Sample records for proximate mechanisms remain

  1. Mechanical determinants of bone form: insights from skeletal remains. (United States)

    Ruff, C B


    Analysis of skeletal remains from humans living in the past forms an important complement to observational and experimental studies of living humans and animal models. Including earlier humans in such analyses increases the range of variation in both behavior and body size and shape that are represented, and can provide insights into the adaptive potential of the modern human skeleton. I review here a variety of studies of archaeological and paleontological remains that have investigated differences in skeletal structure from a mechanical perspective, focusing in particular on diaphyseal strength of the limb bones. Several conclusions can be drawn from these studies: 1) there has been a decline in overall skeletal strength relative to body size over the course of human evolution that has become progressively steeper in recent millennia, probably due to increased sedentism and technological advancement; 2) differences in pelvic structure and hip mechanical loadings affect femoral shape; 3) activity patterns affect overall strength and shape of both the lower and upper limb bones; and 4) responsiveness to changes in mechanical loading varies between skeletal features (e.g., articulations versus diaphyses) and by age.

  2. Observer differentiation of proximal enamel mechanical defects versus natural proximal dental caries with computed dental radiography. (United States)

    Kang, B C; Farman, A G; Scarfe, W C; Goldsmith, L J


    Various models have been used to study the accuracy of imaging systems for detection of dental caries. This study compares the ability of dentists to detect mechanically created defects versus natural dental caries cavitations on the proximal surfaces of extracted teeth with Computed Dental Radiography (Schick Industries, Long Island City, N.Y.). Detection rates are investigated according to lesion depth to permit comparisons to be made between studies in the literature with other mechanical defects or natural caries models. Discrimination of natural caries versus artificial defects with Computed Dental Radiography is also compared with a previous report that used standard dental film. Fifty-two extracted molar and premolar teeth were mounted into representative sets of maxillary and mandibular posterior arches for bite-wing radiography. There were 16 proximal surfaces with natural caries and 28 proximal surfaces with mechanical defects. An optical bench was used to ensure constant beam geometry. A 1.8 cm acrylic soft tissue equivalent attenuator was placed in front of the receptor. Thirty dentists acted independently as observers to differentiate between sound proximal tooth surfaces, natural dental caries, and mechanical defects. Evaluation of intra- and interobserver variability was made with use of the kappa statistic. The Zelen test of odds ratios was used to test for homogeneity, and the Mantel-Haenszel analysis plus stratified logistic regression were used for inference about the common odds ratio. Significance was set at p detection was 74% for mechanical defects and 67% for natural caries. The odds of detecting a mechanical defect were 1.40 times the odds of finding natural dental caries cavitation of the same depth. Lesion depth did influence the probability of correctly identifying the presence of a lesion; the odds of identifying cavitation increased 1.41 times with every 0.1 mm increase in lesion depth. Correct designation of lesion type was 1.42 times

  3. Pseudoarthrosis following proximal humeral fractures: A possible mechanism

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    Rooney, P.J.; Cockshott, W.P.


    A small series of four patients with pseudarthrosis of the proximal humeral shaft is reported. These patients all had restricted movement of the shoulder joint prior to the trauma, three as a result of rheumatoid arthritis and one due a surgical fusion of the glenohumeral joint. It is suggested that pseudarthrosis is more likely under these circumstances and that pursuit of union of the fracture in such patients may not always be necessary.

  4. The mechanical benefit of medial support screws in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures. (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Zeng, Langqing; Liu, Yanjie; Pan, Yao; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Changqing; Zeng, Bingfang; Chen, Yunfeng


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical advantages of medial support screws (MSSs) in the locking proximal humeral plate for treating proximal humerus fractures. Thirty synthetic left humeri were randomly divided into 3 subgroups to establish two-part surgical neck fracture models of proximal humerus. All fractures were fixed with a locking proximal humerus plate. Group A was fixed with medial cortical support and no MSSs; Group B was fixed with 3 MSSs but without medial cortical support; Group C was fixed with neither medial cortical support nor MSSs. Axial compression, torsional stiffness, shear stiffness, and failure tests were performed. Constructs with medial support from cortical bone showed statistically higher axial and shear stiffness than other subgroups examined (Pproximal humerus was not supported by medial cortical bone, locking plating with medial support screws exhibited higher axial and torsional stiffness than locking plating without medial support screws (P ≤ 0.0207). Specimens with medial cortical bone failed primarily by fracture of the humeral shaft or humeral head. Specimens without medial cortical bone support failed primarily by significant plate bending at the fracture site followed by humeral head collapse or humeral head fracture. Anatomic reduction with medial cortical support was the stiffest construct after a simulated two-part fracture. Significant biomechanical benefits of MSSs in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures were identified. The reconstruction of the medial column support for proximal humerus fractures helps to enhance mechanical stability of the humeral head and prevent implant failure.

  5. Taphonomic Effects of Mechanical Plowing on Buried Juvenile-Sized Remains. (United States)

    Newcomb, Alyssa M; Pokines, James T; Moore, Tara L


    Agricultural activity is a worldwide taphonomic process and can present unique challenges in the recovery of buried remains. Previous research has been mostly within the realm of site formation processes of archeological sites utilizing only surface material. This research expands upon the previous research by incorporating the distribution of subsurface material by the use of archeological excavation techniques. An experiment was conducted utilizing juvenile pig (Sus scrofa) skeletons buried in relative anatomical position at two different depths (15 cm below the surface [cmbs] and 22 cmbs). The burials were then subjected to different intervals of mechanical plowing: one, three, five, seven, or 10 plow passes. The skeletal material was recovered using pedestrian survey followed by hand excavation and screening of all sediments. This research shows that there is a significant relationship between the degree of plowing and the distance skeletal material is distributed and the percentage of material recovered undamaged. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. The mechanical benefit of medial support screws in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures.

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    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical advantages of medial support screws (MSSs in the locking proximal humeral plate for treating proximal humerus fractures. METHODS: Thirty synthetic left humeri were randomly divided into 3 subgroups to establish two-part surgical neck fracture models of proximal humerus. All fractures were fixed with a locking proximal humerus plate. Group A was fixed with medial cortical support and no MSSs; Group B was fixed with 3 MSSs but without medial cortical support; Group C was fixed with neither medial cortical support nor MSSs. Axial compression, torsional stiffness, shear stiffness, and failure tests were performed. RESULTS: Constructs with medial support from cortical bone showed statistically higher axial and shear stiffness than other subgroups examined (P<0.0001. When the proximal humerus was not supported by medial cortical bone, locking plating with medial support screws exhibited higher axial and torsional stiffness than locking plating without medial support screws (P ≤ 0.0207. Specimens with medial cortical bone failed primarily by fracture of the humeral shaft or humeral head. Specimens without medial cortical bone support failed primarily by significant plate bending at the fracture site followed by humeral head collapse or humeral head fracture. CONCLUSIONS: Anatomic reduction with medial cortical support was the stiffest construct after a simulated two-part fracture. Significant biomechanical benefits of MSSs in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures were identified. The reconstruction of the medial column support for proximal humerus fractures helps to enhance mechanical stability of the humeral head and prevent implant failure.

  7. Mechanisms of action of brief alcohol interventions remain largely unknown – A narrative review

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    Jacques eGaume


    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence has shown efficacy of brief intervention (BI for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary health care settings. Evidence for efficacy in other settings, and effectiveness when implemented at larger scale is disappointing. Indeed, BI comprises varying content, and exploring BI content and mechanisms of action may be a promising way to enhance efficacy and effectiveness.We searched Medline and PsychInfo, as well as references of retrieved publications for original research or reviews on active ingredients (or components, or mechanisms of face-to-face BIs (and its subtypes, including brief advice and brief motivational interviewing [BMI] for alcohol. Overall, BI active ingredients have been scarcely investigated, almost only within BMI, and mostly among Emergency Room patients, young adults, and US college students. This body of research has shown that personalized feedback may be an effective component; specific MI techniques showed mixed findings; decisional balance findings tended to suggest a potential detrimental effect; while change plan exercises, advice to reduce or stop drinking, presenting alternative change options, and moderation strategies are promising but need further study. Client change talk is a potential mediator of BMI effects; change in norm perceptions and enhanced discrepancy between current behavior and broader life goals and values have received preliminary support; readiness to change was only partially supported as a mediator; while enhanced awareness of drinking, perceived risks/benefits of alcohol use, alcohol treatment seeking, and self-efficacy were seldom studied and have as yet found no significant support as such.Research is obviously limited and has provided no clear and consistent evidence on the mechanisms of alcohol BI. How BI achieves the effects seen in randomized trials remains mostly unknown and should be investigated to inform the development of more effective interventions.

  8. One-Time URL: A Proximity Security Mechanism between Internet of Things and Mobile Devices. (United States)

    Solano, Antonio; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad; González, Víctor


    The aim of this paper is to determine the physical proximity of connected things when they are accessed from a smartphone. Links between connected things and mobile communication devices are temporarily created by means of dynamic URLs (uniform resource locators) which may be easily discovered with pervasive short-range radio frequency technologies available on smartphones. In addition, a multi cross domain silent logging mechanism to allow people to interact with their surrounding connected things from their mobile communication devices is presented. The proposed mechanisms are based in web standards technologies, evolving our social network of Internet of Things towards the so-called Web of Things.

  9. One-Time URL: A Proximity Security Mechanism between Internet of Things and Mobile Devices

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    Antonio Solano


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the physical proximity of connected things when they are accessed from a smartphone. Links between connected things and mobile communication devices are temporarily created by means of dynamic URLs (uniform resource locators which may be easily discovered with pervasive short-range radio frequency technologies available on smartphones. In addition, a multi cross domain silent logging mechanism to allow people to interact with their surrounding connected things from their mobile communication devices is presented. The proposed mechanisms are based in web standards technologies, evolving our social network of Internet of Things towards the so-called Web of Things.

  10. Adaptive memory: determining the proximate mechanisms responsible for the memorial advantages of survival processing. (United States)

    Burns, Daniel J; Burns, Sarah A; Hwang, Ana J


    J. S. Nairne, S. R. Thompson, and J. N. S. Pandeirada (2007) suggested that our memory systems may have evolved to help us remember fitness-relevant information and showed that retention of words rated for their relevance to survival is superior to that of words encoded under other deep processing conditions. The authors present 4 experiments that uncover the proximate mechanisms likely responsible. The authors obtained a recall advantage for survival processing compared with conditions that promoted only item-specific processing or only relational processing. This effect was eliminated when control conditions encouraged both item-specific and relational processing. Data from separate measures of item-specific and relational processing generally were consistent with the view that the memorial advantage for survival processing results from the encoding of both types of processing. Although the present study suggests the proximate mechanisms for the effect, the authors argue that survival processing may be fundamentally different from other memory phenomena for which item-specific and relational processing differences have been implicated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Do Mechanical and Physicochemical Properties of Orthodontic NiTi Wires Remain Stable In Vivo?

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    Michał Sarul


    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Exceptional properties of the NiTi archwires may be jeopardized by the oral cavity; thus its long-term effect on the mechanical and physiochemical properties of NiTi archwires was the aim of work. Material and Methods. Study group comprised sixty 0.016 × 0.022 NiTi archwires from the same manufacturer evaluated (group A after the first 12 weeks of orthodontic treatment. 30 mm long pieces cut off from each wire prior to insertion formed the control group B. Obeying the strict rules of randomization, all samples were subjected to microscopic evaluation and nanoindentation test. Results. Both groups displayed substantial presence of nonmetallic inclusions. Heterogeneity of the structure and its alteration after usage were found in groups B and A, respectively. Conclusions. Long-term, reliable prediction of biomechanics of NiTi wires in vivo is impossible, especially new archwires from the same vendor display different physiochemical properties. Moreover, manufacturers have to decrease contamination in the production process in order to minimize risk of mutual negative influence of nickel-titanium archwires and oral environment.

  12. Mechanical failures after fixation with proximal femoral nail and risk factors

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    Koyuncu S


    postoperative complications were seen in 27 patients (17.7%. A total of 14 patients (9.2% underwent a revision procedure for mechanical complications.Conclusion: The study results suggest that the quality of fracture reduction is an important factor that affects the revision rate and SWS score in patients with mechanical complications after osteosynthesis with PFN for trochanteric fractures. Keywords: trochanteric hip fracture, proximal femoral nail, fracture reduction, complications, risk factors, intramedullary nail

  13. Mechanisms of neutrophil transmigration across renal proximal tubular HK-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijuklic, Klaudija; Sturn, Daniel H; Jennings, Paul; Kountchev, Jordan; Pfaller, Walter; Wiedermann, Christian J; Patsch, Josef R; Joannidis, Michael


    BACKGROUND: Adhesion of intratubular leukocytes to proximal tubules in biopsies of patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and the appearance of leukocytes in the urine in interstitial nephritis suggest interactions between leukocytes and tubular epithelia in renal diseases. The aim of

  14. Evaluation of Possible Proximate Mechanisms Underlying the Kinship Theory of Intragenomic Conflict in Social Insects. (United States)

    Galbraith, David A; Yi, Soojin V; Grozinger, Christina M


    Kinship theory provides a universal framework in which to understand the evolution of altruism, but there are many molecular and genetic mechanisms that can generate altruistic behaviors. Interestingly, kinship theory specifically predicts intragenomic conflict between maternally-derived alleles (matrigenes) and paternally-derived alleles (patrigenes) over the generation of altruistic behavior in cases where the interests of the matrigenes and patrigenes are not aligned. Under these conditions, individual differences in selfish versus altruistic behavior are predicted to arise from differential expression of the matrigenes and patrigenes (parent-specific gene expression or PSGE) that regulate selfish versus altruistic behaviors. As one of the leading theories to describe PSGE and genomic imprinting, kinship theory has been used to generate predictions to describe the reproductive division of labor in social insect colonies, which represents an excellent model system to test the hypotheses of kinship theory and examine the underlying mechanisms driving it. Recent studies have confirmed the predicted differences in the influence of matrigenes and patrigenes on reproductive division of labor in social insects, and demonstrated that these differences are associated with differences in PSGE of key genes involved in regulating reproductive physiology, providing further support for kinship theory. However, the mechanisms mediating PSGE in social insects, and how PSGE leads to differences in selfish versus altruistic behavior, remain to be determined. Here, we review the available supporting evidence for three possible epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation, piRNAs, and histone modification) that may generate PSGE in social insects, and discuss how these may lead to variation in social behavior. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email

  15. Mechanism of cisplatin proximal tubule toxicity revealed by integrating transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and biokinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmes, Anja; Bielow, Chris; Ranninger, Christina; Bellwon, Patricia; Aschauer, Lydia; Limonciel, Alice; Chassaigne, Hubert; Kristl, Theresa; Aiche, Stephan; Huber, Christian G; Guillou, Claude; Hewitt, Philipp; Leonard, Martin O; Dekant, Wolfgang; Bois, Frederic Y; Jennings, Paul


    Cisplatin is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of solid tumours. The major dose-limiting factor is nephrotoxicity, in particular in the proximal tubule. Here, we use an integrated omics approach, including transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics coupled to

  16. Mechanism for repair of thymine dimers by photoexcitation of proximal 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine. (United States)

    Anusiewicz, Iwona; Świerszcz, Iwona; Skurski, Piotr; Simons, Jack


    A wide range of experimental data from earlier studies by other workers are combined with recent data from the Burrows group to interpret that group's thymine dimer (T = T) repair rate data for 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG)-containing DNA duplexes. The focus of this effort is to explain (i) how and why the repair rates vary as the sequence location and distance of the OG relative to the T═T is changed and (ii) why the spatial extent over which repair is observed is limited to OG-T═T distances of ~6 Å. It is proposed that, if the OG and T═T are within ~5-6 Å, a Coulomb potential moves the energy of the OG(+)···T═T(-) ion-pair state below the photoexcited OG*···T═T state, even in the absence of full solvent relaxation, thus enhancing forward electron transfer from OG* to T═T by allowing it to occur as a radiationless internal conversion process rather than by overcoming a solvation-related barrier. The rate of this forward electron transfer is estimated to be ~10% of the decay rate of the photoexcited OG*. For OG-to-T═T distances beyond 5-6 Å, electron transfer is still exothermic, but it must occur through solvent reorganization, overcoming an energy barrier, which presumably renders this rate too slow to be detected in the experiments under study here. Once an electron has been injected into the T═T, as many other workers have shown, the reaction proceeds through two low-energy barriers first connecting T═T(-) to an intermediate in which the C(5)-C(5') bond of the cyclobutane unit is cleaved, and onward to where the cyclobutane unit is fully broken and two intact thymine sites are established. Our ab initio data show that the energy landscape for these bond cleavages is altered very little by the presence of the proximal OG(+) cation, which therefore allows us to use data from the earlier studies to conclude that it takes ~100 ps for complete bond cleavage to occur. The experimentally determined overall T═T repair quantum yield of 1

  17. The ultimate and proximate mechanisms driving the evolution of long tails in forest deer mice. (United States)

    Kingsley, Evan P; Kozak, Krzysztof M; Pfeifer, Susanne P; Yang, Dou-Shuan; Hoekstra, Hopi E


    Understanding both the role of selection in driving phenotypic change and its underlying genetic basis remain major challenges in evolutionary biology. Here, we use modern tools to revisit a classic system of local adaptation in the North American deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, which occupies two main habitat types: prairie and forest. Using historical collections, we find that forest-dwelling mice have longer tails than those from nonforested habitat, even when we account for individual and population relatedness. Using genome-wide SNP data, we show that mice from forested habitats in the eastern and western parts of their range form separate clades, suggesting that increased tail length evolved independently. We find that forest mice in the east and west have both more and longer caudal vertebrae, but not trunk vertebrae, than nearby prairie forms. By intercrossing prairie and forest mice, we show that the number and length of caudal vertebrae are not correlated in this recombinant population, indicating that variation in these traits is controlled by separate genetic loci. Together, these results demonstrate convergent evolution of the long-tailed forest phenotype through two distinct genetic mechanisms, affecting number and length of vertebrae, and suggest that these morphological changes-either independently or together-are adaptive. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Proximate mechanisms of male morph determination in the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior. (United States)

    Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jürgen


    The ant genus Cardiocondyla is characterized by an extraordinary male polyphenism, with winged disperser males and wingless, territorial ergatoid males. Winged males are produced only after the colony has experienced stressful environmental conditions, e.g., a drastic temperature decrease. We investigated the proximate basis of male polyphenism and caste dimorphism in C. obscurior. The critical stage for both morph and caste determination is the end of the second of three instars. Larval development as well as duration of the pupal stage are extended both in winged males and winged females and winged reproductives need on average 8.8 days longer for the development from egg to adult than wingless ergatoid males and workers. Treatment of first and second instar larvae with methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue, led to the expression of the winged morph, suggesting an important role of juvenile hormone in both sexes. Although queens are produced year-round in contrast to winged males, the proximate basis of variation in morphology is likely to be the same in both sexes. Whereas the larvae themselves appear to be insensitive to the environmental changes, behavioral observations revealed that workers react to stress by changing their behavior towards larvae and in this way trigger them to develop into winged males.

  19. Development of a balanced experimental-computational approach to understanding the mechanics of proximal femur fractures. (United States)

    Helgason, B; Gilchrist, S; Ariza, O; Chak, J D; Zheng, G; Widmer, R P; Ferguson, S J; Guy, P; Cripton, P A


    The majority of people who sustain hip fractures after a fall to the side would not have been identified using current screening techniques such as areal bone mineral density. Identifying them, however, is essential so that appropriate pharmacological or lifestyle interventions can be implemented. A protocol, demonstrated on a single specimen, is introduced, comprising the following components; in vitro biofidelic drop tower testing of a proximal femur; high-speed image analysis through digital image correlation; detailed accounting of the energy present during the drop tower test; organ level finite element simulations of the drop tower test; micro level finite element simulations of critical volumes of interest in the trabecular bone. Fracture in the femoral specimen initiated in the superior part of the neck. Measured fracture load was 3760N, compared to 4871N predicted based on the finite element analysis. Digital image correlation showed compressive surface strains as high as 7.1% prior to fracture. Voxel level results were consistent with high-speed video data and helped identify hidden local structural weaknesses. We found using a drop tower test protocol that a femoral neck fracture can be created with a fall velocity and energy representative of a sideways fall from standing. Additionally, we found that the nested explicit finite element method used allowed us to identify local structural weaknesses associated with femur fracture initiation. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The biomechanical mechanism of how strength and power training improves walking speed in old adults remains unknown

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    Beijersbergen, C. M. I.; Granacher, U.; Vandervoort, A. A.; DeVita, P.; Hortobagyi, T.

    Maintaining and increasing walking speed in old age is clinically important because this activity of daily living predicts functional and clinical state. We reviewed evidence for the biomechanical mechanisms of how strength and power training increase gait speed in old adults. A systematic search

  1. Parasite manipulation of the proximate mechanisms that mediate social behavior in vertebrates. (United States)

    Klein, Sabra L


    Paul MacLean was instrumental in establishing the brain regions that mediate the expression of social behaviors in vertebrates. Pathogens can exploit these central mechanisms to alter host social behaviors, including aggressive, reproductive, and parental behaviors. Although some behavioral changes after infection are mediated by the host (e.g., sickness behaviors), other behavioral modifications are mediated by the pathogen to facilitate transmission. The goal of this review is to provide examples of parasite-mediated changes in social behavior and to illustrate that parasites affect host behavior by infecting neurons, causing central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, and altering neurotransmitter and hormonal communication. Secondarily, a comparative approach will be used to demonstrate that the effects of parasites on social behavior are retained across several classes of vertebrates possibly because parasites affect the phylogenetically primitive structures of the limbic system and related neurochemical systems.

  2. Rethinking modern theories of ageing and their classification: the proximate mechanisms and the ultimate explanations

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    Chmielewski Piotr


    Full Text Available For a very long time, ageing has been an insurmountable problem in biology. The collection of age-dependent changes that render ageing individuals progressively more likely to die seemed to be an intractable labyrinth of alterations and associations whose direct mechanisms and ultimate explanations were too complex and difficult to understand. The science of ageing has always been fraught with insuperable problems and obstacles. In 1990, Zhores Medvedev presented a list of roughly 300 different hypotheses to illustrate this remarkable complexity of the ageing process and various approaches to understanding its mechanisms, though none of these hypotheses or aspect theories could be the general theory of senescence. Moreover, in the light of current data some of these ideas are obsolete and inapplicable. Nonetheless, the misconception that there are hundreds of valid theories of ageing persists among many researchers and authors. In addition, some of these obsolete and discarded hypotheses, such as the rate of living theory, the wear and tear theory, the poisoning theory, or the entropy theory still can be found in today’s medical textbooks, scientific publications aimed at the general public, and even in scientific writing. In fact, there are only several modern theories of ageing supported by compelling evidence that attempt to explain most of the data in current gerontology. These theories are competing to be a general and integrated model of ageing, making it unlikely that all of them could be true. This review summarises briefly several selected modern theories of senescence in the light of the contemporary knowledge of the biological basis for ageing and current data.

  3. Effect of a collateral ligament sparing surgical approach on mechanical properties of equine proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis constructs. (United States)

    Bras, Jose J; Lillich, James D; Beard, Warren L; Anderson, David E; Armbrust, Laura J; Frink, Elizabeth; Lease, Kevin


    To (1) compare the effect of a collateral ligament sparing surgical approach with an open surgical approach on mechanical properties of proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) arthrodesis, and (2) to determine the percentage of articular cartilage surface removed by transarticular (TA) drilling with different diameter drill bits. Randomized paired limb design. Cadaveric equine limbs (n=76). Cadaveric PIPJ were drilled using a 3.5, 4.5, or 5.5 mm drill bit at 80-84° to the dorsal plane to remove articular cartilage and subchondral bone from the distal articular surface of the proximal phalanx (P1) and the proximal articular surface of the middle phalanx (P2). Bone ends were photographed and the percentage of the projected surface area that was denuded of cartilage was measured. PIPJ arthrodesis constructs (3-hole dynamic compression plate [DCP], two 5.5 mm TA screws inserted in lag fashion, medial and lateral to the DCP; DCP-TA) were created using 2 surgical approaches in paired limbs. A conventional open approach was used in 1 limb and a collateral ligament sparing approach used in the other limb. Constructs were tested to failure in single-cycle 3-point dorsopalmar/plantar or lateromedial bending. Maximum load, yield load, and composite stiffness were compared between techniques. The 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 mm drill bits removed 24±4%, 35±5%, and 45±7% of total PIPJ articular cartilage surface, respectively. Constructs with the collateral ligament sparing approach had significantly greater mean yield load (11.3±2.8 versus 7.68±1.1 kN, P=.008) and mean maximum load (13.5±3.1 versus 10.1±1.94 kN, P=.02) under lateromedial bending. Under dorsopalmar/plantar bending there was no significant difference between surgical approaches. The collateral ligament sparing arthrodesis technique had a shorter surgical time (19±3 minutes) compared with the open technique (31±3 minutes). A collateral ligament sparing surgical approach to the PIPJ with removal of articular

  4. Quantum-Mechanical Methods for Quantifying Incorporation of Contaminants in Proximal Minerals

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    Lindsay C. Shuller-Nickles


    Full Text Available Incorporation reactions play an important role in dictating immobilization and release pathways for chemical species in low-temperature geologic environments. Quantum-mechanical investigations of incorporation seek to characterize the stability and geometry of incorporated structures, as well as the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reactions themselves. For a thermodynamic treatment of incorporation reactions, a source of the incorporated ion and a sink for the released ion is necessary. These sources/sinks in a real geochemical system can be solids, but more commonly, they are charged aqueous species. In this contribution, we review the current methods for ab initio calculations of incorporation reactions, many of which do not consider incorporation from aqueous species. We detail a recently-developed approach for the calculation of incorporation reactions and expand on the part that is modeling the interaction of periodic solids with aqueous source and sink phases and present new research using this approach. To model these interactions, a systematic series of calculations must be done to transform periodic solid source and sink phases to aqueous-phase clusters. Examples of this process are provided for three case studies: (1 neptunyl incorporation into studtite and boltwoodite: for the layered boltwoodite, the incorporation energies are smaller (more favorable for reactions using environmentally relevant source and sink phases (i.e., ΔErxn(oxides > ΔErxn(silicates > ΔErxn(aqueous. Estimates of the solid-solution behavior of Np5+/P5+- and U6+/Si4+-boltwoodite and Np5+/Ca2+- and U6+/K+-boltwoodite solid solutions are used to predict the limit of Np-incorporation into boltwoodite (172 and 768 ppm at 300 °C, respectively; (2 uranyl and neptunyl incorporation into carbonates and sulfates: for both carbonates and sulfates, it was found that actinyl incorporation into a defect site is more favorable than incorporation into defect-free periodic

  5. Evidence for the circadian gene period as a proximate mechanism of protandry in a pollinating fig wasp. (United States)

    Gu, Hai-Feng; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Dunn, Derek W; Niu, Li-Ming; Wang, Bo; Jia, Ling-Yi; Huang, Da-Wei


    Protandry in insects is the tendency for adult males to emerge before females and usually results from intra-sexual selection. However, the genetic basis of this common phenomenon is poorly understood. Pollinating fig wasp (Agaonidae) larvae develop in galled flowers within the enclosed inflorescences ('figs') of fig trees. Upon emergence, males locate and mate with the still galled females. After mating, males release females from their galls to enable dispersal. Females cannot exit galls or disperse from a fig without male assistance. We sampled male and female Ceratosolen solmsi (the pollinator of Ficus hispida) every 3 h over a 24 h emergence period, and then measured the expression of five circadian genes: period (per), clock (clk), cycle (cyc), pigment-dispersing factor (pdf) and clockwork orange (cwo). We found significant male-biased sexual dimorphism in the expression of all five genes. per showed the greatest divergence between the sexes and was the only gene rhythmically expressed. Expression of per correlated closely with emergence rates at specific time intervals in both male and female wasps. We suggest that this rhythmical expression of per may be a proximate mechanism of protandry in this species.

  6. Linked opening angle and histological and mechanical aspects of the proximal pulmonary arteries of healthy and pulmonary hypertensive rats and calves. (United States)

    Tian, Lian; Lammers, Steven R; Kao, Philip H; Reusser, Mark; Stenmark, Kurt R; Hunter, Kendall S; Qi, H Jerry; Shandas, Robin


    Understanding how arterial remodeling changes the mechanical behavior of pulmonary arteries (PAs) is important to the evaluation of pulmonary vascular function. Early and current efforts have focused on the arteries' histological changes, their mechanical properties under in vitro mechanical testing, and their zero-stress and no-load states. However, the linkage between the histology and mechanical behavior is still not well understood. To explore this linkage, we investigated the geometry, residual stretch, and histology of proximal PAs in both adult rat and neonatal calf hypoxic models of pulmonary hypertension (PH), compared their changes due to chronic hypoxia across species, and proposed a two-layer mechanical model of artery to relate the opening angle to the stiffness ratio of the PA outer to inner layer. We found that the proximal PA remodeling in calves was quite different from that in rats. In rats, the arterial wall thickness, inner diameter, and outer layer thickness fraction all increased dramatically in PH and the opening angle decreased significantly, whereas in calves, only the arterial wall thickness increased in PH. The proposed model predicted that the stiffness ratio of the calf proximal PAs changed very little from control to hypertensive group, while the decrease of opening angle in rat proximal PAs in response to chronic hypoxia was approximately linear to the increase of the stiffness ratio. We conclude that the arterial remodeling in rat and calf proximal PAs is different and the change of opening angle can be linked to the change of the arterial histological structure and mechanics.

  7. Proximal Hypospadias (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.


    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  8. Internal fixation of proximal humerus fractures using the T2-proximal humeral nail. (United States)

    Popescu, Dragos; Fernandez-Valencia, Jenaro A; Rios, Moisés; Cuñé, Jordi; Domingo, Anna; Prat, Salvi


    Surgical management of proximal humerus fractures remains controversial and there is an increasing interest in intramedullary nailing. Created to improve previous designs, the T2-proximal humeral nail (PHN) (Stryker) has been recently released, and the English literature lacks a series evaluating its results. We present a clinical prospective study evaluating this implant for proximal humeral fractures. We evaluated the functional and radiological results and possible complications. Twenty-nine patients with displaced fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with this nail. One patient was lost right after surgery and excluded from the assessment. Eighteen patients were older than 70 years. There were 21 fractures of the proximal part of the humerus and 7 fractures that also involved the shaft; 15 of the fractures were two-part fractures (surgical neck), 5 were three-part fractures, and 1 was a four-part fracture. All fractures healed in a mean period of 2.7 months. There was one delayed union that healed in 4 months. One case of avascular necrosis of the humeral head was observed (a four-part fracture), but remained asymptomatic and did not require further treatment. In one case a back-out of one proximal screw was observed. A final evaluation with a minimum 1 year follow-up was performed by an independent observer; in 18 patients, the mean Constant score was 65.7 or 76.1% with the adjustment of age and gender; in 19 patients, the mean Oxford Shoulder Score was 21.7. The results obtained with the T2-PHN nail indicate that it represents a safe and reliable method in the treatment of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus. The proximal fixation mechanism diminishes the rate of back-out of the screws, a frequent complication described in the literature. Better functional results were obtained from the patients younger than 70 years, but these were not statistically significant.

  9. Toward precision smoking cessation treatment II: Proximal effects of smoking cessation intervention components on putative mechanisms of action. (United States)

    Piper, Megan E; Cook, Jessica W; Schlam, Tanya R; Smith, Stevens S; Bolt, Daniel M; Collins, Linda M; Mermelstein, Robin; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B


    Understanding how smoking cessation treatments exert their effects can inform treatment development and use. Factorial designs allow researchers to examine whether multiple intervention components affect hypothesized change mechanisms, and whether the affected mechanisms are related to cessation. This is a secondary data analysis of smokers recruited during primary care visits (N=637, 55% women, 87% white) who were motivated to quit. Participants in this fractional factorial experiment were randomized to one level of each of six intervention factors: Prequit Nicotine Patch vs None, Prequit Nicotine Gum vs None, Preparation Counseling vs None, Intensive In-Person Counseling vs Minimal, Intensive Phone Counseling vs Minimal, and 16 vs 8 Weeks of Combination Nicotine Replacement (nicotine patch+nicotine gum). Data on putative mechanisms (e.g., medication use, withdrawal, self-efficacy) and smoking status were gathered using daily assessments and during follow-up assessment calls. Some intervention components influenced hypothesized mechanisms. Prequit Gum and Patch each reduced prequit smoking and enhanced prequit coping and self-efficacy. In-Person Counseling increased prequit motivation to quit, postquit self-efficacy, and postquit perceived intratreatment support. Withdrawal reduction and reduced prequit smoking produced the strongest effects on cessation. The significant effect of combining Prequit Gum and In-Person Counseling on 26-week abstinence was mediated by increased prequit self-efficacy. This factorial experiment identified which putative treatment mechanisms were influenced by discrete intervention components and which mechanisms influenced cessation. Such information supports the combined use of prequit nicotine gum and intensive in-person counseling as cessation interventions that operate via increased prequit self-efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 'You scratch my back and I scratch yours' versus 'love thy neighbour' : two proximate mechanisms of reciprocal altruism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smaniotto, Rita Caterina


    Evolutionary psychologists generally believe that reciprocal altruism, the mutual providing of benefits, is governed by a ‘You scratch my back and I scratch yours’, or scorekeeping mechanism. According to this view, individuals are primarily concerned with maintaining a balanced relationship; that

  11. Structural evidence for counter-current flow in proximal tubules versus pertitubular capillaries in the rat kidney. Evaluation of the counter-current mechanism between the proximal convoluted tubules and the peritubular capillaries in the rat nephron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faarup, P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Hegedüs, V


    BACKGROUND: In spite of the very high exchange of water and solutes between the proximal tubules and the peritubular capillaries, very little is known about flow directions in these two interrelated structures. We therefore developed a morphological technique suitable for the quantitative...... evaluation of a counter-current system between the proximal convoluted tubules and the peritubular capillaries in rat renal cortex. METHODS: In male pentothal-anesthetized Wistar rats (body weight 200-250 g), India ink was injected into the aorta above the renal arteries, followed by instant freezing...... of the right kidney in isopentane at -165 degrees C, and subsequent freeze-substitution in alcohol. In microscopic slides from kidneys in which only 20-55% of the cortical peritubular capillary loops was filled with ink--representing the arterial end of the capillaries--and in which the proximal tubular...

  12. Distinct mechanisms underlie adaptation of proximal tubule Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 in response to chronic metabolic and respiratory acidosis. (United States)

    Silva, Pedro Henrique Imenez; Girardi, Adriana Castello Costa; Neri, Elida Adalgisa; Rebouças, Nancy Amaral


    The Na(+/)H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is essential for HCO(3)(-) reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. The expression and function of NHE3 must adapt to acid-base conditions. The goal of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for higher proton secretion in proximal tubules during acidosis and to evaluate whether there are differences between metabolic and respiratory acidosis with regard to NHE3 modulation and, if so, to identify the relevant parameters that may trigger these distinct adaptive responses. We achieved metabolic acidosis by lowering HCO(3)(-) concentration in the cell culture medium and respiratory acidosis by increasing CO(2) tension in the incubator chamber. We found that cell-surface NHE3 expression was increased in response to both forms of acidosis. Mild (pH 7.21 ± 0.02) and severe (6.95 ± 0.07) metabolic acidosis increased mRNA levels, at least in part due to up-regulation of transcription, whilst mild (7.11 ± 0.03) and severe (6.86 ± 0.01) respiratory acidosis did not up-regulate NHE3 expression. Analyses of the Nhe3 promoter region suggested that the regulatory elements sensitive to metabolic acidosis are located between -466 and -153 bp, where two consensus binding sites for SP1, a transcription factor up-regulated in metabolic acidosis, were localised. We conclude that metabolic acidosis induces Nhe3 promoter activation, which results in higher mRNA and total protein level. At the plasma membrane surface, NHE3 expression was increased in metabolic and respiratory acidosis alike, suggesting that low pH is responsible for NHE3 displacement to the cell surface.

  13. Molecular mechanism of kNBC1—carbonic anhydrase II interaction in proximal tubule cells (United States)

    Pushkin, Alexander; Abuladze, Natalia; Gross, Eitan; Newman, Debra; Tatishchev, Sergei; Lee, Ivan; Fedotoff, Olga; Bondar, Galyna; Azimov, Rustam; Ngyuen, Matt; Kurtz, Ira


    We have recently shown that carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) binds in vitro to the C-terminus of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter kNBC1 (kNBC1-ct). In the present study we determined the molecular mechanisms for the interaction between the two proteins and whether kNBC1 and CAII form a transport metabolon in vivo wherein bicarbonate is transferred from CAII directly to the cotransporter. Various residues in the C-terminus of kNBC1 were mutated and the effect of these mutations on both the magnitude of CAII binding and the function of kNBC1 expressed in mPCT cells was determined. Two clusters of acidic amino acids, L958DDV and D986NDD in the wild-type kNBC1-ct involved in CAII binding were identified. In both acidic clusters, the first aspartate residue played a more important role in CAII binding than others. A significant correlation between the magnitude of CAII binding and kNBC1-mediated flux was shown. The results indicated that CAII activity enhances flux through the cotransporter when the enzyme is bound to kNBC1. These data are the first direct evidence that a complex of an electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter with CAII functions as a transport metabolon. PMID:15218065

  14. HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Still Remains a New Drug Target: Structure, Function, Classical Inhibitors, and New Inhibitors with Innovative Mechanisms of Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Esposito


    Full Text Available During the retrotranscription process, characteristic of all retroviruses, the viral ssRNA genome is converted into integration-competent dsDNA. This process is accomplished by the virus-coded reverse transcriptase (RT protein, which is a primary target in the current treatments for HIV-1 infection. In particular, in the approved therapeutic regimens two classes of drugs target RT, namely, nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs and nonnucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs. Both classes inhibit the RT-associated polymerase activity: the NRTIs compete with the natural dNTP substrate and act as chain terminators, while the NNRTIs bind to an allosteric pocket and inhibit polymerization noncompetitively. In addition to these two classes, other RT inhibitors (RTIs that target RT by distinct mechanisms have been identified and are currently under development. These include translocation-defective RTIs, delayed chain terminators RTIs, lethal mutagenesis RTIs, dinucleotide tetraphosphates, nucleotide-competing RTIs, pyrophosphate analogs, RT-associated RNase H function inhibitors, and dual activities inhibitors. This paper describes the HIV-1 RT function and molecular structure, illustrates the currently approved RTIs, and focuses on the mechanisms of action of the newer classes of RTIs.

  15. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  16. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig


    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  17. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones


    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  18. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil


    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  19. Proximal Probes Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  20. Biomechanical superiority of plate fixation for proximal tibial osteotomy. (United States)

    Hartford, James M; Hester, Peter; Watt, Phil M; Hamilton, Doris; Rohmiller, Michael; Pienkowski, David


    Proximal tibial osteotomies require secure and durable fixation to allow early range of motion; however, biomechanical data comparing commonly used fixation methods are lacking. The current study was done to quantify the dynamic biomechanical performance of blade staple fixation and plate fixation of simulated proximal tibial osteotomies. A 15 degrees proximal tibial osteotomy was done on each of 18 synthetic adult composite tibias. Blade staples were used as the means of fixation in nine tibias; plate fixation was used in the remaining nine tibias. The specimens were stressed cyclically in sinusoidal loading whose peak compression and tension loads imitate those measured during normal gait. Device performance was quantified by measuring displacement at the osteotomy site and the number of cycles to failure. Plate fixation had a greater fatigue life than staples (eight plates surviving past 200,000 cycles versus one blade staple) and showed a trend toward less displacement (0.69 mm versus 0.97 mm). Plate fixation of proximal tibial osteotomies offers better fixation and dynamic mechanical performance than blade staples.

  1. Hemodynamic and Mechanical Properties of the Proximal Aorta in Young and Middle-Aged Adults With Isolated Systolic Hypertension: The Dallas Heart Study. (United States)

    Yano, Yuichiro; Neeland, Ian J; Ayers, Colby; Peshock, Ronald; Berry, Jarett D; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Greenland, Philip; Mitchell, Gary F; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen


    The aim of this study was to assess characteristic impedance (Z c ) of the proximal aorta in young and middle-aged individuals with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH). Z c is an index of aortic stiffness relative to aortic size. In the Dallas Heart Study, 2001 untreated participants 18 to 64 years of age (mean age: 42.3 years; 44% black race) were divided into the following groups based on office blood pressure (BP) measurements: (1) optimal BP (systolic BP [SBP] hypertension (SBP hypertension (SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg; n=178). Z c , aortic arch pulse wave velocity, and minimum ascending aortic size were quantified using cardiovascular magnetic resonance. In multivariable-adjusted linear models, Z c was highest in the ISH group compared with the optimal BP, isolated diastolic hypertension, or systolic-diastolic hypertension groups (103.2±4.0 versus 68.3±2.1, 75.4±6.0, and 88.9±4.8 dyne*seconds/cm 5 , respectively; all P hypertension, or systolic-diastolic hypertension groups (6.3±0.3 versus 4.3±0.1, 4.4±0.4 and 5.5±0.3 m/s, respectively; all P 0.2). Results were similar in a subgroup of 1551 participants 18 to 49 years of age. In a multiracial population-based sample, we found evidence of a mismatch between proximal aortic stiffness and diameter in young and middle-aged adults with ISH. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Linked opening angle and histological and mechanical aspects of the proximal pulmonary arteries of healthy and pulmonary hypertensive rats and calves


    Tian, Lian; Lammers, Steven R.; Kao, Philip H.; Reusser, Mark; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Hunter, Kendall S.; Qi, H. Jerry; Shandas, Robin


    Understanding how arterial remodeling changes the mechanical behavior of pulmonary arteries (PAs) is important to the evaluation of pulmonary vascular function. Early and current efforts have focused on the arteries' histological changes, their mechanical properties under in vitro mechanical testing, and their zero-stress and no-load states. However, the linkage between the histology and mechanical behavior is still not well understood. To explore this linkage, we investigated the geometry, r...

  3. What kind of memory has evolution wrought? Introductory article for the special issue of memory: adaptive memory: the emergence and nature of proximate mechanisms. (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L


    It is without question that our memory system evolved through a process of natural selection. However, basic research into the evolutionary foundations of memory has begun in earnest only recently. This is quite peculiar as the majority, perhaps even all, of memory research relates to whether memory is adaptive or not. In this Special Issue of Memory we have assembled a variety of papers that represent the cutting edge in research on the evolution of memory. These papers are centred on issues about the ultimate and proximate explanations of memory, the development of the adaptive functions of memory, as well as the positive consequences that arise from the current evolutionary form that our memory has taken. In this introductory article we briefly outline these different areas and indicate why they are vital for a more complete theory of memory. Further we argue that, by adopting a more applied stance in the area of the evolution of memory, one of the many future directions in this field could be a new branch of psychology that addresses questions in evolutionary legal psychology.

  4. Capacitive proximity sensor (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.


    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  5. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides


    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  6. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule. (United States)

    Hamm, L L; Simon, E E


    The transport of ammonia in the proximal tubule is a complex interaction of a number of processes. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule is clearly bidirectional; ammonia is secreted into the early proximal tubule lumen, but later in the proximal tubule, efflux out of the lumen may result in net ammonia reabsorption. Two mechanisms of ammonia transport have clearly been established: NH3 diffusion and NH4+ transport on the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. The relative contribution of these pathways to ammonia transport is still unsettled. Other pathways for ammonia transport, particularly NH4+ efflux out of the lumen, may be important as well. A variety of factors may modulate ammonia transport: plasma, cell and luminal pH, luminal flow rate, luminal potassium, and angiotensin II. Each of these factors also alters ammonia production rates and in most circumstances, ammonia transport appears to follow ammonia production rates.

  7. Parasite remains in archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Bouchet


    Full Text Available Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefly surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  8. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy


    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  9. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics]. (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N


    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  10. Proximate Analysis of Coal (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.


    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  11. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  12. Mechanisms of mono- and poly-ubiquitination: Ubiquitination specificity depends on compatibility between the E2 catalytic core and amino acid residues proximal to the lysine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadowski Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract Ubiquitination involves the attachment of ubiquitin to lysine residues on substrate proteins or itself, which can result in protein monoubiquitination or polyubiquitination. Ubiquitin attachment to different lysine residues can generate diverse substrate-ubiquitin structures, targeting proteins to different fates. The mechanisms of lysine selection are not well understood. Ubiquitination by the largest group of E3 ligases, the RING-family E3 s, is catalyzed through co-operation between the non-catalytic ubiquitin-ligase (E3 and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2, where the RING E3 binds the substrate and the E2 catalyzes ubiquitin transfer. Previous studies suggest that ubiquitination sites are selected by E3-mediated positioning of the lysine toward the E2 active site. Ultimately, at a catalytic level, ubiquitination of lysine residues within the substrate or ubiquitin occurs by nucleophilic attack of the lysine residue on the thioester bond linking the E2 catalytic cysteine to ubiquitin. One of the best studied RING E3/E2 complexes is the Skp1/Cul1/F box protein complex, SCFCdc4, and its cognate E2, Cdc34, which target the CDK inhibitor Sic1 for K48-linked polyubiquitination, leading to its proteasomal degradation. Our recent studies of this model system demonstrated that residues surrounding Sic1 lysines or lysine 48 in ubiquitin are critical for ubiquitination. This sequence-dependence is linked to evolutionarily conserved key residues in the catalytic region of Cdc34 and can determine if Sic1 is mono- or poly-ubiquitinated. Our studies indicate that amino acid determinants in the Cdc34 catalytic region and their compatibility to those surrounding acceptor lysine residues play important roles in lysine selection. This may represent a general mechanism in directing the mode of ubiquitination in E2 s.

  13. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi


    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  14. Mechanisms for the proximity between the perspectives of the Shiite jurisprudence and the International Human Rights System regarding Corporal Punishment of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Hoseynikhah


    Full Text Available One of the challenging issues which families and societies face in rearing and upbringing is how to treat children’s misbehavior In Islamic perspective, especially Shiite jurisprudence, which is considered to be the main source of legislation in the Islamic republic of Iran, in addition to paying special attention to children’s education and their development and happiness, much emphasis has been put on their dignity, being kind to them, their expedience, preventing any harm and injury to them. Also, it is prohibited to punish and abuse them. However, in some cases corporal punishment of children is permissible and permitted because of their expedience. On the contrary, the international human rights system seeks to eliminate the use of all forms of corporal punishment from all societies. Using different types of instruments and documents, it tries to promote this view. It considers corporal punishment as being against the child’s human dignity and physical integrity. Furthermore, sometimes it is considered inhumane, cruel and humiliating. Therefore, initially and apparently, the two approaches appear to be contradictory. Thus, we try to explain the true nature of the two approaches and to provide some solutions for their proximity considering the interests of the society as well as children's expedience, interests, education, rights and development. از جمله‌ی مسائل حسّاس و مهمّ تربیتی که خانواده‌ها و جوامع بشری دچار آن هستند، چگونگی برخورد با اعمال و کردارهای ناروای کودکان است. در دیدگاه اسلامی و به خصوص فقه سترگ شیعه که در کشور ما منبع الهام‌بخش جهت قانونگذاری محسوب می‌گردد، علاوه بر توجّه خاص به امور تربیتی کودکان و رشد و سعادت آنان، بر کرامت کودکان، مهروزی و مصلحت

  15. Proximal humeral fractures


    Mauro, Craig S.


