. Kyphosis in spinal tuberculosis - Prevention and correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Anil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal deformity and paraplegia/quadriplegia are the most common complications of tuberculosis (TB of spine. TB of dorsal spine almost always produces kyphosis while cervical and lumbar spine shows reversal of lordosis to begin with followed by kyphosis. kyphosis continues to increase in adults when patients are treated nonoperatively or by surgical decompression. In children, kyphosis continues to increase even after healing of the tubercular disease. The residual, healed kyphosis on a long follow-up produces painful costopelvic impingement, reduced vital capacity and eventually respiratory complications; spinal canal stenosis proximal to the kyphosis and paraplegia with healed disease, thus affecting the quality and span of life. These complications can be avoided by early diagnosis of tubercular spine lesion to heal with minimal or no kyphosis. When tubercular lesion reports with kyphosis of more than 50° or is likely to progress further, they should be undertaken for kyphus correction. The sequential steps of kyphosis correction include anterior decompression and corpectomy, posterior column shortening, posterior instrumentation, anterior bone grafting and posterior fusion. During the procedure, the spinal cord should be kept under vision so that it should not elongate. Internal kyphectomy (gibbectomy is a preferred treatment for late onset paraplegia with severe healed kyphosis.

  13. Cancer in proximity to TV towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, B.; Gordon, I.; Hatfield, G.

    1996-01-01

    Standard (AS2772.1). The few actual measurements available indicate even lower levels. The analysis shows no increased risk of brain cancer. An increased risk of childhood leukaemia is indicated in the municipalities close to the TV towers. The rate ratio for incidence is 1.6 (95% Cl: 1.08-2 41) and for mortality is 2.25 (95% Cl: 1.29-3.92), mainly due to lymphatic leukaemia (1.63 for incidence, 2.84 for mortality). An association between increased childhood leukaemia and proximity to TV towers is indicated. Further studies are needed to test this association and determine any dose-response relationship before firm conclusions may be reached

  14. Reoperations following proximal interphalangeal joint nonconstrained arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsch, Tamir; Rizzo, Marco

    2011-09-01

    To retrospectively analyze the reasons for reoperations following primary nonconstrained proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthroplasty and review clinical outcomes in this group of patients with 1 or more reoperations. Between 2001 and 2009, 294 nonconstrained (203 pyrocarbon and 91 metal-plastic) PIP joint replacements were performed in our institution. A total of 76 fingers (59 patients) required reoperation (50 pyrocarbon and 26 metal-plastic). There were 40 women and 19 men with an average age of 51 years (range, 19-83 y). Primary diagnoses included osteoarthritis in 35, posttraumatic arthritis in 24, and inflammatory arthritis in 17 patients. There were 21 index, 27 middle, 18 ring, and 10 small fingers. The average number of reoperations per PIP joint was 1.6 (range, 1-4). A total of 45 joints had 1 reoperation, 19 had 2, 11 had 3, and 1 had 4. Extensor mechanism dysfunction was the most common reason for reoperation; it involved 51 of 76 fingers and was associated with Chamay or tendon-reflecting surgical approaches. Additional etiologies included component loosening in 17, collateral ligament failure in 10, and volar plate contracture in 8 cases. Inflammatory arthritis was associated with collateral ligament failure. Six fingers were eventually amputated, 9 had PIP joint arthrodeses, and 2 had resection arthroplasties. The arthrodesis and amputation rates correlated with the increased number of reoperations per finger. Clinically, most patients had no or mild pain at the most recent follow-up, and the PIP joint range-of-motion was not significantly different from preoperative values. Pain levels improved with longer follow-up. Reoperations following primary nonconstrained PIP joint arthroplasties are common. Extensor mechanism dysfunction was the most common reason for reoperation. The average reoperation rate was 1.6, and arthrodesis and amputation are associated with an increasing number of operations. Overall clinical outcomes demonstrated no

  15. Proximal caries detection: Sirona Sidexis versus Kodak Ektaspeed Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Ludlow, John B; Caplan, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of intraoral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD) receptor for proximal caries detection. Four observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a five-point confidence scale. The actual status of each surface was determined from ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under ROC curves (Az) were assessed through a paired t-test. The performance of the CCD-based intraoral sensor was not different statistically from Ektaspeed Plus film in detecting proximal caries.

  16. [Avulsion of the Proximal Hamstring Insertion. Case Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizera, R; Harcuba, R; Kratochvíl, J

    2016-01-01

    Proximal hamstring avulsion is an uncommon muscle injury with a lack of consensus on indications and the timing and technique of surgery. Poor clinical symptoms and difficulties in the diagnostic process can lead to a false diagnosis. The authors present three cases of proximal hamstring avulsion, two complete and one partial ruptures of the biceps femoris muscle. MRI and ultrasound scans were used for optimal treatment alignment. Acute surgery reconstruction (hamstring strength. Two interesting systematic reviews published on the treatment of proximal hamstring avulsion are discussed in the final part of the paper. Key words: hamstring, rupture, avulsion.

  17. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  18. Hazard proximity and risk perception of tsunamis in coastal cities: Are people able to identify their risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Juan Pablo; Bronfman, Nicolás C; Cisternas, Pamela C; Repetto, Paula B

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have previously reported that hazard proximity can influence risk perception among individuals exposed to potential hazards. Understanding this relationship among coastline communities at risk of flood events caused by storms and/or tsunamis, is important because hazard proximity, should be recognized when planning and implementing preparation and mitigation actions against these events. Yet, we are not aware of studies that have examined this relationship among coastline inhabitants facing the risk of a tsunami. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hazard proximity and perceived risk from tsunamis among coastline inhabitants. Participants were 487 residents of the coastal city of Iquique, Chile. They completed a survey during the spring of 2013 that assessed their perceived risk from several natural and non-natural hazards. We found that hazard proximity maintains a negative relationship with the perception of tsunami risk among coastline inhabitants. While this result confirms the general trend obtained in previous studies, this one is conclusive and significant. In contradiction with previous findings, we found that participants from the highest socioeconomic status reported the highest levels of risk perception. This finding can be explained by the fact that most participants from the highest socioeconomic status live closer to the coastline areas, so their risk perception reflects the place where they live, that is in a tsunami inundation zone. Once again, hazard proximity proved to be a determinant factor of risk perception. Our findings have important implications for the development of plans and programs for tsunami preparedness and mitigation. These indicate that individuals do use environmental cues to evaluate their own risk and can potentially make correct choices when having or not to evacuate. Also suggest that preparedness should incorporate how hazard proximity is recognized by individuals and

  19. The anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate: A significant radiological finding in young children with trampoline fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranzinger, Enno, E-mail: enno.stranzinger@insel.ch [University Hospital Bern, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Leidolt, Lars, E-mail: lars.leidolt@insel.ch [University Hospital Bern, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Eich, Georg, E-mail: georg.eich@ksa.ch [Cantonal Hospital Aarau, Pediatric Radiology, Tellstrasse, CH-5001 Aarau (Switzerland); Klimek, Peter Michael, E-mail: peter.klimek@ksa.ch [Cantonal Hospital Aarau, Pediatric Surgery, Tellstrasse, CH-5001 Aarau (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    Objective: Evaluation of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate in young children, which suffered a trampoline fracture in comparison with a normal population. Materials and methods: 62 children (31 females, 31 males) between 2 and 5 years of age (average 2 years 11 months, standard deviation 11 months) with radiographs in two views of the tibia were included in this retrospective study. 25 children with proximal tibia fractures were injured with a history of jumping on a trampoline. All other causes for tibia fractures were excluded. A normal age-mapped control cohort of 37 children was compared. These children had neither evidence of a trampoline related injury nor a fracture of the tibia. The anterior tilt angle of the epiphyseal plate of the tibia was defined as an angle between the proximal tibia physis and the distal tibia physis on a lateral view. Two radiologists evaluated all radiographs for fractures and measured the anterior tilt angle in consensus. An unpaired Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis (SPSS). Original reports were reviewed and compared with the radiological findings and follow-up radiographs. Results: In the normal control group, the average anterior tilt angle measured −3.2°, SD ± 2.8°. The children with trampoline fractures showed an anterior tilt of +4.4°, SD ± 2.9°. The difference was statistically significant, P < 0.0001. In 6 patients (24% of all patients with confirmed fractures) the original report missed to diagnose the proximal tibial fracture. Conclusion: Young children between 2 and 5 years of age are at risk for proximal tibia fractures while jumping on a trampoline. These fractures may be very subtle and difficult to detect on initial radiographs. Measurement of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate on lateral radiographs is supportive for interpreting correctly trampoline fractures.

  20. Hazard proximity and risk perception of tsunamis in coastal cities: Are people able to identify their risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Juan Pablo; Bronfman, Nicolás C.; Cisternas, Pamela C.; Repetto, Paula B.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have previously reported that hazard proximity can influence risk perception among individuals exposed to potential hazards. Understanding this relationship among coastline communities at risk of flood events caused by storms and/or tsunamis, is important because hazard proximity, should be recognized when planning and implementing preparation and mitigation actions against these events. Yet, we are not aware of studies that have examined this relationship among coastline inhabitants facing the risk of a tsunami. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hazard proximity and perceived risk from tsunamis among coastline inhabitants. Participants were 487 residents of the coastal city of Iquique, Chile. They completed a survey during the spring of 2013 that assessed their perceived risk from several natural and non-natural hazards. We found that hazard proximity maintains a negative relationship with the perception of tsunami risk among coastline inhabitants. While this result confirms the general trend obtained in previous studies, this one is conclusive and significant. In contradiction with previous findings, we found that participants from the highest socioeconomic status reported the highest levels of risk perception. This finding can be explained by the fact that most participants from the highest socioeconomic status live closer to the coastline areas, so their risk perception reflects the place where they live, that is in a tsunami inundation zone. Once again, hazard proximity proved to be a determinant factor of risk perception. Our findings have important implications for the development of plans and programs for tsunami preparedness and mitigation. These indicate that individuals do use environmental cues to evaluate their own risk and can potentially make correct choices when having or not to evacuate. Also suggest that preparedness should incorporate how hazard proximity is recognized by individuals and

  1. The anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate: A significant radiological finding in young children with trampoline fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranzinger, Enno; Leidolt, Lars; Eich, Georg; Klimek, Peter Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate in young children, which suffered a trampoline fracture in comparison with a normal population. Materials and methods: 62 children (31 females, 31 males) between 2 and 5 years of age (average 2 years 11 months, standard deviation 11 months) with radiographs in two views of the tibia were included in this retrospective study. 25 children with proximal tibia fractures were injured with a history of jumping on a trampoline. All other causes for tibia fractures were excluded. A normal age-mapped control cohort of 37 children was compared. These children had neither evidence of a trampoline related injury nor a fracture of the tibia. The anterior tilt angle of the epiphyseal plate of the tibia was defined as an angle between the proximal tibia physis and the distal tibia physis on a lateral view. Two radiologists evaluated all radiographs for fractures and measured the anterior tilt angle in consensus. An unpaired Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis (SPSS). Original reports were reviewed and compared with the radiological findings and follow-up radiographs. Results: In the normal control group, the average anterior tilt angle measured −3.2°, SD ± 2.8°. The children with trampoline fractures showed an anterior tilt of +4.4°, SD ± 2.9°. The difference was statistically significant, P < 0.0001. In 6 patients (24% of all patients with confirmed fractures) the original report missed to diagnose the proximal tibial fracture. Conclusion: Young children between 2 and 5 years of age are at risk for proximal tibia fractures while jumping on a trampoline. These fractures may be very subtle and difficult to detect on initial radiographs. Measurement of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate on lateral radiographs is supportive for interpreting correctly trampoline fractures

  2. High risk of adrenal toxicity of N1-desoxy quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide derivatives and the protection of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) in the inhibition of the expression of aldosterone synthetase in H295R cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xu; Yang, Chunhui; Ihsan, Awais; Luo, Xun; Guo, Pu; Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Chen, Dongmei; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • N1-QCT, N1-MEQ and N1-CYA showed more adrenal toxicity than other metabolites. • N1-desoxy QdNOs reduced expression of CYP11B1, CYP11B2 and transcription factors. • OPC increased expression of transcription factors, including CYP11B1 and CYP11B2. • OPC reduced adrenal toxicity induced by N1-desoxy QdNOs. • The results provided a mechanism of adrenal damage caused by QdNO metabolites. - Abstract: Quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide derivatives (QdNOs) with a wide range of biological activities are used in animal husbandry worldwide. It was found that QdNOs significantly inhibited the gene expression of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, the key aldosterone synthases, and thus reduced aldosterone levels. However, whether the metabolites of QdNOs have potential adrenal toxicity and the role of oxidative stress in the adrenal toxicity of QdNOs remains unclear. The relatively new QdNOs, cyadox (CYA), mequindox (MEQ), quinocetone (QCT) and their metabolites, were selected for elucidation of their toxic mechanisms in H295R cells. Interestingly, the results showed that the main toxic metabolites of QCT, MEQ, and CYA were their N1-desoxy metabolites, which were more harmful than other metabolites and evoked dose and time-dependent cell damage on adrenal cells and inhibited aldosterone production. Gene and protein expression of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 and mRNA expression of transcription factors, such as NURR1, NGFIB, CREB, SF-1, and ATF-1, were down regulated by N1-desoxy QdNOs. The natural inhibitors of oxidant stress, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC), could upregulate the expression of diverse transcription factors, including CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, and elevated aldosterone levels to reduce adrenal toxicity. This study demonstrated for the first time that N1-desoxy QdNOs have the potential to be the major toxic metabolites in adrenal toxicity, which may shed new light on the adrenal toxicity of these fascinating compounds and help to provide a basic foundation for the

  3. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on superconducting proximity nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapelier, C; Vinet, M; Lefloch, F

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the local density of states (LDOS) of a normal metal (N) in good electrical contact with a superconductor (S) as a function of the distance x to the NS interface. The sample consists of a pattern of alternate L = 1 mm wide strips of Au and Nb made by UV lithography. We used a low temperature scanning tunneling microscope and a lock-in detection technique to record simultaneously dI/dV(V,x) curves and the topographic profile z(x) at 1.5 K. We scanned along lines perpendicular to the strips. All the spectra show a dip near the Fermi energy, which spectral extension decreases from the superconducting gap Δ at the NS interface to zero at distances x >> ξ N where ξ N ≅ √hD N /2Δ ≅ 53nm is the coherence length in the normal metal. Our measurements are correctly described in the framework of the quasi-classical Green's function formalism. We numerically solved the 1D Usadel equation and extracted a decoherence time in gold of 4 ps. We also investigated the LDOS of small ridges of Au deposited on the top of the Nb lines. In this case, L ≤ ξ N and the spatial variations of the spectra depend on the exact shape of the Au ridge. However, our results are consistent with a predicted minigap related to the Thouless energy. (4. mesoscopic superconductivity)

  4. Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-08-18

    Aug 18, 2010 ... transmission lines on ornamental plant growth. Zeki Demir ... The effects of proximity to power-line on specific leaf area and seedling dbh were tested .... during vegetation season is about 72% and common wind blow.

  5. Nutritive Value Assessment of Four Crop Residues by Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Grace Tona

    Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria ... Abstract. This study estimated the proximate composition and in vitro gas production parameters of rice husk, bean ... farms and industries generate large quantities.

  6. Computational proximity excursions in the topology of digital images

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces computational proximity (CP) as an algorithmic approach to finding nonempty sets of points that are either close to each other or far apart. Typically in computational proximity, the book starts with some form of proximity space (topological space equipped with a proximity relation) that has an inherent geometry. In CP, two types of near sets are considered, namely, spatially near sets and descriptivelynear sets. It is shown that connectedness, boundedness, mesh nerves, convexity, shapes and shape theory are principal topics in the study of nearness and separation of physical aswell as abstract sets. CP has a hefty visual content. Applications of CP in computer vision, multimedia, brain activity, biology, social networks, and cosmology are included. The book has been derived from the lectures of the author in a graduate course on the topology of digital images taught over the past several years. Many of the students have provided important insights and valuable suggestions. The topics in ...

  7. Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations data set combines information from a global data set developed by Declan Butler of...

  8. Proximate composition and nutrient content of some wild and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and nutrient content of some wild and cultivated ... Ca, P, K), one minor mineral (Fe) constituent and vitamin C content were determined. ... Mineral content (P and K) in the mushroom sporophores were found to be ...

  9. Effects of Fermentation and Extrusion on the Proximate Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    protein malnutrition persists as a principal health problem among children .... Proximate analysis: Moisture content ... nitrogen by a factor of 6.25. Crude fat ... Statistical analysis: The data were ..... interaction of amino acid in maillard reactions.

  10. Proximate composition and mineral contents of Pebbly fish, Alestes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    /100 g) were significantly .... Proximate analysis of A. baremoze fillets according to sample sizes in a study in. Uganda .... present in the fish tissues in trace amounts. ... The zinc contents in fish samples of ..... (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and.

  11. Effects of Planting Locations on the Proximate Compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Ash, moisture, crude fat, crude fibre, carbohydrate and protein contents were determined according ... All fruits, vegetables, legumes (beans and peas), and the grains we eat ... isolate and quantify each proximate present in the plant material.

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-08

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination (PCBs), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in the southwestern portion of Area 25 on the NTS in Jackass Flats (adjacent to Test Cell C [TCC]), CAU 528 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-27-03, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Surface Contamination. Test Cell C was built to support the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (operational between 1959 and 1973) activities including conducting ground tests and static firings of nuclear engine reactors. Although CAU 528 was not considered as a direct potential source of PCBs and petroleum contamination, two potential sources of contamination have nevertheless been identified from an unknown source in concentrations that could potentially pose an unacceptable risk to human health and/or the environment. This CAU's close proximity to TCC prompted Shaw to collect surface soil samples, which have indicated the presence of PCBs extending throughout the area to the north, east, south, and even to the edge of the western boundary. Based on this information, more extensive field investigation activities are being planned, the results of which are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  13. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    with an application to L1-regularized covariance selection, in which prior constraints on the sparsity pattern of the inverse covariance matrix are imposed. In the numerical experiments the proximal Newton steps are computed by an accelerated proximal gradient method, and multifrontal algorithms for positive definite...... matrices with chordal sparsity patterns are used to evaluate gradients and matrix-vector products with the Hessian of the smooth component of the objective....

