WorldWideScience

Sample records for proximate composition electronic

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  2. PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS. 1 Alhassan, A. J. 1M .S. Sule, 1J. ... ABSTRACT. This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. Proximate ... days, before pulverized to powder and kept in plastic container.

  3. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  4. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 ... Key words: Rhynchophorus phoenicis, Oryctes monoceros, proximate composition, cholesterol, heat treatment. INTRODUCTION. Insects have played ...

  5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITIONS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde Emmanuel

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... Fish allows for protein improved nutrition in that it has a high biological value in terms of high ... marine algae upon which the fish feed [11]. ... Proximate composition of catfish Clarias gariepinus and Tarpon atlanticus were.

  6. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  7. Proximate, mineral composition, antioxidant activity, and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four varieties of the red pepper fruits (Capsicum species) were evaluated for chemical composition, antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents using standard analytical technique, ferric-ion reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and Folin-Colcalteau method respectively. The proximate composition values ...

  8. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was investigated using standard procedures. Proximate analysis included in g% dry weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a moisture content of 70.04 ...

  9. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  10. Proximate composition and consumer acceptability of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to assess the organoleptic differences of Clarias gariepinus smoked with two different energy sources, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Tamarindus indica with the help of a hedonic scale and to determine possible proximate composition difference between the smoked products. Smoking of the fishes ...

  11. Proximate, chemical compositions and sulphur concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm) on the nutritional value and the proximate composition of six selected mango cultivars (Tommy Atkins, Peach, Saber, Sunshine, Keitt and Vhavenda) grown in South Africa. The study shows that ...

  12. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins analysis of two varieties of honey (dark amber and light amber) were carried out using standard methods. The values for moisture, ash, crude lipid, crude protein and crude carbohydrate contents of the two honeys, (light amber and dark amber) are 9.39 ...

  13. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of Rhynchophorus phoenicis and Oryctes monoceros larvae subjected to different heat treatments. ... 514.63 mg/100g dry weight basis (DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 mg/100 g DWB in the smoke-dried samples. Similarly, the ...

  14. Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus thoracis from pasture fed LHRH immunocastrated, castrated and intact Bos indicus bulls.

  15. Proximity effect of electron beam lithography on single-electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    monly used technique in this field, and many researchers have been investigating its application to make nanopatterns. In electron beam lithography, the well-known proximity effect refers to .... electrodes are grounded. The charging effect, which blocks the injection/ejection of a single charge into/from a quantum dot, ...

  16. Proximate Composition, Macro and Trace Mineral Compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition of the whole portion was significantly (P<0.05) higher in levels of moisture and carbohydrates (9.10± 0.33 % and 62.66± 0.54%), crude protein in the flesh (41.94± 0.69% and 4.36± 0.14%) whereas fat, ash and crude fibre content (2.20± 0.05% and 0.56± 0.02%) were higher in the exoskeleton.

  17. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % respectively while ... were analyzed using flame photometer for K and ... low in methionine. Table 1: Proximate Composition of C. argentea. Parameter. Composition (%). Moisture content. Crude Fat. Crude protein. Crude fibre. Ash. Nitrogen ...

  18. Water Balance and Proximate Composition in Cowpea ( vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studying the water balance and proximate composition in plants subjected to these stresses compared the influence of drought and flooding on cowpea seedlings. In drought plants the leaf water potential, its components and the proximate composition were markedly reduced by the end of the experimental period.

  19. Proximate composition and mineral contents of Pebbly fish, Alestes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The objective of this study was to determine the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. ... and also develop suitable processing method. This study determined the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. baremoze fillets based on fish size. Materials and .... moisture contents can vary with sex of the fish ...

  20. Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants in four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants (anti-nutrients) in four commonly consumed spices were investigated. The spices were garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), onion (Allium cepa var. cepa), and Piper guineense seeds (Ashanti pepper). Proximate analyses showed the spices to contain (on ...

  1. Determination of Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of the seed of 30 Nigerian sesame genotypes were determined based on the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the Sequential Multi- sample amino acid Analyzer (TSM). Proximate analysis showed that sesame seed contained ...

  2. Effect of processing method on the Proximate composition, mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of processing method on the Proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of Taro (Colocasia esculenta, L.) growth in Ethiopia. T Adane, A Shimelis, R Negussie, B Tilahun, GD Haki ...

  3. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a little crude fibre content of 0.92 %. The results indicated that ginger rhizome is an excellent natural remedy for a wide range of ailments. Keywords: Zingiber officinale, spice, rhizome, phytochemistry, proximate analysis, Zingiberaceae, zingerone, methanolic extraction. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, Vol.

  4. THE PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN BUSH MANGO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    The proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, mineral ash and total carbohydrates) in the kernels and flour of African Bush Mango (. ) were investigated. The results revealed that the kernels contained moisture (2.5 g/100 g), crude protein (8.9 g/100 g), crude fat (68.4 g/100 g), mineral ash (2.3 g/100 g) and total ...

  5. Proximity functions for electrons up to 10 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmelevsky, D. (Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenkunde der Universitaet Wuerzburg, Germany); Kellerer, A.M.; Terrissol, M.; Patau, J.P.

    1980-11-01

    Proximity functions for electrons up to 10 keV in water are computed from simulated particle tracks. Numerical results are given for the differential functions t(x) and the integral functions T(x). Basic characteristics of these functions and their connections to other microdosimetric quantities are considered. As an example of the applicability of the proximity functions, the quantity y/sub D/ for spheres is derived from t(x).

  6. Effect of Soaking Time on Proximate and Mineral Compositions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of soaking time on some composition of yellow maize was investigated. Yellow maize seeds (Zea mays) were soaked in deionized water for 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours respectively followed by draining, drying and milling. The unsoaked seeds were milled and served as the control. Proximate and mineral compositions ...

  7. Proximate and Phytochemical composition and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Indigenous landraces of Omani fenugreek seeds are a rich source of protein, dietary fiber, and many important bioactive components, which were found to be significantly correlatedwith its antioxidant properties. Keywords: Omani fenugreek, landraces, phytochemical composition, antioxidant properties.

  8. SHORT COMMUNICATION Proximate, mineral composition and anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -nutrition composition. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used in determination of the leaves for P, K, Mg, Ca, Fe and Zn. Anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) including phytate, oxalate and trypsin inhibitor were also determined using appropriate ...

  9. proximate composition and consumer acceptability of african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... Additionally, Olomu (1995); Kreuzer and Heen (1962);. Waterman (1976) have also highlighted that fish is rich in protein with amino acid composition very well suited to human dietary requirements comparing favorably with egg, milk and meat in the nutritional value of its protein. Fish is however susceptible ...

  10. Proximate composition and amino acid profile of rice husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Native rice husk (NRH) was fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus for 7, 14 and 21 days to improve the nutritional values. The proximate composition and amino acid profiles were determined. The results showed that crude fibre (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) were ...

  11. Proximate composition of traditional local sorghum beer “dolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dolo is a local beer manufactured from malted sorghum grains. It is the most commonly consumed alcoholic beverage in Burkina Faso (60% of population). Thirty (30) samples of dolo were collected from local markets in Ouagadougou and analyzed with respect to their proximate compositions and pH values using ...

  12. Effect of cooking method on proximate and mineral composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated effect(s) of cooking fresh fish (Lake Malawi tilapia) by boiling, roasting, pan frying and, using a locally made fireless cooker) on its proximate (protein, fat, ash and moisture) and mineral (calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and phosphorus) composition. Highest and lowest values for crude protein were ...

  13. Proximate composition of some agricultural wastes in Nigeria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition of five agricultural wastes were determined and latter subjected to low temperature conversion process in the presence of nitrogen atmosphere.These agricultural wastes are Cocos nucifera husk,Theobroma cacao pod, Kola nitida pods and Plantago major peels(ripe and unripe peels). All the ...

  14. Seasonal variations in the proximate compositions of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate compositions of five economically-important fish species from Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania were determined using standard methods and procedures of the Association of the Analytical Chemists. Samples of Lates niloticus, Oreochromis niloticus, Rastrineobola argentea, Limnothrissa miodon ...

  15. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition of small catfish, Mystus bleekeri, from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan was investigated and fluctuation in relation to body size and condition factor was carried out. Mean percentages for water, fat, protein and ash contents in the whole wet body weight of wild M. bleekeri were 77.87, 3.26, 15.01 and ...

  16. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... Changes in the heavy metal content and proximate composition during the 28 day composting of cassava peels used in the cultivation of the oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 was studied. Significant dry weight variations of cellulose, hemicellulose and fat contents were observed from day ...

  17. Comparative analysis of the Proximate composition and Sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of the Proximate composition and Sensory properties of dokuwa produced in Niger State Metropolis. ... Sensory evaluation of the samples on the basis of colour, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability showed that significant difference (p<0.05) existed between the samples. The sample from ...

  18. Phytochemical, proximate and anti-nutrient compositions of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical constituents of plants are influenced by environmental factors and fluctuations just as many other polygenic traits. Four different green leafy vegetables commonly used in the diets of South Eastern Nigeria were analyzed with a view to determine the phytochemicals, proximate and anti-nutrient compositions of ...

  19. Studies on the proximate composition, functional properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study produced full fat and defatted flours from matured ackee apple arils and evaluated the proximate composition and the effect of pH and salt concentrations on some of the functional properties of the full fat flour and the defatted flour. Matured ackee apple arils were oven-dried at 60 oC and milled to obtain ...

  20. Proximate analyses and mineral compositions of the pulp and seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate analyses and mineral compositions of the pulp and seeds of Adansonia digitata (Baobab fruit) ... It was concluded that the pulp of Adansonia digitata is an important source of vitamin C, while the seed is a potential source of edible oil, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium. Keywords: Baobab, Adansonia ...

  1. Proximate and mineral composition of six commercially important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted from May 2015 to April 2016 on the proximate and mineral composition of six species of fish from Obueyinomo River in Edo State, Nigeria. The six (6) species are M. electricus, C. gariepinus, T. zilli, A. monkei, P. obscura, P. africana. Biochemical assay of moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fiber, ...

  2. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, trace metals and amino acids composition of Celosia argentea were determined. The crude fat, fibre and protein contents were moderate with 1.10, 3.53 and 5.17% respectively while high in the ash content (22.43%). Results of the amino acid analysis revealed high contents of the essential amino acids with ...

  3. Proximate composition and functional properties of raw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water binding capacity was affected in the order boiled > roasted > steeped > control. No significant change was observed for oil absorption capacity of the processed samples when compared with increase observed in water binding capacity. Key Words: Plantain, proximate composition, functional properties and ...

  4. Proximate Compositions and physical properties of selected maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate compositions and physical properties of five different maize grain varieties, Oba Supa, DMR, Popcorn, local Tiv and SWAM 1 were determined in accordance with established methods. Significant differences (P≤ 0.05) were found in the moisture, ash, crude fibre, carbohydrate and fat contents among the varieties.

  5. Effect of Graded Bambara Nut Flour on Proximate Composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and some physico-chemical properties were determined using the parameters of protein, fat, fibre, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, swelling capacity, foam capacity, foam stability, loose and packed bulk density, water absorption capacity, pH and TTA. The protein content of the samples ranged between ...

  6. Effects of Planting Locations on the Proximate Compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v21i2.14. Keywords: locations, moringa, LGA, proximate composition, soil factors. Moringa leaves contain more vitamin A than carrots, more calcium than milk, more iron than spinach, more potassium than bananas, and more vitamin C than oranges. The leaves are considered to offer great.

  7. Comparison of proximate and fatty acid compositions of wild brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fatty acid and proximate composition of two commercially exploited trout species (wild brown trout (WBT) and farmed rainbow trout (FRT)). The mean crude lipid content in FRT (4.3%) was significantly higher than that in WBT (2.7%). Total saturated fatty acid concentration ...

  8. Proximate and chemical composition of three species of snails in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial was conducted to determine the proximate and chemical composition of three common species of snails in Nigeria. The species were Archachatina marginata (T1), Achatina achatina (T2), and Achatina fulica (T3). The three species constituted the three treatments and thirty-six adult snails were used for this trial ...

  9. Proximate and Cholesterol Composition of Selected Fast Foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fast foods consumption has been on the increase in Nigeria raising concerns about the nutritional and health implications. This study was carried out to determine the proximate composition and cholesterol contents of four commonly consumed fast foods (doughnut, chicken pie, roasted chicken, and Jollof rice) sold in ...

  10. Proximate composition and basic phytochemical assessment of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The nut of the yellow variety had terpenoids and steroids present in it while the nut of the red variety had alkaloids present. Statistical analyses carried out showed that there were no significant differences (p≤0.05) between the two varieties based on their proximate composition. INTRODUCTION. Terminalia catappa is ...

  11. Proximate, Vitamins and Mineral Composition of Vitex doniana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Vitex doniana, micronutrients, proximate, vitamins and mineral composition, Fruit. ... Vitamin B2 and Spectrophotometric method for. Vitamin B6, while titremetric method was used for Vitamin C. Mineral content: Mineral analysis was carried out after sample .... to calcium for bone, teeth and muscles growth.

  12. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the heavy metal content and proximate composition during the 28 day composting of cassava peels used in the cultivation of the oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 was studied. Significant dry weight variations of cellulose, hemicellulose and fat contents were observed from day 0 to 12.

  13. Proximate, mineral and vitamin C composition of vegetable Gbolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbolo (Crassocephalum crepidioides and Crassocephalum rubens) is a traditional leafy vegetable highly consumed in southern and central Benin, as well as in some part of northern Benin. The nutritional potential of the two species of Gbolo were evaluated through their proximate composition, mineral and vitamin C ...

  14. Effect of drying temperatures on the proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to dry chicken eggs in order to determine the effect of drying temperatures on the proximate composition and sensory attributes of dried eggs. The albumen, yolk and whole egg were dried separately at temperatures of 50, 55 and 60oC. The drying time for the samples ranged from 7hrs20mins to ...

  15. Effect of thermal processing methods on the proximate composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritive value of raw and thermal processed castor oil seed (Ricinus communis) was investigated using the following parameters; proximate composition, gross energy, mineral constituents and ricin content. Three thermal processing methods; toasting, boiling and soaking-and-boiling were used in the processing of the ...

  16. Proximate composition and the functional properties of defatted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition of the Kargo seeds and the physico-chemical properties of the seed oil have been determined. Matured dried seeds were collected. They were then dehusked and pulverized into a fine powder and kept in air tight sample bottle for further analysis. Functional properties of the defatted sample and ...

  17. Determination of Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johnny

    livestock nutrition. Keywords: Sesamum indicum; Proximate composition; Amino acid profile; Nutrient value. Correspondence: ubi.benjamin@yahoo.com. Introduction. Sesame ... presence of oxygen in the air to CO2 at a temperature of 600 0C (dry ashing). The % ash content was ..... Effect of Heat Treatment and Defatting.

  18. Proximate composition and mineral content in different, types of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and mineral content in different, types of traditional TOGWA used in Tanzania as a weaning food. ... Crude fibre was also higher in traditional and simulated togwa than in the main ingredients, while carbohydrate percent of DM and energy contents were lower than in the ingredients. Ash contents in ...

  19. Proximity effect of electron beam lithography on single-electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical characteristics of the single-electron transistor were observed to be consistent with the expected behavior of electron transport through gated quantum dots, up to 150 K. The dependence of the electrical characteristics on the dot size reveals that the d oscillation follows from the Coulomb blockade by poly-Si ...

  20. Proximate composition analysis posterior to the cryopreservation of Chaetoceros calcitrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Salas-Leiva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of cryopreservation on the proximate composition of microalgae Chaetoceros calcitrans was evaluated. Materials and methods. C. calcitrans was cultured and cryopreserved using 5% (v/v dimethylsulfoxide as cryoprotectant. The freezing was controlled at a rate of 3°C/min, up to -60°C and then the microalgae were immersed in liquid nitrogen (-196°C. After storage in liquid nitrogen, microalgae were rapidly thawed out and subcultured. The percentage of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates was analyzed using absorption spectrophotometry and the organic matter was studied by gravimetric analysis. Results. There was no significant variation between the proximate composition of C. calcitrans cryopreserved and the controls (p>0.05. Conclusion. Our results show that, despite low cell recovery after the preservation of this organism at low temperatures, there is no apparent loss of nutritional characteristics caused by the storing process at low temperatures.

  1. Uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction of the proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Min

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allograft-prosthetic composite can be divided into three groups names cemented, uncemented, and partially cemented. Previous studies have mainly reported outcomes in cemented and partially cemented allograft-prosthetic composites, but have rarely focused on the uncemented allograft-prosthetic composites. The objectives of our study were to describe a surgical technique for using proximal femoral uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite and to present the radiographic and clinical results. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients who underwent uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction of the proximal femur after bone tumor resection were retrospectively evaluated at an average followup of 24.0 months. Clinical records and radiographs were evaluated. Results: In our series, union occurred in all the patients (100%; range 5-9 months. Until the most recent followup, there were no cases with infection, nonunion of the greater trochanter, junctional bone resorption, dislocation, allergic reaction, wear of acetabulum socket, recurrence, and metastasis. But there were three periprosthetic fractures which were fixed using cerclage wire during surgery. Five cases had bone resorption in and around the greater trochanter. The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS score and Harris hip score (HHS were 26.2 points (range 24-29 points and 80.6 points (range 66.2-92.7 points, respectively. Conclusions: These results showed that uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite could promote bone union through compression at the host-allograft junction and is a good choice for proximal femoral resection. Although this technology has its own merits, long term outcomes are yet not validated.

  2. The Proximity Electronics of the GAIA Focal Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alejandro; Peran, Francisco; Elorz, Ainhoa; Cuesta, Hermilo; Velasco, Raul; Polo, Jesus

    2011-08-01

    Gaia (Global Astrometric Intereferomenter for Astrophysics) is an ESA mission which will chart a three-dimensional map of our Galaxy, continuing the work initiated with ESA Hipparcos mission. The main objective is to investigate the origin and evolution of the Milky Way. This goal will be achieved by measuring the position and motion of around 1 billion stars, as well as measuring the physical properties of each star.The spacecraft payload consists of a single instrument. This instrument provides three functions (Astrometry, Photometry and Spectrometry), which will use common telescopes and a shared focal plane.The Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) will be the largest ever developed, comprising 106 CCDs-PEMs (Proximity Electronics Module) pairs, for a total 1 Gigapixels and 0.5x1 m dimensions. The CCDs are distributed on an array layout, with the different functions in separate columns. The proximity electronics main functions are CCD operation, video processing, sequencing and power supply distribution. A single PEM design is used for all the focal plane functions, as it is able to adapt the sequencing, biasing, video bandwidth and gain to each instrument function. All these functions and capabilities have been integrated in a very small module, weighting only 162 g.The video processing includes analogue amplification, filtering, A/D conversion and digital processing. This extremely exigent electronic module is able to deliver very low noise levels on a 16 bit video chain, in the range of fractions of a LSB.Such demanding level of performances has made necessary the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts instead of Hi-Rel parts for certain taxing functions of the PEM. Furthermore, the level of exigency in performances has been extremely difficult to achieve not only on the PEM, but on the test equipment also, so as to demonstrate the full capabilities of the proximity electronics. The excellent performances of the PEM will help to achieve the very challenging goals

  3. PROCESSING YELD AND PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF Rhamdia voulezi FILLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Souza dos Reis Goes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of slaughter weight and sex on processing yield and on the proximate composition of Rhamdia voulezi. We calculated the percentage yield of the whole fish (carcass, clean trunk, abdominal muscle, fillet, edible parts, head, skin, gonads and visceral fat yield. There was no statistical difference in yields among weight classes (P>0.05. However, when assessing the income between sexes we observed significant difference (P0.05 among the classes, however, moisture, lipids and calories had significant difference (P<0.05 among the classes, and humidity decreased with increasing size of the fish, and lipid content and calorific value were higher for fish weighing 301-400 g. We oncluded R. voulezi with mass between 100 and 400 g presents equal yield processing, and fish weighing 301-400 g have higher lipid content in the fillet.

  4. Functional properties and proximate composition of cactus pear cladodes flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime López-Cervantes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the functional properties and proximate composition of three different flours prepared from cactus pear cladodes. Immature cactus pear cladodes were dried at 60 °C, 70 °C and 80 °C. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition, amino acid profile, fatty acid composition, functional properties and color. The analyses showed no significant differences in crude protein, total lipid, crude fiber and total ash content in the flours, possibly due to the drying temperature effect. Nevertheless, during the drying at 80 °C, a reduction of the water holding capacity (55% was observed, along with a reduction of the green color intensity (34% - characteristic of cactus pear. The heating produced larger concentrations of tyrosine, proline, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. In the lipids of the flours, the most abundant fatty acids were palmitic acid (C16:0, linoleic acid (C18:2n6, linolenic acid (C18:3n3, and oleic acid (C18:1n9. The cladodes flours prepared at 60 °C presented a higher quality regarding their nutritional and functional properties.

  5. Fatty Acid and Proximate Composition of Bee Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Kaplan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acid (FA composition of eight bee bread samples of different botanical origins were examined and significant variations were observed. The samples were all identified as monofloral, namely Castanea sativa (94.4 %, Trifolium spp. (85.6 %, Gossypium hirsutum (66.2 %, Citrus spp. (61.4 % and Helianthus annuus (45.4 %. Each had moisture content between 11.4 and 15.9 %, ash between 1.9 and 2.54 %, fat between 5.9 and 11.5 %, and protein between 14.8 and 24.3 %. A total of 37 FAs were determined with most abundant being (9Z,12Z,15Z-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic, (9Z,12Z-octadeca-9,12-dienoic, hexadecanoic, (Z-octadec-9-enoic, (Z-icos-11-enoic and octadecanoic acids. Among all, cotton bee bread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, i.e. 41.3 %. Unsaturated to saturated FA ratio ranged between 1.38 and 2.39, indicating that the bee bread can be a good source of unsaturated FAs.

  6. Fatty Acid and Proximate Composition of Bee Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Muammer; Karaoglu, Öznur; Eroglu, Nazife

    2016-01-01

    Summary Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acid (FA) composition of eight bee bread samples of different botanical origins were examined and significant variations were observed. The samples were all identified as monofloral, namely Castanea sativa (94.4%), Trifolium spp. (85.6%), Gossypium hirsutum (66.2%), Citrus spp. (61.4%) and Helianthus annuus (45.4%). Each had moisture content between 11.4 and 15.9%, ash between 1.9 and 2.54%, fat between 5.9 and 11.5%, and protein between 14.8 and 24.3%. A total of 37 FAs were determined with most abundant being (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic, (9Z,12Z)- -octadeca-9,12-dienoic, hexadecanoic, (Z)-octadec-9-enoic, (Z)-icos-11-enoic and octadecanoic acids. Among all, cotton bee bread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, i.e. 41.3%. Unsaturated to saturated FA ratio ranged between 1.38 and 2.39, indicating that the bee bread can be a good source of unsaturated FAs. PMID:28115909

  7. Fatty Acid and Proximate Composition of Bee Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Muammer; Karaoglu, Öznur; Eroglu, Nazife; Silici, Sibel

    2016-12-01

    Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acid (FA) composition of eight bee bread samples of different botanical origins were examined and significant variations were observed. The samples were all identified as monofloral, namely Castanea sativa (94.4%), Trifolium spp. (85.6%), Gossypium hirsutum (66.2%), Citrus spp. (61.4%) and Helianthus annuus (45.4%). Each had moisture content between 11.4 and 15.9%, ash between 1.9 and 2.54%, fat between 5.9 and 11.5%, and protein between 14.8 and 24.3%. A total of 37 FAs were determined with most abundant being (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic, (9Z,12Z)- -octadeca-9,12-dienoic, hexadecanoic, (Z)-octadec-9-enoic, (Z)-icos-11-enoic and octadecanoic acids. Among all, cotton bee bread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, i.e. 41.3%. Unsaturated to saturated FA ratio ranged between 1.38 and 2.39, indicating that the bee bread can be a good source of unsaturated FAs.

  8. Changes in proximate composition and oil characteristics during flaxseed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herchi, W.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization-Mass Spectrometry (APPI-MS and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC are the two analytical methods that were used to characterize Triacylglycerols (TAGs during flaxseed development. The HPLC method of the oils showed the presence of 15 TAG species. In contrast to the HPLC chromatograms, the APPI-MS showed 17 peaks of TAG. APPI-MS is more rapid than the HPLC method (11 min. The iodine value of the oils showed a gradual increase, while the oil stability continuously decreased. Proximate composition during flaxseed development revealed that flaxseed is potentially a good source of dietary energy and protein. At full maturity, flaxseed contained 37% oil and 24% protein on a dry-weight basis; albumin was the major storage protein (53% of total storage proteins followed by globulin (33% and glutelin fractions (11%. Prolamins had the lowest percentage with 3%. α-amylase activity was higher in the mature seeds than the young ones.Fotoionización a presión atmosférica-Espectrometría de masas (APPI-MS y cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC son dos métodos de análisis que se utilizaron para caracterizar triglicéridos (TAGs durante el desarrollo de semillas de linaza. El método HPLC mostró la presencia de 15 especies de TAG, en contraste, los cromatogramas de APPI-MS mostraron 17 picos de TAG siendo el método APPI-MS más rápido que el de HPLC (11 min. El índice de yodo de los aceites mostró un aumento gradual, mientras que la estabilidad disminuyó continuamente. El estudio de la composición proximal de la linaza durante su desarrollo, mostró que esta semilla es una fuente potencialmente buena de energía y de proteína para la dieta. Al final de la maduración, la linaza contenía 37 % de aceite y 24 % de proteína sobre peso seco; albúmina fue la principal proteína de almacenamiento (53% sobre el total de las proteínas de almacenamiento seguido de la globulina (33 % y glutelina

  9. Ceramic superconductor/metal composite materials employing the superconducting proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Matthew J.

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting composite materials having particles of superconducting material disposed in a metal matrix material with a high electron-boson coupling coefficient (.lambda.). The superconducting particles can comprise any type of superconductor including Laves phase materials, Chevrel phase materials, A15 compounds, and perovskite cuprate ceramics. The particles preferably have dimensions of about 10-500 nanometers. The particles preferably have dimensions larger than the superconducting coherence length of the superconducting material. The metal matrix material has a .lambda. greater than 0.2, preferably the .lambda. is much higher than 0.2. The metal matrix material is a good proximity superconductor due to its high .lambda.. When cooled, the superconductor particles cause the metal matrix material to become superconducting due to the proximity effect. In cases where the particles and the metal matrix material are chemically incompatible (i.e., reactive in a way that destroys superconductivity), the particles are provided with a thin protective metal coating. The coating is chemically compatible with the particles and metal matrix material. High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cuprate ceramic particles are reactive and therefore require a coating of a noble metal resistant to oxidation (e.g., silver, gold). The proximity effect extends through the metal coating. With certain superconductors, non-noble metals can be used for the coating.

  10. Proximate and anti-nutritional composition of leaves and seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate and anti-nutrient composition of the leaves and seeds of ten provenances of Moringa oleifera from parts of Nigeria, were examined at Nsukka, Nigeria in 2012. Results indicated absence of significant main effect on any of the proximate traits evaluated while protein content responded significantly to plant part, ...

  11. Influence of proximal box elevation on bond strength of composite inlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva Gonçalves, Dayana; Cura, María; Ceballos, Laura; Fuentes, Mª Victoria

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of proximal box elevation on microtensile bond strength (mTBS) of composite inlays to the proximal box floor, using either a total-etch or a self-adhesive resin cement. Twenty-five human molars were selected, and a class II OM (inlay) cavity preparation was performed in each tooth. Cavities were randomly assigned into four experimental groups, according to the location of the proximal cervical margin (located 1 mm below cementoenamel junction (CEJ), or with proximal box elevation with composite resin) and the resin cement used for luting (a total-etch resin cement RelyX ARC or a self-adhesive resin cement G-Cem). After 1-week water storage, samples were subjected to mTBS test. Results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (p box elevation improved the bond strength of composite inlays for both resin cements. However, only for G-Cem was this improvement statistically significant. The proximal box elevation improved the bond strength attained by G-Cem resin cement. For RelyX ARC, the position of the cervical margin did not affect composite inlays bond strength. Proximal box elevation does not decline bond strength of composite inlays to the proximal floor when a total-etch or a self-adhesive resin cement is used.

  12. Effect of cooking on the proximate composition of the leaves of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cooking on the proximate composition of the leaves of some accessions ... The accessions may be used in the management of obesity, diabetes, ... The accessions can also serve as good candidates for proteins in cereal-based diets.

  13. Proximate composition, phytochemical analysis, and in vitro antioxidant potentials of extracts of Annona muricata (Soursop)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agu, Kingsley C; Okolie, Paulinus N

    2017-01-01

    ... of A. muricata using standard biochemical procedures. The defatted Annona muricata crude methanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant were used for the estimation of proximate composition and phytochemical screening...

  14. Effect of NPK and Poultry Manure on Growth, Yield, and Proximate Composition of Three Amaranths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oyedeji, Stephen; Animasaun, David Adedayo; Bello, Abdullahi Ajibola; Agboola, Oludare Oladipo

    2014-01-01

      The study compares the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus deflexus, grown with poultry manure and NPK in relation to the unfertilized...

  15. Proximate and mineral composition of Tamarindus indica linn 1753 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science World Journal ... Physical parameters and nutrient contents of the whole seeds and seed nuts of Tamarindus indica L. 1753 were determined. ... were found to be potential sources of mineral elements while the whole seeds were richer in other proximate components with the exception of moisture and ash contents.

  16. Proximate and elemental composition of Bauhinia rufescens Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is aimed at investigating the proximate contents, concentrations of some micro/macroelements and anions of the stem bark and leaves of B. rufescens with the view of validating its used as forage and medicinally by man in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery and in wound healing. The stem bark and leaves of ...

  17. Proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The envelopes were put into an oven set at 60°C for 6 h. Seeds of each plant species were milled ... This research work recommends that little quantities of these seeds should be taken periodically to minimize the adverse effects arising from consuming large quantities of the seeds. Key words: Proximate, oil, Poga oleosa, ...

  18. Proximate composition and sensory properties of freeze-dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two Nigerian soups (Egusi soup and bitter leaf soup) were prepared and freeze - dried to produce instant soups. These instant soups and the freshly prepared portions were subjected to proximate and sensory analysis using standard methods. The results of the analysis showed that instant egusi soup contained 10.89 ...

  19. Effect of drought/irrigation on proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enset [Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman] is an important root crop serving as a carbohydrate rich food source in Ethiopia. Perennial crops, like enset, are often exposed to recurrent dry periods which could greatly affect their growth, physiology and yield. The effect of induced drought/irrigation on the proximate ...

  20. Proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of fish maws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Youhou; Sun, Yulin; Chen, Ziming; Fan, Sigang

    2016-01-01

    Fish maws are commonly recommended and consumed in Asia over many centuries because it is believed to have some traditional medical properties. This study highlights and provides new information on the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of fish maws of Cynoscion acoupa, Congresox talabonoides and Sciades proops. The results indicated that fish maws were excellent protein sources and low in fat content. The proteins in fish maws were rich in functional amino acids (FAAs) and the ratio of FAAs and total amino acids in fish maws ranged from 0.68 to 0.69. Among species, croaker C. acoupa contained the most polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapntemacnioc acid, showing the lowest value of index of atherogenicity and index of thrombogenicity, showing the highest value of hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio, which is the most desirable.

  1. Dirac-electron-mediated magnetic proximity effect in topological insulator/magnetic insulator heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingda; Song, Qichen; Zhao, Weiwei; Garlow, Joseph A.; Liu, Te-Huan; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Chan, Moses H. W.; Chen, Gang; Chang, Cui-Zu

    2017-11-01

    The possible realization of dissipationless chiral edge current in a topological insulator/magnetic insulator heterostructure is based on the condition that the magnetic proximity exchange coupling at the interface is dominated by the Dirac surface states of the topological insulator. Here we report a polarized neutron reflectometry observation of Dirac-electron-mediated magnetic proximity effect in a bulk-insulating topological insulator (B i0.2S b0.8)2 T e3 /magnetic insulator EuS heterostructure. We are able to maximize the proximity-induced magnetism by applying an electrical back gate to tune the Fermi level of topological insulator to be close to the Dirac point. A phenomenological model based on diamagnetic screening is developed to explain the suppressed proximity-induced magnetism at high carrier density. Our work paves the way to utilize the magnetic proximity effect at the topological insulator/magnetic insulator heterointerface for low-power spintronic applications.

  2. Proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALLSWELL

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... from Elaeis guineensis and consumed. There is paucity of literature on the exact chemical compositions of these seeds. There is the need to understand the chemical compositions of these seeds. Presumably, there could be toxic element in the seeds that have cumulative adverse effects on the consumers.

  3. Electron Beam Proximity Effect Correction on the MEBES eXara Mask Pattern Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robert L.; Baik, Ki-Ho

    2002-12-01

    Electron beam (e-beam) proximity effect correction (PEC) has become a critical consideration with the reduction of feature sizes and the increasing use of optical proximity effect correction (OPC). PEC is accomplished on the 50kV MEBES eXara system with the embedded PEC (emPEC) technique, which is an automated version of GHOST. This method equalizes the background exposure by writing a fifth pass in the reverse tone of the four primary exposure passes. This compensates for the dose differences in the background due to backscattered electrons. The result is feature size control independent of the proximity and density of surrounding features, and independent of feature size. The method is simple and does not require additional computations for raster scan systems. A description of the method and its results for both coverage proximity effect correction (feature size deviation as a function of the surrounding exposure density) and CD linearity (deviation of different feature sizes) is presented.

  4. Research on Proximity Magnetic Field Influence in Measuring Error of Active Electronic Current Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Weijiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of the active electronic current transformer (ECT are introduced, and the mechanism of how a proximity magnetic field can influence the measuring of errors is analyzed from the perspective of the sensor section of the ECT. The impacts on active ECTs created by three-phase proximity magnetic field with invariable distance and variable distance are simulated and analyzed. The theory and simulated analysis indicate that the active ECTs are sensitive to proximity magnetic field under certain conditions. According to simulated analysis, a product structural design and the location of transformers at substation sites are suggested for manufacturers and administration of power supply, respectively.