    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  16. Comportamento mecânico do terço proximal de fêmures de ratos após período de suspensão pela cauda e exercitação Mechanical behavior of rats' femoral proximal thirds after a period of tail suspension and exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Massao Shimano


    Full Text Available A remodelação óssea pode ser estimulada por forças mecânicas presentes nas atividades físicas normais. Neste trabalho foi analisado o comportamento mecânico do terço proximal de fêmur de ratas submetidas à suspensão pela cauda e posterior treinamento em esteira. Sessenta e seis ratas da raça Wistar foram usadas. Primeiramente os animais foram criados por noventa dias e divididos em cinco grupos (dois controles e três experimentais. Os animais do grupo Controle I foram sacrificados com 118 dias de idade. No grupo S (suspenso os animais foram suspensos pela cauda por 28 dias e sacrificados. No grupo Controle II os animais foram sacrificados com 139 dias de idade. No grupo S-L (suspenso-liberado as ratas foram liberadas 21 dias após a suspensão. No grupo S-T (suspenso-treinado após o período de suspensão os animais passaram por treinamento em esteira durante 21 dias. Para análise do comportamento mecânico do osso foi aplicada uma força vertical na cabeça femoral até a ruptura. A fratura foi analisada por raios-X. A suspensão causou um decréscimo da força máxima e, o treinamento e a liberação após a suspensão causaram a recuperação das propriedades mecânicas. Mas, o padrão de fratura não apresentou diferença entre os grupos experimentais.Bone remodeling can be stimulated by mechanical forces present in normal physical activities. In the present research, we investigated the mechanical behavior of the proximal femur of rats previously maintained in tail suspension and later, submitted to physical exercise on a treadmill. Sixty-six Wistar rats were used. Firstly, the animals were raised until the age of ninety days and then divided into five groups (two control groups and three experimental groups. The animals allocated to Control I group were killed at 118 days of age. In the S group, the animals were suspended by tail for 28 days. In Control II group, the animals were killed at 139 days of age. In group S

  17. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making (United States)

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.


    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  18. New hominin remains from Uzbekistan. (United States)

    Glantz, Michelle; Viola, Bence; Wrinn, Patrick; Chikisheva, Tatiana; Derevianko, Anatoly; Krivoshapkin, Andrei; Islamov, Uktur; Suleimanov, Rustam; Ritzman, Terrence


    Although the Paleolithic occupations of Uzbekistan and the neighboring foothill regions of Tajikistan and Kazakhstan are well-documented, almost no hominin fossil material has been discovered in the area since Teshik-Tash 1 in 1938. Here we describe and offer a preliminary comparative framework for hominin remains that were recovered in 2003 from two Middle Paleolithic sites in Uzbekistan, Obi-Rakhmat Grotto and Anghilak Cave. The description of Teshik-Tash as a Neandertal and the preponderance of lithic assemblages identified as Mousterian in character has supported the interpretation of the region as the eastern-most extent of the Neandertal range. The material from Obi-Rakhmat (OR-1), a subadult represented by part of a permanent maxillary dentition and a fragmentary cranium, expresses a relatively Neandertal-like dentition coupled with more ambiguous cranial anatomy. The remains from Anghilak Cave include a non-diagnostic, diminutive right fifth metatarsal (AH-1). These findings are important additions to the Central Asia hominin fossil record.

  19. Efeitos do treinamento físico sobre a resistência mecânica do terço proximal do fêmur de ratos Effects of physical training on the mechanical resistance of rat femur proximal thirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreo Fernando Aguiar


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o comportamento mecânico do terço proximal do fêmur de ratos submetidos ao treinamento aeróbio e resistido crônicos. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar machos (80 dias, 300 a 350 g foram divididos em 3 grupos (n=8 por grupo: Treinamento aeróbio/8 semanas (TA, Treinamento resistido/8 semanas (TR e controle/8 semanas (CO. Ao término do período de treinamento os animais foram sacrificados e o fêmur direito coletado. Para análise do comportamento mecânico do fêmur foram realizados ensaios de flexo-compressão. RESULTADOS: O treinamento resistido ocasionou redução significante da força máxima (Fmáx do fêmur. Por outro lado, promoveu um aumento (23,7% relevante, porém não significante, da deformação da força máxima (DFmáx. O treinamento aeróbio não afetou a Fmáx, porém promoveu uma redução (26,6% considerável, também não significante, da DFmáx. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados demonstram que o treinamento resistido e aeróbio, promoveram redução da Fmáx e da DFmáx óssea, respectivamente. Os dados evidenciam uma ação diferencial de ambos os modelos de treinamento físico sobre as propriedades mecânicas do fêmur de ratos.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mechanical behavior of rat femur proximal thirds submitted to chronic aerobic and resistance training. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (80 days of age, weighing 300 to 350 g were divided into 3 groups (n=8 per group: control (CO, aerobic training (TA and resistance training (TR. At the end of the training, the animals were euthanized and the right femur was collected. Flexion-compression tests were carried out to analyze the mechanical behavior of the femurs. RESULTS: The resistance training promoted a significant reduction in maximum force (Fmáx of the femur. However, it also promoted a relevant increase (23.7%, though without statistical significance, in maximum force deformation (DFmáx. The aerobic training did not affect maximum force, however, it caused a

  20. Complications in proximal humeral fractures. (United States)

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio


    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, J.F.


    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  2. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre


    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  4. Conservative Treatment for Bilateral Displaced Proximal Humerus Head Fracture


    Rodriguez-Corlay, Ruy E; Velutini-Becker, Ricardo; Aguilar-Alcal?, Luis D


    Proximal humerus fracture represents five to eight percent of all fractures and is twice as common in women than in men. Most cases of displaced fracture of the proximal humerus are treated surgically; it is probable that more cases are preferred to be treated surgically greater than required. The optimal treatment for these fractures remains controversial, but physicians have a tendency to treat via open reduction and fixation with angular locking plates or glenohumeral arthroplasty.? We pre...

  5. Perceptual atoms: proximal motion vector-structures and the perception of object motion in depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hershenson Maurice


    Full Text Available A framework is proposed for analyzing the perception of motion in depth produced by simple proximal motion patterns of two to four points. The framework includes input structure, perceptual system constraints, and a depth scaling mechanism. The input is relational stimulation described by two proximal dimensions, orientation and separation, that can change or remain constant over the course of a motion pattern. Combinations of change or no-change in these dimensions yield four basic patterns of proximal stimulation: parallel, circular, perspective, and parallax. These primary patterns initiate automatic processing mechanisms - a unity constraint that treats pairs of points as connected and a rigidity constraint that treats the connection as rigid. When the constraints are activated by perspective or parallax patterns, the rigid connection between the points also appears to move in depth. A scaling mechanism governs the degree to which the objects move in depth in order to maintain the perceived rigidity. Although this framework is sufficient to explain perceptions produced by three- and four-point motion patterns in most cases, some patterns require additional configurational factors to supplement the framework. Nevertheless, perceptual qualities such as shrinking, stretching, bending, and folding emerge from the application of the same processing constraints and depth scaling factors as those that produce the perception of rigid objects moving in depth.

  6. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt


    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  7. Mandibular remains support taxonomic validity of Australopithecus sediba. (United States)

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; DeWitt, Thomas J; Carlson, Keely B; Brophy, Juliet K; Schroeder, Lauren; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R


    Since the announcement of the species Australopithecus sediba, questions have been raised over whether the Malapa fossils represent a valid taxon or whether inadequate allowance was made for intraspecific variation, in particular with reference to the temporally and geographically proximate species Au. africanus. The morphology of mandibular remains of Au. sediba, including newly recovered material discussed here, shows that it is not merely a late-surviving morph of Au. africanus. Rather-as is seen elsewhere in the cranium, dentition, and postcranial skeleton-these mandibular remains share similarities with other australopiths but can be differentiated from the hypodigm of Au. africanus in both size and shape as well as in their ontogenetic growth trajectory.

  8. Proximal collagenous gastroenteritides:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Riis, Lene Buhl; Danese, Silvio


    a systematic review of collagenous gastritis, collagenous sprue, and a combination thereof. METHOD: The search yielded 117 studies which were suitable for inclusion in the systematic review. Excluding repeated cases, 89 case reports and 28 case series were reported, whereas no prospective studies...... of these disorders is presented. The prognosis of both collagenous gastritis and sprue seems not to be as dismal as considered previously. Data point to involvement of immune or autoimmune mechanisms potentially driven by luminal antigens initiating the fibroinflammatory condition. CONCLUSIONS: To reach...

  9. Pathological fractures of the proximal humerus treated with a proximal humeral locking plate and bone cement. (United States)

    Siegel, H J; Lopez-Ben, R; Mann, J P; Ponce, B A


    Bone loss secondary to primary or metastatic lesions of the proximal humerus remains a challenging surgical problem. Options include preservation of the joint with stabilisation using internal fixation or resection of the tumour with prosthetic replacement. Resection of the proximal humerus often includes the greater tuberosity and adjacent diaphysis, which may result in poor function secondary to loss of the rotator cuff and/or deltoid function. Preservation of the joint with internal fixation may reduce the time in hospital and peri-operative morbidity compared with joint replacement, and result in a better functional outcome. We included 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus in this study. Functional and radiological assessments were performed. At a mean follow-up of 17.6 months (8 to 61) there was no radiological evidence of failure of fixation. The mean revised musculoskeletal Tumour Society functional score was 94.6% (86% to 99%). There was recurrent tumour requiring further surgery in four patients (12.5%). Of the 22 patients who were employed prior to presentation all returned to work without restrictions. The use of a locking plate combined with augmentation with cement extends the indications for salvage of the proximal humerus with good function in patients with pathological and impending pathological fractures.

  10. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella (United States)

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu


    Abstract Among stress fractures associated with sports activities, patellar stress fracture is rare. Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella. We describe an extremely rare case of transverse stress fracture of proximal patella in a 9-year-old athlete. A 9-year old boy, who participated in sports (sprints and Kendo) presented with left knee pain without any external injury. In plain radiographs, a fracture line was observed in the proximal 1/3 of the left patella, and a patella stress fracture was diagnosed. For treatment, because 7 months of conservative therapy showed no improvement, internal fixation was carried out using Acutrak screws, and bone union was thus achieved. Three months after the operation, he was able to return to his previous level of athletic sports activity. Regarding the mechanism of onset, it is believed that the causes are longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure. On the other hand, the contact region of the patella with the femur changes with the flexion angle of the knee. In the current case, the fracture occurred at a site where the patella was in contact with the femur at a flexion angle of >90°, so it is believed that it occurred as a clinical condition from being subjected to repeated longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure at a flexion angle of >90°, during the sports activities of sprints and Kendo. The nonunion of the transverse stress fracture of his proximal patella was successfully treated with internal fixation using Acutrak screws. PMID:26871789

  11. Scott's Lake Excavation Letters on Human Remains (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is two letters written about the repatriation of Santee Indian human remains and funerary objects to Santee Sioux Tribe. Includes an inventory of human remains...

  12. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew


    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  13. Efficient Indoor Proximity and Separation Detection for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Treu, Georg; Ruppel, Peter


    Detecting proximity and separation among mobile targets is a basic mechanism for many location-based services (LBSs) and requires continuous positioning and tracking. However, realizing both mechanisms for indoor usage is still a major challenge. Positioning methods like GPS cannot be applied there......, and for distance calculations the particular building topology has to be taken into account. To address these challenges, this paper presents a novel approach for indoor proximity and separation detection, which uses location fingerprinting for indoor positioning of targets and walking distances for modeling...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  15. Regionalization of municipal solid waste management in Japan: balancing the proximity principle with economic efficiency. (United States)

    Okuda, Itaru; Thomson, Vivian E


    The proximity principle - disposing of waste close to its origin - has been a central value in municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Japan for the last 30 years and its widespread adoption has helped resolve numerous "Not in My Backyard" issues related to MSW management. However, MSW management costs have soared, in large part because of aggressive recycling efforts and because most MSW is incinerated in a country that has scarce landfill capacity. In addition, smaller, less sophisticated incinerators have been closed because of high dioxin emissions. Rising costs combined with the closure of smaller incinerators have shifted MSW management policy toward regionalization, which is the sharing of waste management facilities across municipalities. Despite the increased use of regionalized MSW facilities, the proximity principle remains the central value in Japanese MSW management. Municipal solid waste management has become increasingly regionalized in the United States, too, but different driving forces are at work in these two countries. The transition to regionalized MSW management in Japan results from strong governmental control at all levels, with the central government providing funds and policy direction and prefectures and municipalities being the primary implementing authorities. By contrast, market forces are a much stronger force with US MSW management, where local governments - with state government oversight - have primary responsibility for MSW management. We describe recent changes in Japan's MSW programs. We examine the connections between MSW facility regionalization, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the proximity principle, coordination among local governments, central government control, and financing mechanisms.

  16. Distinct gene expression profiles of proximal and distal colorectal cancer: implications for cytotoxic and targeted therapy. (United States)

    Maus, M K H; Hanna, D L; Stephens, C L; Astrow, S H; Yang, D; Grimminger, P P; Loupakis, F; Hsiang, J H; Zeger, G; Wakatsuki, T; Barzi, A; Lenz, H-J


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease with genetic profiles and clinical outcomes dependent on the anatomic location of the primary tumor. How location has an impact on the molecular makeup of a tumor and how prognostic and predictive biomarkers differ between proximal versus distal colon cancers is not well established. We investigated the associations between tumor location, KRAS and BRAF mutation status, and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of proteins involved in major signaling pathways, including tumor growth (epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)), DNA repair (excision repair cross complement group 1 (ERCC1)) and fluoropyrimidine metabolism (thymidylate synthase (TS)). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 431 advanced CRC patients were analyzed. The presence of seven different KRAS base substitutions and the BRAF V600E mutation was determined. ERCC1, TS, EGFR and VEGFR2 mRNA expression levels were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR. BRAF mutations were significantly more common in the proximal colon (Pexpression in multivariate analysis. In a subgroup analysis, this association remained significant for all genes in the proximal colon and for VEGFR2 expression in rectal cancers. The mRNA expression patterns of predictive and prognostic biomarkers, as well as associations with KRAS and BRAF mutation status depend on primary tumor location. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings and determine the underlying mechanisms.

  17. Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases. (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie D; de Waal, Frans B M


    There is disagreement in the literature about the exact nature of the phenomenon of empathy. There are emotional, cognitive, and conditioning views, applying in varying degrees across species. An adequate description of the ultimate and proximate mechanism can integrate these views. Proximately, the perception of an object's state activates the subject's corresponding representations, which in turn activate somatic and autonomic responses. This mechanism supports basic behaviors (e.g., alarm, social facilitation, vicariousness of emotions, mother-infant responsiveness, and the modeling of competitors and predators) that are crucial for the reproductive success of animals living in groups. The Perception-Action Model (PAM), together with an understanding of how representations change with experience, can explain the major empirical effects in the literature (similarity, familiarity, past experience, explicit teaching, and salience). It can also predict a variety of empathy disorders. The interaction between the PAM and prefrontal functioning can also explain different levels of empathy across species and age groups. This view can advance our evolutionary understanding of empathy beyond inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism and can explain different levels of empathy across individuals, species, stages of development, and situations.

  18. Mammalian Remains from Indian Sites on Aruba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.


    Mr. H. R. VAN HEEKEREN and Mr. C. J. DU RY, of the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde at Leiden, entrusted me with the identification of some animal remains collected from Indian sites on Aruba by Professor J. P. B. DE JOSSELIN DE JONG in 1923. These remains relate for the most part to marine turtles

  19. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah; van de Goot, Frank; Ruijter, Jan; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof Jan


    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered

  20. EDITORIAL MALARIA DIAGNOSIS Malaria remains the most ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 2, 2005 ... Malaria remains the most significant parasitic disease affecting man. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to cost effective management (1). Since the identification of Plasmodium parasites in human blood in 1880, the diagnosis of malaria has remained a hot bed of scientific discussion.

  1. Proteomics of Primary Cilia by Proximity Labeling. (United States)

    Mick, David U; Rodrigues, Rachel B; Leib, Ryan D; Adams, Christopher M; Chien, Allis S; Gygi, Steven P; Nachury, Maxence V


    While cilia are recognized as important signaling organelles, the extent of ciliary functions remains unknown because of difficulties in cataloguing proteins from mammalian primary cilia. We present a method that readily captures rapid snapshots of the ciliary proteome by selectively biotinylating ciliary proteins using a cilia-targeted proximity labeling enzyme (cilia-APEX). Besides identifying known ciliary proteins, cilia-APEX uncovered several ciliary signaling molecules. The kinases PKA, AMPK, and LKB1 were validated as bona fide ciliary proteins and PKA was found to regulate Hedgehog signaling in primary cilia. Furthermore, proteomics profiling of Ift27/Bbs19 mutant cilia correctly detected BBSome accumulation inside Ift27(-/-) cilia and revealed that β-arrestin 2 and the viral receptor CAR are candidate cargoes of the BBSome. This work demonstrates that proximity labeling can be applied to proteomics of non-membrane-enclosed organelles and suggests that proteomics profiling of cilia will enable a rapid and powerful characterization of ciliopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bicarbonate secretion by rabbit proximal colon. (United States)

    Sullivan, S K; Smith, P L


    Stripped segments of proximal colon (1-6 cm distal to the ampulla caecalis coli) were studied in vitro in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions using the pH-stat technique. With glucose and HCO3-CO2 present in the serosal bathing solution only, proximal colon alkalinizes the luminal bathing solution at a rate of 2.1 +/- 0.2 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2 (n = 36). With HCO3-CO2 present in the luminal bathing solution alone, proximal colon does not significantly acidify or alkalinize the serosal bathing solution. Addition of glucose (10 mM) to the luminal bathing solution abolished luminal alkalinization. Removal of HCO3 and CO2 from the serosal bathing solution or replacement of O2 with N2 also abolished luminal alkalinization. Acetazolamide (0.1 mM) added to both bathing solutions did not alter the rate of luminal alkalinization. Ion-replacement studies revealed that the alkalinization process was highly dependent on the presence of Na in the bathing solutions and much less dependent on the presence of Cl. Furthermore, ouabain (0.1 mM) significantly reduced luminal alkalinization. As in rabbit ileum, serosal epinephrine (0.1 mM) did not alter luminal alkalinization but increased serosal alkalinization by a Na-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that luminal alkalinization results from a Na-dependent, active transcellular HCO3 transport process and that a Na-dependent HCO3 absorptive process is activated by adrenergic stimuli.

  3. Temporal Proximity Promotes Integration of Overlapping Events. (United States)

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R


    Events with overlapping elements can be encoded as two separate representations or linked into an integrated representation, yet we know little about the conditions that promote one form of representation over the other. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the proximity of overlapping events would increase the probability of integration. Participants first established memories for house-object and face-object pairs; half of the pairs were learned 24 hr before an fMRI session, and the other half 30 min before the session. During scanning, participants encoded object-object pairs that overlapped with the initial pairs acquired on the same or prior day. Participants were also scanned as they made inference judgments about the relationships among overlapping pairs learned on the same or different day. Participants were more accurate and faster when inferring relationships among memories learned on the same day relative to those acquired across days, suggesting that temporal proximity promotes integration. Evidence for reactivation of existing memories-as measured by a visual content classifier-was equivalent during encoding of overlapping pairs from the two temporal conditions. In contrast, evidence for integration-as measured by a mnemonic strategy classifier from an independent study [Richter, F. R., Chanales, A. J. H., & Kuhl, B. A. Predicting the integration of overlapping memories by decoding mnemonic processing states during learning. Neuroimage, 124, 323-335, 2016]-was greater for same-day overlapping events, paralleling the behavioral results. During inference itself, activation patterns further differentiated when participants were making inferences about events acquired on the same day versus across days. These findings indicate that temporal proximity of events promotes integration and further influences the neural mechanisms engaged during inference.

  4. Copper in silicon: Quantitative analysis of internal and proximity gettering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugo, S.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Flink, C.; Weber, E.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others


    The behavior of copper in the presence of a proximity gettering mechanism and a standard internal gettering mechanism in silicon was studied. He implantation-induced cavities in the near surface region were used as a proximity gettering mechanism and oxygen precipitates in the bulk of the material provided internal gettering sites. Moderate levels of copper contamination were introduced by ion implantation such that the copper was not supersaturated during the anneals, thus providing realistic copper contamination/gettering conditions. Copper concentrations at cavities and internal gettering sites were quantitatively measured after the annealings. In this manner, the gettering effectiveness of cavities was measured when in direct competition with internal gettering sites. The cavities were found to be the dominant gettering mechanism with only a small amount of copper gettered at the internal gettering sites. These results reveal the benefits of a segregation-type gettering mechanism for typical contamination conditions.

  5. Photoactivated In Vivo Proximity Labeling. (United States)

    Beck, David B; Bonasio, Roberto


    Identification of molecular interactions is paramount to understanding how cells function. Most available technologies rely on co-purification of a protein of interest and its binding partners. Therefore, they are limited in their ability to detect low-affinity interactions and cannot be applied to proteins that localize to difficult-to-solubilize cellular compartments. In vivo proximity labeling (IPL) overcomes these obstacles by covalently tagging proteins and RNAs based on their proximity in vivo to a protein of interest. In IPL, a heterobifunctional probe comprising a photoactivatable moiety and biotin is recruited by a monomeric streptavidin tag fused to a protein of interest. Following UV irradiation, candidate interacting proteins and RNAs are covalently biotinylated with tight spatial and temporal control and subsequently recovered using biotin as an affinity handle. Here, we describe experimental protocols to discover novel protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions using IPL. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Prox-1 Automated Proximity Operations (United States)


    on demonstrating the functionality required to meet minimum mission success criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of...also includes deployment of LightSail-B from the P-POD, and imaging of LightSail-B for 20 minutes as it recedes from Prox-1. small satellite ; proximity...criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of all spacecraft subsystems, including flight qualification of the following new

  7. Are flexible flat feet associated with proximal joint problems in children? (United States)

    Kothari, A; Dixon, P C; Stebbins, J; Zavatsky, A B; Theologis, T


    The role of flexible flat feet (FF) in the development of musculoskeletal symptoms at joints proximal to the ankle is unclear. We undertook an observational study to investigate the relationship between foot posture and the proximal joints in children. It was hypothesised that reduced arch height would be associated with proximal joint symptoms and altered gait kinematics and kinetics particularly in the transverse plane at the hip and knee. Ninety-five children between the ages of 8-15 were recruited into this ethically approved study. Foot posture was classified using the arch height index (AHI). The frequency of knee and hip/back pain was documented, and each child underwent three dimensional gait analysis. Reduced arch height was associated with increased odds of knee symptoms (p<0.01) and hip/back symptoms (p=0.01). A flat foot posture was also significantly associated with a reduction in the second peak of the vertical ground reaction force (p=0.03), which concomitantly affected late stance hip and knee moments. A reduced AHI was also associated with increased pelvic retraction and increased knee valgus in midstance. No kinematic and kinetic parameter associated with a flat foot posture related to increased proximal joint symptoms in the FF group. Children with a flatter foot posture are more likely to have pain or discomfort at the knee, hip and back; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs remain unclear. Treating FF without explicit understanding of how it relates to symptoms is difficult, and further work in this area is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Remaining Life Expectancy With and Without Polypharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune


    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy for Swedish women and men aged 65 years and older. DESIGN: Age-specific prevalence of polypharmacy from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) combined with life tables from Statistics Sweden...... was used to calculate the survival function and remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy according to the Sullivan method. SETTING: Nationwide register-based study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,347,564 individuals aged 65 years and older who had been prescribed and dispensed a drug from July 1...... to September 30, 2008. MEASUREMENTS: Polypharmacy was defined as the concurrent use of 5 or more drugs. RESULTS: At age 65 years, approximately 8 years of the 20 remaining years of life (41%) can be expected to be lived with polypharmacy. More than half of the remaining life expectancy will be spent...

  9. Mass Remaining During Evaporation of Sessile Drop (United States)


    oscillations in the mass remaining. • TRANSFORM ED t TRUEt TRUEtCont 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 TIMI (Hr) Figure 13. Effect of 3 min...2.5 2.55 2.8 TIMI (Hr) 2.86 2.1 275 2.8 Figure 14. Mass Remaining vs. Time Expanded Scale The assumed sinusoidal variation of the friction velocity

  10. Proximal tibiofibular dislocation: a case report and review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwe Weme, R. A.; Somford, M. P.; Schepers, T.


    An isolated dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint is uncommon. The mechanism of this injury is usually sports related. We present a case where initial X-rays did not show the tibiofibular joint dislocation conclusively. It was diagnosed after comparative bilateral AP X-rays of the knees

  11. Treeline proximity alters an alpine plant-herbivore interaction. (United States)

    Illerbrun, Kurt; Roland, Jens


    Rising treeline threatens the size and contiguity of alpine meadows worldwide. As trees encroach into previously open habitat, the movement and population dynamics of above-treeline alpine species may be disrupted. This process is well documented in studies of the Rocky Mountain apollo butterfly (Parnassius smintheus). However, subtler consequences of treeline rise remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine whether treeline proximity affects feeding behaviour of P. smintheus larvae, due to altered habitat affecting the distribution and availability of their host plant, lance-leaved stonecrop (Sedum lanceolatum). Understanding differential larval exploitation of food resources in relation to the treeline is an important step in predicting the consequences of continued treeline rise. Parnassius smintheus larvae feed more intensively on S. lanceolatum away from the treeline despite the relative paucity of hosts in these areas, and despite higher fitness penalties associated with the plant's herbivory-induced chemical defenses. Sedum lanceolatum growing near the treeline is less attractive, and therefore represents a less significant resource for P. smintheus larvae than its abundance might imply. If treeline rise continues, we suggest that this pattern of altered resource exploitation may represent a mechanism by which larvae are adversely affected even while adult movement among and within meadows appears sufficient for maintaining population health, and total host availability seems ample.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Venkateswarlu


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Treating a proximal humerus fracture remained a challenging problem until proximal humeral internal locking system has been developed. Our study aims at evaluating the functional outcome of 30 consecutive patients with proximal humeral fracture treated by Philos plate fixation; 30 patients with proximal humeral fractures who attended our hospital between December 2013 and December 2015 were included in the study; 18 women and 12 men with a mean age of 47.5years (30-60 years are included. Data was collected prospectively and outcomes were assessed using constant shoulder score. The mean follow-up period was 12 months (6-18 months. Mean union time of all the fractures was 11.4 weeks (8-20 weeks. The mean constant shoulder score at final review was 70.5 (52-92. Philos plate provides stable fracture fixation for proximal humerus fracture in both young and elderly patients, which enables for early mobilisation and achieves acceptable functional results.

  13. Surgeons agree more on treatment recommendations than on classification of proximal humeral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Frich, Lars Henrik


    Orthopaedic surgeons disagree considerably when classifying fractures of the proximal humerus. However, the clinical implications of low observer agreement remain unclear. The purpose of the study was to compare the agreement on Neer classification with the agreement on treatment recommendations....

  14. Late Proximal Pedicle Hook Migration Into Spinal Canal After Posterior Correction Surgery of Scoliosis Causing Neurologic Deficit: "Proximal Junctional Scoliosis"? Case Series and a Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, I.M.P.; de Kleuver, M.


    Study Design: Case series. Objectives: We describe 4 patients with proximal pedicle hook migration as a late complication (greater than 12 months postoperatively) of posterior correction surgery in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. We studied failure mechanisms and propose strategies for revision


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS. 1 Alhassan, A. J. 1M .S. Sule, 1J. ... ABSTRACT. This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. Proximate ... days, before pulverized to powder and kept in plastic container.

  16. Longitudinal spin Seebeck effect free from the proximity Nernst effect. (United States)

    Kikkawa, T; Uchida, K; Shiomi, Y; Qiu, Z; Hou, D; Tian, D; Nakayama, H; Jin, X-F; Saitoh, E


    This Letter provides evidence for intrinsic longitudinal spin Seebeck effects (LSSEs) that are free from the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) caused by an extrinsic proximity effect. We report the observation of LSSEs in Au/Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) (YIG) and Pt/Cu/YIG systems, showing that the LSSE appears even when the mechanism of the proximity ANE is clearly removed. In the conventional Pt/YIG structure, furthermore, we separate the LSSE from the ANE by comparing the voltages in different magnetization and temperature-gradient configurations; the ANE contamination was found to be negligibly small even in the Pt/YIG structure.

  17. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones


    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  18. Effect of interaction of embedded crack and free surface on remaining fatigue life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genshichiro Katsumata


    Full Text Available Embedded crack located near free surface of a component interacts with the free surface. When the distance between the free surface and the embedded crack is short, stress at the crack tip ligament is higher than that at the other area of the cracked section. It can be easily expected that fatigue crack growth is fast, when the embedded crack locates near the free surface. To avoid catastrophic failures caused by fast fatigue crack growth at the crack tip ligament, fitness-for-service (FFS codes provide crack-to-surface proximity rules. The proximity rules are used to determine whether the cracks should be treated as embedded cracks as-is, or transformed to surface cracks. Although the concepts of the proximity rules are the same, the specific criteria and the rules to transform embedded cracks into surface cracks differ amongst FFS codes. This paper focuses on the interaction between an embedded crack and a free surface of a component as well as on its effects on the remaining fatigue lives of embedded cracks using the proximity rules provided by the FFS codes. It is shown that the remaining fatigue lives for the embedded cracks strongly depend on the crack aspect ratio and location from the component free surface. In addition, it can be said that the proximity criteria defined by the API and RSE-M codes give overly conservative remaining lives. On the contrary, the WES and AME codes always give long remaining lives and non-conservative estimations. When the crack aspect ratio is small, ASME code gives non-conservative estimation.

  19. Bilateral trampoline fracture of the proximal tibia in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico B Arkink, MD


    Full Text Available Trampoline fractures are transversely oriented impaction fractures of the proximal tibia sustained by young children jumping on a trampoline. Unaware of the mechanism of this specific nontraumatic fracture, physicians may fail to detect these fractures on plain radiographs, as radiological findings may be very subtle. In this case report, we present a rare case of bilateral trampoline fractures with an explanation of the trauma mechanism.

  20. The annuity puzzle remains a puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, Kim; Nijman, Theo; Werker, Bas J. M.

    We examine incomplete annuity menus, background risk, bequest motives, and default risk as possible drivers of divergence from full annuitization. Contrary to what is often suggested in the literature, we find that full annuitization remains optimal if saving is possible after retirement. This holds

  1. The case for fencing remains intact. (United States)

    Packer, C; Swanson, A; Canney, S; Loveridge, A; Garnett, S; Pfeifer, M; Burton, A C; Bauer, H; MacNulty, D


    Creel et al. argue against the conservation effectiveness of fencing based on a population measure that ignores the importance of top predators to ecosystem processes. Their statistical analyses consider, first, only a subset of fenced reserves and, second, an incomplete examination of 'costs per lion.' Our original conclusions remain unaltered. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  2. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  3. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen


    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  4. Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation. (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise; Cerepani, Mary Jo


    Finger dislocations are common injuries that are often managed by emergency nurse practitioners. A systematic physical examination following these injuries is imperative to avoid complications. Radiographic views, including the anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views, are imperative to evaluate these finger dislocations. A dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is the most common finger dislocation type often easily reduced. A volar PIP dislocation can often be difficult to reduce and may result in finger deformity. Finger dislocations should be reduced promptly. Referral to an orthopedic hand specialist is required if the dislocation is unable to be reduced or if the finger joint is unstable following reduction attempts.

  5. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.


    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  6. Effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade on proximal tubular fluid reabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Karlsen, F M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H


    convolution of halothane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Four parameters that depend on the rate of proximal fluid reabsorption were measured: proximal intratubular pressure (Pprox), early and late proximal flow rate, and early distal NaCl concentration. Pprox decreased by 0.5 +/- 0.1 mmHg, late proximal...... flow rate decreased by 2.0 +/- 0.8 nl/min, and early distal NaCl concentration decreased by 4.3 +/- 0.8 mM (mean +/- SE). No changes were observed after microperfusion with saline. Because the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism was operating in the closed-loop mode, the decreased NaCl load...... the early and late proximal convolutions was estimated to be 7.8 nl/min (approximately 36%). It is concluded that a decrease in local luminal angiotensin II levels and/or AT1 receptor activity under free flow conditions increases the rate of proximal tubular fluid reabsorption....

  7. [Remaining solvents in dry cleaned over clothes]. (United States)

    Tashiro, H; Fujishiro, K; Matsuno, K; Kawamoto, T; Okubo, T


    We examined remaining solvents in dry cleaned trousers to estimate the magnitude of environmental pollution. A cleaning solvent of petroleum hydrocarbon was analyzed by means of capillary column mass spectrum gas chromatography. Principal ingredients were identified to be nonane, decane and undecane. The same main components were detected in dry cleaned trousers. Total amounts of evaporated vapor from a pair of trousers (480 g) in 5 days after dry cleaning were nonane (0.73 mg), decane (1.53 mg) and undecane (1.09 mg). The levels on the fifth day were 5%(nonane), 18%(decane) and 32%(undecane) of the first day's concentration, respectively. The half times of the remaining solvents were 1.0 day (nonane), 1.7 days (decane) and 2.7 days (undecane), respectively.



    Poux, Florent; Neuville, Romain; Hallot, Pierre; Billen, Roland


    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmenta...

  9. [Professional confidentiality: speak out or remain silent? ]. (United States)

    Daubigney, Jean-claude


    People who work with children, in their daily tasks, must choose whether to disclose information entrusted to them. However, they are subject to the law, which authorises or imposes speaking out or remaining silent. In terms of ethics, they can seek the best possible response while respecting professional secrecy when meeting an individual, in a situation, in a place or at a particular time. They must then take responsibility for that decision.

  10. Effect of electroacupuncture at distal–proximal acupoint combinations on spinal interleukin-1 beta in a rat model of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Jiang


    Conclusion: EA at distal + proximal acupoints, distal points, as well as proximal points attenuated upregulation of spinal IL-1β, alleviated the extent of neuropathic pain hypersensitivity, and promoted mechanical withdrawal threshold, resulting in EA analgesia.

  11. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den


    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  12. A Review of Management Options for Proximal Humeral Fractures


    Jordan, Robert W; Modi, Chetan S


    Proximal humeral fractures are common and although the majority can be managed non-operatively, the optimal treatment of displaced or complex fractures remains controversial. Non-operative treatment is typically selected for minimally displaced fractures where union rates are high and good or excellent outcomes can be expected in approximately 80% of cases. The aims of surgical fixation are to restore articular surface congruency, alignment and the relationship between the tuberosities and th...

  13. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains. (United States)

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi


    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses.

  14. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Jónsson, Hákon


    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from...... community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using...

  15. Barrett's esophagus-related diseases remain uncommon in China. (United States)

    Huang, Qin; Fang, Dian Chun; Yu, Cheng Gong; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Min Hu


    Barrett's esophagus (BE)-related esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has shown the fastest rise in incidence in Western countries; however, research data on BE-related diseases from China are inconclusive. We aimed to review and analyze the published results on these diseases in China. We searched PubMed and Chinese medical literature for key words: BE, EAC, Chinese and China. Relevant research papers along with the study results from our own groups were reviewed and analyzed. Using standardized criteria, columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) was found in as many as 29% of resection specimens in Chinese patients with proximal gastric cancer. However, BE with intestinal metaplasia was rare, ranging from 0.06% in the general population to disease and tobacco or alcohol abuse, but not male gender or obesity. At endoscopy, most CLE/BE were diseases, except for CLE, are rare in China. The clinical significance and malignant potential of CLE in the Chinese population remain elusive. Further investigation on these diseases is in progress. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2011 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand


    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  17. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.


    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  18. Proximity Effect at Graphene - High Tc Superconductor Junctions (United States)

    Wang, Da; Shih, En-Min; Arefe, Ghidewon; Kim, Youngduck; Edelberg, Drew; Andrade, Erick; Wang, Dennis; Hone, James; Dean, Cory; Pasupathy, Abhay; Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA Collaboration

    The proximity effect is a well-known mesoscopic phenomenon where Cooper pairs from a superconductor (S) enter into a normal metal (N) that is well coupled to it. Since graphene was discovered a decade ago, the proximity effect at superconductor-graphene junctions has been extensively studied and interesting phenomena such as specular Andreev reflection and ballistic transport at graphene Josephson junctions have been observed. However, superconductors used in these experiments to date are of conventional low Tc, such as aluminum(Tc=1.2K), NbSe2(Tc=7K), and MoRe(Tc=8K). Understanding how the proximity effect works between high-Tc superconductors (pnictides and cuprates) and the Dirac Fermions of graphene remains largely unexplored. The chief technical challenge here is to create high-quality junctions between high-Tc superconductors and graphene. In this work, we will introduce a home-made setup that allows us to exfoliate, transfer and encapsulate superconductor-graphene junctions in a well controlled inert atmosphere. Transport measurements of the proximity effect at graphene-iron pnictide(FeSe, FeTeSe) and graphene-cuprate(BSCCO) junctions will be described.


    Guo, Jinhai; Huang, Fuguo


    To review the research progress of the biomechanics of proximal row carpal instability (IPRC). The related literature concerning IPRC was extensively reviewed. The biomechanical mechanism of the surrounding soft tissue in maintaining the stability of the proximal row carpal (PRC) was analyzed, and the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of the PRC were summarized from two aspects including basic biomechanics and clinical biomechanics. The muscles and ligaments of the PRC are critical to its stability. Most scholars have reached a consensus about biomechanical mechanism of the PRC, but there are still controversial conclusions on the biomechanics mechanism of the surrounding soft tissue to stability of distal radioulnar joint when the triangular fibrocartilage complex are damaged and the biomechanics mechanism of the scapholunate ligament. At present, there is no unified standard about the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of the PRC. So, it is difficult for clinical practice. Some strides have been made in the basic biomechanical study on muscle and ligament and clinical biomechanical study on the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of PRC, but it will be needed to further study the morphology of carpal articular surface and the adjacent articular surface, the pressure of distal carpals to proximal carpal and so on.

  20. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux


    Full Text Available Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  2. The Human Remains from HMS Pandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Steptoe


    Full Text Available In 1977 the wreck of HMS Pandora (the ship that was sent to re-capture the Bounty mutineers was discovered off the north coast of Queensland. Since 1983, the Queensland Museum Maritime Archaeology section has carried out systematic excavation of the wreck. During the years 1986 and 1995-1998, more than 200 human bone and bone fragments were recovered. Osteological investigation revealed that this material represented three males. Their ages were estimated at approximately 17 +/-2 years, 22 +/-3 years and 28 +/-4 years, with statures of 168 +/-4cm, 167 +/-4cm, and 166cm +/-3cm respectively. All three individuals were probably Caucasian, although precise determination of ethnicity was not possible. In addition to poor dental hygiene, signs of chronic diseases suggestive of rickets and syphilis were observed. Evidence of spina bifida was seen on one of the skeletons, as were other skeletal anomalies. Various taphonomic processes affecting the remains were also observed and described. Compact bone was observed under the scanning electron microscope and found to be structurally coherent. Profiles of the three skeletons were compared with historical information about the 35 men lost with the ship, but no precise identification could be made. The investigation did not reveal the cause of death. Further research, such as DNA analysis, is being carried out at the time of publication.

  3. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of lysozyme in renal proximal tubules of the frog Rana temporaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Seliverstova


    Full Text Available The mechanism of protein reabsorption in the kidney of lower vertebrates remains insufficiently investigated in spite of raising interest to the amphibian and fish kidneys as a useful model for physiological and pathophysiological examinations. In the present study, we examined the renal tubular uptake and the internalization rote of lysozyme after its intravenous injection in the wintering frog Rana temporaria using immunohisto- and immunocytochemistry and specific markers for some endocytic compartments. The distinct expression of megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule cells of lysozyme-injected frogs was revealed whereas kidney tissue of control animals showed no positive immunoreactivity. Lysozyme was detected in the apical endocytic compartment of the tubular cells and colocalized with clathrin 10 min after injection. After 20 min, lysozyme was located in the subapical compartment negative to clathrin (endosomes, and intracellular trafficking of lysozyme was coincided with the distribution of megalin and cubilin. However, internalized protein was retained in the endosomes and did not reach lysosomes within 30 min after treatment that may indicate the inhibition of intracellular trafficking in hibernating frogs. For the first time, we provided the evidence that lysozyme is filtered through the glomeruli and absorbed by receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the frog proximal tubule cells. Thus, the protein uptake in the amphibian mesonephros is mediated by megalin and cubilin that confirms a critical role of endocytic receptors in the renal reabsorption of proteins in amphibians as in mammals.

  4. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G


    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  5. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption (United States)


    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  6. Superconducting proximity effect for in situ and model layered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnemore, D.K.


    The primary drawback for in situ composites is that the ac losses are higher than for mechanically produced multifilamentary wire. To develop an understanding of the proximity effect so that analytical expressions will be available for design, a model system is developed based on PbCd. Items discussed include boundary conditions at SN interface, phonon spectral function, supercurrents through normal barriers, flux entry fields, and implications for in situ composites. (GHT)

  7. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures


    Thyagarajan David; Haridas Samarth; Jones Denise; Dent Colin; Evans Richard; Williams Rhys


    Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system) for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years...

  8. Best Proximity Points for a New Class of Generalized Proximal Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Kamran


    Full Text Available The best proximity points are usually used to find the optimal approximate solution of the operator equation Tx = x, when T has no fixed point. In this paper, we prove some best proximity point theorems for nonself multivalued operators, following the foot steps of Basha and Shahzad [Best proximity point theorems for generalized proximal contractions, Fixed Point Theory Appl., 2012, 2012:42].

  9. Homo naledi pelvic remains from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa. (United States)

    VanSickle, Caroline; Cofran, Zachary; García-Martínez, Daniel; Williams, Scott A; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R; Hawks, John


    In the hominin fossil record, pelvic remains are sparse and are difficult to attribute taxonomically when they are not directly associated with craniodental material. Here we describe the pelvic remains from the Dinaledi Chamber in the Rising Star cave system, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa, which has produced hominin fossils of a new species, Homo naledi. Though this species has been attributed to Homo based on cranial and lower limb morphology, the morphology of some of the fragmentary pelvic remains recovered align more closely with specimens attributed to the species Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus africanus than they do with those of most (but not all) known species of the genus Homo. As with A. afarensis and A. africanus, H. naledi appears to have had marked lateral iliac flare and either a weakly developed or non-existent acetabulocristal buttress or a distinct, albeit weakly developed, acetabulospinous buttress. At the same time, H. naledi has robust superior pubic and ischiopubic rami and a short ischium with a narrow tuberoacetabular sulcus, similar to those found in modern humans. The fragmentary nature of the Dinaledi pelvic assemblage makes the attribution of sex and developmental age to individual specimens difficult, which in turn diminishes our ability to identify the number of individuals represented in the assemblage. At present, we can only confidently say that the pelvic fossils from Rising Star represent at least four individuals based on the presence of four overlapping right ischial fossils (whereas a minimum of 15 individuals can be identified from the Dinaledi dental assemblage). A primitive, early Australopithecus-like false pelvis combined with a derived Homo-like true pelvis is morphologically consistent with evidence from the lower ribcage and proximal femur of H. naledi. The overall similarity of H. naledi ilia to those of australopiths supports the inference, drawn from the observation of primitive pelvic

  10. Distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx in distal thumb amputations. (United States)

    Cansü, Eren; Ünal, Mehmet Bekir; Parmaksızoğlu, Fatih; Gürcan, Serkan


    Thumb amputation is a major cause of hand dysfunction, and the treatment for distal thumb amputations remains controversial. Although finger reconstruction methods using distraction lengthening are known to restore finger length and function, we found no reports in the literature regarding phalangeal lengthening in thumb amputations. We aimed to evaluate proximal phalangeal lengthening in thumb amputations at or near the interphalangeal (IP) joint. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had undergone distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx of the thumb. All patients underwent osteotomy, either during the initial procedure or as a second-stage procedure. Distraction began 10 days after osteotomy with the use of an external fixator that remained in place until ossification of the gap occurred without bone grafting. Patients were evaluated using the QuickDASH score. Fourteen patients with a mean age of 27 years and a mean follow-up period of 7 years were enrolled. The mean phalangeal lengthening achieved was 20 mm. Ossification occurred at all distraction sites, and the fixators were maintained for a mean of 85 days. The mean healing index was 42.5 days/cm. All 14 patients achieved the desired amount of phalangeal lengthening without major complications such as nonunion, premature union, or gross infection. For reconstruction in cases of distal thumb amputations, distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx can be used to improve absolute length, web space, and grip distance. The technique is safe and effective, improves functionality/cosmesis, and offers a low complication risk.

  11. Proximal tibiofibular joint: Rendezvous with a forgotten articulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitav Sarma


    Full Text Available The proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ is a plane type synovial joint. The primary function of the PTFJ is dissipation of torsional stresses applied at the ankle and the lateral tibial bending moments besides a very significant tensile, rather than compressive weight bearing. Though rare, early diagnosis and treatment of the PTFJ dislocation are essential to prevent chronic joint instability and extensive surgical intervention to restore normal PTFJ biomechanics, ankle and knee function, especially in athletes prone to such injuries. PTFJ dislocations often remain undiagnosed in polytrauma scenario with ipsilateral tibial fracture due to the absence of specific signs and symptoms of PTFJ injury. Standard orthopedic textbooks generally describe no specific tests or radiological signs for assessment of the integrity of this joint. The aim of this paper was to review the relevant clinical anatomy, biomechanics and traumatic pathology of PTFJ with its effect on the knee emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis through a high index of suspicion. Dislocation of the joint may have serious implications for the knee joint stability since fibular collateral ligament and posterolateral ligament complex is attached to the upper end of the fibula. Any high energy knee injury with peroneal nerve palsy should immediately raise the suspicion of PTFJ dislocation especially if the mechanism of injury involved knee twisting in flexion beyond 80° and in such cases a comparative radiograph of the contralateral side should be performed. Wider clinical awareness can avoid both embarrassingly extensive surgeries due to diagnostic delays or unnecessary overtreatment due to misinformation on the part of the treating surgeon.

  12. Children's Attentional Processing of Mother and Proximity Seeking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bosmans

    Full Text Available Attachment expectations regarding the availability of mother as a source for support are supposed to influence distressed children's support seeking behavior. Because research is needed to better understand the mechanisms related to support seeking behavior, this study tested the hypothesis that the cognitive processing of mother-related information is linked to proximity and support seeking behavior. Uncertainty in maternal support has been shown to be characterized by a biased attentional encoding of mother, reducing the breadth of children's attentional field around her. We investigated whether this attentional bias is related to how long distressed children wait before seeking their mother's proximity. Thirty-three children (9-11 years participated in this study that consisted of experimental tasks to measure attentional breadth and to observe proximity seeking behavior and of questionnaires to measure confidence in maternal support and experienced distress. Results suggested that distressed children with a more narrow attentional field around their mother wait longer to seek her proximity. Key Message: These findings provide a first support for the hypothesis that the attentional processing of mother is related to children's attachment behavior.

  13. Preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the following proximate ...

  14. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.


    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  15. Grouping by Proximity in Haptic Contour Detection (United States)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Wagemans, Johan


    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection. PMID:23762364

  16. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Vol. 15 (1) 9 - 11. Full-text Available Online at Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms. ADEDAYO, MAJEKODUNMI RACHEL. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, P.M.B.3032, Kano. ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in.

  17. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.


    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

  18. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spigelia anthelmia is used traditionally in Southern Nigeria for the treatment of infant convulsion and epilepsy. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant effect of the methanolic extract of Spigelia anthelmia. Phytochemical evaluation and proximate analysis was carried ...