  14. Hemiarthroplasty for proximal humeral fracture: restoration of the Gothic arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sumant G; Bennion, Phillip W; Reineck, John R; Burkhead, Wayne Z

    2008-10-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are the most common fractures of the shoulder girdle, and initial management of these injuries often determines final outcome. When arthroplasty is used to manage proximal humeral fractures, surgery remains technically demanding, and outcomes have been unpredictable. Recent advances in both technique and prosthetic implants have led to more successful and reproducible results. Key technical points include restoration of the Gothic arch, anatomic tuberosity reconstruction, and minimal soft tissue dissection.

  15. The sooner, the better: exercise outcome proximity and intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M Blair; Cooke, Lisa M; Murray, Robyn A; Wilson, Anne E

    2014-11-01

    Despite evidence that outcomes are highly valued when they are expected sooner rather than further into the future (Ainslie, 1975), limited research effort has been devoted to understanding the role of exercise outcome proximity. The purpose of this study was to examine how temporal proximity to positive outcomes influences exercisers' intrinsic motivation. We expected that focusing people on temporally proximal exercise outcomes would increase intrinsic motivation, especially among low-frequency exercisers. This online experimental study was completed by 135 community exercisers (Mage  = 31.11, SD = 10.29; 62% female) who reported an average of 4.86 exercise bouts per week (SD = 2.12). Participants were randomly assigned to a condition that primed temporally proximal positive exercise outcomes (i.e. experienced during or directly following an exercise bout) or temporally distal outcomes (i.e. experienced after days, months, or years of regular exercise). Participants then reported perceptions of behavioral regulation in exercise. As expected, the proximal exercise outcome condition elicited increased intrinsic regulation among those participants who exercised less frequently (i.e. 1 SD below the mean). This study reveals the importance of considering proximity as an important dimension of exercise outcomes-particularly when promoting intrinsic motivation among relatively infrequent exercisers. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  16. Psychological responses to the proximity of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügger, Adrian; Dessai, Suraje; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Morton, Thomas A.; Pidgeon, Nicholas F.

    2015-12-01

    A frequent suggestion to increase individuals' willingness to take action on climate change and to support relevant policies is to highlight its proximal consequences, that is, those that are close in space and time. But previous studies that have tested this proximizing approach have not revealed the expected positive effects on individual action and support for addressing climate change. We present three lines of psychological reasoning that provide compelling arguments as to why highlighting proximal impacts of climate change might not be as effective a way to increase individual mitigation and adaptation efforts as is often assumed. Our contextualization of the proximizing approach within established psychological research suggests that, depending on the particular theoretical perspective one takes on this issue, and on specific individual characteristics suggested by these perspectives, proximizing can bring about the intended positive effects, can have no (visible) effect or can even backfire. Thus, the effects of proximizing are much more complex than is commonly assumed. Revealing this complexity contributes to a refined theoretical understanding of the role that psychological distance plays in the context of climate change and opens up further avenues for future research and for interventions.

  17. HEMATOMA OF THE PROXIMAL NAIL FOLD. REPORT OF 41 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Patricia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proximal fold is an important part of the nail apparatus it contributes to the formation of the nail plate and through the cuticle acts as an impermeable barrier protecting it from any cause.Objective: To know the proximal nail fold hematoma caused by the use of pulse oximeter.Material and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in 41 patients with proximal nail hematoma secondary to the use of oximetry in patients hospitalized in the Intermediate and Intensive Care Unit at the Hospital General de Enfermedades from December 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010.Results: We studied 41 patients with proximal nail fold hematoma secondary to the use of oximeter, 30 (73.1% were males and 11 (26.8% females. The numbers of fingers affected by pulse oximeter were in one digit. 30 (73.1% cases, in two digits 6 (14.6%, in three digits 3 (7.3%, in 4 digits 1 (2.4% and in 5 digits 1 (2.4% case. The most affected proximal nail fold was right index: 24 (58.5%, right middle 11 (26.8%, right ring 6 (14.6%, left index 12 (29.2%, and left middle 6 (14.6% cases.Conclusions: Hematomas of the proximal nail fold may be caused by different traumatisms. The use of pulse oximeter is one of them.

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2010-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit 365 comprises one corrective action site (CAS), CAS 08-23-02, U-8d Contamination Area. This site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 6, 2010, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for the Baneberry site. The primary release associated with Corrective Action Unit 365 was radiological contamination from the Baneberry nuclear test. Baneberry was an underground weapons-related test that vented significant quantities of radioactive gases from a fissure located in close proximity to ground zero. A crater formed shortly after detonation, which stemmed part of the flow from the fissure. The scope of this investigation includes surface and shallow subsurface (less than 15 feet below ground surface) soils. Radionuclides from the Baneberry test with the potential to impact groundwater are included within the Underground Test Area Subproject. Investigations and corrective actions associated with the Underground Test Area Subproject include the radiological inventory resulting from the Baneberry test.

  19. Proximal fibular osteotomy: a new surgery for pain relief and improvement of joint function in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohu; Wei, Lei; Lv, Zhi; Zhao, Bin; Duan, Zhiqing; Wu, Wenjin; Zhang, Bin; Wei, Xiaochun

    2017-02-01

    Objective To explore the effects of proximal fibular osteotomy as a new surgery for pain relief and improvement of medial joint space and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods From January 2015 to May 2015, 47 patients who underwent proximal fibular osteotomy for medial compartment osteoarthritis were retrospectively followed up. Preoperative and postoperative weight-bearing and whole lower extremity radiographs were obtained to analyse the alignment of the lower extremity and ratio of the knee joint space (medial/lateral compartment). Knee pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale, and knee ambulation activities were evaluated using the American Knee Society score preoperatively and postoperatively. Results Medial pain relief was observed in almost all patients after proximal fibular osteotomy. Most patients exhibited improved walking postoperatively. Weight-bearing lower extremity radiographs showed an average increase in the postoperative medial knee joint space. Additionally, obvious correction of alignment was observed in the whole lower extremity radiographs in 8 of 47 patients. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that proximal fibular osteotomy effectively relieves pain and improves joint function in patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis at a mean of 13.38 months postoperatively.

  20. RCRA corrective action and closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This information brief explains how RCRA corrective action and closure processes affect one another. It examines the similarities and differences between corrective action and closure, regulators' interests in RCRA facilities undergoing closure, and how the need to perform corrective action affects the closure of DOE's permitted facilities and interim status facilities

  1. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty reduces the risk of fistula and meatal stenosis for proximal hypospadias: a report of 63 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, Hamid; Sabetkish, Shabnam; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    To report the feasibility of modified tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty technique for proximal hypospadias in 63 cases. From January 2004 to March 2010, 63 patients underwent one-stage TIP urethroplasty (modified Snodgrass technique repair) using 2-3 of three covering layers (corpus spongiosum, dartos, and tunica vaginalis). The primary meatus was proximal penile, penoscrotal, scrotal, and perineal in 38, 13, 10, and 2 patients, respectively. All patients had chordee that was corrected with dorsal plication. Glanuloplasty was performed in all cases. Complications and cosmetic results were documented after 6-72 months of follow-up. A total of 63 boys with proximal hypospadias underwent Snodgrass hypospadias repair at a mean age of 8.5 months (range 6-54). Mean operative time was 210 ± 35 min. Patients were followed up with 6-month intervals for up to 6 years postoperatively. After 6 years of follow-up, nine urethrocutaneous fistulae, four bleeding, four meatal stenoses, and one urethral stricture were reported. Cosmetic result was satisfactory according to parent's opinion and another surgeon. No residual chordee was observed in any cases (without artificial correction). In conclusion, this preliminary report can be estimated as an alternative technique with acceptable complication and cosmetic results for proximal hypospadias correction.

  2. Rethinking political correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Robin J; Meyerson, Debra E; Davidson, Martin N

    2006-09-01

    Legal and cultural changes over the past 40 years ushered unprecedented numbers of women and people of color into companies' professional ranks. Laws now protect these traditionally underrepresented groups from blatant forms of discrimination in hiring and promotion. Meanwhile, political correctness has reset the standards for civility and respect in people's day-to-day interactions. Despite this obvious progress, the authors' research has shown that political correctness is a double-edged sword. While it has helped many employees feel unlimited by their race, gender, or religion,the PC rule book can hinder people's ability to develop effective relationships across race, gender, and religious lines. Companies need to equip workers with skills--not rules--for building these relationships. The authors offer the following five principles for healthy resolution of the tensions that commonly arise over difference: Pause to short-circuit the emotion and reflect; connect with others, affirming the importance of relationships; question yourself to identify blind spots and discover what makes you defensive; get genuine support that helps you gain a broader perspective; and shift your mind-set from one that says, "You need to change," to one that asks, "What can I change?" When people treat their cultural differences--and related conflicts and tensions--as opportunities to gain a more accurate view of themselves, one another, and the situation, trust builds and relationships become stronger. Leaders should put aside the PC rule book and instead model and encourage risk taking in the service of building the organization's relational capacity. The benefits will reverberate through every dimension of the company's work.

  3. Automatic Correction Algorithm of Hyfrology Feature Attribute in National Geographic Census

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Guo, P.; Liu, X.

    2017-09-01

    A subset of the attributes of hydrologic features data in national geographic census are not clear, the current solution to this problem was through manual filling which is inefficient and liable to mistakes. So this paper proposes an automatic correction algorithm of hydrologic features attribute. Based on the analysis of the structure characteristics and topological relation, we put forward three basic principles of correction which include network proximity, structure robustness and topology ductility. Based on the WJ-III map workstation, we realize the automatic correction of hydrologic features. Finally, practical data is used to validate the method. The results show that our method is highly reasonable and efficient.

  4. PROXIMAL: a method for Prediction of Xenobiotic Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofshahi, Mona; Manteiga, Sara; Wu, Charmian; Lee, Kyongbum; Hassoun, Soha

    2015-12-22

    Contamination of the environment with bioactive chemicals has emerged as a potential public health risk. These substances that may cause distress or disease in humans can be found in air, water and food supplies. An open question is whether these chemicals transform into potentially more active or toxic derivatives via xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes expressed in the body. We present a new prediction tool, which we call PROXIMAL (Prediction of Xenobiotic Metabolism) for identifying possible transformation products of xenobiotic chemicals in the liver. Using reaction data from DrugBank and KEGG, PROXIMAL builds look-up tables that catalog the sites and types of structural modifications performed by Phase I and Phase II enzymes. Given a compound of interest, PROXIMAL searches for substructures that match the sites cataloged in the look-up tables, applies the corresponding modifications to generate a panel of possible transformation products, and ranks the products based on the activity and abundance of the enzymes involved. PROXIMAL generates transformations that are specific for the chemical of interest by analyzing the chemical's substructures. We evaluate the accuracy of PROXIMAL's predictions through case studies on two environmental chemicals with suspected endocrine disrupting activity, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB3). Comparisons with published reports confirm 5 out of 7 and 17 out of 26 of the predicted derivatives for BPA and PCB3, respectively. We also compare biotransformation predictions generated by PROXIMAL with those generated by METEOR and Metaprint2D-react, two other prediction tools. PROXIMAL can predict transformations of chemicals that contain substructures recognizable by human liver enzymes. It also has the ability to rank the predicted metabolites based on the activity and abundance of enzymes involved in xenobiotic transformation.

  5. Calculus Rules for V-Proximal Subdifferentials in Smooth Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messaoud Bounkhel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, Bounkhel et al. introduced new proximal concepts (analytic proximal subdifferential, geometric proximal subdifferential, and proximal normal cone in reflexive smooth Banach spaces. They proved, in p-uniformly convex and q-uniformly smooth Banach spaces, the density theorem for the new concepts of proximal subdifferential and various important properties for both proximal subdifferential concepts and the proximal normal cone concept. In this paper, we establish calculus rules (fuzzy sum rule and chain rule for both proximal subdifferentials and we prove the Bishop-Phelps theorem for the proximal normal cone. The limiting concept for both proximal subdifferentials and for the proximal normal cone is defined and studied. We prove that both limiting constructions coincide with the Mordukhovich constructions under some assumptions on the space. Applications to nonconvex minimisation problems and nonconvex variational inequalities are established.

  6. Correction to toporek (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Reports an error in "Pedagogy of the privileged: Review of Deconstructing Privilege: Teaching and Learning as Allies in the Classroom" by Rebecca L. Toporek (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 2014[Oct], Vol 20[4], 621-622). This article was originally published online incorrectly as a Brief Report. The article authored by Rebecca L. Toporek has been published correctly as a Book Review in the October 2014 print publication (Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 621-622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036529). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-42484-006.) Reviews the book, Deconstructing Privilege: Teaching and Learning as Allies in the Classroom edited by Kim A. Case (2013). The purpose of this book is to provide a collection of resources for those teaching about privilege directly, much of this volume may be useful for expanding the context within which educators teach all aspects of psychology. Understanding the history and systems of psychology, clinical practice, research methods, assessment, and all the core areas of psychology could be enhanced by consideration of the structural framework through which psychology has developed and is maintained. The book presents a useful guide for educators, and in particular, those who teach about systems of oppression and privilege directly. For psychologists, this guide provides scholarship and concrete strategies for facilitating students' awareness of multiple dimensions of privilege across content areas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Radiation protection: A correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    An error in translation inadvertently distorted the sense of a paragraph in the article entitled 'Ecological Aspects of Radiation Protection', by Dr. P. Recht, which appeared in the Bulletin, Volume 14, No. 2 earlier this year. In the English text the error appears on Page 28, second paragraph, which reads, as published: 'An instance familiar to radiation protection specialists, which has since come to be regarded as a classic illustration of this approach, is the accidental release at the Windscale nuclear centre in the north of England.' In the French original of this text no reference was made, or intended, to the accidental release which took place in 1957; the reference was to the study of the critical population group exposed to routine releases from the centre, as the footnote made clear. A more correct translation of the relevant sentence reads: 'A classic example of this approach, well-known to radiation protection specialists, is that of releases from the Windscale nuclear centre, in the north of England.' A second error appeared in the footnote already referred to. In all languages, the critical population group studied in respect of the Windscale releases is named as that of Cornwall; the reference should be, of course, to that part of the population of Wales who eat laver bread. (author)

  8. Thermodynamics of Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sartori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and work dissipated by the system during wrong incorporations. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics; hence, its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.

  9. Cross plane scattering correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, L.; Karp, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Most previous scattering correction techniques for PET are based on assumptions made for a single transaxial plane and are independent of axial variations. These techniques will incorrectly estimate the scattering fraction for volumetric PET imaging systems since they do not take the cross-plane scattering into account. In this paper, the authors propose a new point source scattering deconvolution method (2-D). The cross-plane scattering is incorporated into the algorithm by modeling a scattering point source function. In the model, the scattering dependence both on axial and transaxial directions is reflected in the exponential fitting parameters and these parameters are directly estimated from a limited number of measured point response functions. The authors' results comparing the standard in-plane point source deconvolution to the authors' cross-plane source deconvolution show that for a small source, the former technique overestimates the scatter fraction in the plane of the source and underestimate the scatter fraction in adjacent planes. In addition, the authors also propose a simple approximation technique for deconvolution

  10. MR imaging of proximal femur: age-related changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Heon; Jeon, Woo Jin; Sohn, Cheol Ho; Park, Mi Ok; Lee, Seong Mun; Joo, Yang Gu; Suh, Soo Jhi; Pyun, Young Sik

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate MR patterns of signal intensity of proximal femur in normal subjects according to the age distribution. T1-weighted MR images of the proximal femur in 125 subjects, aged 13 days to 25 years, were retrospectively analyzed. Age distribution was classified to 4 groups; below 4 months, 5 months to 4 years, 5 years to 14 years, and 15 years to 25 years. By the age of 4 months, the non-ossified femoral epiphysis was seen as intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage. At 5 months-4 years, the ossified femoral capital epiphysis was seen within intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage and appeared as decreased or increased signal-intensity red or yellow marrow surrounded by a rim of low-signal-intensity cortical bone. At 5-14 years, the ossified femoral capital and greater trochanteric epiphysis were seen within the intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage and appeared as decreased or increased signal-intensity red or yellow marrow. At 15-25 years, the proximal metaphyseal marrow showed increased signal intensity. Four patterns of the metaphyseal marrow were recognized by Ricci et al. The frequency of pattern 1 a progressively decreased with age. Pattern 2 and 3 were visible in the 15-25 years age group. An understanding of the spectrum of normal age-related change of the proximal femoral cartilage and marrow patterns serves as the foundation for interpretation of proximal femur pathologies

  11. Topology of digital images visual pattern discovery in proximity spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2014-01-01

    This book carries forward recent work on visual patterns and structures in digital images and introduces a near set-based a topology of digital images. Visual patterns arise naturally in digital images viewed as sets of non-abstract points endowed with some form of proximity (nearness) relation. Proximity relations make it possible to construct uniform topolo- gies on the sets of points that constitute a digital image. In keeping with an interest in gaining an understanding of digital images themselves as a rich source of patterns, this book introduces the basics of digital images from a computer vision perspective. In parallel with a computer vision perspective on digital images, this book also introduces the basics of prox- imity spaces. Not only the traditional view of spatial proximity relations but also the more recent descriptive proximity relations are considered. The beauty of the descriptive proximity approach is that it is possible to discover visual set patterns among sets that are non-overlapping ...

  12. Symmetry-based reciprocity: evolutionary constraints on a proximate mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campennì, Marco; Schino, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the evolution of reciprocal cooperation has attracted an enormous attention, the proximate mechanisms underlying the ability of animals to cooperate reciprocally are comparatively neglected. Symmetry-based reciprocity is a hypothetical proximate mechanism that has been suggested to be widespread among cognitively unsophisticated animals. Methods. We developed two agent-based models of symmetry-based reciprocity (one relying on an arbitrary tag and the other on interindividual proximity) and tested their ability both to reproduce significant emergent features of cooperation in group living animals and to promote the evolution of cooperation. Results. Populations formed by agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity showed differentiated "social relationships" and a positive correlation between cooperation given and received: two common aspects of animal cooperation. However, when reproduction and selection across multiple generations were added to the models, agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity were outcompeted by selfish agents that never cooperated. Discussion. In order to evolve, hypothetical proximate mechanisms must be able to stand competition from alternative strategies. While the results of our simulations require confirmation using analytical methods, we provisionally suggest symmetry-based reciprocity is to be abandoned as a possible proximate mechanism underlying the ability of animals to reciprocate cooperative interactions.