  5. Influence of composite resin consistency and placement technique on proximal contact tightness of Class II restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of composite resin consistency and placement technique on proximal contact tightness of Class II composite resin restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A manikin model (KaVo Dental) was used with an artificial first molar in which a standardized MO preparation was

  6. Proximate and metal composition of buckwheat groats cultivated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, buckwheat can be safely eaten by people who have celiac disease as it does not contain gluten. Buckwheat can be a good substitute for wheat, oats, rye and barley in a gluten-free diet. Buckwheat's well-balanced starch, protein, fat and mineral composition has found a renewed interest, particularly among the ...

  7. Effects of Planting Locations on the Proximate Compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera is cultivated all over the world as it is commonly used as nutritional and medicinal plant. This study was carried out to determine the effect of various locations in Ejigbo and Egbedore Local Government Areas, (LGA) in Osun State and Surulere LGA in Oyo State on the nutritional compositions of Moringa ...

  8. Streptococcus Mutans Group And Lactobacillus Counts In Proximal Amalgam And Resin Composite Restorations: An In Vivo Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juliana Campos Junqueira; Alessandra Bühler Borges; Daphne Câmara Barcellos; Cinthya Lobo Pradella; Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge; Carlos Rocha Gomes Torres

    2011-01-01

    Aim & Objectives: This study assesses the quantity of streptococcus mutans group and lactobacillus in interproximal contact of posterior teeth with proximal amalgam and resin composite restorations. Methods...

  9. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques...

  10. Carcass yield and proximate composition of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athos Alexandre Cesnik Ayres

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated five classes of weight of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus seeking to define the ideal slaughter weight for the species. We used 79 bullfrogs, distributed in a completely randomized design (class 1 251 g (n = 14, which were euthanized, weighted and gutted. For the carcass yield, we weighed the clean torso, thighs, liver, skin and head. The clean torso was subjected to chemical composition analysis. The carcass yield was, on average, 49% with no difference between weight classes (p > 0.05. The yield of posterior thighs was significantly higher for the lower weight class, which also presented higher percentage of paws (28.37 ± 0.63 and 9.33 ± 0.21, respectively (p < 0.05. The percentages of visceral fat and skin showed a progressive increase along with the weight of the animals; the class with individuals weighing 201-250 grams showed the higher values (p < 0.05. The chemical composition indicated that individuals above 251 grams showed lower values of ether extract and higher values of crude protein (0.99 ± 0.14and 15.80 ± 0.64, respectively (p < 0.05. So, it is recommended the slaughter of bullfrogs weighing more than 201 grams, because of better yield and meat quality.

  11. Nanoscale geometry assisted proximity effect correction (NanoPEC) for electron beam direct write nanolithography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocola, L. E. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)

    2009-11-01

    Nanoscale geometry assisted proximity effect correction is presented for nanoscale structures and the results clearly show improvements in feature sharpness down to 20 nm structures. The design rule is simple to implement onto existing PEC software and enables implementation of PEC down to the resolution limits of electron beam lithography.

  12. Comparison of proximal contacts of class II resin composite restorations in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Burgersdijk, R.C.W.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the tightness of the proximal contact when placing posterior resin composite restorations with circumferential and sectional matrix systems in an in vitro model using a special measuring device (Tooth Pressure Meter). A manikin model was used with an artificial first molar in

  13. Seasonal variation in the proximate composition of rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata from Bombay coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Nair, V.R.

    Changes in proximate composition of soft tissue of rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata inhabiting a polluted station at Bandra (stn. B) and a relatively clean area at Mudh Island (stn. M) were studied. An average protein content of 48.88 + or - 3...

  14. Proximate and Phytochemical Composition of Moringa oleifera Leaves at Three Stages of Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Bamishaiye, E.I.; F.F. Olayemi; E.F. Awagu; O.M. Bamshaiye

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the proximate and anti-nutrient composition of dried leaves of Moringa oleifera harvested at different stages of the plants maturity. The leaves were harvested at three period of time viz: 10th (early stage), 15th (Mid stage) and 20th (late stage) week after pruning. The result of the proximate analysis revealed that the early stage has the highest carbohydrate content (55.14%). Mid stage recorded the highest moisture (6.3%) while the late stage has highes...

  15. Proximate, mineral, and antinutrient compositions of indigenous Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) pod accessions: implications for mineral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemede, Habtamu Fekadu; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Beyene, Fekadu; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Z; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The promotion and consumption of indigenous vegetables could help to mitigate food insecurity and alleviate malnutrition in developing countries. Nutrient and antinutrient compositions of eight accessions of Okra Pods were investigated. Molar ratios and mineral bioavailability of Okra pod accessions were also calculated and compared to the critical values to predict the implications for mineral bioavailability. Proximate and mineral composition of Okra pod accessions were determined using standard methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The result of the study revealed that the proximate composition (g/100 g) in dry weight basis was significantly (P analysis showed that, except phytate, tannin, and oxalate contents of all the accessions were significantly (P associated with malnutrition in the country.

  16. Proximate composition, phytochemical analysis, and in vitro antioxidant potentials of extracts of Annona muricata (Soursop)

    OpenAIRE

    Agu, Kingsley C.; Okolie, Paulinus N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Numerous bioactive compounds and phytochemicals have been reported to be present Annona muricata (Soursop). Some of these chemical compounds have been linked to the ethnomedicinal properties of the plant and its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to assess the proximate composition, phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant properties of A. muricata using standard biochemical procedures. The defatted Annona muricata crude methanolic extracts of the different ...

  17. Effect of parity on the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of the milk were collected in a single day and the milk was analyzed using gas chromatography. Parity had no effect of proximate composition (fat, DMC and moisture %) on milk. The fatty acids (FA) present in the milk of the three parity groups were primarily palmitic (33.3 to 40.5%), oleic (16.3 to 20.3%), myristic ...

  18. Effects of autoclaving on the proximate composition of stored castor (Ricinus communis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTHONY NEGEDU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Negedu A, Ameh JB, Umoh VJ, Atawodi SE, Rai MK. 2013. Effects of autoclaving on the proximate composition of stored castor (Ricinus communis seeds. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 51-56. The effect of autoclaving on the proximate composition, free fatty acids and peroxide value of castor (Ricinus communis L. seeds in storage were studied. Seeds of castor were surface sterilized, dried and divided into two equal sets of 300g each. One set was autoclaved at 15 1b pressure for 30 minutes at 121oC and the other set served as control. Each set was prepared in triplicates and both sets were stored under same room temperature conditions for a period of 180 days and agitated intermittently. Analysis of the proximate composition showed that autoclaving treatment caused an increased total fat content, reduced moisture, protein, nitrogen free extract (soluble sugar and ash contents of the seeds in storage, as well as a non-significant increase in crude fiber (non-soluble sugar content. It increased the free fatty acid content and decreased the peroxide value of seed oil.

  19. Effect of NPK and Poultry Manure on Growth, Yield, and Proximate Composition of Three Amaranths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Oyedeji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study compares the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus deflexus, grown with poultry manure and NPK in relation to the unfertilized soil of Ilorin, Nigeria. Viable seeds of the Amaranths raised in nursery for two weeks were transplanted (one plant per pot into unfertilized soil (control and soils fertilized with either NPK or poultry manure (PM at 30 Kg ha−1 rate arranged in randomized complete block design with four replicates. Data were collected on plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area, and number of branches from 1 week after transplanting (1 WAT. Fresh weight, dry weight, and proximate composition were determined at 6 WAT. Except for the length, breadth, and number of leaves, the order of growth parameters and yield in the three Amaranthus species was NPK > PM > control. NPK grown Amaranthus species had the highest protein while PM-grown vegetables had the highest ash content. Crude fibre in A. cruentus grown with PM was significantly higher than NPK and the control. The NPK treatment of A. hybridus and A. deflexus had the highest crude fibre content. NPK and PM favoured growth and yield of the Amaranthus species but influenced proximate composition differently.

  20. Restoring proximal integrity in posterior composite resin restorations: innovations using Ceromers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, W H

    1998-03-01

    Clinicians are increasingly being called upon to satisfy the restorative demands of patients requesting tooth coloured restorations but unable to afford an optimum indirect restorative option. Consequently, in clinical practice the envelope of what was hitherto considered the limit of appropriate application of the direct posterior composite resin technique is increasingly being stretched. Although our aesthetic endeavours are fairly easily accomplished in the posterior dentition, interproximal integrity is in many instances wanting and a major cause of restorative failure. This report highlights some of the authors innovations using Ceromers which satisfy the complex variables of clinical practice optimizing proximal contour, allowing for the successful utilization of posterior composite resin in the posterior dentition.

  1. Proximate composition, nutritional values and phytochemical screening of Piper retrofractum vahl. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Jadid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the proximate and mineral composition of the Piper retrofractum (P. retrofractum vahl. Fruit and to evaluate its total alkaloids, phenol and flavonoid. Methods: The proximate composition of P. retrofractum fruit was ananlyzed using standard protocols according to Indonesian Standard and Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Meanwhile, mineral composition of the fruit was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Phytochemical screening and quantification were performed using standard protocols according to Harborn and spectrophotometric methods. Results: The results showed that P. retrofractum fruit contained carbohydrate (63.4%, crude protein (11.4%, total ash (4.29%, dietary fiber (28.8% and total fat (2.97%. The fruit also contained calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphor, potassium, sodium and zinc in different concentrations. Additionally, quinone, sterol, glycosides and alkaloid were detected in both n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. Moreover, tannin was presented also in ethylacetate and methanol extracts. Meanwhile, methanol extract contained sterol, glycosides, flavones, tannin and alkaloid. The results also revealed that methanol extract of the fruit contained highest phenol compared to other extract. Finally, small quantity of flavonoid (0.060 0%±0.000 2% was observed. Conclusions: The overall results show that P. retrofractum contains potential nutritional and phytochemicals values, which support their function for pharmaceutical purposes.

  2. Proximate Composition, Extraction, and Purification of Theobromine from Cacao Pod Husk (Theobroma Cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Van Tang Nguyen; Nghia Huu Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the proximate composition of cacao pod husk as well as the optimal conditions for extraction and purification of theobromine from cacao pod husk. The results indicated that cacao pod husk had high contents of moisture and carbohydrate (87.06% and 11.03% by fresh weight, respectively), but low contents of crude protein, crude lipid, and ash (0.31%, 0.12%, and 1.48% by fresh weight, respectively). The optimal conditions for extraction of theobromine from...

  3. Allograft-prosthetic composite versus megaprosthesis in the proximal tibia-What works best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Daniel A; Beltrami, Giovanni; Scoccianti, Guido; Cuomo, Pierluigi; Capanna, Rodolfo

    2016-10-01

    Modular megaprosthesis (MP) and allograft-prosthetic composite (APC) are the most commonly used reconstructions for large bone defects of the proximal tibia. The primary objective of this study was to compare the two different techniques in terms of failures and functional results. A total of 42 consecutive patients with a mean age of 39.6 years (range 15-81 years) who underwent a reconstruction of the proximal tibia between 2001 and 2012 were included. Twenty-three patients were given an MP, and 19 patients received an APC. There were nine reconstruction failures after an average follow-up of 62 months: five in the MP group and four in the APC group (p=0.957). The 10-year implant survival rate was 78.8% for the MP and 93.7% for the APC (p=0.224). There were no relevant differences between the two groups in functional results. Both MP and APC are valid and satisfactory reconstructive options for massive bone defects in the proximal tibia. In high-demanding patients with no further risk factors, an APC should be considered to provide the best possible functional result for the extensor mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aflatoxin, proximate composition and mineral profile of stored broiler feed treated with medicinal plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S M; Sultana, B; Atta, A; Qureshi, N; Iqbal, M; Abbas, M

    2017-09-01

    In the present investigation, the Morus alba (M. alba), Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera), Ficus religiosa (F. religiosa) and Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) leaves anti-aflatoxigenic activities were evaluated in Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) inoculated feed. The broiler feed inoculated with A. flavus was treated with selected medicinal plant leaf powder (5%, 10% and 15% w/w) and stored for the period of six months at 28°C and 16% moisture. The aflatoxins (AFTs) were estimated at the end of each month by Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) method along with proximate composition and mineral contents. Plant leaves controlled AFTs efficiently without affecting the feed proximate composition and mineral contents. The M. alba leaves completely inhibition (100%) the AFTs (B1 and B2) in feed at very low concentration (5%). Other plants also showed significant (Pleaves, A. flavus produced AFTs could possibly be controlled in stored poultry feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Proximal contact tightness between direct-composite additions in the posterior dentition: an in vitro investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Diana; Hahn, Philipp; Ding, Paul; Maier-Kraus, Theresa; Frese, Cornelia; Doerfer, Christof; Staehle, Hans Joerg

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether a novel three-step matrix technique for posterior direct-composite additions creates sufficiently strong proximal contacts. Contact tightness was measured between direct-composite additions and between original teeth on a model. Therefore, the frictional forces required to remove a straight, 0.05-mm-thick, metal matrix band inserted between adjacent teeth and held by a universal testing machine (Zwicki, Zwick GmbH, Ulm, Germany) were recorded. Measurements were taken at three time points to carry out reference analysis: at baseline, after removal of the maxillary right second premolar (tooth #15) to simulate a diastema, and after closure of the diastema by inserting two direct-composite additions with the three-step matrix technique on the maxillary right first premolar (tooth #14) and first molar (tooth #16). Measurements were performed in the maxillary right (first) and left (second) quadrants to document sagittal displacement. The original contact tightness values were between 1.65 ± 0.88 N and 3.05 ± 0.60 N in the first quadrant and between 1.23 ± 0.51 N and 2.18 ± 0.43 N in the second quadrant. After removal of tooth 15, values decreased significantly in the first quadrant and insignificantly in the second. After reconstruction, the contact tightness between teeth 14 and 16 was significantly stronger (tighter) (3.20 ± 0.80 N) than the originally measured contact tightness between teeth 14 and 15 (2.86 ± 0.64 N) and teeth 15 and 16 (1.65 ± 0.88 N) (p=0.006 and 0.001, respectively). Within the limitations of an in vitro investigation, this study has shown that by using a novel, three-step matrix technique, direct posterior composite additions can form sufficiently tight proximal contacts.

  6. Effects of Polishing on Proximate Composition, Physico- Chemical Characteristics, Mineral Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Pigmented Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagam Koteswara Reddy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polishing on proximate compositions, physico-chemical characteristics, mineral compositions and antioxidant properties of the rice flours obtained from three different pigmented rice varieties (Chak-hao Angangba, Chak-hao Amubi and Chak-hao Poireiton were investigated. The rice varieties were significantly (P < 0.05 different in the contents of the test characteristics. Lipids, ash, minerals, phytochemicals (phenolic acids and flavonoids and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH activity of rice flours were decreased after polishing (9% degree of milling, while amylose content and lightness were increased. X-ray diffraction pattern of rice flours exhibited A-type crystalline pattern with reflections at 15.1°, 17.1°, 18.2° and 23.0°. Pasting properties and transition temperatures were decreased after polishing treatment. Polishing resulted in changes in the crystallinity, enthalpy and morphology of rice flours.

  7. In Vitro Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of DIAGNOdent and Digital Radiography for Detection of Secondary Proximal Caries Adjacent to Composite Restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoncheh, Zahra; Zonouzy, Zahra; Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Kharazifar, Mohammad Javad; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Early detection of secondary proximal caries is critical for the preservation of tooth vitality. This study sought to assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent and digital radiography for detection of secondary proximal caries adjacent to composite restorations.

  8. Phytochemical Properties and Proximate Composition of Papaya (Carica papaya L. var solo 8 Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adingra Kouassi Martial-Didier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya is a common tropical fruit used for nutrition as well as medicinal purposes. Apart from fruit, seed, latex and other plant parts of papaya tree have been shown to have medicinal properties. Since, no systematic study has been performed on nutritional analysis of papaya (Carica papaya L. var solo 8 peels. In this study, the proximate composition, mineral element profile and phytochemical composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. var solo 8 peels were investigated. The peels were harvested fresh, dried in an oven at 45°C for 48 hours, ground and analyzed according to standard procedures. Proximate analysis showed high level of proteins (11.67 ± 0.04 %, crude fibre (32.51 ± 0.03 %, carbohydrate (47.33 ± 0.08 %, ash (5.98 ± 0.03 % 0.03 % and fat (2.51 ± 0.13 %. Mineral analysis indicated the papaya (Carica papaya L. var solo 8 peels were specifically rich in potassium and phosphorus. Potassium was found to be the most abundant mineral present in the peels (516.33 ± 0.82 mg/100g. Phytochemical composition showed high level of total phenolic (65.48 ± 0.39 mg (GAE/100 g DW, flavonoids (5.58 ± 0.83 mg (QE/100 g DW and tannins (10.51 ± 0.93 mg (TAE/100 g DW. The methanolic extracts of the papaya (Carica papaya L. var solo 8 peels exhibited the high DPPH radical scavenging activities (81.89 ± 0.14 %.These data indicated that this papaya (Carica papaya L. var solo 8 peels could constitute a potential good source of natural antioxidant for local population.

  9. Computational method for the correction of proximity effect in electron-beam lithography (Poster Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Yuan; Owen, Gerry; Pease, Roger Fabian W.; Kailath, Thomas

    1992-07-01

    Dose correction is commonly used to compensate for the proximity effect in electron lithography. The computation of the required dose modulation is usually carried out using 'self-consistent' algorithms that work by solving a large number of simultaneous linear equations. However, there are two major drawbacks: the resulting correction is not exact, and the computation time is excessively long. A computational scheme, as shown in Figure 1, has been devised to eliminate this problem by the deconvolution of the point spread function in the pattern domain. The method is iterative, based on a steepest descent algorithm. The scheme has been successfully tested on a simple pattern with a minimum feature size 0.5 micrometers , exposed on a MEBES tool at 10 KeV in 0.2 micrometers of PMMA resist on a silicon substrate.

  10. Microbial Quality and Proximate Composition of Dried Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyxes in Uyo, Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo-tayo, B. C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried Hibiscus sabdarifa calyxes collected from different markets in Uyo, Eastern Nigeria were evaluated for microbial quality, Aflatoxin contamination and proximate composition. The results showed that all the calyxes were contaminated with microorganism. The total bacteria count ranged from 5.0 x 10^3 to 8.1 x 10^4 cfu/g in which the highest count was obtained from dried calyxes from Itam Market. Coliform were not detected in most of the sample except samples from Uyo main market and Ikot Ekpene market in which the coliform level is below the acceptable limit. Salmonella/Shigella was not detected in the sample. The fungi count ranged from 3.4 x 10^4 to 7.3 x 10^4. The associated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sp. Enterococuss faecalis, Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. The associated fungi were Aspergillus flavus, A. terreus, A. glaucus, Penicillium citrinum, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus sp. and Mucor sp. A. glaucus had the highest frequency of occurrence among the isolated fungi. Out of the sample obtained Aflatoxin B1 was detected in two samples and it ranged from 1.57 to 17.8 /µg/kg. The proximate analysis revealed that the crude protein ranged from 8.34 – 9.97%, crude fibre (7.26 – 7.82% and fat (8.51 – 9.26%. The moisture content ranged from 13.13 – 14.85%.

  11. Influence of Processing Methods on Proximate Composition and Dieting of Two Amaranthus Species from West Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Landry Suffo Kamela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various processing methods on the proximate composition and dieting of Amaranthus hybridus and Amaranthus cruentus from West Cameroon were investigated in this study. Both amaranths leaves were subjected to same treatments (sun-dried and unsliced, sliced and cooked, milled, and analysed for their mineral and proximate composition. Thirty-Six Wistar albino rats of 21 to 24 days old were distributed in six groups and fed for 14 days with 10% protein based diets named D0 (protein-free diet, DI (egg white as reference protein, DII (sun-dried and unsliced A. hybridus, DIII (cooked and sliced A. hybridus, DIV (sun-dried and unsliced A. cruentus, and DV (cooked and sliced A. cruentus. The protein bioavailability and haematological and biochemical parameters were assessed in rats. The results showed that K, P, Mg, Zn, and Fe had the higher content in both samples regardless of processing method. The sun-dried and unsliced A. cruentus contained the highest value of crude protein 32.22 g/100 g DM (dry matter while the highest crude lipid, 3.80 and 2.58%, was observed, respectively, in sun-dried and unsliced A. hybridus and cooked and sliced A. cruentus. Cooked and sliced A. hybridus and A. cruentus contained high crude fiber of 14 and 12.18%, respectively. Rats fed with diet DIII revealed the best protein bioavailability and haematological parameters whereas 100% mortality rate was recorded with group fed with diet DIV. From this study, it is evident that cooked and sliced A. hybridus and A. cruentus could play a role in weight reduction regimes.

  12. [Proximal chemical composition and functional properties of fresh meat of crab claws (Homalaspis plana)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, L; Barrios, J; Guarda, A

    1996-12-01

    The research of alternative technological processes is being necessary in order to obtain a better utilization of hydrobiologic resources and food products, with higher added value. Crab (Homolaspis plana) is a crustacean found along the Chilean coast, whose flesh is exported as a frozen product. The resource crab is scantly studied in Chile and could became an excellent raw material for "delicatessen" products, with a high market value. The proximal composition, through the protein, fat, moisture and ashes content was determined. The non nitrogen extract was calculated by difference. The functional properties (water retention, emulsifying and gel-forming capacities) of fresh crab claws meat without additives were measured. The proximal composition for the claw meat was: 79,34 +/- 1.12% moisture, 16.75 +/- 1.29% protein, 1.86 +/- 0.11% ashes, 0.11 +/- 0.01 fat % and 1.93 +/- 1.07% N.N.E. In relation with the emulsifying capacity, claw meat was able to emulsify 2,259.03 +/- 73.04 g vegetal oil/g protein. The water retention was 154.49 +/- 6.85% representing the increase in mass percent; and the force of the gel formed in claw meat was 195.3 +/- 17.16 g-force x cm. According to these results, the claw crab is an attractive food, with a high protein and low fat content. Crab meat showed an excellent emulsifying capacity and water retention, so it can be used as a good raw material for the development of smearing products. In the case of gel-like products, further studies will be required, in order to optimize the conditions in which a stronger gel could be obtained.

  13. Proximate composition of Turkish sesame seeds and characterization of their oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın, Hasan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A proximate composition of four varieties of Turkish sesame seeds (moisture, ash, protein, oil was determined along with a characterization of their oils (fatty acids, triacylglycerols and desmethylsterols The results of the proximate analysis showed the following contents: moisture, 4,40%; ash, 4,41%; protein, 21,00%; and oil, 54,26%. Oleic and linoleic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids while palmitic and stearic were the main saturated. The triacylglycerol composition of the sesame oil samples was determined by HPLC and LOL; LOO; PLO; LLL; OOO were the major triglycerides while triacylglycerols containing oleic and linoleic acyl residues comprize 62,45% of the total. The major desmethyl sterols found in sesame seed oils were β-sitosterol, campasterol, stigma-sterol, and Δ-5, avenasterol. Small proportions of cholesterol, clerosterol 5,24 stigmastedienol, Δ-7, stigmastenol and avenasterol were also identified.Se ha evaluado la composición proximal de cuatro variedades de semillas de sésamo de Turquía así como el aceite obtenido mediante extracción en frío con hexano (composición en ácidos grasos, triglicéridos y esteroles. Las composiciones medias de las semillas fueron similares para todas las muestras siendo los valores medios 4,40%, 4,41%, 21,00%, 54,26% para humedad, cenizas, proteínas y aceite, respectivamente. Los ácidos oleico y linoleico fueron los ácidos grasos mayoritarios mientras los ácidos palmítico y estearico fueron los principales ácidos saturados. Los triglicéridos mayoritarios, determinados mediante HPLC fueron LOL; LOO; PLO; LLL y OOO, suponiendo un 62,45% del porcentaje total de los triglicéridos. Los esteroles mayoritarios fueron β-sitosterol, campesterol, estigmasterol, Δ-5, avenasterol, identificándose también pequeñas cantidades de colesterol, clerosterol 5,24 estigmastedienol, Δ-7 estigmastenol y avenasterol.

  14. The effect of proximal contour on marginal ridge fracture of Class II composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomans, B A C; Roeters, F J M; Opdam, N J M; Kuijs, R H

    2008-10-01

    To compare the marginal ridge fracture strength of Class II composite resin restorations placed with a straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity. In 60 artificial first molars standardized MO-preparations were ground. Two matrix systems were used: (1) A straight matrix (Standard Tofflemire Matrix, KerrHawe) in Tofflemire retainer (Produits Dentaire). (2) A contoured matrix (Standard matrix, Palodent, Dentsply). In both groups, a wooden wedge and separation ring (Composi-Tight Gold, GDS) were placed and the matrix was burnished against the adjacent tooth. Three composite resins together were used (Filtek Supreme: e-modulus 13.3 GPa (3M ESPE), Clearfil AP-X: 16.6 GPa (Kuraray) and Clearfil Majesty Posterior: 22.0 GPa (Kuraray)), resulting in six groups (n=10). Teeth were mounted into a MTS servo hydraulic testing machine (Mini Bionix II, MTS, USA) with stylus placed on the marginal ridge. Samples were loaded at a crosshead speed of 1.0mm/min until fracture occurred. Fracture resistance data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffé's post hoc test for multiple comparison of groups (p<0.05). Contoured proximal surfaces (365.5+/-87.6N) resulted in significant stronger marginal ridges compared to straight surfaces (290.5+/-64.2N) (p<0.001). Clearfil AP-X (378.1+/-94.63N) provided a higher resistance to fracture than Filtek Supreme (301.4+/-67.3N) (p=0.001) and Clearfil Majesty Posterior (304.5+/-70.6N) (p=0.002). No differences were found between Filtek Supreme and Clearfil Majesty Posterior (p=0.890). Within the limitations of this in vitro study it was shown that use of a contoured matrix results in a stronger marginal ridge of a Class II composite resin restoration.

  15. Proximate Composition and Nutritional Value of Three Macroalgae: Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lorenzo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid and ash content and nutritional value (fatty acid, amino acid and mineral profile of three macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcate were studied. Chemical composition was significantly (p < 0.001 different among the three seaweeds. In this regard, the B. bifurcata presented the highest fat content (6.54% of dry matter; whereas, F. vesiculosus showed the highest protein level (12.99% dry matter. Regarding fatty acid content, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs were the most abundant followed by saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. On the other hand, the three seaweeds are a rich source of K (from 3781.35 to 9316.28 mg/100 g, Mn (from 8.28 to 1.96 mg/100 g, Na (from 1836.82 to 4575.71 mg/100 g and Ca (from 984.73 to 1160.27 mg/100 g. Finally, the most abundant amino acid was glutamic acid (1874.47–1504.53 mg/100 dry matter, followed by aspartic acid (1677.01–800.84 mg/100 g dry matter and alanine (985.40–655.73 mg/100 g dry matter.

  16. Effect of chitosan coatings enriched with cinnamon oil on proximate composition of rainbow trout fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Pınar Oǧuzhan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of chitosan coating enriched with cinnamon oil on proximate composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during storage at 4°C was investigated. The treatments included the following: C1 (control samples), C2 (chitosan coating) and C3 (chitosan + 1 % [v/w] cinnamon EO added). The control and the coated fish samples were analysed for chemical (moisture, protein, lipid and ash) composition. The mean of moisture, protein, lipid and ash in the control samples (C1) were 70.3%, 20.1%, 2.6% and 1.2%, in coated samples (C2) 69.70%, 24.21%, 2.4% and 2.2% and coated+cinnamon oil samples (C3) 69.70%, 25.05%, 2.5% and 2.2%, respectively. Moisture and lipid contents in control groups were higher than other groups, but protein and ash contents were lower. Significant increases (p<0.05) in protein content were observed between samples, which subsequently decreased the moisture content of these samples.

  17. Proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of some capsicum (Capsicum annum varieties grown in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to generate baseline information on the nutritional composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of three capsicum varieties (Marako fana, Bako local and Oda haro grown in Ethiopia. In relation to proximate composition, Marako fana, Bako local and Oda haro contained 9.2, 9.0 and 8.8% moisture; 11.9, 8.8 and 9.2% crude protein; 27.3, 26.0 and 28.6% crude fiber and 11.2, 9.5 and 9.2% fat (oleoresin on wet weight basis. They also contained 1.7, 1.6 and 1.8 mg/100 g potassium; 27.2, 38.2 and 54.6 mg/100 g calcium and 7.2, 6.9 and 9.6 mg/100 g iron on wet weight basis. Tannin was found to be 0.142, 0.164 and 0.148 mg/100 g, respectively, while phytate was not detected in any of the samples. Analysis of variance and LSD (least significant difference test revealed that protein and oleoresin of Marako fana were significantly higher (p<0.05 than Bako local and Oda haro. Potassium, calcium and iron contents of Oda haro were significantly higher (p<0.05. Based on these results Marako fana is preferable for large scale production of oleoresin, while Oda haro is nutritionally preferable because it contains high amounts of potassium, calcium and iron.

  18. Microbial Diversity and Proximate Composition of Tapai, A Sabah’s Fermented Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Y. W.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tapai is a well-known indigenous fermented alcoholic beverage among Kadazan-Dusun-Murut (KDM ethnics during festive occasions and gatherings in East Malaysia. Unfortunately, very little research has been done on this beverage. The objective of this study was to identify functional microfloras involved in the production of tapai. Samples from local producers were obtained for microbiological and proximate analysis. The fermentation process was predominated by yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB with initial numbers (CFU/g of 10^5 and 10^6, respectively, which gradually increased during the first 2 weeks fermentation but decreased thereafter. The yeasts were identified as Sacchromyces cerevisiae, Candida krusei, C. pelliculosa, C. guillermondii, C. magnoliae and Rhodotorula glutinis, whereas the LAB were Lactobacillus brevis, L. plantarum, L. collinoides and Pediococcus sp. Moulds and Enterobacteriaceae were only present during the first 2 days of fermentation. Acetic acid bacteria were not detected throughout the entire process. The pH of tapai declined slowly from 6.6 to 3.4 in 14 days, and then showed an increment to 4.0. On the other hand, titratable acidity (as % lactic acidincreased from 0.06 to 0.86 in 10 days, and then decreased to 0.82 at the end of the fermentation process. Alcohol was produced and the content can reach as high as 12.3% after 3 weeks fermentation. Proximate composition analysis showed that the moisture content in the end product was 61.8±6.1% whereas ash, protein, fat and crude fiber (of dried samples were 0.50±0.1%, 8.7±0.1%, 0.29±0.01% and 0.56±0.03%, respectively.

  19. Proximate Composition, Mineral Content and Fatty Acids Analyses of Aromatic and Non-Aromatic Indian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Verma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness on nutritive value and health benefits of rice is of vital importance in order to increase the consumption of rice in daily diet of the human beings. In this study, a total of six aromatic and two non-aromatic rice accessions grown in India were analysed for their nutritional quality attributes including proximate composition, mineral contents and fatty acids. Data with three replications were used to measure Pearson's simple correlation co-efficient in order to establish the relationship among various nutritional quality attributes. The result on proximate composition showed that Govind Bhog had the highest moisture (13.57% and fat (0.92% content, which signifies its tasty attribute. Badshah Bhog exhibited the highest fibre content (0.85%, carbohydrate content (82.70% and food energy (365.23 kCal per 100 g. Among the minerals, the higher Ca (98.75 mg/kg, Zn (17.00 mg/kg and Fe (31.50 mg/kg were in Gopal Bhog, whereas the highest Na (68.85 mg/kg was in Badshah Bhog, the highest K (500.00 mg/kg was in Swetganga, Khushboo and Sarbati. The highest contents of unsaturated fatty acids viz. oleic acid (49.14%, linoleic acid (46.99% and linolenic acid (1.27% were found in Sarbati, whereas the highest content of saturated fatty acids viz. myristic acid (4.60% and palmitic acid (31.91% were found in Govind Bhog and stearic acid (6.47% in Todal. The identified aromatic rice accessions Gopal Bhog, Govind Bhog and Badshah Bhog and non-aromatic rice accession Sarbati were found nutritionally superior among all eight tested accessions. The nutritional quality oriented attributes in this study were competent with recognized prominent aromatic and non-aromatic rice accessions as an index of their nutritional worth and recommend to farmers and consumers which may be graded as export quality rice with good unique nutritional values in international market.

  20. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Proximal Contour of Class II Composite Restorations on Stress Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abachizadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proximal contour of class II composite restorations placed with straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity on stress distribution by finite element method. Methods: In order to evaluate the stress distribution of class II composite restorations using finite element method, upper right first molar and second premolar were modeled. Proximal boxes were designed and restored with universal Z250 and packable P60 composite resins (3M ESPE using two matrix systems: flat Tofflemire matrix and precurved sectional matrix. Finally models were evaluated under loads of 200 and 400 Newton at 90 degrees angle and the results were graphically illustrated in the form of Von Misses stresses. Results: In general the stress obtained under 400 Newton load was significantly greater than the stress of models under 200 Newton load. Von Misses stress distribution pattern of two different Z250 and P60 composites were very similar in all modes of loading and proximal contour. In all analyzed models there was a significant difference between models restored with Tofflemire matrix with flat contour and models restored with sectional matrix with curved contour. This difference was greater in first molar than second premolar. Conclusion: Use of a contoured matrix band results in less stress in class II composite resin restorations.

  1. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Proximal Contour of Class II Composite Restorations on Stress Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Moghaddas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proximal contour of class II composite restorations placed with straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity on stress distribution by finite element method. Methods: In order to evaluate the stress distribution of class II composite restorations using finite element method, upper right first molar and second premolar were modeled. Proximal boxes were designed and restored with universal Z250 and packable P60 composite resins (3M ESPE using two matrix systems: flat Tofflemire matrix and precurved sectional matrix. Finally models were evaluated under loads of 200 and 400 Newton at 90 degrees angle and the results were graphically illustrated in the form of Von Misses stresses. Results: In general the stress obtained under 400 Newton load was significantly greater than the stress of models under 200 Newton load. Von Misses stress distribution pattern of two different Z250 and P60 composites were very similar in all modes of loading and proximal contour. In all analyzed models there was a significant difference between models restored with Tofflemire matrix with flat contour and models restored with sectional matrix with curved contour. This difference was greater in first molar than second premolar. Conclusion: Use of a contoured matrix band results in less stress in class II composite resin restorations.