  19. Surgical treatment of proximal humerus fractures using PHILOS plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Sharma


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To evaluate functional outcome and complications of open reduction and internal fixation with proximal humeral internal locking system (PHILOS plate for proximal humerus fractures. Methods: We reviewed 51 patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation with PHILOS plate between the years 2007 to 2012. There were 35 men and 16 women with a mean age of 38 years (range 24-68. There were 41 patients in the age group of <60 years and 10 patients in the age group of >60 years. According to Neer classification system, 8, 15 and 23 patients had 2-part, 3-part, and 4-part fractures, respectively and 5 patients had 4-part fracture dislocation. All surgeries were carried out at our tertiary care trauma centre. Functional evaluation of the shoulder at final follow-up was done using Constant-Murley score. Results: The mean follow-up period was 30 months (range 12-44 months. Two patients were lost to followup. Of the remaining 49 patients, all fractures were united clinically and radiologically. The mean time for radiological union was 12 weeks (range 8-20 weeks. At the final follow-up the mean Constant-Murley score was 79 (range 50-100. The results were excellent in 25 patients, good in 13 patients, fair in 6 atients and poor in 5 patients. During the follow-up, four cases of varus malunion, one case of subacromial impingement, one case of deep infection, one case of intraarticular screw penetration and one case of failure of fi xation were noted. No cases of avascular necrosis, hardware failure, locking screw loosening or nonunion were noted. Conclusion: PHILOS provides stable fixation in proximal humerus fractures. To prevent potential complications like avascular necrosis, meticulous surgical dissection to preserve vascularity of humeral head is necessary. Key words: Proximal humerus fracture; Fracture fixation, internal; Proximal humeral internal locking system

  20. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, W


    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  1. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains. (United States)

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J


    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  2. Intramedullary compression device for proximal ulna fracture. (United States)

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Han, Fucai; Decruz, Joshua; Pannirselvam, Vinodhkumar; Murphy, Diarmuid


    Proximal ulna fractures account for 20% of all proximal forearm fractures. Many treatment options are available for such fractures, such as cast immobilisation, plate and screw fixation, tension band wiring and intramedullary screw fixation, depending on the fracture pattern. Due to the subcutaneous nature of the proximal forearm, it is vulnerable to open injuries over the dorsal aspect of the proximal ulna. This may in turn prove challenging, as it is critical to obtain adequate soft tissue coverage to reduce the risk of implant exposure and bony infections. We herein describe a patient with a Gustillo III-B open fracture of the proximal ulna, treated with minimally invasive intramedullary screw fixation using a 6.0-mm cannulated headless titanium compression screw (FusiFIX, Péronnas, France).

  3. Proximity coupling in superconductor-graphene heterostructures. (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Hu-Jong


    This review discusses the electronic properties and the prospective research directions of superconductor-graphene heterostructures. The basic electronic properties of graphene are introduced to highlight the unique possibility of combining two seemingly unrelated physics, superconductivity and relativity. We then focus on graphene-based Josephson junctions, one of the most versatile superconducting quantum devices. The various theoretical methods that have been developed to describe graphene Josephson junctions are examined, together with their advantages and limitations, followed by a discussion on the advances in device fabrication and the relevant length scales. The phase-sensitive properties and phase-particle dynamics of graphene Josephson junctions are examined to provide an understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Josephson coupling via graphene. Thereafter, microscopic transport of correlated quasiparticles produced by Andreev reflections at superconducting interfaces and their phase-coherent behaviors are discussed. Quantum phase transitions studied with graphene as an electrostatically tunable two-dimensional platform are reviewed. The interplay between proximity-induced superconductivity and the quantum-Hall phase is discussed as a possible route to study topological superconductivity and non-Abelian physics. Finally, a brief summary on the prospective future research directions is given. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures with use of the locking proximal humerus plate. Surgical technique. (United States)

    Konrad, G; Bayer, J; Hepp, P; Voigt, C; Oestern, H; Kääb, M; Luo, C; Plecko, M; Wendt, K; Köstler, W; Südkamp, N


    The treatment of unstable displaced proximal humeral fractures, especially in the elderly, remains controversial. The objective of the present prospective, multicenter, observational study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the complication rate after open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures with use of a locking proximal humeral plate. One hundred and eighty-seven patients (mean age, 62.9 +/- 15.7 years) with an acute proximal humeral fracture were managed with open reduction and internal fixation with a locking proximal humeral plate. At the three-month, six month,and one-year follow-up examinations, 165 (88%), 158 (84%), and 155 (83%) of the 187 patients were assessed with regard to pain, shoulder mobility, and strength. The Constant score was determined at each interval, and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score was determined for the injured and contralateral extremities at the time of the one-year follow-up. Between three months and one year, the mean range of motion and the mean Constant score for the injured shoulders improved substantially. Twelve months after surgery, the mean Constant score for the injured side was 70.6 +/- 13.7 points, corresponding to 85.1% +/- 14.0% of the score for the contralateral side. The mean DASH score at the time of the one-year follow-up was 15.2 +/- 16.8 points. Sixty-two complications were encountered in fifty-two (34%) of 155 patients at the time of the one-year follow-up. Twenty-five complications (40%) were related to incorrect surgical technique and were present at the end of the operative procedure. The most common complication, noted in twenty-one (14%) of 155 patients, was intraoperative screw perforation of the humeral head. Twenty-nine patients (19%) had an unplanned second operation within twelve months after the fracture. Surgical treatment of displaced proximal humeral fractures with use of the locking proximal humeral plate that was evaluated in the

  5. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu


    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  6. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...

  7. STRaND-2: Visual inspection, proximity operations & nanosatellite docking (United States)

    Bridges, C. P.; Taylor, B.; Horri, N.; Underwood, C. I.; Kenyon, S.; Barrera-Ars, J.; Pryce, L.; Bird, R.

    The Surrey Training Research and Nanosatellite Demonstrator (STRaND) programme has been success in identifying and creating a leading low-cost nanosatellite programme with advanced attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) and experimental computing platforms based on smart-phone technologies. The next demonstration capabilities, that provide a challenging mission to the existing STRaND platform, is to perform visual inspection, proximity operations and nanosatellite docking. Visual inspection is to be performed using a COTS LIDAR system to estimate range and pose under 100 m. Proximity operations are controlled using a comprehensive guidance, navigation and control (GNC) loop in a polar form of the Hills Clohessy Wiltshire (HCW) frame including J2 perturbations. And finally, nanosatellite docking is performed at under 30 cm using a series of tuned magnetic coils. This paper will document the initial experiments and calculations used to qualify LIDAR components, size the mission thrust and tank requirements, and air cushion table demonstrations of the docking mechanism.

  8. Affordable dual-sensing proximity sensor for touchless interactive systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.


    We report an ultra-low cost flexible proximity sensor using only off-the-shelf recyclable materials such as aluminum foil, napkin and double-sided tape. Unlike previous reports, our device structure exhibits two sensing capabilities in one platform, with outstanding long detection range of 20 cm and pressure sensitivity of 0.05 kPa. This is the first ever demonstration of a low-cost, accessible, and batch manufacturing process for pressure and proximity sensing on a singular platform. The mechanical flexibility of the sensor makes it possible to mount on various irregular platforms, which is vital in many areas, such as robotics, machine automation, vehicular technology and inspection tools.

  9. Research on Proximity Magnetic Field Influence in Measuring Error of Active Electronic Current Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Weijiang


    Full Text Available The principles of the active electronic current transformer (ECT are introduced, and the mechanism of how a proximity magnetic field can influence the measuring of errors is analyzed from the perspective of the sensor section of the ECT. The impacts on active ECTs created by three-phase proximity magnetic field with invariable distance and variable distance are simulated and analyzed. The theory and simulated analysis indicate that the active ECTs are sensitive to proximity magnetic field under certain conditions. According to simulated analysis, a product structural design and the location of transformers at substation sites are suggested for manufacturers and administration of power supply, respectively.

  10. A method for sex estimation using the proximal femur. (United States)

    Curate, Francisco; Coelho, João; Gonçalves, David; Coelho, Catarina; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Navega, David; Cunha, Eugénia


    The assessment of sex is crucial to the establishment of a biological profile of an unidentified skeletal individual. The best methods currently available for the sexual diagnosis of human skeletal remains generally rely on the presence of well-preserved pelvic bones, which is not always the case. Postcranial elements, including the femur, have been used to accurately estimate sex in skeletal remains from forensic and bioarcheological settings. In this study, we present an approach to estimate sex using two measurements (femoral neck width [FNW] and femoral neck axis length [FNAL]) of the proximal femur. FNW and FNAL were obtained in a training sample (114 females and 138 males) from the Luís Lopes Collection (National History Museum of Lisbon). Logistic regression and the C4.5 algorithm were used to develop models to predict sex in unknown individuals. Proposed cross-validated models correctly predicted sex in 82.5-85.7% of the cases. The models were also evaluated in a test sample (96 females and 96 males) from the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection (University of Coimbra), resulting in a sex allocation accuracy of 80.1-86.2%. This study supports the relative value of the proximal femur to estimate sex in skeletal remains, especially when other exceedingly dimorphic skeletal elements are not accessible for analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Proximity and Collaboration in European Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.W.; Werker, C.


    Collaborations are particularly important for the development and deployment of technology. We analyze the influence of organizational, technological and geographical proximity on European nanotechnology collaborations with the help of a publication dataset and additional geographical information.

  12. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.


    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  13. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 ... Key words: Rhynchophorus phoenicis, Oryctes monoceros, proximate composition, cholesterol, heat treatment. INTRODUCTION. Insects have played ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde Emmanuel


    Oct 6, 2011 ... Fish allows for protein improved nutrition in that it has a high biological value in terms of high ... marine algae upon which the fish feed [11]. ... Proximate composition of catfish Clarias gariepinus and Tarpon atlanticus were.

  15. The periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA acts as a switch in stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by MacB transporter


    Modali, Sita D.; Zgurskaya, Helen I.


    Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC is a tri-partite macrolide efflux transporter driven by hydrolysis of ATP. In this complex, MacA is the periplasmic membrane fusion protein that stimulates the activity of MacB transporter and establishes the link with the outer membrane channel TolC. The molecular mechanism by which MacA stimulates MacB remains unknown. Here, we report that the periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA plays a critical role in functional MacA-MacB interactions and stimulation o...

  16. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity studies were carried out on the leaf extract of Cola lepidota, in accordance with established standard procedures. The proximate analysis reveals a moisture content of 27.43 ± 3.11 % w/w, total ash value 9.32 ± 0.27 % w/w, acid insoluble ash 3.12 ± 1.05 % w/w ...

  17. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was investigated using standard procedures. Proximate analysis included in g% dry weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a moisture content of 70.04 ...

  18. Painful Spastic Hip Dislocation: Proximal Femoral Resection


    Albiñana, Javier; Gonzalez-Moran, Gaspar


    The dislocated hip in a non-ambulatory child with spastic paresis tends to be a painful interference to sleep, sitting upright, and perineal care. Proximal femoral resection-interposition arthroplasty is one method of treatment for this condition. We reviewed eight hips, two bilateral cases, with a mean follow-up of 30 months. Clinical improvement was observed in all except one case, with respect to pain relief and sitting tolerance. Some proximal migration was observed in three cases, despit...

  19. Techniques for intramedullary nailing of proximal tibia fractures. (United States)

    Stinner, Daniel J; Mir, Hassan


    Despite poor early results with intramedullary nailing of extra-articular proximal tibia fractures, improvements in surgical technique and implant design modifications have resulted in more acceptable outcomes. However, prevention of the commonly encountered apex anterior and/or valgus deformities remains a challenge when treating these injuries. It is necessary for the surgeon to recognize this and know how to neutralize these forces. Surgeons should be comfortable using a variety of the reduction techniques presented to minimize fracture malalignment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)


    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  1. Transformations through Proximity Flying: A Phenomenological Investigation (United States)

    Holmbom, Maria; Brymer, Eric; Schweitzer, Robert D.


    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants’ perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity. PMID:29104552

  2. The Effect of Cement Placement on Augmentation of the Osteoporotic Proximal Femur


    Sutter, Edward G.; Wall, Simon J.; Mears, Simon C; Belkoff, Stephen M.


    Femoroplasty, the augmentation of the proximal femur, has been shown in biomechanical studies to increase the energy required to produce a fracture and therefore may reduce the risk of such injuries. The purpose of our study was to test the hypotheses that: (1) 15 mL of cement was sufficient to mechanically augment the proximal femur, (2) there was no difference in augmentation effect between cement placement in the intertrochanteric region and in the femoral neck, and (3) cement placement in...

  3. Life-history evolution: understanding the proximate mechanisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    history evolution, I was required to write a term paper for a course on 'Advanced evolutionary biol- ogy'. Having worked in the laboratory for about six months and read through numerous papers on life-history evolution,. I was convinced that ...

  4. Proximal mechanisms for sound production in male Pacific walruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Reichmuth, Colleen


    The songs of male walruses during the breeding season have been noted to have some of the most unusual characteristics that have been observed among mammalian sounds. In contrast to the more guttural vocalizations of most other carnivores, their acoustic displays have impulsive and metallic...... impulsive and metallic signals, we conducted a series of in situ studies with two captive adult male Pacific walruses that were trained for voluntary participation in bioacoustic research. Through a combination of observational, acoustic, endoscopic, and ultrasonic methods, we confirmed the probable...... features more similar to those found in industrial work places than in nature. The patterned knocks and bells that comprise male songs are not thought to be true vocalizations, but rather, sounds produced with structures other than the vocal tract and larynx. To determine how male walruses produce and emit...

  5. Treatment of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures with locking proximal humerus plate. (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Cheng; Li, Yu-Lin; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Wu, Qiang; Feng, Shi-Qing


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of the locking proximal humerus plate to treat proximal humerus fractures. A retrospective clinical trial. Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with locking proximal humerus plates. The deltopectoral anterolateral acromial approach was used to the proximal humerus; open reduction and locking proximal humerus plate were applied. Constant Score was used to measure the shoulder functional recovery, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to measure subjective evaluation of pain. The radiology was observed. After average 26.7 months, the average Constant Score was 72.6 ± 13.2 points and the average VAS was 1.2 ± 0.8 points. All the complications such as screw perforation into the glenohumeral joint, screws loosening, soft tissue infections, avascular necrosis and delayed union occurred in eight cases (11.8 %). The effectiveness of the locking proximal humerus plate was similar to other published literatures on treating fractures of the proximal humerus; however, a lower complications rate in short follow-up time was observed in this study. It may potentially provide a favorable option for treating three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Dealing with each particular fracture pattern, surgeons should have a decision of appropriate way to internal fixation.

  6. [Bilateral proximal pulmonary embolism without associated hypoxemia. Case report]. (United States)

    Bahloul, M; Chtara, K; Turki, O; Kammoun, M M; Bouaziz, W; Bouaziz, M


    Pulmonary embolism is a classic complication in intensive care. It is characterized by hypoxemia secondary to perturbed ventilation/perfusion ratios. We report a case of proximal and bilateral pulmonary embolism that occurred without associated hypoxemia. A spiral computed tomography (CT) scan was performed to explore unexplained fever in a patient with a negative infectious investigation. We discuss the mechanisms underlying the absence of hypoxemia in this patient. A 43-year-old patient with no significant pathological history was admitted to intensive care for the management of multiple injuries following a road accident. During resuscitation, the patient developed a proximal and bilateral pulmonary embolism without signs of hypertension of the pulmonary artery or associated hypoxemia. The patient improved under treatment. This case shows that bilateral proximal pulmonary embolism may be associated with normal gas exchange. The absence of hypoxemia could be explained by the bilateral nature of the pulmonary embolism that led to balanced ventilation/perfusion ratios on both sides. Furthermore, bronchoconstriction was bilateral, explaining the maintenance of a stable ventilation/perfusion ratio on both sides. The presence of unexplained fever in a victim of multiple trauma, despite the absence of hypoxemia, suggests the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced Insulin Receptor Expression Enhances Proximal Tubule Gluconeogenesis. (United States)

    Pandey, Gaurav; Shankar, Kripa; Makhija, Ekta; Gaikwad, Anil; Ecelbarger, Carolyn; Mandhani, Anil; Srivastava, Aneesh; Tiwari, Swasti


    Reduced insulin receptor protein levels have been reported in the kidney cortex from diabetic humans and animals. We recently reported that, targeted deletion of insulin receptor (IR) from proximal tubules (PT) resulted in hyperglycemia in non-obese mice. To elucidate the mechanism, we examined human proximal tubule cells (hPTC) and C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD, 60% fat for 20 weeks). Immunoblotting revealed a significantly lower protein level of IR in HFD compare to normal chow diet (NCD). Furthermore, a blunted rise in p-AKT 308 levels in the kidney cortex of HFD mice was observed in response to acute insulin (0.75 IU/kg body weight, i.p) relative to NCD n = 8/group, P gluconeogenesis. Transcript levels of the gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK were significantly increased in cAMP/DEXA-stimulated hPTC cells (n = 3, P gluconeogenesis and PEPCK induction was significantly attenuated in IR (siRNA) silenced hPTC (n = 3, P gluconeogenesis. Thus reduced insulin signaling of the proximal tubule may contribute to hyperglycemia in the metabolic syndrome via elevated gluconeogenesis. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 276-285, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Neanderthal hand and foot remains from Moula-Guercy, Ardèche, France. (United States)

    Mersey, Ben; Jabbour, Rebecca S; Brudvik, Kyle; Defleur, Alban


    The hand and foot remains from Moula-Guercy cave (Ardèche, France) comprise 24 specimens of Eemian age (ca. 120 ka). The specimens include primarily complete elements, which are rare among the Moula-Guercy postcrania. The hand remains have several characteristic Neanderthal traits including a laterally facing (parasagittally oriented) second metacarpal-capitate articulation, a short styloid process, a wide proximal articular surface on the third metacarpal, and absolutely expanded apical tuberosities on the distal hand phalanges relative to modern humans. The foot remains include several incomplete elements along with an antimeric pair of naviculars, a medial cuneiform and cuboid, and a single complete element from each of the distal segments (one each: metatarsal, proximal foot phalanx, intermediate foot phalanx, distal foot phalanx). Consistent among the specimens are relatively wide diaphyses for length in the metatarsals and phalanges and large and prominent muscle attachments, both consistent with previously published Neanderthal morphology. The hand and foot collection from Moula-Guercy is an important dataset for future studies of Neanderthal functional morphology, dexterity, and behavior as it represents a previously undersampled time period for European Neanderthals. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The first diagnostic remains of the large prolacertiform Tanystropheus are reported from northeastern Italy. They include a proximal caudal vertebra from the Middle Triassic of Aupa valley (Udine, Friuli and a cervical vertebra from the Carnian of Fusea (Udine. The cervical vertebra represents the first record of Tanystropheus in the Carnian and is the geologically youngest occurrence other than the Norian T. fossai. Tanystropheus lived along the coasts of the northwestern Tethys during the Late Triassic while it disappeared in Central Europe where continental environments were prevailing. 

  10. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella: A Case Report. (United States)

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu


    Among stress fractures associated with sports activities, patellar stress fracture is rare. Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella. We describe an extremely rare case of transverse stress fracture of proximal patella in a 9-year-old athlete.A 9-year old boy, who participated in sports (sprints and Kendo) presented with left knee pain without any external injury. In plain radiographs, a fracture line was observed in the proximal 1/3 of the left patella, and a patella stress fracture was diagnosed. For treatment, because 7 months of conservative therapy showed no improvement, internal fixation was carried out using Acutrak screws, and bone union was thus achieved. Three months after the operation, he was able to return to his previous level of athletic sports activity.Regarding the mechanism of onset, it is believed that the causes are longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure. On the other hand, the contact region of the patella with the femur changes with the flexion angle of the knee. In the current case, the fracture occurred at a site where the patella was in contact with the femur at a flexion angle of >90°, so it is believed that it occurred as a clinical condition from being subjected to repeated longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure at a flexion angle of >90°, during the sports activities of sprints and Kendo. The nonunion of the transverse stress fracture of his proximal patella was successfully treated with internal fixation using Acutrak screws.

  11. Investigating magnetic proximity effects at ferrite/Pt interfaces (United States)

    Collet, M.; Mattana, R.; Moussy, J.-B.; Ollefs, K.; Collin, S.; Deranlot, C.; Anane, A.; Cros, V.; Petroff, F.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.


    Spintronic devices based on pure spin currents have drawn a lot of attention during the last few years for low energy device design. One approach to generate pure spin currents is to combine a metallic or insulating ferromagnetic layer with a non-magnetic metallic layer with a large spin-orbit coupling. A recent controversy has arisen in the possible role of magnetic proximity effects at ferromagnetic/non-magnetic interfaces, which can hamper the understanding of pure spin current generation mechanisms. While magnetic proximity effects have been frequently observed at ferromagnetic metal/non-magnetic interfaces, there are only a few studies on ferromagnetic insulator/non-magnetic interfaces. Regarding the use of ferromagnetic insulators, the focus has been mainly on yttrium iron garnet (YIG). However, investigation of induced magnetic moments at YIG/Pt interfaces has engendered contradictory results. Here, we propose to study insulating ferrites for which electronic and magnetic properties can be modulated. Magnetic proximity effects have been investigated at MnFe2O4/Pt, CoFe2O4/Pt, and NiFe2O4/Pt interfaces by X-ray circular magnetic dichroism (XMCD) measurements at the Pt L3 edge. Although hybridization with Pt seems to be different among the ferrites, we do not detect any XMCD signal as the signature of an induced magnetism in Pt. We have then studied the Fe3O4 ferrite below and above the Verwey transition temperature. No XMCD signal has been measured in the insulating or conducting phase of Fe3O4. This suggests that the absence of magnetic proximity effects at ferrite/Pt interfaces is not linked to the insulating character or not of the ferrites.

  12. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G


    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  13. Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Progress and Remaining Challenges. (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Shah, Ravi; Eynan, Rahel


    The main purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the literature on psychotherapies for borderline personality disorder (BPD) published over the past 5 years to identify the progress with remaining challenges and to determine priority areas for future research. A systematic review of the literature over the last 5 years was undertaken. The review yielded 184 relevant abstracts, and after applying inclusion criteria, 16 articles were fully reviewed based on the articles' implications for future research and/or clinical practice. Our review indicated that patients with various severities benefited from psychotherapy; more intensive therapies were not significantly superior to less intensive therapies; enhancing emotion regulation processes and fostering more coherent self-identity were important mechanisms of change; therapies had been extended to patients with BPD and posttraumatic stress disorder; and more research was needed to be directed at functional outcomes.

  14. Eldercare work, migrant care workers, affective care and subjective proximity. (United States)

    Lovelock, Kirsten; Martin, Greg


    To document and explore the experience of migrant care workers providing health and social care to the elderly in institutional care settings and in the homes of the elderly in the community in New Zealand with a particular focus on the affective components of care work. This qualitative study involved conducting face-to-face, open-ended, semi-structured interviews with 29 migrant care workers in the eldercare sector in the cities of Auckland and Wellington, New Zealand. Participants were recruited through various agencies focusing on aged care and engaged with migrant eldercare workers and snowballing through participant referral. Sample size was determined when saturation was reached. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, themes were identified and then analysed drawing on a body of theoretical work in the fields of emotional anthropology and moral geography and the international empirical literature addressing migrant eldercare workers. As with the international research in this field we found that these workers were vulnerable to exploitation, the workforce is largely feminised and stereotypical understandings of racial groups and national characteristics informed recruitment and the workplace experience. Here attributing gradients of affect to particular migrant groups in the workforce was the main mechanism employed to establish worker worth and difference. Identifying with these gradients of affect enabled these eldercare workers to demonstrate that they met the moral and ethical requirements of permanent residency and ultimately citizenship. Eldercare workers in the home were vulnerable to 'blurred emotional boundaries' and care recipient demand for greater emotional commitment. The migrant eldercare workers in this study all shared vulnerable residential status and many feared they would never obtain permanent residency or citizenship. All had family who remained in the Philippines and towards whom they had an obligation to substitute

  15. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming


    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  16. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity. (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao


    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  17. [Disorders of sex development and proximal hypospadias]. (United States)

    Oswald, J


    Children with ambiguous genitalia due to different chromosome or gonadal sex are a particular challenge concerning the diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Proximal hypospadias patients with normal gonadal development should be distinguished from children with DSD (disorders of sex development) to guarantee normal gender identity and the best possible surgical therapy. This paper focuses on the terminology, embryology, and pathophysiology of the different manifestations of DSD. The state of knowledge about this disease pattern with particular emphasis on proximal hypospadias based on national and international scientific discussions is presented. The different clinical pictures as well as therapeutic options of DSD with a special focus on recent literature and giving particular attention to patients with proximal hypospadias are presented. Because of the complexity of patients suffering from disorders of sex development an interdisciplinary DSD healthcare team including a paediatric endocrinologist as well as paediatric urologist should be provided. These specialists enable an accurate diagnosis in severe hypospadias patients without reference to DSD diseases patterns.

  18. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J


    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...... proximal lesions identified radiographically around the enamel-dentin junction to the outer third of the dentin, were included. Lesions were randomly allocated for treatment to test-A (Infiltration: ICON-pre-product; DMG), test-B (Sealing: Prime-Bond-NT; Dentsply), or control-C (Placebo). Primary outcome...

  19. Prions and lymphoid organs: solved and remaining mysteries. (United States)

    O'Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano


    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1 (-/-) mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)-the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article.

  20. Knowledge networks in the Dutch aviation industry: The proximity paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekel, T.; Boschma, R.A.


    The importance of geographical proximity for interaction and knowledge sharing has been discussed extensively in recent years. There is increasing consensus that geographical proximity is just one out of many types of proximities that might be relevant. We argue that proximity may be a crucial

  1. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)


    Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies

  2. Responses of proximal tubular cells to injury in congenital renal disease: fight or flight. (United States)

    Chevalier, Robert L; Forbes, Michael S; Galarreta, Carolina I; Thornhill, Barbara A


    Most chronic kidney disease in children results from congenital or inherited disorders, which can be studied in mouse models. Following 2 weeks of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in the adult mouse, nephron loss is due to proximal tubular mitochondrial injury and cell death. In neonatal mice, proximal tubular cell death is delayed beyond 2 weeks of complete UUO, and release of partial UUO allows remodeling of remaining nephrons. Progressive cyst expansion develops in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), a common inherited renal disorder. The polycystic kidney and fibrosis (pcy)-mutant mouse (which develops late-onset PKD) develops thinning of the glomerulotubular junction in parallel with growth of cysts in adulthood. Renal insufficiency in nephropathic cystinosis, a rare inherited renal disorder, results from progressive tubular cystine accumulation. In the Ctns knockout mouse (a model of cystinosis), proximal tubular cells become flattened, with loss of mitochondria and thickening of tubular basement membrane. In each model, persistent obstructive or metabolic stress leads ultimately to the formation of atubular glomeruli. The initial "fight" response (proximal tubular survival) switches to a "flight" response (proximal tubular cell death) with ongoing oxidative injury and mitochondrial damage. Therapies should be directed at reducing proximal tubular mitochondrial oxidative injury to enhance repair and regeneration.

  3. Effects of proximal and distal robot-assisted upper limb rehabilitation on chronic stroke recovery. (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Stefano; Sale, Patrizio; Franceschini, Marco; Bigazzi, Samuele; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Dario, Paolo; Posteraro, Federico


    To evaluate the effects of add-on distal upper limb robot-assisted treatment on the outcome of proximal regions. 64 chronic stroke patients divided into two groups participated in the study. Group A was assigned to the proximal robot-assisted rehabilitation, Group B to the proximal and distal. Shoulder/elbow subsection of Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale was collected for Group A, whereas for Group B wrist subsection was also collected. Motricity Index was used and a set of kinematic parameters was computed for both groups. A decrease in impairment after the treatment in both groups of patients (Group A: Shoulder/elbow FM p robot-assisted treatment in both groups; group B showed a greater improvement in velocity. Robotic treatment is effective to reduce motor impairment in chronic stroke patients even if distal training added to proximal segments in the Group B does not provide any incremental benefit to the proximal segments. It remains unclear if the effectiveness of robot-assisted treatment is directly related to the upper limb segment specifically treated and which order may lead to better outcome. Our study suggests that kinematic parameters should be computed in order to better clarify the role of distal training (wrist) on proximal segments (shoulder/elbow) as well.

  4. preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the ...

  5. Proximate, mineral composition, antioxidant activity, and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four varieties of the red pepper fruits (Capsicum species) were evaluated for chemical composition, antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents using standard analytical technique, ferric-ion reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and Folin-Colcalteau method respectively. The proximate composition values ...

  6. 9__43 - 50__Tijjani_Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sena et al., 1998). In Nigeria, the plant is commonly consumed by the Hausa speaking communities as a spice and a sauce (Ibrahim et al., 2012). However, during preparation the leaves and stem are not carefully separated before processing of food. Thus, the present study was aimed at evaluating the proximate, minerals ...

  7. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a little crude fibre content of 0.92 %. The results indicated that ginger rhizome is an excellent natural remedy for a wide range of ailments. Keywords: Zingiber officinale, spice, rhizome, phytochemistry, proximate analysis, Zingiberaceae, zingerone, methanolic extraction. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, Vol.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 24, 2012 ... opinions are analyzed and it revealed that the site has major impacts on the residents perceived quality of life, security and ... Key words: Landfill, Property value, Health and safety, Residential property, Solous. Introduction. The location ... Proximity to landfills and hazardous waste sites can severely affect ...

  9. Renal fibrosis: Primacy of the proximal tubule. (United States)

    Gewin, Leslie S


    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the hallmark of chronic kidney disease and best predictor of renal survival. Many different cell types contribute to TIF progression including tubular epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelia, and inflammatory cells. Previously, most of the attention has centered on myofibroblasts given their central importance in extracellular matrix production. However, emerging data focuses on how the response of the proximal tubule, a specialized epithelial segment vulnerable to injury, plays a central role in TIF progression. Several proximal tubular responses such as de-differentiation, cell cycle changes, autophagy, and metabolic changes may be adaptive initially, but can lead to maladaptive responses that promote TIF both through autocrine and paracrine effects. This review discusses the current paradigm of TIF progression and the increasingly important role of the proximal tubule in promoting TIF both in tubulointerstitial and glomerular injuries. A better understanding and appreciation of the role of the proximal tubule in TIF has important implications for therapeutic strategies to halt chronic kidney disease progression. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 182 179 Comparative Study on the Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 2, 2008 ... Key words: Annona squamosa, Fruits, Proximate, Minerals, nutrient density. INTRODUCTION. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa) also called. “Gwanda masar” in Hausa belong to the family. Annonacae. The most widely grown of all the species are A. muricata, A. cherimola, A reticulata, A. senegalensis and ...

  11. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  12. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  13. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  14. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.


    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  15. [Four family members with proximal myotonic myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, A.A.; Velden, M.P. van der; Visser, M.C.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Scheffer, H.; Engelen, B.G.M. van


    A 41-year-old woman had a 15-year history of pain in her thighs and arms, which also became weaker, and a decrease in visual acuity. Her 35-year-old brother, their 38-year-old sister and their 64-year-old mother also had myalgia, myotonia and proximal muscle weakness, and the women also had

  16. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was about 0.01 in concentration. Proximate analysis also shows that it has a high nutritional value such as carbohydrate, fibre, Ash, fat and protein. These results recommended the consumption of these peels of desired physiochemical properties as sources of food fibres or low-calorie bulk ingredients in food applications ...

  17. Proximate composition and consumer acceptability of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to assess the organoleptic differences of Clarias gariepinus smoked with two different energy sources, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Tamarindus indica with the help of a hedonic scale and to determine possible proximate composition difference between the smoked products. Smoking of the fishes ...

  18. Controllable proximity effect in superconducting hybrid devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakurskiy, S.V.


    This thesis is devoted to the study of controllable proximity effects in superconductors, both in terms of fundamental aspects and applications. As a part of this thesis theoretical description was suggested for a number of structures with superconducting electrodes and multiple interlayers. These

  19. Proximate, chemical compositions and sulphur concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm) on the nutritional value and the proximate composition of six selected mango cultivars (Tommy Atkins, Peach, Saber, Sunshine, Keitt and Vhavenda) grown in South Africa. The study shows that ...

  20. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  1. Evaluation of the Proximate, Chemical and Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased interest in the utilization of the leaves of Moringa oleifera necessitated this study which evaluated the proximate, chemical and phytochemical composition, especially the presence of anti- physiological and toxic factors in the leaves. The results of the phytochemical analyses were: alkaloid 1.24 ± 0.141%; ...

  2. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins analysis of two varieties of honey (dark amber and light amber) were carried out using standard methods. The values for moisture, ash, crude lipid, crude protein and crude carbohydrate contents of the two honeys, (light amber and dark amber) are 9.39 ...

  3. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of Rhynchophorus phoenicis and Oryctes monoceros larvae subjected to different heat treatments. ... 514.63 mg/100g dry weight basis (DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 mg/100 g DWB in the smoke-dried samples. Similarly, the ...

  4. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Elemental and Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at phytochemical screening, elemental and proximate composition of two varieties of Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) big yellow and small brown nuts using standard methods. The phytochemicals tested for were alkaloid, saponin, tannin, glycoside, flavonoid, steroid and resin. All the aforementioned ...

  5. Protein biomarker validation via proximity ligation assays. (United States)

    Blokzijl, A; Nong, R; Darmanis, S; Hertz, E; Landegren, U; Kamali-Moghaddam, M


    The ability to detect minute amounts of specific proteins or protein modifications in blood as biomarkers for a plethora of human pathological conditions holds great promise for future medicine. Despite a large number of plausible candidate protein biomarkers published annually, the translation to clinical use is impeded by factors such as the required size of the initial studies, and limitations of the technologies used. The proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a versatile molecular tool that has the potential to address some obstacles, both in validation of biomarkers previously discovered using other techniques, and for future routine clinical diagnostic needs. The enhanced specificity of PLA extends the opportunities for large-scale, high-performance analyses of proteins. Besides advantages in the form of minimal sample consumption and an extended dynamic range, the PLA technique allows flexible assay reconfiguration. The technology can be adapted for detecting protein complexes, proximity between proteins in extracellular vesicles or in circulating tumor cells, and to address multiple post-translational modifications in the same protein molecule. We discuss herein requirements for biomarker validation, and how PLA may play an increasing role in this regard. We describe some recent developments of the technology, including proximity extension assays, the use of recombinant affinity reagents suitable for use in proximity assays, and the potential for single cell proteomics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. © 2013.

  6. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    2009). The aim of this study was to analyses the extract of. Citrus sinensis peels for the phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials Fresh peels of Citrus sinensis were collected from Uselu market in Benin City, Edo. State, Nigeria. It was identified and authenticated by.

  7. Keldysh proximity action for disordered superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review a novel approach to the superconductive proximity effect in dis- ordered normal–superconducting (N–S) structures. The method is based on the multi- charge Keldysh action and is suitable for the treatment of interaction and fluctuation effects. As an application of the formalism, we study the subgap ...

  8. Repetitive magnetic stimulation induces plasticity of excitatory postsynapses on proximal dendrites of cultured mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons. (United States)

    Lenz, Maximilian; Platschek, Steffen; Priesemann, Viola; Becker, Denise; Willems, Laurent M; Ziemann, Ulf; Deller, Thomas; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Jedlicka, Peter; Vlachos, Andreas


    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the human brain can lead to long-lasting changes in cortical excitability. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms which underlie rTMS-induced plasticity remain incompletely understood. Here, we used repetitive magnetic stimulation (rMS) of mouse entorhino-hippocampal slice cultures to study rMS-induced plasticity of excitatory postsynapses. By employing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of CA1 pyramidal neurons, local electrical stimulations, immunostainings for the glutamate receptor subunit GluA1 and compartmental modeling, we found evidence for a preferential potentiation of excitatory synapses on proximal dendrites of CA1 neurons (2-4 h after stimulation). This rMS-induced synaptic potentiation required the activation of voltage-gated sodium channels, L-type voltage-gated calcium channels and N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptors. In view of these findings we propose a cellular model for the preferential strengthening of excitatory synapses on proximal dendrites following rMS in vitro, which is based on a cooperative effect of synaptic glutamatergic transmission and postsynaptic depolarization.

  9. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors. (United States)

    Shaw, R P


    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  10. Proximal Tubular Cannabinoid-1 Receptor Regulates Obesity-Induced CKD. (United States)

    Udi, Shiran; Hinden, Liad; Earley, Brian; Drori, Adi; Reuveni, Noa; Hadar, Rivka; Cinar, Resat; Nemirovski, Alina; Tam, Joseph


    Obesity-related structural and functional changes in the kidney develop early in the course of obesity and occur independently of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Activating the renal cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB 1 R) induces nephropathy, whereas CB 1 R blockade improves kidney function. Whether these effects are mediated via a specific cell type within the kidney remains unknown. Here, we show that specific deletion of CB 1 R in the renal proximal tubule cells did not protect the mice from obesity, but markedly attenuated the obesity-induced lipid accumulation in the kidney and renal dysfunction, injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These effects associated with increased activation of liver kinase B1 and the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase, as well as enhanced fatty acid β -oxidation. Collectively, these findings indicate that renal proximal tubule cell CB 1 R contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity-induced renal lipotoxicity and nephropathy by regulating the liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Proximal femoral fractures: Principles of management and review of literature (United States)

    Mittal, Ravi; Banerjee, Sumit


    Purpose The purpose of this study was to review the principles involved in the management of proximal femoral fractures as reported in the literature. Methods: A medical literature search in the MEDLINE (PubMed) and Cochrane database was undertaken to review strategies and principles in proximal femoral fracture treatment. Randomized control trials and meta analysis were given preference while case reports/small series were rejected. Results and conclusions: Early anatomical reduction and surgical fixation remains the best option to reduce the risk of complications like non-union and avascular necrosis in treating fracture neck femurs. Cancellous screws continue to be the preferred treatment for fixation of neck femur fractures in younger population until the benefit of using sliding hip screws is validated by large multicentric studies. In the geriatric age group, early prosthetic replacement brings down the mortality and morbidity associated with neck femur fractures. Sliding hip screw (DHS) is the best available option for stable inter trochanteric fractures. The use of intramedullary nails e.g. PFN is beneficial in treating inter trochanteric fractures with comminution and loss of lateral buttress. Intramedullary implants have been proven to have increased success rates in subtrochanteric fractures and should be preferred over extramedullary plate fixation systems. PMID:25983451

  12. Method to measure tone of axial and proximal muscle. (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Victor S; Cacciatore, Timothy W; Cordo, Paul J; Horak, Fay B


    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention.

  13. Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Victor S.; Cacciatore, Timothy W.; Cordo, Paul J.; Horak, Fay B.


    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs1, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention. PMID:22214974

  14. Timing and proximate causes of mortality in wild bird populations: testing Ashmole’s hypothesis (United States)

    Barton, Daniel C.; Martin, Thomas E.


    Fecundity in birds is widely recognized to increase with latitude across diverse phylogenetic groups and regions, yet the causes of this variation remain enigmatic. Ashmole’s hypothesis is one of the most broadly accepted explanations for this pattern. This hypothesis suggests that increasing seasonality leads to increasing overwinter mortality due to resource scarcity during the lean season (e.g., winter) in higher latitude climates. This mortality is then thought to yield increased per-capita resources for breeding that allow larger clutch sizes at high latitudes. Support for this hypothesis has been based on indirect tests, whereas the underlying mechanisms and assumptions remain poorly explored. We used a meta-analysis of over 150 published studies to test two underlying and critical assumptions of Ashmole’s hypothesis: first, that ad ult mortality is greatest during the season of greatest resource scarcity, and second, t hat most mortality is caused by starvation. We found that the lean season (winter) was generally not the season of greatest mortality. Instead, spring or summer was most frequently the season of greatest mortality. Moreover, monthly survival rates were not explained by monthly productivity, again opposing predictions from Ashmole’s hypothesis. Finally, predation, rather than starvation, was the most frequent proximate cause o f mortality. Our results do not support the mechanistic predictions of Ashmole‘s hypothesis, and suggest alternative explanations of latitudinal variation in clutch size should remain under consideration. Our meta-analysis also highlights a paucity of data available on the timing and causes of mortality in many bird populations, particularly tropical bird populations, despite the clear theoretical and empirical importance of such data.

  15. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  16. [Bacterial vaginosis in 2011: a lot of questions remain]. (United States)

    Bohbot, J-M; Lepargneur, J-P


    Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most frequent vaginal affections. It results from a deep imbalance of the vaginal ecosystem whose mechanisms remain mysterious, even if recent progress were accomplished in their comprehension: if the flora implied in the bacterial vaginosis is recognized like polymorphic, it appears that Gardnerella vaginalis plays a major part with two genomically different forms: a commensal form (slightly adhesive to the epithelial cells), and a pathogenic one (strongly adhesive to the epithelial cells); the changes in lactobacilli are also to take into account: L. iners could be a marker of the vaginal flora imbalance whereas L. crispatus is generally met in the normal vaginal flora. These findings could influence the composition of coming probiotics; it is recognized that bacterial vaginosis is involved in the risk of prematurity but molecular quantification of G. vaginalis (and of Atopobium vaginae) is more sensitive for the diagnosis of BV what could improve the detection of high-risk pregnant women. The isolated antibiotic treatments are not very effective on the prevention of recurrences. The rebalancing of the vaginal flora is essential. In this field, the local estrogens showed some effectiveness. The use of probiotics is promising and can be recommended in complement of the antibiotic treatment even if the results of the clinical studies are still too heterogeneous to lead to precise indications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. [Arthroscopic fracture management in proximal humeral fractures]. (United States)

    Lill, H; Katthagen, C; Jensen, G; Voigt, C


    Arthroscopy has become increasingly more established in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. In addition to the known advantages of minimally invasive surgery fracture and implant positioning can be optimized and controlled arthroscopically and relevant intra-articular concomitant pathologies (e.g. biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff) can be diagnosed and treated. Arthroscopic techniques have proven to be advantageous in the treatment of various entities of greater tuberosity fractures, lesser tuberosity fractures (suture bridging technique) and subcapital humeral fractures (arthroscopic nailing). This article presents an overview on innovative arthroscopic modalities for treating proximal humeral fractures, describes the surgical techniques and the advantages compared to open procedures as well as initial clinical results.

  18. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.


    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  19. Tunable Magnetic Proximity Effects in Graphene Junctions (United States)

    Lazic, Predrag; Belashchenko, Kirill; Zutic, Igor


    The characteristic length of the magnetic proximity effects exceed the thickness of a graphene layer leading to an important, but typically overlooked, modifications of equilibrium and transport properties, as well as the implications for graphene spintronics. Using the first-principles studies that integrate a real space density functional theory (GPAW) with the state-of-the art boundary elements electrostatic code based on the Robin Hood method, we explore tunable electronic structure and magnetic proximity effects in the ferromagnet/insulator/graphene junctions. We show that the inclusion of a finite-size gate electrodes and van der Walls interaction lead to nontrivial effects that could also be important in other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. Work supported by US ONR, NSF-DMR and Nebraska NSF MRSEC.

  20. Management of Proximal Third Arm Replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Taş


    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the recent success in major limb replantation achieved through the advancements in microsurgical techniques, the viability of the extremity is still relatively low at the transhumeral level following a replantation. There are no exact guidelines for deciding whether to undertake a stump repair or a replantation in such amputations at the proximal level. However, a highly motivated patient with realistic expectations and protected shoulder function can be a candidate to undergo replantation. The replanted arm may help the uninjured arm in daily activities. In this report we present the case of a 47-year-old man whose arm was amputated at proximal third level by an asphalt machine and successfully replanted together with the encountered problems and their solutions. The roadmap followed in this rare case may be a guide for hand surgeons.

  1. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of right proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Badge


    Full Text Available Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS comprises approximately 10% of all chondrosarcomas. The tumor generally occurs after the age of 50 years, with equal distribution among males and females. It is most often located in the bones of the pelvis, the proximal femur or humerus, the distal femur, and the ribs. Regardless of treatment, the prognosis is ominous with 90% of patients dying with distant metastases within 2 years. We report a case of DDCS of right proximal femur in a 73-year-old woman. The most important factors affecting survival are early recognition of the radiographic features, adequate histological sampling, and wide-margin resection of the lesion. So for the correct histopathological diagnosis the biopsy sample should be adequate to visualize both cartilaginous and noncartilaginous sarcomatous component which helps to increase the survival of patients before the distant metastasis occurs.

  2. Management of Acute Proximal Humeral Fractures. (United States)

    Kancherla, Vamsi Krishna; Singh, Anshuman; Anakwenze, Oke A


    Proximal humeral fractures, which typically occur in elderly persons, are among the most common fractures. A myriad of nonsurgical and surgical treatment options exist for these injuries, including short-term immobilization and early physical therapy, percutaneous fixation, plate osteosynthesis, intramedullary nailing, hemiarthroplasty, and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The choice of treatment depends on the fracture type and severity, surgeon expertise, patient age, and patient health status.

  3. Superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers


    Zareyan, M.; Belzig, W.; Nazarov, Yu. V.


    We investigate the superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers with rough boundaries. The subgap density of states is formed by Andreev bound states at energies which depend on trajectory length and the ferromagnetic exchange field. At energies above the gap, the spectrum is governed by resonant scattering states. The resulting density of states, measurable by tunneling spectroscopy, exhibits a rich structure, which allows us to connect the theoretical parameters from exper...

  4. Alternating proximal algorithm for blind image recovery


    Bolte, Jérôme; Combettes, Patrick Louis; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe


    International audience; We consider a variational formulation of blind image recovery problems. A novel iterative proximal algorithm is proposed to solve the associated nonconvex minimization problem. Under suitable assumptions, this algorithm is shown to have better convergence properties than standard alternating minimization techniques. The objective function includes a smooth convex data fidelity term and nonsmooth convex regularization terms modeling prior information on the data and on ...

  5. Isolated Proximal Tibiofibular Dislocation during Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Chiu


    Full Text Available Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are rarely encountered in the Emergency Department (ED. We present a case involving a man presenting to the ED with left knee pain after making a sharp left turn on the soccer field. His physical exam was only remarkable for tenderness over the lateral fibular head. His X-rays showed subtle abnormalities of the tibiofibular joint. The dislocation was reduced and the patient was discharged from the ED with orthopedic follow-up.

  6. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range (United States)

    Vranish, John M.


    Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, mineral ash and total carbohydrates) in the kernels and flour of African Bush Mango (. ) were investigated. The results revealed that the kernels contained moisture (2.5 g/100 g), crude protein (8.9 g/100 g), crude fat (68.4 g/100 g), mineral ash (2.3 g/100 g) and total ...

  8. [Proximity and breastfeeding at the maternity hospital]. (United States)

    Fradin-Charrier, Anne-Claire


    The establishment of breastfeeding, as well as its duration, are facilitated through the proximity of the mother with her new baby. However, in maternity hospitals, breastfeeding mothers very often leave their baby in the nursery at night time. A study carried out in 2014 in several maternity hospitals put forward suggestions and highlighted areas to improve in everyday practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis, classification...

  10. Proximal Gastrojejunal Reconstruction after Pancreaticoduodenal Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wayne


    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction by proximal gastrojejunostomy, and distal biliary and pancreatic anastomoses is infrequently used after resection of the head of the pancreas because of fear of fistulas and cholangitis. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is being performed more frequently for cystic malignant and premalignant lesions. Because of this there is a need for endoscopic visualization and biopsy of the residual pancreatic duct, since multi-centricity is characteristic of some of these malignancies. Since endoscopic access of the bile duct and pancreatic duct is difficult and unsuccessful in 50–70% after B II or Roux Y reconstruction, we prospectively studied the merit and complications (early and late of proximal gastrojejunal (PGJ reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenal resection. Material and Methods. Thirty nine consecutive, non-radomized patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and PGJ reconstruction over 14 mos. There were 21 males and 18 females. Results. 7 patients with IPMN have undergone repeat CT scanning for surveillance, with 3 requiring repeat EUS and ERCP. There were no technical difficulties accessing the pancreas or the pancreatic duct, supporting the PGJ reconstruction. Conclusion. Proximal gastrojejunal reconstruction following pancreaticoduodenal resection may be safely done with similar morbidity to traditional pancreaticojejunal reconstructions. PGJ reconstruction may be of greater value when direct visual access to the bile duct or pancreatic duct is necessary, and should be considered when doing resection for mucinous cysts or IPMN of the head of the pancreas.