  13. Biomechanical evaluation of straight antegrade nailing in proximal humeral fractures: the rationale of the "proximal anchoring point".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Simon A; Petri, Maximilian; Venderley, Melanie B; Dornan, Grant J; Schmoelz, Werner; Turnbull, Travis Lee; Plecko, Michael; Kralinger, Franz S; Millett, Peter J

    2017-09-01

    Varus failure is one of the most common failure modes following surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures. Straight antegrade nails (SAN) theoretically provide increased stability by anchoring to the densest zone of the proximal humerus (subchondral zone) with the end of the nail. The aim of this study was to biomechanically investigate the characteristics of this "proximal anchoring point" (PAP). We hypothesized that the PAP would improve stability compared to the same construct without the PAP. Straight antegrade humeral nailing was performed in 20 matched pairs of human cadaveric humeri for a simulated unstable two-part fracture. Biomechanical testing, with stepwise increasing cyclic axial loading (50-N increments each 100 cycles) at an angle of 20° abduction revealed significantly higher median loads to failure for SAN constructs with the PAP (median, 450 N; range, 200-1.000 N) compared to those without the PAP (median, 325 N; range, 100-500 N; p = 0.009). SAN constructs with press-fit proximal extensions (endcaps) showed similar median loads to failure (median, 400 N; range, 200-650 N), when compared to the undersized, commercially available SAN endcaps (median, 450 N; range, 200-600 N; p = 0.240). The PAP provided significantly increased stability in SAN constructs compared to the same setup without this additional proximal anchoring point. Varus-displacing forces to the humeral head were superiorly reduced in this setting. This study provides biomechanical evidence for the "proximal anchoring point's" rationale. Straight antegrade humeral nailing may be beneficial for patients undergoing surgical treatment for unstable proximal humeral fractures to decrease secondary varus displacement and thus potentially reduce revision rates.

  14. Salter-Harris type II proximal humerus injuries: state-of-the-art treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdano, Michele Arcangelo; Pellegrini, Andrea; Lunini, Enricomaria; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Ceccarelli, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Proximal epiphyseal injuries of the humerus represent a very low percentage of traumatic growth pathologies, 5 % of all fractures during childhood. In the literature, there have been only a limited number of clinical studies investigating these injuries, basically from an epidemiological point of view, focusing on the incidence of the different types of fractures. We report our experience of 6 young patients with Salter-Harris type II proximal humerus epiphyseal injuries adopting a minimally invasive surgical technique consisting of closed reduction and percutaneous fixation with Kirschner wires. At 2 years of follow-up, the results consisting in constant; disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand; simple shoulder test; and Visual Analogue Scale scores obtained have been excellent and all the patients come back to a normal life with sports practice and normal daily activities. The range of motion was completely restored without any deficit in abduction-adduction, flection-extension, or intra-extra rotation. No differences in anthropometric parameters were found with no case of malangulation, vascular, or neurological complications. Our data support with evidence how the close reduction internal fixation with K-wires treatment can give to the surgeons and the patients a better security about the correct fracture healing. Furthermore, with this article, we will provide a detailed review of the literature in order to define the state-of-the-art treatment to better face such a challenging skeletal injury.

  15. Automated solid-phase subcloning based on beads brought into proximity by magnetic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Elton P; Nikoshkov, Andrej; Uhlen, Mathias; Rockberg, Johan

    2012-01-01

    In the fields of proteomics, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology there is a need for high-throughput and reliable cloning methods to facilitate construction of expression vectors and genetic pathways. Here, we describe a new approach for solid-phase cloning in which both the vector and the gene are immobilized to separate paramagnetic beads and brought into proximity by magnetic force. Ligation events were directly evaluated using fluorescent-based microscopy and flow cytometry. The highest ligation efficiencies were obtained when gene- and vector-coated beads were brought into close contact by application of a magnet during the ligation step. An automated procedure was developed using a laboratory workstation to transfer genes into various expression vectors and more than 95% correct clones were obtained in a number of various applications. The method presented here is suitable for efficient subcloning in an automated manner to rapidly generate a large number of gene constructs in various vectors intended for high throughput applications.

  16. Motor-evacuatory gastric function in patients with duodenal cancer after selective proximal vagotomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, M A; Kabdrakhmanov, T K; Kashkin, K A; Darmenov, O K; Kuspangaljeva, Sh U [Kazakhskij Inst. Klinicheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Khirurgii Minzdrava Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata

    1983-06-01

    Motor-evacuatory stomach function by using continuous radiogastrography was studied in patients with duodenal ulcers. Radiogastrograms were analyzed before operation, on the 7th-15th day after selective proximal vagotomy performed either independently or in combination with draining operations. A faster evacuation of food from the stomach prevailed in an uncomplicated form of duodenal ulcer and compensated stenosis of the pyloroduodenal zone, evacuatory stomach function was retarded or absent in subcompensated and decompensated stenosis. Discoordinated gastric peristalsis and a reverse food input were noted in patients with subcompensated stenosis. At early time after operations temporary inhibition of evacuatory stomach function occurred in 94.2% of the patients; it could be corrected with conservative therapeutic measures.

  17. Motor-evacuatory gastric function in patients with duodenal cancer after selective proximal vagotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, M.A.; Kabdrakhmanov, T.K.; Kashkin, K.A.; Darmenov, O.K.; Kuspangaljeva, Sh.U.

    1983-01-01

    Motor-evacuatory stomach function by using continuous radiogastrography was studied in patients with duodenal ulcers. Radiogastrograms were analyzed before operation, on the 7th-15th day after selective proximal vagotomy performed either independently or in combination with draining operations. A faster evacuation of food from the stomach prevailed in an uncomplicated form of duodenal ulcer and compensated stenosis of the pyloroduodenal zone, evacuatory stomach function was retarded or absent in subcompensated and decompensated stenosis. Discoordinated gastric peristalsis and a reverse food input were noted in patients with subcompensated stenosis. At early time after operations temporary inhibition of evacuatory stomach function occurred in 94.2% of the patients; it could be corrected with conservative therapeutic measures

  18. Comparison of different proximity potentials for asymmetric colliding nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, Ishwar; Puri, Rajeev K.

    2010-01-01

    Using the different versions of phenomenological proximity potential as well as other parametrizations within the proximity concept, we perform a detailed comparative study of fusion barriers for asymmetric colliding nuclei with asymmetry parameter as high as 0.23. In all, 12 different proximity potentials are robust against the experimental data of 60 reactions. Our detailed study reveals that the surface energy coefficient as well as radius of the colliding nuclei depend significantly on the asymmetry parameter. All models are able to explain the fusion barrier heights within ±10% on the average. The potentials due to Bass 80, AW 95, and Denisov DP explain nicely the fusion cross sections at above- as well as below-barrier energies.

  19. High-throughput determination of RNA structure by proximity ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Vijay; Qiu, Ruolan; Shendure, Jay

    2015-09-01

    We present an unbiased method to globally resolve RNA structures through pairwise contact measurements between interacting regions. RNA proximity ligation (RPL) uses proximity ligation of native RNA followed by deep sequencing to yield chimeric reads with ligation junctions in the vicinity of structurally proximate bases. We apply RPL in both baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human cells and generate contact probability maps for ribosomal and other abundant RNAs, including yeast snoRNAs, the RNA subunit of the signal recognition particle and the yeast U2 spliceosomal RNA homolog. RPL measurements correlate with established secondary structures for these RNA molecules, including stem-loop structures and long-range pseudoknots. We anticipate that RPL will complement the current repertoire of computational and experimental approaches in enabling the high-throughput determination of secondary and tertiary RNA structures.

  20. Fractures of the proximal humerus involving the intertubercular groove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahovuo, J.; Paavolainen, P.; Bjoerkenheim, J.M.; Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the involvement of the gliding surface of the biceps tendon in fractures of the proximal humerus. Fifteen patients had a fracture of the proximal humerus verified with antero-posterior and axillary radiographs. Tangential radiographs of the intertubercular groove, obtained from the shoulder joint, showed involvement of the intertubercular groove in 13 patients (87%), which could not be shown with other projections. Groove radiographs revealed in 3 patients a dislocation of the fragments of the greater tuberosity large enough to require surgical treatment, but which had not been found using conventional techniques. Therefore, a groove radiograph should be used to precise fractures of the proximal humerus. (orig.)

  1. Food systems in correctional settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smoyer, Amy; Kjær Minke, Linda

    management of food systems may improve outcomes for incarcerated people and help correctional administrators to maximize their health and safety. This report summarizes existing research on food systems in correctional settings and provides examples of food programmes in prison and remand facilities......Food is a central component of life in correctional institutions and plays a critical role in the physical and mental health of incarcerated people and the construction of prisoners' identities and relationships. An understanding of the role of food in correctional settings and the effective......, including a case study of food-related innovation in the Danish correctional system. It offers specific conclusions for policy-makers, administrators of correctional institutions and prison-food-service professionals, and makes proposals for future research....

  2. Modular endoprosthetic replacement for metastatic tumours of the proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Simon R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Endoprosthetic replacements of the proximal femur are commonly required to treat destructive metastases with either impending or actual pathological fractures at this site. Modular prostheses provide an off the shelf availability and can be adapted to most reconstructive situations for proximal femoral replacements. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and functional outcomes following modular tumour prosthesis reconstruction of the proximal femur in 100 consecutive patients with metastatic tumours and to compare them with the published results of patients with modular and custom made endoprosthetic replacements. Methods 100 consecutive patients who underwent modular tumour prosthetic reconstruction of the proximal femur for metastases using the METS system from 2001 to 2007 were studied. The patient, tumour and treatment factors in relation to overall survival, local control, implant survival and complications were analysed. Functional scores were obtained from surviving patients. Results and conclusion There were 45 male and 55 female patients. The mean age was 60.2 years. The indications were metastases. Seventy five patients presented with pathological fracture or with failed fixation and 25 patients were at a high risk of developing a fracture. The mean follow up was 15.9 months [range 0–77]. Three patients died within 2 weeks following surgery. 69 patients have died and 31 are alive. Of the 69 patients who were dead 68 did not need revision surgery indicating that the implant provided single definitive treatment which outlived the patient. There were three dislocations (2/5 with THR and 1/95 with unipolar femoral heads. 6 patients had deep infections. The estimated five year implant survival (Kaplan-Meier analysis was 83.1% with revision as end point. The mean TESS score was 64% (54%–82%. We conclude that METS modular tumour prosthesis for proximal femur provides versatility; low implant related

  3. An anatomical study of the proximal aspect of the medial femoral condyle to define the proximal-distal condylar length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ming Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite its possible role in knee arthroplasty, the proximal-distal condylar length (PDCL of the femur has never been reported in the literature. We conducted an anatomic study of the proximal aspect of the medial femoral condyle to propose a method for measuring the PDCL. Materials and Methods: Inspection of dried bone specimens was carried out to assure the most proximal condylar margin (MPCM as the eligible starting point to measure the PDCL. Simulation surgery was performed on seven pairs of cadaveric knees to verify the clinical application of measuring the PDCL after locating the MPCM. Interobserver reliability of this procedure was also analyzed. Results: Observation of the bone specimens showed that the MPCM is a concavity formed by the junction of the distal end of the supracondylar ridge and the proximal margin of the medial condyle. This anatomically distinctive structure made the MPCM an unambiguous landmark. The cadaveric simulation surgical dissection demonstrated that the MPCM is easily accessed in a surgical setting, making the measurement of the PDCL plausible. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.78, indicating good interobserver reliability for this technique. Conclusion: This study has suggested that the PDCL can be measured based on the MPCM in a surgical setting. PDCL measurement might be useful in joint line position management, selection of femoral component sizes, and other applications related to the proximal-distal dimension of the knee. Further investigation is required.

  4. Corrective justice and contract law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hevia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  5. Corrective justice and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hevia

    2010-01-01

    This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  6. Morfología femoral proximal en fracturas de cadera

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo de Mora Rebollo, María Jesús; Albareda Albareda, Jorge Cruz; Seral García, Belén; Martín Ruiz, G.; Lasierra Sanromán, José Manuel; Seral Iñigo, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    Es frecuente observar como pacientes que han sufrido una fractura de cadera, si se fracturan posteriormente la cadera contralateral, es del mismo tipo que la primera fractura. El objetivo de este trabajo es tratar de relacional la morfología femoral proximal con la producción de un tipo determinado de fractura. Para ello hemos realizado un estudio prospectivo en 50 pacientes mayores de 65 años, sin distinción de sexo, que han ingresado en nuestro servicio por fractura femoral proximal, 25 ...

  7. True aneurysm of the proximal occipital artery: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Cannistrà, Marco; Pizzardi, Giulia; Pasqua, Rocco; Frezzotti, Francesca; Calio', Francesco G

    2018-01-01

    True aneurysms of the proximal occipital artery are rare, may cause neurological symptoms due to compression of the hypoglossal nerve and their resection may be technically demanding. The case of an aneurysm of the proximal occipital artery causing discomfort and tongue deviation by compression on the hypoglossal nerve is reported. Postoperative course after resection was followed by complete regression of symptoms. Surgical resection, as standard treatment of aneurysms of the occipital artery, with the eventual technical adjunct of intubation by the nose is effective in durably relieving symptoms and preventing aneurysm-related complication. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. True aneurysm of the proximal occipital artery: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Illuminati

    Full Text Available Introduction: True aneurysms of the proximal occipital artery are rare, may cause neurological symptoms due to compression of the hypoglossal nerve and their resection may be technically demanding. Presentation of case: The case of an aneurysm of the proximal occipital artery causing discomfort and tongue deviation by compression on the hypoglossal nerve is reported. Postoperative course after resection was followed by complete regression of symptoms. Conclusion: Surgical resection, as standard treatment of aneurysms of the occipital artery, with the eventual technical adjunct of intubation by the nose is effective in durably relieving symptoms and preventing aneurysm-related complication. Keywords: Arterial aneurysm, Occipital artery, Case report

  9. Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation of the proximal humerus: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, J.B.; Meyer, Mark S.; Reith, John D.

    2007-01-01

    Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP), or Nora's lesion, is a rare lesion of bone occurring predominantly in the long bones of the hands and feet. It exists as a puzzling clinical entity of uncertain origins and high recurrence rates after surgical resection. To our knowledge, this clinical entity has not been reported in the proximal aspect of the humerus. An interesting report of a lesion occurring in the proximal humerus, which initially was misinterpreted as a parosteal osteosarcoma, is discussed outlining the clinical, radiographic and pathologic features of the BPOP lesion. (orig.)

  10. Inter-proximal enamel reduction in contemporary orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindoria, J; Fleming, P S; Sharma, P K

    2016-12-16

    Inter-proximal enamel reduction has gained increasing prominence in recent years being advocated to provide space for orthodontic alignment, to refine contact points and to potentially improve long-term stability. An array of techniques and products are available ranging from hand-held abrasive strips to handpiece mounted burs and discs. The indications for inter-proximal enamel reduction and the importance of formal space analysis, together with the various techniques and armamentarium which may be used to perform it safely in both the labial and buccal segments are outlined.

  11. Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation of the proximal humerus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, J.B.; Meyer, Mark S. [Ochsner Clinic Foundation, Department of Orthopedics, New Orleans, LA (United States); Reith, John D. [University of Florida College of Medicine, Departments of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine and Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Gainesville, Florida (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP), or Nora's lesion, is a rare lesion of bone occurring predominantly in the long bones of the hands and feet. It exists as a puzzling clinical entity of uncertain origins and high recurrence rates after surgical resection. To our knowledge, this clinical entity has not been reported in the proximal aspect of the humerus. An interesting report of a lesion occurring in the proximal humerus, which initially was misinterpreted as a parosteal osteosarcoma, is discussed outlining the clinical, radiographic and pathologic features of the BPOP lesion. (orig.)

  12. Identification of avascular necrosis in the dysplastic proximal femoral epiphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, G.A.; Harcke, H.T.; MacKenzie, W.G.; Bassett, G.S.; Scott, C.I. Jr.; Wills, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Bilateral radiographic irregularities and deformities of the proximal femoral epiphyses are features of both multiple epiphyseal dysplasia and bilateral idiopathic avascular necrosis. In the past these entities have been difficult to differentiate. This report documents radiographically the occurrence of avascular necrosis in 10 patients with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia by recognizing the superimposition of sclerosis and subchondral fissuring on pre-existing symmetrically irregular proximal femoral ossification centers. Scintigraphic (photopenia) or magnetic resonance (loss of signal) criteria of avascular necrosis confirm its added presence and help to establish an imaging scheme to identify avascular necrosis superimposed on multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. (orig.)

  13. Identification of avascular necrosis in the dysplastic proximal femoral epiphysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, G A; Harcke, H T [Alfred I. duPont Inst., Wilmington, DE (USA). Dept. of Medical Imaging; MacKenzie, W G; Bassett, G S [Alfred I. duPont Inst., Wilmington, DE (USA). Dept. of Orthopaedics; Scott, Jr, C I [Alfred I. duPont Inst., Wilmington, DE (USA). Dept. of Genetics; Wills, J S [Medical Center of Delaware, Newark, DE (USA). Dept. of Radiology

    1989-07-01

    Bilateral radiographic irregularities and deformities of the proximal femoral epiphyses are features of both multiple epiphyseal dysplasia and bilateral idiopathic avascular necrosis. In the past these entities have been difficult to differentiate. This report documents radiographically the occurrence of avascular necrosis in 10 patients with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia by recognizing the superimposition of sclerosis and subchondral fissuring on pre-existing symmetrically irregular proximal femoral ossification centers. Scintigraphic (photopenia) or magnetic resonance (loss of signal) criteria of avascular necrosis confirm its added presence and help to establish an imaging scheme to identify avascular necrosis superimposed on multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. (orig.).

  14. Unpacking Corrections in Mobile Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Lena; Cromdal, Jakob; Broth, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    that the practice of unpacking the local particulars of corrections (i) provides for the instructional character of the interaction, and (ii) is highly sensitive to the relevant physical and mobile contingencies. These findings contribute to the existing literature on the interactional organisation of correction...

  15. Atmospheric correction of satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmirko, Konstantin; Bobrikov, Alexey; Pavlov, Andrey

    2015-11-01

    Atmosphere responses for more than 90% of all radiation measured by satellite. Due to this, atmospheric correction plays an important role in separating water leaving radiance from the signal, evaluating concentration of various water pigments (chlorophyll-A, DOM, CDOM, etc). The elimination of atmospheric intrinsic radiance from remote sensing signal referred to as atmospheric correction.