  2. RET Recognition of GDNF-GFRα1 Ligand by a Composite Binding Site Promotes Membrane-Proximal Self-Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry M. Goodman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The RET receptor tyrosine kinase is essential to vertebrate development and implicated in multiple human diseases. RET binds a cell surface bipartite ligand comprising a GDNF family ligand and a GFRα coreceptor, resulting in RET transmembrane signaling. We present a hybrid structural model, derived from electron microscopy (EM and low-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS data, of the RET extracellular domain (RETECD, GDNF, and GFRα1 ternary complex, defining the basis for ligand recognition. RETECD envelopes the dimeric ligand complex through a composite binding site comprising four discrete contact sites. The GFRα1-mediated contacts are crucial, particularly close to the invariant RET calcium-binding site, whereas few direct contacts are made by GDNF, explaining how distinct ligand/coreceptor pairs are accommodated. The RETECD cysteine-rich domain (CRD contacts both ligand components and makes homotypic membrane-proximal interactions occluding three different antibody epitopes. Coupling of these CRD-mediated interactions suggests models for ligand-induced RET activation and ligand-independent oncogenic deregulation.

  3. Yields, photosynthetic efficiencies, and proximate chemical composition of dense cultures of marine microalgae. A subcontract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.H.; Seibert, D.L.R.; Alden, M.; Eldridge, P.; Neori, A.

    1983-07-01

    The yields, photosynthetic efficiencies, and proximate composition of several microalgae were compared in dense cultures grown at light intensities up to 70% sunlight. Yields ranged from 3.4 to 21.7 g dry weight/m/sup 2/ day. The highest yield was obtained with Phaeodactylum; the lowest in Botryococcus cultures. The same species had the highest and lowest efficiencies of utilization of photosynthetically active radiation. In nitrogen-sufficient cells of all but one species, most of the dry weight consisted of protein. Lipid content of all species was 20 to 29%, and carbohydrate content 11 to 23%. Lipid content increased somewhat in N-deficient Phaeodactylum and Isochrysis cells, but decreased in deficient Monallanthus cells. Because the overall dry weight yield was reduced by deficiency, lipid yields did not increase. However, since the carbohydrate content increased to about 65% in N-deficient Dunaliella and Tetraselmis cells, the carbohydrate yield increased. In Phaeodactylum the optimum light intensity was about 40% of full sunlight. Most experimets with this alga included a CUSO/sub 4/ filter to decrease infrared irradiance. When this filter was removed, the yield increased because more red light in the photosynthetically active spectral range was included. These results should prove useful to workers attempting to maximize yields and efficiencies, but additional studies are needed. 69 references, 27 figures, 18 tables.

  4. Molecular diversity of Annona species and proximate fruit composition of selected genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuragi, Hirdayesh; Dhaduk, Haresh L; Kumar, Sushil; Dhruve, Jitendra J; Parekh, Mithil J; Sakure, Amar A

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the genetic variation in germplasm is of utmost importance for crop improvement. Therefore, efforts were made to analyse the molecular marker based genetic diversity of 20 Annona genotypes from five different species of family Annonaceae. During analysis, a set of 11 RAPD primers yielded a total of 152 bands with 80.01 % polymorphism and PIC for RAPD ranged from 0.86 to 0.92 with a mean of 0.89. With 93.05 % polymorphism, 12 SSR primers produced 39 amplicons. The PIC for SSRs ranged from 0.169 to 0.694 with of average of 0.339. The dendrogram produced from pooled molecular data of 11 RAPD and 12 SSR primers showed seven clusters at a cutoff value of 0.78. The dendrogram discriminated all the Annona genotypes suggesting that significant genetic diversity was present among the genotypes. Proximate fruit composition study of nine fruiting genotypes of Annona revealed that A. squamosa possessed significantly higher amount of most of studies biochemical which gives an opportunity to fruit breeders to improve the other Annona species. Likewise, A. muricata being rich in seed oil content can be exploited in oil industries.

  5. Proximate composition of CELSS crops grown in NASA's Biomass Production Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.; Berry, W. L.

    1996-01-01

    Edible biomass from four crops of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), four crops of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), four crops of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), and three crops of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) grown in NASA's CELSS Biomass Production Chamber were analyzed for proximate composition. All plants were grown using recirculating nutrient (hydroponic) film culture with pH and electrical conductivity automatically controlled. Temperature and humidity were controlled to near optimal levels for each species and atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained near 100 Pa during the light cycles. Soybean seed contained the highest percentage of protein and fat, potato tubers and wheat seed contained the highest levels of carbohydrate, and lettuce leaves contained the highest level of ash. Analyses showed values close to data published for field-grown plants with several exceptions: In comparison with field-grown plants, wheat seed had higher protein levels; soybean seed had higher ash and crude fiber levels; and potato tubers and lettuce leaves had higher protein and ash levels. The higher ash and protein levels may have been a result of the continuous supply of nutrients (e.g., potassium and nitrogen) to the plants by the recirculating hydroponic culture.

  6. Proximate Composition, Extraction, and Purification of Theobromine from Cacao Pod Husk (Theobroma Cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tang Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the proximate composition of cacao pod husk as well as the optimal conditions for extraction and purification of theobromine from cacao pod husk. The results indicated that cacao pod husk had high contents of moisture and carbohydrate (87.06% and 11.03% by fresh weight, respectively, but low contents of crude protein, crude lipid, and ash (0.31%, 0.12%, and 1.48% by fresh weight, respectively. The optimal conditions for extraction of theobromine from cacao pod husk were of 70% ethanol, with an extraction time of 90 min, and 1 as the number of extractions. A concentration of 10% by volume of 10% lead acetate solution was the best selection for purification of the crude extracts containing theobromine from cacao pod husk. Under these optimal conditions, theobromine content obtained from cacao pod husk was 6.79 mg/100 g dry weight. The finding from this study is a valuable contribution for obtaining theobromine from an abundant, inexpensive, renewable, and sustainable source for potential application in the nutraceutical, medical, and pharmaceutical industries.

  7. Proximate composition, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of seagrape (Caulerpa lentillifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Tang; Ueng, Jinn-Pyng; Tsai, Guo-Jane

    2011-09-01

    The proximate composition of seagrape (Caulerpa lentillifera) from culture ponds in Penghu, Taiwan was analyzed. The phenolic content and the antioxidant activities including the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric ion-reducing activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) activity of the ethanolic extracts of dry seagrape samples using 2 drying methods of freeze drying and thermal drying were compared with the ethanolic extract of Oolong tea as a reference. The contents (dry weight basis) of carbohydrate, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fiber, and ash of seagrape obtained from culture ponds in Taiwan were 64.00%, 9.26%, 1.57%, 2.97%, and 22.20%, respectively. The total phenolic content (1.30 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight) of the ethanolic extract of thermally dried seagrape was significantly lower (P Caulerpa lentillifera) in Taiwan were determined in this research to indicate nutritionally of this edible seaweed to human health, and compared these results to previous studies. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Proximate Composition, and l-Carnitine and Betaine Contents in Meat from Korean Indigenous Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Hyun Jung; Seo, Dong Won; Park, Hee Bok; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the proximate composition and l-carnitine and betaine content of meats from 5 lines of Korean indigenous chicken (KIC) for developing highly nutritious meat breeds with health benefits from the bioactive compounds such as l-carnitine and betaine in meat. In addition, the relevance of gender (male and female) and meat type (breast and thigh meat) was examined. A total of 595 F1 progeny (black [B], grey-brown [G], red-brown [R], white [W], and yellow-brown [Y]) from 70 full-sib families were used. The moisture, protein, fat, and ash contents of the meats were significantly affected by line, gender, and meat type (pprotein and the lowest fat content of the meats. l-carnitine and betaine content showed effects of meat type, line, and gender (pcontent was found in breast and thigh meats from line Y in both genders. The breast meat from line G and the thigh meat from line R had the highest betaine content in males. The female breast and thigh meats showed the highest betaine content in line R. These data could be valuable for establishing selection strategies for developing highly nutritious chicken meat breeds in Korea.

  9. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DRY PASTA INCORPORATED WITH MICRONIZED CORN PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO RENATO DE JESUS JUNQUEIRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastas are generally accepted all over the world, mainly because they are versatile, cheap and easy - to - prepare. They are not nutritionally balanced, since they provide mainly carbohydrates. As a result of this, it is important to use ingredients which could improve the nutritional deficiencies, without affecting the technological and sensorial characteristics. This study evaluated the effect of using wheat semolina and micronized corn pericarp (MCP, on the proximate composition, cooking quality and color of spaghetti type pasta. Spaghetti pasta was produced using wheat semolina with the incorporation of micronized corn pericarp, at levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between the formulated samples with regards to the contents of moisture and lipid, cooking time, weight gain and volume increase. As observed, supplementation with micronized corn pericarp presented significant difference on the contents of proteins, minerals, dietary fiber and solid soluble loss of the spaghetti pasta (p < 0.05. With increase in micronized corn pericarp concentration, the color difference became accentuated. The use of MCP appears to be viable, providing a nutritionally enriched product without further impairment on pasta quality.

  10. Proximate Composition, and -Carnitine and Betaine Contents in Meat from Korean Indigenous Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samooel Jung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the proximate composition and l-carnitine and betaine content of meats from 5 lines of Korean indigenous chicken (KIC for developing highly nutritious meat breeds with health benefits from the bioactive compounds such as l-carnitine and betaine in meat. In addition, the relevance of gender (male and female and meat type (breast and thigh meat was examined. A total of 595 F1 progeny (black [B], grey-brown [G], red-brown [R], white [W], and yellow-brown [Y] from 70 full-sib families were used. The moisture, protein, fat, and ash contents of the meats were significantly affected by line, gender, and meat type (p<0.05. The males in line G and females in line B showed the highest protein and the lowest fat content of the meats. l-carnitine and betaine content showed effects of meat type, line, and gender (p<0.05. The highest l-carnitine content was found in breast and thigh meats from line Y in both genders. The breast meat from line G and the thigh meat from line R had the highest betaine content in males. The female breast and thigh meats showed the highest betaine content in line R. These data could be valuable for establishing selection strategies for developing highly nutritious chicken meat breeds in Korea.

  11. Proximate composition, minerals and fatty acid composition of Juglans Regia L. genotypes and cultivars grown in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemile Yerlikaya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition of eleven walnut (Juglans regia L. genotypes (28 ŞK 010, 28 ŞK 055, 28 ŞK 041, 28 ŞK 601, 28 ŞK 925, 28 ŞK 028, 28 ŞK 118, 28 ŞK 350, 28 ŞK 930, 28 ŞK 850, 28 ŞK 036 and three walnut cultivars (Şebin, Bilecik, Kaman 1 produced in Turkey were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 61.32 to 69.35%, corresponding to an energy value of approximately 710 kcal per 100 g of kernel. The protein content ranged from 10.58 to 18.19%, and the carbohydrate composition was between 9.05 and 18.92%. The ash content ranged from 1.53 to 1.99%, and the moisture content of the kernels was between 1.91 and 4.48% the oleic acid content of the oils ranged from 17.90 to 33.35% of the total fatty acids. The linoleic acid content ranged from 43.15 to 60.20%. The linolenic acid content ranged from 9.98 to 13.00%. The palmitic acid content was between 5.21 and 8.40%. Stearic acid ranged from 2.36 to 4.25%. Potassium was the major mineral in all the samples, ranging from 359.73 to 482.97 mg/100 g. Calcium was the next most abundant mineral, ranging from 109.45 to 335.97 mg/100 g, followed by magnesium, ranging from 126.01 to 165.15 mg/100 g.

  12. Composition quantification of electron-transparent samples by backscattered electron imaging in scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, E., E-mail: erich.mueller@kit.edu; Gerthsen, D.

    2017-02-15

    The contrast of backscattered electron (BSE) images in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) depends on material parameters which can be exploited for composition quantification if some information on the material system is available. As an example, the In-concentration in thin In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As layers embedded in a GaAs matrix is analyzed in this work. The spatial resolution of the technique is improved by using thin electron-transparent specimens instead of bulk samples. Although the BSEs are detected in a comparably small angular range by an annular semiconductor detector, the image intensity can be evaluated to determine the composition and local thickness of the specimen. The measured intensities are calibrated within one single image to eliminate the influence of the detection and amplification system. Quantification is performed by comparison of experimental and calculated data. Instead of using time-consuming Monte-Carlo simulations, an analytical model is applied for BSE-intensity calculations which considers single electron scattering and electron diffusion. - Highlights: • Sample thickness and composition are quantified by backscattered electron imaging. • A thin sample is used to achieve spatial resolution of few nanometers. • Calculations are carried out with a time-saving electron diffusion model. • Small differences in atomic number and density detected at low electron energies.

  13. Amino acid and proximate composition of fish bone gelatin from different warm-water species: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atma, Y.

    2017-03-01

    Research on fish bone gelatin has been increased in the last decade. The quality of gelatin depends on its physicochemical properties. Fish bone gelatin from warm-water fishes has a superior amino acid composition than cold-water fishes. The composition of amino acid can determine the strength and stability of gelatin. Thus, it is important to analyze the composition of amino acid as well as proximate composition for potential gelatin material. The warm water fish species used in this study were Grass carp, Pangasius catfish, Catfish, Lizard fish, Tiger-toothed croaker, Pink perch, Red snapper, Brown spotted grouper, and King weakfish. There werre five dominant amino acid in fish bone gelatin including glycine (21.2-36.7%), proline (8.7-11.7%), hydroxyproline (5.3-9.6%), alanine (8.48-12.9%), and glutamic acid (7.23-10.15%). Different warm-water species has some differences in amino acid composition. The proximate composition showed that fishbone gelatin from Pangasius catfish has the highest protein content. The water composition of all fishbone gelatin was well suited to the standard. Meanwhile, based on ash content, only gelatin from gelatin Pangasius catfish met the standard for food industries.

  14. Studies on the seasonal variations in the proximate composition of ascidians from the Palk Bay, Southeast coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthan, G; Karthikeyan, MM; Selva, Prabhu A; Raghunathan, C

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the seasonal fluctuations of the proximate composition of the ascidians muscle. Methods The moisture content was estimated by drying 1 g of fresh tissue at a constant temperature at 105 °C for 24 h.The loss of weight was taken as moisture content. The total protein was estimated using the Biuret method. The total carbohydrate in dried sample was estimated spectrophotometrically following the phenol- sulphuric acid method. The lipid in the dried sample tissue was gravimetrically estimated following the chloroform-methanol mixture method. Ash content was determined gravimetrically by incinerating 1 g dried sample in muffle furnace at about 550 °C for 6 h and results are expressed in percentage. Results It was found very difficult to compare the monthly variations, as all the ten species, exhibited wide fluctuations in their proximate compositions. For the sake of convenience, average seasonal values were calculated by summing the monthly values. Conclusions The proximate composition of the 10 commonly available ascidians showed high nutritive value and hence these groups especially solitary ascidians can be recommended for human consumption in terms of pickles, soup, curry and others after ensuring the safety of consumers. PMID:23569849

  15. Proximate, Antinutrients and Mineral Composition of Raw and Processed (Boiled and Roasted) Sphenostylis stenocarpa Seeds from Southern Kaduna, Northwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndidi, Uche Samuel; Ndidi, Charity Unekwuojo; Olagunju, Abbas; Muhammad, Aliyu; Billy, Francis Graham; Okpe, Oche

    2014-01-01

    This research was aimed at evaluating the proximate composition, level of anti-nutrients, and the mineral composition of raw and processed Sphenostylis stenocarpa seeds and at examining the effect of processing on the parameters. From the proximate composition analysis, the ash content showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the processed and unprocessed (raw) samples. However, there was significant difference (P antinutrient composition show that the processed S. stenocarpa registered significant reduction in levels of hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, phytate, oxalate, and tannins compared to the unprocessed. Evaluation of the mineral composition showed that the level of sodium, calcium, and potassium was high in both the processed and unprocessed sample (150-400 mg/100 g). However, the level of iron, copper, zinc, and magnesium was low in both processed and unprocessed samples (2-45 mg/100 g). The correlation analysis showed that tannins and oxalate affected the levels of ash and nitrogen-free extract of processed and unprocessed seeds. These results suggest that the consumption of S. stenocarpa will go a long way in reducing the level of malnutrition in northern Nigeria.

  16. Proximate and Ultimate Compositional Changes in Corn Stover during Torrefaction using Thermogravimetric Analyzer and Microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2012-07-01

    regular and microwaves and their effect on proximate and ultimate composition. Studies indicated that microwave torrefaction is a good way to torrefy the biomass in short periods of time. A maximum calorific value of 21 MJ/kg is achievable at 6 min residence time compared to 15 min using the dry torrefaction technique. Increasing the residence time increased the carbon content where a maximum carbon content of 52.20 % was achievable at lower residence time. The loss of volatiles is comparatively lower compared to dry torrefaction technique. Moisture content of microwave torrefied samples was in between 2-2.5 % (w.b).

  17. Proximate composition and fatty acid content of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae along the year seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cavalcanti Martino

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove oysters, Crassostrea rhizophorae were collected at the mangrove of "Barra de Guaratiba" district, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with the aim to determine the proximate composition and fatty acid content. Along the year seasons no statistical (P>0.05 difference was observed in the values of moisture, crude protein, crude lipid and ash. They were 82.0%; 9.7%; 1.7%; 3.2%, in average, respectively. However, glycogen was significantly (PCom o objetivo de determinar a composição centesimal e de ácidos graxos da ostra de mangue Crassostrea rhizophorae, amostras foram coletadas durante um ano no manguezal localizado na Barra de Guaratiba, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Nenhuma diferença estatística (P>0,05 foi observada para os valores de umidade, proteína bruta, lipídio bruto e cinza, que foram em média: 82%; 9,7%; 1,7% e 3,2%, respectivamente. Por outro lado, os valores encontrados para o glicogênio foram significativamente diferentes (P<0,05 para as amostras de primavera (4,4% e inverno (4,2% do que para as amostras de verão (2,7% e outono (2,9%. Os ácidos graxos saturados e poliinsaturados foram respectivamente, os principais grupos de ácidos graxos das ostras, sendo que o ácido palmítico (16:0 foi o ácido graxo mais abundante em todos as amostras de ostras coletadas. O presente estudo demonstrou que esta espécie é caracterizada tanto por uma baixa concentração de lipídios (< 2,0% como também, por uma elevada concentração dos ácidos eicosapentaenóico (20:5n-3, EPA e docosahexaenóico (22:6n-3, DHA. Portanto, baseado no presente resultado é possível concluir que em termos de lipídios e de ácidos graxos a composição nutricional da C.rhizophorae é recomendável para o consumo humano.

  18. Proximate Composition, Nutritional Attributes and Mineral Composition of Peperomia pellucida L. (Ketumpangan Air Grown in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the proximate and mineral composition of Peperomia pellucida L., an underexploited weed plant in Malaysia. Proximate analysis was performed using standard AOAC methods and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated Peperomia pellucida to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high amount of total ash (31.22% suggests a high-value mineral composition comprising potassium, calcium and iron as the main elements. The present study inferred that Peperomia pellucida would serve as a good source of protein and energy as well as micronutrients in the form of a leafy vegetable for human consumption.

  19. Effect of processing method on the proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors to taro (Colocasia esculenta, L.) grown in Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adane, T; Tilahun, B; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Shimelis, A; Negussie, R

    2013-01-01

    Although taro is widely grown in Ethiopia, it is an underutilized crop and little is known about its proximate and micro-element composition and the antinutritional factors of the raw, boiled and fermented products...

  20. Composition and method for removing photoresist materials from electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenhall, Leisa B.; Rubin, James B.; Taylor, Craig M.

    2005-01-25

    Composition and method for removing photoresist materials from electronic components. The composition is a mixture of at least one dense phase fluid and at least one dense phase fluid modifier. The method includes exposing a substrate to at least one pulse of the composition in a supercritical state to remove photoresist materials from the substrate.

  1. Cellulose Nanofiber Composite Substrates for Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Sabo; Jung-Hun Seo; Zhenqiang Ma

    2012-01-01

    Flexible electronics have a large number of potential applications including malleable displays and wearable computers. The current research into high-speed, flexible electronic substrates employs the use of plastics for the flexible substrate, but these plastics typically have drawbacks, such as high thermal expansion coefficients. Transparent films made from...

  2. Proximate compositions and bioactive compounds of edible wild and cultivated mushrooms from Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporn Srikram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are known as an excellent source of nutrients including macronutrients and bioactive compounds. Nutritional values were investigated involving proximate analysis, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total phenol content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC of 10 edible wild mushroom species—Amanita calyptroderma Ark. et al., Amanita princeps Corner et Bas, A., Astraeus odoratus, Heimiella retispora (Pat. et. Bak. Boedijn., Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis (Pat. Trappe, Russula alboareolata Hongo, Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff.ex.Fr., Russula emetic (Schaeff. ex Fr. S.F.Gray., Russula virescens (Schaeff. fr., Termitomyces clypeatus Heim—and five cultivated mushroom species—Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinus polychrous Lev., Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Sing, Volvariella vovacea (Bull. Ex.Fr. Sing. From the proximate analysis, the moisture contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms ranged from 84.15% fresh weight (FW to 90.21% FW. The ash, crude protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms were in the dry weight ranges 2.56–13.96%, 11.16–50.29%, 1.43–21.94%, 2.11–38.11% and 9.56–59.73%, respectively, and the contents of macronutrients in the mushrooms varied by variety. Wild mushrooms had a high fiber content compared to cultivated mushrooms. The contents of biologically active compounds of both wild and cultivated mushrooms also varied depending on the variety. Values for the TAC, TPC and TFC of wild mushrooms were higher than those of cultivated mushrooms. In conclusion, the proximate analysis for both wild and cultivated mushrooms was variety dependent and wild mushrooms contained a higher fiber content and more biologically active compounds than cultivated mushrooms.

  3. Investigating the influences of season and coastal proximity on the elemental composition of harvested rainwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A R; Coombes, P J; Dunstan, R H

    2010-01-01

    Chemical qualities of harvested rainwater were assessed at two residential study sites on the east coast of Australia in relation to coastal proximity and surrounding land uses over the course of a winter and summer month. Daily rainwater samples were collected from the base outlet and surface levels of stored water for chemical analyses. High resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyse 26 elements in all samples. The summer sampling regime for the industrial coastal Site 1 was dominated by wind gusts originating from the east with a total average elemental load of 25,900+/-17,000 microg/L compared to the significantly lower 10,600+/-3,370 microg/L measured during the winter month, where 84% of wind gust events originated from the west. Data for the inland Site 2, with no proximity to industry, revealed no significant changes in total average loads between the winter (4,870+/-578 microg/L) and summer (4,760+/-2,280 microg/L) months. The most abundant elements found at both sites included Na, K, Mg, and Zn. The rainwater storages at Site 2 fed from a relatively new concrete tiled roof catchment had significantly lower pH and conductivity measurements compared with those at Site 1 with an old galvanised iron roof catchment. It was concluded that seasonal differences in harvested water quality were likely influenced by prevailing wind direction and external influences such as surrounding land uses and proximity to the coast.

  4. Effect of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer on the growth and proximate composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, Sandeep; Masud, Sahar; Khan, Asma

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of chicken manure and inorganic fertilizer (single super phosphate and urea) on growth performance viz. increase in wet body weight, length, specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor (CF), survival rate and proximate composition of Cyprinus carpio. Experimental water in tubs was treated in duplicates with low (PT) @8000 kgha , medium (PT2) @10,000 kgha(-1) and high (PT) @12,000 kg/ha doses of chicken manure and also with low, medium and high dose of inorganic fertilizer(urea + SSP) @ 104 kgha(-1) + 155 kgha(-1) (IT(1)), @218 kgha(-1) + 310 kg/ha (IT2) and 322 kgha(-1) +470 kgha(-1)(IT3) respectively, along with control. At the end of the experiment, C. carpio showed maximum growth in PT, with significant higher SGR and CF. Survival rate ranged beween 93.3 to 100 % in all the treatments. Level of crude protein and total fat were a2so highest in PT, Moisture and carbohydrate showed no significant changes while ash content changed significantly in all the treatments and control. These observations indicate that chicken manure alone was effective to stimulate productivity and growth of fish without affecting proximate composition of fish meat.

  5. [Seasonal variation in proximate composition of mussels Tagelus peruvianus (Bivalvia: Solecurtidae) from the Gulf of Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca Rodríguez, Cristian; Marín-Vindas, Carolina; Chavarría-Solera, Fabián; Agüero Pedro, Toledo

    2011-12-01

    Marine bivalves are a very important food source for human consumption, and species that has not been of traditional use as a fishery resource are gaining interest. Seasonal variation in proximate composition, condition index and energy or caloric content of the mussel Tagelus peruvianus were studied in the Gulf of Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. From November 2007 to October 2008, a total of 35 to 40 specimens per month were collected. The proximate composition using the AOAC methods was determined. Results showed that the condition index during December, January and May decreased, indicative of two spawning periods and one gonadal resting phase. Soft tissues were respectively characterized by protein (61.9 +/- 4.3%), carbohydrates (15.7 +/- 2.4%), ash (14.0 +/- 1.9%) and lipids (8.5 +/- 1.7%). The average caloric content was 5.0 +/- 0.1 kcal/g. The results showed that the decrease in protein and fat percentage, and calories content, occurred during the spawning seasons. We suggest that T. peruvianus has an optimal nutritional value for human consumption because of the low-fat and moderate protein content.

  6. A correlation study of proximate composition, physical and cooking properties of new high yielding and disease resistant rice varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Rasool

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to compare proximate composition, physical, and cooking properties of locally cultivated rice varieties of Kashmir division viz.; SR-1, K-448, and K-39. Various physiochemical properties were studied. The relationship between physical, proximate composition, and cooking properties was determined using Pearson’s correlation. Length–breadth (L/B ratio showed a significant positive correlation with kernel length and negative correlation with thousand kernel weight, with a correlation coefficient (r of 0.893 and −0.855, respectively, (p  0.05. Solid loss in gruel was observed to have a negative correlation with L/B ratio (r = −0.432, p > 0.05, water uptake ratio (r = −0.742, p < 0.05, and cooking time (r = −0.678, p < 0.05. The rice cultivars with higher cooking time showed lower gruel solid loss and vice versa. Water uptake was observed to be positively correlated with L/B ratio (r = 0.768, p < 0.05. Among all the cultivars studied, K-448 variety has potential for consumers’ preference and it could be used for breeding programs for the improvement of valuable grain quality traits.

  7. The effect of proximal contour on marginal ridge fracture of Class II composite resin restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Kuijs, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the marginal ridge fracture strength of Class II composite resin restorations placed with a straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity. METHODS: In 60 artificial first molars standardized MO-preparations were ground. Two

  8. Influence of volumetric shrinkage and curing light intensity on proximal contact tightness of class II resin composite restorations: in vitro study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Shamy, H.; Saber, M.H.; Dorfer, C.E.; El-Badrawy, W.; Loomans, B.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Proximal contact tightness of class II resin composite restorations is influenced by a myriad of factors. Previous studies investigated the role of matrix band type and thickness, consistency of resin composite, and technique of placement. However, the effect of volumetric shrinkage of

  9. [Seasonal variation of proximate composition in three commercially important species in the Gulf of Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Cristian Fonseca; Solera, Fabián Chavarriá; Mejía-Arana, Fernando

    2013-03-01

    Nutritional value of seafood for human consumption is worldwide recognized. Some information have been generated in other countries, nevertheless, there is limited information describing the chemical composition of some fishery important species caught in the Gulf of Nicoya. For this reason, we studied the levels of proximal components of the edible parts (fresh) of three commercially important species. The meat samples of snook Centropomus unionesis, the shrimp Trachypenaeus byrdi and the bivalve Polymesoda radiata, were collected from the Puntarenas local fish market during the fishing season of February 2009 to January 2010. Proximate composition analysis was determined according to AOAC methodology, and evaluated the moisture content, and protein and lipid composition of shellfish meats. The results indicated that the moisture content ranged from 74.6-80.6g/100g for snook 76.9-80.0g/100g for shrimp and 77.9-89.5g/100g for green mussel. After the moisture, the protein was the most abundant chemical fraction (6.8 to 21g/100g) showing the highest values in February for the shrimp and green mussel, and December for snook. The largest fluctuations in the lipid content were found in the snook, ranging from 0.7g/100g to 5.6g/100g; the highest values in this fraction were found in shrimp, green mussel and snook, for July, February and April samples respectively. Considering these results, we concluded that fish and shrimp species studied are a good alternative for human consumption as a source of protein and low lipid content.

  10. Effect Of Processing On Proximate Energy Anti-Nutritional Factor Amino Acid And Mineral Composition Of Lablab Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shaahu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A study was conducted to assess the effect of various techniques of processing decortication toasting and boiling in tap water on proximate anti-nutritional factor ANF amino acid and mineral composition of Highworth variety of Lablab purpureus seed. Processing reduced the levels of all the ANFs evaluated in the present study. Boiling in water was determined to be the best method reduced tannins alkaloids oxalates Trypsin inhibitors and HCN by 37 33 38 100 and 89 respectively. Processing also resulted in reductions in crude protein crude fibre ether extracts ash and gross energy by 8 14 17 23 10 and 8 while NFE increased by 10. The levels of nutrients in boiled lablab however compared favourably with feed grade soybean while being likely to be much cheaper.

  11. Estimation of Length-Weight Relationship and Proximate Composition of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 from Two Different Culture Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi Alaba Olopade

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine and compare the proximate composition and length weight relationship of C. gariepinus from two culture systems (earthen and concrete ponds. The fish samples were collected from three fish farms with same cultural condition in different areas of Obio-akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Result on the length- weight relationship revealed that C.gariepinus reared in concrete tank had a total length of 15.50- 49.00cm with a mean of 32.71cm and weight of 150-625g, while total length of C. gariepinus reared in the earthen pond ranged from 19.90-58.0cm with a mean of 39.8cm and weight of 195-825g. The T- test shows that the total length of earthen pond were significantly higher than the concrete tank and the weight in the earthen pond was significantly higher than the concrete tank. Parameters of proximate composition analysed were moisture, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, ash and fiber from the fish flesh. Protein content showed a significantly higher in the earthen ponds than the concrete tanks. Ash contents varied from 1.5±1.66-7.4±0.67% in the concrete tanks and were significantly higher than the earthen ponds which ranged from 3.1±0.94-4.5±2.11%. Lipid was significantly higher in earthen ponds than concrete tanks. Generally, the two culture systems have a significant influence on length–weight relationship and nutritional value of C. gariepinus. However, C. gariepinus reared in concrete tank had a heavier body weight than earthen pond and also C. gariepinus reared in earthen pond had highest nutritive values than the concrete tank.

  12. Proximate composition, phytochemical analysis, and in vitro antioxidant potentials of extracts ofAnnona muricata(Soursop).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, Kingsley C; Okolie, Paulinus N

    2017-09-01

    Numerous bioactive compounds and phytochemicals have been reported to be present Annona muricata (Soursop). Some of these chemical compounds have been linked to the ethnomedicinal properties of the plant and its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to assess the proximate composition, phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant properties of A. muricata using standard biochemical procedures. The defatted Annona muricata crude methanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant were used for the estimation of proximate composition and phytochemical screening. The crude methanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant were also fractionated using solvent-solvent partitioning. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and methanol-water (90:10) were the solvents used for the fractionation. The different fractions obtained were then used to perform in vitro antioxidant analyses including, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, ferric reducing properties, and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. The leaf methanolic extract had a higher lipid content, whereas its chloroform fraction demonstrated a better ability to quench DPPH free radical. The root-bark methanol-water, leaf methanol, fruit pulp chloroform, and leaf petroleum ether fractions demonstrated potent ferric reducing properties. The leaf and stem-bark petroleum ether fractions demonstrated better hydroxyl-free radical scavenging abilities. The leaf and fruit pulp of Annona muricata have a very potent antioxidant ability compared to the other parts of the plant. This can be associated with the rich phytochemicals and other phytoconstituents like phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, and essential lipids, etc. Significant correlations were observed between the antioxidant status and phytochemicals present. These results thus suggest that some of the reported ethnomedicinal properties of this plant could be due to its antioxidant potentials.

  13. Growth performance and proximate composition of mixed cultures of marine microalgae (Nannochloropsis sp. & Tetraselmis sp. with monocultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasana Arkronrat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and proximate composition of two marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp., in monoculture and mixed culture of both species under laboratory conditions were compared. Microalgae were cultured in enriched seawater (28 ppt in 8 L plastic bottles using Conway medium. Microalgae were grown in a temperature-controlled room (25°C under continuous illumination at a light intensity of about 3,000 Lux for 240 hours (10 days. Results showed that maximum cell density and growth rate of both species (45.06±2.67×105 cells ml-1 and 0.43±0.02 day-1, reps. in mixed culture had a significantly higher than Tetraselmis sp. (5.09±0.99×105 cells ml-1 and 0.16±0.03 day-1, reps., but not significantly different with Nannochloropsis sp. (29.25±22.70×105 cells ml-1 and 0.37±0.14 day-1, reps. in monoculture. For proximate composition, protein content of both species in mixed culture and Nannochloropsis sp. in monoculture was significantly higher than for Tetraselmis sp. in monoculture after 120 and 240 hours of cultivation. Carbohydrate and lipid contents of each treatment were found to be significantly different after 120 hours of cultivation but not significantly different after 240 hours of cultivation. Therefore, this study indicates that an alternative option for commercial microalgal production is to use a mixed culture to obtain higher production.

  14. Variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile recovered from Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi) waste from Patagonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cretton, M.; Rost, E.; Mazzuca-Sobczuk, T.; Mazzuca, M.