  11. Bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibiofibular joint instability. (United States)

    Morrison, Troy D; Shaer, James A; Little, Jill E


    Dislocation of the tibiofibular joint is rare and usually results from a traumatic event. Only 1 case of atraumatic proximal tibiofibular joint instability in a 14-year-old girl has been reported in the literature, however this condition might occur more frequently than once thought. A wide range of treatment options exist for tibiofibular dislocations. Currently, the first choice is a conservative approach, and when this fails, surgical means such as resection of the fibula head, arthrodesis, and reconstruction are considered. However, no consensus exists on the most effective treatment. This article reports a unique case of bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibia and fibular joint instability involving a 30-year-old man with a 20-year history of pain and laxity in the right knee. The patient had no trauma to his knees; he reported 2 immediate family members with similar complaints, which suggests that this case is likely congenital. After conservative approaches proved to be ineffective, the patient underwent capsular reconstruction using free autologous gracilis tendon. At 6-month postoperative follow-up, the patient was pain free with no locking and instability. He then underwent surgery on the left knee. At 1-year follow-up after the second surgery, the patient had no symptoms or restrictions in mobility. We provide an alternative surgical approach to arthrodesis and resection for the treatment of chronic proximal tibiofibular instability. In the treatment of chronic tibiofibular instability, we believe that reconstruction of the tibiofibular joint is a safe and effective choice. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Evaluation of percutaneous pinning in unstable proximal humeral fractures: A novel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishikant Kumar


    Full Text Available Management of unstable proximal humeral fractures has remained controversial since ages. Open reduction and internal fixation have resulted in devastating complications like stiffness of shoulder joint, avascular necrosis, infection, etc., We are presenting a novel method of percutaneous pinning of unstable proximal humeral fractures. All cases (32 were done closely without soft tissue stripping. All cases were followed-up for a period of 3 years; and results were assessed according to 100 point constant score. A total of 75% cases showed excellent to good results. To minimize the complications like pin site infection, loosening, neurovascular damage we used fixed pin site insertion technique, and threaded pins in osteoporotic patients. So percutaneous pinning is a safe and novel method of management of unstable proximal humeral fractures if certain principles are borne in mind before using it.

  13. Proximal conduction block in the pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome. (United States)

    Taieb, Guillaume; Grapperon, Aude-Marie; Duclos, Yann; Franques, Jérôme; Labauge, Pierre; Renard, Dimitri; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Attarian, Shahram


    Conduction block (CB) has been included in the Rajabally criteria for axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Because the nerve roots may be affected early in GBS, detection of proximal CB by the triple stimulation technique (TST) can be useful. We describe TST findings in 2 patients who presented with the pharyngeal-cervical-brachial (PCB) variant of axonal GBS. In the first patient, although conventional nerve conduction studies (NCS) did not fit electrodiagnostic criteria for axonal GBS, the TST detected proximal CB in the median and ulnar nerves. In the second patient, NCS fulfilled criteria for axonal GBS, and the TST detected proximal CB in the median nerve. After plasmapheresis, NCS and TST findings were normalized, suggesting reversible conduction failure rather than demyelinating CB. The TST may be useful for diagnosis of PCB when NCS remain inconclusive. The technique provides additional clues for classifying PCB into the acute nodo-paranodopathies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Calibrating animal-borne proximity loggers. (United States)

    Rutz, Christian; Morrissey, Michael B; Burns, Zackory T; Burt, John; Otis, Brian; St Clair, James J H; James, Richard


    Growing interest in the structure and dynamics of animal social networks has stimulated efforts to develop automated tracking technologies that can reliably record encounters in free-ranging subjects. A particularly promising approach is the use of animal-attached 'proximity loggers', which collect data on the incidence, duration and proximity of spatial associations through inter-logger radio communication. While proximity logging is based on a straightforward physical principle - the attenuation of propagating radio waves with distance - calibrating systems for field deployment is challenging, since most study species roam across complex, heterogeneous environments.In this study, we calibrated a recently developed digital proximity-logging system ('Encounternet') for deployment on a wild population of New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides. Our principal objective was to establish a quantitative model that enables robust post hoc estimation of logger-to-logger (and, hence, crow-to-crow) distances from logger-recorded signal-strength values. To achieve an accurate description of the radio communication between crow-borne loggers, we conducted a calibration exercise that combines theoretical analyses, field experiments, statistical modelling, behavioural observations, and computer simulations.We show that, using signal-strength information only, it is possible to assign crow encounters reliably to predefined distance classes, enabling powerful analyses of social dynamics. For example, raw data sets from field-deployed loggers can be filtered at the analysis stage to include predominantly encounters where crows would have come to within a few metres of each other, and could therefore have socially learned new behaviours through direct observation. One of the main challenges for improving data classification further is the fact that crows - like most other study species - associate across a wide variety of habitats and behavioural contexts, with different signal

  15. Maturational timing does not predict HSA estimated adult bone geometry at the proximal femur. (United States)

    Jackowski, Stefan A; Kontulainen, Saija A; Cooper, David M L; Lanovaz, Joel L; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G


    Late maturational timing is documented to be detrimental to bone strength primarily at the distal radius. Studies at the proximal femur have focused on bone mass and the results remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to examine the long term relationship between the onset of maturation and the development of estimated cross sectional area (CSA) and section modulus (Z) at the proximal femur. Two hundred and twenty six individuals (108 males and 118 females) from the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (PBMAS) were classified into maturity groups based on age of attainment of peak height velocity. CSA and Z were serially assessed at the narrow neck (NN), intertrochanter (IT) and proximal shaft (S) sites using hip structural analysis (HSA). Multilevel models were constructed to examine the development of CSA and Z by maturity group. Cross sectional observations indicated that during adolescence, early maturing males had significantly greater CSA and Z than late maturing males at all sites of the proximal femur, while early maturing females had greater Z at the NN and S, and greater CSA at the NN, IT and S sites compared to late maturing females. When age, body size, body composition, physical activity and dietary intake were controlled no significant effects of maturational timing were found at the NN, IT or S regions (p>0.05) in either males or females. In this population of healthy individuals there appears to be no effect of the onset of maturation on estimated CSA and Z development at the proximal femur in both males and females. This may be a result of the proximal femur's loading environment. Future research is required to determine the role of loading on the relationship between maturational timing and bone structure and strength development at the proximal femur. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqing; Lin, Faying; Wang, Bennett; Cao, Yihai; Hou, Xu; Wang, Yangang


    Research indicates that higher levels of traffic-related pollution exposure increase the risk of diabetes, but the association between road proximity and diabetes risk remains unclear. To assess and quantify the association between residential proximity to major roadways and type 2 diabetes, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Embase, Medline, and Web of Science were searched for eligible studies. Using a random-effects meta-analysis, the summary relative risks (RRs) were calculated. Bayesian meta-analysis was also performed. Eight studies (6 cohort and 2 cross-sectional) with 158,576 participants were finally included. The summary unadjusted RR for type 2 diabetes associated with residential proximity to major roadways was 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.44, p = 0.001, I² = 48.1%). The summary adjusted RR of type 2 diabetes associated with residential proximity to major roadways was 1.12 (95% CI: 1.03-1.22, p = 0.01, I² = 17.9%). After excluding two cross-sectional studies, the summary results suggested that residential proximity to major roadways could increase type 2 diabetes risk (Adjusted RR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02-1.27, p = 0.025, I² = 36.6%). Bayesian meta-analysis showed that the unadjusted RR and adjusted RR of type 2 diabetes associated with residential proximity to major roadways were 1.22 (95% credibility interval: 1.06-1.55) and 1.13 (95% credibility interval: 1.01-1.31), respectively. The meta-analysis suggested that residential proximity to major roadways could significantly increase risk of type 2 diabetes, and it is an independent risk factor of type 2 diabetes. More well-designed studies are needed to further strengthen the evidence.

  17. Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus thoracis from pasture fed LHRH immunocastrated, castrated and intact Bos indicus bulls.

  18. Proximate Analysis and Total Lycopene Content of Some Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 5, 2017 ... Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: ... Keywords: Antioxidant, lycopene content, proximate composition, tomato cultivars. INTRODUCTION ..... from oranges, tomatoes and carrots. African. Journal of ...

  19. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao


    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  20. Temperature as a proximate factor in orientation behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, W.W.


    Temperature serves as a proximate factor (cue, guidepost, sign stimulus, or directive factor) affecting locomotor responses of fishes. Although temperature can also serve as an ultimate ecological factor, as in behavioral thermoregulation, nonthermal factors may in some cases provide the ultimate adaptive or ecological value of a temperature response; some examples are habitat selection, intraspecific size segregation, interspecific niche differentiation, isolating mechanisms, predator avoidance, prey location, escape reactions, and migrations (thermoperiodic, diel, seasonal, spawning). Conversely, nonthermal variables such as light intensity or water depth may act as accessory proximate factors in thermoregulation. In spawning migrations, thermal requirements of eggs and larvae may take precedence over the (often different) preferenda or optima of adults. Although thermal responses of fishes are largely innate and species specific, ontogenetic and other changes can occur. Since temperature can serve as an unconditioned reinforcer in operant conditioning, thermal responses are not limited to simple kineses or taxes. Nonthermal factors such as photoperiod, circadian rhythms, currents, social and biotic interactions, stresses, infections, or chemicals can affect thermal responses, and may account for some lack of conformity between laboratory preferenda and field distributions and behaviors.

  1. Restoring proximal caries lesions conservatively with tunnel restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu CH


    Full Text Available Chun-Hung Chu1, May L Mei,1 Chloe Cheung,1 Romesh P Nalliah2 1Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterials Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The tunnel restoration has been suggested as a conservative alternative to the conventional box preparation for treating proximal caries. The main advantage of tunnel restoration over the conventional box or slot preparation includes being more conservative and increasing tooth integrity and strength by preserving the marginal ridge. However, tunnel restoration is technique-sensitive and can be particularly challenging for inexperienced restorative dentists. Recent advances in technology, such as the contemporary design of dental handpieces with advanced light-emitting diode (LED and handheld comfort, offer operative dentists better vision, illumination, and maneuverability. The use of magnifying loupes also enhances the visibility of the preparation. The advent of digital radiographic imaging has improved dental imaging and reduced radiation. The new generation of restorative materials has improved mechanical properties. Tunnel restoration can be an option to restore proximal caries if the dentist performs proper case selection and pays attention to the details of the restorative procedures. This paper describes the clinical technique of tunnel restoration and reviews the studies of tunnel restorations. Keywords: operative, practice, tunnel preparation, composite, amalgam, glass ionomer

  2. Proximity Utilizing Biotinylation of Nuclear Proteins in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Kulyyassov


    Full Text Available Introduction. The human genome consists of roughly 30,000 genes coding for over 500,000 different proteins, of which more than 10,000 proteins can be produced by the cell at any given time (the cellular “proteome”. It has been estimated that over 80% of proteins do not operate alone, but in complexes. These protein-protein interactions (PPI are regulated by several mechanisms. For example, post-translational modifications (methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, or ubiquitination or metal-binding can lead to conformational changes that alter the affinity and kinetic parameters of the interaction. Many PPIs are part of larger cellular networks of interactions or interactomes. Indeed, these interactions are at the core of the entire interactomics system of any living cell, and so, aberrant PPIs are the basis of multiple diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. The objective of this study was to develop a method of monitoring protein-protein interactions and proximity dependence in vivo.Methods. The biotin ligase BirA was fused to the protein of interest, and the Biotin Acceptor Peptide (BAP was fused to an interacting partner to make the detection of its biotinylation possible by western blot or mass spectrometry.Results. Using several experimental systems (BirA.A + BAP.B, we showed that the biotinylation is interaction/proximity dependent. Here, A and B are the next nuclear proteins used in the experiments – 3 paralogues of heterochromatin protein HP1a (CBX5, HP1b (CBX1, HP1g (CBX3, wild type and transcription mutant factor Kap1, translesion DNA polymerase PolH and E3, ubiquitin ligase RAD18, Proliferative Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA, ubiquitin Ub, SUMO-2/3, different types and isoforms of histones H2A, H2Az, H3.1, H3.3, CenpA, H2A.BBD, and macroH2A. The variant of this approach is termed PUB-NChIP (Proximity Utilizing Biotinylation with Native Chromatin Immuno-precipitation and is designed to purify and study the protein

  3. Proximity effect in Nb/Al, AlOxide, Al/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions (United States)

    Houwman, E. P.; Gijsbertsen, J. G.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.; Le Grand, J. B.; de Korte, P. A. J.; Golubov, A. A.


    Regions with reduced energy gap induced by the proximity effect give rise to quasi-particle loss in Josephson-junction X-ray detectors, but may also be used advantageously for quasi-particle collection. The influence of the thickness of the Al proximity layers in Nb/Al1,AlO(x),Al2/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions on the electrical characteristics has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically it is found that the strength of the proximity effect is mainly determined by the proximity parameters gammaM1 (gammaM2) of the electrodes. Good fits of the measured I-V curves with theory were obtained for junctions with thicknesses dA11 ranging from 4 to 25 nm and dA12 = 3 nm, with gammaM2 about 0.12 and gammaM1/gammaM2 = dA11/dA12. For all junctions the proximity knee remains more pronounced than predicted.

  4. The regional dimension of intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pers, Marieke; Mulder, Clara H.

    Previous research has shown the impact of individual characteristics on intergenerational proximity but has largely ignored the regional dimension of such proximity. In this paper, we examine the regional variation in intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands. We address this issue by

  5. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open markets in Benin City, Nigeria. Microbiological and proximate analysis were carried out using standard methods. Results of the proximate analysis revealed ...

  6. Proximal femur geometry in the adult Kenyan femur and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Numerous orthopaedic procedures are carried out on the proximal femur. For optimal hip function, these procedures must restore the anatomy of the proximal femur to as near normal as possible. There are currently no local studies that have described in detail the normal anatomy of the proximal femur and its ...

  7. Minimally Invasive Fixation for Proximal Humeral Fracture: A Review on the use of T2 Proximal Humeral Nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Ling Iris Ngai


    Discussion and conclusion: With the proper surgical technique high union rate, good functional recovery, and low complication rate can be achieved by using T2 Proximal Humeral Nail in managing traumatic proximal humeral fracture.

  8. On the pterosaur remains from the Río Belgrano Formation (Barremian), Patagonian Andes of Argentina. (United States)

    Kellner, Alexander W A; Aguirre-Urreta, María B; Ramos, Victor A


    Pterosaur remains from the Río Belgrano Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, were found close to the Estancia Río Roble, along with several ammonoids that indicate a Barremian age for those strata. The specimens (MACN-SC 3617) consist of one ulna and one element tentatively identified as a portion of a wing metacarpal. The ulna shows morphological affinities with the Pteranodontoidea (sensu Kellner 1996), particularly with the members of the Anhangueridae by having a well developed ventral crest close to the proximal articulation, and is tentatively referred to this pterosaur clade. The oldest record of the Anhangueridae, previously limited to the Aptian/Albian, is therefore extended to the Barremian. The Argentinean material is preserved in three dimensions, an unusual condition for pterosaur fossils from that country, indicating that the site situated near the Estancia Río Roble has a great potential for new and well preserved specimens.

  9. On the pterosaur remains from the Río Belgrano formation (Barremian, Patagonian Andes of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellner Alexander W.A.


    Full Text Available Pterosaur remains from the Río Belgrano Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, were found close to the Estancia Río Roble, along with several ammonoids that indicate a Barremian age for those strata. The specimens (MACN-SC 3617 consist of one ulna and one element tentatively identified as a portion of a wing metacarpal. The ulna shows morphological affinities with the Pteranodontoidea (sensu Kellner 1996, particularly with the members of the Anhangueridae by having a well developed ventral crest close to the proximal articulation, and is tentatively referred to this pterosaur clade. The oldest record of the Anhangueridae, previously limited to the Aptian/Albian, is therefore extended to the Barremian. The Argentinean material is preserved in three dimensions, an unusual condition for pterosaur fossils from that country, indicating that the site situated near the Estancia Río Roble has a great potential for new and well preserved specimens.

  10. Delayed homicides and the proximate cause. (United States)

    Lin, Peter; Gill, James R


    Delayed homicides result from complications of remote injuries inflicted by "the hands of another." The investigation of delayed homicides may be a challenge due to a number of factors including: failure to report the death to the proper authorities, lack of ready and adequate documentation of the original injury and circumstances, and jurisdictional differences between the places of injury and death. The certification of these deaths also requires the demonstration of a pathophysiologic link between the remote injury and death. In sorting through these issues, it is helpful to rely upon the definition of the proximate cause of death. Over a 2-year period in New York City, there were 1211 deaths certified as homicide of which 42 were due to injuries sustained greater than 1 year before death. The survival interval ranged from 1.3 to 43.2 years. The most common immediate causes of death were: infections (22), seizures (7), and intestinal obstructions/hernias (6). Common patterns of complications included infection following a gunshot wound of the spinal cord, seizure disorder due to blunt head trauma, and intestinal obstruction/hernia due to adhesions from an abdominal stab wound. Spinal cord injuries resulted in paraplegia in 14 instances and quadriplegia in 8. The mean survival interval for paraplegics was 20.3 years and 14.8 years for quadriplegics; infections were a frequent immediate cause of death in both groups, particularly infections due to chronic bladder catheterization. The definition of proximate cause originated with civil law cases and was later applied to death certification as the proximate cause of death. The gradual extinction of the "year and a day rule" for the limitation of bringing homicide charges in delayed deaths may result in more of these deaths going to trial. Medical examiners/coroners must be able to explain the reasoning behind these death certifications and maintain consistent standards for the certification of all delayed deaths due

  11. Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with oblique jejunogastrostomy. (United States)

    Tanaka, Kimitaka; Ebihara, Yuma; Kurashima, Yo; Nakanishi, Yoshitsugu; Asano, Toshimichi; Noji, Takehiro; Murakami, Soichi; Nakamura, Toru; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Okamura, Keisuke; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Hirano, Satoshi


    Proximal early gastric cancer is a good indication for totally laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (TLPG) with double-tract reconstruction (DTR). However, when most of the dietary intake passes through the escape route of the jejunum, the functional benefits of proximal gastrectomy might be similar to those after total gastrectomy. Our DTR procedure was improved for easy passage through the remnant stomach. The purposes of this study were to present a novel technique for intracorporeal DTR using linear staplers after TLPG and to investigate surgical outcomes. DTR was performed using linear staplers only. A side-to-side jejunogastrostomy with twisting of both the remnant stomach and the anal jejunum was performed for the purpose of passing meals through the remnant stomach (an oblique jejunogastrostomy technique). The ten patients who underwent TLPG with DTR from January 2011 to August 2016 in Hokkaido University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Their clinicopathological characteristics and surgical and postoperative outcomes were collected and analyzed. The median duration of operation was 285 (range 146-440) min. No patients required blood transfusions. The number of dissected lymph nodes was 32 (range 22-56). There were no intraoperative complications, and no cases were converted to open surgery. All the patients were pT1N0M0 stage IA. No anastomotic leakage or complications were detected. Postoperative gastrography after reconstruction showed that contrast medium flowed mainly to the remnant stomach. The average percentage body weight loss was 14.0 ± 7.1% at 10 months. The average percentage decrease in serum hemoglobin was 5.4 ± 10.4% at 12 months. This novel technique for intracorporeal DTR provided a considerable advantage by the passage of dietary intake to the remnant stomach after LPG.

  12. Proximal Tubule Cell Hypothesis for Cardiorenal Syndrome in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Saito


    Full Text Available Incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD is remarkably high among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, even in the early microalbuminuric stages with normal glomerular filtration rates. Proximal tubule cells (PTCs mediate metabolism and urinary excretion of vasculotoxic substances via apical and basolateral receptors and transporters. These cells also retrieve vasculoprotective substances from circulation or synthesize them for release into the circulation. PTCs are also involved in the uptake of sodium and phosphate, which are critical for hemodynamic regulation and maintaining the mineral balance, respectively. Dysregulation of PTC functions in CKD is likely to be associated with the development of CVD and is linked to the progression to end-stage renal disease. In particular, PTC dysfunction occurs early in diabetic nephropathy, a leading cause of CKD. It is therefore important to elucidate the mechanisms of PTC dysfunction to develop therapeutic strategies for treating cardiorenal syndrome in diabetes.

  13. Microsatellite instability in cancer of the proximal colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibodeau, S.N.; Bren, G.; Schaid, D. (Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States))


    Colorectal tumor DNA was examined for somatic instability at (CA)[sub n] repeats on human chromosomes 5q, 15q, 17p, and 18q. Differences between tumor and normal DNA were detected in 25 of the 90 (28 percent) tumors examined. This instability appeared as either a substantial change in repeat length (often heterogeneous in nature) or a minor change (typically two base pairs). Microsatellite instability was significantly correlated with the tumor's location in the proximal colon (P = 0.003), with increased patient survival (P = 0.02), and, inversely, with loss of heterozygosity for chromosomes 5q, 17p, and 18q. These data suggest that some colorectal cancers may arise through a mechanism that does not necessarily involve loss of heterozygosity. 23 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Cushing proximal symphalangism and the NOG and GDF5 genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plett, Sara K. [Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (United States); Berdon, Walter E.; Oklu, Rahmi [Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Cowles, Robert A. [Morgan Stanley Children' s Hospital of New York-Presbyterian, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Campbell, John B. [Arnold Palmer Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States)


    Proximal symphalangism (SYM1) is an autosomal-dominant developmental disorder of joint fusion. This disorder is best known from famous historical descriptions of two large kindred: Cushing's description in 1916 of the ''straight-fingered'' Brown family of Virginia and Drinkwater's description in 1917 of the British Talbot family of noble blood, descended from the English war hero John Talbot, the first Earl of Shrewsbury (1388-1453). Recent genetic studies link this phenotype to expression of abnormal genes at future joint sites: too little expression of NOG, a growth antagonist, or overexpression of GDF5, a growth agonist, results in cartilage overgrowth and bony fusion. This review unites in depth the first historical accounts of SYM1 with a clinical description and reviews the current understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying what is likely the oldest dominant trait ever studied. (orig.)

  15. Stability of acute dorsal fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint: a biomechanical study. (United States)

    Tyser, Andrew R; Tsai, Michael A; Parks, Brent G; Means, Kenneth R


    We performed a cadaveric biomechanical study to characterize proximal interphalangeal joint stability after an injury to different amounts of the volar articular base of the middle phalanx (intact, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% volar defects). Eighteen digits on 6 hands were tested through full proximal interphalangeal joint range of motion using computer-controlled flexion and extension via the digital tendons. We collected proximal interphalangeal joint kinematic cine data in a true lateral projection with mini-fluoroscopy. We measured the amount of dorsal middle phalanx translation in full proximal interphalangeal joint extension. As we cycled the joint from full flexion into extension, we recorded the angle at which subluxation occurred. No specimens with 20% volar bony defect subluxated. All specimens in the 60% and 80% groups subluxated at an average flexion angle of 67° (range, 10° to 90°) in the 60% group and at all degrees of flexion in the 80% group. In the 40% group, 28% of specimens demonstrated subluxation at an average flexion angle of 14° (range, 4° to 40°). Mean dorsal translation of the middle phalanx in relation to the proximal phalanx at full digital extension was 0.2 mm in the 20% group, 0.8 mm in the 40% group, 3.2 mm in the 60% group, and 3.1 mm in the 80% group. Simulated volar articular bony defects of 20% were stable, whereas those with 60% and 80% defects were unstable during digital motion. Stability in the 40% group was variable and appeared to be the threshold for stability. Knowledge of the typical amount of middle phalanx defect and degree of proximal interphalangeal joint extension that can lead to joint instability may improve management of mechanically important proximal interphalangeal joint fracture dislocations. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Angle-stable intramedullary nailing of proximal humerus fractures with the PHN (proximal humeral nail)]. (United States)

    Blum, Jochen; Hansen, Matthias; Rommens, Pol Maria


    Stable fixation of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus through minimally invasive operative technique and rapid bone healing as well as restoration of original anatomy. Early functional training with the goal of restoration of former mobility and daily activities. Unstabile two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus (AO classification: 11-A2, 11-A3, 11-B1, 11-B2, 11-B3). Subcapital nonunion of the humerus. Pathologic fractures. Pediatric fractures of the proximal humerus. Fractures of the proximal humerus types 11-C2 und 11-C3 according to the AO classification. Active local infection, e.g., after former operation. Closed reduction. Anterior acromial incision, splitting of the deltoid muscle and the rotator cuff. Opening of the medullary canal with the awl. Nail introduction. Spiral blade introduction in cannulated technique through stab incision. Distal interlocking through aiming device, angle-stable blocking of nail and blade through end cap. Postoperative fixation in Gilchrist sling until 2nd postoperative day; then physiotherapy respecting fracture type and stability, local swelling, patient's age and compliance, and concomitant injuries. 151 proximal humeral fractures were treated with a proximal humeral nail (PHN). 108 patients could be followed up 1 year postoperatively. Significant complications were perforation of the articular surface through bolts or blades (n = 8), implant-related pain (n = 10), fragment dislocation (n = 2), nonunion (n = 2), humeral head necrosis (n = 3), and superficial infection (n = 1). 1 year after the operation, the Constant-Murley Score showed a median value of 75.3 in the injured shoulder and of 89.9 in the uninjured shoulder. The DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) Score was 5.9 preoperatively and 9.3 at 1 year postoperatively. The worst results regarding the Constant-Murley Score as well as the DASH Score were found in C-type fractures.

  17. Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rebouças Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus are considered to be a special type fracture, since impaction of the humeral head on the metaphysis with maintenance of the posteromedial periosteum improves the prognosis regarding occurrences of avascular necrosis. This characteristic can also facilitate the reduction maneuver and increase the consolidation rate of these fractures, even in more complex cases. The studies included were obtained by searching the Bireme, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for those published between 1991 and 2013. The objective of this study was to identify the most common definitions, classifications and treatment methods used for these fractures in the orthopedic medical literature.

  18. Management of posttraumatic proximal interphalangeal joint contracture. (United States)

    Houshian, Shirzad; Jing, Shan Shan; Chikkamuniyappa, Chandrasekar; Kazemian, Gholam Hussein; Emami-Moghaddam-Tehrani, Mohammad


    Chronic flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint presents a common yet challenging problem to hand surgeons. Over the years, multiple treatment modalities have been described for this problem, producing limited results. Nonoperative treatment using serial casting and splints should be tried before attempting open surgical release, which should be done in selected patients. The use of external fixation for treating PIP contracture has been encouraging and can be a useful alterative. This review provides an update on the current management of PIP joint contractures and presents a flowchart of treatment to aid decision making. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Proximal iliotibial band syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Guadagnini Falotico


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The overuse injuries in the hip joint occur commonly in sports practitioners and currently due to technical advances in diagnostic imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, are often misdiagnosed. Recently, a group of people were reported, all female, with pain and swelling in the pelvic region.T2-weighted MRI showed increased signal in the enthesis of the iliotibial band (ITB along the lower border of the iliac tubercle. We report a case of a 34 year old woman, non-professional runner, with pain at the iliac crest with no history of trauma and whose MRI was compatible with the proximal iliotibial band syndrome.

  20. Ontogeny of rabbit proximal tubule urea permeability (United States)



    Urea transport in the proximal tubule is passive and is dependent on the epithelial permeability. The present study examined the maturation of urea permeability (Purea) in in vitro perfused proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) from rabbit renal cortex. Urea transport was lower in neonatal than adult PCT at both 37 and 25°C. The PCT Purea was also lower in the neonates than the adults (37°C: 45.4 ± 10.8 vs. 88.5 ± 15.2 × 10−6 cm/s, P 0.05). The activation energy for PCT Purea was not different between the neonatal and adult groups. BLMV Purea was determined by measuring vesicle shrinkage, due to efflux of urea, using a stop-flow instrument. Neonatal BLMV Purea was not different from adult BLMV Purea at 37°C [1.14 ± 0.05 × 10−6 vs. 1.25 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s; P = not significant (NS)] or 25°C (0.94 ± 0.06 vs. 1.05 ± 0.10 × 10−6 cm/s; P = NS). There was no effect of 250 μM phloretin, an inhibitor of the urea transporter, on Purea in either adult or neonatal BLMV. The activation energy for urea diffusion was also identical in the neonatal and adult BLMV. These findings in the BLMV are in contrast to the brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) where we have previously demonstrated that urea transport is lower in the neonate than the adult. Urea transport is lower in the neonatal proximal tubule than the adult. This is due to a lower rate of apical membrane urea transport, whereas basolateral urea transport is the same in neonates and adults. The lower Purea in neonatal proximal tubules may play a role in overall urea excretion and in developing and maintaining a high medullary urea concentration and thus in the ability to concentrate the urine during renal maturation. PMID:11353675

  1. Unilateral nephrectomy elongates primary cilia in the remaining kidney via reactive oxygen species. (United States)

    Han, Sang Jun; Jang, Hee-Seong; Kim, Jee In; Lipschutz, Joshua H; Park, Kwon Moo


    The length of primary cilia is associated with normal cell and organ function. In the kidney, the change of functional cilia length/mass is associated with various diseases such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, polycystic kidney disease, and congenital solitary kidney. Here, we investigate whether renal mass reduction affects primary cilia length and function. To induce renal mass reduction, mice were subjected to unilateral nephrectomy (UNx). UNx increased kidney weight and superoxide formation in the remaining kidney. Primary cilia were elongated in proximal tubule cells, collecting duct cells and parietal cells of the remaining kidney. Mn(III) Tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP), an antioxidant, reduced superoxide formation in UNx-mice and prevented the elongation of primary cilia. UNx increased the expression of phosphorylated ERK, p21, and exocyst complex members Sec8 and Sec10, in the remaining kidney, and these increases were prevented by MnTMPyP. In MDCK, a kidney tubular epithelial cell line, cells, low concentrations of H2O2 treatment elongated primary cilia. This H2O2-induced elongation of primary cilia was also prevented by MnTMPyP treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrate that kidney compensation, induced by a reduction of renal mass, results in primary cilia elongation, and this elongation is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  2. Method and apparatus to predict the remaining service life of an operating system (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Maynard, Melody A.; Pawlowski, Ronald A. , Ferryman; Thomas A.; Skorpik, James R.; Wilson, Bary W.


    A method and computer-based apparatus for monitoring the degradation of, predicting the remaining service life of, and/or planning maintenance for, an operating system are disclosed. Diagnostic information on degradation of the operating system is obtained through measurement of one or more performance characteristics by one or more sensors onboard and/or proximate the operating system. Though not required, it is preferred that the sensor data are validated to improve the accuracy and reliability of the service life predictions. The condition or degree of degradation of the operating system is presented to a user by way of one or more calculated, numeric degradation figures of merit that are trended against one or more independent variables using one or more mathematical techniques. Furthermore, more than one trendline and uncertainty interval may be generated for a given degradation figure of merit/independent variable data set. The trendline(s) and uncertainty interval(s) are subsequently compared to one or more degradation figure of merit thresholds to predict the remaining service life of the operating system. The present invention enables multiple mathematical approaches in determining which trendline(s) to use to provide the best estimate of the remaining service life.

  3. Bird remains from the Maastrichtian type area (Late Cretaceous)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyke, Gareth J.; Schulp, A. S.; Jagt, J. W M


    Remains of Late Cretaceous birds are rare, which is especially true for Europe and the type area of the Maastrichtian Stage (southeast Netherlands, northeast Belgium) in particular. In the present paper, we record new remains (isolated tarsometatarsus and radius) that document the presence of both

  4. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E


    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  5. Scattering Effects in Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Gai, Wei

    PETS (Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy) technique has been applied to Niobium/Yttrium and Niobium/Lutetium bilayers. We have determined electron - phonon interaction parameter lambda_{rm e -ph} is 0.55 for Yttrium and 0.67 for Lutetium. Spin fluctuations parameter lambda_{ rm S} is 0.20 for Yttrium and 0.33 for Lutetium. We found that the large spin fluctuations in Yttrium and Lutetium has responsibility to the absence of superconductivity in them. Our results have given a reasonable explanation of high superconducting transition temperature in them under high pressure. The large reflection coefficient and strong diffuse scattering at Nb/Y and Nb/Lu interface has been discovered and it should have strong influence on the transport properties of metallic superlattices. From the modeling study of elastic scattering in proximity effect tunnel junctions, we have explained why some conventional made high {rm T_{C}} superconducting tunnel junctions give ideal like characteristics in the gap region but variable strength phonon structures in the phonon region.

  6. Proximal femoral osteotomy in cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Tylkowski, C M; Rosenthal, R K; Simon, S R


    The purpose of this study was to examine the results of the proximal femoral osteotomy for the management of hip deformity in 32 children, aged 4 to 15 years. Twenty-two bilateral and ten unilateral procedures were performed. The indications for surgery were subluxation in 16, dislocation in two, and intoeing and femoral anteversion in 14. The average follow-up was two years and 11 months. CE angle of Wiberg, acetabular index and neck shaft angle were evaluated. The average time to regain preoperative ambulatory status was six months with intensive physical therapy. In osteotomies performed for subluxation, dislocation did not occur; roentgenographic indices showed variability in the degree of subluxation. Osteotomy performed in children older than 8 years of age produced no evidence of acetabular remodeling. THere was no recurrence with osteotomies for dislocation. In those patients with internal rotation gait, improvement resulted. Complications were few and minor. Hip dislocation in children with progressive subluxation, in spite of previous soft-tissue releases, is preventable by proximal femoral osteotomy. The inability of the roentgenographic indices to quantitate the increased stability indicates the procedure's major effect is to realign muscle forces about the hip. Treatment of the intoeing gait produced improvement of rotational deformity.

  7. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price? (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V


    We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk=0.34; 95% confidence interval=0.19, 0.63) Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

  8. Demonstration of automated proximity and docking technology (United States)

    Anderson, Robert L.; Tsugawa, Roy K.; Bryan, Thomas C.


    Automated spacecraft docking operations are being performed using a full scale motion based simulator and an optical sensor. This presentation will discuss the work in progress at TRW and MSFC facilities to study the problem of automated proximity and docking operations. The docking sensor used in the MSFC Optical Sensor and simulation runs are performed using the MSFC Flat Floor Facility. The control algorithms and six degrees of freedom (6DOF) simulation software were developed at TRW and integrated into the MSFC facility. Key issues being studied are the quantification of docking sensor requirements and operational constraints necessary to perform automated docking maneuvers, control algorithms capable of performing automated docking in the presence of sensitive and noisy sensor data, and sensor technologies for automated proximity and docking operations. As part of this study the MSFC sensor characteristics were analyzed and modeled so that off line simulation runs can be performed for control algorithm testing. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate full 6DOF docking capabilities with actual sensors on the MSFC motion based simulator. We present findings from actual docking simulation runs which show sensor and control loop performance as well as problem areas which require close attention. The evolution of various control algorithms using both phase plane and Clohessy-Wiltshire techniques are discussed. In addition, 6DOF target acquisition and control strategies are described.

  9. Displaced proximal humeral fractures: an Indian experience with locking plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Sameer


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of displaced proximal humerus fractures, especially in elderly, remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate functional outcome of locking plate used for fixation of these fractures after open reduction. We also attempted to evaluate the complications and predictors of loss of fixation for such an implant. Methods Over two and a half years, 56 patients with an acute proximal humerus fracture were managed with locking plate osteosynthesis. 47 of these patients who completed a minimum follow up of 1 year were evaluated using Constant score calculation. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 16 and a p value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results The average follow up period was around 21.5 months. Outcomes were excellent in 17%, good in 38.5%, moderate in 34% while poor in 10.5%. The Constant score was poorer for AO-OTA type 3 fractures as compared to other types. The scores were also inferior for older patients (> 65 years old. Complications included screw perforation of head, AVN, subacromial impingement, loss of fixation, axillary nerve palsy and infection. A varus malalignment was found to be a strong predictor of loss of fixation. Conclusion Locking plate osteosynthesis leads to satisfactory functional outcomes in all the patients. Results are better than non locking plates in osteoporotic fractures of the elderly. However the surgery has steep learning curve and various complications could be associated with its use. Nevertheless we believe that a strict adherence to the principles of locking plate use can ensure good result in such challenging fractures.

  10. American alligator proximal pedal phalanges resemble human finger bones: Diagnostic criteria for forensic investigators. (United States)

    Ferraro, Joseph V; Binetti, Katie M


    A scientific approach to bone and tooth identification requires analysts to pursue the goal of empirical falsification. That is, they may attribute a questioned specimen to element and taxon only after having ruled out all other possible attributions. This requires analysts to possess a thorough understanding of both human and non-human osteology, particularly so for remains that may be morphologically similar across taxa. To date, forensic anthropologists have identified several potential 'mimics' for human skeletal remains, including pig teeth and bear paws. Here we document another possible mimic for isolated human skeletal elements--the proximal pedal phalanges of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) closely resemble the proximal and intermediate hand phalanges of adult humans. We detail morphological similarities and differences between these elements, with the goal of providing sufficient information for investigators to confidently falsify the hypothesis that a questioned phalanx is derived from an American alligator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Screw depth sounding in proximal humerus fractures to avoid iatrogenic intra-articular penetration. (United States)

    Bengard, Matthew J; Gardner, Michael J


    Unstable and displaced proximal humerus fractures remain a treatment challenge. The use of locked plates has improved construct stability, but complication rates remain high. Biomechanical studies have emphasized the importance of anchoring screws in the subchondral bone of the humeral head to improve implant stability. However, the spherical shape of the proximal humerus and the limited tactile sensation of its soft cancellous bone make determining accurate screw length difficult, and reported rates of intraoperative screw penetration are high. Iatrogenic screw penetration, even if recognized and corrected before leaving the operating room, may lead to late failure. We present a simple technique of quickly and safely determining screw length using a blunt-tipped Kirschner wire and instruments found in basic orthopaedic sets.

  12. Application of the proximity-dependent assay and fluorescence imaging approaches to study viral entry pathways. (United States)

    Lipovsky, Alex; Zhang, Wei; Iwasaki, Akiko; DiMaio, Daniel


    Virus entry into cells is a complex, multistep process that requires the coordinated activities of a large number of cellular factors and multiple membrane compartments. Because viruses can enter cells via one or more of a large number of preexisting pathways, understanding the mechanism of virus entry and transport between various intracellular compartments is a challenging task. The arrival of "omics" technologies such as genome-wide RNA interference screens has greatly advanced our ability to study the molecular intricacies of viral entry. Bioinformatics analyses of high-throughput screen data can identify enriched gene categories and specific individual genes required for infection, which can yield important insights into the cellular compartments that viruses traverse during infection. Although there are a variety of well-established genetic and biochemical approaches to validate genome-wide screen findings, confirmation of phenotypes obtained from RNA interference studies remains an important challenge. Imaging techniques commonly used to visualize virus localization to cellular organelles are often prone to artifacts that result from the necessity of using a high multiplicity of infection. Fortunately, recent advances in microscopy-based methods for studying protein location have improved our ability to accurately pinpoint virus localization within its host cell. Here we describe in detail one such technique-the proximity ligation assay (PLA)-as a tool to validate findings from a genome-wide loss-of-function genetic screen. In addition, we discuss a number of important considerations for the utilization of immunofluorescence microscopy and RNA interference to investigate the molecular mechanisms of virus entry.

  13. Descriptions of the dental remains of Homo floresiensis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    Dental remains of Homo floresiensis excavated during 2002–2004 at Liang Bua, Flores, Indonesia, consist of one partial maxillary dentition, two nearly complete mandibular dentitions, and four isolated teeth...

  14. A Bayesian Framework for Remaining Useful Life Estimation (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) of a faulty component is at the center of system prognostics and health management. It gives operators a potent tool in...

  15. Skeletal sexing standards of human remains in Turkey


    Gulhan, O


    The identification of victims involved in mass fatality incidents, as well as the identification of unknown individuals in criminal cases has become an increasingly important issue nowadays. Sex assessment represents a key point in forensic evaluations due to its significance in providing biological identity. Even though the availability of documented skeletal remains to forensic practitioners is a common practice in many countries, in Turkey, contemporary documented skeletal remains are not ...

  16. Method for recovering elemental silicon from cutting remains.


    Ulset, Torgeir; Julrud, Stein; Cassayre, Laurent; Chamelot, Pierre; Massot, Laurent; Taxil, Pierre


    This invention relates to a method for recovering elemental silicon cutting remains containing silicon particles, wherein the method comprises manufacturing solid anodes from the cutting remains, arranging one or more manufactured anode (s) in an electrolytic cell with a molten salt electrolyte and one or more cathode (s), and applying a potential difference between the one or more anode (s) and cathode (s) to obtain an oxidation of metallic silicon in the one or more anode (s), tran...

  17. Digital camera resolution and proximal caries detection. (United States)

    Prapayasatok, S; Janhom, A; Verochana, K; Pramojanee, S


    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection from digitized film images captured by a digital camera at different resolution settings. Twenty-five periapical radiographs of 50 premolar and 25 molar teeth were photographed using a digital camera, Sony Cyber-shot, DSC-S75 at three different resolution settings: 640 x 480, 1280 x 960 and 1600 x 1200. Seventy-five digital images were transferred to a computer, saved and opened using ACDSee software. In addition, a PowerPoint slide was made from each digital image. Five observers scored three groups of images (the films, the displayed 1:1 digital images on the ACDSee software, and the PowerPoint slides) for the existence of proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale, and the depth of caries on a 4-point scale. Ground sections of the teeth were used as the gold standard. Az values under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each group of images and at different resolutions were compared using the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Mean different values between the lesions' depth interpreted by the observers and that of the gold standard were analysed. Films showed the highest Az values. Only the 1280 x 960 images on the ACDSee software showed no significant difference of the Az value from the films (P=0.28). The digital images from three resolution settings on the PowerPoint slides showed no significant differences, either among each other or between them and the films. For caries depth, the 1280 x 960 images showed lower values of mean difference in enamel lesions compared with the other two resolution groups. This study showed that in order to digitize conventional films, it was not necessary to use the highest camera resolution setting to achieve high diagnostic accuracy for proximal caries detection. The 1280 x 960 resolution setting of the digital camera demonstrated comparable diagnostic accuracy with film and was adequate for digitizing radiographs for caries

  18. The non-operative resin treatment of proximal caries lesions. (United States)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Martignon, Stefania; Bakhshandeh, Azam; Ricketts, David N J


    Epidemiological data show that the prevalence of caries on proximal surfaces in need of operative treatment is very high around the world, both in the primary and the permanent dentition. This article presents two new treatment methods: proximal sealing and proximal infiltration. The indications are progressing proximal caries lesions, radiographically with a depth around the enamel-dentine junction. A small number of studies regarding the effect of sealing and infiltration on proximal caries versus the use of fluoride varnish, placebo treatment and flossing instructions have been carried out. About half of the studies disclose a not significant difference between test and control treatment. In the other half, the therapeutic effect is significant and corresponds to about 30% reduction in lesion progression. However, longitudinal studies of longer duration are lacking. Proximal sealing and proximal infiltration may have a place in the treatment of non-cavitated proximal lesions. Proximal caries is a problem in both primary and permanent dentitions. Proximal sealants or lesion infiltration are possible treatments.

  19. Preoperative assessment of the cancellous bone mineral density of the proximal humerus using CT data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krappinger, Dietmar; Roth, Tobias; Gschwentner, Martin; Suckert, Armin; Blauth, Michael; Hengg, Clemens; Kralinger, Franz [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Trauma Surgery and Sports Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)


    Osteoporotic fractures of the proximal humerus show an increasing incidence. Osteoporosis not only influences the fracture risk after low-energy trauma, but also affects the mechanical stability of internal fixation. Preoperative assessment of the local bone quality may be useful in the surgical treatment of patients sustaining these injuries. The aim of the present study was to present a method for the preoperative assessment of the local cancellous bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal humerus using CT data. In the first part of the study, CT scans of 30 patients with unilateral fractures of the proximal humerus after low-energy trauma were used. The local BMD was assessed on the contralateral uninjured side. All 30 patients additionally underwent dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm of the side of the uninjured proximal humerus within 6 weeks after trauma. Three independent trauma surgeons performed measurements on the uninjured proximal humerus twice with a time interval of 4 weeks in order to assess the inter- and intraobserver reliability of the method. In the second part of the study, the local BMD of 507 patients with either proximal humerus fractures or chronic shoulder instability was assessed by a single trauma surgeon. In both parts, the average HU values in standardized ROIs of the humeral head were automatically calculated after correcting for HU values below the water equivalent. A linear calibration equation was computed for the calculation from HU to BMD using a calibration device (EFP). The intra- and interobserver reliability was high (ICC > 0.95). Correlation coefficients between the local BMD of the proximal humerus and other anatomical sites were between 0.35 (lumbar spine) and 0.64 (forearm). We found a high correlation between the local BMD and age. The BMD in the fracture group was significantly lower than in the instability group. These patients were significantly older and more

  20. Rehabilitation and Prevention of Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy. (United States)

    Beatty, Nicholas R; Félix, Ioonna; Hettler, Jessica; Moley, Peter J; Wyss, James F

    Proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) comprises a small but significant portion of hamstring injuries in athletes, especially runners. PHT is a chronic condition that is clinically diagnosed but can be supported with imaging. The main presenting complaint is pain in the lower gluteal or ischial region that may or may not radiate along the hamstrings in the posterior thigh. There is little scientific evidence on which to base the rehabilitation management of PHT. Treatment is almost always conservative, with a focus on activity modification, addressing contributing biomechanical deficiencies, effective tendon loading including eccentric training, and ultrasound-guided interventional procedures which may facilitate rehabilitation. Surgery is limited to recalcitrant cases or those involving concomitant high-grade musculotendinous pathology. The keys to PHT management include early and accurate diagnosis, optimal rehabilitation to allow for a safe return to preinjury activity level, and preventative strategies to reduce risk of reinjury.

  1. DC Proximal Newton for Nonconvex Optimization Problems. (United States)

    Rakotomamonjy, Alain; Flamary, Rémi; Gasso, Gilles


    We introduce a novel algorithm for solving learning problems where both the loss function and the regularizer are nonconvex but belong to the class of difference of convex (DC) functions. Our contribution is a new general purpose proximal Newton algorithm that is able to deal with such a situation. The algorithm consists in obtaining a descent direction from an approximation of the loss function and then in performing a line search to ensure a sufficient descent. A theoretical analysis is provided showing that the iterates of the proposed algorithm admit as limit points stationary points of the DC objective function. Numerical experiments show that our approach is more efficient than the current state of the art for a problem with a convex loss function and a nonconvex regularizer. We have also illustrated the benefit of our algorithm in high-dimensional transductive learning problem where both the loss function and regularizers are nonconvex.

  2. Proximity Effects in Superconductor-Graphene Junctions (United States)

    Cuellar, Fabian A.; Perconte, David; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Dlubak, Bruno; Piquemail, Maelis; Bernard, Rozenn; Trastoy, Juan; Moreau-Luchaire, Constance; Seneor, Pierre; Villegas, Javier E.; Kidambi, Piran; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John


    Superconducting proximity effects are of particular interest in graphene: because of its band structure, an unconventional (specular) Andreev reflection is expected. In this context, high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions are especially attractive. In these, the size of the superconducting energy-gap may exceed the graphene doping inhomogeneities around the Dirac point, which should favor the observation of the specular Andreev reflection. Yet, the fabrication of high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions is challenging: the usual growth and lithography processes in both materials are incompatible. We report here on a fabrication method that allow us to fabricate planar cuprate superconductor-graphene junctions, which we characterize via conductance spectroscopy. We analyze the features in the conductance spectra as a function of graphene doping, and discuss them in the framework of the Andreev reflection. Work supported by Labex Nanosaclay.

  3. Phonon engineering in proximity enhanced superconductor heterostructures. (United States)

    Tang, Yong-Chao; Kwon, Sangil; Mohebbi, Hamid R; Cory, David G; Miao, Guo-Xing


    In this research, we tailor the phonon density of states (DOS) in thin superconducting films to suppress quasiparticle losses. We examine a model system of a proximity-enhanced three-layered Al/Nb/Al heterostructure and show that the local quantized phonon spectrum of the ultrathin Al cladding layers in the heterostructure has a pronounced effect on the superconducting resonator's quality factors. Instead of a monotonic increase of quality factors with decreasing temperatures, we observe the quality factor reaches a maximum at 1.2 K in 5/50/5 nm Al/Nb/Al microstrip resonators, because of a quantized phonon ladder. The phonon DOS may be engineered to enhance the performance of quantum devices.