  16. Stress Management in Correctional Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Jaclyn A.

    Current economic conditions have created additional sources of stress in the correctional setting. Often, recreation professionals employed in these settings also add to inmate stress. One of the major factors limiting stress management in correctional settings is a lack of understanding of the value, importance, and perceived freedom, of leisure.…

  17. Flexible pressure and proximity sensor surfaces manufactured with organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fattori, M.; Cantatore, E.; Pauer, G.; Agostinelli, T.; Stadlober, B.; Gold, H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of two large-Area active matrixes on foil for pressure and proximity sensing applications. Frontend circuits based on organic thin-film transistors on foil are laminated with screen-printed PDVF-TrFE piezo and pyro sensors to create the complete flexible sensing

  18. Depressionary Effect of Proximity of Residential Properties to Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Past studies have researched these impacts using a variety of hedonic models and Marginal Implicit Pricing, however, this study takes a special focus on the resident's perspective based on the linear proximity to waste disposal sites. 260 questionnaires were distributed to residents within 1km to the site and Estate ...

  19. Proximal onychomycosis due to Malassezia furfur: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareei M

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiologic role of Malassezia furfur in onychomycosis, because of its controversial keratinolytic ability, has not been proven. The most reported cases are distal subungual onychomycosis (DSO. In our knowledge no cases of proximal onychomycosis (PO has been reported. For the first time we report proximal onychomycosis. This case report describes the isolation of Malassezia furfur from fingernails. Case presentation: An Iranian 56- year- old women had been referred to mycology lab with hyperkeratosis in proximal regions of right hand nails and clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis without paronychia in May 2012. She used several medicines for her cardiac disease, mental illness, severe stress and blood glucose fluctuation diseases. Scraping and sampling from nail lesions were done, budding yeast cells with broadband connections were observed in 15% KOH wet mounts. Also, other differentiation tests, consist of staining with methylen blue, cultures and biochemical tests were done. In order to rejecting the probable etiologic role of any dermatophytic or non-dermatophytic fungi in this case, samples were collected from other parts of the body by scotch tape and scraping with scalpel blade too, but the results of direct microscopy and culture were negative. Finally, Malassezia furfur was identified as the causative agent of onychomycosis.Conclusion: Despite failure to prove Malassezia furfur keratinolytic ability, it can be the etiologic agent of proximal onychomycosis that shows the aggressive properties of this species. Its clinical importance is the easier transmission to hospitalized patients and other people.

  20. Proximate and Cholesterol Composition of Selected Fast Foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fast foods consumption has been on the increase in Nigeria raising concerns about the nutritional and health implications. This study was carried out to determine the proximate composition and cholesterol contents of four commonly consumed fast foods (doughnut, chicken pie, roasted chicken, and Jollof rice) sold in ...

  1. Sharpening a Tool for Teaching: The Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, Rob; Golding, Clinton

    2014-01-01

    Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) provides an important understanding of learning, but its implications for teachers are often unclear or limited and could be further explored. We use conceptual analysis to sharpen the ZPD as a teaching tool, illustrated with examples from teaching critical thinking in zoology. Our conclusions are…

  2. Scaffolding Critical Thinking in the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, Rob; Harland, Tony; Mercer, Alison

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores student experiences of learning to think critically. Twenty-six zoology undergraduates took part in the study for three years of their degree at the University of Otago, New Zealand. Vygotsky's developmental model of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) provided a framework as we examined how critical thinking was developed.…

  3. Proximate and mineral elements composition of five locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition of the studied fruits were determined by the standard methods of Official Analytical Chemists, while the Mineral Elements (Ca and Mg) were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The levels of Na+ and K+ were determined using Flame photometry and the level of P was ...

  4. Effect of smoking and sun drying on proximate composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of smoking and sun drying on proximate composition of Diplotaxodon fish species (Ndunduma) from lake Malawi, Malawi. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... The fish were washed then weighed and thereafter, smoked in a traditional smoking kiln and sun dried on reed mats.

  5. Proximal tibiofibular dislocation: a case report and review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwe Weme, R. A.; Somford, M. P.; Schepers, T.

    2014-01-01

    An isolated dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint is uncommon. The mechanism of this injury is usually sports related. We present a case where initial X-rays did not show the tibiofibular joint dislocation conclusively. It was diagnosed after comparative bilateral AP X-rays of the knees

  6. Observing Complex Systems Thinking in the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Joshua; Saleh, Asmalina; Andrade, Alejandro; Bryan, Branden

    2017-01-01

    Our paper builds on the construct of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) (Vygotsky in Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1978) to analyze the relationship between students' answers and the help they receive as they construct them. We report on a secondary analysis of…

  7. Comparative physico-chemical and proximate analysis of oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In rural areas of developing countries like Burkina Faso, nutritive elements are mainly composed of vegetable source. Shea nut, seeds of Sesamum indicum, Cucumis melo and Cucurbita pepo, four species widely consumed were studied. The proximate parameters: moisture, proteins and fat were analysed. Saponification ...

  8. Proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALLSWELL

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Evaluation of the proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of three tree species was carried out at the University of Agriculture, Umudike. Mature fruits of Allanblackia floribunda,. Garcinia kola and Poga oleosa were collected from the rainforest at Umudike and Oban National Park.

  9. Better access to microcredits: does geographical proximity matter?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alimukhamedova, Nargiza

    -, 2013/2014 Winter (2014), s. 24-25 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : microcredits * geographical proximity Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.e-mfp.eu/sites/ default /files/resources/2014/02/e-MFP_Winter2013-2014_Newsletter%20.pdf

  10. Changes in proximate and phytochemical compositions of Persea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persea americana (avocado pear leaves, fruits, and seeds) is one of the medicinal herbs that has been widely utilized in treating/managing disease conditions. In this study, we investigated the changes in proximate and phytochemical compositions of avocado seeds associated with ripening using standard methods.

  11. Proximate, mineral and vitamin C composition of vegetable Gbolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbolo (Crassocephalum crepidioides and Crassocephalum rubens) is a traditional leafy vegetable highly consumed in southern and central Benin, as well as in some part of northern Benin. The nutritional potential of the two species of Gbolo were evaluated through their proximate composition, mineral and vitamin C ...

  12. Proximity effect in normal metal-multiband superconductor hybrid structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Alexander; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kupriyanov, M. Yu

    2004-01-01

    A theory of the proximity effect in normal metal¿multiband superconductor hybrid structures is formulated within the quasiclassical Green's function formalism. The quasiclassical boundary conditions for multiband hybrid structures are derived in the dirty limit. It is shown that the existence of

  13. User's proximity effects for talk mode in mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelosi, Mauro; B. Knudsen, Mikael; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    Thanks to a recent grip study, 3D CAD model of the human hand have been generated, investigating user's proximity effects for talk mode in mobile phones. The simulation results show that the human hand exhibits a major contribution in determining the total loss when compared to the phantom head...

  14. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the heavy metal content and proximate composition during the 28 day composting of cassava peels used in the cultivation of the oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 was studied. Significant dry weight variations of cellulose, hemicellulose and fat contents were observed from day 0 to 12.

  15. Proximate composition and mineral profile of eight different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... eight different sun dried date varieties; (1) Daki, (2) Aseel, (3) Coconut, (4) Khuzravi, (5) Halavi, (6) Zahidi, (7) Deglet Noor and (8) Barkavi were examined to determine their proximate composition and mineral profile. All the date varieties were found to be rich in proteins, fiber, carbohydrates and net gross energy (352.329 ...

  16. Developing survey metrics for analysing cross-border proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2018-01-01

    attempts to operationalize the varying types of proximity – in relation to CBIC – in the form of a questionnaire tested through pilot studies of two CBRs, at the Finnish–Swedish and Danish–German border, and for two contrasting service industries, namely knowledge-intensive business services and tourism...

  17. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...

  18. Studies on the proximate composition, functional properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study produced full fat and defatted flours from matured ackee apple arils and evaluated the proximate composition and the effect of pH and salt concentrations on some of the functional properties of the full fat flour and the defatted flour. Matured ackee apple arils were oven-dried at 60 oC and milled to obtain ...

  19. Effect of drought/irrigation on proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enset [Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman] is an important root crop serving as a carbohydrate rich food source in Ethiopia. Perennial crops, like enset, are often exposed to recurrent dry periods which could greatly affect their growth, physiology and yield. The effect of induced drought/irrigation on the proximate ...

  20. Proximate composition and amino acid profile of rice husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Native rice husk (NRH) was fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus for 7, 14 and 21 days to improve the nutritional values. The proximate composition and amino acid profiles were determined. The results showed that crude fibre (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) were ...

  1. Proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of three tree species was carried out at the University of Agriculture, Umudike. Mature fruits of Allanblackia floribunda, Garcinia kola and Poga oleosa were collected from the rainforest at Umudike and Oban National Park. The seeds were ...

  2. Microbiological, proximate analysis and sensory evaluation of baked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of making bread of good nutritional, microbiological and sensory qualities from blends of wheat-breadfruit flours was examined. Blends of wheat flour (WF) with percentages of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 of breadfruits flour (BF) were used in the production process. The proximate analysis, sensory evaluation and ...

  3. Proximate composition and phytochemistry of seed oil five cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and phytochemistry of seed oil five cultivars of Cajanus cajan in Nigeria. BA Iwalokun, OJ Adeyemi, TI Adeleke, EO Abayomi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Food Journal Vol. 24(1) 2006: 50-60. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  4. Residential proximity to gasoline service stations and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppé, Vicky; Kestens, Yan; Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a growing public health problem potentially associated with ambient air pollution. Gasoline service stations can emit atmospheric pollutants, including volatile organic compounds potentially implicated in PTB. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between residential proximity to gasoline service stations and PTB. Singleton live births on the Island of Montreal from 1994 to 2006 were obtained (n=267,478). Gasoline service station locations, presence of heavy-traffic roads, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) were determined using a geographic information system. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between PTB and residential proximity to gasoline service stations (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 500 m), accounting for maternal covariates, neighborhood SES, and heavy-traffic roads. For all distance categories beyond 50 m, presence of service stations was associated with a greater odds of PTB. Associations were robust to adjustment for maternal covariates for distance categories of 150 and 200 m but were nullified when adjusting for neighborhood SES. In analyses accounting for the number of service stations, the likelihood of PTB within 250 m was statistically significant in unadjusted models. Associations were, however, nullified in models accounting for maternal covariates or neighborhood SES. Our results suggest that there is no clear association between residential proximity to gasoline service stations in Montreal and PTB. Given the correlation between proximity of gasoline service stations and SES, it is difficult to delineate the role of these factors in PTB.

  5. Phytochemical, Proximate and Metal Content Analysis of the Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The phytochemical analysis of Psidium guajava was carried out by using a standard procedure. Ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate and fibre contents were determined using proximate analysis while the metal contents were determined using Pearson's method. Results: The phytochemical analysis revealed the ...

  6. Proximate composition and sensory properties of freeze-dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These instant soups and the freshly prepared portions were subjected to proximate and sensory analysis using standard methods. The results of the analysis showed that instant egusi soup contained 10.89 % moisture, 16.93 % ash, 19.73 % crude protein, 15.19 % fat, 13.95 % crude fibre and 23.30 % carbohydrate; while ...

  7. Comparative analysis of the Proximate composition and Sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate analysis of the samples revealed that the protein, fat, ash, crude fibre and acid insoluble ash contents differed significantly (p<0.05) between samples. With respect to protein and fat contents, dokuwa sample from Doko had the highest values while dokuwa sample from Lapai had the lowest but the reverse was ...

  8. Heavy metal, proximate and microbial profile of some selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study on the elemental, proximate and microbial composition of fresh samples of Scomber scombrus, Gadus macrocephalus, Saclina pilchradus and Jack mackerel was determined to gain the knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with indiscriminate consumption of marine fishes. Wet digestion was done for the ...

  9. Microbiological and proximate analyses of unripened cheese 'Wara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... may be attributed to poor hygiene of the handlers and manufacturing practices. A careful appraisal of these procedures and the use of pasteurized milk is suggested to reduce the exposure of consumers to health hazard. Key words: Raw milk, Pathogens, Coliforms, Cheese, food borne pathogens, Proximate composition.

  10. Proximate Analysis And The Determination Of Some Physico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Mg (296.00-371.50 µg/g) and Ca (1165.00-1335.50 µg/g) with few exceptions. The results obtained show good agreement with literature values and provide information on the nutritional value of some of the common evaporated milks sold on Nigerian markets. Keywords: Milk, proximate analysis, physico-chemical, AAS

  11. Performance characteristics of proximity focused ultraviolet image converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. T.; Feibelman, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Performance characteristics of Bendix type BX 8025-4522 proximity focused image tubes for UV to visible light conversion are presented. Quantum efficiency, resolution, background, geometric distortion, and environmental test results are discussed. The converters use magnesium fluoride input windows with Cs-Te photocathodes and P-11 phosphors on fiber optic output windows.

  12. Proximate and mineral analysis of some wild edible mushrooms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    israelikk

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... Key words: Edible mushroom, mineral composition, proximate analysis. ... than beef, pork and chicken that contain similar nutrients. .... legumes and meat. In earlier studies, Gruen and Wong. (1982) indicated that edible mushrooms were highly nutritional and compared favourably with meat, egg and milk.

  13. Proximate analysis of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    Lentinus squarrosulus and Psathyrella atroumbonata, two mushroom species commonly found growing on dead leaves and logs, were collected from the Zaria environ and taken to the laboratory for further studies. Each of the mushroom species was separated into its stipe and pileus and used for proximate analysis.

  14. Radiation tolerant design - theory and practice for proximity sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.E.; Pater, S.L.; Cook, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a description of the radiation tolerant design process used to develop a range of proximity detectors with guaranteed total dose lifetime. It also describes some of the applications in which the detectors are being used and the benefits gained by plant operators. (authors)

  15. Leveraging Proximity Sensing to Mine the Behavior of Museum Visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martella, Claudio; Miraglia, Armando; Cattani, Marco; van Steen, Martinus Richardus

    Face-to-face proximity has been successfully leveraged to study the relationships between individuals in various contexts, from a working place, to a conference, a museum, a fair, and a date. We spend time facing the individuals with whom we chat, discuss, work, and play. However, face-to-face

  16. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition of small catfish, Mystus bleekeri, from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan was investigated and fluctuation in relation to body size and condition factor was carried out. Mean percentages for water, fat, protein and ash contents in the whole wet body weight of wild M. bleekeri were 77.87, 3.26, 15.01 and ...

  17. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of stenoses of the proximal subclavian artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, R.; Freyschmidt, J.; Walterbusch, G.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1983-01-01

    Between August 1980 and June 1982, 12 left-sided proximal subclavian stenoses were dilated with balloon catheters. The dilatation was successful in all patients. Differences in blood pressure in the arm could be demonstrated subsequently. Recurrences occurred in two patients after seven and eleven months. Follow-up of nine patients up to 24 months showed them to be symptom-free. (orig.)

  18. Effect of thermal processing methods on the proximate composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritive value of raw and thermal processed castor oil seed (Ricinus communis) was investigated using the following parameters; proximate composition, gross energy, mineral constituents and ricin content. Three thermal processing methods; toasting, boiling and soaking-and-boiling were used in the processing of the ...

  19. Pupils, Tools and the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Yasmine

    2018-01-01

    In this article, I use the Vygotskian concept of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) to examine the learning experience of two grade seven pupils as they attempted to solve an addition of fractions problem using fraction strips. The aim is to highlight how tools can facilitate the enactment of a ZPD, within which the tool provides the guidance.…

  20. Predicting Performance in Higher Education Using Proximal Predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, A Susan M; Meijer, Rob R; Tendeiro, Jorge N

    2016-01-01

    We studied the validity of two methods for predicting academic performance and student-program fit that were proximal to important study criteria. Applicants to an undergraduate psychology program participated in a selection procedure containing a trial-studying test based on a work sample approach,

  1. Phytochemical, proximate and anti-nutrient compositions of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical constituents of plants are influenced by environmental factors and fluctuations just as many other polygenic traits. Four different green leafy vegetables commonly used in the diets of South Eastern Nigeria were analyzed with a view to determine the phytochemicals, proximate and anti-nutrient compositions of ...

  2. Using an index of habitat patch proximity for landscape design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; George R. Parker

    1994-01-01

    A proximity index (PX) inspired by island biogeography theory is described which quantifies the spatial context of a habitat patch in relation to its neighbors. The index distinguishes sparse distributions of small habitat patches from clusters of large patches. An evaluation of the relationship between PX and variation in the spatial characteristics of clusters of...

  3. Affordable dual-sensing proximity sensor for touchless interactive systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.; Diaz, Marlon C.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    We report an ultra-low cost flexible proximity sensor using only off-the-shelf recyclable materials such as aluminum foil, napkin and double-sided tape. Unlike previous reports, our device structure exhibits two sensing capabilities in one platform

  4. Innervation of the renal proximal convoluted tubule of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barajas, L.; Powers, K.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental data suggest the proximal tubule as a major site of neurogenic influence on tubular function. The functional and anatomical axial heterogeneity of the proximal tubule prompted this study of the distribution of innervation sites along the early, mid, and late proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of the rat. Serial section autoradiograms, with tritiated norepinephrine serving as a marker for monoaminergic nerves, were used in this study. Freehand clay models and graphic reconstructions of proximal tubules permitted a rough estimation of the location of the innervation sites along the PCT. In the subcapsular nephrons, the early PCT (first third) was devoid of innervation sites with most of the innervation occurring in the mid (middle third) and in the late (last third) PCT. Innervation sites were found in the early PCT in nephrons located deeper in the cortex. In juxtamedullary nephrons, innervation sites could be observed on the PCT as it left the glomerulus. This gradient of PCT innervation can be explained by the different tubulovascular relationships of nephrons at different levels of the cortex. The absence of innervation sites in the early PCT of subcapsular nephrons suggests that any influence of the renal nerves on the early PCT might be due to an effect of neurotransmitter released from renal nerves reaching the early PCT via the interstitium and/or capillaries

  5. Beyond proximities : The socio-spatial dynamics of knowledge creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.P.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge creation is recognized as interaction between individuals in a social context, but geography-of-knowledge-creation research inadequately connects social context to physical place. The proximities approach reduces physical place to near-far dichotomies and territorial innovation models

  6. The use of pedicled prepucial skin flap urethroplasty for proximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of pedicled prepucial skin flap urethroplasty for proximal bulbomembraneous urethral stricture in children: an easy alternative to transpubic urethroplasty. Harshjeet S. Bal, Jujju J. Kurian and Sudipta Sen. Objective Pediatric urethral strictures are not uncommon, and a myriad of treatment options is available.