    2016-07-01

    The fish processing operations in Patagonia produce large amounts of waste. The main fishery resource in Argentina is the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi). The ports of the province of Chubut (the most important of which are Puerto Madryn, Rawson and Comodoro Rivadavia), together with Caleta Paula Port (province of Santa Cruz), in the Argentine Patagonia, capture more than 82,000 tons of hake annualy, 80% of which are of M. hubbsi, which is mostly converted into fillets. From this capture, about 2,296 tons of liver would be available for the extraction of oil. To promote the recovery and industrial use of fish oil, in the present study, we determined the variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of Argentine hake waste from the ports mentioned above at different catch times. Proximate composition was determined according of the Official Methods of Analysis (AOAC). Fatty acid profile was analyzed by gas chromatography of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). A standard mixture of FAMEs was run under identical conditions to identify the compounds on the basis of their retention times. Fatty acids were quantified using heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) as internal standard. The highest lipid recovery (27.0 to 41.8% of total lipids) was obtained from the liver fraction. Palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (18:1 n9), docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) were the main constituents. Protein levels in viscera without livers (V-L) were higher than those in the liver. The extraction of marine fish oil and the production of fish offal meal from waste from fish factories would contribute to the sustainability of the regional industry, because it would also decrease the volume of waste, with benefits to the environment. (Author)

  15. Proximate, functional and pasting properties of FARO 44 rice, African yam bean and brown cowpea seeds composite flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Iwe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available FARO 44 rice, brown cowpea and African yam bean seeds were processed into flours and their proximate, functional and pasting properties were assessed. Functional properties—loose bulk density, packed bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, emulsion capacity, foam capacity, gelation capacity and swelling index ranged from 0.63 to 0.69 g/ml, 0.84 to 1.00 g/ml, 0.63 to 1.32%, 0.46 to 1.48%, 42.50 to 56.78%, 10.40 to 18.17%, 50.93 to 57.90°C and 0.45 to 0.67, respectively. Proximate and amylose composition ranged as follows; Moisture: 8% (75% rice:25% African yam bean to 14% (100% rice; Protein: 12.86% (100% wheat to 28.13% (50% rice:50% African yam bean; Fat: 1.64% (100% rice to 5.79% (100% cowpea; Ash: 1% (100% cowpea, 75% rice:25% African yam bean, 50% rice:50% African yam bean to 1.97% (25% rice:75% African yam bean; Crude fibre: 0.95% (100% wheat to 6.27% (100% African yam bean; Carbohydrate: 52.62% (50% rice:50% African yam bean to 72.58% (100% wheat and Amylose: 17.13% (100% rice to 28.07% (100% African yam bean. Pasting properties—peak, trough, breakdown, final, peak time and pasting temperature ranged from 128.50 to 245 RVU, 85.08 to 159.25 RVU, 22.08 to 106.75 RVU, 123.58 to 294.33 RVU, 33.50 to 135.08 RVU, 5.18 to 5.92 min and 79.95 to 84.75°C.

  16. Effects of electron irradiation on LDPE/MWCNT composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jianqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Xingji, E-mail: lxj0218@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Chaoming; Rui, Erming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Liqin [School of Mechatronics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-12-15

    In this study, mutiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were incorporated into low density polyethylene (LDPE) in different concentrations (2%, 4% and 8%) using a melt blending process. Structural, thermal stability and tensile property of the unirradiated/irradiated LDPE/MWCNT composites by 110 keV electrons were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), Raman spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and uniaxial tensile techniques. Experimental results show that the addition of MWCNTs obviously increases the ultimate tensile strength of LDPE and decreases the elongation at break, which is attributed to the homogeneous distribution of the MWCNTs in LDPE and intense interaction between MWCNTs and LDPE matrix. Also, the electron irradiation further increases the ultimate tensile strength of LDPE/MWCNT composites, which can be ascribed to the more intense interaction between MWCNTs and LDPE matrix, and the formation of crosslinking sites in LDPE matrix induced by the electron irradiation. The addition of MWCNTs significantly enhances thermal stability of the LDPE due to the hindering effect and the scavenging free radicals, while the electron irradiation decreases thermal stability of the LDPE/MWCNT composites since the structure of the MWCNTs and LDPE matrix damages.

  17. Carbon Nanotube Composites for Electronic Packaging Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Aryasomayajula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite engineering comprises of metal matrix composites. They have high strength-weight ratio, better stiffness, economical production, and ease of availability of raw materials. The discovery of carbon nanotubes has opened new possibilities to face challenges better. Carbon Nanotubes are known for their high mechanical strength, excellent thermal and electrical properties. Recent research has made progress in fabricating carbon nanotube metal matrix and polymer-based composites. The methods of fabrication of these composites, their properties and possible applications restricted to the field of electronic packaging have been discussed in this paper. Experimental and theoretical calculations have shown improved mechanical and physical properties like tensile stress, toughness, and improved electrical and thermal properties. They have also demonstrated the ease of production of the composites and their adaptability as one can tailor their properties as per the requirement. This paper reviews work reported on fabricating and characterizing carbon- nanotube-based metal matrix and polymer composites. The focus of this paper is mainly to review the importance of these composites in the field of electronics packaging.

  18. The effect of composition, electron irradiation and quenching on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrolyte samples were also quenched at liquid nitrogen temperature and conductivity measurements were made. The ionic conductivity at room temperature exhibits a characteristic double peak for the composition = 20 and 70. Both electron beam irradiation and quenching at low temperature have resulted in an ...

  19. Access Control Model for Sharing Composite Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Ahn, Gail-Joon; Covington, Michael J.; Zhang, Xinwen

    The adoption of electronically formatted medical records, so called Electronic Health Records (EHRs), has become extremely important in healthcare systems to enable the exchange of medical information among stakeholders. An EHR generally consists of data with different types and sensitivity degrees which must be selectively shared based on the need-to-know principle. Security mechanisms are required to guarantee that only authorized users have access to specific portions of such critical record for legitimate purposes. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for modelling access control scheme for composite EHRs. Our model formulates the semantics and structural composition of an EHR document, from which we introduce a notion of authorized zones of the composite EHR at different granularity levels, taking into consideration of several important criteria such as data types, intended purposes and information sensitivities.

  20. Cellulose-gold nanowire (GNW) composite for electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Hyung; Lim, Byungwook; Park, Seongsoon

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, regenerated cellulose has received much attention due to its huge industrial potentials and its feasibility for many industrial applications such as sensors and actuators. However, due to its insulating property, few results used for potential electronic applications have been reported. By modification of cellulose itself, nano-sized electrical inner paths can be formed by chemical bonding of metallic or semiconducting nanowires to cellulose fibrils during regenerated process. Already our earlier result of the chemical bonding between carbon nanotubes and the regenerated cellulose has been reported as a novel electronic material for potential paper transistor. In this paper, we study the cellulose-gold nanowire (GNW) composite for electronic application due to its huge potential for paper transistor and other applications such as biosensors and strain sensors due to its electrical response sensitivity. The detailed material properties of GNW cellulose composite and its potential for electrical applications will be demonstrated.

  1. Proximate composition and selected physicochemical properties of the seed, pulp and oil of sour sop (Annona muricata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onimawo, I A

    2002-01-01

    Proximate composition and physicochemical analyses were carried out on the seed, pulp and extracted oil of sour sop (Annona muricata). The results showed that the seed contained 8.5% moisture, 2.4% crude protein, 13.6% ash, 8.0% crude fiber, 20.5% fat and 47.0% carbohydrate. The seed also contained 0.2% water soluble ash, 0.79% titratable acidity and 17.0 mg calcium/100 g. The pulp was found to contain 81% moisture, 3.43% titratable acidity and 24.5% non-reducing sugar. Selected physicochemical characteristics included refractive indices of 1.335 for the seed and 1.356 for the pulp, specific gravities of 1.250 for the seed and 1.023 for the pulp, pH values of 8.34 for the seed and 4.56 for the pulp, and soluble solids contents of 1.5 degrees Brix for the seed and 15 degrees Brix for the pulp. The extracted oil (20.5% yield) had a 60.43% unsaponifiable value, 23.54 KOH/g acid value, 100.98 KOH/g saponification value, 1.1 KOH/g peroxide value, 1.464 refractive index, 5.77 pH, 69.5 degrees Brix sosluble solids and 0.2900 specific gravity.

  2. Proximate composition and functionality of the culinary-medicinal tiger sawgill mushroom, Lentinus tigrinus (higher Basidiomycetes), from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulay, Rich Milton R; Arenas, Minerva C; Kalaw, Sofronio P; Reyes, Renato G; Cabrera, Esperanza C

    2014-01-01

    The proximate composition and functionality of Lentinus tigrinus were evaluated to establish and popularize this mushroom as functional food source. The evaluation of functionality focused on the antibacterial and hypoglycemic activities of the mushroom extracts. An acute single oral dose toxicity test in mice was used for its biosafety analysis. The pileus contained higher amounts of protein (25.9%), fat (2.1%), and ash (7.4%) and a higher energetic value (142.1 kcal/100 g) than the corresponding stipe, whereas the stipe contained higher amounts of total carbohydrates (67.7%), which consist of dietary fiber (63.0%) and reducing sugar (4.7%), than the pileus. Biosafety analysis confirmed that L. tigrinus is an edible mushroom species; it was found to be toxicologically safe in imprinting control region mice. The administration of lyophilized hot water extract of the fruiting body (both 100 and 250 mg/ kg doses) to diabetic mice significantly lowered the glucose level by 26.9% in the third week, which was significantly comparable to the results of the antidiabetic agent glibenclamide, which was used as a positive control. In vitro antibacterial assay showed that the ethanolic extract of the fruiting body and the immobilized secondary mycelia had high antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus but not on Escherichia coli. Combining its useful nutrients and significant biological properties, L. tigrinus can be considered a natural source of safe nutraceuticals.

  3. Proximate Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Three Varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Sirajuddin; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Uddin, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.28–13.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and ascorbic acid (AA) ranged between 16.21–24.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 26.41–31.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 0.97–1.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging actity, 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.89–2.12, 6.12–9.89 and 0.56–0.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences. PMID:22837655

  4. Effect of Grewia venusta FRESEN mucilage on the proximate composition, physical and sensory properties of bread produced from wheat and cassava composite flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arubi P. Alobo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat and cassava composite breads are generally associated with volume and textural defects in contrast with the traditional wheat based variants. Efforts to mitigate this challenge through use of synthetic additives have been unsuccessful owing to safety concerns. The objective of this study was to explore Grewia venusta mucilage as a potential natural additive in wheat-cassava composite bread production. Sweet cassava flour was used to replace wheat flour at 100: 0 (control, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30% ratios in bread making. Aqueous extract of G. venusta stem bark was oven dried (50±3 oC, milled and added at 0, 1.0 and 2.0% (w/w to the flour mixtures. These, along with other conventional inputs were mixed, and used to produce bread. Proximate compositions, physical and sensory properties of the bread loaves were evaluated. Cassava flour inclusion resulted in significant (P≤0.05 decrease in the protein content of the control from 18.1% to 12.1% (90:10%, 11.5% (80:20% and 9.9% (70:30%. Addition of mucilage marginally increased the protein and dietary fibre contents of the loaves. Loaves containing 1-2% mucilage were more regular in shape with smoother crust than those without mucilage. Cassava flour addition at 10%, 20% and 30% decreased loaf height from 6.0 cm to 5.8 cm, 5.7 cm and 5.5 cm, as well as loaf volume from 815.5 cm3 to 783.1 cm3, 776.8 cm3 and 744.5 cm3, respectively. Mucilage inclusion resulted in increased heights and volumes of the loaves and reduced weights of loaf fragments upon slicing. The mucilage significantly improved the texture of the bread loaves. 

  5. Proximate composition, bread

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... 0, 10, 20 and 30% levels of cocoyam flours substitution respectively and assessed for proximatecomposition ... decreased significantly with progressive increase in the cocoyam flour substitution. The significant (p<0.05) ... flour from locally grown crops replaces a portion of wheat flour for use in breads,.

  6. Variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile recovered from Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi waste from Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cretton, M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fish processing operations in Patagonia produce large amounts of waste. The main fishery resource in Argentina is the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi. The ports of the province of Chubut (the most important of which are Puerto Madryn, Rawson and Comodoro Rivadavia, together with Caleta Paula Port (province of Santa Cruz, in the Argentine Patagonia, capture more than 82,000 tons of hake annualy, 80% of which are of M. hubbsi, which is mostly converted into fillets. From this capture, about 2,296 tons of liver would be available for the extraction of oil. To promote the recovery and industrial use of fish oil, in the present study, we determined the variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of Argentine hake waste from the ports mentioned above at different catch times. Proximate composition was determined according of the Official Methods of Analysis (AOAC. Fatty acid profile was analyzed by gas chromatography of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs. A standard mixture of FAMEs was run under identical conditions to identify the compounds on the basis of their retention times. Fatty acids were quantified using heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 as internal standard. The highest lipid recovery (27.0 to 41.8% of total lipids was obtained from the liver fraction. Palmitic acid (C16:0, oleic acid (18:1 n9, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n3, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n3 and palmitoleic acid (16:1 were the main constituents. Protein levels in viscera without livers (V-L were higher than those in the liver. The extraction of marine fish oil and the production of fish offal meal from waste from fish factories would contribute to the sustainability of the regional industry, because it would also decrease the volume of waste, with benefits to the environment.El procesamiento de pescados en Patagonia produce gran cantidad de residuos. El recurso de pesca más importante en la Argentina es la merluza argentina (Merluccius hubbsi. En Patagonia

  7. Proximate composition, phytochemical screening, GC-MS studies of biologically active cannabinoids and antimicrobial activities of Cannabis indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqib Isahq

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the proximate composition, minerals analysis, phytochemical screening, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS studies of active cannabinoids and antimicrobial activities of Cannabis indica (C. indica leaves, stems, and seeds. Methods: Standard qualitative protocols of phytochemical screening were accomplished for the identification of biologically active phytochemicals. Minerals in plant samples were analyzed by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The resins of C. indica were analyzed for medicinally active cannabinoid compounds by GC-MS. The sample for GC-MS study was mixed with small quantity of n-hexane and 30 mL of acetonitrile solution for the identification of cannabinoids. Agar well diffusion method was used for antibacterial activity. For antifungal activity, the tested fungal strains were sub-cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar at 28 °C. Results: Mineral analysis revealed the presence of sodium, potassium, magnesium and some other minerals in all parts of C. indica. Phytochemical investigation showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, sterols and terpenoids. C. indica divulged wide spectrum of antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. The extracts of plant leaves, seeds and stems showed significant antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Aspergillus oryzae. The biologically active cannabinoids of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (25.040% and cannabidiol (resorcinol, 2-p-mentha-1,8-dien-4-yl-5-pentyl (50.077% were found in Cannabis resin in high percentage. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggested that the existence of biologically active remedial cannabinoids in elevated concentrations and antimicrobial bioassays of C. indica make it a treasured source to be used in herbal preparation for various ailments.

  8. Comparison of proximate chemical composition and texture of cupim, Rhomboideus m. and lombo, Longissimus dorsi m. of Nelore (Bos indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayka Reghiany Pedrão

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The proximate chemical composition of hump, known in Brazil as cupim, Rhomboideus m. (RB, of Nelore (Bos indicus aged 24 months revealed it to be a unique beef muscle. It presents a lipid fraction 14-fold as high as that of Longissimus dorsi m. (LD taken from the same animal (pA composição química percentual aproximada do cupim m. Rhomboideus (RB derivado de Nelore (Bos indicus de 24 meses de idade mostrou ser um músculo diferenciado. Há uma maior fração de material lipídico em RB chegando a ser 14 vezes proporcionalmente maior em comparação ao m. Longissimus dorsi (LD (p<0,05 a maior quantidade de gordura relatada em amostras de carne em literatura científica. Esse fato foi também observado pela avaliação histológica. Há proporcionalmente maior concentração da fração protéica e menor quantidade de umidade em RB. O teor de colágeno foi de 22,9% mais concentrado em RB enquanto que a quantidade da sua ligação cruzada, hidroxilisilpiridinolina (HP foi 14 vezes maior indicando que cupim seria mais rígido. Contrariando essa expectativa, a maciez da carne crua avaliada pelo texturômetro mostrou valores de 8.05 e 5.81 kg/F para LD e RB, respectivamente (p<0.05. Tais resultados mostram que em músculo contendo abundante gordura esta funciona como lubrificante para a lamina penetrar sem muita resistência através do cupim a despeito dar quantidade e qualidade das fibras de colágeno.

  9. Proximate Amino Acid Anti-Nutritional Factor And Mineral Composition Of Different Varieties Of Raw Lablab Purpureus Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaahu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proximate chemical amino acid anti- nutritional factors ANF and mineral composition of Highworth Rongai White and Rongai Brown varieties of Lablab purpureus seed were determined. Lablab purpureus seed irrespective of the variety was lower in crude protein but higher in crude fibre than FFSB. The three varieties of lablab seed analyzed in the present study contained between 7.22-9.23 of crude fibre while the crude protein content ranged between 24.88-34.33g100g. The ether extract EE content 2.99-5.87 of lablab seed is low compare to other legume seeds such as soyabeans and groundnuts. Due to this low oil content lablab seed may not be suitable as a commercial source of oil reducing the competition for lablab seed from vegetable oil industries. The natural limiting amino acid lysine in cereals is satisfactorily high mean value is above FAO reference pattern in lablab seed. The mean values of the essential amino acids lysine histidine valine methionine isoleucine leucine and phenylalanine in lablab seed are higher than the values reported for FFSB. This suggests that lablab seed can be exploited in feed formulation as an excellent source of amino acid. The aniti-nutritional factors identified in lablab seed are trypsin inhibitors hydrogen cyanide phytate tannin oxalates alkaloids saponin and haemagglutinins which must be deactivated to improve seed utilization. Lablab seed contained 0.3-5.3g100g of major and 14.9-54.5mgkg of minor minerals assayed and this is also low compared to soyabean and groundnut.

  10. Electron Beam Cured Epoxy Resin Composites for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dorsey, George F.; Havens, Stephen J.; Lopata, Vincent J.; Meador, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam curing of Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC's) is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process that has been demonstrated to be a cost effective and advantageous alternative to conventional thermal curing. Advantages of electron beam curing include: reduced manufacturing costs; significantly reduced curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvement in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance the electron beam curing of PMC technology. Over the last several years a significant amount of effort within the CRADA has been devoted to the development and optimization of resin systems and PMCs that match the performance of thermal cured composites. This highly successful materials development effort has resulted in a board family of high performance, electron beam curable cationic epoxy resin systems possessing a wide range of excellent processing and property profiles. Hundreds of resin systems, both toughened and untoughened, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility have been developed and evaluated in the CRADA program.

  11. The effect of age on the carcass composition, portion yield and proximate composition of two rabbit genetic types in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. North

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the carcass component yields and meat proximate composition of 2 rabbit genetic types (Californian and hybrid New Zealand Red×Californian, with 5 rabbits per genetic type being slaughtered every 2 wk throughout the study period (9-17 wk to evaluate the effect of age on these traits. Slaughter weight, reference yield, portion yield (hind leg, foreleg and fore part, as percentage of slaughter weight, meat yield, skin weight and the fat content of the meat (percentage of wet weight increased significantly with age, while the full gastrointestinal tract, liver, head and feet decreased significantly. This is likely a reflection of the early-maturing nature of bone and viscera and later maturing nature of muscle and fat. These results indicate that delaying slaughter to 13 wk tends to improve yields for valuable carcass components. The Californian had a significantly higher total meat yield at 11 and 17 wk and higher portion meat yields at 9 (hind leg, 11 (hind leg and fore part and 13 (foreleg weeks than the hybrid. This was likely due to the later maturation of the hybrid and the influence of the New Zealand Red on carcass quality. It therefore appears that the Californian may be more favourable for meat production, from a carcass and meat quality perspective.

  12. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus

    OpenAIRE

    Zotti, Maurizio; Coco, Laura Del; Pascali, Sandra Angelica De; Migoni, Danilo; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus). The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. I...

  13. Effect of alternative mediums on production and proximate composition of the microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri as food in culture of the copepod Acartia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Córdova,Luis R; Campaña-Torres,Alfredo; Martinez-Porchas,Marcel; López-Elías,José A; García-Sifuentes,Celia O

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri was cultured in three different mediums consisting on an agricultural fertilizer (Agr-F), aquacultural fertilizer (Aq-F) and a conventional medium (F/2, control). These microalgae were later used as natural food to culture the copepod Acartia sp. The productive response and chemical proximate composition of microalgae and copepods were monitored. Growth rate and final cell concentration were higher in microalgae cultured in Agr-F compared to the control. In add...

  14. In Vitro Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of DIAGNOdent and Digital Radiography for Detection of Secondary Proximal Caries Adjacent to Composite Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Zahra; Zonouzy, Zahra; Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Kharazifar, Mohammad Javad; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Early detection of secondary proximal caries is critical for the preservation of tooth vitality. This study sought to assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent and digital radiography for detection of secondary proximal caries adjacent to composite restorations. Methods: Sixty extracted molars including 30 teeth with carious lesions and 30 sound teeth were randomly selected. Class II cavities were prepared in all teeth and carious dentin was intentionally left in the gingival floor of cavities in 30 carious teeth. All cavities were restored with composite resin. The teeth were mounted in wax blocks (three teeth per block) and examined for caries using (DIAGNOdent kaVo Dental, Biberach, Germany). Digital radiographs using DIGORA photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plates (Soredex Corporation, Helsinki, Finland) were obtained from all teeth using the parallel technique and were evaluated by 4 observers. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to calculate sensitivity and specificity values of the two diagnostic techniques. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for DIAGNOdent results and based on that, the cutoff points were determined. Results: The sensitivity and specificity values at the cut-off point of 10.5 were 0.622±0.038 and 0.822±0.077 for DIAGNOdent and 0.591±0.093 and 0.891±0.083 for digital radiography, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.7 for DIAGNOdent. Weighted kappa revealed moderate to almost perfect intra-observer agreement (0.46-0.99). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for DIAGNOdent was calculated to be 0.88. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was noted in diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent and digital radiography for detection of secondary proximal caries adjacent to composite restorations. Thus, DIAGNOdent may be used as an adjunct diagnostic tool for detection of secondary proximal caries beneath composite restorations.

  15. Negative Thermal Expansion and Ferroelectric Oxides in Electronic Device Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Joy Elizabeth

    Electronic devices increasingly pervade our daily lives, driving the need to develop components which have material properties that can be designed to target a specific need. The principle motive of this thesis is to investigate the effects of particle size and composition on three oxides which possess electronic and thermal properties essential to designing improved ceramic composites for more efficient, high energy storage devices. A metal matrix composite project used the negative thermal expansion oxide, ZrW2O 8, to offset the high thermal expansion of the metal matrix without sacrificing high thermal conductivity. Composite preparation employed a powder mixing technique to achieve easy composition control and homogenous phase distribution in order to build composites which target a specific coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). A tailorable CTE material is desirable for overcoming thermomechanical failure in heat sinks or device casings. This thesis also considers the particle size effect on dielectric properties in a common ferroelectric perovskite, Ba1-xSrxTiO 3. By varying the Ba:Sr ratio, the Curie temperature can be adjusted and by reducing the particle size, the dielectric constant can be increased and hysteresis decreased. These conditions could yield anonymously large dielectric constants near room temperature. However, the ferroelectric behavior has been observed to cease below a minimum size of a few tens of nanometers in bulk or thin film materials. Using a new particle slurry approach, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy allows dielectric properties to be determined for nanoparticles, as opposed to conventional methods which measure only bulk or thin film dielectric properties. In this manner, Ba1-xSrxTiO3 was investigated in a new size regime, extending the theory on the ferroelectric behavior to < 10 nm diameter. This knowledge will improve the potential to incorporate high dielectric constant, low loss ferroelectric nanoparticles in many

  16. New Elastomeric Materials and Functional Composites for Stretchable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Akhil

    This dissertation reports a diverse range of new components for the fabrication of soft flexible, stretchable and wearable electronic devices. The components investigated spans design and development of a new elastomer, layered elastomeric material, investigation and modification of surface chemistries, and development of new techniques for fabrication of stretchable, conductive composites using nanomaterials and metals. Simple, low-cost, benchtop techniques for the fabrication of the functional materials has been a strong focus of the work reported in this dissertation. Chapter 2 reports the development of a new transparent formulation of a renowned elastomer, butyl rubber, that enables its use in stretchable electronics applications. We design a new compression molding method to prepare highly smooth and transparent butyl rubber (T-IIR) substrates. We demonstrate the T-IIR protection to sensitive electronic materials from degradation and corrosion by oxygen and moisture to extend the lifetimes of stretchable devices. The demonstrated benefits positions T-IIR as an important elastomer for future generation of impermeable stretchable electronics. Chapter 3 examines the surface properties of T-IIR reported in Chapter 2 and reports methods to modify the surface chemistry of T-IIR to enable the deposition of electronic materials. This report advances the new elastomer from being a mere encapsulant to a substrate for direct device fabrication on its surface. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate the deposition of stretchable gold films on the organosilane-modified surface of T-IIR. Chapter 4 expands upon the work presented in Chapter 3 and reports the fabrication of a multilayered elastomeric composite built upon T-IIR. The properties of the composite enables the deposition of stretchable metal films, while T-IIR prevents degradation from gases and water vapor when the composite/metal is used in electronic devices. We demonstrate the fabrication and long lifetime

  17. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as confirmed by their low PV which also serves as

  18. Is the electron a composite particle? An experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehmelt, Hans

    1993-03-01

    The crucial problem of physics was first formulated by Democritus in the 5th century BC: to find the “ατоμα” or smallest uncuttable bits of matter. That has not changed ever since. Among the current candidates are electron and positron, the least expensive of today's bona fide ατоμα. Experimental tests of their non-compositeness by precisely measuring the gyromagnetic ratios of the individual trapped particles are reviewed. “You know, it would be sufficient to really understand the electron”. Albert Einstein

  19. Studies of marine macroalgae: saline desert water cultivation and effects of environmental stress on proximate composition. Final subcontract report. [Gracilaria tikvahiae; Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Peterson, J.E.

    1985-11-01

    The results presented in this report address the growth potential of marine macroalgae cultivated in desert saline waters, and the effects of certain environmental stresses (e.g., nitrogen, salinity, and temperature) on the proximate composition of several marine macroalgae. Two major desert saline water types were assayed for their ability to support the growth of Gracilaria, Ulva, and Caulerpa. Both water types supported short term growth, but long term growth was not supported. Carbohydrate levels in Gracilaria were increased by cultivation under conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and low nitrogen and phosphorous availability. Data suggests that it may be possible to maximize production of useful proximate constituents by cultivating the algae under optimum conditions for growth, and then holding the resulting biomass under the environmental conditions which favor tissue accumulation of the desired storage products. 16 refs., 21 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Proximal Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  1. Effect of fortification of fresh cow milk with coconut milk on the proximate composition and yield of warankashi, a traditional cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Balogun, Mutiat Adebanke; Kolawole, Fausat Lola; J. K. Joseph; Adebisi, Taibat Tunrayo; Ogunleye, Opeyemi Toyin

    2016-01-01

    Cheese is a concentrated dairy product produced by acid or rennet coagulation or curdling of milk, stirring and heating the curd, draining off the whey, collecting and pressing the curd. The effect of partial substitution of fresh cow milk with coconut milk on the yield and proximate composition of cheese was examined. Extracted coconut milk was mixed with fresh raw cow milk at varying proportions of 5%: 95%, 10%: 90%, 15%: 85%, 20%: 80%, 25%:75%, 70%: 30% and the control (0%:100%) to produce...

  2. Evaluation of the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of representative green, brown and red seaweeds from the Persian Gulf of Iran as potential food and feed resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani-Ghadikolaei, Kiuomars; Abdulalian, Eessa; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2012-12-01

    The proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition were determined for green (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis), brown (Sargassum ilicifolium and Colpomenia sinuosa) and red (Hypnea valentiae and Gracilaria corticata) seaweeds collected from the Persian Gulf of Iran. Results showed that the seaweeds were high in carbohydrate (31.8-59.1%, dry weight) and ash (12.4-29.9%) but low in lipid content (1.5-3.6%). The protein content of red or green seaweeds was significantly higher (p minerals examined (K, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Co) compared to terrestrial vegetables. Seaweeds could potentially be used as a food or feed additive in Iran.

  3. Between-group variation in female dispersal, kin composition of groups, and proximity patterns in a black-and-white colobus monkey (Colobus vellerosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva C Wikberg

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence shows within-population variation in natal dispersal, but the effects of such variation on social relationships and the kin composition of groups remain poorly understood. We investigate the link between dispersal, the kin composition of groups, and proximity patterns in a population of black-and-white colobus (Colobus vellerosus that shows variation in female dispersal. From 2006 to 2011, we collected behavioral data, demographic data, and fecal samples of 77 males and 92 females residing in eight groups at Boabeng-Fiema, Ghana. A combination of demographic data and a genetic network analysis showed that although philopatry was female-biased, only about half of the females resided in their natal groups. Only one group contained female-female dyads with higher average relatedness than randomly drawn animals of both sexes from the same group. Despite between-group variation in female dispersal and kin composition, female-female dyads in most of the study groups had higher proximity scores than randomly drawn dyads from the same group. We conclude that groups fall along a continuum from female dispersed, not kin-based, and not bonded to female philopatric, kin-based, and bonded. We found only partial support for the predicted link between dispersal, kin composition, and social relationships. In contrast to most mammals where the kin composition of groups is a good predictor of the quality of female-female relationships, this study provides further support for the notion that kinship is not necessary for the development and maintenance of social bonds in some gregarious species.

  4. Comparison of proximate composition and sensory attributes ofClariidcatfish species ofClarias gariepinus,Heterobranchus bidorsalis, and their hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyi, Wasiu A; Makinde, Olukayode A; Omitogun, Ofelia G

    2017-03-01

    Clariid catfish are favorite food fish especially in African and Asian continents. Recently there has been preference for particular species or hybrids of these species based on quality assurance and value addition. Consequently, this study aimed to evaluate the possible effect of different catfish species and their hybrids on proximate composition and sensory attributes. Catfish species, Clarias gariepinus (CC), Heterobranchus bidorsalis (HH), with their hybrid (CH), and reciprocal hybrid (HC) were evaluated for sensory variables - cognitive (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and recent characteristic taste 'umami' ) and qualitative (texture, aroma, flavor, and color) tests; and nutritional variables - proximate composition (moisture, protein, ether/fat, and ash). A 5-point hedonic scale from 'neutral/neither like nor dislike' to 'excellent/like extremely' was employed in sensory testing. The results showed similar ( P  > 0.05) high moisture contents (>70%) in all species and high but different ( P   0.05) across species (>57%). Fat or ether extract was different ( P  attributes. All the fish species did not rate 'excellent/like extremely' for any attribute. It can be concluded that the parent catfish species possess better sensory qualities than hybrids, but all species need exogenous enhancement to their natural sensory components.

  5. Understanding API-polymer proximities in amorphous stabilized composite drug products using fluorine-carbon 2D HETCOR solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anuji; Crull, George

    2014-10-06

    A simple and robust method for obtaining fluorine-carbon proximities was established using a (19)F-(13)C heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) two-dimensional (2D) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) experiment under magic-angle spinning (MAS). The method was applied to study a crystalline active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), avagacestat, containing two types of fluorine atoms and its API-polymer composite drug product. These results provide insight into the molecular structure, aid with assigning the carbon resonances, and probe API-polymer proximities in amorphous spray dried dispersions (SDD). This method has an advantage over the commonly used (1)H-(13)C HETCOR because of the large chemical shift dispersion in the fluorine dimension. In the present study, fluorine-carbon distances up to 8 Å were probed, giving insight into the API structure, crystal packing, and assignments. Most importantly, the study demonstrates a method for probing an intimate molecular level contact between an amorphous API and a polymer in an SDD, giving insights into molecular association and understanding of the role of the polymer in API stability (such as recrystallization, degradation, etc.) in such novel composite drug products.

  6. Effect of a carbonated HAP/β-glucan composite bone substitute on healing of drilled bone voids in the proximal tibial metaphysis of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, Leszek, E-mail: leszek.borkowski@umlub.pl [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Pawłowska, Marta; Radzki, Radosław P.; Bieńko, Marek [Department of Animal Physiology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 12, 20-033 Lublin (Poland); Polkowska, Izabela [Department and Clinic of Animal Surgery, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głęboka 30, 20-612 Lublin (Poland); Belcarz, Anna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Karpiński, Mirosław [Department of Companion and Wildlife Animals, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Słowik, Tymoteusz [Independent Radiology Unit at Lublin Small Animals Medical Centre, Stefczyka 11, 20-151 Lublin (Poland); Matuszewski, Łukasz [Children' s Orthopaedic Clinic and Rehabilitation Department, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 2, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Ślósarczyk, Anna [Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Ginalska, Grażyna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-08-01

    A novel elastic hydroxyapatite-based composite of high surgical handiness has been developed. Its potential application in orthopedics as a filler of bone defects has been studied. The biomaterial was composed of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAP) granules and polysaccharide polymer (β-1,3-glucan). Cylinders of 4 mm in diameter and 6 mm in length were implanted into bone cavities created in the proximal metaphysis of tibiae of 24 New Zealand white rabbits. 18 sham-operated animals were used as controls. After 1, 3 or 6 months, the rabbits were euthanized, the bones were harvested and subjected to analysis. Radiological images and histological sections revealed integration of implants with bone tissue with no signs of graft rejection. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) indicated the stimulating effect of the biomaterial on bone formation and mineralization. Densitometry (DXA) analysis suggested that biomineralization of bones was preceded by bioresorption and gradual disappearance of porous ceramic granules. The findings suggest that the CHAP–glucan composite material enables regeneration of bone tissue and could serve as a bone defect filler. - Highlights: • Highly porous carbonate HAP granules and β-1,3-glucan were used to fill bone voids. • Critical size defects of rabbit tibiae were filled with the composite scaffolds. • Biocompatibility, mineralization and osseointegration of implants were examined. • Histological analysis indicated a high biocompatibility of composite grafts. • We report penetration of bony tissue into implants and advanced osseointegration.