  4. Mouse model of proximal tubule endocytic dysfunction. (United States)

    Weyer, Kathrin; Storm, Tina; Shan, Jingdong; Vainio, Seppo; Kozyraki, Renata; Verroust, Pierre J; Christensen, Erik I; Nielsen, Rikke


    Several studies have indicated the central role of the megalin/cubilin multiligand endocytic receptor complex in protein reabsorption in the kidney proximal tubule. However, the poor viability of the existing megalin-deficient mice precludes further studies and comparison of homogeneous groups of mice. Megalin- and/or cubilin-deficient mice were generated using a conditional Cre-loxP system, where the Cre gene is driven by the Wnt4 promoter. Kidney tissues from the mice were analysed for megalin and cubilin expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Renal albumin uptake was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages and analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratios were measured by ELISA and the alkaline picrate method. The Meg(lox/lox);Cre(+), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) and Meg(lox/lox), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) mice were all viable, fertile and developed normal kidneys. Megalin and/or cubilin expression, assessed by immunohistology and western blotting, was reduced by >89%. Consistent with this observation, the mice excreted megalin and cubilin ligands such as transferrin and albumin in addition to low-molecular weight proteins. We further show that megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice excrete albumin with an average of 1.45 ± 0.54 mg/day, suggesting a very low albumin concentration in the glomerular ultrafiltrate. We report here the efficient genetic ablation of megalin, cubilin or both, using a Cre transgene driven by the Wnt4 promoter. The viable megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice now allow for detailed large-scale group analysis, and we anticipate that the mice will be of great value as an animal model for proximal tubulopathies with disrupted endocytosis.

  5. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains. (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B


    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination. (United States)

    Cowley, Jeffrey C; Gates, Deanna H


    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.

  7. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination (United States)

    Cowley, Jeffrey C.


    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks. PMID:28235005

  8. Renal cadmium deposition and injury as a result of accumulation of cadmium-metallothionein (CdMT) by the proximal convoluted tubules--A light microscopic autoradiography study with 109CdMT. (United States)

    Dorian, C; Gattone, V H; Klaasen, C D


    Chronic, but not acute, exposure to inorganic Cd produces renal damage. However, a single injection of cadmium bound to metallothionein (CdMT) produces renal injury. It is hypothesized that an interorgan redistribution of Cd as CdMT is responsible for the chronic nephrotoxic effect of Cd. To better understand the mechanism(s) of CdMT-induced nephrotoxicity, the intrarenal distribution of 109CdMT was examined. 109CdMT isolated from rat liver was injected into mice at a nonnephrotoxic dose (0.1 mg Cd/kg, iv). The radioactivity in the kidney reached a maximum level (85% of the dose) as early as 30 min following administration and remained essentially constant for up to 7 days after injection. Within the kidney, 109Cd distributed almost entirely to the cortex. Light microscopic autoradiography of the kidney showed that, within the cortex, 109Cd distributed preferentially to the S1 and S2 segments of the proximal convoluted tubules. Within the S1 and S2 segments, the concentration of 109Cd in the basal and apical parts of the cells was similar to that after the nonnephrotoxic dose of CdMT, but after a nephrotoxic dose (0.3 mg Cd/kg) the radioactivity distributed preferentially to the apical portion of the cells. In contrast, light microscopic autoradiography studies with 109CdCl2 revealed that 109Cd was more evenly distributed throughout the proximal tubules. Moreover, after administration of a large dose of inorganic Cd (3 mg Cd/kg), a similar concentration of Cd was found in the convoluted and straight proximal tubules. These data support the hypothesis that CdMT-induced nephrotoxicity might be due, at least in part, to its preferential uptake of CdMT into the S1 and S2 segments of the proximal tubules, the site of Cd-induced nephrotoxicity.

  9. Spatial Proximity and Intercompany Communication: Myths and Realities


    Aguilera, Anne; Lethiais, Virginie; Alain RALLET


    Spatial proximity is credited with numerous virtues in the economic literature. In particular, for a company to be located near other companies is seen as conducive to the development of business relations. Spatial proximity is also considered to contribute to the quality and efficiency of these relations by facilitating face-to-face meetings that foster the exchange of complex knowledge and, in particular, the emergence of innovation. This article explores the notion of spatial proximity in ...

  10. Diagnosis of Proximal Caries in Primary Molars with DIAGNOdent pen


    Ermler, Romy


    Proximal surfaces, together with fissures, are the areas where most primary caries occur. Due to the anatomy of the deciduous molars, proximal caries cannot be detected at an early stage in crowded teeth by simply using a mirror and probe. Therefore, additional methods to find early proximal caries have to be used. KaVo uses laser fluorescence to detect caries. Originally, the DIAGNOdent devices were able to detect only occlusal caries (56, 61, 62, 65, 66). New results are now also available ...

  11. Outcome of renal proximal tubular dysfunction with Fanconi syndrome caused by sodium valproate. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Sawako; Watanabe, Toru; Sato, Seiichi; Yoshikawa, Hideto


    Although Fanconi syndrome is rare in patients with epilepsy treated with sodium valproate (VPA), the prevalence might be higher in children with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID). VPA-induced Fanconi syndrome usually has a favorable outcome, but the long-term outcome of renal tubular dysfunction in SMID patients remains unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the long-term outcome of renal proximal dysfunction in SMID children with Fanconi syndrome caused by VPA. The records of six children with SMID and Fanconi syndrome caused by VPA were retrospectively reviewed to assess long-term proximal renal tubular function after discontinuation of VPA. All six patients had intractable epilepsy and required tube feeding. Proximal tubular dysfunction improved in almost all patients after VPA discontinuation, although abnormal uric acid reabsorption persisted in three patients. Five patients had hypocarnitinemia. After carnitine supplementation, one of these three patients with decreased ability to reabsorb uric acid had a normal serum level and improved fractional excretion of uric acid. Secondary carnitine deficiency may cause prolonged tubular dysfunction in some SMID patients with VPA-induced Fanconi syndrome. Fanconi syndrome caused by VPA is a usually reversible dysfunction of the proximal tubules, but can be permanent. Although not effective for all patients, carnitine is recommended for patients with VPA-induced Fanconi syndrome, especially children with SMID. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Proximate Determinants of Fertility in Zambia: Analysis of the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumbi Chola


    Full Text Available The role of proximate determinants in influencing fertility has been well documented worldwide. Bongaarts’ aggregate model of the proximate determinants (which focuses on marriage, contraception, abortion, and sterility has been widely used to analyse the influence of proximate determinants on fertility. In Zambia, however, there is limited understanding of their effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of proximate determinants of fertility in Zambia using Bongaarts’ model. This was a cross-sectional analysis of women’s data from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS. A total of 7,146 women aged 15 to 49 years participated in the ZDHS. Bongaarts’ model was employed in the data analysis. Results showed that, overall, mean age was 27.8 years and rural-urban distribution was 56% and 44%, respectively. Marriage (40% and postpartum infecundity (22% accounted for the largest inhibiting effect on natural fertility from its biological maximum of 19.10. Contraception use accounted for only 3%. Therefore, in order to manage fertility in Zambia, policies and programmes should consider the effects of marriage, postpartum infecundity, and contraception on fertility. Without such targeted interventions, managing and maintaining population growth will remain a challenge in Zambia.

  13. A micropuncture study of proximal tubular transport of lithium during osmotic diuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, P


    Lithium and sodium are normally reabsorbed in parallel with water by the renal proximal tubule whereby their tubular fluid-to-plasma concentration ratios (TF/P) remain close to unity throughout the proximal convoluted segment. During osmotic diuresis, the late proximal (TF/P)Na is known to decrease....... The present experiments were undertaken to study whether the late proximal TF/P for Li decreases like that of Na during osmotic diuresis. Data were obtained in a control period (C) and in two successive periods during mannitol diuresis (P1, P2). Glomerular filtration rate decreased gradually during osmotic...... diuresis [1,147 +/- 32 (C) to 950 +/- 22 (P2) microliters.min-1.g kidney wt (KW)-1, P less than 0.01), whereas Li clearance (CLi) increased [377 +/- 21 (C) to 469 +/- 28 (P1, P less than 0.01) and 408 +/- 25 (P2, NS) microliters.min-1.gKW-1, respectively]. (TF/P)Na decreased from 0.98 +/- 0.02 (C) to 0...

  14. Oxidative stress increases megalin expression in the renal proximal tubules during the normoalbuminuric stage of diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Kurosaki, Yoshifumi; Imoto, Akemi; Kawakami, Fumitaka; Yokoba, Masanori; Takenaka, Tsuneo; Ichikawa, Takafumi; Katagiri, Masato; Ishii, Naohito


    Megalin, an endocytic receptor expressed in proximal tubule cells, plays a critical role in renal tubular protein reabsorption and is associated with in the albuminuria observed in diabetic nephropathy. We have previously reported increased oxidant production in the renal cortex during the normoalbuminuric stage of diabetes mellitus (DM); however, the relationship between oxidative stress and renal megalin expression during the normoalbuminuric stage of DM remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated whether oxidative stress affects megalin expression in the normoalbuminuric stage of DM in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model and in immortalized human proximal tubular cells (HK-2). We demonstrated that increased expression of renal megalin accompanies oxidative stress during the early stage of DM, prior to albuminuria development. Telmisartan treatment prevented the diabetes-induced elevation in megalin level, possibly through an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. In HK-2 cells, hydrogen peroxide significantly increased megalin levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner; however, the elevation in megalin expression was decreased following prolonged exposure to severe oxidative stress induced by 0.4 mmol/L hydrogen peroxide. High glucose treatment also significantly increased megalin expression in HK-2 cells. Concurrent administration of the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-cysteine blocked the effects of high glucose on megalin expression. Furthermore, the hydrogen peroxide-induced increase in megalin expression was blocked by treatment with PI3K and Akt inhibitors. Increase of pAkt expression was also seen in the renal cortex of diabetic rats. Taken together, our results indicate that mild oxidative stress increases renal megalin expression through the PI3K-Akt pathway in the normoalbuminuric stage of DM.

  15. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven


    with an application to L1-regularized covariance selection, in which prior constraints on the sparsity pattern of the inverse covariance matrix are imposed. In the numerical experiments the proximal Newton steps are computed by an accelerated proximal gradient method, and multifrontal algorithms for positive definite......We analyze the proximal Newton method for minimizing a sum of a self-concordant function and a convex function with an inexpensive proximal operator. We present new results on the global and local convergence of the method when inexact search directions are used. The method is illustrated...

  16. On random age and remaining lifetime for populations of items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkelstein, M.; Vaupel, J.


    We consider items that are incepted into operation having already a random (initial) age and define the corresponding remaining lifetime. We show that these lifetimes are identically distributed when the age distribution is equal to the equilibrium distribution of the renewal theory. Then we...

  17. Holocene insect remains from south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd


    Remains of plants and invertebrates from Holocene deposits in south-western Greenland include a number of insect fragments from Heteroptera and Coleoptera. Some of the finds extend the known temporal range of the species considerably back in time, and one of the taxa has not previously been found...... of terrestrial insects complement the scarce fossil Greenland record of the species concerned....

  18. Remaining childless : Causes and consequences from a life course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, R.


    Little is know about childless individuals in the Netherlands, although currently one out of every five Dutch individuals remains childless. Who are they? How did they end up being childless? How and to what extent are their life outcomes influenced by their childlessness? By focusing on individual

  19. Predicting the Remaining Useful Life of Rolling Element Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooghoudt, Jan Otto; Jantunen, E; Yi, Yang


    Condition monitoring of rolling element bearings is of vital importance in order to keep the industrial wheels running. In wind industry this is especially important due to the challenges in practical maintenance. The paper presents an attempt to improve the capability of prediction of remaining...

  20. Remaining a Nonparticipant in a Cooperative Group Setting. (United States)

    Deardoff, Richard


    A high school history teacher of gifted students examined difficulties in establishing cooperative groups when members changed frequently. Student interviews and surveys indicated that some students were happy to remain nonparticipants in any group. Participation was less a factor of group makeup than a factor of student opinion about grades.…

  1. Dinosaur remains from the type Maastrichtian: An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weishampel, David B.; Mulder, Eric W A; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W M; Jianu, Coralia Maria; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Peeters, Hans H G; Schulp, Anne S.


    Isolated cranial and post-cranial remains of hadrosaurid dinosaurs have been collected from various outcrops in the type area of the Maastrichtian stage during the last few years. In the present contribution, dentary and maxillary teeth are recorded from the area for the first time. Post-cranial

  2. Ancient DNA in human bone remains from Pompeii archaeological site. (United States)

    Cipollaro, M; Di Bernardo, G; Galano, G; Galderisi, U; Guarino, F; Angelini, F; Cascino, A


    aDNA extraction and amplification procedures have been optimized for Pompeian human bone remains whose diagenesis has been determined by histological analysis. Single copy genes amplification (X and Y amelogenin loci and Y specific alphoid repeat sequences) have been performed and compared with anthropometric data on sexing.

  3. The Workers' Value of the Remaining Employment Contract Duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommeren, van Jos; Hazans, Mihails


    This paper introduces and applies a method for estimating workers' marginal willingness to pay for job attributes employing data on job search activity. Worker's willingness to pay for the remaining duration of the employment contract is derived. We provide evidence that workers attach substantial

  4. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Pearce


    Full Text Available Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1 what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2 what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  5. Five reasons why South African librarianship remains untransformed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... librarianship remains untransformed. These reasons are the result of misunderstandings by librarians about the historical process, social change, political change, professional change and the intellectual roles of librarians. Suggestions for dealing with these misunderstandings are provided. (Innovation: 2002 25: 27-36) ...

  6. Molecular genetic identification of skeletal remains of apartheid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Truth and Reconciliation Commission made significant progress in examining abuses committed during the apartheid era in South Africa. Despite information revealed by the commission, a large number of individuals remained missing when the commission closed its proceedings. This provided the impetus for the ...

  7. The experiences of remaining nurse tutors during the transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transformation of public services and education in South Africa is part of the political and socioeconomic transition to democracy. Changes are occurring in every fi eld, including that of the health services. A qualitative study was undertaken to investigate the experiences of the remaining nurse tutors at a school of ...

  8. The treatment of human remains | Satyapal | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concerns regarding treatment of the dead in scientific and public arenas, issues related to consent, respect for human dignity, scientific integrity, societal expectations, and why treatment of cadavers are ethically significant are highlighted. The display of human remains claimed as 'edutainment' or 'anatomy art' in Body ...

  9. Collegial Climate and Novice Teachers' Intent to Remain Teaching (United States)

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Youngs, Peter; Frank, Kenneth A.


    Using survey data from novice teachers across 99 schools, we estimated multilevel regressions to identify the association between novices' intent to remain teaching within their schools and their perceptions of the collegial climate. The results suggest that novice teachers who perceive a more positive collegial climate marked by higher degrees…

  10. Effect of acute hypertension on sodium reabsorption by the proximal tubule. (United States)

    Koch, K M; Aynedjian, H S; Bank, N


    The effect of acute hypertension on sodium reabsorption by the proximal tubule was studied in rats by means of micropuncture methods. Hypertension was induced by bilateral carotid artery ligation and cervical vagotomy. Within a few minutes after blood pressure rose (30-60 mm Hg above control levels), a moderate natriuresis and diuresis began. Proximal sodium reabsorption, measured by two independent methods, was found to be markedly suppressed, both in absolute amount per unit length and per unit of tubular volume (C/pir(2)). The ratio between tubular volume and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (pir(2)d/V(0)) was found to be increased. These observations indicate that the inhibition of proximal sodium reabsorption induced by hypertension cannot be explained by the tubular geometry hypothesis of sodium regulation. Several possible hormonal mechanisms were investigated. Intravenous d-aldosterone did not prevent the suppression of sodium transport due to acute hypertension, nor did chronic oral saline loading to reduce the renal content of renin. Constriction of the suprarenal aorta, with maintenance of a normal renal perfusion pressure, did prevent the inhibition of proximal transport during carotid artery occlusion, thus excluding an extrarenally produced natriuretic hormone as the mechanism. The observations are compatible with the view that sodium transport was inhibited either by an intrarenal natriuretic hormone or by an increase in the interstitial volume of the kidney produced by a transient hydrostatic pressure gradient across the peritubular capillaries. The latter seems more likely to us because of the rapidity of onset of the natriuresis, and because removing the renal capsule and releasing the surface interstitial fluid prevented the effect of hypertension on proximal sodium transport.

  11. The periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA acts as a switch in stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by MacB transporter. (United States)

    Modali, Sita D; Zgurskaya, Helen I


    Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC is a tripartite macrolide efflux transporter driven by hydrolysis of ATP. In this complex, MacA is the periplasmic membrane fusion protein that stimulates the activity of MacB transporter and establishes the link with the outer membrane channel TolC. The molecular mechanism by which MacA stimulates MacB remains unknown. Here, we report that the periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA plays a critical role in functional MacA-MacB interactions and stimulation of MacB ATPase activity. Binding of MacA to MacB stabilizes the ATP-bound conformation of MacB, whereas interactions with both MacB and TolC affect the conformation of MacA. A single G353A substitution in the C-terminus of MacA inactivates MacAB-TolC function by changing the conformation of the membrane proximal domain of MacA and disrupting the proper assembly of the MacA-MacB complex. We propose that MacA acts in transport by promoting MacB transition into the closed ATP-bound conformation and in this respect, is similar to the periplasmic solute-binding proteins. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. PHOTOJOURNALISM AND PROXIMITY IMAGES: two points of view, two professions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thierry


    Full Text Available For many decades, classic photojournalistic practice, firmly anchored in a creed established since Lewis Hine (1874-1940, has developed a praxis and a doxa that have barely been affected by the transformations in the various types of journalism. From the search for the “right image” which would be totally transparent by striving to refute its enunciative features from a perspective of maximumobjectivity, to the most seductive photography at supermarkets by photo agencies, the range of images seems to be decidedly framed. However, far from constituting high-powered reportingor excellent photography that is rewarded with numerous international prizes and invitations to the media-artistic world, local press photography remains in the shadows. How does oneoffer a representation of one’s self that can be shared in the local sphere? That is the first question which editors of the local daily and weekly press must grapple with. Using illustrations of the practices, this article proposes an examination of the origins ofthese practices and an analysis grounded on the originality of theauthors of these proximity photographs.

  13. Photojournalism and proximity images: two points of view, two professions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thierry


    Full Text Available For many decades, classic photojournalistic practice, firmly anchored in a creed established since Lewis Hine (1874-1940, has developed a praxis and a doxa that have barely been affected by the transformations in the various types of journalism. From the search for the “right image” which would be totally transparent by striving to refute its enunciative features from a perspective of maximumobjectivity, to the most seductive photography at supermarkets by photo agencies, the range of images seems to be decidedly framed. However, far from constituting high-powered reportingor excellent photography that is rewarded with numerous international prizes and invitations to the media-artistic world, local press photography remains in the shadows. How does oneoffer a representation of one’s self that can be shared in the local sphere? That is the first question which editors of the local daily and weekly press must grapple with. Using illustrations of the practices, this article proposes an examination of the origins ofthese practices and an analysis grounded on the originality of theauthors of these proximity photographs.

  14. Ileoanal anastomosis with proximal ileal reservoir: an experimental study. (United States)

    Schraut, W H; Block, G E


    Endorectal ileoanal anastomosis with proximal interposition of an ileal reservoir was evaluated experimentally in dogs as an approach to retain sphincteric control of defecation after proctocolectomy. Two months after the operative procedure, eight animals with a reservoir had four to eight semisolid stools per day and were continent. In contrast, six animals with straight ileoanal anastomosis were incontinent with 10 to 14 evacuations per day. Motility studies demonstrated a reduction of propulsive peristalsis within the undistended reservoir, which is considered the responsible factor for increased intestinal transit time and reduced stool frequency. Filling of the reservoir to capacity elicited strong peristaltic contractions, which may assure a more complete evacuation of the reservoir during defecation. Reservoir capacity increased substantially (150% to 200%) within 2 months but only to a minor degree thereafter, indicating that the reservoir does not dilate progressively into an atonic viscus. Motility patterns remained unaltered as the reservoir became more complaint with time. Mucosal alterations (flattening of villi, submucosal inflammation) were detected in the reservoir but did not result in nutritional defects within an observation period of 1 year.

  15. A Review of Management Options for Proximal Humeral Fractures (United States)

    Jordan, Robert W; Modi, Chetan S


    Proximal humeral fractures are common and although the majority can be managed non-operatively, the optimal treatment of displaced or complex fractures remains controversial. Non-operative treatment is typically selected for minimally displaced fractures where union rates are high and good or excellent outcomes can be expected in approximately 80% of cases. The aims of surgical fixation are to restore articular surface congruency, alignment and the relationship between the tuberosities and the humeral head. Hemiarthroplasty provides patients with reliable pain relief and its indications include fracture dislocations, humeral head splitting fractures and some three- and four- part fractures. The key areas of surgical technique that influence functional outcome include correctly restoring the humeral height, humeral version and tuberosity position. Function, however, is poor if the tuberosities either fail to unite or mal-unite. The interest in reverse shoulder arthroplasty as an alternative option has therefore recently increased, particularly in older patients with poor bone quality and tuberosity comminution. The evidence supporting this, however, is currently limited to multiple case series with higher level studies currently underway. PMID:25067968

  16. Previous hemodialysis access improves functional outcomes of the proximal radial artery fistula in males. (United States)

    Amendola, Michael F; Pfeifer, John; Albuquerque, Francisco; Wolfe, Luke; Levy, Mark M; Davis, Ronald K


    between the 2 groups (1.6 ± 1.0 interventions per access versus 1.1 ± 0.7 interventions per access; P = 0.2109, Wilcoxon two-sample test). Subgroup analysis (analysis of variance) of the S-PRA group indicated that a patent but failing previous access in the same arm was not superior in terms of successful cannulation, functional patency, or total duration when compared with a thrombosed previous access. The PRA remains a viable first access procedure undertaken at our institution. Compared with the reported 12-month assisted primary patency of this fistula type, we found a small percentage of PRAs actually being accessed for successful hemodialysis treatment. The S-PRA appears to have a significantly higher successful cannulation rate, functional patency, and total duration time when compared with the P-PRA in patients receiving hemodialysis treatments. The mechanism of these improved outcomes is not known; considering patency or thrombosis of a previous access in the S-PRA group did not predict future access success in the same extremity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Imaging of rectus femoris proximal tendinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesquer, Lionel; Poussange, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudiere, Benjamin; Feldis, Matthieu [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre d' Imagerie Osteo-articulaire, Merignac (France); Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand [Groupe Ramsay Generale de Sante - Hopital Prive Jean Mermoz, Centre Orthopedique Santy, Lyon (France); Graveleau, Nicolas [Clinique du Sport de Bordeaux, Centre de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Sportive, Merignac (France)


    The rectus femoris is the most commonly injured muscle of the anterior thigh among athletes, especially soccer players. Although the injury pattern of the muscle belly is well documented, less is known about the anatomy and specific lesions of the proximal tendons. For each head, three distinctive patterns may be encountered according to the location of the injury, which can be at the enthesis, within the tendon, or at the musculotendinous junction. In children, injuries correspond most commonly to avulsion of the anteroinferior iliac spine from the direct head and can lead to subspine impingement. Calcific tendinitis and traumatic tears may be encountered in adults. Recent studies have shown that traumatic injuries of the indirect head may be underdiagnosed and that injuries of both heads may have a surgical issue. Finally, in the case of tears, functional outcome and treatment may vary if the rupture involves one or both tendons and if the tear is partial or complete. Thus, it is mandatory for the radiologist to know the different ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of these lesions in order to provide accurate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this article is to recall the anatomy of the two heads of rectus femoris, describe a reliable method of assessment with ultrasound and MRI and know the main injury patterns, through our own experience and literature review. (orig.)

  18. Proximate industrial activity and psychological distress (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Jackson, James S.; Merrill, J. Bryce; Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Williams, David R.


    This paper examines the role that gender, occupational status, and family status play in moderating the effect of industrial activity on the psychological well-being of nearby residents. Using a unique spatial assessment of industrial activity and an environmental risk/social stressor framework in conjunction with individual-level data from the Detroit Area Study (DAS) and demographic data from the U.S. census, we find that residents of neighborhoods in close proximity to industrial activity report elevated levels of psychological distress compared to residents of neighborhoods removed from this type of activity. These influences are more pronounced among women but gender differences are also contingent upon occupational and family statuses. We show that specific combinations of work and family statuses make persons particularly vulnerable to the influence of this environmental stressor and women are two and a half times more likely than men to have these vulnerable statuses. This study makes an important contribution to the environmental health literature because it reminds researchers of the fundamental influence of social roles when examining the link between environmental risks and mental health. PMID:19444334

  19. [Ophthalmologists in the proximity of Adolf Hitler]. (United States)

    Rohrbach, J M


    Adolf Hitler met or at least knew about 5 ophthalmologists. The chair of ophthalmology in Berlin, Walther Löhlein, personally examined Hitler's eyes at least two times. The chair of ophthalmology in Breslau, Walter Dieter, developed "air raid protection spectacles" with the aid of high representatives of the NS-system and probably Adolf Hitler himself. Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz became rector of the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt/Main. He was known as a very strict advocate of the NS-race hygiene. Werner Zabel made plans for Hitler's diet and tried to interfere with Hitler's medical treatment. Finally, Hellmuth Unger was an influential representative of the medical press and a famous writer. Three of his novels with medical topics were made into a film which Hitler probably saw. Hitler had, so to say, a small "ophthalmological proximity" which, however, did not play a significant role for himself or the NS-state. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)


    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  1. Altruism by age and social proximity. (United States)

    Long, Mark C; Krause, Eleanor


    This study evaluates the extent to which an individual's stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context-most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person's health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person's wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other's health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family). We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent's state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society's understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making.

  2. Optical proximity correction with principal component regression (United States)

    Gao, Peiran; Gu, Allan; Zakhor, Avideh


    An important step in today's Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing is optical proximity correction (OPC). In model based OPC, masks are systematically modified to compensate for the non-ideal optical and process effects of optical lithography system. The polygons in the layout are fragmented, and simulations are performed to determine the image intensity pattern on the wafer. Then the mask is perturbed by moving the fragments to match the desired wafer pattern. This iterative process continues until the pattern on the wafer matches the desired one. Although OPC increases the fidelity of pattern transfer to the wafer, it is quite CPU intensive; OPC for modern IC designs can take days to complete on computer clusters with thousands of CPU. In this paper, techniques from statistical machine learning are used to predict the fragment movements. The goal is to reduce the number of iterations required in model based OPC by using a fast and efficient solution as the initial guess to model based OPC. To determine the best model, we train and evaluate several principal component regression models based on prediction error. Experimental results show that fragment movement predictions via regression model significantly decrease the number of iterations required in model based OPC.

  3. Altruism by age and social proximity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C Long

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the extent to which an individual's stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context-most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person's health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person's wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other's health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family. We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent's state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society's understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making.

  4. Altruism by age and social proximity (United States)


    This study evaluates the extent to which an individual’s stated altruistic sentiments can be influenced by context–most importantly, by the age and social proximity of the other person and by the nature of what is being sacrificed. We measure willingness to sacrifice own health for another person’s health and willingness to sacrifice own wealth for another person’s wealth. To evaluate these sentiments, two surveys were administered to representative samples of Americans which contained hypothetical scenarios with context randomly assigned; the first survey posed a dictator game question and the second survey was designed to elicit marginal rates of substitution between own and other’s health/wealth. As expected, we find less altruism towards those who are more socially distant (e.g., strangers relative to family). We find individuals are more health altruistic towards young children and more wealth altruistic towards adults, and health altruism tends to be lowest for survey respondents near retirement age. We find no relationship between levels of altruism and the distance between the respondent’s state of birth and state of current residence. These findings improve society’s understanding of situational altruism and kinship and reciprocity as motivations for altruism, and they have practical implications concerning the economic valuation of human lives used to guide public policy-making. PMID:28837557

  5. Paleolithic hominin remains from Eshkaft-e Gavi (southern Zagros Mountains, Iran): description, affinities, and evidence for butchery. (United States)

    Scott, Jeremiah E; Marean, Curtis W


    Eshkaft-e Gavi is a cave located in the southern Zagros Mountains of Iran and is one of the few archaeological sites in the region to preserve both Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic occupations. Excavation of the site in the 1970s yielded an assemblage of lithic and faunal remains, including ten hominin specimens: a mandibular molar, four cranial fragments, a clavicular diaphysis, the proximal half of a metacarpal, a fragment of os coxa, the proximal diaphysis of a juvenile femur, and a patella. The bones derive from a minimum of four individuals, including two juveniles. Although many of these remains could be Epi-Paleolithic in age, one of the juvenile specimens-the mandibular molar-occurs at the base of the cave's Upper Paleolithic sequence. The remains are very fragmentary, but those that preserve diagnostic morphology indicate that they represent modern humans. The molar is taxonomically diagnostic, thus confirming the association of the Aurignacian-like Baradostian Industry with modern humans. Four of the specimens-a piece of frontal bone, the clavicle, the juvenile femur, and the patella-display clear evidence for intentional butchery in the form of stone-tool cutmarks. These cutmarked specimens, along with a fragment of parietal bone, are also burned. Although this evidence is consistent with cannibalism, the small sample makes it difficult to say whether or not the individuals represented by the hominin remains were butchered and cooked for consumption. Nevertheless, the cutmarked Eshkaft-e Gavi specimens add to a growing sample of hominin remains extending back into the Plio-Pleistocene that display evidence of intentional defleshing.

  6. Remaining teeth, cardiovascular morbidity and death among adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Gamborg, M


    OBJECTIVE: To examine if number of remaining teeth was associated with development of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality over 5-12 years. METHODS: Prospective observational study among 1474 men and 1458 women born 1922, 1932, 1942 or 1952 from The Danish MONICA follow up study (MONItoring......, incidence of cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease, during averagely 7.5 years of follow-up. Compared to those with most teeth remaining, the edentulous suffered >3-fold increased Hazard (HR) of developing stroke (HR=3.25; 95% CI: 1.48-7.14), whereas the risk of developing any cardiovascular...... disease was increased by 50% (HR=1.50; 95% CI: 1.02-2.19). Risk for coronary heart disease was increased by 31%, but was not significant, after the adjustment for education, age, smoking, diabetes, alcohol intake, systolic blood pressure and body mass index (HR= 1.31; 95% CI: 0.74-2.31). Associations were...

  7. Suicidal terrorist bombings in Israel--identification of human remains. (United States)

    Kahana, T; Freund, M; Hiss, J


    Positive identification of human remains is one of the most important tasks in mass disaster investigations. Religious and jurisdictional demands in Israel, require the identification process to be completed in the shortest possible time. In the 18 suicidal terrorist bombings that took place in Israel between the years 1993-1996, 127 victims and 19 perpetrators were killed, and their severely fragmented bodies were identified within 24 h. The efficient completion of the identification endeavor was enabled by the implementation of a variety of techniques and the close collaboration in the investigation between the different emergency and forensic agencies. This paper presents the mass disaster identification policy and techniques currently used in Israel. The importance of an interdisciplinary approach for the identification of extremely fragmented human remains from mass disasters and the creation of a central data bank of fingerprints and genetic markers is emphasized.

  8. The impact of downsizing on remaining workers' sickness absence. (United States)

    Østhus, Ståle; Mastekaasa, Arne


    It is generally assumed that organizational downsizing has considerable negative consequences, not only for workers that are laid off, but also for those who remain employed. The empirical evidence with regard to effects on sickness absence is, however, inconsistent. This study employs register data covering a major part of the total workforce in Norway over the period 2000-2003. The number of sickness absence episodes and the number of sickness absence days are analysed by means of Poisson regression. To control for both observed and unobserved stable individual characteristics, we use conditional (fixed effects) estimation. The analyses provide some weak indications that downsizing may lead to slightly less sickness absence, but the overall impression is that downsizing has few if any effects on the sickness absence of the remaining employees. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars? (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.


    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  10. Proximal and distal social influence on alcohol consumption and marijuana use among middle school adolescents. (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Pedersen, Eric R; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S; D'Amico, Elizabeth J


    This study assesses the independent and combined effects of (1) perceived peer norms, (2) best friend use, and (3) being in the presence of others who use on middle school adolescents' consumption of marijuana and alcohol, and how the effects of these sources of social influence evolve over time as youth progress through middle school. The analytic sample consisted of 11,667 adolescents (50% female; >65% Hispanic) in 6th, 7th or 8th grade from 16 middle schools across three school districts in Southern California. Participants were assessed at 5 time points from 2008 to 2011. All sources of social influence were predictive of alcohol and marijuana consumption. As youth grew older, spending time with other adolescents who drink increased adolescents' likelihood of drinking alcohol, whereas perceived norms became less influential. Furthermore, as adolescents spent more time around other youths who drink, the predictive value of perceived norms on alcohol consumption decreased. Similarly, as youth grew older, the influence of best friend's use and spending time with other adolescents who use marijuana remain stable, whereas perceived norms became less influential. Findings suggest that perceived peer norms may be more influential in early adolescence; whereas proximal social determinants (e.g., being in the presence of other peers who consume) become more influential as youth enter middle adolescence. Prevention programs should continue to address misperception of norms with younger adolescents to decrease the chances of initiation, but also utilize strategies such as refusal skills and alternate coping mechanisms for older adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France). (United States)

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard


    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains. (United States)

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E


    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Field contamination of skeletonized human remains with exogenous DNA. (United States)

    Edson, Suni M; Christensen, Alexander F


    The Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory reports the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of over 800 skeletal samples a year for the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command-Central Identification Laboratory. These sequences are generated from degraded skeletal remains that are presumed to belong to U.S. service members missing from past military conflicts. In the laboratory, it is possible to control for contamination of remains; however, in the field, it can be difficult to prevent modern DNA from being transferred to skeletal elements and being carried forward through the analysis process. Four such cases are described here along with the controls in place in the laboratory to eliminate the possibility of the exogenous DNA being reported as authentic. In each case, the controls implemented by the laboratories prevented the false reporting of contaminant exogenous DNA from remains that were either faunal or human, but lacked endogenous DNA. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  14. Postmortem Scavenging of Human Remains by Domestic Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Suntirukpong, M.D.


    Full Text Available Objective: Crime scene investigators, forensic medicine doctors and pathologists, and forensic anthropologists frequently encounter postmortem scavenging of human remains by household pets. Case presentation: The authors present a case report of a partially skeletonized adult male found dead after more than three months in his apartment in Thailand. The body was in an advanced stage of decomposition with nearly complete skeletonization of the head, neck, hands, and feet. The presence of maggots and necrophagous (flesh eating beetles on the body confirmed that insects had consumed much of the soft tissues. Examination of the hand and foot bones revealed canine tooth puncture marks. Evidence of chewing indicated that one or more of the decedent’s three house cats had fed on the body after death. Recognizing and identifying carnivore and rodent activity on the soft flesh and bones of human remains is important in interpreting and reconstructing postmortem damage. Thorough analysis may help explain why skeletal elements are missing, damaged, or out of anatomical position. Conclusion: This report presents a multi-disciplinary approach combining forensic anthropology and forensic medicine in examining and interpreting human remains.

  15. Choosing and remaining in nursing: Iranian male nurses' perspectives. (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Azadi, Arman; Valizadeh, Leila; Keogh, Brian; Monadi, Morteza; Negarandeh, Reza


    Iranian male nurses' career-choosing practices have not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the reasons why Iranian male nurses choose nursing as a career. In addition it sought to understand the reasons why they remain in nursing. An exploratory descriptive design, employing a qualitative approach was used. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. The analysis culminated in the development of three themes which described the participants' motivations for choosing nursing as a career as well as the factors that influenced their decisions to remain in nursing following qualification. Practical motivations such as job security were important factors in choosing nursing. The most common reason for remaining in nursing was desire to care for others, for God's sake. Factors that influenced their decision to leave mainly centered on the public view to nursing as a feminine discipline. However, the nurses in this study believed that nursing was a profession appropriate for both men and women because of gendered nursing care and preferences of patient in Iran.

  16. A device for in vivo measurements of quantitative ultrasound variables at the human proximal femur. (United States)

    Barkmann, Reinhard; Laugier, Pascal; Moser, Urs; Dencks, Stefanie; Klausner, Michael; Padilla, Frédéric; Haïat, Guilleaume; Glüer, Claus-C


    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the calcaneus has similar power as a bone mineral density (BMD)- measurement using DXA for the prediction of osteoporotic fracture risk. Ultrasound equipment is less expensive than DXA and free of ionizing radiation. As a mechanical wave, QUS has the potential of measuring different bone properties than dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA,) which depends on X-ray attenuation and might be developed into a tool of comprehensive assessment of bone strength. However, site-specific DXA at the proximal femur shows best performance in the prediction of hip fractures. To combine the potential of QUS with measurements directly at the femur, we developed a device for in vivo QUS measurements at this site. Methods comprise ultrasound transmission through the bone, reflection from the bone surface, and backscatter from the inner trabecular structure. The complete area of the proximal femur can be scanned except at the femoral head, which interferes with the ilium. To avoid edge artifacts, a subregion of the proximal femur in the trochanteric region was selected as measurement region. First, in vivo measurements demonstrate a good signal to noise ratio and proper depiction of the proximal femur on an attenuation image. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo measurements. Further improvements can be expected by refinement of the scanning technique and data evaluation method to enhance the potential of the new method for the estimation of bone strength.

  17. On blockage effects for a marine hydrokinetic turbine in free surface proximity (United States)

    Banerjee, A.; Kolekar, N.


    Experimental investigation was carried out with a three-bladed, constant chord marine hydrokinetic turbine to understand the influence of free surface proximity on blockage effects and near wake flow field. The turbine was placed at various depths of immersion as rotational speeds and flow speeds were varied; thrust and torque data was acquired through a submerged thrust torque sensor positioned in-line with the turbine axis. Blockage effects were quantified in terms of changes in power coefficient and were found to be dependent on flow velocity, rotational speed and blade-tip clearence (from free-surface). Flow acceleration near turbine rotation plane was attributed to blockage offered by the rotor, wake, and free surface deformation; the resulting performance improvements were calculated based on the measured thrust values. In addition, stereoscopic particle imaging velocimetry was carried out in the near-wake region using time-averaged and phase-averaged techniques to understand the mechanism responsible for variation of torque (and power coefficient) with rotational speed and free-surface proximity. Flow vizualisation revealed slower wake propagation for higher rotational velocities and increased assymetry in the wake with increasing free surface proximity. Improved performance at high rotational speed was attributed to enhanced wake blockage; performance enhancements with free-surface proximity was attributed to additional blockage effects caused by free surface deformation.

  18. Hip abductor moment arm - a mathematical analysis for proximal femoral replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple H Thomas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing proximal femoral replacement for tumor resection often have compromised hip abductor muscles resulting in a Trendelenberg limp and hip instability. Commercially available proximal femoral prostheses offer several designs with varying sites of attachment for the abductor muscles, however, no analyses of these configurations have been performed to determine which design provides the longest moment arm for the hip abductor muscles during normal function. Methods This study analyzed hip abductor moment arm through hip adduction and abduction with a trigonometric mathematical model to evaluate the effects of alterations in anatomy and proximal femoral prosthesis design. Prosthesis dimensions were taken from technical schematics that were obtained from the prosthesis manufacturers. Manufacturers who contributed schematics for this investigation were Stryker Orthopaedics and Biomet. Results Superior and lateral displacement of the greater trochanter increased the hip abductor mechanical advantage for single-leg stance and adduction and preserved moment arm in the setting of Trendelenberg gait. Hip joint medialization resulted in less variance of the abductor moment arm through coronal motion. The Stryker GMRS endoprosthesis provided the longest moment arm in single-leg stance. Conclusions Hip abductor moment arm varies substantially throughout the hip's range of motion in the coronal plane. Selection of a proximal femur endoprosthesis with an abductor muscle insertion that is located superiorly and laterally will optimize hip abductor moment arm in single-leg stance compared to one located inferiorly or medially.

  19. On the existence of best proximity points for generalized contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vetrivel


    Full Text Available In this article we establish the existence of a unique best proximity point for some generalized non self contractions on a metric space in a simpler way using a geometric result. Our results generalize some recent best proximity point theorems and several fixed point theorems proved by various authors.

  20. Phytochemical, Proximate and Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical, Proximate and Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Extract of Crinum ornatum (Toad's Onion) ... The results indicate that, the bulbs can be considered as a spice that could serve as potential sources of flavouring agent with medicinal benefits. Keywords: Crinum ornatum, Phytochemical, Proximate, Toxicity ...

  1. Proximity and inter-organizational collaboration: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoben, J.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.


    The proximity concept is used in many different ways in the literature. These dimensions of proximity are, however, defined and measured in many different (sometimes even contradictory) ways, show large amounts of overlap, and often are under- or over-specified. The goal of this paper is to specify

  2. Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants in four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants (anti-nutrients) in four commonly consumed spices were investigated. The spices were garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), onion (Allium cepa var. cepa), and Piper guineense seeds (Ashanti pepper). Proximate analyses showed the spices to contain (on ...

  3. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Cowley

    Full Text Available Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor or distal (finger flexor muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p < 0.005 in trunk lean and velocity, reduced humeral elevation (11°, p < 0.005, and increased elbow flexion (4°, p < 0.01. In contrast, distal fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p < 0.05, increased velocity of wrench movement relative to the hand (17°/s, p < 0.001, and earlier wrist extension (4%, p < 0.005. Movement variability increased at proximal joints but not distal joints after both fatigue protocols (p < 0.05. Varying movements at proximal joints may help people adapt to fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.

  4. Properties of Sn-Ag proximity effect bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Hongchang; Yu Zheng


    We have measured the I-V characteristics, I/sub c/(t) and T/sub c/ of Sn-Ag proximity effect bridges, obtaining some interesting results. We have also analyzed and tried to explain the results in terms of phenomenological theories, believing that microbridge theories of Skocpol, Beasley and Tinkham (SBT) also apply to our proximity effect bridges.

  5. Determination of Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of the seed of 30 Nigerian sesame genotypes were determined based on the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the Sequential Multi- sample amino acid Analyzer (TSM). Proximate analysis showed that sesame seed contained ...

  6. Management of proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations in athletes. (United States)

    Bindra, Randy R; Foster, Brian J


    Proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations are common athletic injuries. In dislocations and fracture dislocations, the most important treatment principle is congruent joint reduction and maintenance of stability. This article reviews the relevant anatomy, injury characteristics, and treatment options for proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations and fracture dislocations. Treatment methods discussed include closed reduction, percutaneous fixation, and open reduction.

  7. Water Balance and Proximate Composition in Cowpea ( vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studying the water balance and proximate composition in plants subjected to these stresses compared the influence of drought and flooding on cowpea seedlings. In drought plants the leaf water potential, its components and the proximate composition were markedly reduced by the end of the experimental period.

  8. Cast index in predicting outcome of proximal pediatric forearm fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassaan Qaiser Sheikh


    Conclusion: Cast index is useful in predicting redisplacement of manipulated distal forearm fractures. We found that in proximal half forearm fractures it is difficult to achieve a CI of <0.8, but increased CI does not predict loss of position in these fractures. We therefore discourage the use of CI in proximal half forearm fractures.

  9. Proximate composition and mineral contents of Pebbly fish, Alestes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The objective of this study was to determine the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. ... and also develop suitable processing method. This study determined the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. baremoze fillets based on fish size. Materials and .... moisture contents can vary with sex of the fish ...

  10. proximal femur geometry in the adult kenyan femur and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implications considering that the implants used to treat fractures in the proximal femur would usually traverse the neck and lodge in the femoral head. A very narrow neck may not allow adequate implant placement especially for those implants that employ two proximal locking screws. This has been shown, in a study by ...

  11. Detecting buried remains in Florida using ground-penetrating radar (United States)

    Schultz, John Joseph

    This research tested the applicability of using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in Florida to detect buried bodies; and assessed the effect of body size, depth, antenna type, time, and soil type on grave detection. Furthermore, because of the emphasis on decomposition, it was possible to address the role of depth, body size, time, and soil type on decomposition. The site was located in an open pasture, where 20 pig (Sus scrofa) cadavers of two average weights (29.7 and 63.8 kg) were buried at two depths (50 to 60 or 100 to 110 cm). The cadavers were monitored monthly for durations up to 21 months with GPR using 900- and 500-MHz antennae. Two different soil types were used: one composed solely of sand horizons and one composed of sand with clay horizons at approximately 1.00 m. The graves were excavated at the termination of each monitoring period to collect soil samples and score decomposition. Overall, depth was the most significant factor controlling decomposition, followed by time. Body size and soil type were not major factors. Ground-penetrating radar can be a very effective tool for grave detection in Florida. Salient anomalies were produced for the duration of this study due to a strong enough contrast between the skeleton, or decomposing body, and the surrounding soil with that of the undisturbed soil. While cadaver size and time were not major factors in grave detection, soil type and antenna choice were. Although it was possible to detect a decomposing body and a skeleton in both shallow and deep sand graves, it was difficult to image large pig cadavers retaining extensive soft tissue buried in proximity to the clay horizon in as little as six months. The clay masked the contrast of the cadavers by reducing their relative dielectric permittivity. Pig cadaver size was not a major factor in grave detection. The imagery of the 500-MHz antenna was preferred over the higher resolution of the 900-MHz, because the increased detail may result in difficulty

  12. Interrogations And The Right To Remain Silent - A Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilalli Arta


    Full Text Available Interrogations are a very specific component of any criminal investigation. The answers gained through interrogative process provides information that are considered as direct evidences. In contemporary criminal procedure, the court is not absolved from gaining other evidences, even in cases when the defendant confesses his/her guiltiness. This is a mechanism for excluding the inquisitorial approach for extracting compulsory confessions. The modern procedure uses a variety of mechanisms to guarantee that the defendant will not be compelled to confess guilt.

  13. Spontaneous Healing of a Pediatric Scaphoid Proximal Pole Fracture Nonunion. (United States)

    Rupani, Neal; Riley, Nicholas; McNab, Ian


    Background  Scaphoid fractures in the pediatric population are rare. The majority of nondisplaced fractures tend to unite; however, there is an increased risk of nonunion in proximal pole fractures. Limited evidence exists in their outcomes, owing to the scarcity of the fracture pattern. Case Description  A 13-year-old boy who presented late after developing a traumatic proximal pole scaphoid fracture developed nonunion. He was treated conservatively owing to it being asymptomatic and developed union at 18 months. Literature Review  No previous case of proximal pole pediatric scaphoid fractures with established nonunion that has developed union with conservative management has been described. Clinical Relevance  The authors highlight a unique case of an established proximal pole scaphoid nonunion in a child progressing to union with nonoperative intervention. Owing to its rarity and difficulty in obtaining research, we recommend consideration of nonoperative management of asymptomatic nondisplaced proximal pole fractures in children.