  7. Worlds largest particle physics laboratory selects Proxim Wireless Mesh

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Proxim Wireless has announced that the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the world's largest particle physics laboratory and the birthplace of the World Wide Web, is using it's ORiNOCO AP-4000 mesh access points to extend the range of the laboratory's Wi-Fi network and to provide continuous monitoring of the lab's calorimeters" (1/2 page)

  8. Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on Leyland Cypress (xCupressocyparis leylandii (Dallim. and A.B. Jacks.) Dallim) and Japanese Privet (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.) growth were examined in a private nursery located in Sakarya, Turkey. Five transect were randomly chosen in both ...

  9. Effects of fermentation and extrusion on the proximate composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of extrusion and fermentation on the proximate composition and organoleptic properties of six combinations (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50) of sorghum - soya blend were investigated. A total number of 19 microorganisms were isolated during the fermentation of sorghum-soya extrudates; these ...

  10. Phytochemical and proximate analysis of Aspillia kotschyi (Sch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical and proximate composition of Aspillia Kotschyi belonging to Compositae family which is commonly used as medicinal plant in Nigeria was determined on both the Methanolic and Petroleum spirit extracts of the plant material The Methanolic extract of the plant revealed the presence of carbohydrates, ...

  11. Effect of drying temperatures on the proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of the proximate composition showed that the nutritional qualities of the dried eggs were retained during drying thus the drying temperature did not affect the quality of eggs. The moisture contents of the dried whole egg, dried egg yolk and dried egg white at the different temperatures range from 6.25 -7.23%, ...

  12. Impact of Relational Proximity on Distress from Infidelity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Maryanne; Geher, Glenn; Cox, Anthony; Tran, Ulrich S.; Hoben, Ashley; Arrabaca, Andrew; Chaize, Corinna; Dietrich, Robert; Voracek, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Men are generally more distressed by a partner's sexual infidelity whereas women are generally more distressed by a partner's emotional infidelity. The importance of the identity of the interloper, however, has been neglected. We explored the influence of relational proximity (i.e., the degree of

  13. A security review of proximity identification based smart cards

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lefophane, S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available International Conference on Cyber warfare and Security, Mpumalanga, Kruger National Park, South Africa, 24-25 March 2015 A SECURITY REVIEW OF PROXIMITY IDENTIFICATION BASED SMART CARDS S.Lefophane, J. Van der Merwe Modelling and Digital Science: CSIR...

  14. Effect of Soaking Time on Proximate and Mineral Compositions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of soaking time on some composition of yellow maize was investigated. Yellow maize seeds (Zea mays) were soaked in deionized water for 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours respectively followed by draining, drying and milling. The unsoaked seeds were milled and served as the control. Proximate and mineral compositions ...

  15. The Grammaticalization of the Proximative in Tok Pisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses grammaticalization of "laik" in Tok Pisin, meaning "want/like/desire" (from English "like") and "klostu," meaning "near" (from English "close to") as markers of proximative. Shows although "klostu" was more generally a feature of Pacific Pidgin English and began to…

  16. Age factor and proximate compositions of the muscle of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant increases (P < 0.05) in the nitrogen free extract (NFE) of the fish muscle might have been due to the high energy demand imposed on the fish as a positive survival value under the condition of crude oil stress. Keywords: Heterobranchus bidorsalis, Age groups, Proximate composition, Bonny-light crude oil, ...

  17. A STUDY ON PROXIMAL HUMERAL FRACTURES STABILISED WITH PHILOS PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Sivakumar K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Techniques for treating complex proximal humeral fractures vary and include fixations using tension bands, percutaneous pins, bone suture, T-plates, intramedullary nails, double tubular plates, hemiarthroplasty, plant tan humerus fixator plates, Polaris nails and blade plates. Complications of these techniques include cutout or back out of the screws and plates, avascular necrosis, nonunion, malunion, nail migration, rotator cuff impairment and impingement syndromes. Insufficient anchorage from conventional implants may lead to early loosening and failure, especially in osteoporotic bones. In general, nonoperative treatment of displaced three and four-part fractures of the proximal humerus leads to poor outcome due to intraarticular nature of injury and inherent instability of the fragments. Comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus are at risk of fixation failure, screw loosening and fracture displacement. Open reduction and internal fixation with conventional plate and screws has been associated with unacceptably high incidence of screw pull out. PHILOS (the proximal humeral internal locking system plate is an internal fixation system that enables angled stabilisation with multiple interlocking screws for fractures of the proximal humerus. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 patients with proximal humerus fractures who were admitted in the Department of Orthopaedics, Government General Hospital, Kakinada, during the period November 2014 - November 2016 were taken up for study according to inclusion criteria. All patients were treated with PHILOS plate. These proximal humerus fractures were classified according to Neer’s classification. Patients were followed up at 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months’ interval. Functional outcomes for pain, range of motion and muscle power and function were assessed using the Constant-Murley scoring system. Collected data analysed with independent t-test and ANNOVA test. RESULTS The outcome of the study was 1

  18. Biomechanical Strength of Retrograde Fixation in Proximal Third Scaphoid Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Charles A; Boden, Allison L; Hutton, William C; Gottschalk, Michael B

    2018-04-01

    Current techniques for fixation of proximal pole scaphoid fractures utilize antegrade fixation via a dorsal approach endangering the delicate vascular supply of the dorsal scaphoid. Volar and dorsal approaches demonstrate equivalent clinical outcomes in scaphoid wrist fractures, but no study has evaluated the biomechanical strength for fractures of the proximal pole. This study compares biomechanical strength of antegrade and retrograde fixation for fractures of the proximal pole of the scaphoid. A simulated proximal pole scaphoid fracture was produced in 22 matched cadaveric scaphoids, which were then assigned randomly to either antegrade or retrograde fixation with a cannulated headless compression screw. Cyclic loading and load to failure testing were performed and screw length, number of cycles, and maximum load sustained were recorded. There were no significant differences in average screw length (25.5 mm vs 25.6 mm, P = .934), average number of cyclic loading cycles (3738 vs 3847, P = .552), average load to failure (348 N vs 371 N, P = .357), and number of catastrophic failures observed between the antegrade and retrograde fixation groups (3 in each). Practical equivalence between the 2 groups was calculated and the 2 groups were demonstrated to be practically equivalent (upper threshold P = .010). For this model of proximal pole scaphoid wrist fractures, antegrade and retrograde screw configuration have been proven to be equivalent in terms of biomechanical strength. With further clinical study, we hope surgeons will be able to make their decision for fixation technique based on approaches to bone grafting, concern for tenuous blood supply, and surgeon preference without fear of poor biomechanical properties.

  19. Surgical treatment of proximal humerus fractures using PHILOS plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To evaluate functional outcome and complications of open reduction and internal fixation with proximal humeral internal locking system (PHILOS plate for proximal humerus fractures. Methods: We reviewed 51 patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation with PHILOS plate between the years 2007 to 2012. There were 35 men and 16 women with a mean age of 38 years (range 24-68. There were 41 patients in the age group of <60 years and 10 patients in the age group of >60 years. According to Neer classification system, 8, 15 and 23 patients had 2-part, 3-part, and 4-part fractures, respectively and 5 patients had 4-part fracture dislocation. All surgeries were carried out at our tertiary care trauma centre. Functional evaluation of the shoulder at final follow-up was done using Constant-Murley score. Results: The mean follow-up period was 30 months (range 12-44 months. Two patients were lost to followup. Of the remaining 49 patients, all fractures were united clinically and radiologically. The mean time for radiological union was 12 weeks (range 8-20 weeks. At the final follow-up the mean Constant-Murley score was 79 (range 50-100. The results were excellent in 25 patients, good in 13 patients, fair in 6 atients and poor in 5 patients. During the follow-up, four cases of varus malunion, one case of subacromial impingement, one case of deep infection, one case of intraarticular screw penetration and one case of failure of fi xation were noted. No cases of avascular necrosis, hardware failure, locking screw loosening or nonunion were noted. Conclusion: PHILOS provides stable fixation in proximal humerus fractures. To prevent potential complications like avascular necrosis, meticulous surgical dissection to preserve vascularity of humeral head is necessary. Key words: Proximal humerus fracture; Fracture fixation, internal; Proximal humeral internal locking system

  20. Super-Relaxed ( -Proximal Point Algorithms, Relaxed ( -Proximal Point Algorithms, Linear Convergence Analysis, and Nonlinear Variational Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal RaviP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We glance at recent advances to the general theory of maximal (set-valued monotone mappings and their role demonstrated to examine the convex programming and closely related field of nonlinear variational inequalities. We focus mostly on applications of the super-relaxed ( -proximal point algorithm to the context of solving a class of nonlinear variational inclusion problems, based on the notion of maximal ( -monotonicity. Investigations highlighted in this communication are greatly influenced by the celebrated work of Rockafellar (1976, while others have played a significant part as well in generalizing the proximal point algorithm considered by Rockafellar (1976 to the case of the relaxed proximal point algorithm by Eckstein and Bertsekas (1992. Even for the linear convergence analysis for the overrelaxed (or super-relaxed ( -proximal point algorithm, the fundamental model for Rockafellar's case does the job. Furthermore, we attempt to explore possibilities of generalizing the Yosida regularization/approximation in light of maximal ( -monotonicity, and then applying to first-order evolution equations/inclusions.

  1. The difference in the appearance of proximal humeral epiphyseal ossification center on chest radiograph between the preterm and full-term infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Hong; Kim, Seung Cheol; Chang, Young Pyo; Park, Jin Young; Kwon, Ho Jang; Lee, Jee Young; Yoo, Dong Soo; Kim, You Me; Jeong, Chun Keun; Lee, Young Seok

    1997-01-01

    To assess the difference in the appearance of the proximal humeral epiphyseal ossification center, as seen on chest radiograph, between preterm and full-term infants at the same corrected ages. Forty two preterm infants born at 26--35 weeks of gestational age and 218 normal full-term infants born at 38-42 weeks were investigated. Because of various perinatal problems, the preterm infants were treated at a neonatal intensive care unit. Proximal humeral epiphyseal ossification centers were evaluated from chest radiographs, and in cases of preterm infants, the corrected age of 0 month was defined as postconceptional 40 weeks. In preterm infants, the numbers of chest radiographs obtained were 42 at 0 month, 40 at 1 month, 37 at 2 months and 36 at 3 months of corrected age, while in those who were full-term, the numbers were 103 cases at 0 month, 42 at 1 month, 42 at 2 months and 31 at 3 months of age In the preterm group, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus levels and simple wrist radiographs were checked. We then evaluated the difference of appearance of the proximal humeral epiphyseal ossification center between preterm and full-term infants at the same corrected ages, as well as the difference between causative diseases, between the normal and abnormal serologic group and between the normal and abnormal wrist group in preterm infants at the same corrected ages. Using Fisher's exact test, the data were analysed. The incidences of the proximal humeral epiphyseal ossification center in preterm infants were 2.4% (1/42) at 0 month, 20.0% (8/40) at 1 month, 43.2% (16/37) at 2 months and 69.4%(25/36) at 3 months; in full-term infants, the figures were 24.3% (25/103) at 0 month, 66.7%(28/42) at 1 month, 83.3% (35/42) at 2 months and 90.3% (28/31) at 3 months. At 0, 1, and 2 months, the incidences were thus seen to be lower in preterm than in full-term infants(p 0.05). In preterm infants, there were no statistical differences between causative diseases, between the

  2. Beyond-proximity-force-approximation Casimir force between two spheres at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    A recent experiment [J. L. Garrett, D. A. T. Somers, and J. N. Munday, Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 040401 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.040401] measured for the first time the gradient of the Casimir force between two gold spheres at room temperature. The theoretical analysis of the data was carried out using the standard proximity force approximation (PFA). A fit of the data, using a parametrization of the force valid for the sphere-plate geometry, was used by the authors to place a bound on deviations from PFA. Motivated by this work, we compute the Casimir force between two gold spheres at finite temperature. The semianalytic formula for the Casimir force that we construct is valid for all separations, and can be easily used to interpret future experiments in both the sphere-plate and sphere-sphere configurations. We describe the correct parametrization of the corrections to PFA for two spheres that should be used in data analysis.

  3. Linear network error correction coding

    CERN Document Server

    Guang, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    There are two main approaches in the theory of network error correction coding. In this SpringerBrief, the authors summarize some of the most important contributions following the classic approach, which represents messages by sequences?similar to algebraic coding,?and also briefly discuss the main results following the?other approach,?that uses the theory of rank metric codes for network error correction of representing messages by subspaces. This book starts by establishing the basic linear network error correction (LNEC) model and then characterizes two equivalent descriptions. Distances an

  4. Radiographic and Computed Tomographic Configuration of Incomplete Proximal Fractures of the Proximal Phalanx in Horses Not Used for Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brünisholz, Hervé P; Hagen, Regine; Fürst, Anton E; Kuemmerle, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    To characterize the configuration of incomplete proximal fractures of the proximal phalanx (P1) in horses not used for racing and compare radiographic with computed tomography (CT) findings. Historical cohort. Twenty-four horses with incomplete fractures of P1. Medical records of horses not used for racing diagnosed with an incomplete proximal fracture of P1 based on clinical and radiographic examination and confirmed by CT between 2008 and 2013 were retrieved. Radiographs and CT studies of these horses were analyzed using a subjective grading system and by measuring variables that characterized fracture configuration. Twenty-four horses were included (20 Warmbloods) with a mean age of 9.5 years and mean body weight of 574 kg. Fourteen forelimbs and 10 hind limbs were affected. Mean duration of lameness was 8.7 weeks. Computed tomography was superior to radiography in both identifying the fracture and determining fracture size and location. On CT, 92% of fractures were located in the mid-sagittal plane. Mean proximodistal length of the fracture was 13 mm. Fractures were frequently not bicortical. Fractures in forelimbs were located significantly more dorsally than fractures in hind limbs. A distinct fracture pattern with 2 subchondral lines running parallel in close proximity to each other was identified in 54% of cases. Incomplete proximal fractures of P1 have significant variation in their configurations, especially their dorsopalmar/-plantar location. Computed tomography examination allowed clear identification of the fracture configurations and was superior to radiography. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  5. Automatic computation of radiative corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, J.; Ishikawa, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, K.; Nakazawa, N.; Kaneko, T.

    1997-01-01

    Automated systems are reviewed focusing on their general structure and requirement specific to the calculation of radiative corrections. Detailed description of the system and its performance is presented taking GRACE as a concrete example. (author)

  6. Publisher Correction: On our bookshelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouzos, Marios

    2018-03-01

    In the version of this Books and Arts originally published, the book title Spectroscopy for Amateur Astronomy was incorrect; it should have read Spectroscopy for Amateur Astronomers. This has now been corrected.

  7. Self-correcting quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombin, H; Chhajlany, R W; Horodecki, M; Martin-Delgado, M A

    2013-01-01

    Is the notion of a quantum computer (QC) resilient to thermal noise unphysical? We address this question from a constructive perspective and show that local quantum Hamiltonian models provide self-correcting QCs. To this end, we first give a sufficient condition on the connectedness of excitations for a stabilizer code model to be a self-correcting quantum memory. We then study the two main examples of topological stabilizer codes in arbitrary dimensions and establish their self-correcting capabilities. Also, we address the transversality properties of topological color codes, showing that six-dimensional color codes provide a self-correcting model that allows the transversal and local implementation of a universal set of operations in seven spatial dimensions. Finally, we give a procedure for initializing such quantum memories at finite temperature. (paper)

  8. Correcting AUC for Measurement Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bernard; Tworoger, Shelley; Qiu, Weiliang

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic biomarkers are used frequently in epidemiologic and clinical work. The ability of a diagnostic biomarker to discriminate between subjects who develop disease (cases) and subjects who do not (controls) is often measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The diagnostic biomarkers are usually measured with error. Ignoring measurement error can cause biased estimation of AUC, which results in misleading interpretation of the efficacy of a diagnostic biomarker. Several methods have been proposed to correct AUC for measurement error, most of which required the normality assumption for the distributions of diagnostic biomarkers. In this article, we propose a new method to correct AUC for measurement error and derive approximate confidence limits for the corrected AUC. The proposed method does not require the normality assumption. Both real data analyses and simulation studies show good performance of the proposed measurement error correction method.

  9. Libertarian Anarchism Is Apodictically Correct

    OpenAIRE

    Redford, James

    2011-01-01

    James Redford, "Libertarian Anarchism Is Apodictically Correct", Social Science Research Network (SSRN), Dec. 15, 2011, 9 pp., doi:10.2139/ssrn.1972733. ABSTRACT: It is shown that libertarian anarchism (i.e., consistent liberalism) is unavoidably true.

  10. Error correcting coding for OTN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.; Pedersen, Lars A.

    2010-01-01

    Forward error correction codes for 100 Gb/s optical transmission are currently receiving much attention from transport network operators and technology providers. We discuss the performance of hard decision decoding using product type codes that cover a single OTN frame or a small number...... of such frames. In particular we argue that a three-error correcting BCH is the best choice for the component code in such systems....