  7. Effect of Dietary Protein and Energy Level on Proximate Composition of Breast and Thigh Meat in White Leghorn Layers at Molt and Post Molt Production Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Javaid*, M. I. Anjum1 and M. Akram2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of varying protein and energy levels in molt diets on meat composition of White Leghorn layers. One hundred and fifty four, 70 weeks old, layers were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 8 hens each in addition to 10 birds that were slaughtered at pre molt and post fast stages. After 10 days of fasting during molting, 6 experimental diets having 3 levels of crude protein (CP i.e. 14, 16 and 18% and 2 levels of metabolizable energy (ME i.e. 2700 and 2900 kcal/kg were given to the birds at the rate of 45 g/bird for 25 day. There after the birds were offered ad-libitum layer ration during production phase. Two birds per replicate at post molt, at 50% egg production and at the end of experiment were slaughtered and then breast and thigh meat samples were analyzed for proximate composition. Moisture (71.7 and 70.0% content was significantly (P<0.05 higher while, ether extract (2.13 and 3.49% was significantly (P<0.05 lower in both breast and thigh meat, respectively, with 18% CP diet as compared to 14 and 16% CP diets. Medium Protein-High Energy (MPHE molt diet having 16% CP with 2900 kcal/kg ME produced more dry matter and protein content in meat at the expense of ether extract. Results regarding proximate composition of layer meat determined at different stages of molting and post molt production revealed that moisture and protein contents of both breast and thigh meat were significantly increased where as, ether extract and ash contents were significantly decreased at post fast stage with respect to other stages.

  8. Electronic Noses for Composites Surface Contamination Detection in Aerospace Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vito, Saverio De; Miglietta, Maria Lucia; Massera, Ettore; Fattoruso, Grazia; Formisano, Fabrizio; Polichetti, Tiziana; Salvato, Maria; Alfano, Brigida; Esposito, Elena; Francia, Girolamo Di

    2017-04-02

    The full exploitation of Composite Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) in so-called green aircrafts design is still limited by the lack of adequate quality assurance procedures for checking the adhesive bonding assembly, especially in load-critical primary structures. In this respect, contamination of the CFRP panel surface is of significant concern since it may severely affect the bonding and the mechanical properties of the joint. During the last years, the authors have developed and tested an electronic nose as a non-destructive tool for pre-bonding surface inspection for contaminants detection, identification and quantification. Several sensors and sampling architectures have been screened in view of the high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scenarios requirements. Ad-hoc pattern recognition systems have also been devised to ensure a fast and reliable assessment of the contamination status, by combining real time classifiers and the implementation of a suitable rejection option. Results show that e-noses could be used as first line low cost Non Destructive Test (NDT) tool in aerospace CFRP assembly and maintenance scenarios.

  9. Age and whole rock glass compositions of proximal pyroclastics from the major explosive eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius: A review as a tool for distal tephrostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacroce, Roberto; Cioni, Raffaello; Marianelli, Paola; Sbrana, Alessandro; Sulpizio, Roberto; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Donahue, Douglas J.; Joron, Jean Louis

    2008-10-01

    A review of compositional data of the major explosive eruptions of Vesuvius is presented, comparing compositions (major elements) of whole rock with glass shards from the proximal deposits, hopefully useful for long-distance correlation. A critical review of published and new geochronological data is also provided. All available 14C ages are calibrated to give calendar ages useful for the reconstruction of the volcanological evolution of the volcanic complex. The pyroclastic deposits of the four major Plinian eruptions (22,000 yr cal BP "Pomici di Base", 8900 yr cal BP "Mercato Pumice", 4300 yr cal BP "Avellino Pumice", and A.D. 79 "Pompeii Pumice") are widely dispersed and allow a four-folded, Plinian to Plinian, stratigraphic division: 1. B-M (between Pomici di Base and Mercato); 2. M-A (between Mercato and Avellino); 3. A-P (between Avellino and Pompeii); 4. P-XX (from the Pompeii Pumice to the last erupted products of the XXth century). Within each interval, the age, lithologic and compositional features of pyroclastic deposits of major eruptions, potentially useful for tephrostratigraphic purposes on distal areas, are briefly discussed. The Vesuvius rocks are mostly high Potassic products, widely variable in terms of their silica saturation. They form three groups, different for both composition and age: 1. slightly undersaturated, older than Mercato eruption; 2. mildly undersaturated, from Mercato to Pompeii eruptions; 3. highly undersaturated, younger than Pompeii eruption. For whole rock analyses, the peculiar variations in contents of some major and trace elements as well as different trends in element/element ratios, allow a clear, unequivocal, easy diagnosis of the group they belong. Glass analyses show large compositional overlap between different groups, but selected element vs. element plots are distinctive for the three groups. The comparative analysis of glass and whole rock major element compositions provides reliable geochemical criteria helping

  10. Correlative Förster Resonance Electron Transfer-Proximity Ligation Assay (FRET-PLA) Technique for Studying Interactions Involving Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanusic, Daniel; Denner, Joachim; Bannert, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    This unit provides a guide and detailed protocol for studying membrane protein-protein interactions (PPI) using the acceptor-sensitized Förster resonance electron transfer (FRET) method in combination with the proximity ligation assay (PLA). The protocol in this unit is focused on the preparation of FRET-PLA samples and the detection of correlative FRET/PLA signals as well as on the analysis of FRET-PLA data and interpretation of correlative results when using cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) as a FRET donor and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) as a FRET acceptor. The correlative application of FRET and PLA combines two powerful tools for monitoring PPI, yielding results that are more reliable than with either technique alone. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairul Alam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC and total polyphenol content (TPC. Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI Sweet Potato 7 (SP7 contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  12. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Rana, Ziaul Hasan; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-09-14

    In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC) and total polyphenol content (TPC). Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) Sweet Potato 7 (SP7) contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  13. The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ikhtiar; Azam, Andaleeb; Mahmood, Abid

    2013-01-01

    The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere.

  14. Effect Of Heat Processing On The Proximate Composition And Energy Values Of African Walnut Plukenetiaconophora And African Elemi Canariumschweinfurthii Consumed As Masticatories In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Onyeike

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of heat processing on the proximate composition and energy values of the seed kernel flours of African walnut AWand pulps of African elemi AE used as traditional snacks in most parts of Nigeria were investigated. In the AW values of moisture ash crude fibre and carbohydrate decreased from raw to heat treated samples while those of crude protein and crude fat generally increased. The increase or decrease in these values was not significant at the 5 level. For instance ash decreased from 6.051.71 in AWraw to 5.450.86 in AW135. Crude fat was highest in AW45 52.82.70 followed by AW90 51.71.61 and was lowest in AWraw 49.81.08 while calorific value was highest in AW45 612.211.7 followed by AW90 609.36.23 and lowest in AWraw 593.46.75. Similar trends were observed in proximate composition of raw and macerated African elemi pulp flour and values between raw and heat processed samples did not generally differ significantly Pamp7070.05. In AWrawthe percentage crude protein crude fat and then energy value in kcal 100g-1 sample were 26.2 49.8 and 593.4 respectively while in AEraw values were 14.6 41.9 and 568.6 respectively. It can be concluded that both AW and AE are oil-rich seeds and pulps good nutrient sources that could contribute to the total protein ash and energy requirements of humans.

  15. Black soldier fly as dietary protein source for broiler quails: meat proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile, oxidative status and sensory traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullere, M; Tasoniero, G; Giaccone, V; Acuti, G; Marangon, A; Dalle Zotte, A

    2017-07-24

    In the perspective of improving the sustainability of meat production, insects have been rapidly emerging as innovative feed ingredient for some livestock species, including poultry. However, at present, there is still limited knowledge regarding the quality and sensory traits of the derived meat. Therefore, the present study tested the effect of a partial substitution of soya bean meal and oil with defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal (H) in the diet for growing broiler quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) on meat proximate composition, cholesterol, amino acid and mineral contents, fatty acid profile, oxidative status and sensory characteristics. To this purpose, three dietary treatments were designed: a control diet (C) and two diets (H1 and H2) corresponding to 10% and 15% H inclusion levels, respectively, were fed to growing quails from 10 to 28 days of age. At 28 days of age, quails were slaughtered and breast meat was used for meat quality evaluations. Meat proximate composition, cholesterol content and oxidative status remained unaffected by H supplementation as well as its sensory characteristics and off-flavours perception. Differently, with increasing the dietary H inclusion, the total saturated fatty acid and total monounsaturated fatty acid proportions raised to the detriment of the polyunsaturated fatty acid fraction thus lowering the healthiness of the breast meat. The H2 diet increased the contents of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, serine, tyrosine and threonine thus further enhancing the biological value of the meat protein. As a direct result of the dietary content of Ca and P, the meat of quails fed with the highest H level, displayed the highest Ca and the lowest P values. Therefore, meat quality evaluations confirmed H to be a promising insect protein source for quails. The only potential drawback from feeding H to broiler quails regarded the fatty acid profile of the meat, therefore requiring further research

  16. Aspergillus-fermented Jatropha curcas seed cake: proximate composition and effects on biochemical indices in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAOZIYAT SULAIMAN ADENIKE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated Jatropha curcas seed cake fermented by Aspergillus niger for use as a potential source of protein in animal feed production. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (A–D, of 3 rats each and fed different protein-rich diets for 4 weeks. Group 1 (control was fed with soybean as a protein source, while Groups 2, 3, and 4 were given feeds supplemented instead with Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas, unfermented J. curcas, and a mix of Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas and soybean (1:1, respectively. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, and their serum and vital organs were harvested for further analyses. Proximate analyses of the various diet combinations showed significant (P < 0.05 variations in crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, and ash content. Enzyme assays (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase in rat serum and tissue homogenates indicate that the detoxification of J. curcas kernel cake by A. niger fermentation is viable and promising. Body weight generally did not differ significantly between the groups, but all rats put on weight in week 1 (Group 2 most strongly. The initial weight gain was followed by a slight decreasing trend in all groups in weeks 2–4, probably due to an adaptation mechanism. One rat fed with the unfermented cake (Group 3 died in week 2, confirming that the cake is not safe for direct consumption until it is processed. Our data support further use of Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas as an alternative protein source in animal feed preparation.

  17. Effects of Replacement of Fishmeal with other Alternative Plant Sources in the Feed on Proximate Composition of Muscle, Liver and Ovary in Tilapia (Oreochromis nioloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ghanim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The major objective of this experiment was to assess the effect of alternate plant protein sources as a replacement for fish meal in feed on the proximate composition of muscle, liver and tissue in Oreochromis niloticus. O. niloticus of average size (average Weight 45.00±1.25 g, total length 13.28±1.42 cm were stocked in 100 L glass aquarium. Fish were fed with three experimental feeds (A, B and C and reference commercial feed (D for 16 weeks. Feed A, B and C was prepared from four different plant sources and fish meal (40 % crude protein. Fish were fed at the rate 3 % of body weight daily. It has been observed that tilapia fed with feed B in which 20 % fish meal was replaced compared to feed C with other plant sources of protein, had shown significantly higher total protein in their muscle compared to diet other experimental and commercial feeds. In O. niloticus minimum lipid content was recorded in fish fed with diet B compared to A, C and commercial feed. It has been concluded that 20-40% level of fish meal can be replaced in the diet of fish without having any impact on growth and chemical composition of muscle.

  18. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Zotti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus. The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. In the blue crab, protein content was significantly lower than in the other two species, while its carbon content resulted lower than that characterizing only the warty crab. Among micro-elements, Ba, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, and Pb showed extremely low concentrations and negligible among-species differences. Significant inter-specific differences were observed for Na, Sr, V, Ba, Cd and Zn; in particular, cadmium and zinc were characterized in the blue crab by concentrations significantly lower than in the other two species. The analysis of the available literature on the three species indicated a general lack of comparable information on their elemental composition. The need to implement extended elemental fingerprinting techniques for shellfish quality assessment is discussed, in view of other complementary profiling methods such as NMR-based metabolomics.

  19. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Maurizio; Coco, Laura Del; Pascali, Sandra Angelica De; Migoni, Danilo; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-02-01

    The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus). The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. In the blue crab, protein content was significantly lower than in the other two species, while its carbon content resulted lower than that characterizing only the warty crab. Among micro-elements, Ba, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, and Pb showed extremely low concentrations and negligible among-species differences. Significant inter-specific differences were observed for Na, Sr, V, Ba, Cd and Zn; in particular, cadmium and zinc were characterized in the blue crab by concentrations significantly lower than in the other two species. The analysis of the available literature on the three species indicated a general lack of comparable information on their elemental composition. The need to implement extended elemental fingerprinting techniques for shellfish quality assessment is discussed, in view of other complementary profiling methods such as NMR-based metabolomics.

  20. Proximate Analysis and Total Lycopene Content of Some Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-06-05

    Jun 5, 2017 ... Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: ... Keywords: Antioxidant, lycopene content, proximate composition, tomato cultivars. INTRODUCTION ..... from oranges, tomatoes and carrots. African. Journal of ...

  1. Composição centesimal e valor calórico de alimentos de origem animal Proximate food composition and caloric value of foods from animal origen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A.F.S TORRES

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Dados sobre composição de alimentos são importantes para inúmeras atividades, porém são escassos ou inexistentes em nosso país. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o valor calórico dos alimentos de origem animal comumente usados na dieta: carne, leite e ovos a fim de compará-los com os dados das tabelas de composição centesimal mais utilizadas por profissionais da área. Observou-se que de um modo geral, ocorrem variações entre os valores das tabelas consultadas e os analisados, sendo estes menores para ovos, seguidos de laticínios, carnes suínas, carnes bovinas e aves. Salientamos portanto, a importãncia de obtenção dados sobre a composição de alimentos condizentes com diferenças regionais do Brasil, visto que a maioria das tabelas disponíveis são compilações de dados internacionais.Proximate food composition data are very important to any professionals of food science and human nutrition area. In Brazil they are rare or do not exist. The food composition of items, of animal origin, usually consumed in the diet: meat, milk e eggs, were analyzed in order to determine their caloric value. After that they were compared with the data in the Tables of Food Composition (TFC commonly used to our professionals. It was observed that there are smaller differences in the values obtained for eggs, than milk, pork, beef, chicken. Although significant difference was not detected between determined caloric values and the ones from TFC, these report should be considered to professionals that use the TFC.

  2. Composite reverse shoulder arthroplasty can provide good function and quality of life in cases of malignant tumour of the proximal humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazerges, Cyril; Dagneaux, Louis; Degeorge, Benjamin; Tardy, Nicolas; Coulet, Bertrand; Chammas, Michel

    2017-12-01

    Management of proximal humeral tumours remains a surgical challenge. No study to date has assessed the quality of life scores following the composite reverse shoulder arthroplasty for this indication. We, therefore, evaluated function and quality of life following reconstruction with allograft for malignant tumour of the humerus. A series of six cases of humeral tumour treated by a single surgeon in a single centre was reviewed after a mean follow-up of 5.9 years. The tumours included two chondrosarcomas, one plasmocytoma and three metastases. Resection involved bone epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis in five cases (S3S4S5A) and epiphysis and metaphysis in one case (S3S4A). For reconstruction, an allograft composite reverse shoulder arthroplasty was used in all the cases. Outcomes were assessed with range of motion, the QuickDash score and the Short Form 12 (SF-12) Health Survey. Radiographs assessed osseointegration and complications. At the final follow-up, the mean shoulder range of motion were respectively 95°, 57° and 11° for forward flexion, abduction and external rotation. Mean QuickDASH score improved from 28 to 41 and VAS-pain scores improved from 5.1 to 2.3. The post-operative MSTS score was 73% and the Constant score was 46.1/100. The SF-12 PCS and MCS scores were also improved, respectively from 44.4 and 39.7 to 45.5 and 56.1. The mean satisfaction score was 8.1/10. Composite reverse shoulder arthroplasty is a viable alternative for reconstruction after resection of malignant humeral tumour. Although total tumour resection was the most important objective, the functional and quality of life scores were satisfactory.

  3. Evaluating the freezing impact on the proximate composition of immature cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) pods: classical versus spectroscopic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Nelson; Oppolzer, David; Ramos, Ana; Ferreira, Luis; Rosa, Eduardo As; Rodrigues, Miguel; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Barros, Ana Irna

    2017-10-01

    Freezing represents a common conservation practice regarding vegetal foodstuffs. Since compositional features need to be monitored during storage, the development of rapid monitoring tools suitable for assessing nutritional characteristics arises as a pertinent issue. In this study, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) pods, both fresh and after 6 and 9 months of freezing at -18 °C, were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography for their content of protein as well as of essential and nonessential amino acids, while their Fourier transform infrared spectra in the mid infrared (MIR) and near infrared (NIR) ranges were concomitantly registered to assess the feasibility of this approach for the traceability of these frozen matrices. For the NIR interval, the application of the 1st derivative to the spectral data retrieved the best results, while for lower concentrations the application of the Savitzky-Golay algorithm was indispensable to achieve quantification models for the amino acids. MIR is also suitable for this purpose, though being unable to quantify amino acids with concentrations below 0.07 mmol g(-1) dry weight, irrespective of the data treatment used. The spectroscopic approach constitutes a methodology suitable for monitoring the impact of freezing on the nutritional properties of cowpea pods, allowing accurate quantification of the protein and amino acid contents, while NIR displayed better performance. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Proximate composition, functional properties, amino acid, mineral and vitamin contents of a novel food: Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farga, Ammar; Zhang, Hui; Siddeeg, Azhari; Shamoon, Muhammad; V M Chamba, Moses; Al-Hajj, Nabil

    2016-11-15

    Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour was evaluated for chemical and nutritional composition, and functional properties in a pursuit to identify an innovative plant with high nutraceuticals value which could be exploited in other food applications. The flour was found to be rich in dietary fiber (30.13%), protein (14.60%), crude fat (11.49%), carbohydrates (30.77%), and ash (6.88%) and encompassed adequate amounts of essential amino acids and minerals, whereas, sucrose constituted 71.3% of total sugar contents. Vitamins analysis revealed that flour is rich in water-soluble vitamins such as Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2) and Niacin (B3), to the amounts of 19.3, 8.2 and 2.3mg/100g, respectively. Results on functional properties demonstrated high water and oil absorption capacities of 6.31 and 2.43g/g, respectively. Foaming capacity, foam stability and emulsion capacity were 9.35%, 6.90%, and 29.60%, respectively. It can be concluded that alhydwan is an excellent food material with a high nutritional value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of seeding date and seeding rate on yield, proximate composition and total tannins content of two Kabuli chickpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ruggeri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted in open field to assess the effect of seeding season and density on the yield, the chemical composition and the accumulation of total tannins in grains of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cultivars (Pascià and Sultano. Environmental conditions and genetic factors considerably affected grain yield, nutrient and total tannins content of chickpea seeds, giving a considerable range in its qualitative characteristics. Results confirmed cultivar selection as a central factor when a late autumn-early winter sowing is performed. In effect, a more marked resistance to Ascochyta blight (AB of Sultano, allowed better agronomic performances when favourable-to-AB climatic conditions occur. Winter sowing appeared to be the best choice in the Mediterranean environment when cultivating to maximise the grain yield (+19%. Spring sowing improved crude protein (+10% and crude fibre (+8% content, whereas it did not significantly affect the accumulation of anti-nutrients compounds such as total tannins. The most appropriate seeding rate was 70 seeds m–2, considering that plant density had relatively little effect on the parameters studied.

  6. Electronic structure and physical properties of 13C carbon composite

    OpenAIRE

    Zhmurikov, Evgenij

    2015-01-01

    This review is devoted to the application of graphite and graphite composites in science and technology. Structure and electrical properties, as so technological aspects of producing of high-strength artificial graphite and dynamics of its destruction are considered. These type of graphite are traditionally used in the nuclear industry. Author was focused on the properties of graphite composites based on carbon isotope 13C. Generally, the review relies on the original results and concentrates...

  7. Fatty acid, sterol and proximate compositions of peanut species (Arachis L. seeds from Bolivia and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosso, Nelson R.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The oil, protein, ash and carbohydrates contents, iodine value, fatty acid and sterol compositions were studied in seeds of Arachis correntina, A. durannensis, A. monticola, A. batizocoi, and A. cardenasii originating from Bolivia and Argentina. Oil content was greatest in A. batizocoi (mean value 53,35%. The protein level was higher in A. monticola (mean value 29,40% and A. durannensis (29,13%. Mean value of oleic acid varied between 34,91% (A. durannensis and A. cardenasii and 42,60% (Arachis correntina, and linoleic acid oscilated between 40,23% (A. correntina and 45,86% (A. durannensis. The better oleic to linoleic ratio was exhibited by A. correntina (1,06. Iodine value was lower in A. batizocoi (106,0. The sterol composition in the different peanut species showed higher concentration of β-sitosterol (mean values oscilated between 55,70-58,70% following by campesterol (15,18-16,47%, stigmasterol (10,67- 12,27% and Δ5-avenasterol (10,80-12,13%.

    Los contenidos en aceite, proteína, ceniza e hidratos de carbono, índice de acidez, composiciones en ácidos grasos y esteroles fueron estudiadas en semillas de Arachis correntina, A. durannensis, A. Monticola, A. batizocoi, y A. cardenasii originaria de Bolivia y Argentina. El contenido en aceite fue mayor en A. batizocoi (valor medio 53,35%. El nivel de proteína fue más alto en A. monticoia (valor medio 29,40% y A. durannensis (29,13%. El valor medio del ácido oleico varió entre 34,91% (A. Durannensis y A. cardenasii y 42,60% (Arachis correntina, y el ácido linoleico osciló entre 40,23% (A. correntina y 45,86% (A.durannensis. La mejor relación oleico a linoleico fue exhibida por A. correntina (1.06. El índice de iodo fue más bajo en A. batizocoi (106,0. La composición esterólica en las diferentes especies de

  8. Charging process of polyurethane based composites under electronic irradiation: Effects of cellulose fiber content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjadj, Aomar; Jbara, Omar; Tara, Ahmed; Gilliot, Mickael; Dellis, Jean-Luc

    2013-09-01

    The study deals with the charging effect of polyurethanes-based composites reinforced with cellulose fibers, under electronic beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the leakage current and the trapped charge as well as the kinetics of charging process significantly change beyond a critical concentration of 10% cellulose fibers. These features are correlated with the cellulose concentration-dependence of the electrical properties, specifically resistivity and capacitance, of the composite.

  9. Electron spectroscopy of rubber and resin-based composites containing 2D carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaciulis, S., E-mail: saulius.kaciulis@ismn.cnr.it [Institute for the Study of Nanostructured Materials, ISMN-CNR, P.O. Box 10, Monterotondo Stazione, 00015 Roma (Italy); Mezzi, A.; Balijepalli, S.K. [Institute for the Study of Nanostructured Materials, ISMN-CNR, P.O. Box 10, Monterotondo Stazione, 00015 Roma (Italy); Lavorgna, M. [Institute of Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, IPCB-CNR, P.le Fermi, 80055 Napoli (Italy); Xia, H.S. [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 Sichuan (China)

    2015-04-30

    Composite materials with 2D carbon (graphene and/or single wall carbon nanotubes) are very promising due to their extraordinary electrical and mechanical properties. Graphene and natural rubber composites, which may be used for the gaskets or sealants, were prepared by ultrasonically assisted latex-mixing exfoliation and in-situ reduction process, with two vulcanization approaches: roll-mixing and hot-pressing. Also the resin-based composites, filled with micro-particles of Ag and graphene or carbon nanotubes, have been studied. The standards for the compositional characterization of these materials still are not established. In addition to the mostly used techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy, also Auger electron spectroscopy can be employed for the identification of graphene. In this study, the shape of C KVV peak, excited by electron beam and X-ray photons, has been investigated in different composite materials containing graphene and carbon nanotubes. A spectroscopic method for 2D carbon recognition, based on the D{sub x} parameter which is determined from C KVV signal excited by X-ray photons, was proposed and verified. Even a small content of graphene in different types of composites was sufficient for this recognition due to the dominating presence of graphene on the surface of composites. - Highlights: • Chemical composition of the rubber composites was determined by XPS. • Auger spectrum of carbon was used for graphene identification in composites. • Small content of graphene was sufficient for its recognition from the D parameter.

  10. Proximate composition of marine invertebrates from tropical coastal waters, with emphasis on the relationship between nitrogen and protein contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela S Diniz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical profiles of Desmapsamma anchorata, Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera, Bunodosoma caissarum, Renilla muelleri (Cnidaria, Aplysia brasiliana, Eledone massyae, Isognomon bicolor (Mollusca, Echinaster brasiliensis, Echinometra lucunter, Holothuria grisea, Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata, and Phallusia nigra (Chordata were determined. Hydrosoluble protein was the most abundant class of substances for all species, except for the ascidian Phallusia nigra, in which the carbohydrate content was higher. The percentages of hydrosoluble protein (dry weight, dw varied widely among the invertebrates, ranging from 5.88% (R. muelleri to 47.6% (Eledone massyae of the dw .The carbohydrate content fluctuated from 1.3% (R. muelleri to 18.4% (Aplysia brasiliana of the dw. For most of the species, lipid was the second most abundant class of substances, varying from 2.8% (R. muelleri to 25.3% (Echinaster brasiliensis of the dw. Wide variations were also found for the invertebrates nitrogen content, with the lowest value recorded in the cnidarian R. muelleri (2.02% of the dw and the highest in the molluscan E. massyae (12.7% of the dw. The phosphorus content of the dw varyed from 0.24% (R. muelleri to 1.16% (E. massyae. The amino acid composition varied largely among the species, but for most of the species glycine, arginine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were the most abundant amino acids, with histidine and tyrosine among the less abundant amino acids. The actual content of total protein in the samples was calculated by the sum of amino acid residues, establishing dw values that fluctuated from 11.1% (R. muelleri to 66.7% (E. massyae. The proteinaceous nitrogen content was high in all species, with an average value of 97.3% of the total nitrogen. From data of total amino acid residues and total nitrogen, specific nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors were calculated for each species. The nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors ranged from 5.10 to

  11. The effect of composition, electron irradiation and quenching on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have prepared, characterized and investigated a new PEG-2000 based solid polymer electrolyte (PEG)xNH4I. Ionic conductivity measurements have been made as a function of salt concentration as well as temperature in the range 265–330 K. Selected compositions of the electrolyte were exposed to a beam ...

  12. Effects of industrial canning on the proximate composition, bioactive compounds contents and nutritional profile of two Spanish common dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Cuadrado, Carmen; Burbano, Carmen; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Cabellos, Blanca; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Asensio-Vegas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the changes produced by canning in the proximate composition and in the bioactive constituents of two "ready to eat" Spanish beans. The foremost difference in the raw beans corresponded to the lectin: a higher content was found in raw Curruquilla beans (16.50 mg 100 mg(-1)) compared with raw Almonga beans (0.6 mg 100 mg(-1)). In general, industrial canning significantly increased the protein (>7%) and dietary fibre (>5%) contents of both beans varieties. However, the minerals, total α-galactosides and inositol phosphates contents were reduced (>25%) in both canned seeds. The trypsin inhibitors content was almost abolished by canning, and no lectins were found in either of the canned samples. Canned Curruquilla showed a decrease (38%) of their antioxidant activity. These "ready to eat" beans exhibited adequate nutritive profiles according to the USDA dietary recommendations. Furthermore, they had bioactive components content that are suitable for establishing a healthy lifestyle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of fatty acid and proximate compositions of the body and claw of male and female blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) from different regions of the Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuley, Esmeray; Ozoğul, Fatih; Ozogul, Yesim; Olgunoglu, A Ilkan

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acid and proximate compositions of the body and claw of male and female blue crabs from Akyatan Lagoon and Hurma strait were investigated. Male blue crab meat had a higher protein and fat content, and lower moisture and ash content, than that of the female from Akyatan Lagoon. Moreover, there were variations of protein and fat amounts in both female crab meats between Akyatan Lagoon and Hurma strait. The dominant saturated fatty acids were palmitic acid (16:0; range from approximately 12% to 15%) and stearic acid (18:0; range from approximately 7.5% to 16.1%) for all samples. The total monounsaturated fatty acid content in the body of female crabs from Akyatan Lagoon was higher than those of Hurma Strait (22.04% versus 7.55%). There were no statistically significant differences (P>0.05) between eicosapentaenoic acid concentrations in body meat of the male crab than those of female crab meat from Akyatan Lagoon (Pcrabs from Akyatan Lagoon and those of female crabs from Hurma strait. The total n3 was detected as 27.33% in body meat whereas it was 24.39% in claw meat of the male crab from Akyatan Lagoon. Those values were almost similar in the body and claw meat of female crab from Akyatan Lagoon.

  14. Influence of Npk inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, G G E; Edeoga, H O

    2013-04-15

    The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h(-1) treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p leaves of the plants. The increase in the concentrations of these substances as a result of fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant's leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures.

  15. Effects of boiling and roasting on proximate composition, lipid oxidation, fatty acid profile and mineral content of two sesame varieties commercialized and consumed in Far-North Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenyang, Noël; Ponka, Roger; Tiencheu, Bernard; Djikeng, Fabrice T; Azmeera, Thirupathi; Karuna, Mallampalli S L; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Womeni, Hilaire M

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of boiling and roasting on the proximate, lipid oxidation, fatty acid profile and mineral content of two sesame seeds varieties. The proximate composition was significantly affected (Psesame oil after processing was significantly increased (Psesame varieties. C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2 were quantitatively the most important fatty acids in sesame oil. Boiling appeared to be the best processing method for cooking the two sesame varieties concerning oxidative stability and fatty acid profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary fat composition influences glomerular and proximal convoluted tubule cell structure and autophagic processes in kidneys from calorie-restricted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Rubio, Miguel; Burón, M Isabel; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; de Cabo, Rafael; Ramsey, Jon J; Villalba, José M; González-Reyes, José A

    2016-06-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has been repeatedly shown to prevent cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and other age-related diseases in a wide range of animals, including non-human primates and humans. In rodents, CR also increases lifespan and is a powerful tool for studying the aging process. Recently, it has been reported in mice that dietary fat plays an important role in determining lifespan extension with 40% CR. In these conditions, animals fed lard as dietary fat showed an increased longevity compared with mice fed soybean or fish oils. In this paper, we study the effect of these dietary fats on structural and physiological parameters of kidney from mice maintained on 40% CR for 6 and 18 months. Analyses were performed using quantitative electron microcopy techniques and protein expression in Western blots. CR mitigated most of the analyzed age-related parameters in kidney, such as glomerular basement membrane thickness, mitochondrial mass in convoluted proximal tubules and autophagic markers in renal homogenates. The lard group showed improved preservation of several renal structures with aging when compared to the other CR diet groups. These results indicate that dietary fat modulates renal structure and function in CR mice and plays an essential role in the determination of health span in rodents. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Electronic transport in composites of graphite oxide with carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Skakalova, Viera; Vretenar, Viliam; Kopera, Lubontir; Kotrusz, Peter; Mangler, Clemens; Mesko, Marcel; Meyer, Jannik C.; Hulman, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We show that the presence of electrically insulating graphite oxide (GO) within a single wall carbon nanotube network strongly enhances electrical conductivity, whereas reduced graphite oxide, even though electrically conductive, suppresses electrical conductivity within a composite network with single wall carbon nanotubes. Measurements of Young modulus and of Raman spectra strongly support our interpretation of the indirect role of the oxide groups, present in graphite oxide within the sing...

  18. Electron Beam Curing of Polymer Matrix Composites - CRADA Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, C. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Dave [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Norris, Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The major cost driver in manufacturing polymer matrix composite (PMC) parts and structures, and one of the elements having the greatest effect on their quality and performance, is the standard thermal cure process. Thermal curing of PMCs requires long cure times and high energy consumption, creates residual thermal stresses in the part, produces volatile toxic by-products, and requires expensive tooling that is tolerant of the high cure temperatures.

  19. Effect of fortification of fresh cow milk with coconut milk on the proximate composition and yield of warankashi, a traditional cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheese is a concentrated dairy product produced by acid or rennet coagulation or curdling of milk, stirring and heating the curd, draining off the whey, collecting and pressing the curd. The effect of partial substitution of fresh cow milk with coconut milk on the yield and proximate composition of cheese was examined. Extracted coconut milk was mixed with fresh raw cow milk at varying proportions of 5%: 95%, 10%: 90%, 15%: 85%, 20%: 80%, 25%:75%, 70%: 30% and the control (0%:100% to produce cheese. The control and the partially substituted cheeses were stored in a refrigerator and examined for sensory quality, percentage yield, total titrable acidity, and proximate analysis. The yield of cheese showed significant (p< 0.05 decrease from 26.71% (control sample to 13.55% as the level of coconut milk increased. The total titrable acidity of cheese was found to be between the ranges of 0.20% - 0.29% which displayed a significant increase from 0.20% - 0.29%. The protein content of the cow-coconut cheese blends showed a significant difference (p<0.05 and an increase of 14.05%-15.33% (at 5%-30% substitution of coconut milk, with the control sample having 13.75%. There was also an increase in fat content from 9.20% - 9.64% (5% - 30% substitution of coconut milk, with the control sample having 8.94%. There was a decrease in the carbohydrate content of the cheese blends which ranged between 8.23% -2.82%, with the control sample having 9.60%. There was a significant decrease (p<0.05 in the ash content of the cow-coconut cheese blends, with the control sample having 1.02%. Significant difference (p<0.05 was observed in the colour, aroma, taste, texture, and overall acceptability as influenced by varying proportions of added coconut milk. The blend with 5% coconut milk and 95% cow milk was most acceptable by panellists. The work showed the potential of coconut as an alternative source of milk in cheese making with improved nutritional value and consumer

  20. Stretchable electronics based on Ag-PDMS composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmagnac, Alexandre; Eggenberger, Samuel; Janossy, Hanna; Vörös, Janos

    2014-12-01

    Patterned structures of flexible, stretchable, electrically conductive materials on soft substrates could lead to novel electronic devices with unique mechanical properties allowing them to bend, fold, stretch or conform to their environment. For the last decade, research on improving the stretchability of circuits on elastomeric substrates has made significant progresses but designing printed circuit assemblies on elastomers remains challenging. Here we present a simple, cost-effective, cleanroom-free process to produce large scale soft electronic hardware where standard surface-mounted electrical components were directly bonded onto all-elastomeric printed circuit boards, or soft PCBs. Ag-PDMS tracks were stencil printed onto a PDMS substrate and soft PCBs were made by bonding the top and bottom layers together and filling punched holes with Ag-PDMS to create vias. Silver epoxy was used to bond commercial electrical components and no mechanical failure was observed after hundreds of stretching cycles. We also demonstrate the fabrication of a stretchable clock generator.