  14. Proximal Blade Twist Feedback Control for Heliogyro Solar Sails (United States)

    Smith, Sarah Mitchell

    A heliogyro spacecraft is a specific type of solar sail that generates thrust from the reflection of solar photons. It consists of multiple long (200 to 600 meters), thin blades, similar to a helicopter. The heliogyro's blades remain in tension by spinning around the central hub of the spacecraft. The individual blades are pitched collectively or cyclically to produce the desired maneuver profile. The propellant-free heliogyro is a long-duration sustainable spacecraft whose maneuverability allows it to attain previously inaccessible orbits for traditional spacecraft. The blades are constructed from thin Mylar sheets, approximately 2.5 ?m thick, which have very little inherent damping making it necessary to include some other way of attenuating blade vibration caused by maneuvering. The most common approach is to incorporate damping through the root pitch actuator. However, due to the small root pitch control torques required, on the order of 2 ?Nm, compared to the large friction torques associated with a root pitch actuator, it is challenging to design a root control system that takes friction into account and can still add damping to the blade. The purpose of this research is to address the limitations of current control designs for a heliogyro spacecraft and to develop a physically realizable root pitch controller that effectively damps the torsional structural modes of a single heliogyro blade. Classical control theory in conjunction with impedance control techniques are used to design a position-source root pitch controller to dominate friction with high gains, wrapped with an outer loop that adds damping to the blade by sensing differential twist outboard of the blade root. First, modal parameter characterization experiments were performed on a small-scale heliogyro blade in a high vacuum chamber to determine a damping constant to be used in the membrane ladder finite element model of the blade. The experimental damping ratio of the lowest frequency torsional

  15. Treatment of proximal fifth metatarsal bone fractures in athletes. (United States)

    Japjec, M; Starešinić, M; Starjački, M; Žgaljardić, I; Štivičić, J; Šebečić, B


    Proximal fifth metatarsal (V MT) bone fractures are common injuries that are a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Lawrence and Botte considered different treatment options and the possibility of recovery and divided these fractures into three different regions: tuberosity avulsion fractures (zone I), acute fractures of the metaphysis at the level of the intermetatarsal junction (zone II) and proximal diaphysis stress fracture (zone III). A total of 42 athletes with fracture of the V MT bone in zone II and III were treated in our institution during a 6-year period. All patients were offered surgical treatment, but nine patients refused surgery. Thus, the patients were divided into two groups: group 1 comprised 33 patients who underwent an intramedullary screw fixation operation under regional anaesthesia immediately after the fracture was diagnosed; group 2 contained the remaining nine patients who had refused surgery and received conservative therapy with non-weight-bearing short-leg casts or orthosis. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 24 months. All fractures healed in group 1: healing occurred within 8 weeks in 26 patients and was prolonged to 16 to 18 weeks in four patients. In group 2, fractures healed in four patients but did not heal in five patients even after 6 months. Four of the five patients in whom the fracture did not heal required subsequent osteosynthesis because they had constant problems that caused absence from sport. After the operation, their fractures healed in an average of 10 weeks. One patient decided not to undergo the operation due to the absence of subjective symptoms. Three patients in group 1 who started intensive training sustained a refracture and underwent re-operation in which osteosynthesis was performed with a stronger screw. The fractures then healed again. Treatment results were evaluated radiologically and clinically using the Modified Foot Score. Results in group 1 were significantly better than those in group 2 and there

  16. Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipe Under Secondary (Biaxial) Loading (United States)


    Corrosion metal-loss is one of the major damage mechanisms to transmission pipelines worldwide. Several methods have been developed for assessment of corrosion defects, such as ASME B31G, RSTRENG and LPC. These methods were derived based on experimen...

  17. Renal proximal tubular reabsorption is reduced in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats: roles of superoxide and Na+/H+ exchanger 3. (United States)

    Panico, Carolina; Luo, Zaiming; Damiano, Sara; Artigiano, Francesca; Gill, Pritmohinder; Welch, William J


    Proximal tubule reabsorption is regulated by systemic and intrinsic mechanisms, including locally produced autocoids. Superoxide, produced by NADPH oxidase enhances NaCl transport in the loop of Henle and the collecting duct, but its role in the proximal tubule is unclear. We measured proximal tubule fluid reabsorption (Jv) in WKY rats and compared that with Jv in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a model of enhanced renal superoxide generation. Rats were treated with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (Apo) or with small interfering RNA for p22(phox), which is the critical subunit of NADPH oxidase. Jv was lower in SHR compared with Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY; WKY: 2.3+/-0.3 vs SHR: 1.1+/-0.2 nL/min per millimeter; n=9 to 11; P<0.001). Apo and small interfering RNA to p22(phox) normalized Jv in SHRs but had no effect in WKY rats. Jv was reduced in proximal tubules perfused with S-1611, a highly selective inhibitor of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3, the major Na(+) uptake pathway in the proximal tubule, in WKY rats but not in SHRs. Pretreatment with Apo restored an effect of S-1611 to reduce Jv in the SHRs (SHR+Apo: 2.9+/-0.4 vs SHR+Apo+S-1611: 1.0+/-0.3 nL/min per millimeter; P<0.001). However, because expression of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 was similar between SHR and WKY rats, this suggests that superoxide affects Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 activity. Direct microperfusion of Tempol or Apo into the proximal tubule also restored Jv in SHRs. In conclusion, superoxide generated by NADPH oxidase inhibits proximal tubule fluid reabsorption in SHRs. This finding implies that proximal tubule fluid reabsorption is regulated by redox balance, which may have profound effects on ion and fluid homeostasis in the hypertensive kidney.

  18. Proximal third humeral shaft fractures -- a fracture entity not fully characterized by conventional AO classification. (United States)

    Stedtfeld, H W; Biber, R


    The retrospective study was made to evaluate the fracture patterns at the proximal humeral shaft for which the long version of a standard proximal humeral nail (PHNLV) has been used. The indication has been decided by the individual surgeons. Over a five year period 72 consecutive PHNLV cases of an acute fracture were identified and were included in the study. Mean patient age was 68.9 years. Gender ratio was m/f=22/50. 86.1% of the patients fractured their humerus by a fall, the rest by a high velocity accident. We analysed patient comorbidity, ASA score, osteoporosis, social status before accident, additional injuries affecting local soft tissues or other anatomic regions. We analysed the expansion of the fractures, dividing the humerus into five zones. Fracture morphology was categorized according to the standard AO/ASIF classification (if applicable). Comorbidities were found in 76.4% of the patients. Almost all patients (93.1%) had been living independently at home before the accident. 47.2% of patients had osteoporosis in their medical history. Five patients (6.9%) had a primary palsy of the radial nerve. Six fractures chosen for PHNLV fixation were clearly restricted to the humeral head. The remaining 66 fractures were located in the humeral shaft (AO region 12). There were 5 segmental fractures. Of the remaining 67 fractures affecting the proximal third of the humeral shaft 49.3 percent extended into the humeral head. 98 percent of these fractures displayed spiral morphology. Proximal humeral shaft fractures are amazingly similar to subtrochanteric and distal tibial shaft fractures: Spiral fracture types with different grades of comminution are absolutely dominant; a great proportion of the fractures extend into the humeral head with growing tendency of displacement if located closer to the humeral head. Diverging traction of deltoid and pectoralis muscle causes typical displacement if the fracture line runs in between their attachments substantiating the

  19. Proximate, chemical compositions and sulphur concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 8, 2013 ... ... food will include its content of protein, carbohydrates, fat and oil, moisture ... to sugars such as fructose, glucose and sucrose ..... health benefits deriving from consuming high levels of ... mechanisms (Dragsted et al., 1993).

  20. Pacific salmon extinctions: quantifying lost and remaining diversity. (United States)

    Gustafson, Richard G; Waples, Robin S; Myers, James M; Weitkamp, Laurie A; Bryant, Gregory J; Johnson, Orlay W; Hard, Jeffrey J


    Widespread population extirpations and the consequent loss of ecological, genetic, and life-history diversity can lead to extinction of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) and species. We attempted to systematically enumerate extinct Pacific salmon populations and characterize lost ecological, life history, and genetic diversity types among six species of Pacific salmon (Chinook [Oncorhynchus tshawytscha], sockeye [O. nerka], coho [O. kisutch], chum [O. keta], and pink salmon [O. gorbuscha] and steelhead trout [O. mykiss]) from the western contiguous United States. We estimated that, collectively, 29% of nearly 1400 historical populations of these six species have been lost from the Pacific Northwest and California since Euro-American contact. Across all species there was a highly significant difference in the proportion of population extinctions between coastal (0.14 extinct) and interior (0.55 extinct) regions. Sockeye salmon (which typically rely on lacustrine habitats for rearing) and stream-maturing Chinook salmon (which stay in freshwater for many months prior to spawning) had significantly higher proportional population losses than other species and maturation types. Aggregate losses of major ecological, life-history, and genetic biodiversity components across all species were estimated at 33%, 15%, and 27%, respectively. Collectively, we believe these population extirpations represent a loss of between 16% and 30% of all historical ESUs in the study area. On the other hand, over two-thirds of historical Pacific salmon populations in this area persist, and considerable diversity remains at all scales. Because over one-third of the remaining populations belong to threatened or endangered species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, it is apparent that a critical juncture has been reached in efforts to preserve what remains of Pacific salmon diversity. It is also evident that persistence of existing, and evolution of future, diversity will depend

  1. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  2. Translational Imaging Spectroscopy for Proximal Sensing. (United States)

    Rogass, Christian; Koerting, Friederike M; Mielke, Christian; Brell, Maximilian; Boesche, Nina K; Bade, Maria; Hohmann, Christian


    Proximal sensing as the near field counterpart of remote sensing offers a broad variety of applications. Imaging spectroscopy in general and translational laboratory imaging spectroscopy in particular can be utilized for a variety of different research topics. Geoscientific applications require a precise pre-processing of hyperspectral data cubes to retrieve at-surface reflectance in order to conduct spectral feature-based comparison of unknown sample spectra to known library spectra. A new pre-processing chain called GeoMAP-Trans for at-surface reflectance retrieval is proposed here as an analogue to other algorithms published by the team of authors. It consists of a radiometric, a geometric and a spectral module. Each module consists of several processing steps that are described in detail. The processing chain was adapted to the broadly used HySPEX VNIR/SWIR imaging spectrometer system and tested using geological mineral samples. The performance was subjectively and objectively evaluated using standard artificial image quality metrics and comparative measurements of mineral and Lambertian diffuser standards with standard field and laboratory spectrometers. The proposed algorithm provides highly qualitative results, offers broad applicability through its generic design and might be the first one of its kind to be published. A high radiometric accuracy is achieved by the incorporation of the Reduction of Miscalibration Effects (ROME) framework. The geometric accuracy is higher than 1 μpixel. The critical spectral accuracy was relatively estimated by comparing spectra of standard field spectrometers to those from HySPEX for a Lambertian diffuser. The achieved spectral accuracy is better than 0.02% for the full spectrum and better than 98% for the absorption features. It was empirically shown that point and imaging spectrometers provide different results for non-Lambertian samples due to their different sensing principles, adjacency scattering impacts on the signal

  3. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Frías


    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future.

  4. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama. (United States)

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A


    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  5. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe


    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  6. The Artificial Leaf: Recent Progress and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Symes


    Full Text Available The prospect of a device that uses solar energy to split water into H2 and O2 is highly attractive in terms of producing hydrogen as a carbon-neutral fuel. In this mini review, key research milestones that have been reached in this field over the last two decades will be discussed, with special focus on devices that use earth-abundant materials. Finally, the remaining challenges in the development of such “artificial leaves” will be highlighted.

  7. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health. (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P


    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  8. Bayesian Estimation of Remaining Useful Life for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    To optimally plan maintenance of wind turbine blades, knowledge of the degradation processes and the remaining useful life is essential. In this paper, a method is proposed for calibration of a Markov deterioration model based on past inspection data for a range of blades, and updating of the model...... for a specific wind turbine blade, whenever information is available from inspections and/or condition monitoring. Dynamic Bayesian networks are used to obtain probabilities of inspection outcomes for a maximum likelihood estimation of the transition probabilities in the Markov model, and are used again when...

  9. Proximity and touch sensing using deformable ionic conductors (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Madden, John D. W.; Dobashi, Yuta; Sarwar, Mirza S.; Preston, Eden C.; Wyss, Justin K. M.; Woehling, Vincent; Nguyen, Tran-Minh-Giao; Plesse, Cedric; Vidal, Frédéric; Naficy, Sina; Spinks, Geoffrey M.


    There is increasing interest in creating bendable and stretchable electronic interfaces that can be worn or applied to virtually any surface. The electroactive polymer community is well placed to add value by incorporating sensors and actuators. Recent work has demonstrated transparent dielectric elastomer actuation as well as pressure, stretch or touch sensing. Here we present two alternative forms of sensing. The first uses ionically conductive and stretchable gels as electrodes in capacitive sensors that detect finger proximity. In this case the finger acts as a third electrode, reducing capacitance between the two gel electrodes as it approaches, which can be detected even during bending and stretching. Very light finger touch is readily detected even during deformation of the substrate. Lateral resolution is achieved by creating a sensor array. In the second approach, electrodes placed beneath a salt containing gel are able to detect ion currents generated by the deformation of the gel. In this approach, applied pressure results in ion currents that create a potential difference around the point of contact, leading to a voltage and current in the electrodes without any need for input electrical energy. The mechanism may be related to effects seen in ionomeric polymer metal composites (IPMCs), but with the response in plane rather than through the thickness of the film. Ultimately, these ionically conductive materials that can also be transparent and actuate, have the potential to be used in wearable devices.

  10. Numerical Optimization of the Position in Femoral Head of Proximal Locking Screws of Proximal Femoral Nail System; Biomechanical Study. (United States)

    Konya, Mehmet Nuri; Verim, Özgür


    Proximal femoral fracture rates are increasing due to osteoporosis and traffic accidents. Proximal femoral nails are routinely used in the treatment of these fractures in the proximal femur. To compare various combinations and to determine the ideal proximal lag screw position in pertrochanteric fractures (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen classification 31-A1) of the femur by using optimized finite element analysis. Biomechanical study. Computed tomography images of patients' right femurs were processed with Mimics. Afterwards a solid femur model was created with SolidWorks 2015 and transferred to ANSYS Workbench 16.0 for response surface optimization analysis which was carried out according to anterior-posterior (-10°0) and posterior-anterior directions of the femur neck significantly increased these stresses. The most suitable position of the proximal lag screw was confirmed as the middle of the femoral neck by using optimized finite element analysis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Remained teeth and other lesions such as cysts, abcesses and tumors is one of the important problems in edentulous patients. In a cross-sectional study, 330 edentulous patients were evaluated radiographically. The radiographic evaluation of patients revealed the presence of 86 residual roots in 58 radiographs. 17.58% of patients had residual roots & 5.8% of patients had Impacted teeth. 58.1% of residual roots and 45% of impacted teeth were in the maxilla and others were in mandible. Maximum Percentage of residual roots (58.1% and impacted teeth (70% were found in molar region. In this study revealed 23.3% of examined patients had remaining dental fragments. From these patients, 5.76% had impacted teeth and 17.58% had residual roots, and maximum percentage of rooth fragments (58.1% were found in molar region. In similar study by spyropoulus, maximum percentage of root fragments (45.6% reported in molar region and maximum percentage of impacted teeth were found in molar and canine region (41.2% in molar and 41.2 in canine region. In this study, 58.1% of root fragments and 45% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla but in spyropoulos" report, 71.9% of root fragments and 94.1% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla.

  12. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.


    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  13. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Said Mior Azman


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure examination using optical microscope. The test specimens, made up of Ni-based superalloy of the first stage turbine blades, are machined based on International Standard (ISO 24. The results from the SRT will be analyzed using these two main equations – Larson-Miller Parameter and Life Fraction Rule. Based on the results of the remaining useful life analysis, the 52000h service-exposed blade has the condition to operate in the range of another 4751 hr to 18362 hr. The microstructure examinations shows traces of carbide precipitation that deteriorate the grain boundaries that occurs during creep process. Creep-rupture life modelling using JMatPro software has shown good agreement with the accelerated creep rupture test with minimal error.

  14. Duplex Alu Screening for Degraded DNA of Skeletal Human Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Haß


    Full Text Available The human-specific Alu elements, belonging to the class of Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs, have been shown to be a powerful tool for population genetic studies. An earlier study in this department showed that it was possible to analyze Alu presence/absence in 3000-year-old skeletal human remains from the Bronze Age Lichtenstein cave in Lower Saxony, Germany. We developed duplex Alu screening PCRs with flanking primers for two Alu elements, each combined with a single internal Alu primer. By adding an internal primer, the approximately 400–500 bp presence signals of Alu elements can be detected within a range of less than 200 bp. Thus, our PCR approach is suited for highly fragmented ancient DNA samples, whereas NGS analyses frequently are unable to handle repetitive elements. With this analysis system, we examined remains of 12 individuals from the Lichtenstein cave with different degrees of DNA degradation. The duplex PCRs showed fully informative amplification results for all of the chosen Alu loci in eight of the 12 samples. Our analysis system showed that Alu presence/absence analysis is possible in samples with different degrees of DNA degradation and it reduces the amount of valuable skeletal material needed by a factor of four, as compared with a singleplex approach.

  15. Double-shell tank remaining useful life estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anantatmula, R.P., Westinghouse Hanford


    The existing 28 double-shell tanks (DSTS) at Hanford are currently planned to continue operation through the year 2028 when disposal schedules show removal of waste. This schedule will place the DSTs in a service life window of 4O to 60 years depending on tank construction date and actual retirement date. This paper examines corrosion- related life-limiting conditions of DSTs and reports the results of remaining useful life models developed for estimating remaining tank life. Three models based on controllable parameters such as temperature, chemistry, and relative humidity are presented for estimates to the year in which a particular DST may receive a breach in the primary tank due to pitting in the liquid or vapor region. Pitting is believed to be the life-limiting condition for DSTs,however, the region of the most aggressive pitting (vapor space or liquid) requires further investigation. The results of the models presented suggest none of the existing DSTs should fail by through-wall pitting until well beyond scheduled retrieval in 2028. The estimates of tank breach years (the year in which a tank may be expected to breach the primary tank wall) range from 2056 for pitting corrosion in the liquid region of tank 104-AW to beyond the next millennium for several tanks in the vapor region.

  16. Radiocarbon analysis of human remains: a review of forensic applications. (United States)

    Ubelaker, Douglas H


    Radiocarbon analysis of organic materials, with the comparison of values with those of the post-1950 modern bomb curve, has proven useful in forensic science to help evaluate the antiquity of evidence. Applications are particularly helpful in the study of human remains, especially with those displaying advanced decomposition of soft tissues. Radiocarbon analysis can reveal if the remains relate to the modern, post-1950 era and if so, also provide information needed to evaluate the death and birth date. Sample selection and interpretation of results must be guided by knowledge of the formation and remodeling of different human tissues, as well as contextual information and the approximate age at death of the individual represented. Dental enamel does not remodel and thus captures dietary radiocarbon values at the time of juvenile formation. Most other human tissues do remodel but at differing rates and therefore collectively offer key information relative to the estimation of the death date. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Identification of bacterial isolates obtained from intestinal contents associated with 12,000-year-old mastodon remains. (United States)

    Rhodes, A N; Urbance, J W; Youga, H; Corlew-Newman, H; Reddy, C A; Klug, M J; Tiedje, J M; Fisher, D C


    Mastodon (Mammut americanum) remains unearthed during excavation of ancient sediments usually consist only of skeletal material, due to postmortem decomposition of soft tissues by microorganisms. Two recent excavations of skeletal remains in anoxic sediments in Ohio and Michigan, however, have uncovered organic masses which appear to be remnants of the small and large intestines, respectively. Macrobotanical examinations of the composition of these masses revealed assemblages of plant material radiocarbon dated to approximately 11,500 years before the present and thought to be incompletely digested food remains from this extinct mammal. We attempted to cultivate and identify bacteria from the intestinal contents, bone-associated sediments, and sediments not in proximity to the remains using a variety of general and selective media. In all, 295 isolates were cultivated, and 38 individual taxa were identified by fatty acid-methyl ester (FAME) profiles and biochemical characteristics (API-20E). The taxonomic positions of selected enteric and obligately anaerobic bacteria were confirmed by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. Results indicate that the intestinal and bone-associated samples contained the greatest diversity of bacterial taxa and that members of the family Enterobacteriaceae represented 41% of all isolates and were predominant in the intestinal masses and sediments in proximity to the skeleton but were uncommon in the background sediments. Enterobacter cloacae was the most commonly identified isolate, and partial rDNA sequencing revealed that Rahnella aquatilis was the correct identity of strains suggested by FAME profiles to be Yersinia enterocolitica. No Bacteroides spp. or expected intestinal anaerobes were recovered. The only obligate anaerobes recovered were clostridia, and these were not recovered from the small intestinal masses. Microbiological evidence from this study supports other, macrobotanical data indicating the intestinal origin of these

  18. The human sodium-dependent ascorbic acid transporters SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 do not mediate ascorbic acid release in the proximal renal epithelial cell (United States)

    Eck, Peter; Kwon, Oran; Chen, Shenglin; Mian, Omar; Levine, Mark


    Sodium-dependent ascorbic acid membrane transporters SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 mediate ascorbic acid (vitamin C) transport into cells. However, it is unknown how ascorbic acid undergoes cellular release, or efflux. We hypothesized that SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 could serve a dual role, mediating ascorbic acid cellular efflux as well as uptake. Renal reabsorption is required for maintaining systemic vitamin C concentrations. Because efflux from nephron cells is necessary for reabsorption, we studied whether SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 mediate efflux of ascorbic acid in the human renal nephron. We found high gene expression of SLC23A1 but no expression of SLC23A2 in the proximal convoluted and straight tubules of humans. These data rule out SLC23A2 as the ascorbic acid release protein in the renal proximal tubular epithelia cell. We utilized a novel dual transporter-based Xenopus laevis oocyte system to investigate the function of the SLC23A1 protein, and found that no ascorbate release was mediated by SLC23A1. These findings were confirmed in mammalian cells overexpressing SLC23A1. Taken together, the data for SLC23A1 show that it too does not have a role in cellular release of ascorbic acid across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cell, and that SLC23A1 alone is responsible for ascorbic acid uptake across the apical membrane. These findings reiterate the physiological importance of proper functioning of SLC23A1 in maintaining vitamin C levels for health and disease prevention. The ascorbate efflux mechanism in the proximal tubule of the kidney remains to be characterized. PMID:24400138

  19. Instrument access device for instrument access system, has connector member connecting proximal member with instrument seals, where proximal member and connector member are configured to retain proximal end of retractor member


    Bonadio, Frank; Vaugh, Trevor; McManus, Ronan; MacNally, Shane


    The device (203) has instrument seals sealingly arranged in a body of a patient, and a distal anchoring member located in a wound interior. A retractor member is proximally extended from a distal anchoring member to retract sides of a wound opening. A proximal member is adopted for locating an external part of the wound opening. A connector member connects the proximal member with the instrument seals. The proximal member and the connector member are configured to retain a proximal end of the...

  20. Highly efficient DNA extraction method from skeletal remains

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    Irena Zupanič Pajnič


    Full Text Available Background: This paper precisely describes the method of DNA extraction developed to acquire high quality DNA from the Second World War skeletal remains. The same method is also used for molecular genetic identification of unknown decomposed bodies in routine forensic casework where only bones and teeth are suitable for DNA typing. We analysed 109 bones and two teeth from WWII mass graves in Slovenia. Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contaminants and ground the bones into powder, using liquid nitrogen . Prior to isolating the DNA in parallel using the BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, the powder was decalcified for three days. The nuclear DNA of the samples were quantified by real-time PCR method. We acquired autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes of the bones and teeth with PCR amplification of microsatellites, and mtDNA haplotypes 99. For the purpose of traceability in the event of contamination, we prepared elimination data bases including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons who have been in touch with the skeletal remains in any way. Results: We extracted up to 55 ng DNA/g of the teeth, up to 100 ng DNA/g of the femurs, up to 30 ng DNA/g of the tibias and up to 0.5 ng DNA/g of the humerus. The typing of autosomal and YSTR loci was successful in all of the teeth, in 98 % dekalof the femurs, and in 75 % to 81 % of the tibias and humerus. The typing of mtDNA was successful in all of the teeth, and in 96 % to 98 % of the bones. Conclusions: We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 60 years old . The method of DNA extraction described here has proved to be highly efficient. We obtained 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of teeth or bones and complete genetic profiles of autosomal DNA, Y-STR haplotypes, and mtDNA haplotypes from only 0.5g bone and teeth samples.

  1. Effect of age on proximal esophageal response to swallowing

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    Roberto Oliveira Dantas


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I, 27 aged 31-50 years (group II, and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III. We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05. The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001. There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.

  2. Dual pathology proximal median nerve compression of the forearm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Siun M


    We report an unusual case of synchronous pathology in the forearm- the coexistence of a large lipoma of the median nerve together with an osteochondroma of the proximal ulna, giving rise to a dual proximal median nerve compression. Proximal median nerve compression neuropathies in the forearm are uncommon compared to the prevalence of distal compression neuropathies (eg Carpal Tunnel Syndrome). Both neural fibrolipomas (Refs. 1,2) and osteochondromas of the proximal ulna (Ref. 3) in isolation are rare but well documented. Unlike that of a distal compression, a proximal compression of the median nerve will often have a definite cause. Neural fibrolipoma, also called fibrolipomatous hamartoma are rare, slow-growing, benign tumours of peripheral nerves, most often occurring in the median nerve of younger patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such dual pathology in the same forearm, giving rise to a severe proximal compression of the median nerve. In this case, the nerve was being pushed anteriorly by the osteochondroma, and was being compressed from within by the intraneural lipoma. This unusual case highlights the advantage of preoperative imaging as part of the workup of proximal median nerve compression.

  3. Digital contrast subtraction radiography for proximal caries diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Dental Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine whether subtraction images utilizing contrast media can improve the diagnostic performance of proximal caries diagnosis compared to conventional periapical radiographic images. Thirty-six teeth with 57 proximal surfaces were radiographied using a size no.2 RVG-ui sensor (Trophy Radiology, Marne-la-Vallee, France). The teeth immersed in water-soluble contrast media and subtraction images were taken. Each tooth was then sectioned for histologic examination. The digital radiographic images and subtraction images were examined and interpreted by three dentists for proximal caries. The results of the proximal caries diagnosis were then verified with the results of the histologic examination. The proximal caries sensitivity using digital subtraction radiography was significantly higher than simply examining a single digital radiograph. The sensitivity of the proximal dentinal carious lesion when analyzed with the subtraction radiograph and the radiograph together was higher than with the subtraction radiograph or the radiograph alone. The use of subtraction radiography with contrast media may be useful for detecting proximal dentinal carious lesions.

  4. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples. (United States)

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U


    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Tactile display on the remaining hand for unilateral hand amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao


    Full Text Available Human rely profoundly on tactile feedback from fingertips to interact with the environment, whereas most hand prostheses used in clinics provide no tactile feedback. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility to use a tactile display glove that can be worn by a unilateral hand amputee on the remaining healthy hand to display tactile feedback from a hand prosthesis. The main benefit is that users could easily distinguish the feedback for each finger, even without training. The claimed advantage is supported by preliminary tests with healthy subjects. This approach may lead to the development of effective and affordable tactile display devices that provide tactile feedback for individual fingertip of hand prostheses.

  6. Creep of trabecular bone from the human proximal tibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novitskaya, Ekaterina, E-mail: [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Zin, Carolyn [Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chang, Neil; Cory, Esther; Chen, Peter [Departments of Bioengineering and Orthopaedic Surgery, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); D’Lima, Darryl [Shiley Center for Orthopaedic Research and Education, Scripps Health, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Sah, Robert L. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Departments of Bioengineering and Orthopaedic Surgery, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); McKittrick, Joanna [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, UC, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)


    Creep is the deformation that occurs under a prolonged, sustained load and can lead to permanent damage in bone. Creep in bone is a complex phenomenon and varies with type of loading and local mechanical properties. Human trabecular bone samples from proximal tibia were harvested from a 71-year old female cadaver with osteoporosis. The samples were initially subjected to one cycle load up to 1% strain to determine the creep load. Samples were then loaded in compression under a constant stress for 2 h and immediately unloaded. All tests were conducted with the specimens soaked in phosphate buffered saline with proteinase inhibitors at 37 °C. Steady state creep rate and final creep strain were estimated from mechanical testing and compared with published data. The steady state creep rate correlated well with values obtained from bovine tibial and human vertebral trabecular bone, and was higher for lower density samples. Tissue architecture was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (μCT) both before and after creep testing to assess creep deformation and damage accumulated. Quantitative morphometric analysis indicated that creep induced changes in trabecular separation and the structural model index. A main mode of deformation was bending of trabeculae. - Highlights: • Compressive creep tests of human trabecular bone across the tibia were performed. • The creep rate was found to be inversely proportional to the density of the samples. • μ-computed tomography before and after testing identified regions of deformation. • Bending of the trabeculae was found to be the main deformation mode.

  7. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia. (United States)

    Varricchio, David J; Balanoff, Amy M; Norell, Mark A


    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  8. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Varricchio

    Full Text Available Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  9. Premortal data in the process of skeletal remains identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Nadica


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The basic task of a forensic examiner during the exhumation of mass graves or in mass accidents is to establish identity of a person. The results obtained through these procedures depend on the level of perceptibility of post mortal changes and they are compared with premortal data obtained from family members of those missing or killed. Experience with exhumations has shown significant differences between the results obtained through exhumation and the premortal data. The aim of the study was to suggest the existance of the difference between premortal data and the results obtained by exhumation regarding the some parameters, as well as to direct premortal data colection to the specific skeletal forms. Methods. We performed comparative analysis of the results of exhumation of skeletal remains in a mass grave and the premortal data concerning the identified persons. The least number of individuals in this mass grave was calculated according to the upper parts of the right femur and it helped in calculating the smallest number of individuals in mass graves to be 48. A total of 27 persons were identified. Sex was determined by metrics and morphology of the pelvis. Personal age in the moment of death was determined by morphology features of groin symphisis and morphology of sternal edge of ribs and other parts of scelets observations. The hight was calculated as average results of length of long bones and Rollet coefficients. Results. There was a complete match in terms of sex and age matched within an interval that could be established based on the skeletal remains. All the other parameters were different, however, which made identification significantly more difficult. Conclusion. The premortal data is an important element of identification process and it should be obtained by the forensic doctor and directed towards more detailed examination of the skeletal system.

  10. Proximity to urban parks and mental health. (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; Cohen, Deborah


    Urban parks have received attention in recent years as a possible environmental factor that could encourage physical activity, prevent obesity, and reduce the incidence of chronic conditions. Despite long hypothesized benefits of parks for mental health, few park studies incorporate mental health measures. To test the association between proximity to urban parks and psychological distress. Cross-sectional analysis of individual health survey responses. Data were collected for a study of capital improvements of neighborhood parks in Los Angeles. A survey was fielded on a sample of residential addresses, stratified by distance from the park (within 400m, 800m, 1.6 km, and 3.2km; N=1070). We used multiple regression to estimate the relationship between the psychological distress as measured by the MHI-5 (outcome variable) and distance to parks (main explanatory variable), controlling for observed individual characteristics. Mental health is significantly related to residential distance from parks, with the highest MHI-5 scores among residents within short walking distance from the park (400m) and decreasing significantly over the next distances. The number of visits and physical activity minutes are significantly and independently related to distance, although controlling for them does not reduce the association between distance and mental health. This paper provides a new data point for an arguably very old question, but for which empirical data are sparse for the US. A nearby urban park is associated with the same mental health benefits as decreasing local unemployment rates by 2 percentage points, suggesting at least the potential of environmental interventions to improve mental health. The analysis is cross-sectional, making it impossible to control for important confounders, including residential selection. Mental health policy has traditionally focused on individual-centered interventions. Just as health policy for preventable chronic illnesses has shifted

  11. Comparison between two experimental protocols to promote osteoporosis in the maxilla and proximal tibia of female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teófilo Juliana Mazzonetto


    Full Text Available The effects of two experimental protocols (ovariectomy associated or not with a low calcium diet used to promote osteoporosis in the rat maxilla and proximal tibia were compared 5 and 11 weeks after surgery. Female Wistar rats were ovariectomized or sham-operated. Half of the ovariectomized rats were fed a low Ca++ diet (ovx* and the remaining ovariectomized (ovx and sham animals received a standard chow. At sacrifice, the proximal metaphysis was excised from the tibia and the molars were extracted from the hemi-maxilla. Dry (60°C overnight and ash (700°C/14 h weights were measured and the ashes were used for Ca++ measurement by means of a colorimetric method. After 5 weeks, ovx caused no alteration while ovx* decreased proximal metaphysis (17% and maxilla (35% bone mass. After 11 weeks, ovx caused a 14% bone mass reduction in the proximal metaphysis but not in the maxilla, while ovx* caused a comparable bone mass reduction (30% in both bone segments. Calcium concentration was not altered in any experimental condition. The results show that estrogen deficiency is insufficient to cause maxillary osteoporosis in rats over an 11-week period and a long-term ovariectomy is needed to exert deleterious effect on proximal metaphysis bone mass. When a low Ca++ diet is associated with estrogen deficiency, however, a relatively precocious harmful effect is observed, twice as pronounced in the maxilla than in the proximal metaphysis. On a long-term basis, ovariectomy associated with a low Ca++ diet seems to be equally injurious to both proximal metaphysis and maxilla.

  12. Proximal caries detection: Sirona Sidexis versus Kodak Ektaspeed Plus. (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Ludlow, John B; Caplan, Daniel


    This study compared the accuracy of intraoral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD) receptor for proximal caries detection. Four observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a five-point confidence scale. The actual status of each surface was determined from ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under ROC curves (Az) were assessed through a paired t-test. The performance of the CCD-based intraoral sensor was not different statistically from Ektaspeed Plus film in detecting proximal caries.

  13. Predicting remaining life in upper sugar-mill shafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rodríguez Pulecio


    Full Text Available A fracture mechanics-based method is presented for determining critical crack size and residual life of upper sugar-mill shafts having semi-elliptical and circumferential cracks. Due to the multiaxial stress field, an equivalent strain energy release rate stress intensity solution is used in Paris’ law to predict crack growth. Ultrasonic inspection intervals for the shaft were established. The crack zone evaluated was located in the shoulder of the bearing nearest to the square box coupling where about 25% of service failures in these types of shaft are observed.

  14. Evaluating the impact of water processing on wood charcoal remains: Tell Qarassa North, a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Zapata, Lydia; Colledge, Sue

    . In this work a comparison of the results obtained from water processing and hand-picking of wood charcoal remains at the Neolithic site of Tell Qarassa North (south Syria) is presented. The material comes from a burnt roof structure, where a total of 50 hand-picked wood samples and four flotation samples (120...... such as vitrification and those related to decay. The results showed large differences in the taxonomic and taphonomic composition of wood remains retrieved in situ and through flotation. While Amygdalus had same proportions in both assemblages, in those derived by flotation, there were greater proportions of Pistacia...... of different anatomic elements of the wood, which binds the cells and may increase resistance to mechanical damage during processes as flotation. This may explain why vitrification was better represented in the roof samples processed by flotation, since water might have destroyed weaker wood charcoal remains...

  15. Locking screw-plate interface stability in carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone proximal humerus plates. (United States)

    Hak, David J; Fader, Ryan; Baldini, Todd; Chadayammuri, Vivek B S


    Carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) plates have recently been introduced for proximal humerus fracture treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the locking screw-plate interface stability in CFR-PEEK versus stainless steel (SS) proximal humerus plates. Locking screw mechanical stability was evaluated independently in proximal and shaft plate holes. Stiffness and load to failure were tested for three conditions: (1) on-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK versus SS plates, (2) on-axis locking screw insertion, removal, and reinsertion in CFR-PEEK plates, and (3) 10-degree off-axis locking screw insertion in CFR-PEEK plates. Cantilever bending at a rate of 1 mm/minute was produced by an Instron machine and load-displacement data recorded. Shaft locking screw load to failure was significantly greater in CFR-PEEK plates compared to SS plates (746.4 ± 89.7 N versus 596.5 ± 32.6 N, p PEEK plates (p PEEK plates. The mechanical stability of locking screws in CFR-PEEK plates is comparable or superior to locking screws in SS plates.

  16. Proximal-to-distal sequencing in vertical jumping with and without arm swing. (United States)

    Chiu, Loren Z F; Bryanton, Megan A; Moolyk, Amy N


    Vertical jumping performance is dependent on muscle strength and motor skill. An understanding of motor skill strategies and their influence on jumping mechanics provides insight into how to improve performance. This study aimed to determine whether kinematic sequencing strategy influenced jump height, the effect of sequencing on jumping mechanics, and whether arm swing influences sequencing strategy. Women volleyball players (n = 16) performed vertical jumps with and without arm swing on force platforms while recorded with a 6-camera motion capture system. Sequencing strategy was determined as the relative time delay between pelvis and knee extension. A long time delay indicated a proximal-to-distal strategy, whereas no time delay represented a simultaneous strategy. Longer relative time delay was correlated with higher jump height in jumps with (r = 0.82, p jump height were associated with greater hip extensor and ankle plantar flexor net joint moments (NJM), and greater ratio of concentric to eccentric knee extensor NJM (p ≤ 0.05). Longer relative time delay and higher jump height were correlated with greater thigh and leg angular accelerations (p ≤ 0.05). These kinetic and kinematic variables, along with relative time delay and jump height were greater in jumps with arm swing than without (p ≤ 0.05), indicating arm swing promotes use of a proximal-to-distal strategy. Use of a proximal-to-distal strategy is associated with greater NJM and segment accelerations, which may contribute to better vertical jump performance.

  17. [Biomechanical investigation of fixed-angle plate osteosynthesis of the proximal humerus]. (United States)

    Röderer, G; AbouElsoud, M; Gebhard, F; Claes, L; Aschoff, A J; Kinzl, L


    Proximal humeral fractures are common in the elderly population and are often associated with osteoporosis. Fixation of unstable proximal humeral fractures is problematic due to loss of fixation in osteoporotic bone. Fixed-angle devices are intended to provide superior mechanical stability due to the principle of an internal fixator. The NCB(R)-PH (non-contact-bridging proximal humerus) plate is a new fixed-angle device that locks the screws to the plate by secondary insertion of a locking cap. The aim of this study was to investigate if and to what extent NCB-PH plates applied in the locked mode provide higher mechanical stability in a proximal humerus fracture model. For this investigation 16 (8 pairs) fresh frozen cadaveric humeri were used. An AO/ASIF 11-B 1 fracture of the proximal humerus was created in each bone and fixed with the NCB-PH plate. In a paired setting one bone was fixed with the plate in the locked mode and the other with the plate in the non-locked mode. The bones were then subjected to 100 cycles of axial loading and interfragmentary motion was measured. Bones surviving this test were subjected to load-to-failure testing and the force at which failure occurred was recorded. Bones fixed with the plate in the locked mode showed a statistically significant lower (51%) interfragmentary rotation compared to bones fixed with the plate in the non-locked mode. There was also a tendency for the bones fixed with the plate in the locked mode to fail first under higher forces (16%) during load-to-failure testing. The NCB-PH plate provides superior interfragmentary stability when used in the locked mode in a human cadaveric proximal humerus fracture model. Therefore, we recommend that all screws should be inserted in the locked mode. The results suggest that the NCB-PH plate in the locked mode provides higher primary postoperative stability thus permitting early functional treatment of the patient.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a primary proximal tubular epithelial cell model from human kidney by CD10/CD13 double labeling. (United States)

    Van der Hauwaert, Cynthia; Savary, Grégoire; Gnemmi, Viviane; Glowacki, François; Pottier, Nicolas; Bouillez, Audrey; Maboudou, Patrice; Zini, Laurent; Leroy, Xavier; Cauffiez, Christelle; Perrais, Michaël; Aubert, Sébastien


    Renal proximal tubular epithelial cells play a central role in renal physiology and are among the cell types most sensitive to ischemia and xenobiotic nephrotoxicity. In order to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of kidney injuries, a stable and well-characterized primary culture model of proximal tubular cells is required. An existing model of proximal tubular cells is hampered by the cellular heterogeneity of kidney; a method based on cell sorting for specific markers must therefore be developed. In this study, we present a primary culture model based on the mechanical and enzymatic dissociation of healthy tissue obtained from nephrectomy specimens. Renal epithelial cells were sorted using co-labeling for CD10 and CD13, two renal proximal tubular epithelial markers, by flow cytometry. Their purity, phenotypic stability and functional properties were evaluated over several passages. Our results demonstrate that CD10/CD13 double-positive cells constitute a pure, functional and stable proximal tubular epithelial cell population that displays proximal tubule markers and epithelial characteristics over the long term, whereas cells positive for either CD10 or CD13 alone appear to be heterogeneous. In conclusion, this study describes a method for establishing a robust renal proximal tubular epithelial cell model suitable for further experimentation.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a primary proximal tubular epithelial cell model from human kidney by CD10/CD13 double labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Van der Hauwaert

    Full Text Available Renal proximal tubular epithelial cells play a central role in renal physiology and are among the cell types most sensitive to ischemia and xenobiotic nephrotoxicity. In order to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of kidney injuries, a stable and well-characterized primary culture model of proximal tubular cells is required. An existing model of proximal tubular cells is hampered by the cellular heterogeneity of kidney; a method based on cell sorting for specific markers must therefore be developed. In this study, we present a primary culture model based on the mechanical and enzymatic dissociation of healthy tissue obtained from nephrectomy specimens. Renal epithelial cells were sorted using co-labeling for CD10 and CD13, two renal proximal tubular epithelial markers, by flow cytometry. Their purity, phenotypic stability and functional properties were evaluated over several passages. Our results demonstrate that CD10/CD13 double-positive cells constitute a pure, functional and stable proximal tubular epithelial cell population that displays proximal tubule markers and epithelial characteristics over the long term, whereas cells positive for either CD10 or CD13 alone appear to be heterogeneous. In conclusion, this study describes a method for establishing a robust renal proximal tubular epithelial cell model suitable for further experimentation.

  20. Calculation note for an underground leak which remains underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, H.J.


    This calculation note supports the subsurface leak accident scenario which remains subsurface. It is assumed that a single walled pipe carrying waste from tank 106-C ruptures, releasing the liquid waste into the soil. In this scenario, the waste does not form a surface pool, but remains subsurface. However, above the pipe is a berm, 0.762 m (2.5 ft) high and 2.44 m (8 ft) wide, and the liquid released from the leak rises into the berm. The slurry line, which transports a source term of higher activity than the sluice line, leaks into the soil at a rate of 5% of the maximum flow rate of 28.4 L/s (450 gpm) for twelve hours. The dose recipient was placed a perpendicular distance of 100 m from the pipe. Two source terms were considered, mitigated and unmitigated release as described in section 3.4.1 of UANF-SD-WM-BIO-001, Addendum 1. The unmitigated consisted of two parts of AWF liquid and one part AWF solid. The mitigated release consisted of two parts SST liquid, eighteen parts AWF liquid, nine parts SST solid, and one part AWF solid. The isotopic breakdown of the release in these cases is presented. Two geometries were considered in preliminary investigations, disk source, and rectangular source. Since the rectangular source results from the assumption that the contamination is wicked up into the berm, only six inches of shielding from uncontaminated earth is present, while the disk source, which remains six inches below the level of the surface of the land is often shielded by a thick shield due to the slant path to the dose point. For this reason, only the rectangular source was considered in the final analysis. The source model was a rectangle 2.134 m (7 ft) thick, 0.6096 m (2 ft) high, and 130.899 m (131 ft) long. The top and sides of this rectangular source was covered with earth of density 1.6 g/cm{sup 3} to a thickness of 15.24 cm (6 in). This soil is modeled as 40% void space. The source consisted of earth of the same density with the void spaces filled with

  1. Modified esophagogastrostomy in laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy: A reverse-Tornado anastomosis. (United States)

    Kubota, Keisuke; Suzuki, Akihiro; Fujikawa, Aoi; Watanabe, Takayuki; Sekido, Yuki; Shiozaki, Hironori; Taketa, Takashi; Shimada, Gen; Ohigashi, Seiji; Sakurai, Shintaro; Kishida, Akihiro


    The aim of this study was to introduce and examine a modified mechanical end-to-side esophagogastrostomy method ("reverse-Tornado" anastomosis) in laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy. Five patients with gastric cancer who underwent laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy were analyzed retrospectively. Esophagogastrostomy in the anterior wall was performed in three patients, and esophagogastrostomy in the posterior wall was performed in two patients. Clinicopathological features, operative outcomes (operative time, operative blood loss), and postoperative outcomes (complications, postoperative hospital stay, reflux esophagitis) were evaluated. Operative time was normal (278 min). There was no marked operative blood loss, postoperative complications, prolonged hospital stay, or reflux esophagitis. Esophagogastrostomy was completed in a normal time with reverse-Tornado anastomosis. This method can be safe and can enable good postoperative quality of life. © 2016 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. 'Trampoline fracture' of the proximal tibia in children: report of 3 cases and review of literature. (United States)

    Bruyeer, E; Geusens, E; Catry, F; Vanstraelen, L; Vanhoenacker, F


    We present three cases of fracture of the proximal tibia in young children who were jumping on a trampoline. The typical radiological findings and the underlying mechanism of trauma are discussed. The key radiological features are: a transverse hairline fracture of the upper tibia often accompanied by a buckle fracture of the lateral or medial tibial cortex, buckling of the anterior upper tibial cortex and anterior tilting of the epiphyseal plate. New types of injuries related to specific recreational activities are recognized. It is often helpful to associate a typical injury with a particular activity. Trampoline related injuries have increased dramatically over the last years. The most common lesions are fractures and ligamentous injuries, in particular a transverse fracture of the proximal tibia. However the radiological findings can be very subtle and easily overlooked. It is therefore important to be aware of the typical history and radiological findings.

  3. Effects of phospho- and calciotropic hormones on electrolyte transport in the proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Justin J; Plain, Allein; Beggs, Megan R


    as their regulation of active vitamin D 3 synthesis in this nephron segment. The integrative effects of both phospho- and calciotropic hormones on proximal tubular solute transport and subsequently whole body calcium-phosphate balance thus have been further complicated. Here, we first review the molecular mechanisms......Calcium and phosphate are critical for a myriad of physiological and cellular processes within the organism. Consequently, plasma levels of calcium and phosphate are tightly regulated. This occurs through the combined effects of the phospho- and calciotropic hormones, parathyroid hormone (PTH...... of calcium and phosphate reabsorption from the proximal tubule and how they are influenced by the phospho- and calciotropic hormones acting on this segment and then consider the implications on both renal calcium and phosphate handling as well as whole body mineral balance....

  4. Axillary artery lesion secondary to fracturing of the proximal third of the humerus: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki


    Full Text Available Lesions of the axillary artery are rare in patients with fracturing of the proximal third of the humerus and may have greatly varying clinical manifestations. They are responsible for 15% and 20% of upper-limb artery injuries and the commonest mechanism is a fall to the ground, which accounts for 79% of such injuries. In some cases, the signs only appear later on. It is important to bear this association in mind, so as to make an early diagnosis and avoid serious complications. We report on a case of traumatic injury of the axillary artery secondary to fracturing of the proximal third of the humerus in an 84-year-old patient, with late evolution of clinical signs of ischemia in the limb affected. The aim here was to discuss the diagnostic difficulties and treatment.

  5. Mineralized Remains of Morphotypes of Filamentous Cyanobacteria in Carbonaceous Meteorites (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.


    ) investigations of freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and recent microbial extremophiles and filamentous cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection in a several carbonaceous meteorites of the mineralized remains of a wide variety of complex filamentous trichomic microorganisms. These embedded forms are consistent in size and microstructure with well-preserved morphotypes of mat- forming filamentous trichomic cyanobacteria and the degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. We present the results of comparative imaging studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) that are similar in size, morphology and microstructure to morphotypes found embedded in meteorites. EDAX elemental studies reveal that forms found in carbonaceous meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes and microbial cells. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in filaments, trichomes, hormogonia, and cells of recent cyanobacteria.