  11. Spelling Correction in User Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-20

    conventional typescript -oriented command language, where most com- mands consist of a verb followed by a sequence of arguments. Most user terminals are...and explanations. not part of the typescripts . 2 SPFE.LING CORRLC1iON IN USR IN"RFAC’S 2. Design Issues We were prompted to look for a new correction...remaining 73% led us to wonder what other mechanisms might permit further corrections while retaining the typescript -style interface. Most of the other

  12. Quantum error correction for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devitt, Simon J; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2013-01-01

    Quantum error correction (QEC) and fault-tolerant quantum computation represent one of the most vital theoretical aspects of quantum information processing. It was well known from the early developments of this exciting field that the fragility of coherent quantum systems would be a catastrophic obstacle to the development of large-scale quantum computers. The introduction of quantum error correction in 1995 showed that active techniques could be employed to mitigate this fatal problem. However, quantum error correction and fault-tolerant computation is now a much larger field and many new codes, techniques, and methodologies have been developed to implement error correction for large-scale quantum algorithms. In response, we have attempted to summarize the basic aspects of quantum error correction and fault-tolerance, not as a detailed guide, but rather as a basic introduction. The development in this area has been so pronounced that many in the field of quantum information, specifically researchers who are new to quantum information or people focused on the many other important issues in quantum computation, have found it difficult to keep up with the general formalisms and methodologies employed in this area. Rather than introducing these concepts from a rigorous mathematical and computer science framework, we instead examine error correction and fault-tolerance largely through detailed examples, which are more relevant to experimentalists today and in the near future. (review article)

  13. The anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate: a significant radiological finding in young children with trampoline fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranzinger, Enno; Leidolt, Lars; Eich, Georg; Klimek, Peter Michael

    2014-08-01

    Evaluation of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate in young children, which suffered a trampoline fracture in comparison with a normal population. 62 children (31 females, 31 males) between 2 and 5 years of age (average 2 years 11 months, standard deviation 11 months) with radiographs in two views of the tibia were included in this retrospective study. 25 children with proximal tibia fractures were injured with a history of jumping on a trampoline. All other causes for tibia fractures were excluded. A normal age-mapped control cohort of 37 children was compared. These children had neither evidence of a trampoline related injury nor a fracture of the tibia. The anterior tilt angle of the epiphyseal plate of the tibia was defined as an angle between the proximal tibia physis and the distal tibia physis on a lateral view. Two radiologists evaluated all radiographs for fractures and measured the anterior tilt angle in consensus. An unpaired Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis (SPSS). Original reports were reviewed and compared with the radiological findings and follow-up radiographs. In the normal control group, the average anterior tilt angle measured -3.2°, SD ± 2.8°. The children with trampoline fractures showed an anterior tilt of +4.4°, SD ± 2.9°. The difference was statistically significant, Ptrampoline. These fractures may be very subtle and difficult to detect on initial radiographs. Measurement of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate on lateral radiographs is supportive for interpreting correctly trampoline fractures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Surgical management of proximal splint bone fractures in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.R.; Pascoe, J.R.; Wheat, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Fractures of Metacarpal and Metatarsal II and IV (the splint bones) were treated in 283 horses over an 11 year period. In 21 cases the proximal portion of the fractured bone was stabilized with metallic implants. One or more cortical bone screws were used in 11 horses, and bone plates were applied in 11 horses. One horse received both treatments. Complications of screw fixation included bone failure, implant failure, radiographic lucency around the screws, and proliferative new bone at the ostectomy site. Only two of the horses treated with screw fixation returned to their intended use. Complications of plate fixation included partial fixation failure (backing out of screws), wound drainage, and proliferative bony response around the plate. Six of the 11 horses treated by plate fixation returned to their intended use. The authors recommend consideration of plate fixation techniques for repair of fractures in the proximal third of the splint bone

  15. Proximal Limb Weakness Reverting After CSF Diversion In Intracranial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report about two young girls who developed progressive visual failure secondary to increased intracranial pressure and had significant proximal muscle weakness of limbs. Patients with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP may present with "false localizing signs", besides having headache, vomiting and papilledema. Radicular pain as a manifestation of raised ICP is rare and motor weakness attributable to polyradiculopathy is exceptional. Two patients with increased intracranial pressure without lateralizing signs′ had singnificant muscle weakness. Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests did not disclose any other cause for weakness. Following theco-peritoneal shunt, in both patients, there was variable recovery of vision but the proximal weakness and symptoms of elevated ICP improved rapidly. Recognition of this uncommon manifestation of raised ICP may obviate the need for unnecessary investigation and reduce morbidity due to weakness by CSF diversion procedure.

  16. Automated space vehicle control for rendezvous proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    Rendezvous during the unmanned space exploration missions, such as a Mars Rover/Sample Return will require a completely automatic system from liftoff to docking. A conceptual design of an automated rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking system is being implemented and validated at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The emphasis is on the progress of the development and testing of a prototype system for control of the rendezvous vehicle during proximity operations that is currently being developed at JSC. Fuzzy sets are used to model the human capability of common sense reasoning in decision making tasks and such models are integrated with the expert systems and engineering control system technology to create a system that performs comparably to a manned system.

  17. Efficient Indoor Proximity and Separation Detection for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Treu, Georg; Ruppel, Peter

    2008-01-01

    the respective building topology. The approach applies efficient strategies to reduce the number of messages transmitted between the mobile targets and a central location server, thus saving the targets' battery power, bandwidth, and other resources. The strategies are evaluated in terms of efficiency......Detecting proximity and separation among mobile targets is a basic mechanism for many location-based services (LBSs) and requires continuous positioning and tracking. However, realizing both mechanisms for indoor usage is still a major challenge. Positioning methods like GPS cannot be applied there......, and for distance calculations the particular building topology has to be taken into account. To address these challenges, this paper presents a novel approach for indoor proximity and separation detection, which uses location fingerprinting for indoor positioning of targets and walking distances for modeling...

  18. Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handoll, Helen H G; Brorson, Stig

    2015-01-01

    supervised exercise in a swimming pool plus home exercise.Eight trials, involving 567 older participants, evaluated surgical intervention for displaced fractures. There was high quality evidence of no clinically important difference in patient-reported shoulder and upper-limb function at one- or two......BACKGROUND: Fracture of the proximal humerus, often termed shoulder fracture, is a common injury in older people. The management of these fractures varies widely. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2001 and last updated in 2012. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (benefits...... and harms) of treatment and rehabilitation interventions for proximal humeral fractures in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other databases, conference...

  19. Synostosis of proximal phalangeal bases for loss of distal metacarpal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Jindal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A finger rendered unstable due to loss of metacarpal head can be stabilized by creating a synostosis at the base of the proximal phalanx of the affected finger with the adjacent normal finger. A cortico cancellous graft bridges the two adjacent proximal phalanges at their bases which are temporarily stabilized with an external fixator. The procedure can be done for, recurrence of giant cell tumor of metacarpal and for traumatic metacarpal loss. The procedure and long term follow up of one patient is presented who had giant cell tumor. This option should be considered before offering ray amputation. There is no micro vascular surgery involved, nor is there any donor site morbidity. The graft heals well without any absorption. The affected finger shows excellent function in the long term followup.

  20. Affordable dual-sensing proximity sensor for touchless interactive systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2016-09-13

    We report an ultra-low cost flexible proximity sensor using only off-the-shelf recyclable materials such as aluminum foil, napkin and double-sided tape. Unlike previous reports, our device structure exhibits two sensing capabilities in one platform, with outstanding long detection range of 20 cm and pressure sensitivity of 0.05 kPa. This is the first ever demonstration of a low-cost, accessible, and batch manufacturing process for pressure and proximity sensing on a singular platform. The mechanical flexibility of the sensor makes it possible to mount on various irregular platforms, which is vital in many areas, such as robotics, machine automation, vehicular technology and inspection tools.

  1. Impact of Relational Proximity on Distress from Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryanne Fisher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Men are generally more distressed by a partner's sexual infidelity whereas women are generally more distressed by a partner's emotional infidelity. The importance of the identity of the interloper, however, has been neglected. We explored the influence of relational proximity (i.e., the degree of genetic relatedness on distress about infidelity. In Study 1, participants were most distressed when the imagined infidelity occurred between their current mate and close kin. In Study 2, relational proximity mattered more than the type of sexual behavior, the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted disease, and the likelihood of the infidelity leading to a damaged reputation. Together, the results indicate that identity matters, especially if the interloper is someone with whom we have familial bonds.

  2. Mutual proximity graphs for improved reachability in music recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexer, Arthur; Stevens, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the impact of hubness, a general problem of machine learning in high-dimensional spaces, on a real-world music recommendation system based on visualisation of a k-nearest neighbour (knn) graph. Due to a problem of measuring distances in high dimensions, hub objects are recommended over and over again while anti-hubs are nonexistent in recommendation lists, resulting in poor reachability of the music catalogue. We present mutual proximity graphs, which are an alternative to knn and mutual knn graphs, and are able to avoid hub vertices having abnormally high connectivity. We show that mutual proximity graphs yield much better graph connectivity resulting in improved reachability compared to knn graphs, mutual knn graphs and mutual knn graphs enhanced with minimum spanning trees, while simultaneously reducing the negative effects of hubness.

  3. Quality of life in old patients with proximal femoral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Raskina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study quality of life in Kemerovo old patients with proximal femoral fractures. Patients and methods. Quality of life in osteoporotic fractures was analyzed in 219 patients (173 women and 46 men who had sustained the injury in January 2004 to December 2008. Results. In the patients with hip fractures, the lowest (41.94+31.16 scores values were recorded by the physical functioning scale reflecting the degree to which their health limited the performance of physical exercises (self-service, walking, going upstairs, weight carriage, etc.. The role functioning and life activity scales showed the highest values (50.96+19.04 and 51.44+26.51 scores, respectively. The mean value of the physical component scale was 46.42+28.26 scores. That of the psychological component scale was 49.56+19.55 scores. Conclusion. The patients with proximal femoral fractures were found to have lower scores on all SF-36 dimensions.

  4. Aneurysms of proximal pulmonary arteries: CT diagnosis and preoperative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iula, G.; Ziviello, R.; Del Vecchio, W.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed our experience with proximal pulmonary artery aneurysm (PPAA) to determine whether accurate preoperative evaluation (crucial to differential diagnosis and surgical planning) had been obtained on the basis of CT study alone. Three patients with PPAA were studied with contrast-enhanced CT. We evaluated the size and shape of PPAAs, their proximal and distal extent, eventual presence of intraluminal thrombi, dissection, perianeurysmal fibrosis, and rupture. The results were compared with surgical findings. In two patients the aneurysm involved the pulmonary trunk and both the right and left arteries origin. In one patient the aneurysm extended from the left artery origin to the hilum of the left lung. Contrast-enhanced CT alone allows detection of aneurysm in the pulmonary trunk, in right or left pulmonary arteries with precise preoperative evaluation of the extent, size, shape, and complications. The CT imaging was unable to establish the etiologic origin and presence of small intimal tears in PPAA. (orig.)

  5. Proximate composition analysis posterior to the cryopreservation of Chaetoceros calcitrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Salas-Leiva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of cryopreservation on the proximate composition of microalgae Chaetoceros calcitrans was evaluated. Materials and methods. C. calcitrans was cultured and cryopreserved using 5% (v/v dimethylsulfoxide as cryoprotectant. The freezing was controlled at a rate of 3°C/min, up to -60°C and then the microalgae were immersed in liquid nitrogen (-196°C. After storage in liquid nitrogen, microalgae were rapidly thawed out and subcultured. The percentage of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates was analyzed using absorption spectrophotometry and the organic matter was studied by gravimetric analysis. Results. There was no significant variation between the proximate composition of C. calcitrans cryopreserved and the controls (p>0.05. Conclusion. Our results show that, despite low cell recovery after the preservation of this organism at low temperatures, there is no apparent loss of nutritional characteristics caused by the storing process at low temperatures.

  6. Mortality Following Periprosthetic Proximal Femoral Fractures Versus Native Hip Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Matthew R; Riesgo, Aldo M; Paulino, Carl B; Slover, James D; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Egol, Kenneth A

    2018-04-04

    The number of periprosthetic proximal femoral fractures is expected to increase with the increasing prevalence of hip arthroplasties. While native hip fractures have a well-known association with mortality, there are currently limited data on this outcome among the subset of patients with periprosthetic proximal femoral fractures. Using the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System, we identified patients from 60 to 99 years old who were admitted to a hospital in the state with a periprosthetic proximal femoral fracture (n = 1,655) or a native hip (femoral neck or intertrochanteric) fracture (n = 97,231) between 2006 and 2014. Within the periprosthetic fracture cohort, the indication for the existing implant was not available in the data set. We used mixed-effects regression models to compare mortality at 1 and 6 months and 1 year for periprosthetic compared with native hip fractures. The risk of mortality for patients who sustained a periprosthetic proximal femoral fracture was no different from that for patients who sustained a native hip fracture at 1 month after injury (3.2% versus 4.6%; odds ratio [OR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 1.19; p = 0.446), but was lower at 6 months (3.8% versus 6.5%; OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.95; p = 0.020) and 1 year (9.7% versus 15.9%; OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.85; p accounting for age and comorbidities. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  7. Social networks, geographic proximity, and firm performance in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Emma

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses panel data to assess the relative importance of social networks and geographic proximity to micro, small, and medium enterprises in Viet Nam. The results suggest that a larger social network, and hiring employees mainly through social networks, are both correlated with higher value added per worker. The number of government officials and civil servants in a firm's network emerges as particularly important. When the quality of contacts is controlled for, firms with tighter soci...

  8. Physical Proximity and Spreading in Dynamic Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Pentland, Alex Sandy; Lehmann, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Most infectious diseases spread on a dynamic network of human interactions. Recent studies of social dynamics have provided evidence that spreading patterns may depend strongly on detailed micro-dynamics of the social system. We have recorded every single interaction within a large population, mapping out---for the first time at scale---the complete proximity network for a densely-connected system. Here we show the striking impact of interaction-distance on the network structure and dynamics ...

  9. Proximate Composition and Mineral Content in Different ,Types of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The: concentration of protein in traditional and ... resuiis:in d;je~t types o[togwa wjth yariatiOl? in proximate comfX?sition, energy density and~mirieral content. " . ..... hi the preparation of simulated togwa l .,. "'.' .. IngredientS ,Dtj<: "\\C!~de P~o-.' Ct;ude fi-. Fat: --Ash. Caroo-. Energy matte; r tein (0/0) . ,; bee hydrate value .: (%).

  10. Advances in Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Arthroplasty: Biomechanics and Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Andy F; Rahgozar, Paymon; Chung, Kevin C

    2018-05-01

    Proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthritis is a debilitating condition. The complexity of the joint makes management particularly challenging. Treatment of PIP arthritis requires an understanding of the biomechanics of the joint. PIP joint arthroplasty is one treatment option that has evolved over time. Advances in biomaterials have improved and expanded arthroplasty design. This article reviews biomechanics and arthroplasty design of the PIP joint. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pseudoarthrosis following proximal humeral fractures: A possible mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooney, P.J.; Cockshott, W.P.

    1986-01-01

    A small series of four patients with pseudarthrosis of the proximal humeral shaft is reported. These patients all had restricted movement of the shoulder joint prior to the trauma, three as a result of rheumatoid arthritis and one due a surgical fusion of the glenohumeral joint. It is suggested that pseudarthrosis is more likely under these circumstances and that pursuit of union of the fracture in such patients may not always be necessary.

  12. Proximal Humerus Fractures: Evaluation and Management in the Elderly Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Proximal humerus fractures are common in the elderly. The evaluation and management of these injuries is often controversial. The purpose of this study is to review recent evidence and provide updated recommendations for treating proximal humerus fractures in the elderly. Methods: A literature review of peer-reviewed publications related to the evaluation and management of proximal humerus fractures in the elderly was performed. There was a focus on randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews published within the last 5 years. Results: The incidence of proximal humerus fractures is increasing. It is a common osteoporotic fracture. Bone density is a predictor of reduction quality and can be readily assessed with anteroposterior views of the shoulder. Social independence is a predictor of outcome, whereas age is not. Many fractures are minimally displaced and respond acceptably to nonoperative management. Displaced and severe fractures are most frequently treated operatively with intramedullary nails, locking plates, percutaneous techniques, or arthroplasty. Discussion: Evidence from randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews is insufficient to recommend a treatment; however, most techniques have acceptable or good outcomes. Evaluation should include an assessment of the patient’s bone quality, social independence, and surgical risk factors. With internal fixation, special attention should be paid to medial comminution, varus angulation, and restoration of the calcar. With arthroplasty, attention should be paid to anatomic restoration of the tuberosities and proper placement of the prosthesis. Conclusion: A majority of minimally displaced fractures can be treated conservatively with early physical therapy. Treatment for displaced fractures should consider the patient’s level of independence, bone quality, and surgical risk factors. Fixation with percutaneous techniques, intramedullary nails, locking plates, and arthroplasty are all

  13. Stability and the proximity theorem in Casimir actuated nano devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R.; Reyes, L.; Bárcenas, J.

    2006-10-01

    A brief description of the stability problem in micro and nano electromechanical devices (MEMS/NEMS) actuated by Casimir forces is given. To enhance the stability, we propose the use of curved surfaces and recalculate the stability conditions by means of the proximity force approximation. The use of curved surfaces changes the bifurcation point, and the radius of curvature becomes a control parameter, allowing a rescaling of the elastic restitution constant and/or of the typical dimensions of the device.

  14. How to tell the History. Proximity strategies on Argentine television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Galán Fajardo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of a television documentary Algo habrán hecho (por la historia argentina, broadcast on Telefe and Canal 13, between 2005 and 2008. The interrelationship of discursive tools and informative and evocation strategies are very relevant in this text. Its effectiveness is related to a combined use of resources that appeal to different meanings of proximity, with the objective to make accessible the history to a popular audience.

  15. Theory of the superconducting proximity effect below the transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvert, W.

    1975-01-01

    The form of the low-temperature theory of the superconducting proximity effect depends on whether the non-linear terms are assumed to depend only on the local value of the gap or on its average value over some finite range. The local assumption leads to smaller values of the gap and to unphysical results at low temperatures. The effect of non-locality is significant even in the Ginsburg-Landau regime. (author)

  16. Cyclophilin B expression in renal proximal tubules of hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainer, D B; Doris, P A

    2000-04-01

    Rat cyclophilin-like protein (Cy-LP) is a candidate hypertension gene initially identified by differential hybridization and implicated in renal mechanisms of salt retention and high blood pressure. We report the molecular characterization of rat cyclophilin B (CypB) and demonstrate, through sequence analysis and an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction primer assay, that CypB but not Cy-LP is expressed in rat kidney. CypB is an endoplasmic reticulum-localized prolyl-isomerase that interacts with elongation initiation factor 2-beta, an important regulator of protein translation and a central component of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response to hypoxia or ATP depletion. Active renal transport of sodium is increased in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), and there is evidence that this coincides with hypoxia and ATP depletion in the renal cortex. In the present studies we have examined expression of CypB in rat proximal tubules, which contributes to the increased renal sodium reabsorption in this model of hypertension. We report that CypB transcript abundance is significantly elevated in proximal convoluted tubules from SHR compared with the control Wistar-Kyoto strain. This upregulation occurs in weanling animals and precedes the development of hypertension, indicating that it is not a simple response to hypertension in SHR. Further, CypB expression is also higher in a proximal tubule cell line derived from SHR compared with a similar line derived from Wistar-Kyoto rats, indicating that this difference is genetically determined. No sequence differences were observed in the CypB cDNA from these 2 strains. These observations suggest that a genetically determined alteration in proximal tubules from SHR occurs that leads to increased expression of CypB. In view of evidence linking CypB to the regulation of elongation initiation factor-2, the upregulation of CypB may result from metabolic stress.