  1. Proximity effect correction using multilevel area density maps for character projection based electron beam direct writing toward 14 nm node and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Kozo; Hoshino, Hiromi; Maruyama, Takashi; Machida, Yasuhide; Sugatani, Shinji

    2012-03-01

    We propose an advanced proximity effect correction method, in which all patterns of various sizes are written by character projection (CP) method, and the dose modulation and the auxiliary shot generation are performed using multiple area density maps with different mesh sizes according to the range of electron scatterings. We investigated the possibility that all patterns of various sizes could be written by using small number of CP characters of a single line with fixed width, which is called the "master-CP". We then estimated the range of the designed line width that can be supported by a master-CP and the number of master-CPs which are needed in order to support all patterns of various sizes. We found that only 5-7 master-CPs are required in terms of the dose margin, the rate of increase in the correction dose caused by using the master-CP of different width from the design pattern and the shot positioning error, and they have a low impact on the CP mask. Moreover, we estimated the effect of auxiliary shots on the throughput for 14 nm node technology. The percentage of auxiliary shots in the exposure time was less than 12.1%, even though a test pattern data was made by shrinking a 65 nm node logic LSI where the layout did not repeat very regularly. Therefore, as the layout becomes regularly-repeated to 14 nm node, the effect of the auxiliary shots would not be a dominant factor for the throughput.

  2. The fast fabrication of flexible electronic devices of graphene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shihu; Wang, Wei; Yu, Lingke; Zhan, Zhan; Sun, Daoheng

    2016-08-01

    The rapid production and accurate deposition of graphene composites are first integrated into one process, due to the strong interaction between the polymer bond with sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) and graphene. It is demonstrated that tension-shear exfoliation in high viscosity fluid may get a higher graphene production rate than in N-methyl-pyrrolidone. In addition, the micro-scale patterns of graphene nanomaterials produced by this method show high electrical conductivity and superior sensitivity to pressure due to their porous structure.

  3. Antioxidant Activities, Metabolic Profiling, Proximate Analysis, Mineral Nutrient Composition of Salvadora persica Fruit Unravel a Potential Functional Food and a Natural Source of Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Asha; Parida, Asish K; Rangani, Jaykumar; Panda, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Salvadora persica is a medicinally important plant mainly used in oral hygiene. However, little attention has been given towards the nutritional prominence of this plant. This study encloses the proximate and mineral nutrient contents, amino acid composition, metabolite profiling and antioxidant potential of S. persica fruit. The ripen fruit contained substantial amount of sugars, mineral nutrients, carotenoids, polyphenols and flavonoids. The metabolic profiling of the fruit extract by GC-MS revealed a total of 22 metabolites comprising of sugars, sugar alcohols, organic acids, organic base, and aromatic silica compound. The identified metabolites have been previously reported to have potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-hyperglycemic, and antitumor properties. The GC-MS analysis indicated high glucose and glucopyranose (247.62 and 42.90 mg g(-1) FW respectively) contents in fruit of S. persica. The fruit extract demonstrated a significantly higher antioxidant and ROS scavenging properties along with high contents of mineral nutrients and essential amino acids. HPLC analysis revealed presence of essential and non-essential amino acid required for healthy body metabolism. The cysteine was found to be in highest amount (733.69 mg 100 g(-1) DW) among all amino acids quantified. Specifically, compared to similar medicinal plants, previously reported as a source of non-conventional food and with some of the commercially important fruits, S. persica fruit appears to be a potential source of essential mineral nutrients, amino acids, vitamins (ascorbic acid and carotenoid) and pharmaceutically important metabolites contributing towards fulfilling the recommended daily requirement of these for a healthy human being. This is the first report establishing importance of S. persica fruit as nutraceuticals. The data presented here proposed that fruit of S. persica may be used as functional food or reinvigorating ingredient for processed food to reduce deficiency of

  4. Studies on possibilities of polymer composites with conductive nanomaterials application in wearable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralczyk, Kinga; Janczak, D.; Dybowska-Sarapuk, Ł.; Lepak, S.; Wróblewski, G.; Jakubowska, M.

    2017-08-01

    In the last few years there has been a growing interest in wearable electronic products, which are generating considerable interest especially in sport and medical industries. But rigid electronics is not comfortable to wear, so things like stretchable substrates, interconnects and electronic devices might help. Flexible electronics could adjust to the curves of a human body and allow the users to move freely. The objective of this paper is to study possibilities of polymer composites with conductive nanomaterials application in wearable electronics. Pastes with graphene, silver nanoplates and carbon nanotubes were manufactured and then interconnects were screen-printed on the surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and fabric. Afterwards, the resistance and mechanical properties of samples were examined, also after washing them in a washing machine. It has been found that the best material for the conductive phase is silver. Traces printed directly on the fabric using conductive composites with one functional phase (silver nanoplates or graphene or carbon nanotubes) are too fragile to use them as a common solution in wearable electronics. Mechanical properties can be improved not only by adding carbon nanotubes or graphene to the silver paste, but also by printing additional layer of graphene paste or carbon nanotube paste onto silver layer. In fact, these solutions are not sufficient enough to solve a problem of using these composites in wearable electronics.

  5. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  6. Can X-ray spectrum imaging replace backscattered electrons for compositional contrast in the scanning electron microscope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E; Ritchie, Nicholas W M

    2011-01-01

    The high throughput of the silicon drift detector energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SDD-EDS) enables X-ray spectrum imaging (XSI) in the scanning electron microscope to be performed in frame times of 10-100 s, the typical time needed to record a high-quality backscattered electron (BSE) image. These short-duration XSIs can reveal all elements, except H, He, and Li, present as major constituents, defined as 0.1 mass fraction (10 wt%) or higher, as well as minor constituents in the range 0.01-0.1 mass fraction, depending on the particular composition and possible interferences. Although BSEs have a greater abundance by a factor of 100 compared with characteristic X-rays, the strong compositional contrast in element-specific X-ray maps enables XSI mapping to compete with BSE imaging to reveal compositional features. Differences in the fraction of the interaction volume sampled by the BSE and X-ray signals lead to more delocalization of the X-ray signal at abrupt compositional boundaries, resulting in poorer spatial resolution. Improved resolution in X-ray elemental maps occurs for the case of a small feature composed of intermediate to high atomic number elements embedded in a matrix of lower atomic number elements. XSI imaging strongly complements BSE imaging, and the SDD-EDS technology enables an efficient combined BSE-XSI measurement strategy that maximizes the compositional information. If 10 s or more are available for the measurement of an area of interest, the analyst should always record the combined BSE-XSI information to gain the advantages of both measures of compositional contrast. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Graphene-Based Hybrid Composites for Efficient Thermal Management of Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Michael; Nadiv, Roey; Buzaglo, Matat; Regev, Oren

    2015-10-28

    Thermal management has become a critical aspect in next-generation miniaturized electronic devices. Efficient heat dissipation reduces their operating temperatures and insures optimal performance, service life, and efficacy. Shielding against shocks, vibrations, and moisture is also imperative when the electronic circuits are located outdoors. Potting (or encapsulating) them in polymer-based composites with enhanced thermal conductivity (TC) may provide a solution for both thermal management and shielding challenges. In the current study, graphene is employed as a filler to fabricate composites with isotropic ultrahigh TC (>12 W m(-1) K(-1)) and good mechanical properties (>30 MPa flexural and compressive strength). To avoid short-circuiting the electronic assemblies, a dispersion of secondary ceramic-based filler reduces the electrical conductivity and synergistically enhances the TC of composites. When utilized as potting materials, these novel hybrid composites effectively dissipate the heat from electronic devices; their operating temperatures decrease from 110 to 37 °C, and their effective thermal resistances are drastically reduced, by up to 90%. The simple filler dispersion method and the precise manipulation of the composite transport properties via hybrid filling offer a universal approach to the large-scale production of novel materials for thermal management and other applications.

  8. Effect of Gamma and electron beam irradiation on PAN-carbon fiber composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafari, R.; Kasaei, H.; Hajihashemi, M.; Daneshvari, V.; Emamalizadeh, M.; Kasaei, M.H., E-mail: rvzreza@gmail.com [Materials Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Isfahan, I. R. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of irradiation on structural, mechanical and thermal properties of PAN- carbon fiber composite. The overall applied doses were 250, 500, 750, and 1000 kGy. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Tensile strength test was conducted in order to measure mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate microstructural behavior. Thermal behavior of the samples was studied by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The results showed that by increasing gamma and electron doses the thermal behavior of the composite indicated higher decomposition degree as a function of the temperature. Electron irradiated carbon fiber surfaces are relatively smoothed than that virgin fibers. Bulges after gamma treatment were decreased and surface was unrough. (author)

  9. Effects of electron-beam irradiation on HDPE/Brazil nut shell fiber composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maiara S.; Sartori, Mariana N.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B., E-mail: maiara.sferreira@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, research on the replacement of synthetic fibers by natural fibers as reinforcement in thermoplastic composites has increased dramatically due to the advantages of natural fibers, such as low density, low cost, environmental appeal and recyclability. In the present work, the influence of electron-beam irradiation on mechanical properties of HDPE and HDPE/Brazil Nut Shell (Bertholletia excelsa) fiber compositive was investigated. The HDPE composite reinforced with 5% or 10%, by weight of Brazil nut shell fiber powder with particle sizes equal or smaller than 250 μm were obtained by extrusion, using a twin screw extruder. The materials were irradiated at 200 kGy using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in presence of air. The irradiated and non-irradiated specimens tests samples were submitted to mechanical and thermo-mechanical tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and sol-gel analysis and the correlation between their properties was discussed. The results showed significant changes in HDPE mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties due to Brazil nut shell fibers addition and electron-beam irradiation. The surface of the cryo fractured composite samples irradiated showed important visual changes which suggest a better fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion, due to irradiation treatment. These results showed that it is possible to get interesting property gains by using waste from renewable sources instead of the traditional ones and electron-beam radiation treatment. (author)

  10. INVESTIGATION OF TITANIUM BONDED GRAPHITE FOAM COMPOSITES FOR MICRO ELECTRONIC MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (MEMS) APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menchhofer, Paul A [ORNL; Bozorgi, Payam [ORNL

    2016-04-01

    PiMEMS Inc. (Santa Barbara, CA) in collaboration with ORNL investigated the use of Titanium Bonded Graphite Foam Composites (TBGC) for thermal mitigation in Micro Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS) applications. Also considered were potentially new additive manufacturing routes to producing novel high surface area micro features and diverse shaped heat transfer components for numerous lightweight MEMs applications.

  11. Fabrication of WCp/NiBSi metal matrix composite by electron beam melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Hui, E-mail: penghui@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University (BUAA), No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Material and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials & Performance (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Chang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University (BUAA), No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Guo, Hongbo, E-mail: guo.hongbo@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University (BUAA), No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Material and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials & Performance (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Yuan, Yuan [Zhuzhou Seed Cemented Carbide Technology Co. Ltd, No. 1099 Xiangda Road, Zhuzhou, Hunan 412000 (China); Gong, Shengkai; Xu, Huibin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University (BUAA), No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Material and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials & Performance (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, No. 37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-06-01

    A blend of NiBSi and WC powders was used as raw material for fabricating a metal matrix composite (MMC) by electron beam melting (EBM). Dense and crack-free microstructure was produced with evenly distributed WC reinforcements. Mechanical properties, including macro- and micro-hardness, flexural strength, impact toughness and compressive strength, were investigated.

  12. Preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the following proximate ...

  13. New insights into subsurface imaging of carbon nanotubes in polymer composites via scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Minhua; Ming, Bin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Gibbons, Luke J; Gu, Xiaohong; Nguyen, Tinh; Park, Cheol; Lillehei, Peter T; Villarrubia, J S; Vladár, András E; Alexander Liddle, J

    2015-02-27

    Despite many studies of subsurface imaging of carbon nanotube (CNT)-polymer composites via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), significant controversy exists concerning the imaging depth and contrast mechanisms. We studied CNT-polyimide composites and, by three-dimensional reconstructions of captured stereo-pair images, determined that the maximum SEM imaging depth was typically hundreds of nanometers. The contrast mechanisms were investigated over a broad range of beam accelerating voltages from 0.3 to 30 kV, and ascribed to modulation by embedded CNTs of the effective secondary electron (SE) emission yield at the polymer surface. This modulation of the SE yield is due to non-uniform surface potential distribution resulting from current flows due to leakage and electron beam induced current. The importance of an external electric field on SEM subsurface imaging was also demonstrated. The insights gained from this study can be generally applied to SEM nondestructive subsurface imaging of conducting nanostructures embedded in dielectric matrices such as graphene-polymer composites, silicon-based single electron transistors, high resolution SEM overlay metrology or e-beam lithography, and have significant implications in nanotechnology.

  14. New Insights on Subsurface Imaging of Carbon Nanotubes in Polymer Composites via Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Minhua; Ming, Bin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Gibbons, Luke J.; Gu, Xiaohong; Nguyen, Tinh; Park, Cheol; Lillehei, Peter T.; Villarrubia, J. S.; Vladar, Andras E.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Despite many studies of subsurface imaging of carbon nanotube (CNT)-polymer composites via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), significant controversy exists concerning the imaging depth and contrast mechanisms. We studied CNT-polyimide composites and, by threedimensional reconstructions of captured stereo-pair images, determined that the maximum SEM imaging depth was typically hundreds of nanometers. The contrast mechanisms were investigated over a broad range of beam accelerating voltages from 0.3 to 30 kV, and ascribed to modulation by embedded CNTs of the effective secondary electron (SE) emission yield at the polymer surface. This modulation of the SE yield is due to non-uniform surface potential distribution resulting from current flows due to leakage and electron beam induced current. The importance of an external electric field on SEM subsurface imaging was also demonstrated. The insights gained from this study can be generally applied to SEM nondestructive subsurface imaging of conducting nanostructures embedded in dielectric matrices such as graphene-polymer composites, silicon-based single electron transistors, high resolution SEM overlay metrology or e-beam lithography, and have significant implications in nanotechnology.

  15. Development of multi-functional composite structures with embedded electronics for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong Jang, Tae; Soo Oh, Dae; Kyu Kim, Jin; In Kang, Kyung; Ho Cha, Won; Woo Rhee, Seung

    2011-01-01

    Conventional spacecraft structural function has been limited to supporting loads and mounting avionics only. In contrast, the technology of 'multi-functional structures' can integrate thermal and electronic functions into the spacecraft's inherent load-bearing capability. In addition, sufficient radiation shielding effectiveness can be provided for the anticipated mission environment. Utilizing this concept, the ratio of electrical functionality to spacecraft volume can be dramatically increased and significant mass savings can be obtained. In this paper, spacecraft electronics are miniaturized using advanced IT applications such as flexible circuitry, miniaturized components, featherweight connectors, and so on, that they can be easily embedded within a structural panel. A sandwich structural panel consists of an aluminum honeycomb core and lightweight CFRP facesheets. Integration of electronics is implemented within the panel by mounting electronics on a multi-layered composite enclosure with multi-materials. This composite enclosure provides a load-bearing, effective thermal conduction, radiation shielding capabilities and an available space for embedding electronics. A series of environmental tests and analyses is carried out to demonstrate that the flight hardware is qualified for the expected mission environments. This approach will be utilized for the advanced small satellite 'STSAT-3' to validate the multi-functional structures concept.

  16. Personal electronics printing via tapping mode composite liquid metal ink delivery and adhesion mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; He, Zhi-Zhu; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing

    2014-04-04

    Printed electronics is becoming increasingly important in a variety of newly emerging areas. However, restricted to the rather limited conductive inks and available printing strategies, the current electronics manufacture is usually confined to industry level. Here, we show a highly cost-effective and entirely automatic printing way towards personal electronics making, through introducing a tapping-mode composite fluid delivery system. Fundamental mechanisms regarding the reliable printing, transfer and adhesion of the liquid metal inks on the substrate were disclosed through systematic theoretical interpretation and experimental measurements. With this liquid metal printer, a series of representative electronic patterns spanning from single wires to desired complex configurations such as integrated circuit (IC), printed-circuits-on-board (PCB), electronic paintings, or more do-it-yourself (DIY) devices, were demonstrated to be printed out with high precision in a moment. And the total machine cost already reached personally affordable price. This is hard to achieve by a conventional PCB technology which generally takes long time and is material, water and energy consuming, while the existing printed electronics is still far away from the real direct printing goal. The present work opens the way for large scale personal electronics manufacture and is expected to generate important value for the coming society.

  17. Personal electronics printing via tapping mode composite liquid metal ink delivery and adhesion mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; He, Zhi-Zhu; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing

    2014-04-01

    Printed electronics is becoming increasingly important in a variety of newly emerging areas. However, restricted to the rather limited conductive inks and available printing strategies, the current electronics manufacture is usually confined to industry level. Here, we show a highly cost-effective and entirely automatic printing way towards personal electronics making, through introducing a tapping-mode composite fluid delivery system. Fundamental mechanisms regarding the reliable printing, transfer and adhesion of the liquid metal inks on the substrate were disclosed through systematic theoretical interpretation and experimental measurements. With this liquid metal printer, a series of representative electronic patterns spanning from single wires to desired complex configurations such as integrated circuit (IC), printed-circuits-on-board (PCB), electronic paintings, or more do-it-yourself (DIY) devices, were demonstrated to be printed out with high precision in a moment. And the total machine cost already reached personally affordable price. This is hard to achieve by a conventional PCB technology which generally takes long time and is material, water and energy consuming, while the existing printed electronics is still far away from the real direct printing goal. The present work opens the way for large scale personal electronics manufacture and is expected to generate important value for the coming society.

  18. Personal electronics printing via tapping mode composite liquid metal ink delivery and adhesion mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; He, Zhi-Zhu; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Printed electronics is becoming increasingly important in a variety of newly emerging areas. However, restricted to the rather limited conductive inks and available printing strategies, the current electronics manufacture is usually confined to industry level. Here, we show a highly cost-effective and entirely automatic printing way towards personal electronics making, through introducing a tapping-mode composite fluid delivery system. Fundamental mechanisms regarding the reliable printing, transfer and adhesion of the liquid metal inks on the substrate were disclosed through systematic theoretical interpretation and experimental measurements. With this liquid metal printer, a series of representative electronic patterns spanning from single wires to desired complex configurations such as integrated circuit (IC), printed-circuits-on-board (PCB), electronic paintings, or more do-it-yourself (DIY) devices, were demonstrated to be printed out with high precision in a moment. And the total machine cost already reached personally affordable price. This is hard to achieve by a conventional PCB technology which generally takes long time and is material, water and energy consuming, while the existing printed electronics is still far away from the real direct printing goal. The present work opens the way for large scale personal electronics manufacture and is expected to generate important value for the coming society. PMID:24699375

  19. New green polymeric composites based on hemp and natural rubber processed by electron beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelescu, Maria-Daniela; Manaila, Elena; Craciun, Gabriela; Dumitrascu, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A new polymeric composite based on natural rubber reinforced with hemp has been processed by electron beam irradiation and characterized by several methods. The mechanical characteristics: gel fraction, crosslink density, water uptake, swelling parameters, and FTIR of natural rubber/hemp fiber composites have been investigated as a function of the hemp content and absorbed dose. Physical and mechanical properties present a significant improvement as a result of adding hemp fibres in blends. Our experiments showed that the hemp fibers have a reinforcing effect on natural rubber similar to mineral fillers (chalk, carbon black, silica). The crosslinking rates of samples, measured using the Flory-Rehner equation, increase as a result of the amount of hemp in blends and the electron beam irradiation dose increasing. The swelling parameters of samples significantly depend on the amount of hemp in blends, because the latter have hydrophilic characteristics.

  20. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Semiconductor Nanostructures: Analysis of Composition and Strain State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenauer, Andreas

    The present book is organized in the following way. The first part provides the theoretical fundamentals of transmission electron microscopy needed in the second part, which focuses on a description of strain state analysis and on the composition evaluation by lattice fringe analysis techniques. In the third part, we describe the application of these techniques to the investigation of low-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures such as InxGa1-xAs SK layers.

  1. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open markets in Benin City, Nigeria. Microbiological and proximate analysis were carried out using standard methods. Results of the proximate analysis revealed ...

  2. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  3. Conductive Cellulose Composites with Low Percolation Threshold for 3D Printed Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Sung; Kim, Taeil; Kim, Woo Soo

    2017-06-12

    We are reporting a 3D printable composite paste having strong thixotropic rheology. The composite has been designed and investigated with highly conductive silver nanowires. The optimized electrical percolation threshold from both simulation and experiment is shown from 0.7 vol. % of silver nanowires which is significantly lower than other composites using conductive nano-materials. Reliable conductivity of 1.19 × 102 S/cm has been achieved from the demonstrated 3D printable composite with 1.9 vol. % loading of silver nanowires. Utilizing the high conductivity of the printable composites, 3D printing of designed battery electrode pastes is demonstrated. Rheology study shows superior printability of the electrode pastes aided by the cellulose's strong thixotropic rheology. The designed anode, electrolyte, and cathode pastes are sequentially printed to form a three-layered lithium battery for the demonstration of a charging profile. This study opens opportunities of 3D printable conductive materials to create printed electronics with the next generation additive manufacturing process.

  4. Molecular modeling of polymer composite-analyte interactions in electronic nose sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    We report a molecular modeling study to investigate the polymer-carbon black (CB) composite-analyte interactions in resistive sensors. These sensors comprise the JPL electronic nose (ENose) sensing array developed for monitoring breathing air in human habitats. The polymer in the composite is modeled based on its stereoisomerism and sequence isomerism, while the CB is modeled as uncharged naphthalene rings with no hydrogens. The Dreiding 2.21 force field is used for the polymer, solvent molecules and graphite parameters are assigned to the carbon black atoms. A combination of molecular mechanics (MM) and molecular dynamics (NPT-MD and NVT-MD) techniques are used to obtain the equilibrium composite structure by inserting naphthalene rings in the polymer matrix. Polymers considered for this work include poly(4-vinylphenol), polyethylene oxide, and ethyl cellulose. Analytes studied are representative of both inorganic and organic compounds. The results are analyzed for the composite microstructure by calculating the radial distribution profiles as well as for the sensor response by predicting the interaction energies of the analytes with the composites. c2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluoropolymer based composite with Ag particles as 3D printable conductive ink for stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; La, Thanh Giang; Li, Xinda; Chung, Hyun Joong

    The recent development of stretchable electronics expands the scope of wearable and healthcare applications. This creates a high demand in stretchy conductor that can maintain conductivity at high strain conditions. Here, we describe a simple fabrication pathway to achieve stretchable, 3D-printable and low-cost conductive composite ink. The ink is used to print complex stretchable patterns with high conductivity. The elastic ink is composed of silver(Ag) flakes, fluorine rubber, an organic solvent and surfactant. The surfactant plays multiple roles in in the composite. The surfactant promotes compatibility between silver flakes and fluorine rubber; at the same time, it affects the mechanical properties of the hosting fluoropolymers and adhesion properties of the composite. Based on experimental observations, we discuss the exact role of the surfactant in the composite. The resulting composite exhibits high conductivity value of 8.49 *10 4 S/m along with high reliability against repeated stretching/releasing cycles. Interesting examples of transfer printing of the printed ink and its applications in working devices, such as RFID tag and antennas, are also showcased.

  6. Effect of Deep Drying and Torrefaction Temperature on Proximate, Ultimate Composition, and Heating Value of 2-mm Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Grind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluru, Jaya

    2016-06-01

    Deep drying and torrefaction is a thermal pretreatment method, where biomass is heated in the temperature range of 150–300°C in an inert or reduced environment. The process parameters like temperature and residence time has a significant impact on proximate, ultimate, and energy properties of the biomass. In the present study, torrrefaction experiments were conducted on 2 mm lodgepole pine grind using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Both deep drying and torrefaction temperature (160–270°C) and time (15–120 min) were selected. Torrefied samples were analyzed for proximate, ultimate and energy properties. Results indicated that moisture content decreased with increases in torrefaction temperature and time, where at 270°C and 120 min, the moisture content was found to be 1.15% (w.b.). Volatile content in the biomass decreased from about 80% to about 45%, and ash content increased from 0.77 to about 1.91% at 270°C and 120 min. The hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur content decreased to 3%, 28.24%, and 0.01 whereas carbon content and higher heating value increased to 68.86% and 23.67 MJ/kg at 270°C and 120 min. H/C and O/C ratio calculated at 270°C and 120 min residence time were about 0.56 and 0.47. This study indicated that higher torrefaction temperatures >230°C and residence time >15 min influenced the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties.

  7. Effect of Deep Drying and Torrefaction Temperature on Proximate, Ultimate Composition, and Heating Value of 2-mm Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta Grind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep drying and torrefaction compose a thermal pretreatment method where biomass is heated in the temperature range of 150–300 °C in an inert or reduced environment. The process parameters, like torrefaction temperature and residence time, have a significant impact on the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties. In this study, torrefaction experiments were conducted on 2-mm ground lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Both deep drying and torrefaction temperature (160–270 °C and time (15–120 min were selected. Torrefied samples were analyzed for the proximate, ultimate, and higher heating value. The results indicate that moisture content decreases with increases in torrefaction temperature and time, where at 270 °C and 120 min, the moisture content is found to be 1.15% (w.b.. Volatile content in the lodgepole pine decreased from about 80% to about 45%, and ash content increased from 0.77% to about 1.91% at 270 °C and 120 min. The hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur content decreased to 3%, 28.24%, and 0.01%, whereas the carbon content and higher heating value increased to 68.86% and 23.67 MJ/kg at 270 °C and 120 min. Elemental ratio of hydrogen to carbon and oxygen to carbon (H/C and O/C calculated at 270 °C and a 120-min residence time were about 0.56 and 0.47. Based on this study, it can be concluded that higher torrefaction temperatures ≥230 °C and residence time ≥15 min influence the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties of ground lodgepole pine.

  8. Perturbation of the Quinone-binding Site of Complex II Alters the Electronic Properties of the Proximal [3Fe-4S] Iron-Sulfur Cluster*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Jonathan; Iwata, So; Rothery, Richard A.; Weiner, Joel H.; Maklashina, Elena; Cecchini, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (SQR) and menaquinol-fumarate oxidoreductase (QFR) from Escherichia coli are members of the complex II family of enzymes. SQR and QFR catalyze similar reactions with quinones; however, SQR preferentially reacts with higher potential ubiquinones, and QFR preferentially reacts with lower potential naphthoquinones. Both enzymes have a single functional quinone-binding site proximal to a [3Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster. A difference between SQR and QFR is that the redox potential of the [3Fe-4S] cluster in SQR is 140 mV higher than that found in QFR. This may reflect the character of the different quinones with which the two enzymes preferentially react. To investigate how the environment around the [3Fe-4S] cluster affects its redox properties and catalysis with quinones, a conserved amino acid proximal to the cluster was mutated in both enzymes. It was found that substitution of SdhB His-207 by threonine (as found in QFR) resulted in a 70-mV lowering of the redox potential of the cluster as measured by EPR. The converse substitution in QFR raised the redox potential of the cluster. X-ray structural analysis suggests that placing a charged residue near the [3Fe-4S] cluster is a primary reason for the alteration in redox potential with the hydrogen bonding environment having a lesser effect. Steady state enzyme kinetic characterization of the mutant enzymes shows that the redox properties of the [3Fe-4S] cluster have only a minor effect on catalysis. PMID:21310949

  9. High-entropy alloys: Interrelations between electron concentration, phase composition, lattice parameter, and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorban', V. F.; Krapivka, N. A.; Firstov, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    An analysis of more than 200 high-entropy alloys (HEA) allowed us to find interrelations between the electron concentration, phase composition, lattice parameter, and properties of solid solutions with bcc and fcc crystal lattices. Main conditions for the appearance of high-entropy chemical compounds, such as Laves, σ, and μ phases were determined. The necessary condition for the formation of 100% high-entropy σ phase is the formation of σ phase in two-component alloys for different combinations of elements, which are components of the HEA, and the electron concentration should be 6.7-7.3 electrons per atom. To form a 100% high-entropy Laves phase, the following conditions should be fulfilled: the total negative enthalpy of mixing of alloy is about -7 kJ/mol and less; the difference between the atom sizes in a pair is more than 12%; the enthalpy of the mixing of two present elements is less than -30 kJ/mol; and the average electron concentration is 6-7 electrons per atom. It was shown that the ratios of lattice parameters of solid-solution HEA, which were experimentally determined, to the lattice parameter of the most refractory metal in the HEA determine the value of the modulus of elasticity.

  10. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  11. Carbon nanotube buckypaper reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites for electronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Gascón, David

    2013-11-27

    Novel acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) nanocomposites reinforced with pristine or functionalized single- or multiwalled carbon nanotube buckypaper (BP) sheets were manufactured via hot-compression and vacuum infiltration. Their morphology, thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties were comparatively investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis showed that the infiltration process leads to better BP impregnation than the hot-press technique. BPs made from functionalized or short nanotubes form compact networks that hamper the penetration of the matrix chains, whereas those composed of pristine tubes possess large pores that facilitate the polymer flow, resulting in composites with low degree of porosity and improved mechanical performance. Enhanced thermal and electrical properties are found for samples incorporating functionalized BPs since dense networks lead to more conductive pathways, and a stronger barrier effect to the diffusion of degradation products, thus better thermal stability. According to dynamic mechanical analysis these composites exhibit the highest glass transition temperatures, suggesting enhanced filler-matrix interactions as corroborated by the Raman spectra. The results presented herein demonstrate that the composite performance can be tailored by controlling the BP architecture and offer useful insights into the structure-property relationships of these materials to be used in electronic applications, particularly for EMI shielding and packaging of integrated circuits.

  12. Electron Density Profile Data Contains Virtual Height/Frequency Pairs from a Profile or Profiles (Composite Months) of Ionograms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Electron Density Profile, N(h), data set contains both individual profiles and composite months. The data consist of virtual height/frequency pairs from a...

  13. Forecasting waste compositions: A case study on plastic waste of electronic display housings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Jef R; Vanegas, Paul; Kellens, Karel; Wang, Feng; Huisman, Jaco; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost R

    2015-12-01

    Because of the rapid succession of technological developments, the architecture and material composition of many products used in daily life have drastically changed over the last decades. As a result, well-adjusted recycling technologies need to be developed and installed to cope with these evolutions. This is essential to guarantee continued access to materials and to reduce the ecological impact of our material consumption. However, limited information is currently available on the material composition of arising waste streams and even less on how these waste streams will evolve. Therefore, this paper presents a methodology to forecast trends in the material composition of waste streams. To demonstrate the applicability and value of the proposed methodology, it is applied to forecast the evolution of plastic housing waste from flat panel display (FPD) TVs, FPD monitors, cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs and CRT monitors. The results of the presented forecasts indicate that a wide variety of plastic types and additives, such as flame retardants, are found in housings of similar products. The presented case study demonstrates that the proposed methodology allows the identification of trends in the evolution of the material composition of waste streams. In addition, it is demonstrated that the recycling sector will need to adapt its processes to deal with the increasing complexity of plastics of end-of-life electronic displays while respecting relevant directives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Compositional analysis of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures using quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauko, H.; Helvoort, A. T. J. van [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Zheng, C. L.; Glanvill, S. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Zhu, Y.; Etheridge, J., E-mail: joanne.etheridge@monash.edu [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Dwyer, C. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Munshi, A. M.; Fimland, B. O. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway)

    2013-12-02

    We demonstrate a method for compositional mapping of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}As heterostructures with high accuracy and unit cell spatial resolution using quantitative high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy. The method is low dose relative to spectroscopic methods and insensitive to the effective source size and higher order lens aberrations. We apply the method to study the spatial variation in Al concentration in cross-sectioned GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires and quantify the concentration in the Al-rich radial band and the AlGaAs shell segments.

  15. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  16. The Prevalence and Marketing of Electronic Cigarettes in Proximity to At-Risk Youths: An Investigation of Point-of-Sale Practices near Alternative High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen; Pike, James; Chapman, Jared; Xie, Bin; Hilton, Brian N.; Ames, Susan L.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the point-of-sale marketing practices used to promote electronic cigarettes at stores near schools that serve at-risk youths. One hundred stores selling tobacco products within a half-mile of alternative high schools in Southern California were assessed for this study. Seventy percent of stores in the sample sold electronic…

  17. A cinema of presence and proximity: Gunvor Nelson's collage films and the aesthetics of the signaletic material before the electronic signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Sundholm

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues for the importance of an intersubjective and impure film theory in which the signal and the signaletic is considered as figures for approaching film. This in order to make the argument that the signaletic mode indeed enables a novel perspective on moving image history. The aesthetics of the signaletic has thus a history preceding that of electronic media, in particular when it comes to animation and experimental film. When constructing such an archaeology, however, dichotomies into sign and signal should be avoided; otherwise, the complexity of many of the films is reduced. In order to illuminate the latter point, four films by Gunvor Nelson is analyzed (both analog and digital, showing not only how both sign and signal interact but also how the aesthetics of the signal and the signaletic material is not dependant on the electronic as such.

  18. The effect of agave fructan products on the activity and composition of the microbiota determined in a dynamic in vitro model of the human proximal large intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, M.E.; Cruz Rubio, J.M.; Mueller, M.; Venema, K.

    2016-01-01

    Inulin and trans-galactooligosaccharides have so far fully met the criteria for prebiotics. This study shows the effect of putative prebiotics Metlos and Metlin (short and medium chain branched fructans from agave) on the activity and composition of the gut microbiota compared to the effects of two

  19. Comparative study on the effect of electron beam irradiation on the physical properties of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bibo; Hong, Ningning; Shi, Yongqian; Wang, Biao; Sheng, Haibo; Song, Lei; Tang, Qinbo; Hu, Yuan

    2014-04-01

    Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) flame retarded by a combination of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (MCAPP) and polyamide-6 (PA-6) have been crosslinked by high energy electron beam irradiation. The effect of high energy electron beam irradiation on the crosslinking degree, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of EVA/MCAPP/PA-6 cable material was studied by gel content, heat extention test, mechanical test, dynamic mechanical analysis, high-insulation resistance meter and thermogravimetric analysis. The gel content and heat extention test results showed that the EVA/MCAPP/PA-6 composites can be easily crosslinked by electron beam irradiation. The tensile strength of EVA composites was drastically increased from 16.2 to maximum 26.2 MPa as the electron beam irradiation dose increases from 0 to 160 kGy. The volatilized products of EVA/MCAPP/PA-6 composites were analyzed and compared by thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TG-FTIR).