  6. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works (United States)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  7. TopWorx/GO switch new generation nuclear qualified proximity position sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrifield, G. [TopWorx/Emerson Process Control, Louisville, Kentucky (United States)


    An overview of the benefits of installing TopWorx/GO Nuclear Qualified Proximity Position Sensors instead of traditional mechanical switches. Mechanical switches have been the standard for the nuclear industry for years, but that is only because of lack of competition. Because of multiple moving parts, three-piece design, and new low current control systems, mechanical switches are susceptible to a host of environmental factors that cause them to break and/or fail. TopWorx/GO Switch is a smaller, rugged, dependable, one-piece Stainless Steel proximity position sensor that that exceeds CANDU and Global Qualification Levels, easily replacing mechanical switches. It is the only position sensor to meet or exceed Westinghouse AP 1000 specifications as well. Nuclear facilities save money in maintenance reductions, extended PM's and reduction in 'Man REM' hours. This is achieved by not having to service and replace GO Switch position sensors as often as mechanical switches, since their qualified life is 100 years +1 Post Accident submerged. Plant safety is increased due to less switch failure, higher qualification testing levels, repeatability and longer qualified life. (author)

  8. Proximal Junctional Kyphosis After Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib Insertion. (United States)

    Li, Ying; Gold, Meryl; Karlin, Lawrence


    Retrospective review of patients who had undergone vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) treatment at a single institution. To evaluate whether clinically significant proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) occurs after VEPTR insertion. PJK is a potential problem after posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion. PJK after VEPTR insertion has not been well-described. A total of 68 patients underwent VEPTR treatment between 1999 and 2009. Diagnosis, age at time of VEPTR insertion, location of VEPTR anchors, preoperative and postoperative scoliosis, T2-T12 kyphosis and PJK, time from VEPTR insertion to development of PJK, revision procedure for significant PJK, change in PJK after the revision procedure, and PJK at final follow-up were recorded. Four patients developed PJK (6%). One patient had congenital scoliosis with rib fusions, 1 had scoliosis associated with a syndrome, and 2 had neuromuscular scoliosis. Mean follow-up was 5.7 years. Average T2-T12 kyphosis and PJK before VEPTR insertion were 77° and 14°, respectively. Mean T2-T12 kyphosis and PJK after VEPTR insertion were 63° and 33°, respectively. Average T2-T12 kyphosis and PJK before the recommended revision procedure for treatment of PJK were 89° and 53°, respectively. All patients developed PJK within the first year after VEPTR insertion. Two patients underwent revision to growing rods. One of these patients had preoperative halo-gravity traction. Mean PJK in these 2 patients improved from 39° to 18° after revision and remained stable at 19° at an average follow-up of 2.9 years. PJK after VEPTR insertion can occur. Patients with preoperative thoracic hyperkyphosis may be at higher risk. PJK can develop within the first year of VEPTR treatment, and can become progressive and severe enough to require complex interventions. In this small case series, patients were revised to growing rods. Copyright © 2013 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Proximal femoral focal deficiency: results of rotationplasty and Syme amputation. (United States)

    Alman, B A; Krajbich, J I; Hubbard, S


    We reviewed the results of treatment of sixteen patients who had had an isolated unilateral proximal femoral focal deficiency; nine were managed with a rotationplasty and seven, with a Syme amputation combined with an arthrodesis of the knee. We evaluated the perceived physical appearance, gross motor function, and metabolic energy expended in walking. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.9 years (range, four to fourteen years). The mean age of the patients at the time of the study was 13.9 years (range, eight to 18.4 years) in the rotationplasty group and 14.8 years (range, 9.5 to 19.9 years) in the Syme-amputation group. There were three female patients in each group. Roentgenograms showed that the femoral head was in the acetabulum (Aitken class A or B) in four of the seven patients in the Syme-amputation group and in five of the nine patients in the rotationplasty group; the remaining patients did not have this finding (Aitken class C or D). There was no difference in gross motor function or perceived physical appearance between the groups. Rotationplasty was associated with a more energy-efficient gait (mean, 0.153 milliliter of oxygen per kilogram-meter [range, 0.128 to 0.173 milliliter of oxygen per kilogram-meter] than was Syme amputation (mean, 0.169 milliliter of oxygen per kilogram-meter [range, 0.151 to 0.182 milliliter of oxygen per kilogram-meter]). Both types of treatment resulted in a net oxygen utilization per distance (efficiency) that was less than the values reported after amputations performed for non-congenital disorders.

  10. Antenatal genetic testing and the right to remain in ignorance. (United States)

    Bennett, R


    As knowledge increases about the human genome, prenatal genetic testing will become cheaper, safer and more comprehensive. It is likely that there will be a great deal of support for making prenatal testing for a wide range of genetic disorders a routine part of antenatal care. Such routine testing is necessarily coercive in nature and does not involve the same standard of consent as is required in other health care settings. This paper asks whether this level of coercion is ethically justifiable in this case, or whether pregnant women have a right to remain in ignorance of the genetic make-up of the fetus they are carrying. While information gained by genetic testing may be useful for pregnant women when making decisions about their pregnancy, it does not prevent harm to future children. It is argued that as this kind of testing provides information in the interests of the pregnant women and not in the interests of any future child, the same standards of consent that are normally required for genetic testing should be required in this instance.

  11. Prions adhere to soil minerals and remain infectious.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Johnson


    Full Text Available An unidentified environmental reservoir of infectivity contributes to the natural transmission of prion diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [TSEs] in sheep, deer, and elk. Prion infectivity may enter soil environments via shedding from diseased animals and decomposition of infected carcasses. Burial of TSE-infected cattle, sheep, and deer as a means of disposal has resulted in unintentional introduction of prions into subsurface environments. We examined the potential for soil to serve as a TSE reservoir by studying the interaction of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc with common soil minerals. In this study, we demonstrated substantial PrP(Sc adsorption to two clay minerals, quartz, and four whole soil samples. We quantified the PrP(Sc-binding capacities of each mineral. Furthermore, we observed that PrP(Sc desorbed from montmorillonite clay was cleaved at an N-terminal site and the interaction between PrP(Sc and Mte was strong, making desorption of the protein difficult. Despite cleavage and avid binding, PrP(Sc bound to Mte remained infectious. Results from our study suggest that PrP(Sc released into soil environments may be preserved in a bioavailable form, perpetuating prion disease epizootics and exposing other species to the infectious agent.

  12. Factors influencing home care nurse intention to remain employed. (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann; Patterson, Erin; Rowe, Alissa; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; MacDonald, Geraldine; Cranley, Lisa; Squires, Mae


    To identify factors affecting Canadian home care nurse intention to remain employed (ITR). In developed nations, healthcare continues to shift into community settings. Although considerable research exists on examining nurse ITR in hospitals, similar research related to nurses employed in home care is limited. In the face of a global nursing shortage, it is important to understand the factors influencing nurse ITR across healthcare sectors. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used. Focus groups were conducted with home care nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six categories of influencing factors were identified by home care nurses as affecting ITR: job characteristics; work structures; relationships/communication; work environment; nurse responses to work; and employment conditions. Findings suggest the following factors influence home care nurse ITR: having autonomy; flexible scheduling; reasonable and varied workloads; supportive work relationships; and receiving adequate pay and benefits. Home care nurses did not identify job satisfaction as a single concept influencing ITR. Home care nursing management should support nurse autonomy, allow flexible scheduling, promote reasonable workloads and create opportunities for team building that strengthen supportive relationships among home care nurses and other health team members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Anion exchange membrane fuel cells: Current status and remaining challenges (United States)

    Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Dekel, Dario R.; Page, Miles; Bae, Chulsung; Yan, Yushan; Zelenay, Piotr; Kim, Yu Seung


    The anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) is an attractive alternative to acidic proton exchange membrane fuel cells, which to date have required platinum-based catalysts, as well as acid-tolerant stack hardware. The AEMFC could use non-platinum-group metal catalysts and less expensive metal hardware thanks to the high pH of the electrolyte. Over the last decade, substantial progress has been made in improving the performance and durability of the AEMFC through the development of new materials and the optimization of system design and operation conditions. In this perspective article, we describe the current status of AEMFCs as having reached beginning of life performance very close to that of PEMFCs when using ultra-low loadings of Pt, while advancing towards operation on non-platinum-group metal catalysts alone. In the latter sections, we identify the remaining technical challenges, which require further research and development, focusing on the materials and operational factors that critically impact AEMFC performance and/or durability. These perspectives may provide useful insights for the development of next-generation of AEMFCs.

  14. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova (United States)


    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  15. The remaining challenges of pneumococcal disease in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ludwig


    Full Text Available Pneumococcal disease can be divided into invasive disease, i.e. when bacteria are detected in normally sterile body fluids, and noninvasive disease. Pneumococcal disease occurs more frequently in younger children and older adults. It is estimated that, in 2050, 30.3% of the European population will be ≥65 yrs old, compared with 15.7% in 2000. Preventive medicine, including vaccination, is essential for the promotion of healthy ageing. Uptake rates for influenza vaccination in the elderly are generally low, despite recommendations in many countries. In addition, it has been reported that influenza infections can make people more susceptible to pneumococcal infections. Despite pneumococcal vaccination, case fatality rates for patients hospitalised with invasive pneumococcal disease have remained at around 12% since the 1950s. Even when effective antibiotic therapy is administered, mortality can be high amongst immunocompetent patients in intensive care. Timely and accurate diagnosis of pneumococcal disease and identification of patients at high risk of poor outcome is essential to ensure that adequate treatment, including hospitalisation when necessary, is implemented as early as possible. Improved diagnostic techniques and more efficacious treatments may help to reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, but preventive measures, such as influenza and pneumococcal vaccination, should be promoted in order to avoid preventable disease, particularly in the elderly.

  16. Cohesin Can Remain Associated with Chromosomes during DNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D.P. Rhodes


    Full Text Available To ensure disjunction to opposite poles during anaphase, sister chromatids must be held together following DNA replication. This is mediated by cohesin, which is thought to entrap sister DNAs inside a tripartite ring composed of its Smc and kleisin (Scc1 subunits. How such structures are created during S phase is poorly understood, in particular whether they are derived from complexes that had entrapped DNAs prior to replication. To address this, we used selective photobleaching to determine whether cohesin associated with chromatin in G1 persists in situ after replication. We developed a non-fluorescent HaloTag ligand to discriminate the fluorescence recovery signal from labeling of newly synthesized Halo-tagged Scc1 protein (pulse-chase or pcFRAP. In cells where cohesin turnover is inactivated by deletion of WAPL, Scc1 can remain associated with chromatin throughout S phase. These findings suggest that cohesion might be generated by cohesin that is already bound to un-replicated DNA.

  17. Cohesin Can Remain Associated with Chromosomes during DNA Replication. (United States)

    Rhodes, James D P; Haarhuis, Judith H I; Grimm, Jonathan B; Rowland, Benjamin D; Lavis, Luke D; Nasmyth, Kim A


    To ensure disjunction to opposite poles during anaphase, sister chromatids must be held together following DNA replication. This is mediated by cohesin, which is thought to entrap sister DNAs inside a tripartite ring composed of its Smc and kleisin (Scc1) subunits. How such structures are created during S phase is poorly understood, in particular whether they are derived from complexes that had entrapped DNAs prior to replication. To address this, we used selective photobleaching to determine whether cohesin associated with chromatin in G1 persists in situ after replication. We developed a non-fluorescent HaloTag ligand to discriminate the fluorescence recovery signal from labeling of newly synthesized Halo-tagged Scc1 protein (pulse-chase or pcFRAP). In cells where cohesin turnover is inactivated by deletion of WAPL, Scc1 can remain associated with chromatin throughout S phase. These findings suggest that cohesion might be generated by cohesin that is already bound to un-replicated DNA. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Should remaining stockpiles of smallpox virus (variola) be destroyed? (United States)

    Weinstein, Raymond S


    In 2011, the World Health Organization will recommend the fate of existing smallpox stockpiles, but circumstances have changed since the complete destruction of these cultures was first proposed. Recent studies suggest that variola and its experimental surrogate, vaccinia, have a remarkable ability to modify the human immune response through complex mechanisms that scientists are only just beginning to unravel. Further study that might require intact virus is essential. Moreover, modern science now has the capability to recreate smallpox or a smallpox-like organism in the laboratory in addition to the risk of nature re-creating it as it did once before. These factors strongly suggest that relegating smallpox to the autoclave of extinction would be ill advised.

  19. Fibromyalgia revisited: the challenge to a diagnoses remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Martinez


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fibromyalgia is a clinical syndrome characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain associated with areas of the body known as tender points which, when pressured gently, cause an exaggerated pain response. The most accepted physiopathological theory is that the pain in fibromyalgia results from an unbalance between the pain transmission stimulus mechanism and the pain inhibition one. The symptoms range from widespread musculoskeletal pain; disruptive sleep patterns; fatigue; short-lived generalized stiffness (generally in the morning; edema sensation and paresthesia. There is a constant association with other functional syndrome such as: depression, anxiety, migraine and irritable bowel syndrome. In 1990 The American College of Rheumatology developed a set of criteria to diagnose fibromyalgia and include it in scientific studies so as to help with the upcoming of a patient´s diagnosis and its follow up.

  20. On Optimal Fuzzy Best Proximity Coincidence Points of Proximal Contractions Involving Cyclic Mappings in Non-Archimedean Fuzzy Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel De la Sen


    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to deal with some properties of interest in two types of fuzzy ordered proximal contractions of cyclic self-mappings T integrated in a pair ( g , T of mappings. In particular, g is a non-contractive fuzzy self-mapping, in the framework of non-Archimedean ordered fuzzy complete metric spaces and T is a p -cyclic proximal contraction. Two types of such contractions (so called of type I and of type II are dealt with. In particular, the existence, uniqueness and limit properties for sequences to optimal fuzzy best proximity coincidence points are investigated for such pairs of mappings.

  1. Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations data set combines information from a global data set developed by Declan Butler of...

  2. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella: A Case Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu


    .... Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: proximal 18q deletion syndrome (United States)

    ... can range from mild to severe. In particular, vocabulary and the production of speech (expressive language skills) ... Some affected individuals have an unusually large head size ( macrocephaly ). People with proximal 18q deletion syndrome often ...

  4. Perinatal mortality and residential proximity to an industrial park. (United States)

    Sarov, Batia; Bentov, Yaakov; Kordysh, Ella; Karakis, Isabella; Bolotin, Arkady; Hershkovitz, Reli; Belmaker, Ilana


    The authors' objective was to determine whether residential proximity to an industrial park (IP) is associated with increased perinatal mortality (PM). This semiecological study included 63,850 delivered births with 840 cases of PM (1995-2000). The authors categorized the study populations by ethnicity (ie, Bedouin and Jewish) and type of locality. Residential distance from the IP served as a surrogate indicator of exposure. Among Bedouin newborns, proximity to the IP was associated with increased PM rates (relative risk = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.22-1.72). The excess in PM was not related to maternal or newborn physical characteristics that the authors observed. The risk of PM and its components in the Jewish localities was not associated with IP proximity. The association between residential proximity to the IP and excess in PM among only Bedouin newborns may be related to vulnerability caused by the nomadic nature of the society.

  5. Computational proximity excursions in the topology of digital images

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F


    This book introduces computational proximity (CP) as an algorithmic approach to finding nonempty sets of points that are either close to each other or far apart. Typically in computational proximity, the book starts with some form of proximity space (topological space equipped with a proximity relation) that has an inherent geometry. In CP, two types of near sets are considered, namely, spatially near sets and descriptivelynear sets. It is shown that connectedness, boundedness, mesh nerves, convexity, shapes and shape theory are principal topics in the study of nearness and separation of physical aswell as abstract sets. CP has a hefty visual content. Applications of CP in computer vision, multimedia, brain activity, biology, social networks, and cosmology are included. The book has been derived from the lectures of the author in a graduate course on the topology of digital images taught over the past several years. Many of the students have provided important insights and valuable suggestions. The topics in ...

  6. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % respectively while ... were analyzed using flame photometer for K and ... low in methionine. Table 1: Proximate Composition of C. argentea. Parameter. Composition (%). Moisture content. Crude Fat. Crude protein. Crude fibre. Ash. Nitrogen ...

  7. [A case of proximal type epithelioid sarcoma of the perineum]. (United States)

    Murashima, Takaya; Kamibeppu, Toyoharu; Hiromasa, Tukino; Mukai, Syoichiro; Kamoto, Toshiyuki


    Epithelioid sarcomas are rare soft tissue neoplasms which occur more often in young people. They tend to relapse, metastatize and show poor prognosis. Proximal-type epithelioid sarcomas arise from the more proximal part of body and are more malignant than distal-type epithelioid sarcomas. We present a case of proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma which occurred in the perineum. A 24-year-old male visited our hospital with the chief complaint of pain in the perineum. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor 30×23×17 mm in diameter in the perineal region. The tumor was excised regionally and the pathological examination with immunohistochemical staining revealed that the tumor was proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. The patient is free of recurrence and metastasis one year after local excision.

  8. Effect of processing method on the Proximate composition, mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of processing method on the Proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of Taro (Colocasia esculenta, L.) growth in Ethiopia. T Adane, A Shimelis, R Negussie, B Tilahun, GD Haki ...

  9. TETRAPOLIS - an exercise in building the complexities of proximity space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cristian Blidariu; Diana Giurea


    ... student’s intuitive ways for understanding these vicinities, their physical and symbolic proximities, through participatory tactics and certain poetic/architectural tools required in the phenomenological build-up of space...

  10. The proximate determinants of fertility and birth intervals in Egypt: An application of calendar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hinde


    Full Text Available In this paper we use calendar data from the 2000 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS to assess the determinants of birth interval length among women who are in union. We make use of the well-known model of the proximate determinants of fertility, and take advantage of the fact that the DHS calendar data provide month-by-month data on contraceptive use, breastfeeding and post-partum amenorrhoea, which are the most important proximate determinants among women in union. One aim of the analysis is to see whether the calendar data are sufficiently detailed to account for all variation among individual women in birth interval duration, in that once they are controlled, the effect of background social, economic and cultural variables is not statistically significant. The results suggest that this is indeed the case, especially after a random effect term to account for the unobserved proximate determinants is included in the model. Birth intervals are determined mainly by the use of modern methods of contraception (the IUD being more effective than the pill. Breastfeeding and post-partum amenorrhoea both inhibit conception, and the effect of breastfeeding remains even after the period of amenorrhoea has ended.

  11. Adolescent physical activity and bone strength at the proximal femur in adulthood. (United States)

    Jackowski, Stefan A; Kontulainen, Saija A; Cooper, David M L; Lanovaz, Joel L; Beck, Thomas J; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G


    Physical activity (PA) enhances bone structural strength at the proximal femur in adolescence, but whether these benefits are maintained into early adulthood remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether males and females, described as active, average, and inactive during adolescence, display differences in structural strength at the proximal femur in early adulthood (20-30 yr). One hundred four participants (55 males and 49 females) from the Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (PBMAS) were categorized into adolescent PA groupings (inactive, average, and active) using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Cross-sectional area and section modulus (Z) at the narrow neck, intertrochanter, and femoral shaft (S) sites of the proximal femur were assessed using hip structural analysis in young adulthood from femoral neck dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans. Group differences were assessed using ANCOVA, controlling for adult height (Ht), adult weight (Wt), adolescent bone geometry, sex, percentage adult total body lean tissue (LTM%), and adult PA levels. Active adolescents had significantly greater adjusted bone geometric measures at all sites than their inactive classified peers during adolescence (P femur than adult participants who were classified as inactive during adolescence (P femur in young adulthood.

  12. The risk of cardiorespiratory deaths persists beyond 30 days after proximal femoral fracture surgery. (United States)

    Khan, Sameer K; Rushton, Stephen P; Shields, David W; Corsar, Kenneth G; Refaie, Ramsay; Gray, Andrew C; Deehan, David J


    30-day mortality is routinely used to assess proximal femoral fracture care, though patients might remain at risk for poor outcome for longer. This work has examined the survivorship out to one year of a consecutive series of patients admitted for proximal femoral fracture to a single institution. We wished to quantify the temporal impact of fracture upon mortality, and also the influence of patient age, gender, surgical delay and length of stay on mortality from both cardiorespiratory and non-cardiorespiratory causes. Data were analysed for 561 consecutive patients with 565 fragility type proximal femoral fractures treated surgically at our trauma unit. Dates and causes of death were obtained from death certificates and also linked to data from the Office of National Statistics. Mortality rates and causes were collated for two time periods: day 0-30, and day 31-365. Cumulative incidence analysis showed that mortality due to cardiorespiratory causes (pneumonia, myocardial infarction, cardiac failure) rose steeply to around 100 days after surgery and then flattened reaching approximately 12% by 1 year. Mortality from non-cardiorespiratory causes (kidney failure, stroke, sepsis etc.) was more progressive, but with a rate half of that of cardiorespiratory causes. Progressive modelling of mortality risks revealed that cardiorespiratory deaths were associated with advancing age and male gender (pphysiotherapy, respiratory exercises and other chest-protective measures from 31 to 100 days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Orthopaedic approaches to proximal humeral fractures following trauma.


    Mafi, R.; Khan, W.; Mafi, P; Hindocha, S.


    Proximal humeral fractures have been a topic of discussion in medical literature dating back as far as 3rd century BC. Today, these fractures are the most common type of humeral fractures and account for about 5-6% of all fractures in adults with the incidence rising rapidly with age. In broad terms the management of proximal humeral fractures can be divided into two categories: conservative versus surgical intervention. The aim of treatment is to stabilize the fracture, aid better union and ...

  14. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination


    Cowley, Jeffrey C.; Gates, Deanna H.


    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proxim...

  15. Developing survey metrics for analysing cross-border proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan


    Cross-border innovation cooperation (CBIC) has been heralded as one of the corner stones of innovation-driven growth opportunities for firms located in cross-border regions (CBRs). The success of this cooperation is affected by varying types of proximities identified in the literature....... The findings indicate that the developed survey metrics are effective in depicting the phenomenon of proximity. The foundational work undertaken in this research note provides a platform, and catalyst, for more extensive investigations of the topic....

  16. Partial proximal trisomy 10q syndrome: a new case. (United States)

    Nucaro, A; Faedda, A; Cao, A; Boccone, L


    We report a case of partial proximal trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 10 confirmed by fluorescence in situ hibridization (FISH) performed with whole chromosome 10 specific painting and specific yac clones. The phenotypic findings, compared to those found in other published cases with the same karyotype, support the recognition of a distinctive partial proximal trisomy 10q syndrome (10q11-->q22).

  17. Proximity functions for electrons up to 10 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmelevsky, D. (Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenkunde der Universitaet Wuerzburg, Germany); Kellerer, A.M.; Terrissol, M.; Patau, J.P.


    Proximity functions for electrons up to 10 keV in water are computed from simulated particle tracks. Numerical results are given for the differential functions t(x) and the integral functions T(x). Basic characteristics of these functions and their connections to other microdosimetric quantities are considered. As an example of the applicability of the proximity functions, the quantity y/sub D/ for spheres is derived from t(x).

  18. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven


    We analyze the proximal Newton method for minimizing a sum of a self-concordant function and a convex function with an inexpensive proximal operator. We present new results on the global and local convergence of the method when inexact search directions are used. The method is illustrated...... matrices with chordal sparsity patterns are used to evaluate gradients and matrix-vector products with the Hessian of the smooth component of the objective....

  19. Critical Proximity as a Methodological Move in Techno-Anthropology


    Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh; Elgaard Jensen, Torben


    echno-Anthropology is a new field, operating with a broad range of methodologies and approaches. This gives rise to the question: What does it mean for Techno-Anthropological research to be critical? In this paper, we discuss this question by developing and specifying the notion of ‘critical proximity.’ Critical proximity offers an alternative to critical distance, especially with respect to avoiding premature references to abstract panoramas such as democratization and capitalist exploitatio...

  20. Predicting ischemic stroke after carotid artery stenting based on proximal calcification and the jellyfish sign. (United States)

    Ichinose, Nobuhiko; Hama, Seiji; Tsuji, Toshio; Soh, Zu; Hayashi, Hideaki; Kiura, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Okazaki, Takahito; Ishii, Daizo; Shinagawa, Katsuhiro; Kurisu, Kaoru


    OBJECTIVE Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has been considered to prevent ischemic strokes caused by stenosis of the cervical carotid artery. The most common complication of CAS is new cerebral infarction. The authors have previously reported that the jellyfish sign-the rise and fall of the mobile component of the carotid plaque surface detected by carotid ultrasonography-suggests thinning and rupture of the fibrous cap over the unstable plaque content, such as the lipid-rich necrotic core or internal plaque hemorrhage. The authors' aim in the present study was to evaluate the risk of a new ischemic lesion after CAS by using many risk factors including calcification (size and location) and the jellyfish sign. METHODS Eighty-six lesions (77 patients) were treated with CAS. The presence of ischemic stroke was determined using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Risk factors included calcification of the plaque (classified into 5 groups for size and 3 groups for location) and the jellyfish sign, among others. Multiple linear regression analysis (stepwise analysis and partial least squares [PLS] analysis) was conducted, followed by a machine learning analysis using an artificial neural network (ANN) based on the log-linearized gaussian mixture network (LLGMN). The additive effects of the jellyfish sign and calcification on ischemic stroke after CAS were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Steel-Dwass test. RESULTS The stepwise analysis selected the jellyfish sign, proximal calcification (proximal Ca), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and patient age for the prediction model to predict new DWI lesions. The PLS analysis revealed the same top 3 variables (jellyfish sign, proximal Ca, and LDL cholesterol) according to the variable importance in projection scores. The ANN was then used, showing that these 3 variables remained. The accuracy of the ANN improved; areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the stepwise analysis, the PLS

  1. Translation between the Neer- and the AO/OTA-classification for proximal humeral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Eckardt, Henrik; Audigé, Laurent


    The reporting and interpretation of data from clinical trials of proximal humeral fractures are hampered by the use of two partly incommensurable fracture classification systems: the Neer classification and the AO/OTA classification. It remains difficult to interpret and generalize results......, to conduct prognostic studies, and to obtain consensus on treatment recommendations when concise definitions and a common 'fracture language' are lacking. Thus, we compared both classifications systems using primary data from large clinical studies to assess how thoroughly both systems conveyed clinically...

  2. Cervical Alignment Changes in Patients Developing Proximal Junctional Kyphosis Following Surgical Correction of Adult Spinal Deformity. (United States)

    Passias, Peter G; Horn, Samantha R; Jalai, Cyrus M; Ramchandran, Subaraman; Poorman, Gregory W; Kim, Han Jo; Smith, Justin S; Sciubba, Daniel; Soroceanu, Alexandra; Ames, Christopher P; Hamilton, D Kojo; Eastlack, Robert; Burton, Douglas; Gupta, Munish; Bess, Shay; Lafage, Virginie; Schwab, Frank


    Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) following adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery is a well-documented complication, but associations between radiographic PJK and cervical malalignment onset remain unexplored. To study cervical malalignment in ASD surgical patients that develop PJK. Retrospective review of prospective multicenter database. Inclusion: primary ASD patients (≥5 levels fused, upper instrumented vertebra [UIV] at T2 or above, and 1-yr minimum follow-up) without baseline cervical deformity (CD), defined as ≥2 of the following criteria: T1 slope minus cervical lordosis .05). Increased PJK magnitude was associated with increasing T1 slope and C2-T3 SVA (P deformity.

  3. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation (United States)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk


    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  4. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.


    rocks, living, cryopreserved and fossilized extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection of mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria, mats and consortia in many carbonaceous meteorites. These well-preserved and embedded microfossils are consistent with the size, morphology and ultra-microstructure of filamentous trichomic prokaryotes and degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. EDAX elemental studies reveal that the forms in the meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes, and microbial cells. The eextensive protocols and methodologies that have been developed to protect the samples from contamination and to distinguish recent contaminants from indigenous microfossils are described recent bio-contaminants. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in the cells, filaments, trichomes, and hormogonia of recently living cyanobacteria. The results of comparative optical, ESEM and FESEM studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) of similar size, morphology and microstructure to microfossils found embedded in the Murchison CM2 and the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are presented

  5. Design and Clinical Application of Proximal Humerus Memory Connector (United States)

    Xu, Shuo-Gui; Zhang, Chun-Cai


    Treatment for comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions are a substantial challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Plate and screw fixation does not provide enough stability to allow patients to begin functional exercises early after surgery. Using shape memory material nickel titanium alloy, we designed a new device for treating severe comminuted proximal humerus fractures that accommodates for the anatomical features of the proximal humerus. Twenty-two cases of comminuted fracture, malunion, and nonunion of the proximal humerus were treated with the proximal humeral memory connector (PHMC). No external fixation was needed after the operation and patients began active shoulder exercises an average of 8 days after the operation. Follow-up evaluation (mean 18.5 months) revealed that bone healing with lamellar bone formation occurred an average of 3.6 months after surgery for the fracture cases and 4.5 months after surgery for the nonunion cases. Average shoulder function was 88.5 according to the criteria of Michael Reese. PHMC is an effective new device to treat comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions. The use of this device may reduce the need for shoulder joint arthroplasty.

  6. The sooner, the better: exercise outcome proximity and intrinsic motivation. (United States)

    Evans, M Blair; Cooke, Lisa M; Murray, Robyn A; Wilson, Anne E


    Despite evidence that outcomes are highly valued when they are expected sooner rather than further into the future (Ainslie, 1975), limited research effort has been devoted to understanding the role of exercise outcome proximity. The purpose of this study was to examine how temporal proximity to positive outcomes influences exercisers' intrinsic motivation. We expected that focusing people on temporally proximal exercise outcomes would increase intrinsic motivation, especially among low-frequency exercisers. This online experimental study was completed by 135 community exercisers (Mage  = 31.11, SD = 10.29; 62% female) who reported an average of 4.86 exercise bouts per week (SD = 2.12). Participants were randomly assigned to a condition that primed temporally proximal positive exercise outcomes (i.e. experienced during or directly following an exercise bout) or temporally distal outcomes (i.e. experienced after days, months, or years of regular exercise). Participants then reported perceptions of behavioral regulation in exercise. As expected, the proximal exercise outcome condition elicited increased intrinsic regulation among those participants who exercised less frequently (i.e. 1 SD below the mean). This study reveals the importance of considering proximity as an important dimension of exercise outcomes-particularly when promoting intrinsic motivation among relatively infrequent exercisers. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  7. Optical proximity correction: a first look at manufacturability (United States)

    Liebmann, Lars W.; Grenon, Brian J.; Lavin, Mark A.; Schomody, Stephen; Zell, Thomas


    The feasibility of large scale optical proximity correction with a focus on mask manufacturability is demonstrated on the support and logic gates of a leading edge 64 Mb DRAM chip. Analysis of post reactive ion etch SEM data of the 500 - 600 nm, DUV exposed gates indicates two major contributors to across chip line width variation: first order proximity, that is, the minimum spacing to the nearest neighboring structure, and local area density or pattern loading. Data presented show a very long range (approximately equals 1 mm) impact of pattern density on post reactive ion etch line widths, favoring optical proximity correction approaches that are not based on biasing patterns to compensate for these effects. In this project, pattern density induced effects were alleviated by homogenizing the pattern loading across the chip to approximately 50% instead of biasing the gate structures to compensate for pattern density differences. Proximity induced effects were compensated for with a one- dimensional, single parameter (distance to nearest neighbor), four bucket proximity correction routine with a strong focus on mask manufacturability. Even though the unbiased 64 Mb DRAM gate level challenges mask makers with 480 MB of MEBES data, the optical proximity corrected mask posed no substantial post-processing, writing, or inspection problems in IBM's Burlington, Vermont maskhouse. A very significant 80% reduction in post reactive ion etch across chip line width variation was achieved with this corrected mask.

  8. Lactate oxidation by three segments of the rabbit proximal tubule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, P.H.; Taylor, B.B.


    Oxidation of (U/sup 14/C)lactate to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was measured in vitro, in nonperfused anatomically defined segments of rabbit proximal tubule (S1, proximal convoluted, and S2 and S3, proximal straight tubules). The rate of lactate oxidation was similar in S2 and S3 segments, and within the range of lactate oxidation rates measured in vivo. In contrast, the oxidation rate of S1 segments was significantly lower than that of S2 or S3. In proximal straight tubules, lactate oxidation was inhibited by incubation at 0/sup 0/C, or by application of 1 mM ouabain. To determine if the rate of transepithelial transport affected the rate of lactate oxidation, lactate oxidation was measured in proximal straight tubules after the lumen had been opened by perfusion with Ringer's containing 10 mM polyethylene glycol. No difference in lactate oxidation rate was observed between tubules with patent lumina and nonperfused tubules. These results suggest that the various segments of the renal proximal tubule have difference metabolic characteristics, and that the rate of substrate oxidation is related to the activity of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase.

  9. Psychological responses to the proximity of climate change (United States)

    Brügger, Adrian; Dessai, Suraje; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Morton, Thomas A.; Pidgeon, Nicholas F.


    A frequent suggestion to increase individuals' willingness to take action on climate change and to support relevant policies is to highlight its proximal consequences, that is, those that are close in space and time. But previous studies that have tested this proximizing approach have not revealed the expected positive effects on individual action and support for addressing climate change. We present three lines of psychological reasoning that provide compelling arguments as to why highlighting proximal impacts of climate change might not be as effective a way to increase individual mitigation and adaptation efforts as is often assumed. Our contextualization of the proximizing approach within established psychological research suggests that, depending on the particular theoretical perspective one takes on this issue, and on specific individual characteristics suggested by these perspectives, proximizing can bring about the intended positive effects, can have no (visible) effect or can even backfire. Thus, the effects of proximizing are much more complex than is commonly assumed. Revealing this complexity contributes to a refined theoretical understanding of the role that psychological distance plays in the context of climate change and opens up further avenues for future research and for interventions.

  10. The validity of proximal caries detection using magnifying visual aids. (United States)

    Haak, Rainer; Wicht, Michael J; Hellmich, Martin; Gossmann, Andrea; Noack, Michael J


    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of proximal caries detection supported by a prism loupe and a surgical microscope used by examiners having different professional experience. One hundred and sixty extracted premolars and molars with varying degrees of proximal caries or sound surfaces were embedded in 10 pairs of models with proximal tooth contacts and a simulated gingiva mask. The proximal surfaces were visually evaluated by 14 observers (7 students, 7 dentists) according to a 5-point caries rating scale using a head-worn prism loupe (x4.5), a surgical microscope (x 14) and without any magnifying device (control). The validity of observations was expressed as ROC curves calculated for two gold standard thresholds: (a) the presence of caries and (b) macroscopic cavitation. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of 'observer group' and 'diagnostic modality'. An influence of the observer group could not be demonstrated (p > 0.72), whereas significant differences were revealed between the diagnostic modalities (p caries detection with magnifying aids were smaller compared to the control group. It was concluded that the use of a prism loupe or a surgical microscope does not improve the validity of proximal caries detection if the operators, irrespective of being dental students or clinical instructors, are inexperienced in its utilisation. In general only moderate validity was achieved with visual inspection of proximal sites. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Altmetrics can not remain a alternative for a long time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The emergence of the Internet and social media is having a powerful influence on the ways in which researchers discover, access, process and communicate information. The methods used by systems measuring the impact of a scientific paper used during the last forty years, and questioned, are demonstrating more clearly insufficient in this new context, they do not provide information of all interactions that occur in the new social media. Altmetrics emerges as a complementary resource and does not exclude traditional metrics to provide a richer view of the influence of an investigation. Method: Narrative review. This article presents an analysis of the implications of altmetrics, advantages, disadvantages, and achievements made. Results: It is considered that altmetrics provides a broader view of the social implications of research beyond the purely academic. Discussion: While it is not easy to disentangle what is the meaning of altmetrics and what kind of impact accurately measures. Conclusions: altmetrics although it is not yet considered by the agencies of scientific accreditation, is already being used by some of the most important publishers, as it provides an immediate picture of the impact of an investigation, and ultimately may be a mechanism to predict the future academic impact of research, there are still many aspects to consider as all related to standardization of sources and methods of compilation of the results, but we can say that has altmetrics come and will have to be taken into account in the immediate future by lso accreditation bodies and research funding.

  12. Closed reduction and percutaneous annulated screw fixation in the treatment of comminuted proximal humeral fractures. (United States)

    Yu, Zhe; Zheng, Lianhe; Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Jian; Ma, Bao'an


    Displaced proximal humeral fractures remain a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcomes of patients with comminuted proximal humeral fractures treated with closed reduction and percutaneous screw fixation (CRPF). The authors retrospectively reviewed 38 cases of displaced proximal humeral fractures (2-, 3- or 4-part fractures according to the Neer classification) that were treated using the CRPF technique from May 2009 to April 2013. From this group 26 patients were followed up for a period ranging from 9 to 24 months (averaging 12.9 months) and evaluated for the functional and radiological outcomes by a series of standard questionnaires and measurements. The fractures in all 26 patients were healed within an average time of 14.6 weeks (ranging from 11 to 27 weeks), and the mean interval between the operation and fully functional activity was 18.6 weeks (ranging from 15 to 32 weeks). At the final follow-up visit, no patient showed shoulder instability; the mean range of abduction motion was 146.5° (ranging from 72° to 180°). For all patients, no statistically significant difference in the functional outcomes was observed between their 6-month and final follow-up visits; or in the radiological findings between their immediate post-operative and final follow-up examinations. The CRPF technique is a safe and effective therapeutic option for comminuted proximal humeral fractures. Good stability is obtained and aggressive impairment of the soft tissue and periosteum around the fracture is avoided, which allows for an early painless range of motion. The technique promotes bone healing, prevents ischemic osteonecrosis of the head of the humerus and leads to few complications.

  13. Thrust plate prosthesis for proximal femoral deformity: a series of 15 patients. (United States)

    Karatosun, Vasfi; Unver, Bayram; Gültekin, Alper; Günal, Izge


    Patients with coxarthrosis and proximal femoral deformity experience problems with total hip arthroplasty. A custom-made prosthesis or a proximal osteotomy is required for such cases, and these also increase the rate of complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of the thrust plate prosthesis (TPP) in patients with deformity of the proximal femur. Fifteen patients (7 females, 8 males) with a mean age of 56.4 years (range 19-75 years) at the time of the surgery were included in the study. The etiology was traumatic coxarthrosis in 12, and nonunion of a femoral neck fracture with osteonecrosis of the femoral head in the remaining three. While the femoral component was a third-generation TPP in all patients, the acetabular component was a Protek expansion cup in 12, and a cementless standard cup in three patients. All operations were performed through a Hardinge approach. Patients were followed up for at least 3 years (range 36-116 months) and evaluated clinically with the Harris Hip Score. The mean preoperative Harris Hip Score increased from 51.2 (range 15-79) to 92.7 (range 60-100) at the latest assessment. In two cases, loosening of the femoral component was observed in zone 3, both 12 months postoperatively. One was replaced by an intramedullary prosthesis, and the other was asymptomatic. TPP is a good alternative for patients with malformations of the proximal femur. The use of TPP avoids technical difficulties and a custom-made prosthesis.

  14. DNAH11 Localization in the Proximal Region of Respiratory Cilia Defines Distinct Outer Dynein Arm Complexes. (United States)

    Dougherty, Gerard W; Loges, Niki T; Klinkenbusch, Judith A; Olbrich, Heike; Pennekamp, Petra; Menchen, Tabea; Raidt, Johanna; Wallmeier, Julia; Werner, Claudius; Westermann, Cordula; Ruckert, Christian; Mirra, Virginia; Hjeij, Rim; Memari, Yasin; Durbin, Richard; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Praveen, Kavita; Kashef, Mohammad A; Kashef, Sara; Eghtedari, Fardin; Häffner, Karsten; Valmari, Pekka; Baktai, György; Aviram, Micha; Bentur, Lea; Amirav, Israel; Davis, Erica E; Katsanis, Nicholas; Brueckner, Martina; Shaposhnykov, Artem; Pigino, Gaia; Dworniczak, Bernd; Omran, Heymut


    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a recessively inherited disease that leads to chronic respiratory disorders owing to impaired mucociliary clearance. Conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a diagnostic standard to identify ultrastructural defects in respiratory cilia but is not useful in approximately 30% of PCD cases, which have normal ciliary ultrastructure. DNAH11 mutations are a common cause of PCD with normal ciliary ultrastructure and hyperkinetic ciliary beating, but its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We therefore characterized DNAH11 in human respiratory cilia by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) in the context of PCD. We used whole-exome and targeted next-generation sequence analysis as well as Sanger sequencing to identify and confirm eight novel loss-of-function DNAH11 mutations. We designed and validated a monoclonal antibody specific to DNAH11 and performed high-resolution IFM of both control and PCD-affected human respiratory cells, as well as samples from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-left-right dynein mice, to determine the ciliary localization of DNAH11. IFM analysis demonstrated native DNAH11 localization in only the proximal region of wild-type human respiratory cilia and loss of DNAH11 in individuals with PCD with certain loss-of-function DNAH11 mutations. GFP-left-right dynein mice confirmed proximal DNAH11 localization in tracheal cilia. DNAH11 retained proximal localization in respiratory cilia of individuals with PCD with distinct ultrastructural defects, such as the absence of outer dynein arms (ODAs). TEM tomography detected a partial reduction of ODAs in DNAH11-deficient cilia. DNAH11 mutations result in a subtle ODA defect in only the proximal region of respiratory cilia, which is detectable by IFM and TEM tomography.

  15. Treatment of subchondral lucencies in the medial proximal radius with a bone screw in 8 horses. (United States)

    Roquet, Imma; Lane Easter, J; Coomer, Richard P C; Ezquerra, Luis J; Marsh, Chad A; Trostle, Steve S; Santschi, Elizabeth M


    To describe the results of screw placement through subchondral lucencies (SCL) of the proximal radius in 8 horses. Retrospective clinical study. Horses with cubital SCL causing lameness (n=8). Medical record review and clinical follow-up. Eight horses with SCL in the proximal radius causing lameness were treated with a screw placed across the lucency. The horses range in age from 1 to 20 years. In 4 of 8 horses, the lameness had been intermittently severe (apparent at the walk). Lameness was isolated to the cubital joint by intra-articular anesthesia in 5 horses and diagnosed radiographically in all 8. All horses had a 4.5 mm cortical bone screw placed from medial to lateral (6 lag, 2 neutral) across the SCL using fluoroscopic or radiographic control. Postoperative care included stall confinement with hand walking for 30-60 days, followed by an additional 30-60 days of pasture turnout. Radiographic SCL healing (reduction in SCL size) was demonstrated at 3-4 months after surgery in all horses, and 7/8 horses (87.5%) were used as intended (4 performance, 3 pasture turn-out) within 6 months. Lameness in the remaining horse improved initially (dressage) but returned. A screw placed through the SCL of the proximal-medial radius was effective in reducing or resolving lameness associated with the elbow joint in 7/8 horses (88%). Screw placement in the proximal radius should be considered for horses with lameness caused by an SCL when a quick return to exercise is desired or conservative therapy is ineffective. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. Tubularized proximally-incised plate in distal/midshaft hypospadias repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marte


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the validity, feasibility, and the functional results, by uroflowmetry, of Tubularized proximallyincised plate technique in selected case of distal/midshaft hypospadias. Out of 120 patients scheduled to undergo TIP (or Snodgrass procedure, 23 were selected between January 2013 and January 2016 (19.1%. This case series comprised 16 patients with distal and 7 with midshaft hypospadias. Mean age at surgery was 2.9 years. The inclusion criteria were a deep and wide glandular groove and a proximal narrow urethral plate. The procedure was carried out as described by Snodgrass but the incision of the urethral plate, including the mucosal and submucosal tissue, was made only proximally, between the original meatus and the glandular groove in no case extending to the entire length of the plate. Postoperatively a foley catheter was left in place from 4 to 7 days. Uroflowmetry was performed when the patients age ranged from 2.5 to 5.7 years (mean age 3.11 years and mean follow-up 1.8 years, body surface 2. No patient presented fistulas nor perioperative complications. At uroflowmetry, eighteen patients presented values above the 25th percentile and 5 showed a borderline flow. All patients in this group remained stable without urinary symptoms. In selected cases, the tubularized proximally-incised plate yields satisfactory cosmetic and functional results for the treatment of midshaft proximal hypospadias. A long-term follow-up study is needed for further evaluation. Patient selection is crucial for the success of this technique.

  17. Efficacy of prophylactic splenectomy for proximal advanced gastric cancer invading greater curvature. (United States)

    Ohkura, Yu; Haruta, Shusuke; Shindoh, Junichi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ueno, Masaki; Udagawa, Harushi


    For proximal gastric cancer invading the greater curvature, concomitant splenectomy is frequently performed to secure the clearance of lymph node metastases. However, prognostic impact of prophylactic splenectomy remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the oncological significance of prophylactic splenectomy for advanced proximal gastric cancer invading the greater curvature. Retrospective review of 108 patients who underwent total or subtotal gastrectomy for advanced proximal gastric cancer involving the greater curvature was performed. Short-term and long-term outcomes were compared between the patients who underwent splenectomy (n = 63) and those who did not (n = 45). Patients who underwent splenectomy showed higher amount of blood loss (538 vs. 450 mL, p = 0.016) and morbidity rate (30.2 vs. 13.3, p = 0.041) compared with those who did not undergo splenectomy. In particular, pancreas-related complications were frequently observed among patients who received splenectomy (17.4 vs. 0%, p = 0.003). However, no significant improvement of long-term outcomes were confirmed in the cases with splenectomy (5-year recurrence-free rate, 60.2 vs. 67.3%; p = 0.609 and 5-year overall survival rates, 63.7 vs. 73.6%; p = 0.769). On the other hand, splenectomy was correlated with marginally better survival in patients with Borrmann type 1 or 2 gastric cancer (p = 0.072). For advanced proximal gastric cancer involving the greater curvature, prophylactic splenectomy may have no significant prognostic impact despite the increased morbidity rate after surgery. Such surgical procedure should be avoided as long as lymph node involvement is not evident.

  18. Incidence, mode, and location of acute proximal junctional failures after surgical treatment of adult spinal deformity. (United States)

    Hostin, Richard; McCarthy, Ian; OʼBrien, Michael; Bess, Shay; Line, Breton; Boachie-Adjei, Oheneba; Burton, Doug; Gupta, Munish; Ames, Christopher; Deviren, Vedat; Kebaish, Khaled; Shaffrey, Christopher; Wood, Kirkham; Hart, Robert


    Multicenter, retrospective series. To analyze the incidence, mode, and location of acute proximal junctional failures (APJFs) after surgical treatment of adult spinal deformity. Early proximal junctional failures above adult deformity constructs are a serious clinical problem; however, the incidence and nature of early APJFs remain unclear. A total of 1218 consecutive adult spinal deformity surgeries across 10 deformity centers were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the incidence and nature of APJF, defined as any of the following within 28 weeks of index procedure: minimum 15° post-operative increase in proximal junctional kyphosis, vertebral fracture of upper instrumented vertebrae (UIV) or UIV + 1, failure of UIV fixation, or need for proximal extension of fusion within 6 months of surgery. Sixty-eight APJF cases were identified out of 1218 consecutive surgeries (5.6%). Patients had a mean age of 63 years (range, 26-82 yr), mean fusion levels of 9.8 (range, 4-18), and mean time to APJF of 11.4 weeks (range, 1.5-28 wk). Fracture was the most common failure mode (47%), followed by soft-tissue failure (44%). Failures most often occurred in the thoracolumbar region (TL-APJF) compared with the upper thoracic region (UT-APJF), with 66% of patients experiencing TL-APJF compared with 34% experiencing UT-APJF. Fracture was significantly more common for TL-APJF relative to UT-APJF (P = 0.00), whereas soft-tissue failure was more common for UT-APJF (P failures occurring primarily in the TL region of the spine. There is evidence that the mode of failure differs depending on the location of UIV, with TL failures more likely due to fracture and UT failures more likely due to soft-tissue failures.

  19. [Long-term consequences of resection of 1/3 proximal epiphysis of child's right tibia--a case study]. (United States)

    Duda, Sławomir; Jasiewicz, Barbara; Potaczek, Tomasz; Tęsiorowski, Maciej


    Authors report a case of a patient with varus deformity of right knee, caused by wide resection of proximal metaphysis and epiphysis of right tibia. Afore mentioned procedure led to loss of right knee joint integrity, with its lateral instability, shortening, and axis deviation of right tibia. Surgical treatment of this complications was performed in several stages and took about 5 years, starting from temporal, lateral hemiepiphysiodesis of proximal tibial epiphysis, subacute epiphysiolysis of proximal tibial epiphysis and high valgus tibia osteotomy, at the end finished with medial tibia condyle reconstruction with autogenic graft and osteoconductive substances. The proper mechanical and anatomical axis of the right limb, with full stability and movement of right knee was achieved after those surgeries. The process of treatment of lower extremity axis deviation takes long time, frequently involves several surgeries and needs firm cooperation between doctor and patient.