  17. Sensitivity Analysis of the Proximal-Based Parallel Decomposition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal-based parallel decomposition methods were recently proposed to solve structured convex optimization problems. These algorithms are eligible for parallel computation and can be used efficiently for solving large-scale separable problems. In this paper, compared with the previous theoretical results, we show that the range of the involved parameters can be enlarged while the convergence can be still established. Preliminary numerical tests on stable principal component pursuit problem testify to the advantages of the enlargement.

  18. Bilateral trampoline fracture of the proximal tibia in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico B Arkink, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Trampoline fractures are transversely oriented impaction fractures of the proximal tibia sustained by young children jumping on a trampoline. Unaware of the mechanism of this specific nontraumatic fracture, physicians may fail to detect these fractures on plain radiographs, as radiological findings may be very subtle. In this case report, we present a rare case of bilateral trampoline fractures with an explanation of the trauma mechanism.

  19. Bilateral trampoline fracture of the proximal tibia in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkink, Enrico B; van der Plas, Annelies; Sneep, Ruth W; Reijnierse, Monique

    2017-12-01

    Trampoline fractures are transversely oriented impaction fractures of the proximal tibia sustained by young children jumping on a trampoline. Unaware of the mechanism of this specific nontraumatic fracture, physicians may fail to detect these fractures on plain radiographs, as radiological findings may be very subtle. In this case report, we present a rare case of bilateral trampoline fractures with an explanation of the trauma mechanism.

  20. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Chun-Hung; Cheung,; Nalliah,Romesh; Mei,May L

    2013-01-01

    Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slo...

  1. Residential proximity to major roads and obstetrical complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Naruse, Hiroo; Kashima, Saori; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to air pollution is linked with an increased risk of preterm births. To provide further evidence on this relationship, we evaluated the association between proximity to major roads--as an index for air pollution exposure--and various obstetrical complications. Data were extracted from a database maintained by the perinatal hospital in Shizuoka, Japan. We restricted the analysis to mothers with singleton pregnancies of more than 22 weeks of gestation from 1997 to 2012 (n=19,077). Using the geocoded residential information, each mother was assigned proximity to major roads. We then estimated multivariate adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the effects of proximity to major roads on various obstetrical complications (preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, placenta abruption, placenta previa, preterm premature rupture of membrane (pPROM), preterm labor, and preterm births). We found positive associations of proximity to major roads with preeclampsia and pPROM. Living within 200 m increased the odds of preeclampsia by 1.3 times (95% CI, 1.0-1.8) and pPROM by 1.6 times (95% CI, 1.1-2.2). Furthermore, living within 200 m increased the odds of preterm births by 1.4 fold (95% CI, 1.2-1.7). Exposure to traffic-related air pollution increased the risk of preeclampsia and pPROM in this study. We propose a mechanism responsible for the association between air pollution and preterm births. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rehabilitation after proximal femur surgery in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Holečková, Kristýna

    2017-01-01

    of thesis This thesis deals with physiotherapy after proximal femur surgery in elderly people. The aim of the thesis is to show the particularities of physiotherapy for elderly people and to determine the influence of nutritional status on the progress and outcome of physiotherapy. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is focused on old age period, and changes associated with aging, geriatric physiotherapy and its components, namely classical physioth...

  3. Electromagnetic Signal Feedback Control for Proximity Detection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam K.

    Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel in the United States and remains an essential source of energy. While more than half of coal production comes from surface mining, nearly twice as many workers are employed by underground operations. One of the key pieces of equipment used in underground coal mining is the continuous mining machine. These large and powerful machines are operated in confined spaces by remote control. Since 1984, 40 mine workers in the U. S. have been killed when struck or pinned by a continuous mining machine. It is estimated that a majority of these accidents could have been prevented with the application of proximity detection systems. While proximity detection systems can significantly increase safety around a continuous mining machine, there are some system limitations. Commercially available proximity warning systems for continuous mining machines use magnetic field generators to detect workers and establish safe work areas around the machines. Several environmental factors, however, can influence and distort the magnetic fields. To minimize these effects, a control system has been developed using electromagnetic field strength and generator current to stabilize and control field drift induced by internal and external environmental factors. A laboratory test set-up was built using a ferrite-core magnetic field generator to produce a stable magnetic field. Previous work based on a field-invariant magnetic flux density model, which generically describes the electromagnetic field, is expanded upon. The analytically established transferable shell-based flux density distribution model is used to experimentally validate the control system. By controlling the current input to the ferrite-core generator, a more reliable and consistent magnetic field is produced. Implementation of this technology will improve accuracy and performance of existing commercial proximity detection systems. These research results will help reduce the risk of traumatic

  4. Proximal focal femoral deficiency: evaluation by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biko, David M.; Davidson, Richard; Pena, Andres; Jaramillo, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal development of the proximal femur. The most common radiographic classification (Aitken) does not evaluate the cartilaginous and soft-tissue abnormalities. To demonstrate MR findings of PFFD focusing on features not seen with radiographs. Nine MR examinations of the hip and femurs of seven children with PFFD were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging was quantitatively and qualitatively assessed comparing the affected limb to the contralateral limb and age-matched controls. The children were classified via the Aitken classification. All children had at least mild acetabular dysplasia, and one type D patient had no acetabulum. MR demonstrated that 4/6 children had labral hypertrophy with a decreased distance from the greater trochanter to the acetabular rim, suggesting impingement (P < 0.05). The proximal femoral physis was abnormal in all cases. The connection between the femoral head and shaft if present was fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. MRI can help in evaluation of PFFD by defining the anatomy. MR demonstrates features of the acetabulum and cartilaginous femoral epiphysis and depicts ligamentous abnormalities of the knee. (orig.)

  5. [MRI characteristic of proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    To study the MRI features of proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome for further improve the understanding of the disease. MRI imaging of 10 patients with proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome was retrospectively reviewed,including 6 males and 4 females with an average age of 41.5 years old ranging from 36 to 57. The courses of diseases ranged from 1 week to 3 months. Among them, 9 cases had clinical manifestations of sudden hip pain, 7 cases had limited ability of walking and hip movement;all patients had no obvious injury history, non of the female patients was pregnant. All patients were followed up from 3 to 12 months, the following-up were topped after MRI when the symptoms disappeared for 3 months. The MRI demonstrated diffuse bone marrow edema involving the femoral head, neck and the inter-trochanteric region, 13 hips of 10 patients with bone marrow edema included 6 cases in grade 1, 5 cases in grade 2,2 cases in grade 3; 9 hips with hip hydrarthrosis included 6 hips in grade I ,1 hip in grade II, 2 hips in grade III. After treatment for 3 to 12 months the hip symptoms of the patients disappeared and MRI images were normal. MRI is useful in defining the location and extent of proximal femur bone marrow edema syndrome.

  6. [RESEARCH PROGRESS OF BIOMECHANICS OF PROXIMAL ROW CARPAL INSTABILITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinhai; Huang, Fuguo

    2015-01-01

    To review the research progress of the biomechanics of proximal row carpal instability (IPRC). The related literature concerning IPRC was extensively reviewed. The biomechanical mechanism of the surrounding soft tissue in maintaining the stability of the proximal row carpal (PRC) was analyzed, and the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of the PRC were summarized from two aspects including basic biomechanics and clinical biomechanics. The muscles and ligaments of the PRC are critical to its stability. Most scholars have reached a consensus about biomechanical mechanism of the PRC, but there are still controversial conclusions on the biomechanics mechanism of the surrounding soft tissue to stability of distal radioulnar joint when the triangular fibrocartilage complex are damaged and the biomechanics mechanism of the scapholunate ligament. At present, there is no unified standard about the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of the PRC. So, it is difficult for clinical practice. Some strides have been made in the basic biomechanical study on muscle and ligament and clinical biomechanical study on the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of PRC, but it will be needed to further study the morphology of carpal articular surface and the adjacent articular surface, the pressure of distal carpals to proximal carpal and so on.

  7. Proximal focal femoral deficiency: evaluation by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biko, David M. [National Naval Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bethesda, MD (United States); Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Bethesda, MD (United States); Davidson, Richard [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pena, Andres; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal development of the proximal femur. The most common radiographic classification (Aitken) does not evaluate the cartilaginous and soft-tissue abnormalities. To demonstrate MR findings of PFFD focusing on features not seen with radiographs. Nine MR examinations of the hip and femurs of seven children with PFFD were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging was quantitatively and qualitatively assessed comparing the affected limb to the contralateral limb and age-matched controls. The children were classified via the Aitken classification. All children had at least mild acetabular dysplasia, and one type D patient had no acetabulum. MR demonstrated that 4/6 children had labral hypertrophy with a decreased distance from the greater trochanter to the acetabular rim, suggesting impingement (P < 0.05). The proximal femoral physis was abnormal in all cases. The connection between the femoral head and shaft if present was fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. MRI can help in evaluation of PFFD by defining the anatomy. MR demonstrates features of the acetabulum and cartilaginous femoral epiphysis and depicts ligamentous abnormalities of the knee. (orig.)

  8. Proximal patellar tendinosis and abnormalities of patellar tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.M.; Tauro, P.G.; Ostlere, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To assess whether an association exists between patellar tendinosis and abnormal patellar tracking. Design and patients. The MRI examinations of 630 patients (i.e. 860 knees) referred with anterior knee pain over a 4-year period were assessed in retrospect for the presence of patellar tendinosis and abnormal patellar tracking. The images of the patients with patellar tendinosis were reviewed and the location within the patellar tendon was recorded. Results. There were 44 knees with proximal patellar tendinosis. Twenty-four of these were considered to have normal patellar tracking and 20 to have abnormal patellar tracking. In the group of 816 knees without proximal patellar tendinosis, 581 were considered to have normal patellar tracking and 235 knees to have abnormal patellar tracking. When the two groups were compared there was a statistically significant difference in the ratio of patients with and without abnormal tracking. Conclusion. In patients referred with anterior knee pain or suspected abnormal patellar tracking there is a significant association between proximal patellar tendinosis and abnormal patellar tracking. (orig.)

  9. Reduced Insulin Receptor Expression Enhances Proximal Tubule Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaurav; Shankar, Kripa; Makhija, Ekta; Gaikwad, Anil; Ecelbarger, Carolyn; Mandhani, Anil; Srivastava, Aneesh; Tiwari, Swasti

    2017-02-01

    Reduced insulin receptor protein levels have been reported in the kidney cortex from diabetic humans and animals. We recently reported that, targeted deletion of insulin receptor (IR) from proximal tubules (PT) resulted in hyperglycemia in non-obese mice. To elucidate the mechanism, we examined human proximal tubule cells (hPTC) and C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD, 60% fat for 20 weeks). Immunoblotting revealed a significantly lower protein level of IR in HFD compare to normal chow diet (NCD). Furthermore, a blunted rise in p-AKT 308 levels in the kidney cortex of HFD mice was observed in response to acute insulin (0.75 IU/kg body weight, i.p) relative to NCD n = 8/group, P gluconeogenesis. Transcript levels of the gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK were significantly increased in cAMP/DEXA-stimulated hPTC cells (n = 3, P gluconeogenesis and PEPCK induction was significantly attenuated in IR (siRNA) silenced hPTC (n = 3, P gluconeogenesis. Thus reduced insulin signaling of the proximal tubule may contribute to hyperglycemia in the metabolic syndrome via elevated gluconeogenesis. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 276-285, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Links between casino proximity and gambling participation, expenditure, and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévigny, Serge; Ladouceur, Robert; Jacques, Christian; Cantinotti, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Two studies investigated the relationship between casino proximity and gambling participation, expenditure, and pathology. In Study 1, 8,842 participants were categorized into 1 of 4 driving distances from their home to the nearest casino in the province of Quebec: 0-100 km, 100.01-200 km, 200.01-300 km, or 300.01-981 km. In Study 2, 5,158 participants, who lived within a 100-km driving distance from the Montreal casino, were classified into 1 of 5 equidistant, 20-km driving distances. A survey company interviewed participants regarding their gambling habits. Results indicated a positive link between casino proximity and gambling participation (at the provincial and Montreal levels) and expenditure (at the provincial level only) but no link with the current prevalence rate of probable pathological gambling or of problem gambling. In a setting in which many types of gambling activities are available, casino proximity in itself does not appear to explain the rate of gambling-related problems. It is necessary to continue prospective research on exposure and adaptation theories as potential explanations for the development of pathological gambling. 2008 APA

  11. Multiple intramedullary nailing of proximal phalangeal fractures of hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patankar Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proximal phalangeal fractures are commonly encountered fractures in the hand. Majority of them are stable and can be treated by non-operative means. However, unstable fractures i.e. those with shortening, displacement, angulation, rotational deformity or segmental fractures need surgical intervention. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the functional outcome after surgical stabilization of these fractures with joint-sparing multiple intramedullary nailing technique. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with 35 isolated unstable proximal phalangeal shaft fractures of hand were managed by surgical stabilization with multiple intramedullary nailing technique. Fractures of the thumb were excluded. All the patients were followed up for a minimum of six months. They were assessed radiologically and clinically. The clinical evaluation was based on two criteria. 1. total active range of motion for digital functional assessment as suggested by the American Society for Surgery of Hand and 2. grip strength. Results: All the patients showed radiological union at six weeks. The overall results were excellent in all the patients. Adventitious bursitis was observed at the point of insertion of nails in one patient. Conclusion: Joint-sparing multiple intramedullary nailing of unstable proximal phalangeal fractures of hand provides satisfactory results with good functional outcome and fewer complications.

  12. Hand proximity facilitates spatial discrimination of auditory tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eTseng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hand proximity on vision and visual attention has been well documented. In this study we tested whether such effect(s would also be present in the auditory modality. With hands placed either near or away from the audio sources, participants performed an auditory-spatial discrimination (Exp 1: left or right side, pitch discrimination (Exp 2: high, med, or low tone, and spatial-plus-pitch (Exp 3: left or right; high, med, or low discrimination task. In Exp 1, when hands were away from the audio source, participants consistently responded faster with their right hand regardless of stimulus location. This right hand advantage, however, disappeared in the hands-near condition because of a significant improvement in left hand’s reaction time. No effect of hand proximity was found in Exp 2 or 3, where a choice reaction time task requiring pitch discrimination was used. Together, these results suggest that the effect of hand proximity is not exclusive to vision alone, but is also present in audition, though in a much weaker form. Most important, these findings provide evidence from auditory attention that supports the multimodal account originally raised by Reed et al. in 2006.

  13. Novel implant for peri-prosthetic proximal tibia fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ton; Chen, Bernard K; Wu, Xinhua; Pun, Chung Lun

    2018-03-01

    Repair of peri-prosthetic proximal tibia fractures is very challenging in patients with a total knee replacement or arthroplasty. The tibial component of the knee implant severely restricts the fixation points of the tibial implant to repair peri-prosthetic fractures. A novel implant has been designed with an extended flange over the anterior of tibial condyle to provide additional points of fixation, overcoming limitations of existing generic locking plates used for proximal tibia fractures. Furthermore, the screws fixed through the extended flange provide additional support to prevent the problem of subsidence of tibial component of knee implant. The design methodology involved extraction of bone data from CT scans into a flexible CAD format, implant design and structural evaluation and optimisation using FEM as well as prototype development and manufacture by selective laser melting 3D printing technology with Ti6Al4 V powder. A prototype tibia implant was developed based on a patient-specific bone structure, which was regenerated from the CT images of patient's tibia. The design is described in detail and being applied to fit up to 80% of patients, for both left and right sides based on the average dimensions and shape of the bone structure from a wide range of CT images. A novel tibial implant has been developed to repair peri-prosthetic proximal tibia fractures which overcomes significant constraints from the tibial component of existing knee implant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Elevated oxidized glutathione in cystinotic proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Martijn J G; de Graaf-Hess, Adriana; Blom, Henk J; Dijkman, Henry B P M; Monnens, Leo A; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Levtchenko, Elena N

    2005-11-18

    Cystinosis, the most frequent cause of inborn Fanconi syndrome, is characterized by the lysosomal cystine accumulation, caused by mutations in the CTNS gene. To elucidate the pathogenesis of cystinosis, we cultured proximal tubular cells from urine of cystinotic patients (n = 9) and healthy controls (n = 9), followed by immortalization with human papilloma virus (HPV E6/E7). Obtained cell lines displayed basolateral polarization, alkaline phosphatase activity, and presence of aminopeptidase N (CD-13) and megalin, confirming their proximal tubular origin. Cystinotic cell lines exhibited elevated cystine levels (0.86 +/- 0.95 nmol/mg versus 0.09 +/- 0.01 nmol/mg protein in controls, p = 0.03). Oxidized glutathione was elevated in cystinotic cells (1.16 +/- 0.83 nmol/mg versus 0.29 +/- 0.18 nmol/mg protein, p = 0.04), while total glutathione, free cysteine, and ATP contents were normal in these cells. In conclusion, elevated oxidized glutathione in cystinotic proximal tubular epithelial cell lines suggests increased oxidative stress, which may contribute to tubular dysfunction in cystinosis.

  15. Distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx in distal thumb amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansü, Eren; Ünal, Mehmet Bekir; Parmaksızoğlu, Fatih; Gürcan, Serkan

    2015-01-01

    Thumb amputation is a major cause of hand dysfunction, and the treatment for distal thumb amputations remains controversial. Although finger reconstruction methods using distraction lengthening are known to restore finger length and function, we found no reports in the literature regarding phalangeal lengthening in thumb amputations. We aimed to evaluate proximal phalangeal lengthening in thumb amputations at or near the interphalangeal (IP) joint. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had undergone distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx of the thumb. All patients underwent osteotomy, either during the initial procedure or as a second-stage procedure. Distraction began 10 days after osteotomy with the use of an external fixator that remained in place until ossification of the gap occurred without bone grafting. Patients were evaluated using the QuickDASH score. Fourteen patients with a mean age of 27 years and a mean follow-up period of 7 years were enrolled. The mean phalangeal lengthening achieved was 20 mm. Ossification occurred at all distraction sites, and the fixators were maintained for a mean of 85 days. The mean healing index was 42.5 days/cm. All 14 patients achieved the desired amount of phalangeal lengthening without major complications such as nonunion, premature union, or gross infection. For reconstruction in cases of distal thumb amputations, distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx can be used to improve absolute length, web space, and grip distance. The technique is safe and effective, improves functionality/cosmesis, and offers a low complication risk.