  20. Structure of bicomponent metal–oxide composites synthesized by electron beam irradiation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugai, Junichiro, E-mail: kugai@mit.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Moriya, Toshiharu, E-mail: t-moriya@mit.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Seino, Satoshi, E-mail: seino@mit.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakagawa, Takashi, E-mail: nakagawa@mit.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ohkubo, Yuji, E-mail: okubo@mit.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ueno, Koji, E-mail: Kji_Ueno@EBIS.shi.co.jp [Japan Electron Beam Irradiation Service Co., 5-3 Odushima-cho Izumi-ohtsu, Osaka 595-0074 (Japan); Nitani, Hiroaki, E-mail: hiroaki.nitani@kek.jp [Institute of Materials Structure Science (IMSS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yamamoto, Takao A., E-mail: takao@mit.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •In radiation-induced process, transition metal precipitates only with Pt or support. •Reduced Cu atom stabilizes by forming Pt–Cu alloy or oxidatively depositing on CeO{sub 2}. •Sulfate stabilizes metals allowing their growth against oxidative deposition on CeO{sub 2}. •FeO{sub x} is directly formed without being reduced to metal due to its oxophilicity. •Fe{sup 3+} in the precursor inhibits reduction of Pt yielding highly oxidic Pt on support. -- Abstract: In order to understand the formation process of metal–oxide composite in an electron beam irradiation method in aqueous phase, the structure and composition of obtained solid were correlated to the synthesis parameters. Transition metal did not precipitate alone by the electron beam irradiation, but they did in the presence of platinum or support. Due to the relatively high reduction potential, copper underwent reduction to metallic state and readily precipitated by forming Pt–Cu alloy and/or copper oxide on solid surface. In the Pt–Cu/CeO{sub 2} system, the structure of Pt–Cu was ruled by two competing factors, growth of alloy nanoparticles promoted by sulfate ion and deposition of metal (alloy) on CeO{sub 2} support with their concomitant partial oxidation. CeO{sub 2} was suggested to immobilize the metals oxidatively before they coalesce. Iron barely formed alloy with Pt, but it directly precipitated on support as oxide without being reduced to metal due to its oxophilicity. Oxide was formed either via reduction to metallic state (for Pt and Cu) or through direct oxygenation or hydroxylation on solid (for Fe). Under the restriction of reduction potential, the size and composition of alloy nanoparticles and the content of oxide phase were drastically modified by support surface property and anion species in the solution.

  1. Structure-Processing-Property Relationships at the Fiber-Matrix Interface in Electron-Beam Cured Composite Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, C.J.

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this project was to characterize the properties of the resin and the fiber- resin interface in electron beam cured materials by evaluating several structural and processing parameters. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently determined that the interlaminar shear strength properties of electron beam cured composites were 19-28% lower than for autoclave cured composites. Low interlaminar shear strength is widely acknowledged as the key barrier to the successfid acceptance and implementation of electron beam cured composites in industry. In this project we found that simple resin modification and process improvements are unlikely to substantially improve the interlaminar shear strength properties of electron beam cured composites. However, sizings and coatings were shown to improve these properties and there appears to be significant potential for further improvement. In this work we determined that the application of epoxy-based, electron beam compatible sizings or coatings onto surface- treated, unsized carbon fibers improved the composite interlaminar shear strength by as much as 55% compared to composites fabricated from surface-treated, unsized carbon fibers and 11 YO compared to composites made from surface-treated, GP sized carbon fibers. This work has identified many promising pathways for increasing the interlaminar shear strength of electron beam cured composites. As a result of these promising developments we have recently submitted a U.S. Department of Energy-Energy Research (DOE-ER) sponsored Laboratory Technical Research-Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (LTR- CRADA) proposal entitled, "Interracial Properties of Electron Beam Cured Composites", to continue this work. If funded, ORNL will lead a 3-year, $2.6 million effort involving eight industrial partners, NASA-Langley, and the U.S. Air Force. The principal objective of this CRADA is to significantly improve the interracial properties of carbon

  2. Critical parameters for electron beam curing of cationic epoxies and property comparison of electron beam cured cationic epoxies versus thermal cured resins and composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, C.J.; Norris, R.E.; Yarborough, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology; Havens, S.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Lopata, V.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1997-01-16

    Electron beam curing of composites is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process offering the following advantages compared to conventional thermal curing: substantially reduced manufacturing costs and curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvements in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance electron beam curing of composites. The CRADA has successfully developed hundreds of new toughened and untoughened resins, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility. Several patent applications have been filed for this work. Composites made from these easily processable, low shrinkage material match the performance of thermal cured composites and exhibit: low void contents comparable to autoclave cured composites (less than 1%); superb low water absorption values in the same range as cyanate esters (less than 1%); glass transition temperatures rivaling those of polyimides (greater than 390 C); mechanical properties comparable to high performance, autoclave cured composites; and excellent property retention after cryogenic and thermal cycling. These materials have been used to manufacture many composite parts using various fabrication processes including hand lay-up, tow placement, filament winding, resin transfer molding and vacuum assisted resin transfer molding.

  3. A simple, low-cost conductive composite material for 3D printing of electronic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Simon J; Bradley, Robert J; Purssell, Christopher P; Billson, Duncan R; Hutchins, David A

    2012-01-01

    3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly from computer aided digital designs. The technology has traditionally been used by large companies to produce fit and form concept prototypes ('rapid prototyping') before production. In recent years however there has been a move to adopt the technology as full-scale manufacturing solution. The advent of low-cost, desktop 3D printers such as the RepRap and Fab@Home has meant a wider user base are now able to have access to desktop manufacturing platforms enabling them to produce highly customised products for personal use and sale. This uptake in usage has been coupled with a demand for printing technology and materials able to print functional elements such as electronic sensors. Here we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term 'carbomorph' and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer to print electronic sensors able to sense mechanical flexing and capacitance changes. We show how this capability can be used to produce custom sensing devices and user interface devices along with printed objects with embedded sensing capability. This advance in low-cost 3D printing with offer a new paradigm in the 3D printing field with printed sensors and electronics embedded inside 3D printed objects in a single build process without requiring complex or expensive materials incorporating additives such as carbon nanotubes.

  4. New homogeneous composite of energetic electron fluxes from NOAA/POES satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikainen, Timo; Ruopsa, Miro

    2017-04-01

    One of the most widely popular datasets of energetic particles used in, e.g., long-term radiation belt studies and in atmospheric/climate studies is perhaps the NOAA/POES (Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites) dataset, which is unique in its length extending nearly continuously from 1979 to present. However, it has been long recognized that the energetic particle measurements by the MEPED instrument (Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector) onboard the POES satellites has numerous instrumental problems, which have made quantitative estimates of energetic particle fluxes somewhat difficult. In the recent years a lot of effort has been put in understanding and correcting these instrumental deficiencies, and as a result we have produced a dataset, which corrects instrumental degradation, electronic noise and various sensitivity and contamination issues. However, here we show that there are also other remaining factors, not related to instrument construction, which still cause the 37 year POES dataset to be significantly inhomogeneous. One inhomogeneity is caused by the drift in the orientation of the satellite orbital planes over long periods of time. Another, even more serious issue, is the difference in the orientation of the particle telescopes between the satellites flown before mid-1998 (SEM-1 era) and after that (SEM-2 era). Here we discuss these effects and how the data can be corrected for them. We present a new homogenized composite data series, which yields the latitudinal distribution of energetic electrons from 1979 to present with daily time resolution.

  5. Sea Spray Aerosol Structure and Composition Using Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joseph P; Collins, Douglas B; Michaud, Jennifer M; Axson, Jessica L; Sultana, Camile M; Moser, Trevor; Dommer, Abigail C; Conner, Jack; Grassian, Vicki H; Stokes, M Dale; Deane, Grant B; Evans, James E; Burkart, Michael D; Prather, Kimberly A; Gianneschi, Nathan C

    2016-01-27

    The composition and surface properties of atmospheric aerosol particles largely control their impact on climate by affecting their ability to uptake water, react heterogeneously, and nucleate ice in clouds. However, in the vacuum of a conventional electron microscope, the native surface and internal structure often undergo physicochemical rearrangement resulting in surfaces that are quite different from their atmospheric configurations. Herein, we report the development of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy where laboratory generated sea spray aerosol particles are flash frozen in their native state with iterative and controlled thermal and/or pressure exposures and then probed by electron microscopy. This unique approach allows for the detection of not only mixed salts, but also soft materials including whole hydrated bacteria, diatoms, virus particles, marine vesicles, as well as gel networks within hydrated salt droplets-all of which will have distinct biological, chemical, and physical processes. We anticipate this method will open up a new avenue of analysis for aerosol particles, not only for ocean-derived aerosols, but for those produced from other sources where there is interest in the transfer of organic or biological species from the biosphere to the atmosphere.

  6. Prediction of composition for stable half-Heusler phases from electronic-band-structure analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offernes, L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: Laila.offernes@kjemi.uio.no; Ravindran, P.; Seim, C.W.; Kjekshus, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2008-06-30

    This report describes a procedure to predict the frequently occurring non-stoichiometry of the half-Heusler XYZ alloys (viz. deviations from the equiatomic 1:1:1 composition and the usually accompanied narrow homogeneity regions) from ab initio calculated electronic-band-structure characteristics. The essential feature of this approach is to utilize the valence electron content (VEC) and the calculated electronic band structure to expose factors that according to rigid-band considerations should determine the possible deviations from 1:1:1 stoichiometry and direction of the stable solid-solution regions. These means have been used to predict the direction of equilibrium solid-solution regions for a number of ternary phase diagrams that comprise half-Heusler phases and the predictions have been tested with experimental data from literature and presently synthesized and microprobe analysed samples of NiTiSn, PtTiSn, CoTiSb, PtMnSb, NiMnSb, and CoMnSb. The predictions are made based on maximum band filling of bonding states identified through the crystal-orbital-Hamilton population (COHP) analysis and density-of-states (DOS) integration.

  7. Rubbery electronics and sensors from intrinsically stretchable elastomeric composites of semiconductors and conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Jin; Sim, Kyoseung; Thukral, Anish; Yu, Cunjiang

    2017-09-01

    A general strategy to impart mechanical stretchability to stretchable electronics involves engineering materials into special architectures to accommodate or eliminate the mechanical strain in nonstretchable electronic materials while stretched. We introduce an all solution-processed type of electronics and sensors that are rubbery and intrinsically stretchable as an outcome from all the elastomeric materials in percolated composite formats with P3HT-NFs [poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) nanofibrils] and AuNP-AgNW (Au nanoparticles with conformally coated silver nanowires) in PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane). The fabricated thin-film transistors retain their electrical performances by more than 55% upon 50% stretching and exhibit one of the highest P3HT-based field-effect mobilities of 1.4 cm2/V∙s, owing to crystallinity improvement. Rubbery sensors, which include strain, pressure, and temperature sensors, show reliable sensing capabilities and are exploited as smart skins that enable gesture translation for sign language alphabet and haptic sensing for robotics to illustrate one of the applications of the sensors.

  8. A simple, low-cost conductive composite material for 3D printing of electronic sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Leigh

    Full Text Available 3D printing technology can produce complex objects directly from computer aided digital designs. The technology has traditionally been used by large companies to produce fit and form concept prototypes ('rapid prototyping' before production. In recent years however there has been a move to adopt the technology as full-scale manufacturing solution. The advent of low-cost, desktop 3D printers such as the RepRap and Fab@Home has meant a wider user base are now able to have access to desktop manufacturing platforms enabling them to produce highly customised products for personal use and sale. This uptake in usage has been coupled with a demand for printing technology and materials able to print functional elements such as electronic sensors. Here we present formulation of a simple conductive thermoplastic composite we term 'carbomorph' and demonstrate how it can be used in an unmodified low-cost 3D printer to print electronic sensors able to sense mechanical flexing and capacitance changes. We show how this capability can be used to produce custom sensing devices and user interface devices along with printed objects with embedded sensing capability. This advance in low-cost 3D printing with offer a new paradigm in the 3D printing field with printed sensors and electronics embedded inside 3D printed objects in a single build process without requiring complex or expensive materials incorporating additives such as carbon nanotubes.

  9. Longitudinal micromorphological 15-year results of posterior composite restorations using three-dimensional scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Wolfram; Montag, Regina; Kraft, Ulrike; Walther, Mario; Sigusch, Bernd W; Gaengler, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Hybrid composite restorations in posterior teeth were evaluated over 15 years using the semiquantitative Clinical, Photographic and Micromorphologic (CPM) index. It was a further aim to quantitate the surface morphology by three-dimensional scanning electron microscopy (3D-SEM). Thirty seven hybrid composite restorations (Ketac-Bond/Visio-Molar X, ESPE, Seefeld/Germany) were longitudinally followed up. Parallel to clinical assessment replicas were taken at baseline, after 1, 5, 10 and 15 years and evaluated by SEM, and profilometrical analyses of 3D-SEM data were computed. The profilometrical results were statistically analysed by ANOVA. The level of significance was set to p<0.05. The semiquantitative micromorphological evaluation exhibited the most considerable deterioration within the first year and up to 5 years of function. Less change was detected during the next 10 years. The profilometrical quantification showed raising depth of the negative marginal ledges with a mean of 27.2μm (range 0.6-94.5μm) after 10 years, with no statistically significant changes from 5 to 10 and 10 to 15 years. The 3D-SEM revealed marginal grooves beneath the level of the ledges (mean 34.5μm after 5 years) within the bonding zone, exposing enamel margins. Leakages, marginal fractures and surface roughness did not seriously deteriorate the quality of restorations. Hybrid composite restorations of Class I and II cavities surviving the first five years performed well over 15 years of function. Quantitative 3D-SEM profilometrical measurements revealed the dynamics of marginal behaviour over time. Long-term parallel clinical and micromorphological evaluation of posterior composite restorations of Class I and Class II cavities documented the clinical safety and acceptable longevity. The longitudinal 3D micromorphologic assessment of the surface changes and of the marginal behaviour revealed deteriorating as well as improving factors hidden in clinical performance. Copyright © 2014

  10. Variación estacional de la composición proximal en tres especies de importancia comercial del Golfo de Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica Seasonal variation of proximate composition in three commercially important species in the Gulf of Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Fonseca Rodríguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La información disponible sobre la composición química de algunos recursos pesqueros que se capturan en el Golfo de Nicoya es muy limitada. Por tal razón se determinaron los niveles de los componentes proximales de las partes comestibles (fresco de tres especies de importancia comercial. Las muestras fueron adquiridas en el Mercado de Puntarenas entre febrero 2009 y enero 2001 durante la temporada de pesca. Los análisis de la composición proximal se determinaron según la metodología de AOAC. Los resultados indicaron que el contenido de humedad varió entre 74.6-80.6g/100g en robalo (Centropomus unionesis, 76.9-80.0g/100g en camarón (Trachypenaeus byrdi y 77.9-89.5g/100g en almeja verde (Poymesoda radiata. Después de la humedad la fracción química más abundante fue la proteína presentando los valores más altos en diciembre para el robalo y febrero para el camarón y la almeja verde. Las mayores fluctuaciones en el contenido de lípidos se presentaron en el robalo, variando desde 0.7g/100g hasta 5.6g/100g. Los valores más altos en esta fracción fueron encontrados en julio, febrero y abril en camarones, almeja y robalo respectivamente. Se concluye que la especie de pescado y camarón estudiados son una buena alternativa para el consumo humano por ser una fuente importante de proteínas y por su bajo contenido en lípidos.Nutritional value of seafood for human consumption is worldwide recognized. Some information have been generated in other countries, nevertheless, there is limited information describing the chemical composition of some fishery important species caught in the Gulf of Nicoya. For this reason, we studied the levels of proximal components of the edible parts (fresh of three commercially important species. The meat samples of snook Centropomus unionesis, the shrimp Trachypenaeus byrdi and the bivalve Polymesoda radiata, were collected from the Puntarenas local fish market during the fishing season of February 2009 to

  11. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-12-31

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  12. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  13. Multilayered graphene acquires ferromagnetism in proximity with magnetite particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifu, Dereje; Neupane, Suman; Giri, Lily; Karna, Shashi P.; Hong, Haiping; Seehra, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    Anisotropic diamagnetism of pristine graphite and graphene is well known. Here, evidence of significant induced ferromagnetism in multilayer graphene (MLG) decorated with ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 particles is reported. This MLG-Fe3O4 nano-composite was prepared by a one-step ultrasonic treatment at 75 °C in the surfactant sodium dodecyl-benzene-sulfonate. To verify the phase structure and morphology of the composite, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunneling electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were employed. Room temperature data of magnetization versus magnetic field showed that the saturation magnetization MS = 58.6 emu/gm for pristine Fe3O4 increased to MS = 158.4 emu/gm for a 1:1 composite of Fe3O4 to MLG. These results lead to induced MS = 253 emu/gm in MLG resulting from its proximity to Fe3O4. Similar experiments on Fe3O4 to single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) composite did not show any induced magnetism in SWNT.

  14. Multilayered graphene acquires ferromagnetism in proximity with magnetite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifu, Dereje, E-mail: Dereje.seifu@morgan.edu; Neupane, Suman [Department of Physics, Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland 21251 (United States); Giri, Lily; Karna, Shashi P. [Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States); Hong, Haiping [Department of Material and Metallurgical Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota 57701 (United States); Seehra, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2015-05-25

    Anisotropic diamagnetism of pristine graphite and graphene is well known. Here, evidence of significant induced ferromagnetism in multilayer graphene (MLG) decorated with ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles is reported. This MLG-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-composite was prepared by a one-step ultrasonic treatment at 75 °C in the surfactant sodium dodecyl-benzene-sulfonate. To verify the phase structure and morphology of the composite, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunneling electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were employed. Room temperature data of magnetization versus magnetic field showed that the saturation magnetization M{sub S} = 58.6 emu/gm for pristine Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} increased to M{sub S} = 158.4 emu/gm for a 1:1 composite of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to MLG. These results lead to induced M{sub S} = 253 emu/gm in MLG resulting from its proximity to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Similar experiments on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) composite did not show any induced magnetism in SWNT.

  15. CRADA Final Report for CRADA No. ORNL99-0544, Interfacial Properties of Electron Beam Cured Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, C.J.

    2005-10-17

    Electron beam (EB) curing is a technology that promises, in certain applications, to deliver lower cost and higher performance polymer matrix composite (PMC) structures compared to conventional thermal curing processes. PMCs enhance performance by making products lighter, stronger, more durable, and less energy demanding. They are essential in weight- and performance-dominated applications. Affordable PMCs can enhance US economic prosperity and national security. US industry expects rapid implementation of electron beam cured composites in aircraft and aerospace applications as satisfactory properties are demonstrated, and implementation in lower performance applications will likely follow thereafter. In fact, at this time and partly because of discoveries made in this project, field demonstrations are underway that may result in the first fielded applications of electron beam cured composites. Serious obstacles preventing the widespread use of electron beam cured PMCs in many applications are their relatively poor interfacial properties and resin toughness. The composite shear strength and resin toughness of electron beam cured carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites were about 25% and 50% lower, respectively, than those of thermally cured composites of similar formulations. The essential purpose of this project was to improve the mechanical properties of electron beam cured, carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites, with a specific focus on composite shear properties for high performance aerospace applications. Many partners, sponsors, and subcontractors participated in this project. There were four government sponsors from three federal agencies, with the US Department of Energy (DOE) being the principal sponsor. The project was executed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), NASA and Department of Defense (DOD) participants, eleven private CRADA partners, and two subcontractors. A list of key project contacts is provided in Appendix A. In order to properly

  16. Composite period undulator to improve the wavelength tunability of free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tanaka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel magnet configuration for permanent magnet undulators is proposed together with the operational procedures to improve the wavelength tunability of free electron lasers (FELs. The magnetization axes of the magnet blocks in the new configuration are inclined at a certain angle to those of the conventional Halbach configuration according to a particular rule. As a result, a composite-period magnetic field is generated, which contains two field components having two different periods, i.e., the fundamental and double periods. Moving the top and bottom magnet arrays toward the opposite directions along the undulator axis, it is possible to eliminate either of the two field components and thus the period is selectable. Simple analysis shows that the operation with the composite field is also useful for FELs despite that the gain length grows slightly due to the effects of the nonsinusoidal field profile. An example of the new undulator scheme applied to expanding the tunability of the SPring-8 x-ray FEL is presented together with discussions on technical issues.

  17. Percolation Theory in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Composite Electrodes with a Mixed Electronic and Ionic Conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Ni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Percolation theory is generalized to predict the effective properties of specific solid oxide fuel cell composite electrodes, which consist of a pure ion conducting material (e.g., YSZ or GDC and a mixed electron and ion conducting material (e.g., LSCF, LSCM or CeO2. The investigated properties include the probabilities of an LSCF particle belonging to the electron and ion conducting paths, percolated three-phase-boundary electrochemical reaction sites, which are based on different assumptions, the exposed LSCF surface electrochemical reaction sites and the revised expressions for the inter-particle ionic conductivities among LSCF and YSZ materials. The effects of the microstructure parameters, such as the volume fraction of the LSCF material, the particle size distributions of both the LSCF and YSZ materials (i.e., the mean particle radii and the non-dimensional standard deviations, which represent the particle size distributions and the porosity are studied. Finally, all of the calculated results are presented in non-dimensional forms to provide generality for practical application. Based on these results, the relevant properties can be easily evaluated, and the microstructure parameters and intrinsic properties of each material are specified.

  18. Use of plasma polymerization to improve adhesion strength in carbon fiber composites cured by electron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautard, Frédéric; Fioux, Philippe; Vidal, Loïc; Siffer, Frédéric; Roucoules, Vincent; Schultz, Jacques; Nardin, Michel; Defoort, Brigitte

    2014-02-12

    Maleic anhydride plasma polymer was deposited at the surface of carbon fibers and functionalized with vinyl and thiol groups to improve its adhesion strength with an acrylate matrix cured by an electron beam. A characterization of the fiber surface properties was done before and after coating (topography, surface chemistry, and surface energy). Sharp improvements of the interfacial shear strength (+ 120%), measured by a micromechanical test derived from the pull-out test, were obtained and, to the best of our knowledge, never reported before. The values were close to the ones obtained with a thermal cure. The comparison of this approach with other types of surface treatments (oxidation, grafting of coupling agents) enabled the establishment of a general strategy for the improvement of the interfacial adhesion in carbon fiber composites cured by an electron beam and potentially the improvement of their mechanical properties. This strategy is based on a high surface density of functionalities that are generating covalent bonding during the polymerization of the matrix and on the insertion of a polymer layer strongly attached to the fiber surface and acting as a buffer between the fiber surface and the matrix to counteract the generation of stress in the interphase.

  19. Moderate exercise of rainbow trout induces only minor differences in fatty acid profile, texture, white muscle fibres and proximate chemical composition of fillets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Richard Skøtt; Heinrich, Maike Timm; Hyldig, Grethe

    2011-01-01

    g after nine weeks of experiment at 15.0 °C. The fatty acid composition in fillets differed only marginally between exercised fish (excF) and control fish (ctrlF) kept in standing water. ExcF fillets had a significantly lower content of fatty acids 16:0 (Pb0.05) and 18:1 (n−7) (Pb0.01) and a higher...... significantly among the two groups (Pb0.01). Moreover, moderate exercise induced small but significant changes in fibre circularity (excF: circ.=0.724; ctrlF:=0.720, Pb0.05) but neither muscle fibre diameter nor circularity was significantly related to fillet texture. Altogether, the results suggest...

  20. The effects of crystal proximity and crystal-binder adhesion on the thermal responses of ultrasonically-excited composite energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Z. A.; Casey, A. D.; Gunduz, I. E.; Rhoads, J. F.; Son, S. F.

    2017-12-01

    Composite energetic materials have been shown to generate heat under certain ultrasonic excitations, enough to drive rapid reactions in some cases. In an attempt to isolate the proposed heat generation mechanisms of frictional and viscoelastic heating at crystal-crystal and crystal-binder interfaces, a systematic study was conducted with cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine crystals arranged as discrete inclusions within Sylgard 184 binder. Groups of three embedded crystals, or "triads," were arranged in two geometries with the crystals either in contact or slightly separated. Additionally, samples with good crystal-binder adhesion as well as ones mechanically debonded using compression were considered. The samples were excited ultrasonically with a contact piezoelectric transducer, and the top surface of each sample was monitored via infrared thermography. The contacting triads showed evidence of an intense localized heat source conducting to the polymer surface above the crystal locations in contrast to the separated triads. The debonded samples of both types reached higher maximum surface temperatures, on average. The results of both two-way and nested analysis of variance indicate a statistically significant difference for both adhesion and separation distance on temperature rise. We conclude that friction between crystal contact points and a debonded, moving binder at the crystal interface (also a mode of friction) play a significant role in localized heat generation, while viscoelastic/viscoplastic heating appears comparatively minor for these specific excitation conditions. The significance of frictional heat generation over viscoelastic heating in these systems may influence future design considerations related to the selection of binder materials for composite energetic materials.

  1. preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the ...

  2. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  3. Evaluation of the Proximate, Chemical and Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased interest in the utilization of the leaves of Moringa oleifera necessitated this study which evaluated the proximate, chemical and phytochemical composition, especially the presence of anti- physiological and toxic factors in the leaves. The results of the phytochemical analyses were: alkaloid 1.24 ± 0.141%; ...

  4. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Elemental and Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at phytochemical screening, elemental and proximate composition of two varieties of Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) big yellow and small brown nuts using standard methods. The phytochemicals tested for were alkaloid, saponin, tannin, glycoside, flavonoid, steroid and resin. All the aforementioned ...

  5. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    2009). The aim of this study was to analyses the extract of. Citrus sinensis peels for the phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials Fresh peels of Citrus sinensis were collected from Uselu market in Benin City, Edo. State, Nigeria. It was identified and authenticated by.

  6. Capacitive proximity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  7. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  8. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1962-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  9. Microstructure characterization of Al matrix composite reinforced with Ti-6Al-4V meshes after compression by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Q; Sun, D L; Han, X L; Cheng, S R; Chen, G Q; Jiang, L T; Wu, G H

    2012-02-01

    Compressive properties of Al matrix composite reinforced with Ti-6Al-4V meshes (TC4(m)/5A06 Al composite) under the strain rates of 10(-3)S(-1) and 1S(-1) at different temperature were measured and microstructure of composites after compression was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Compressive strength decreased with the test temperature increased and the strain-rate sensitivity (R) of composite increased with the increasing temperature. SEM observations showed that grains of Al matrix were elongated severely along 45° direction (angle between axis direction and fracture surface) and TC4 fibres were sheared into several parts in composite compressed under the strain rate of 10(-3)S(-1) at 25°C and 250°C. Besides, amounts of cracks were produced at the interfacial layer between TC4 fibre and Al matrix and in (Fe, Mn)Al(6) phases. With the compressive temperature increasing to 400°C, there was no damage at the interfacial layer between TC4 fibre and Al matrix and in (Fe, Mn)Al(6) phases, while equiaxed recrystal grains with sizes about 10 μm at the original grain boundaries of Al matrix were observed. However, interface separation of TC4 fibres and Al matrix occurred in composite compressed under the strain rate of 1S(-1) at 250°C and 400°C. With the compressive temperature increasing from 25°C to 100°C under the strain rate of 10(-3) S(-1), TEM microstructure in Al matrix exhibited high density dislocations and slipping bands (25°C), polygonized dislocations and dynamic recovery (100°C), equiaxed recrystals with sizes below 500 μm (250°C) and growth of equiaxed recrystals (400°C), respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. SU-D-19A-02: Electron and Photon Absorbed Fractions for Tumors of Varying Sizes and Compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin, E; Bolch, W [UniversityFlorida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To calculate absorbed fractions for mono-energetic photons and electrons in tumors of varying compositions using Monte Carlo simulations in MCNPX. Although tumor dosimetry has been previously investigated, these studies are very limited as they only consider absorbed fractions for soft-tissue tumors. Methods: The tumors were modeled as spheres with radii ranging from 0.10 cm to 6.0 cm and with compositions varying from 100% soft tissue to 100% bone. The energies of both the photons and electrons were varied from 10 keV to 10 MeV and were homogenously distributed throughout the tumor volume. Furthermore, this investigation addresses the issue of spherical versus elliptical tumors. Both prolate and oblate spheroid tumors of different compositions were modeled, and absorbed fractions were calculated for various electron and photon energies. Results: The data clearly shows an absorbed fraction dependence on tumor composition. For example, a soft-tissue model for a 3 MeV electron emitted in a 1 cm diameter bone tumor would have an 83% error, and this same assumption for a 500 keV photon would yield a 74% error. Ultimately, empirical fits were created for each of the five material compositions in order to facilitate the absorbed fraction calculation, requiring only the tumor size and particle energy. Furthermore, the data shows that absorbed fractions for moderate spheroids can be well approximated by spherical tumors of equal mass to within 8%, but in the extreme cases where the spheroid resembles more of a disk, the errors can be as high as 30%. Conclusion: This comprehensive data set is most valuable for nuclear medicine dosimetry because it incorporates particle type, particle energy, tumor size, and tumor composition. Although mono-energetic particles were modeled, absorbed fractions and S-values may be calculated for any radionuclide via linear interpolation, as long as the particle energies or spectra are known.

  11. Marginal Leakage of Class V Composite Restorations Assessed Using Microcomputed Tomography and Scanning Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengo, C; Goracci, C; Ametrano, G; Chieffi, N; Spagnuolo, G; Rengo, S; Ferrari, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare in Class V composite restorations marginal leakage measurements obtained with microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations. Class V cavities were prepared on 10 human molars and restored using Optibond FL (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA) and Premise Flowable (Kerr). Sealing ability was evaluated by assessing silver-nitrate penetration depth along enamel and dentin margins. Leakage was quantified using a scoring system. Micro-CT analysis provided 502 cross-sectional images for each tooth. Microleakage evaluation was performed first on three cross-sections corresponding to the sections examined by SEM, then on all 502 of the obtained micro-CT images. SEM observations were performed first at 20× magnification, then, if showing a zero score, at 80× magnification. Enamel and dentin microleakage scores assigned to corresponding sections through micro-CT and SEM (20×) were compared (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, α=0.05). No statistically significant difference in leakage scores emerged between micro-CT and 20×-magnification SEM. Eight tooth sections that were given a zero score under SEM at 20× magnification showed to be infiltrated at the higher magnification (80×). For five teeth a higher score was assigned following scanning of 502 cross-sections than based on the observation of three sections. Micro-CT presents as a valid, nondestructive in vitro method to quantitatively evaluate marginal leakage of adhesive restorations.

  12. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N

    1992-01-01

    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  13. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  14. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  15. Composition measurement in substitutionally disordered materials by atomic resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Taplin, D J; Weyland, M; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2017-05-01

    The increasing use of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy invites the question of whether its success in precision composition determination at lower magnifications can be replicated in the atomic resolution regime. In this paper, we explore, through simulation, the prospects for composition measurement via the model system of AlxGa1-xAs, discussing the approximations used in the modelling, the variability in the signal due to changes in configuration at constant composition, and the ability to distinguish between different compositions. Results are presented in such a way that the number of X-ray counts, and thus the expected variation due to counting statistics, can be gauged for a range of operating conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hidroxiapatita sintética como substituto ósseo em defeito experimental provocado no terço proximal da tíbia em cão: aspectos à microscopia eletrônica de transmissão Sinthetic hydroxyapatite as bone substitute in the experimentally caused defect on the dog tibia proximal third: electronic transmission microscopy aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.B. Borges

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a hidroxiapatita sintética (HAP-91 como substituto ósseo, foram utilizados oito cães adultos, sem raça definida, clinicamente sadios. Após protocolo anestésico e cirúrgico habituais, foi provocado um defeito ósseo na diáfise proximal das tíbias esquerda e direita, sendo implantada a HAP-91 apenas na tíbia direita. Os animais, dois de cada vez, foram sacrificados aos 8, 30, 60 e 120 dias após a cirurgia, quando foram obtidas amostras do local da lesão, que foram fixadas, lavadas, polimerizadas, cortadas e submetidas a dupla coloração em solução aquosa de acetato de uranila a 1% e em solução de citrato de chumbo. Essas secções foram avaliadas e fotografadas ao microscópio eletrônico de transmissão. Os componentes tissulares na tíbia tratada e na controle foram similares. A absorção da HAP-91 caracterizou-se pela presença de células multinucleadas na interface entre HAP-91 e osso, morfologicamente consideradas como osteoclastos. Ainda, encontraram-se grânulos de HAP-91 no interior de células morfologicamente caracterizadas como macrófagos. A absorção celular de grânulos de HAP-91, concomitante com a formação adjacente de osso novo, sugere que a osteointegração da HAP-91 seja análoga ao processo normal de reabsorção-aposição óssea.With the objective of studying the synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP-91 as a bone substitute, eight healthy mongrel adult dogs were used. Following the habitual anesthetic and surgical protocol, a bone defect was provoked in the proximal diafisis of the left and right tibias, being implanted the graft of HAP-91 just in the right tibia. The animals, two at each time, were sacrificed at the 8th, 30th, 60th and 120th days after the surgery, when lesion samples were obtained for histopathology, submitted to the double coloration in 1% uranil acetate solution and in lead citrate solution. These sections were examined and photographed in an electronic

  17. Dose rate effect on internal friction and structural transformations in electron-irradiated carbon-armored composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaikin, Yu.A. [Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 96a Tole bi, 480012 Almaty (Kazakhstan)]. E-mail: DrZaykin@mail.ru; Aimuratov, D.B. [Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 96a Tole bi, 480012 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Al-Sheikhly, M. [University of Maryland, College Park (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Temperature dependence of internal friction and specific electric resistance of multi-layer carbon-armored epoxy-based composites is experimentally studied in the temperature range of 20-300 deg. C before and after irradiation with 2 MeV electrons. It is shown that carbon penetration into the polymer matrix causes intense polymer cross-linking in the basic layers of the composite even at low irradiation doses. The strong effect of dose rate on radiation-induced structural transformations was observed.

  18. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  19. Proximate Composition And Medicinal Uses Of Sphenocentrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can also serve as an aphrodisiac. The importance of the specie are many and varied from its relatively high mineral and protein content to its ability to cure diverse ailments and diseases. This specie need to be sustainably exploited and conserved because of its pharmaceutical importance and health care delivery to the ...

  20. Proximate composition of Oreochromis niloticus subjected to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moisture, protein, fat, fiber and ash contents of all the sample were determined according to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists procedures. Free preservation on storage led to significant decrease (P<0.05) in the percentage ash, crude protein and fat contents of fish samples. The greatest reduction was observed ...