  20. Sky-view factor visualization for detection of archaeological remains (United States)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Oštir, Krištof; Zakšek, Klemen


    Many archaeological remains are covered by sand or vegetation but it still possible to detect them by remote sensing techniques. One of them is airborne laser scanning that enables production of digital elevation models (DEM) of very high resolution (better than 1 m) with high relative elevation accuracy (centimetre level), even under forest. Thus, it has become well established in archaeological applications. However, effective interpretation of digital elevation models requires appropriate data visualization. Analytical relief shading is used in most cases. Although widely accepted, this method has two major drawbacks: identifying details in deep shades and inability to properly represent linear features lying parallel to the light beam. Several authors have tried to overcome these limitations by changing the position of the light source or by filtering. This contribution addresses the DEM visualization problem by sky-view factor, a visualization technique based on diffuse light that overcomes the directional problems of hill-shading. Sky-view factor is a parameter that describes the portion of visible sky limited by relief. It can be used as a general relief visualization technique to show relief characteristics. In particular, we show that this visualization is a very useful tool in archaeology. Applying the sky-view factor for visualization purposes gives advantages over other techniques because it reveals small (or large, depending on the scale of the observed phenomenon and consequential algorithm settings) relief features while preserving the perception of general topography. In the case study (DEM visualization of a fortified enclosure of Tonovcov grad in Slovenia) we show that for the archaeological purposes the sky-view factor is the optimal DEM visualization method. Its ability to consider the neighborhood context makes it an outstanding tool when compared to other visualization techniques. One can choose a large search radius and the most important

  1. The Right to Remain Silent in Criminal Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Anemona Radu


    Full Text Available A person's right not to incriminate oneself or to remain silent and not contribute to their own incrimination is a basic requirement of due process, although the right not to testify against oneself is not expressly guaranteed. This legal right is intended to protect the accused/ the defendant against the authorities’ abusive coercion. The scope of the right not to incriminate oneself is related to criminal matter under the Convention, and thus susceptible or applicable to criminal proceedings concerning all types of crimes as a guarantee to a fair trial. The European Court of Justice ruled that despite the fact that art. 6 paragraph 2 of the Convention does not expressly mention the right not to incriminate oneself and the right not to contribute to their own incrimination (nemo tenetur are ipsum accusare these are generally recognized international rules that are in consistence with the notion of “fair trial” stipulated in art. 6. By virtue of the right to silence, the person charged with a crime is free to answer the questions or not, as he/she believes it is in his/her interest. Therefore, the right to silence involves not only the right not to testify against oneself, but also the right of the accused/ defendant not to incriminate oneself. Thus, the accused/defendant cannot be compelled to assist in the production of evidence and cannot be sanctioned for failing to provide certain documents or other evidence. Obligation to testify against personal will, under the constraint of a fine or any other form of coercion constitutes an interference with the negative aspect of the right to freedom of expression which must be necessary in a democratic society. It is essential to clarify certain issues as far as this right is concerned. First of all, the statutory provision in question is specific to adversarial systems, which are found mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries and are totally different from that underlying the current Romanian Criminal

  2. Fluid Mechanics. (United States)

    Drazin, Philip


    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  3. Proximity strategies in outsourcing relations: the role of geographical, cultural and relational proximity in the European automotive industry


    Schmitt, Alexander; Van Biesebroeck, Jo


    Several trends that affect the manufacturing of sophisticated goods - increasing international fragmentation of production, and lean and modular process technologies - have increased the importance of proximity in the supply chain. We use the case of the European automotive industry to simultaneously evaluate the relative importance of three dimensions: geographical, cultural, and relational proximity. Using a rich and novel data set, we find that carmakers value some aspects of each dimensio...

  4. Remaining challenges in cellular flavin cofactor homeostasis and flavoprotein biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Anna eGiancaspero


    Full Text Available The primary role of the water-soluble vitamin B2 (riboflavin in cell biology is connected with its conversion into FMN and FAD, the cofactors of a large number of dehydrogenases, oxidases and reductases involved in energetic metabolism, epigenetics, protein folding, as well as in a number of diverse regulatory processes. The problem of localisation of flavin cofactor synthesis events and in particular of the FAD synthase (EC in HepG2 cells is addressed here by confocal microscopy in the frame of its relationships with kinetics of FAD synthesis and delivery to client apo-flavoproteins. FAD synthesis catalysed by recombinant isoform 2 of FADS occurs via an ordered bi-bi mechanism in which ATP binds prior to FMN, and pyrophosphate is released before FAD. Spectrophotometric continuous assays of the reconstitution rate of apo-D-aminoacid oxidase with its cofactor, allowed us to propose that besides its FAD synthesising activity, hFADS is able to operate as a FAD chaperone.The physical interaction between FAD forming enzyme and its clients was further confirmed by dot blot and immunoprecipitation experiments carried out testing as a client either a nuclear or a mitochondrial enzyme that is lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1, EC 1.-.-.- and dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (Me2GlyDH, EC, respectively which carry out similar reactions of oxidative demethylation, assisted by tetrahydrofolate used to form 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate. A direct transfer of the cofactor from hFADS2 to apo-dimethyl glycine dehydrogenase was also demonstrated. Thus, FAD synthesis and delivery to these enzymes are crucial processes for bioenergetics and nutri-epigenetics of liver cells.

  5. Prediction of drug-induced nephrotoxicity and injury mechanisms with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cells and machine learning methods. (United States)

    Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Chuah, Jacqueline Kai Chin; Su, Ran; Huang, Peng; Eng, Kim Guan; Xiong, Sijing; Li, Yao; Chia, Chun Siang; Loo, Lit-Hsin; Zink, Daniele


    The renal proximal tubule is a main target for drug-induced toxicity. The prediction of proximal tubular toxicity during drug development remains difficult. Any in vitro methods based on induced pluripotent stem cell-derived renal cells had not been developed, so far. Here, we developed a rapid 1-step protocol for the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) into proximal tubular-like cells. These proximal tubular-like cells had a purity of >90% after 8 days of differentiation and could be directly applied for compound screening. The nephrotoxicity prediction performance of the cells was determined by evaluating their responses to 30 compounds. The results were automatically determined using a machine learning algorithm called random forest. In this way, proximal tubular toxicity in humans could be predicted with 99.8% training accuracy and 87.0% test accuracy. Further, we studied the underlying mechanisms of injury and drug-induced cellular pathways in these hiPSC-derived renal cells, and the results were in agreement with human and animal data. Our methods will enable the development of personalized or disease-specific hiPSC-based renal in vitro models for compound screening and nephrotoxicity prediction.

  6. A Comparison of Dental Chartings Performed at the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command Central Identification Laboratory and the Kokura Central Identification Unit on Remains Identified from the Korean War. (United States)

    Shiroma, Calvin Y


    During the Korean War, the Office of the Quartermaster General's Graves Registration Service (GRS) was responsible for the recovery, processing, identification, and repatriation of US remains. In January 1951, the GRS established a Central Identification Unit (CIU) at Kokura, Japan. At the Kokura CIU, postmortem dental examinations were performed by the dental technicians. Thirty-nine postmortem dental examinations performed at the CIU were compared to the findings documented in the Forensic Odontology Reports written at the JPAC Central Identification Laboratory (CIL). Differences were noted in 20 comparisons (51%). The majority of the discrepancies was considered negligible and would not alter the JPAC decision to disinter a set of unknown remains. Charting discrepancies that were considered significant included the occasional failure of the Kokura technicians to identify teeth with inter-proximal or esthetic restorations and the misidentification of a mechanically prepared tooth (i.e., tooth prepared for a restoration) as a carious surface. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Promoter proximal polyadenylation sites reduce transcription activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Kjølhede; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick


    Gene expression relies on the functional communication between mRNA processing and transcription. We previously described the negative impact of a point-mutated splice donor (SD) site on transcription. Here we demonstrate that this mutation activates an upstream cryptic polyadenylation (CpA) site......, which in turn causes reduced transcription. Functional depletion of U1 snRNP in the context of the wild-type SD triggers the same CpA event accompanied by decreased RNA levels. Thus, in accordance with recent findings, U1 snRNP can shield premature pA sites. The negative impact of unshielded pA sites...... RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes use specialized termination mechanisms to maintain high transcription levels....

  8. What is the Optimal Reconstruction Option after the Resection of Proximal Humeral Tumors? A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Dubina, Andrew; Shiu, Brian; Gilotra, Mohit; Hasan, S Ashfaq; Lerman, Daniel; Ng, Vincent Y


    The proximal humerus is a common location for both primary and metastatic bone tumors. There are numerous reconstruction options after surgical resection. There is no consensus on the ideal method of reconstruction. A systematic review was performed with a focus on the surgical reconstructive options for lesions involving the proximal humerus. A total of 50 articles and 1227 patients were included for analysis. Reoperation rates were autograft arthrodesis (11%), megaprosthesis (10%), RSA (17%), hemiarthroplasty (26%), and osteoarticular allograft (34%). Mechanical failure rates, including prosthetic loosening, fracture, and dislocation, were highest in allograft-containing constructs (APC, osteoarticular allograft, arthrodesis) followed by arthroplasty (hemiarthroplasty, RSA, megaprosthesis) and lowest for autografts (vascularized fibula, autograft arthrodesis). Infections involving RSA (9%) were higher than hemiarthroplasty (0%) and megaprosthesis (4%). Postoperative function as measured by MSTS score were similar amongst all prosthetic options, ranging from 66% to 74%, and claviculo pro humeri (CPH) was slightly better (83%). Patients were generally limited to active abduction of approximately 45° and no greater than 90°. With resection of the rotator cuff, deltoid muscle or axillary nerve, function and stability were compromised even further. If the rotator cuff was sacrificed but the deltoid and axillary nerve preserved, active forward flexion and abduction were superior with RSA. Various reconstruction techniques for the proximal humerus lead to relatively similar functional results. Surgical choice should be tailored to anatomic defect and functional requirements.

  9. Allograft-prosthetic composite versus megaprosthesis in the proximal tibia-What works best? (United States)

    Müller, Daniel A; Beltrami, Giovanni; Scoccianti, Guido; Cuomo, Pierluigi; Capanna, Rodolfo


    Modular megaprosthesis (MP) and allograft-prosthetic composite (APC) are the most commonly used reconstructions for large bone defects of the proximal tibia. The primary objective of this study was to compare the two different techniques in terms of failures and functional results. A total of 42 consecutive patients with a mean age of 39.6 years (range 15-81 years) who underwent a reconstruction of the proximal tibia between 2001 and 2012 were included. Twenty-three patients were given an MP, and 19 patients received an APC. There were nine reconstruction failures after an average follow-up of 62 months: five in the MP group and four in the APC group (p=0.957). The 10-year implant survival rate was 78.8% for the MP and 93.7% for the APC (p=0.224). There were no relevant differences between the two groups in functional results. Both MP and APC are valid and satisfactory reconstructive options for massive bone defects in the proximal tibia. In high-demanding patients with no further risk factors, an APC should be considered to provide the best possible functional result for the extensor mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of aluminized fabrics on radiant protective performance of fire proximity suit materials. (United States)

    Jin, Lu; Park, Pyoung Kyu; Hong, Kyoung A; Yoon, Kee Jong


    Radiant heat may be a significant component of heat exposure in the case of proximity firefighting. To combat high levels of radiant heat, fire proximity suits made of aluminized fabrics (Al-Fb) are commonly used due to their proven radiant protective performance (RPP). In this study RPP of various Al-Fb prepared using different aluminized films (Al-Fl) such as double-sided aluminized film and single-sided aluminized film and different base fabrics such as woven, knit, and nonwoven fabrics are compared. The effect of flexing on RPP and flame protective performance (FPP) of Al-Fb is also examined. The results show that RPP of Al-Fl is affected by the protective film to protect against mechanical or physical damages, and also by their structure such as whether the second reflective aluminum layer is present or not. In addition RPP of Al-Fb is also influenced by the base fabric, especially its surface roughness. The increased surface roughness combined with the damage caused to the aluminum layer after flexing result in reduction of RPP of Al-Fb. The contribution of Al-Fl to FPP of Al-Fb is not as significant as to RPP. Finally, based on the results, some points that may be important in developing and designing fire proximity suits are recommended. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  11. An Ebox element in the proximal Gata4 promoter is required for Gata4 expression in vivo.

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    Alain Boulende Sab

    Full Text Available GATA4 is an essential transcription factor required for the development and function of multiple tissues, including a major role in gonadogenesis. Despite its crucial role, the molecular mechanisms that regulate Gata4 expression in vivo remain poorly understood. We recently found that the Gata4 gene is expressed as multiple transcripts with distinct 5' origins. These co-expressed alternative transcripts are generated by different non-coding first exons with transcripts E1a and E1b being the most prominent. Moreover, we previously showed that an Ebox element, located in Gata4 5' flanking sequences upstream of exon 1a, is important for the promoter activity of these sequences in cell lines. To confirm the importance of this element in vivo, we generated and characterized Gata4 Ebox knockout mice. Quantitative PCR analyses realized on gonads, heart and liver at three developmental stages (embryonic, pre-pubertal and adult revealed that the Ebox mutation leads to a robust and specific decrease (up to 89% of Gata4 E1a transcript expression in all tissues and stages examined. However, a detailed characterization of the gonads revealed normal morphology and GATA4 protein levels in these mutants. Our qPCR data further indicate that this outcome is most likely due to the presence of Gata4 E1b mRNA, whose expression levels were not decreased by the Ebox mutation. In conclusion, our work clearly confirms the importance of the proximal Ebox element and suggests that adequate GATA4 protein expression is likely protected by a compensation mechanism between Gata4 E1a and E1b transcripts operating at the translational level.

  12. Skeletal Indicators of Shark Feeding on Human Remains: Evidence from Florida Forensic Anthropology Cases. (United States)

    Stock, Michala K; Winburn, Allysha P; Burgess, George H


    This research examines a series of six Florida forensic anthropology cases that exhibit taphonomic evidence of marine deposition and shark-feeding activities. In each case, we analyzed patterns of trauma/damage on the skeletal remains (e.g., sharp-force bone gouges and punctures) and possible mechanisms by which they were inflicted during shark predation/scavenging. In some cases, shark teeth were embedded in the remains; in the absence of this evidence, we measured interdental distance from defects in the bone to estimate shark body length, as well as to draw inferences about the potential species responsible. We discuss similarities and differences among the cases and make comparisons to literature documenting diagnostic shark-inflicted damage to human remains from nearby regions. We find that the majority of cases potentially involve bull or tiger sharks scavenging the remains of previously deceased, adult male individuals. This scavenging results in a distinctive taphonomic signature including incised gouges in cortical bone. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Efficacy comparison of intramedullary nails, locking plates and conservative treatment for displaced proximal humeral fractures in the elderly

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    Ge W


    Full Text Available Wei Ge,* Qi Sun,* Gen Li, Guanghua Lu, Ming Cai, ShaoHua Li Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The incidence of proximal humeral fractures is high in the elderly, and the superior management of these fractures remains a controversy. The study aims to compare clinical outcomes of intramedullary nails, locking plates and conservative treatment for the management of displaced proximal humeral fractures in the elderly. Patients and methods: In this prospective study, a total of 198 patients with 2- or 3-part proximal humeral fractures who received fixation of locking plates or intramedullary nails or conservative treatment were included. The primary outcome was the 24-month Constant–Murley score. The secondary outcomes included the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES scores, the visual analog scale (VAS pain scores, shoulder range of motion and complication rate. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the Constant–Murley scores and ASES scores among the plate group, the nail group and the conservative group for 2-part fractures. For 3-part fractures, Constant–Murley scores and ASES scores were lower in the conservative group compared with those in the plate group and the nail group. Besides, the conservative group showed a significantly lower external rotation during follow-ups. The complication rate was comparable among the plate group, the nail group and the conservative group for both 2-part and 3-part fractures. Conclusion: Similar satisfactory functional outcomes can be achieved with the locking plates, intramedullary nails or conservative treatment for 2-part proximal humeral fractures in the elderly. The advantages in functional outcomes favor locking plates and intramedullary nails in the management of 3-part proximal humeral fractures. Keywords

  14. Proximity to safety-net clinics and HPV vaccine uptake among low-income, ethnic minority girls. (United States)

    Tsui, Jennifer; Singhal, Rita; Rodriguez, Hector P; Gee, Gilbert C; Glenn, Beth A; Bastani, Roshan


    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake remains low. Although publicly funded programs provide free or low cost vaccines to low-income children, barriers aside from cost may prevent disadvantaged girls from getting vaccinated. Prior studies have shown distance to health care as a potential barrier to utilizing pediatric preventive services. This study examines whether HPV vaccines are geographically accessible for low-income girls in Los Angeles County and whether proximity to safety-net clinics is associated with vaccine initiation. Interviews were conducted in multiple languages with largely immigrant, low-income mothers of girls ages 9 to 18 via a county health hotline to assess uptake and correlates of uptake. Addresses of respondents and safety-net clinics that provide the HPV vaccine for free or low cost were geo-coded and linked to create measures of geographic proximity. Logistic regression models were estimated for each proximity measure on HPV vaccine initiation while controlling for other factors. On average, 83% of the 468 girls had at least one clinic within 3-miles of their residence. The average travel time on public transportation to the nearest clinic among all girls was 21min. Average proximity to clinics differed significantly by race/ethnicity. Latinas had both the shortest travel distances (2.2 miles) and public transportation times (16min) compared to other racial/ethnic groups. The overall HPV vaccine initiation rate was 25%. Increased proximity to the nearest clinic was not significantly associated with initiation. By contrast, daughter's age and insurance status were significantly associated with increased uptake. This study is among the first to examine geographic access to HPV vaccines for underserved girls. Although the majority of girls live in close proximity to safety-net vaccination services, rates of initiation were low. Expanding clinic outreach in this urban area is likely more important than increasing geographic access to the

  15. Influence of Early Bisphosphonate Administration for Fracture Healing in Patients with Osteoporotic Proximal Humerus Fractures. (United States)

    Seo, Joong-Bae; Yoo, Jae-Sung; Ryu, Jee-Won; Yu, Kun-Woong


    Bisphosphonates are generally known to adversely affect fracture healing because they inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption. However, some authors argue that bisphosphonates have no adverse effect on the restoration of the mechanical integrity of long bones after fractures. It is unclear whether bisphosphonates can be initiated safely in patients with acute proximal humerus fractures. The aim of this study was to determine whether the early use of a bisphosphonate affects healing and outcomes of osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures treated with a locking compression plate. Between August 2004 and June 2013, a total of 82 osteoporotic patients who underwent locking plate fixation of proximal humerus fractures were enrolled retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to the timing of the commencement of treatment with alendronate after surgery: group A (n = 34, initiation of the bisphosphonate treatment within two weeks after surgery) and group B (n = 48, control group, initiation of the treatment three months after surgery). Patients were assessed for radiographic union at 2, 6, 10, and 16 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Clinical assessments were performed using the Constant score and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score at 1 year after surgery. No significant differences were observed between the two groups with respect to radiographic and clinical outcomes after locking plate fixation. All patients obtained fracture union, and the mean time to radiographic union was similar in group A and group B (6.3 and 6.6 weeks, respectively; p = 0.67). This study shows that the early initiation of bisphosphonate treatment does not affect bone union or clinical outcomes in patients with an osteoporotic proximal humerus fracture treated by locking compression plate fixation.

  16. Functional outcome of closed fractures of proximal humerus managed by Joshi′s external stabilizing system

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    Anil Kumar Gupta


    Full Text Available Background: Proximal humeral fractures account for 4-5% of all fractures; most of them involving elderly and osteoporotic people. 1 51% of such fractures are displaced. Two Fractures with minimal displacement, regardless of the number of fracture lines, can be treated with closed reduction and early mobilization, but anatomical reduction in displaced fractures is difficult to obtain and the incidence of pseudarthrosis is high 3-5. We evaluated the functional results of closed Neer′s 2- and 3-part proximal humerus fractures treated by Joshi′s external stabilizing system. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients with proximal humeral fractures were managed from 2008 to 2010 by Joshi′s stabilizing external fixation. They were 10 males and 6 females, with a mean age of 57.5 years. Based on Neer′s classification, there were eleven 3-part fractures and five 2-part fractures. The mechanism of injuries included seven road traffic accidents and nine fall. Shoulder mobilization exercises were started within 1 week after stabilization with JESS. External fixation was removed after the evidence of union (6-8 weeks. Pain was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS and shoulder range of motion was evaluated by Constant Scoring System. Followup was done at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks, and then at every 4 weeks. Results: Mean followup was of 20.5 months (range 9-30 months. Postoperative mean VAS score and Constant Score of patients was 2.1 (±0.73 and 78.1 (±9.61 at an average followup of 6 months. Mean duration for union was 6.5 (±1.18 weeks. One case of K-wire loosening and one case of pin tract infection were the complications noted. Conclusion: External fixation by JESS is an alternative option to treat Neer′s 2 and 3 part proximal humerus fractures with good results.

  17. Early effects of uranyl nitrate on respiration and K sup + transport in rabbit proximal tubule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, H.R.; Kone, B.C.; Brenner, R.M.; Gullans, S.R. (Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))


    The mechanisms by which uranyl nitrate (UN) is toxic to the proximal tubule are incompletely understood. To define these further we studied potassium (K+) transport and oxygen consumption (QO2) in rabbit proximal tubule suspensions in vitro immediately after exposure to UN using extracellular O2- and K+-sensitive electrodes. UN caused a cumulative dose-dependent inhibition of proximal tubule QO2, with a threshold concentration of 5 x 10(-5) M. Kinetic analysis suggested two patterns of cell injury: a higher affinity inhibition of QO2 with a Ki of 5 x 10(-4) M, and a lower affinity inhibition of QO2 with a Ki of 10 mM. QO2 was studied in detail in the presence of these Ki concentrations of UN to define the initial cellular events. The results indicated that different cellular processes displayed different sensitivities to UN. At submillimolar concentrations UN caused progressive selective inhibition of ouabain-insensitive QO2 (15% inhibition at 2 minutes). Ouabain-sensitive QO2 and nystatin-stimulated QO2 were not affected, suggesting that Na+,K+-ATPase activity and its coupling to mitochondrial ATP synthesis were intact. Direct measurement of proximal tubule net K+ flux confirmed that Na+,K+-ATPase activity was unchanged. Similarly, UN did not inhibit basal (state 4) or ADP-stimulated (state 3) mitochondrial QO2 in digitonin-permeabilized tubules, confirming that the mitochondria were intact. In contrast, higher concentrations of UN (greater than or equal to 1 mM) caused rapid inhibition of QO2 and net K+ efflux, due to inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity and mitochondrial injury.

  18. Does proximity to violence negatively influence attitudes toward exception from informed consent in emergency research? (United States)

    Maher, Zoë; Grill, Elena Kosar; Smith, Brian Patrick; Sims, Carrie A


    Trauma research has been limited by perceived patient reluctance to participate in exception from informed consent (EFIC) studies. We hypothesized that race, socioeconomic status, and proximity to violence influence willingness to participate in and perception of EFIC research among at-risk populations. Trauma patients, families, and community members ranked statements regarding attitude toward EFIC in the context of an upcoming trial and willingness to participate in emergency research using a 5-point Likert scale during a community consultation. Higher total scores reflected a more positive attitude regarding EFIC (range, 6-30; neutral, 18) and willingness (range, 23-115; neutral, 69). Subject zip code was used to calculate median income, as an estimate for socioeconomic status, and proximity to the five most violent city zip codes. Linear regression, Spearman's correlation, and Kruskal-Wallis tests (p attitudes toward EFIC. A total of 179 subjects participated including trauma patients (n = 99), families (n = 33), and community members (n = 47). Overall, participants were supportive of EFIC and reported high scores in willingness to participate (median, 24; interquartile range, 21-25; median 89, interquartile range, 82-95, respectively). Proximity to violence did correlate with race (p = 0.03) but was not associated with violent mechanism of injury, perception of EFIC, or willingness to participate in emergency research. Estimated socioeconomic status and race did not correlate with perception of or willingness to participate in EFIC. Based on our data, there is no correlation between either proximity to violence or estimated socioeconomic status and willingness to participate in EFIC research. Given this lack of correlation, researchers should partner with at-risk communities to conduct EFIC studies without concern for limited participation. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.

  19. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for proximal humeral fractures. (United States)

    Koljonen, Paul Aarne; Fang, Christian; Lau, Tak Wing; Leung, Frankie; Cheung, Nigel W K


    To report the outcome after minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) through the deltoid-splitting approach for proximal humeral fractures. 10 men and 30 women aged 37 to 88 years underwent MIPO through the deltoid-splitting approach using the Proximal Humerus Internal Locking System or the Locking Proximal Humerus Plate for 2-part (n=18), 3-part (n=20), and 4-part (n=2) proximal humeral fractures. The rehabilitation protocol was standardised. All 40 patients were followed up at 3 months, 34 (85%) at 6 months, 30 (75%) at one year, and 13 (33%) at 2 years. Two patients had malunion. No patient had avascular necrosis, infection, nerve palsy, or nonunion. The mean Constant score at one year and 2 years was 75 and 87.5, respectively. The Constant score at 6 months correlated to that at one year (r=0.926, pfracture grade, or hand dominance. MIPO for fixation of proximal humeral fractures using a locking plate is safe and effective in enabling an early return of shoulder function.

  20. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures (United States)

    Ye, Yongyu; You, Wei; Zhu, Weimin; Cui, Jiaming; Chen, Kang


    Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases. PMID:29081829

  1. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyu Ye


    Full Text Available Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases.

  2. Intramedullary Nailing for Pathological Fractures of the Proximal Humerus. (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Seok; Han, Ilkyu; Cho, Hwan Seong; Park, In Woong; Park, Jong Woong; Kim, Han-Soo


    Endoprosthetic reconstruction is widely applied for pathological fractures of the proximal humerus; however, functional impairment is usually unsatisfactory. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the reliability of interlocking intramedullary (IM) nailing with cement augmentation as a fixation method in proximal humeral lesions and to assess functional outcomes. We reviewed 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus who underwent interlocking IM nailing and cement augmentation. Functional scores and pain relief were assessed as outcomes. The mean follow-up period was 14.2 months. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional score and Karnofsky performance status scale score were 27.7 and 75.6, respectively. Improvement of pain assessed using the visual analogue scale was 6.2 on average. Thirty-one patients (97%) experienced no pain after surgery. The mean ranges of forward flexion and abduction were 115° and 112.6°, respectively. All patients achieved stability and had no local recurrence without failure of fixation until the last follow-up. Proximal interlocking IM nailing with cement augmentation appears to be a reliable treatment option for pathological or impending fractures of the proximal humerus in selected patients with metastatic tumors, even with extensive bone destruction.

  3. Topology of digital images visual pattern discovery in proximity spaces

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    Peters, James F


    This book carries forward recent work on visual patterns and structures in digital images and introduces a near set-based a topology of digital images. Visual patterns arise naturally in digital images viewed as sets of non-abstract points endowed with some form of proximity (nearness) relation. Proximity relations make it possible to construct uniform topolo- gies on the sets of points that constitute a digital image. In keeping with an interest in gaining an understanding of digital images themselves as a rich source of patterns, this book introduces the basics of digital images from a computer vision perspective. In parallel with a computer vision perspective on digital images, this book also introduces the basics of prox- imity spaces. Not only the traditional view of spatial proximity relations but also the more recent descriptive proximity relations are considered. The beauty of the descriptive proximity approach is that it is possible to discover visual set patterns among sets that are non-overlapping ...

  4. Results of the proximal humerus endoprosthetic reconstruction after tumour resection

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    I. M. Mikailov


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the results of surgical reconstructions of the proximal humerus after transarticular tumour resection, compare the functional results with the results of shoulder arthroplasty in patients with extensive damage of the proximal humerus of non-neoplastic origin. Material and methods. Between 2001 and 2013 38 proximal humeral reconstructions were performed in our clinic: using monopolar endoprostheses - 26 (68% and modular systems with reversible head -12 (32%. The control group included 46 patients with extensive lesions of the proximal humerus of non-neoplastic origin, operated in our clinic in the period from 2006 to 2012. Term follow-up of patients ranged from 7 months to 9 years. Assessment of functional results was carried out in a period from six months to one year. Results. The seven-year survival according the Kaplan - Meier method for patients with primary malignant tumors of the proximal humerus (25 patients was 77%. In the study group the average value of functional outcome MSTS score was 77.7%. Unipolar prosthesis showed a bad result, both in the control (61,3% MSTS, 60,7 Neer and in the main (67,7% MSTS, 61,1 Neer study groups. Conclusion. Currently the method of choice which doesn’t impair the oncologic component of treatment patients with shoulder neoplastic lesions is its replacement with modular reversible systems in combination with additional soft tissue fixation.

  5. Clinical applicability of resin infiltration for proximal caries. (United States)

    Altarabulsi, Mohammad Basel; Alkilzy, Mohammad; Splieth, Christian H


    Resin infiltration is a new microinvasive treatment to arrest the progress of proximal initial caries lesions. This study evaluated the clinical applicability of proximal caries infiltration. In the study population of 50 children, adolescents, and young adults (mean age, 17.3 ± 6.4 years), 10 dentists at the University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany, applied the infiltration material Icon on noncavitated proximal lesions in permanent and primary teeth as described by the manufacturer. The applicability was evaluated using two questionnaires filled out by clinicians and patients assessing the comfort, complexity, time, and difficulties of the application in comparison to a filling. The results showed good patient satisfaction with the procedure. The mean time for infiltration (24.3 ± 7.4 minutes), which included rubber dam application (7.7 ± 4 minutes) and the effort were perceived to be comparable to or even easier than a composite filling by clinicians. In three patients (6%), it was not possible to gain sufficient proximal space for the application of an infiltration. The location of the infiltrated tooth, separation problems, and the routine of clinicians with the infiltration technique had an effect on the duration of the infiltration. A clear learning curve with a reduction of treatment time for subsequent treatments was observed (P proximal lesion showed good clinical applicability for clinicians and very high acceptance by patients.

  6. The Neandertals of northeastern Iberia: new remains from the Cova del Gegant (Sitges, Barcelona). (United States)

    Quam, Rolf; Sanz, Montserrat; Daura, Joan; Robson Brown, Kate; García-González, Rebeca; Rodríguez, Laura; Dawson, Heidi; Rodríguez, Rosa Flor; Gómez, Sandra; Villaescusa, Lucía; Rubio, Ángel; Yagüe, Almudena; Ortega Martínez, María Cruz; Fullola, Josep Maria; Zilhão, João; Arsuaga, Juan Luis


    The present study describes a new juvenile hominin mandible and teeth and a new juvenile humerus from level V of the GP2 gallery of Cova del Gegant (Spain). The mandible (Gegant-5) preserves a portion of the right mandibular corpus from the M1 distally to the socket for the dc mesially, and the age at death is estimated as 4.5-5.0 years. Gegant-5 shows a single mental foramen located under the dm1/dm2 interdental septum, a relatively posterior placement compared with recent hominins of a similar developmental age. The mental foramen in Gegant-5 is also placed within the lower half of the mandibular corpus, as in the previously described late adolescent/adult mandible (Gegant-1) from this same Middle Paleolithic site. The Gegant-5 canine shows pronounced marginal ridges, a distal accessory ridge, and a pronounced distolingual tubercle. The P3 shows a lingually-displaced protoconid cusp tip and a distal accessory ridge. The P4 shows a slightly asymmetrical crown outline, a continuous transverse crest, a mesially placed metaconid cusp tip, a slight distal accessory ridge, and an accessory lingual cusp. The M1 shows a Y5 pattern of cusp contact and a well-developed and deep anterior fovea bounded posteriorly by a continuous midtrigonid crest. Gegant-4 is the distal portion of a left humerus from a juvenile estimated to be between 5 and 7 years old at death. The specimen shows thick cortical bone. Although fragmentary, the constellation of morphological and metric features indicates Neandertal affinities for these specimens. Their spatial proximity at the site and similar ages at death suggest these remains may represent a single individual. The addition of these new specimens brings the total number of Neandertal remains from the Cova del Gegant to five, and this site documents the clearest evidence for Neandertal fossils associated with Middle Paleolithic stone tools in this region of the Iberian Peninsula. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Field evidence for a proximate role of food shortage in the regulation of hibernation and daily torpor: a review. (United States)

    Vuarin, Pauline; Henry, Pierre-Yves


    Hibernation and daily torpor (heterothermy) have long been assumed to be adaptive responses to seasonal energy shortage. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that food shortage alone can trigger the use of heterothermy. However, their potential to predict heterothermic responses in the wild is limited, and few field studies demonstrate the dependence of heterothermy on food availability under natural conditions. Thus, the view of heterothermy as an energy saving strategy to compensate for food shortage largely remains an untested hypothesis. In this paper, we review published evidence on the proximate role of food availability in heterothermy regulation by endotherms, and emphasize alternative hypotheses that remain to be tested. Most studies have relied on correlative evidence. Manipulations of food availability, that demonstrate the proximate role of food availability, have been conducted in only five free-ranging heterotherms. Several other metabolic constraints covary with food availability and can confound its effect. Shortage in water availability, the nutritional composition of food, or subsequent conversion of food in fat storage all could be actual proximate drivers of heterothermy regulation, rather than food shortage. Social interactions, competition for food and predation also likely modulate the relative strength of food shortage between individuals. The ecological relevance of the dependence of heterothermy on food availability remains to be assessed in field experiments that account for the confounding effects of covarying environmental and internal factors.

  8. Effects of phospho- and calciotropic hormones on electrolyte transport in the proximal tubule [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin J. Lee


    Full Text Available Calcium and phosphate are critical for a myriad of physiological and cellular processes within the organism. Consequently, plasma levels of calcium and phosphate are tightly regulated. This occurs through the combined effects of the phospho- and calciotropic hormones, parathyroid hormone (PTH, active vitamin D3, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23. The organs central to this are the kidneys, intestine, and bone. In the kidney, the proximal tubule reabsorbs the majority of filtered calcium and phosphate, which amounts to more than 60% and 90%, respectively. The basic molecular mechanisms responsible for phosphate reclamation are well described, and emerging work is delineating the molecular identity of the paracellular shunt wherein calcium permeates the proximal tubular epithelium. Significant experimental work has delineated the molecular effects of PTH and FGF23 on these processes as well as their regulation of active vitamin D3 synthesis in this nephron segment. The integrative effects of both phospho- and calciotropic hormones on proximal tubular solute transport and subsequently whole body calcium-phosphate balance thus have been further complicated. Here, we first review the molecular mechanisms of calcium and phosphate reabsorption from the proximal tubule and how they are influenced by the phospho- and calciotropic hormones acting on this segment and then consider the implications on both renal calcium and phosphate handling as well as whole body mineral balance.

  9. Results of the proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) in elderly Chinese patients


    Pu, Jin-Song; Liu, Lei; Wang, Guang-lin; Fang, Yue; Yang, Tian-Fu


    A prospective study is presented of 87 unstable intertrochanteric fractures treated with the proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) with a follow-up of one year. Of the patients 76% were female. The average age was 75.3 years. The fracture was treated by closed reduction and intramedullary fixation. Pre-injury activity level was recovered in 77% of the patients. Fractures united in all patients. Mechanical failure and cut-out were not observed. A technical problem related to the mismatch ...

  10. On determinants of glomerular filtration rate after inhibition of proximal tubular reabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Karlsen, F M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H


    The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (ACZ) inhibits the absolute rate of proximal reabsorption (APR), causes a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and activates the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism (TGF) resulting in afferent vasoconstriction. The quantitative importance...... vasoconstriction seen after carbonic anhydrase inhibition fails to restore GFR to its control value. This is due to the high flow resistance in the distal nephron segments during the increased tubular flow rates seen after ACZ. The high distal flow resistance causes a parallel change in Pgc and Pprox and thus...

  11. Critical factors in cut-out complication after gamma nail treatment of proximal femoral fractures

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    Bojan Alicja J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common mechanical failure in the internal fixation of trochanteric hip fractures is the cut-out of the sliding screw through the femoral head. Several factors that influence this complication have been suggested, but there is no consensus as to the relative importance of each factor. The purpose of this study was to analyse the cut-out complication with respect to the following variables: patients’ age, fracture type, fracture reduction, implant positioning and implant design. Methods 3066 consecutive patients were treated for trochanteric fractures with Gamma Nails between 1990 and 2002 at the Centre de Traumatologie et de l`Orthopedie (CTO, Strasbourg, France. Cut-out complications were identified by reviewing all available case notes and radiographs. Subsequently, the data were analysed by a single reviewer (AJB with focus on the studied factors. Results Seventy-one cut-out complications were found (2.3% of the 3066 trochanteric fractures. Cut-out failure associated with avascular head necrosis, pathologic fracture, deep infection or secondary to prior failure of other implants were excluded from the study (14 cases. The remaining 57 cases (1.85 %, median age 82.6, 79% females were believed to have a biomechanical explanation for the cut-out failure. 41 patients had a basicervical or complex fracture type. A majority of cut-outs (43 hips, 75% had a combination of the critical factors studied; non-anatomical reduction, non-optimal lag screw position and the characteristic fracture pattern found. Conclusions The primary cut-out rate of 1.85% was low compared with the literature. A typical cut-out complication in our study is represented by an unstable fracture involving the trochanteric and cervical regions or the combination of both, non-anatomical reduction and non-optimal screw position. Surgeons confronted with proximal femoral fractures should carefully scrutinize preoperative radiographs to assess the

  12. A pharmacologically-based array to identify targets of cyclosporine A-induced toxicity in cultured renal proximal tubule cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarró, Eduard, E-mail: [Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Unitat de Bioquímica de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Jacobs-Cachá, Conxita, E-mail: [Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Itarte, Emilio, E-mail: [Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Unitat de Bioquímica de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Meseguer, Anna, E-mail: [Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d' Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), 08035 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)


    Mechanisms of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity were generally thought to be hemodynamic in origin; however, there is now accumulating evidence of a direct tubular effect. Although genomic and proteomic experiments by our group and others provided overall information on genes and proteins up- or down-regulated by CsA in proximal tubule cells (PTC), a comprehensive view of events occurring after CsA exposure remains to be described. For this purpose, we applied a pharmacologic approach based on the use of known activities of a large panel of potentially protective compounds and evaluated their efficacy in preventing CsA toxicity in cultured mouse PTC. Our results show that compounds that blocked protein synthesis and apoptosis, together with the CK2 inhibitor DMAT and the PI3K inhibitor apigenin, were the most efficient in preventing CsA toxicity. We also identified GSK3, MMPs and PKC pathways as potential targets to prevent CsA damage. Additionally, heparinase-I and MAPK inhibitors afforded partial but significant protection. Interestingly, antioxidants and calcium metabolism-related compounds were unable to ameliorate CsA-induced cytotoxicity. Subsequent experiments allowed us to clarify the hierarchical relationship of targeted pathways after CsA treatment, with ER stress identified as an early effector of CsA toxicity, which leads to ROS generation, phenotypical changes and cell death. In summary, this work presents a novel experimental approach to characterizing cellular responses to cytotoxics while pointing to new targets to prevent CsA-induced toxicity in proximal tubule cells. Highlights: ► We used a novel pharmacological approach to elucidate cyclosporine (CsA) toxicity. ► The ability of a broad range of compounds to prevent CsA toxicity was evaluated. ► CsA toxicity was monitored using LDH release assay and PARP cleavage. ► Protein synthesis, PI3K, GSK3, MMP, PKC and caspase inhibitors prevented CsA toxicity. ► We also identified ER

  13. The Proximity Cryogenic System for the ATLAS Toroidal Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Baynham, D Elwyn; Brown, G; Cragg, D; Crook, M; Haug, F; Mayri, C; Orlowska, A H; Passardi, Giorgio; Pengo, R; ten Kate, H H J; Rochford, J; Sole, D


    ATLAS is a very high-energy detector for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The superconducting magnet used to provide the required magnetic field consists of four sub-systems: a central solenoid and a very large toroidal magnet comprising two end-cap magnets and the barrel toroid magnet. The associated cryogenic system, currently in the final specification and procurement phase has been sub-divided into three parts: internal, proximity and external. The internal cryogenics minimizes and extracts the heat loads to/from the 4.5 K cold mass and its thermal shields, while the proximity cryogenics takes the cooling capacity generated by the external common system and distributes it to the four magnets according to the various operating scenarios. Two independent proximity cryogenic systems have been designed taking into account the difference in cooling principle of the solenoid and the three toroids, respectively.

  14. The proximity cryogenic system for the ATLAS toroidal magnets (United States)

    Haug, F.; Passardi, G.; Pengo, R.; ten Kate, H.; Baynham, E.; Bradshaw, T.; Brown, G.; Cragg, D.; Crook, M.; Orlowska, A. H.; Rochford, J.; Sole, D.; Mayri, C.


    ATLAS is a very high-energy detector for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The superconducting magnet used to provide the required magnetic field consists of four sub-systems: a central solenoid and a very large toroidal magnet comprising two end-cap magnets and the barrel toroid magnet. The associated cryogenic system, currently in the final specification and procurement phase has been sub-divided into three parts: internal, proximity and external. The internal cryogenics minimizes and extracts the heat loads to/from the 4.5 K cold mass and its thermal shields, while the proximity cryogenics takes the cooling capacity generated by the external common system and distributes it to the four magnets according to the various operating scenarios. Two independent proximity cryogenic systems have been designed taking into account the difference in cooling principle of the solenoid and the three toroids, respectively.

  15. How to improve outcome in surgery for Proximal Hypospadias? (United States)

    Qureshi, Abdul Hafeez; Zaidi, Syed Zafar


    To evaluate the role of subdartos fascial tissue as watertight layer in improving outcome for 2-stage proximal hypospadias surgery. The experimental study was conducted at the Department of Urology, Indus Hospital, Karachi, and comprised an audit of patients with proximal hypospadias who underwent surgery from July 1, 2007, to December 31, 2011. The initial two-stage repair of proximal hypospadias led to a high rate of urethrocutanous fistula formation (Group A), and, thus, a modification was introduced and subdartos facial double layer was applied over the urethral suture line (Group B). The results were compared regarding age, type of hypospadias, graft failure and urethrocutanous fistula in these patients. There were 27 patients in Group A and 16(59.3%) of them ended up having urethrocutanous fistula. Group B had 25 patients and only 2(8%) had fistula formation. The application of dartos facial flap waterproofing layer reduced fistula rate.

  16. Specifics of proximal caries and their diagnostics in posterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik-Checinska Ilona


    Full Text Available Proximal surfaces are the second in turn after the occlusal surfaces, as being the most exposed places to the carious process. The specificity of changes and location makes the diagnostic of approximal cavities difficult. The aim of the study was to collect information on possibilities of detection, monitoring and assessment of carious lesions located on proximal surfaces, starting from the early stage. On the base of current literature, chosen methods of diagnosis, from conventional, to advanced technologies were presented. Current literature also suggests that none of the diagnostic methods exclude the possibility of misdiagnosis of proximal caries. Therefore, during the diagnosing of doubtful cases, it is advisable to employ several methods of assessment, with simultaneous individual appraisal of caries risk factors, such as oral hygiene, frequency of eating sweets or the number of active caries foci.

  17. Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced proximal tubular cell damage. (United States)

    Camano, Sonia; Lazaro, Alberto; Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefania; Torres, Ana M; de Lucas, Carmen; Humanes, Blanca; Lazaro, Jose A; Milagros Gomez-Gomez, M; Bosca, Lisardo; Tejedor, Alberto


    A major area in cancer therapy is the search for protective strategies against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We investigated the protective effect of cilastatin on cisplatin-induced injury to renal proximal tubular cells. Cilastatin is a specific inhibitor of renal dehydrodipeptidase I (DHP-I), which prevents hydrolysis of imipenem and its accumulation in the proximal tubule. Primary cultures of proximal cells were treated with cisplatin (1-30 microM) in the presence or absence of cilastatin (200 microg/ml). Apoptosis and mitochondrial injury were assessed by different techniques. Cisplatin uptake and DNA binding were measured by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. HeLa cells were used to control the effect of cilastatin on the tumoricidal activity of cisplatin. Cisplatin increased cell death, apoptotic-like morphology, caspase activation, and mitochondrial injury in proximal tubular cells in a dose- and time-dependent way. Concomitant treatment with cilastatin reduced cisplatin-induced changes. Cilastatin also reduced the DNA-bound platinum but did not modify cisplatin-dependent up-regulation of death receptors (Fas) or ligands (tumor necrosis factor alpha, Fas ligand). In contrast, cilastatin did not show any effects on cisplatin-treated HeLa cells. Renal DHP-I was virtually absent in HeLa cells. Cilastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced cell death in proximal tubular cells without reducing the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin in tumor cells. Our findings suggest that the affinity of cilastatin for renal dipeptidase makes this effect specific for proximal tubular cells and may be related to a reduction in intracellular drug accumulation. Therefore, cilastatin administration might represent a novel strategy in the prevention of cisplatin-induced acute renal injury.

  18. One-stage surgical correction of proximal hypospadias. (United States)

    Joseph, V T


    Proximal hypospadias poses major problems in surgical correction owing to the complexity and severity of the abnormalities, leading to the use of staged repairs to correct this condition. However, with precise definition of the components of this deformity a single-stage operation can be developed and applied successfully for surgical correction of this condition. Twenty-six patients with severe proximal hypospadias were subjected to a one-stage repair. Excision of proximal fibrotic dartos tissue and removal of dysplastic urethral plate tissue corrected chordee completely. Urethral reconstruction was then performed by tubularising a flap of dorso-lateral preputial skin which was then anastomosed to the proximal urethra. The glandular part of the urethra was reconstructed using the distal part of the flap as an onlay graft over the meatal groove. The suture lines were covered with a layer of dartos tissue and skin closure was completed by transposing dorsal skin to surface the ventral penile shaft. A urethral catheter was left in for 10 days. All patients have been followed up after surgery from 1 to 5 years with a median period of 2 years. There were no fistulas. Two patients had mild stenosis at the meatus which responded to dilatation. One patient developed a stricture at the proximal anastomosis which required secondary correction. All other patients achieved satisfactory correction, both in terms of voiding and in the cosmetic appearance of the genitalia. Single-stage repair of hypospadias can be successfully applied in the correction of severe proximal hypospadias. It requires meticulous dissection and careful design of reconstructive techniques. The end results are comparable to staged procedures and morbidity is significantly lower.

  19. Interindividual variability in social insects - proximate causes and ultimate consequences. (United States)

    Jeanson, Raphaël; Weidenmüller, Anja


    Individuals within social groups often show consistent differences in behaviour across time and context. Such interindividual differences and the evolutionary challenge they present have recently generated considerable interest. Social insects provide some of the most familiar and spectacular examples of social groups with large interindividual differences. Investigating these within-group differences has a long research tradition, and behavioural variability among the workers of a colony is increasingly regarded as fundamental for a key feature of social insects: division of labour. The goal of this review is to illustrate what we know about both the proximate mechanisms underlying behavioural variability among the workers of a colony and its ultimate consequences; and to highlight the many open questions in this research field. We begin by reviewing the literature on mechanisms that potentially introduce, maintain, and adjust the behavioural differentiation among workers. We highlight the fact that so far, most studies have focused on behavioural variability based on genetic variability, provided by e.g. multiple mating of the queen, while other mechanisms that may be responsible for the behavioural differentiation among workers have been largely neglected. These include maturational, nutritional and environmental influences. We further discuss how feedback provided by the social environment and learning and experience of adult workers provides potent and little-explored sources of differentiation. In a second part, we address what is known about the potential benefits and costs of increased behavioural variability within the workers of a colony. We argue that all studies documenting a benefit of variability so far have done so by manipulating genetic variability, and that a direct test of the effect of behavioural variability on colony productivity has yet to be provided. We emphasize that the costs associated with interindividual variability have been largely

  20. Evolution of treatment of of the proximal humerus fractures (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Kogan


    Full Text Available The article in generalized form acquaints with the publications devoted to the bases of proximal humeral fractures treatment. A brief digression on anatomy and biomechanics of the humeral joint allows to consider the main morphological features of it. The most commonly used classification of proximal humeral fractures concisely classify many types of damage. According to the clinical and anatomical characteristics of fractures tracked the historical aspect, the development and the current state of the most common methods of treatment. In his review collected works authors share their experience in the application of methods. It allows to further the perspective directions.