  16. Association between proximity to major roads and sputum cell counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Julie; D’silva, Liesel; Brannan, John; Hargreave, Frederick E; Kanaroglou, Pavlos; Nair, Parameswaran

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution caused by motor vehicle emissions has been associated with exacerbations of obstructive airway diseases; however, the nature of the resulting bronchitis has not been quantified. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether proximity to major roads or highways is associated with an increase in sputum neutrophils or eosinophils, and to evaluate the effect of proximity to roads on spirometry and exacerbations in patients with asthma. METHODS: A retrospective study of 485 sputum cell counts from patients attending a tertiary chest clinic in Hamilton, Ontario, identified eosinophilic or neutrophilic bronchitis. Patients’ residences were geocoded to the street network of Hamilton using geographic information system software. Associations among bronchitis, lung function, and proximity to major roads and highways were examined using multinomial logistic and multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for patient age, smoking status and corticosteroid medications. RESULTS: Patients living within 1000 m of highways showed an increased risk of bronchitis (OR 3.8 [95% CI 1.0 to 13.7]; Proad were at increased risk for an asthma exacerbation (OR 1.9 [95% CI 1.5 to 15.5]; Proad was associated with neutrophilic bronchitis, an increased risk of asthma diagnosis, asthma exacerbations and lower lung function. PMID:21369545

  17. The contemporary role of 1 vs. 2-stage repair for proximal hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dason, Shawn; Wong, Nathan; Braga, Luis H

    2014-12-01

    This review discusses the most commonly employed techniques in the repair of proximal hypospadias, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of single versus staged surgical techniques. Hypospadias can have a spectrum of severity with a urethral meatus ranging from the perineum to the glans. Associated abnormalities are commonly found with proximal hypospadias and encompass a large spectrum, including ventral curvature (VC) up to 50 degrees or more, ventral skin deficiency, a flattened glans, penile torsion and penoscrotal transposition. Our contemporary understanding of hypospadiology is comprised of a foundation built by experts who have described a number of techniques and their outcomes, combined with survey data detailing practice patterns. The two largest components of hypospadias repair include repair of VC and urethroplasty. VC greater than 20 degrees is considered clinically relevant to warrant surgical correction. To repair VC, the penis is first degloved-a procedure that may reduce or remove curvature by itself in some cases. Residual curvature is then repaired with dorsal plication techniques, transection of the urethral plate, and/or ventral lengthening techniques. Urethroplasty takes the form of 1- or 2-stage repairs. One-stage options include the tubularized incised urethroplasty (TIP) or various graft or flap-based techniques. Two-stage options also include grafts or flaps, including oral mucosal and preputial skin grafting. One stage repairs are an attractive option in that they may reduce cost, hospital stay, anesthetic risks, and time to the final result. The downside is that these repairs require mastery of multiple techniques may be more complex, and-depending on technique-have higher complication rates. Two-stage repairs are preferred by the majority of surveyed hypospadiologists. The 2-stage repair is versatile and has satisfactory outcomes, but necessitates a second procedure. Given the lack of clear high-quality evidence supporting the

  18. Mapping subsurface in proximity to newly-developed sinkhole along roadway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    MS&T acquired electrical resistivity tomography profiles in immediate proximity to a newly-developed sinkhole in Nixa Missouri : The sinkhole has closed a well-traveled municipal roadway and threatens proximal infrastructure. The intent of this inves...

  19. Proximal migration of a 5 French pancreatic stent during bile stone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-16

    Jun 16, 2013 ... proximal migration retrieval of pancreatic stent retrieval. Further studies are ... with a series of factors. The length of the ... 7 cm was associated with an increased risk for proximal migration. ... formation and chronic pancreatitis.

  20. Surgical correction of postoperative astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindstrom Richard

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The photokeratoscope has increased the understanding of the aspheric nature of the cornea as well as a better understanding of normal corneal topography. This has significantly affected the development of newer and more predictable models of surgical astigmatic correction. Relaxing incisions effectively flatten the steeper meridian an equivalent amount as they steepen the flatter meridian. The net change in spherical equivalent is, therefore, negligible. Poor predictability is the major limitation of relaxing incisions. Wedge resection can correct large degrees of postkeratoplasty astigmatism, Resection of 0.10 mm of tissue results in approximately 2 diopters of astigmatic correction. Prolonged postoperative rehabilitation and induced irregular astigmatism are limitations of the procedure. Transverse incisions flatten the steeper meridian an equivalent amount as they steepen the flatter meridian. Semiradial incisions result in two times the amount of flattening in the meridian of the incision compared to the meridian 90 degrees away. Combination of transverse incisions with semiradial incisions describes the trapezoidal astigmatic keratotomy. This procedure may correct from 5.5 to 11.0 diopters dependent upon the age of the patient. The use of the surgical keratometer is helpful in assessing a proper endpoint during surgical correction of astigmatism.

  1. Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-27

    In "Women in Science: Some Books of the Year" (11 March, p. 1458) the name of the senior editor of second edition of The History of Women and Science, Health, and Technology should have been given as Phyllis Holman Weisbard, and the name of the editor of the first edition should have been given as Susan Searing. Also, the statement that the author of A Matter of Choices: Memoirs of a Female Physicist, Fay Ajzenberg-Selove, is now retired was incorrect.

  2. Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    In the October In Our Unit article by Cooper et al, “Against All Odds: Preventing Pressure Ulcers in High-Risk Cardiac Surgery Patients” (Crit Care Nurse. 2015;35[5]:76–82), there was an error in the reference citation on page 82. At the top of that page, reference 18 cited on the second line should be reference 23, which also should be added to the References list: 23. AHRQ website. Prevention and treatment program integrates actionable reports into practice, significantly reducing pressure ulcers in nursing home residents. November 2008. https://innovations.ahrq.gov/profiles/prevention-and-treatment-program-integrates-actionable-reports-practice-significantly. Accessed November 18, 2015

  3. Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Gillon R. Defending the four principles approach as a good basis for good medical practice and therefore for good medical ethics. J Med Ethics 2015;41:111–6. The author misrepresented Beauchamp and Childress when he wrote: ‘My own view (unlike Beauchamp and Childress who explicitly state that they make no such claim ( p. 421)1, is that all moral agents whether or not they are doctors or otherwise involved in healthcare have these prima facie moral obligations; but in the context of answering the question ‘what is it to do good medical ethics ?’ my claim is limited to the ethical obligations of doctors’. The author intended and should have written the following: ‘My own view, unlike Beauchamp and Childress who explicitly state that they make no such claim (p.421)1 is that these four prima facie principles can provide a basic moral framework not only for medical ethics but for ethics in general’.

  4. Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In the January 2015 issue of Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking (vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 3–7), the article "Individual Differences in Cyber Security Behaviors: An Examination of Who Is Sharing Passwords." by Prof. Monica Whitty et al., has an error in wording in the abstract. The sentence in question was originally printed as: Contrary to our hypotheses, we found older people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. It should read: Contrary to our hypotheses, we found younger people and individuals who score high on self-monitoring were more likely to share passwords. The authors wish to apologize for the error.

  5. Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From left to right: Luis, Carmen, Mario, Christian and José listening to speeches by theorists Alvaro De Rújula and Luis Alvarez-Gaumé (right) at their farewell gathering on 15 May.We unfortunately cut out a part of the "Word of thanks" from the team retiring from Restaurant No. 1. The complete message is published below: Dear friends, You are the true "nucleus" of CERN. Every member of this extraordinary human mosaic will always remain in our affections and in our thoughts. We have all been very touched by your spontaneous generosity. Arrivederci, Mario Au revoir,Christian Hasta Siempre Carmen, José and Luis PS: Lots of love to the theory team and to the hidden organisers. So long!

  6. Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the meeting report "Strategies to observe and understand processes and drivers in the biogeosphere," published in the 14 January 2014 issue of Eos (95(2), 16, doi:10.1002/2014EO020004), an incorrect affiliation was listed for one coauthor. Michael Young is with the University of Texas at Austin.

  7. E4orf1 Enhances Glucose Uptake Independent of Proximal Insulin Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Ha-Na; Hegde, Vijay; Dubuisson, Olga; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired proximal insulin signaling is often present in diabetes. Hence, approaches to enhance glucose disposal independent of proximal insulin signaling are desirable. Evidence indicates that Adenovirus-derived E4orf1 protein may offer such an approach. This study determined if E4orf1 improves insulin sensitivity and downregulates proximal insulin signaling in vivo and enhances cellular glucose uptake independent of proximal insulin signaling in vitro. High fat fed mice were injected with a ...

  8. Universality of quantum gravity corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurya; Vagenas, Elias C

    2008-11-28

    We show that the existence of a minimum measurable length and the related generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), predicted by theories of quantum gravity, influence all quantum Hamiltonians. Thus, they predict quantum gravity corrections to various quantum phenomena. We compute such corrections to the Lamb shift, the Landau levels, and the tunneling current in a scanning tunneling microscope. We show that these corrections can be interpreted in two ways: (a) either that they are exceedingly small, beyond the reach of current experiments, or (b) that they predict upper bounds on the quantum gravity parameter in the GUP, compatible with experiments at the electroweak scale. Thus, more accurate measurements in the future should either be able to test these predictions, or further tighten the above bounds and predict an intermediate length scale between the electroweak and the Planck scale.

  9. String-Corrected Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubeny, V.

    2005-01-12

    We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect--the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive. The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

  10. Economic development, place-based development strategies and the conceptualization of proximity in European urban regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogaru, Dora; van Oort, Frank; Thissen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The discussion on proximity has evolved in various theoretical, conceptual and empirical directions since the seminal contributions by Torre and Rallet (2005) and Boschma (2005). One of the main arguments for conceptualizing proximities other than physical proximities is embedded in the ever-growing

  11. Association Between Physical Activity and Proximity to Physical Activity Resources Among Low-Income, Midlife Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jilcott, Stephanie B; Evenson, Kelly R; Laraia, Barbara A; Ammerman, Alice S

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The association between levels of physical activity and perceived and objectively measured proximity to physical activity resources is unclear. Clarification is important so that future programs can intervene upon the measure with the greatest association. We examined correlations between perceived and objectively measured proximity to physical activity resources and then examined associations between both measures of proximity and objectively measured physical activity. Methods ...

  12. SELF CORRECTION WORKS BETTER THAN TEACHER CORRECTION IN EFL SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Dabaghi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning a foreign language takes place step by step, during which mistakes are to be expected in all stages of learning. EFL learners are usually afraid of making mistakes which prevents them from being receptive and responsive. Overcoming fear of mistakes depends on the way mistakes are rectified. It is believed that autonomy and learner-centeredness suggest that in some settings learner's self-correction of mistakes might be more beneficial for language learning than teacher's correction. This assumption has been the subject of debates for some time. Some researchers believe that correction whether that of teacher's or on behalf of learners is effective in showing them how their current interlanguage differs from the target (Long &Robinson, 1998. Others suggest that correcting the students whether directly or through recasts are ambiguous and may be perceived by the learner as confirmation of meaning rather than feedback on form (Lyster, 1998a. This study is intended to investigate the effects of correction on Iranian intermediate EFL learners' writing composition in Payam Noor University. For this purpose, 90 English majoring students, studying at Isfahan Payam Noor University were invited to participate at the experiment. They all received a sample of TOFEL test and a total number of 60 participants whose scores were within the range of one standard deviation below and above the mean were divided into two equal groups; experimental and control. The experimental group went through some correction during the experiment while the control group remained intact and the ordinary processes of teaching went on. Each group received twelve sessions of two hour classes every week on advanced writing course in which some activities of Modern English (II were selected. Then after the treatment both groups received an immediate test as post-test and the experimental group took the second post-test as the delayed recall test with the same design as the

  13. Correcting quantum errors with entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Todd; Devetak, Igor; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2006-10-20

    We show how entanglement shared between encoder and decoder can simplify the theory of quantum error correction. The entanglement-assisted quantum codes we describe do not require the dual-containing constraint necessary for standard quantum error-correcting codes, thus allowing us to "quantize" all of classical linear coding theory. In particular, efficient modern classical codes that attain the Shannon capacity can be made into entanglement-assisted quantum codes attaining the hashing bound (closely related to the quantum capacity). For systems without large amounts of shared entanglement, these codes can also be used as catalytic codes, in which a small amount of initial entanglement enables quantum communication.

  14. Self-correcting Multigrid Solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, Jerome L.V.

    2004-01-01

    A new multigrid algorithm based on the method of self-correction for the solution of elliptic problems is described. The method exploits information contained in the residual to dynamically modify the source term (right-hand side) of the elliptic problem. It is shown that the self-correcting solver is more efficient at damping the short wavelength modes of the algebraic error than its standard equivalent. When used in conjunction with a multigrid method, the resulting solver displays an improved convergence rate with no additional computational work

  15. Brane cosmology with curvature corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofinas, Georgios; Maartens, Roy; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios

    2003-01-01

    We study the cosmology of the Randall-Sundrum brane-world where the Einstein-Hilbert action is modified by curvature correction terms: a four-dimensional scalar curvature from induced gravity on the brane, and a five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet curvature term. The combined effect of these curvature corrections to the action removes the infinite-density big bang singularity, although the curvature can still diverge for some parameter values. A radiation brane undergoes accelerated expansion near the minimal scale factor, for a range of parameters. This acceleration is driven by the geometric effects, without an inflation field or negative pressures. At late times, conventional cosmology is recovered. (author)

  16. DO PROXIMAL AND DISTAL GASTRIC TUMOURS BEHAVE DIFFERENTLY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Laurence Bedin da; Toneto, Marcelo Garcia; Moreira, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Although the incidence of gastric (adenocarcinoma) cancer has been decreasing over time, it is still one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and proximal tumours tend to have a worse prognosis. To compare surgical outcomes and prognosis between proximal - excluding tumours of the cardia - and distal gastric cancer. Out of 293 cases reviewed - 209 with distal and 69 with proximal gastric cancer - were compared for clinical and pathological features, stage, surgical outcome, mortality and survival. Statistically, there was no significant difference between patients in both groups regarding mortality (p=0.661), adjuvant chemotherapy (p 0.661), and radiation (p=1.000). However, there was significant difference in the degree of lymph node dissection employed (p=0.002) and the number of positive lymph nodes resected (p=0.038) between the two groups. The odds of death at five years for patients who had a D0 dissection was three times greater (odds ratio 2.78; (95%CI 1.33-5.82) than that for patients who had a D2 dissection, while for patients who had a D1 dissection the odds ratio was only 1.41 (95%CI 0.71-2.83) compared to D2-dissected patients. Although no significant differences were found between proximal and distal gastric cancer, the increased risk of death in D0- and D1-dissected patients clearly suggests an important role of radical D2 lymph node dissection in survival. Embora a incidência do câncer gástrico esteja diminuindo nas últimas décadas, ele ainda aparece como uma das neoplasias malignas mais comuns, e tumores proximais tendem a ter pior prognóstico. Comparar os resultados cirúrgicos e o prognóstico entre o câncer gástrico proximal, excluindo os tumores da cárdia e junção esofagogástrica, e o distal. De 293 casos revistos - 209 distais e 69 proximais - foram comparados quanto aos achados clínicos e patológicos, estágio, resultados cirúrgicos, mortalidade e sobrevida. Estatisticamente não houve diferença entre pacientes em ambos

  17. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schausberger

    Full Text Available Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary causes and proximate (mechanistic correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life, whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our

  18. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, Peter; Patiño-Ruiz, J David; Osakabe, Masahiro; Murata, Yasumasa; Sugimoto, Naoya; Uesugi, Ryuji; Walzer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary) causes and proximate (mechanistic) correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life), whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible) Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum) Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our study provides a

  19. Clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of proximal and distal gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu X

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Xuefeng Yu,1,* Fulan Hu,2,* Chunfeng Li,1 Qiang Yao,1 Hongfeng Zhang,1 Yingwei Xue1 1Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China; 2Department of Epidemiology, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and objectives: The dismal prognosis of gastric cancer patients is a global problem. We aim to evaluate the clinicopathologic features and prognostic factors of proximal and distal gastric cancer.Materials and methods: Gastric cancer cases diagnosed and treated at the same surgical unit between 2007 and 2010 were reviewed. Follow-up data from all patients were collected for at least 5 years until 2015. A total of 964 patients were studied (distal gastric cancer [DG], n=777 and proximal gastric cancer [PG], n=187.Results: DG patients had a relatively higher percentage of females, more thorough therapy (R0 [D0/D1/D2], fewer combined organ resections, younger age, smaller tumors (<5 cm, shorter surgery durations, less blood loss during surgery, and a relatively lower percentage of nodal metastases and a TNM stage of 4 (p<0.05. A significantly higher 5-year survival rate was observed in DG patients compared to PG patients (DG: 51%, PG: 28%; p<0.001. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumor size, blood loss during surgery, surgery approach of lymph node dissection, treatment with palliative surgery, histopathologic type, TNM stage, and tumor location were independent predictors of poor outcome.Conclusion: The different characteristics and prognosis of DG and PG cases have implications for the development of guiding strategies for a surgical program and assessment of prognosis of gastric cancer patients based on tumor location. Keywords: gastric cancer, tumor location, clinicopathologic features, prognosis, distal gastric cancer, proximal gastric cancer 

  20. Calculation of nondiffused proximity functions from cloud-chamber data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.

    1987-01-01

    To a large extent the cloud chamber is an ideal microdosimetric device: by measuring the positions of ionizing events in charged-particle tracks one can generate - with a flexibility matched only by Monte-Carlo simulations-any microdosimetric quantity of interest, ranging from lineal energy spectra (in volumes of practically arbitrary shape and size) to proximity functions, that is, distributions of distances between energy transfer points in the track. Cloud-chamber data analyzed in such ways have been indeed reported for a variety of radiations. In view of these clear advantages it is certainly surprising that, within the microdosimetric community, only one group (at Harwell, UK) is actively involved in such work and that, furthermore, cloud-chamber results are used essentially only as a testing ground for Monte-Carlo calculations. It appears that this reluctance can be traced to the fact that the tracks are distorted by the diffusion of droplets during their growth. This diffusion - which is of the order of several nanometers (in unit-density material), although rather insignificant vis-a-vis conventional microdosimetry, can be a serious limitation in view of modern theories of radiation action which emphasize energy deposition events at the nanometer level. The purpose of this research activity is to show that, using a rather straight-forward mathematical procedure, one can unfold the effect of diffusion from proximity functions. Since the nondiffused proximity function can be used to calculate other microdosimetric quantities an important limitation of the cloud-chamber data can thus be avoided