  1. Chemical composition, antimicrobial activity, proximate analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    GC-MS analyses were performed on a Hewlett-Packard HP 5973 mass spectrometer interfaced with an HP-6890 gas chromatogram. The temperature and column conditions used are as follows: initial temperature of 70°C, maximum temperature of 325°C, equilibration time of 3 min, ramp of 4°C/min, final temperature of ...

  2. Short Communication: Visual assessment, proximate composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processed mixture D1 had an intermediate texture (it was neither finely ground nor coarse) where D2 and D3 had a finely ground texture. Cost analysis revealed a lower production cost for the three processed mixtures indicating its adequacy to replace soybean and other plant and animal protein sources in terms of their ...

  3. proximate composition and consumer acceptability of african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... Technology. Kano University of Science and Technology Wudil PMB 3244 Kano Nigeria. *Correspondence ..... anti-oxidative effects on smoked foods. Pure. Appl. Chem. ... lake and related innovations. Proceedings of 4th.

  4. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... people of Southern Nigeria, particularly in the Niger. Delta, regard their edible insects and larvae ... nutrients it contains and provides to meet the needs dictated by an individual's physiological state and genetic makeup. During the past few years, the upsurge of interest in the use of insects as food to meet ...

  5. Proximate composition, amino acid profile and phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are large varieties of legumes and oil seeds in tropical Africa which are part of traditional food systems but whose nutritional and economic values have not been completely determined and are far less exploited for both human and livestock utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate Lophira lanceolata ...

  6. Chemical composition, antimicrobial activity, proximate analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract showed significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus kristinae, Streptococcus faecalis, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumonia, Serratia marcescens and antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium notatum.

  7. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a .... of energy for people who are on a weight loss diet . 0. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50 .... John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp300 – 319.

  8. Proximate composition and mycological characterization of peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions and application of findings: Peanut butter sold in retail markets in Abidjan District are nutritive and could meet the dietary needs of the population. However, the presence of mycotoxigenic fungi represents a public health problem. Therefore, good manufacturing processing and good hygiene practices would ...

  9. Proximate Composition and Selected Physicochemical Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pulp was found to be slightly acidity with a pH value of 5.4. other physical characters include specific gravity of 1.0012, total soluble solids of 8.2(Brixo) and ... from the pulp was characterized and contained moisture, 0.21%, acid value 0.68, saponification value 196.35, iodine value 89.83 and peroxide value of 7.80.

  10. Proximate, chemical compositions and sulphur concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... ... food will include its content of protein, carbohydrates, fat and oil, moisture ... to sugars such as fructose, glucose and sucrose ..... health benefits deriving from consuming high levels of ... mechanisms (Dragsted et al., 1993).

  11. Proximate, chemical compositions and sulphur concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Preference for dried mango is on the increase as it provides a good source of nutrients, whilst evading consumption of fatty in some ... good source of nutrients, particularly vitamin A and C and dietary fibre (Tiwari et al., 2013; ... of any food will include its content of protein, carbohydrates, fat and oil, moisture.

  12. Proximate composition and functional properties of pra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... In Malaysia, it is abundant in lowland forests in the northern parts of. Peninsula Malaysia and throughout the country. The tree is cultivated as an ..... functional properties of karkade (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seed products. Cereal Chem. 74(3): 352-355. Jantarit S, Wattanasit S, Sotthibandhu S (2009). Canopy ...

  13. The proximate composition and phytomorphometry of gmelina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    100g), ether extract (0.49-0.64g/100g), nitrogen free extract (46.24-65.55g/100g), ash (2.44-3.83g/100g), and caloric value (215.01-285.54g/100g) but high in crude fiber (19.51-10.84g/100g). Fruit pulp constituted 88.18% of the fruit weight.

  14. Proximate composition and mycological characterization of peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... limit its usage and nutritional value (Njintang et al., 2001). Moreover ... Peanut butter is made by grinding dry roasted groundnuts into a ... content. pH and titratable acidity were determined as follow: 10 g of peanut butter sample was homogenized with 100 mL of distilled water and then filtered. The pH value ...

  15. Proximate composition, phytochemical screening and antianaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the phytochemical screening and anti-anaemic effect of Aloe barbadensis leaves was investigated in nutritionally stressed rats. Preliminary phytochemical screening test of the plant revealed that it contained tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, saponins, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. Sets of male albino ...

  16. Proximate analysis, mineral composition and phytochemical screening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral analysis of P. thonningii showed the seed as good source of antioxidant micronutrients such as iron, calcium, selenium, zinc and manganese. The phytochemical screening of the seed showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phenolics, glycosides, anthraquinones as well as cardiac glycosides while tannins, ...

  17. Proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  18. Effect of alternative mediums on production and proximate composition of the microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri as food in culture of the copepod Acartia sp. Efecto de medios alternativos sobre la producción y composición proximal de la microalga Chaetoceros muelleri como alimento en cultivo del copépodo Acartia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R Martínez-Córdova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri was cultured in three different mediums consisting on an agricultural fertilizer (Agr-F, aquacultural fertilizer (Aq-F and a conventional medium (F/2, control. These microalgae were later used as natural food to culture the copepod Acartia sp. The productive response and chemical proximate composition of microalgae and copepods were monitored. Growth rate and final cell concentration were higher in microalgae cultured in Agr-F compared to the control. In addition, the final biomass and cellular concentration were also the highest in Agr-F. Microalgae from Agr-F and Aq-F had higher carbohydrate and lower protein contents than those in the control. No differences in lipid and ash contents were observed. Regarding copepod production, higher densities and fecundity indexes were observed for those fed with microalgae previously cultured in Agr-F and Aq-F, compared to the control. The adult-nauplii ratio was also higher in copepods fed on microalgae from Agr-F compared to Aq-F and control. Copepods fed on Agr-F and Aq-F microalgae, had higher protein content compared to those fed on control microalgae; carbohydrates were higher in copepods fed on Agr-F as compared to Aq-F microalgae. No differences in lipid and ash contents were registered. Agr-F and Aq-F were adequate alternative mediums to produce C. muelleri, which produced higher quality microalgae that increased the copepod production.La microalga Chaetoceros muelleri fue cultivada en tres medios diferentes basados en un fertilizante agrícola (Agr-F, un fertilizante acuícola (Aq-F y un medio convencional (F/2, control. Éstas microalgas fueron posteriormente utilizadas como alimento natural para cultivar el copépodo Acartia sp. La respuesta productiva y la composición proximal de las microalgas y copépodos fueron monitoreadas. La tasa de crecimiento y concentración final de células fueron mayores en la microalga cultivada en Agr-F, comparada con el control

  19. Modeling of high composition AlGaN channel high electron mobility transistors with large threshold voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Sanyam, E-mail: bajaj.10@osu.edu; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Akyol, Fatih; Nath, Digbijoy; Rajan, Siddharth [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2014-12-29

    We report on the potential of high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) consisting of high composition AlGaN channel and barrier layers for power switching applications. Detailed two-dimensional (2D) simulations show that threshold voltages in excess of 3 V can be achieved through the use of AlGaN channel layers. We also calculate the 2D electron gas mobility in AlGaN channel HEMTs and evaluate their power figures of merit as a function of device operating temperature and Al mole fraction in the channel. Our models show that power switching transistors with AlGaN channels would have comparable on-resistance to GaN-channel based transistors for the same operation voltage. The modeling in this paper shows the potential of high composition AlGaN as a channel material for future high threshold enhancement mode transistors.

  20. Direct electron transfer and electrocatalysis of hemoglobin in ZnO coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Nafion composite matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Tian, Danbi

    2010-06-01

    ZnO coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (ZnO-MWCNTs) nano-composite was synthesized by the hydrothermal method and expected to offer a promising template for biosensor fabrication due to satisfying biocompatibility and improved properties. The ZnO-MWCNTs nano-composite was mixed with Nafion solution to form a composite matrix for the fabrication of hemoglobin (Hb) biosensor. This composite matrix combined the advantages of inorganic composite (ZnO-MWCNTs) and organic polymer (Nafion) and could promote the direct electron transfer of Hb. The Hb/ZnO-MWCNTs/Nafion film exhibited a pair of well-defined, quasi-reversible redox peaks with a formal potential of -0.353V (vs. SCE), characteristic of heme redox couple (Fe(III)/Fe(II)) of Hb. Hb retained its near-native conformation in the composite film. The immobilized Hb showed fast and excellent electrocatalytic activity to H(2)O(2) with a linear range from 2x10(-7) to 1.2x10(-5)M, and the detection limit was 8.4x10(-8)M. The sensitivity and apparent Michaelis-Menten constant were 1.31A/(M x cm(2)) and 82.8microM, respectively, which indicated that Hb had a high affinity to H(2)O(2). This biosensor also showed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards trichloroacetic acid. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Proximate composition, phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of the seaweeds Ascophyllum nodosum, Bifurcaria bifurcata and Fucus vesiculosus. Effect of addition of the extracts on the oxidative stability of canola oil under accelerated storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agregán, Rubén; Munekata, Paulo E; Domínguez, Ruben; Carballo, Javier; Franco, Daniel; Lorenzo, José M

    2017-09-01

    Extracts from three macroalgae species (Ascophyllum nodosum (ANE), Bifurcaria bifurcata (BBE) and Fucus vesiculosus (FVE)) were tested for proximate composition (total solid, protein and total carbohydrate contents), total phenols content (TPC), and for their antioxidant activities in vitro in comparison to that of BHT compound by using four different assays (ABTS radical cation decolouration, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)). The inclusion of the extracts as oil stabilizers in canola oil in substitution of the synthetic antioxidant (BHT) was also evaluated by assessing lipid oxidation parameters (peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (AV), TBARS value, conjugated dienes (CD) and TOTOX index) under accelerated storage conditions (16days, 60°C). There was an inverse relationship between total solid content and total polyphenols content in the seaweed extracts. FVE showed an intermediate TPC (1.15g PGE/100g extract), but it presented the highest in vitro antioxidant activity when measured using the ABTS, DPPH and FRAP tests. BBE, that displayed the highest TPC (1.99g PGE/100g extract), only showed the highest in vitro antioxidant activity when measured using the ORAC test. ANE showed the lowest TPC and the lowest antioxidant activity in all the tests performed. The seaweed extracts added in a 500ppm concentration significantly reduced the oxidation during canola oil storage at 60°C, being this antioxidant effect significantly higher than that of BHT added at 50ppm. Results indicate that seaweed extracts can effectively inhibit the oxidation of canola oil and they can be a healthier alternative to the synthetic antioxidants in the oil industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation and characterization of electron-beam treated HDPE composites reinforced with rice husk ash and Brazilian clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, A.V., E-mail: angelortiz@ipen.br [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Teixeira, J.G.; Gomes, M.G.; Oliveira, R.R. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Díaz, F.R.V. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, University of São Paulo Av. Prof. Mello de Morais 2463, São Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Moura, E.A.B. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We examine changes in HDPE properties when waste and clay are used as reinforcement. • The addition of only 3% of clay leads to important gains in HDPE properties. • The use of electron-beam contributes to greater improvements in material properties. • We observe 85% of cross-linking degree for the HDPE when treated with e-beam. - Abstract: This work evaluates the morphology, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. HDPE reinforced with rice husk ashes (80:20 wt%), HDPE reinforced with clay (97:3 wt%) and HDPE reinforced with both rice husk ashes and clay(77:20:3 wt%) were obtained. The Brazilian bentonite chocolate clay was used in this study. This Brazilian smectitic clay is commonly used to produce nanocomposites. The composites were produced by melting extrusion process and then irradiation was carried out in a 1.5 MeV electron-beam accelerator (room temperature, presence of air). Comparisons using the irradiated and non-irradiated neat polymer, and the irradiated and non-irradiated composites were made. The materials obtained were submitted to tensile, flexural and impact tests. Additionally HDT, SEM and XRD analyses were carried out along with the sol–gel analysis which aimed to assess the cross-linking degree of the irradiated materials. Results showed great improvement in most HDPE properties and a high cross-linking degree of 85% as a result of electron-beam irradiation of the material.

  3. Conductive Cellulose Composites with Low Percolation Threshold for 3D Printed Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae Sung; Kim, Taeil; Kim, Woo Soo

    2017-01-01

    We are reporting a 3D printable composite paste having strong thixotropic rheology. The composite has been designed and investigated with highly conductive silver nanowires. The optimized electrical percolation threshold from both simulation and experiment is shown from 0.7 vol. % of silver nanowires which is significantly lower than other composites using conductive nano-materials. Reliable conductivity of 1.19 × 102 S/cm has been achieved from the demonstrated 3D...

  4. Analysis of composition and microstructures of Ge grown on porous silicon using Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouassa, Mansour; Jadli, Imen; Hassayoun, Latifa Slimen; Maaref, Hassen; Panczer, Gerard; Favre, Luc; Ronda, Antoine; Berbezier, Isabelle

    2017-12-01

    Composition and microstructure of Ge grown on porous silicon (PSi) by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) at different temperatures are examined using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Ge grown at 400 °C on PSi buffer produces a planar Ge film with high crystalline quality compared to Ge grown on bulk Si. This result is attributed to the compliant nature of PSi. Increasing growth temperature >600 °C, changes the PSi morphology, increase the Ge/Si intermixing in the pores during Ge growth and lead to obtain a composite SiGe/Si substrate. Ge content in the composite SiGe substrate can controlled via growth temperature. These substrates serve as low cost virtual substrate for high efficiency III-V/Si solar cells.

  5. Optical properties of zirconium oxynitride films: The effect of composition, electronic and crystalline structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, P. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Borges, J., E-mail: joelborges@fisica.uminho.pt [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Department of Control Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Rodrigues, M.S. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Barradas, N.P. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Espinós, J.P.; González-Elipe, A.R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-University Sevilla), Avda. Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Cunha, L.; Marques, L.; Vasilevskiy, M.I.; Vaz, F. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Optical behaviour of ZrO{sub x}N{sub y} films were correlated with structural properties. • A continuous depopulation of the d-band and an opening of an energy gap was observed. • Drude–Lorentz parameters changed for the metallic samples. • Optical bandgap of the films increases with non-metallic elements incorporation. - Abstract: This work is devoted to the investigation of zirconium oxynitride (ZrO{sub x}N{sub y}) films with varied optical responses prompted by the variations in their compositional and structural properties. The films were prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering of Zr, using Ar and a reactive gas mixture of N{sub 2} + O{sub 2} (17:3). The colour of the films changed from metallic-like, very bright yellow-pale and golden yellow, for low gas flows to red-brownish for intermediate gas flows. Associated to this colour change there was a significant decrease of brightness. With further increase of the reactive gas flow, the colour of the samples changed from red-brownish to dark blue or even to interference colourations. The variations in composition disclosed the existence of four different zones, which were found to be closely related with the variations in the crystalline structure. XRD analysis revealed the change from a B1 NaCl face-centred cubic zirconium nitride-type phase for films prepared with low reactive gas flows, towards a poorly crystallized over-stoichiometric nitride phase, which may be similar to that of Zr{sub 3}N{sub 4} with some probable oxygen inclusions within nitrogen positions, for films prepared with intermediate reactive gas flows. For high reactive gas flows, the films developed an oxynitride-type phase, similar to that of γ-Zr{sub 2}ON{sub 2} with some oxygen atoms occupying some of the nitrogen positions, evolving to a ZrO{sub 2} monoclinic type structure within the zone where films were prepared with relatively high reactive gas flows. The analysis carried out by reflected electron energy

  6. Enhanced luminance of MEH-PPV based PLEDs using single walled carbon nanotube composite as an electron transporting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Inderpreet, E-mail: inderpreetsingh_05@rediffmail.co [Materials Laboratory, Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Madhwal, Devinder; Verma, A.; Kumar, A.; Rait, S. [Materials Laboratory, Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Kaur, I.; Bharadwaj, L.M. [Central Scientific Instruments Organization, Sector-30, Chandigarh (India); Bhatia, C.S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Bhatnagar, P.K.; Mathur, P.C. [Materials Laboratory, Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India)

    2010-11-15

    An efficient electron transporting layer (ETL) based on single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) composites has been developed for poly [2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) based orange polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) and its effect on the performance of PLEDs has been examined. It is observed that with increase in SWCNT concentration, in ETL, the luminance and luminous efficiency of the PLEDs increase (about 5 times increase in luminance is observed at 5% w/w SWCNT concentration). The SWCNTs present in the MEH-PPV ETL boost the mobility of electrons injected from the cathode towards the emissive layer by establishing highly conducting percolation paths. This balances the concentration of holes and electrons in the emissive layer, which leads to enhanced emission from the PLEDs.

  7. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound/video files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample, or the visuals will not appear at all...

  8. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Strategies are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them in full...

  9. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2010-01-01

    New Year is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. It is included in "From the Danish Seasons" (see under this title). See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You...

  10. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Memory Pieces are open compositions to be realised solo by an improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them...

  11. Molecular modeling of polymer composite interactions with analytes in electronic nose sensors for environmental monitoring in International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevade, A. V.; Ryan, M. A.; Homer, M. L.; Manfreda, A. M.; Zhou, H.; Manatt, K.

    2002-01-01

    We report a molecular modeling study to investigate the polymer-carbon black (CB) composite-analyte interactions in resistive sensors. These sensors comprise the JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) sensing array developed for monitoring breathing air in human habitats. The polymer in the composite is modeled based on its stereisomerism and sequence isomerism, while the CB is modeled as uncharged naphthalene rings (with no hydrogens). The Dreiding 2.21 force field is used for the polymer and solvent molecules and graphite parameters are assigned to the carbon black atoms. A combination of molecular mechanics (MM) and molecular dynamics (NPT-MD and NVT-MD) techniques are used to obtain the equilibrium composite structure by inserting naphthalene rings in the polymer matrix. Polymers considered for this work include poly(4- vinylphenol), polyethylene oxide, and ethyl cellulose. Analytes studied are representative of both inorganic (ammonia) and organic (methanol, toluene, hydrazine) compounds. The results are analyzed for the composite microstructure by calculating the radial distribution profiles as well as for the sensor response by predicting the interaction energies of the analytes with the composites.

  12. Toward Authentic Electronic Music in the Curriculum: Connecting Teaching to Current Compositional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Despite emerging efforts to teach from within authentic music making contexts, electronic music in schools generally remains detached from the practices of actual composers. Often electronic technology is regarded merely as a set of tools for learning and, as a result, many view active engagement in technology-based music making as a…

  13. Chapter 2.3 Cellulose Nanofibril Composite Substrates for Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Sabo; Jung-Hun Seo; Zhenqiang Ma

    2013-01-01

    Flexible electronics have a large number of potential applications, including malleable displays and wearable computers. Current research into high-speed, flexible electronic substrates uses plastics for the flexible substrate, but these plastics typically have drawbacks, such as high thermal expansion coefficients. Transparent films made from cellulose...

  14. The monolithic carbon aerogels and aerogel composites for electronics and thermal protection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sheng; Guo, Hui; Zhou, Yugui; Liu, Yuanyuan; Jin, Zhaoguo; Liu, Bin; Zhao, Yingmin

    2017-09-01

    Monolithic carbon aerogels have been prepared by condensation polymerization and high temperature pyrolysis. The morphology of carbon aerogels are characterized by SEM. The pore structure is characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption technique. Monolithic carbon aerogels are mesoporous nanomaterials. Carbon fiber reinforced carbon aerogel composites are prepared by in-situ sol-gel process. Fiber reinforced carbon aerogel composites are of high mechanical strength. The thermal response of the fiber reinforced aerogel composite samples are tested in an arc plasma wind tunnel. Carbon aerogel composites show good thermal insulation capability and high temperature resistance in inert atmosphere even at ultrahigh temperature up to 1800 °C. The results show that they are suitable for applications in electrodes for supercapacitors/ Lithium-ion batteries and aerospace thermal protection area.

  15. Directly writing resistor, inductor and capacitor to composite functional circuits: a super-simple way for alternative electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunxia; Li, Haiyan; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The current strategies for making electronic devices are generally time, water, material and energy consuming. Here, the direct writing of composite functional circuits through comprehensive use of GaIn10-based liquid metal inks and matching material is proposed and investigated, which is a rather easy going and cost effective electronics fabrication way compared with the conventional approaches. Owing to its excellent adhesion and electrical properties, the liquid metal ink was demonstrated as a generalist in directly making various basic electronic components such as planar resistor, inductor and capacitor or their combination and thus composing circuits with expected electrical functions. For a precise control of the geometric sizes of the writing, a mask with a designed pattern was employed and demonstrated. Mechanisms for justifying the chemical components of the inks and the magnitudes of the target electronic elements so as to compose various practical circuits were disclosed. Fundamental tests on the electrical components including capacitor and inductor directly written on paper with working time up to 48 h and elevated temperature demonstrated their good stability and potential widespread adaptability especially when used in some high frequency circuits. As the first proof-of-concept experiment, a typical functional oscillating circuit including an integrated chip of 74HC04 with a supply voltage of 5 V, a capacitor of 10 nF and two resistors of 5 kΩ and 1 kΩ respectively was directly composed on paper through integrating specific electrical elements together, which presented an oscillation frequency of 8.8 kHz. The present method significantly extends the roles of the metal ink in recent works serving as only a single electrical conductor or interconnecting wires. It opens the way for directly writing out complex functional circuits or devices on different substrates. Such circuit composition strategy has generalized purpose and can be extended to more

  16. Directly Writing Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor to Composite Functional Circuits: A Super-Simple Way for Alternative Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunxia; Li, Haiyan; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Background The current strategies for making electronic devices are generally time, water, material and energy consuming. Here, the direct writing of composite functional circuits through comprehensive use of GaIn10-based liquid metal inks and matching material is proposed and investigated, which is a rather easy going and cost effective electronics fabrication way compared with the conventional approaches. Methods Owing to its excellent adhesion and electrical properties, the liquid metal ink was demonstrated as a generalist in directly making various basic electronic components such as planar resistor, inductor and capacitor or their combination and thus composing circuits with expected electrical functions. For a precise control of the geometric sizes of the writing, a mask with a designed pattern was employed and demonstrated. Mechanisms for justifying the chemical components of the inks and the magnitudes of the target electronic elements so as to compose various practical circuits were disclosed. Results Fundamental tests on the electrical components including capacitor and inductor directly written on paper with working time up to 48 h and elevated temperature demonstrated their good stability and potential widespread adaptability especially when used in some high frequency circuits. As the first proof-of-concept experiment, a typical functional oscillating circuit including an integrated chip of 74HC04 with a supply voltage of 5 V, a capacitor of 10 nF and two resistors of 5 kΩ and 1 kΩ respectively was directly composed on paper through integrating specific electrical elements together, which presented an oscillation frequency of 8.8 kHz. Conclusions The present method significantly extends the roles of the metal ink in recent works serving as only a single electrical conductor or interconnecting wires. It opens the way for directly writing out complex functional circuits or devices on different substrates. Such circuit composition strategy has

  17. Polyimide-Epoxy Composites with Superior Bendable Properties for Application in Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyoup; Yoo, Taewon; Han, Youngyu; Kim, Hanglim; Han, Haksoo

    2017-08-01

    The need for flexible electronics with outstanding bending properties is increasing due to the demand for wearable devices and next-generation flexible or rollable smartphones. In addition, the requirements for flexible or rigid-flexible electronics are sharply increasing to achieve the design of space-saving electronic devices. In this regard, coverlay (CL) film is a key material used in the bending area of flexible electronics, albeit infrequently. Because flexible electronics undergo folding and unfolding numerous times, CL films with superior mechanical and bending properties are required so that the bending area can endure such severe stress. However, because current CL films are only used for a designated bending area in the flexible electronics panel, their highly complicated and expensive manufacturing procedure is a disadvantage. In addition, the thickness of CL films must be decreased to satisfy the ongoing requirement for increasingly thin products. However, due to the limitations of the two-layer structure of existing CL films, the manufacturing process cannot be made more cost effective by simply applying more thin film onto the board. To address this problem, we have developed liquid coverlay inks (LCIs) with superior bendable properties, in comparison with CL films, when applied onto flexible electronics using a screen-printing method. The results show that LCIs have the potential to become one of the leading candidates to replace existing CL films because of their lower cost and faster manufacturing process.

  18. Selective laser melting of carbon/AlSi10Mg composites: Microstructure, mechanical and electronical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiao; Song, Bo, E-mail: bosong@hust.edu.cn; Fan, Wenrui; Zhang, Yuanjie; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-04-25

    Carbon nanotubes/AlSi10Mg composites has drawn lots of attention in structural engineering and functional device applications due to its extraordinary high elastic modulus and mechanical strength as well as excellent electrical and thermal conductivities. In this study, the CNTs/AlSi10Mg composites was firstly prepared and then processed by selective laser melting. The powder preparation, SLM process, and microstructure evolution, properties were clarified. The results showed that CNTs were decomposed due to the direct interaction with the laser beam. The SLMed composites displayed a similar microstructure to that of SLMed AlSi10Mg. The common brittleness phase Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} didn't form, and the carbon dispersion strengthening was observed. The electrical resistivity of the composites was reduced significantly and the hardness was improved. - Highlights: • Carbon nanotubes/AlSi10Mg powder were prepared by slurry ball milling process. • Carbon nanotubes/AlSi10Mg composites were firstly prepared by SLM. • The electrical resistivity of the composites was significantly reduced and hardness was improved.

  19. Insights from investigations of tin dioxide and its composites: electron-beam irradiation, fractal assessment, and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwen; Shek, Chan-Hung; Wu, C M Lawrence

    2015-10-14

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) is a unique strategic functional material with widespread technological applications, particularly in fields such as solar batteries, optoelectronic devices, and solid-state gas sensors owing to advances in its optical and electronic properties. In this review, we introduce the recent progress of tin dioxide and its composites, including the synthesis strategies, microstructural evolution, related formation mechanism, and performance evaluation of SnO2 quantum dots (QDs), thin films, and composites prepared by electron-beam irradiation, pulsed laser ablation, and SnO2 planted graphene strategies, highlighting contributions from our laboratory. First, we present the electron-beam irradiation strategies for the growth behavior of SnO2 nanocrystals. This method is a potentially powerful technique to achieve the nucleation and growth of SnO2 QDs. In addition, the fractal assessment strategies and gas sensing behavior of SnO2 thin films with interesting micro/nanostructures induced by pulsed delivery will be discussed experimentally and theoretically. Finally, we emphasize the fabrication process and formation mechanism of SnO2 QD planted graphene nanosheets. This review may provide a new insight that the versatile strategies for microstructural evolution and related performance of SnO2-based functional materials are of fundamental importance in the development of new materials.

  20. Insights from investigations of tin dioxide and its composites: electron-beam irradiation, fractal assessment, and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwen; Shek, Chan-Hung; Lawrence Wu, C. M.

    2015-09-01

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) is a unique strategic functional material with widespread technological applications, particularly in fields such as solar batteries, optoelectronic devices, and solid-state gas sensors owing to advances in its optical and electronic properties. In this review, we introduce the recent progress of tin dioxide and its composites, including the synthesis strategies, microstructural evolution, related formation mechanism, and performance evaluation of SnO2 quantum dots (QDs), thin films, and composites prepared by electron-beam irradiation, pulsed laser ablation, and SnO2 planted graphene strategies, highlighting contributions from our laboratory. First, we present the electron-beam irradiation strategies for the growth behavior of SnO2 nanocrystals. This method is a potentially powerful technique to achieve the nucleation and growth of SnO2 QDs. In addition, the fractal assessment strategies and gas sensing behavior of SnO2 thin films with interesting micro/nanostructures induced by pulsed delivery will be discussed experimentally and theoretically. Finally, we emphasize the fabrication process and formation mechanism of SnO2 QD planted graphene nanosheets. This review may provide a new insight that the versatile strategies for microstructural evolution and related performance of SnO2-based functional materials are of fundamental importance in the development of new materials.

  1. Evaluation of Beef by Electronic Tongue System TS-5000Z: Flavor Assessment, Recognition and Chemical Compositions According to Its Correlation with Flavor: e0137807

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xinzhuang Zhang; Yawei Zhang; Qingxiang Meng; Ning Li; Liping Ren

    2015-01-01

      The aim of this study was to assess the ability of electronic tongue system TS-5000Z to evaluate meat quality based on flavor assessment, recognition and correlation with the meat chemical composition...

  2. Composição centesimal e teor de colesterol do camarão branco do Pacífico Proximate composition and cholesterol content of the Pacific white shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daline Fernandes de Souza Araujo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a composição centesimal e o teor de colesterol da carne do camarão branco do Pacífico (Litopenaeus vannamei, oriundo de uma fazenda localizada no estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. As análises na porção muscular do camarão foram realizadas após a retirada do cefalotórax e exoesqueleto. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os teores de umidade, proteínas, cinzas, lipídios e colesterol apresentaram valores médios de 74,1g 100g-1, 21,9g 100g-1, 1,5g 100g-1, 0,3g 100 g-1 e 26,1mg 100g-1, respectivamente. Comparando-se os resultados da presente pesquisa com os encontrados na literatura para outras espécies, observou-se que a carne de L. vannamei apresentou baixo teor de lipídeos e colesterol e maiores concentrações de proteínas, representando grande valor nutricional para o produto.This study aimed to determine the proximate composition and cholesterol content in muscular portion of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei collected from a shrimp farm located in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The analysis in the muscular portion were performed after cephalothorax and exoskeleton removal. According to the results, the moisture, protein, ash, lipids and cholesterol had an average value of 74.1g 100 g-1, 21.9 g 100 g-1, 1.5g 100g-1, 0.3g 100g-1 and 26.1mg 100g-1, respectively. Comparing the results found on this research to data reported in the literature for other species, it can be observed that the flesh of the shrimp L. vannamei showed a low content of lipids and cholesterol and higher concentrations of protein, representing a wide nutritional value to the product.

  3. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  4. COMPOSITE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective medium theory of ferroelectric ceramic-polymer composite materials which treats both components symmetrically has been investigated to demonstrate the role played by the microgeometry of inclusions on dielectric, mechanical and piezoelectric properties of 0-3 composites. The limits of the various theoretical ...

  5. Compositional Analysis With Atomic Column Spatial Resolution by 5th Order Aberration-corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Maldonado, David [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Herrera, Miriam [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Alonso-Gonzalez, Pablo [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Gonzalez, Yolanda [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Gonzalez, Luisa [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Gazquez Alabart, Jaume [ORNL; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Guerrero, M. P. [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Pizarro, Joaquin [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Galindo, Pedro [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Molina, S. I. [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain

    2011-01-01

    We show in this article that it is possible to obtain elemental compositional maps and profiles with atomic-column resolution across an In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As multilayer structure from 5th-order aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images. The compositional profiles obtained from the analysis of HAADF-STEM images describe accurately the distribution of In in the studied multilayer in good agreement with Muraki's segregation model [Muraki, K., Fukatsu, S., Shiraki, Y. & Ito, R. (1992)]. Surface segregation of In atoms during molecular beam epitaxy and its influence on the energy levels in InGaAs/GaAs quantums wells.

  6. Structural and electronic properties of Ti-nanowires/C-single wall nanotubes composites by density functional theory calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gialampouki, M.A.; Balerba, A.V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, 45110 (Greece); Lekka, Ch.E., E-mail: chlekka@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, 45110 (Greece)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanowires (NWs) transform the cylindrical SWNTs' shape to ellipsoid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti NWs contribute in the SWNTs' EDOSs with new states at the Fermi level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deposited bcc NW on the SWNT induce magnetization and electric dipole moment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These composites appear promising for applications in electronic devices. - Abstract: Structural and electronic properties of composite Ti-nanowires/single wall carbon nanotubes ((6,0) and (10,0)) (SWNT) were evaluated by means of density functional theory computations. We considered the cases of monoatomic (MNW), BCC ({beta}-NW) and HCP ({alpha}-NW) nanowires that were either inserted or deposited in/on the SWNTs. In all cases the NWs turn the cylindrical SWNTs' shape to ellipsoid, an effect that is closely related to charge transfer from Ti toward C neighboring atoms. We found that the wires inside the SWNT appear to be more stable compared to the outside cases, while all NWs contribute with new energy states at the Fermi level, transforming the semiconducting (10,0) to a conducting composite. In addition, we found spin up-down differences in the {beta}-NW{sub on} case and electronic charge redistributions e.g. in {alpha}-NW{sub in} (charge accumulation internally along the tube's axis) or in {alpha}-NW{sub on} (superficial charge accumulation in the vicinity of the NW), accompanied by manifestation of electric dipole moment that reaches the value of 10 Debye in a-NW{sub on}. These results may be of use in the design of new C-based nanocomposite systems suitable for applications in microelectronics, sensors and catalysis.

  7. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  8. Electron Microscopy and Analytical X-ray Characterization of Compositional and Nanoscale Structural Changes in Fossil Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatman, Elizabeth Marie

    The nanoscale structure of compact bone contains several features that are direct indicators of bulk tissue mechanical properties. Fossil bone tissues represent unique opportunities to understand the compact bone structure/property relationships from a deep time perspective, offering a possible array of new insights into bone diseases, biomimicry of composite materials, and basic knowledge of bioapatite composition and nanoscale bone structure. To date, most work with fossil bone has employed microscale techniques and has counter-indicated the survival of bioapatite and other nanoscale structural features. The obvious disconnect between the use of microscale techniques and the discernment of nanoscale structure has prompted this work. The goal of this study was to characterize the nanoscale constituents of fossil compact bone by applying a suite of diffraction, microscopy, and spectrometry techniques, representing the highest levels of spatial and energy resolution available today, and capable of complementary structural and compositional characterization from the micro- to the nanoscale. Fossil dinosaur and crocodile long bone specimens, as well as modern ratite and crocodile femurs, were acquired from the UC Museum of Paleontology. Preserved physiological features of significance were documented with scanning electron microscopy back-scattered imaging. Electron microprobe wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS) revealed fossil bone compositions enriched in fluorine with a complementary loss of oxygen. X-ray diffraction analyses demonstrated that all specimens were composed of apatite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging revealed preserved nanocrystallinity in the fossil bones and electron diffraction studies further identified these nanocrystallites as apatite. Tomographic analyses of nanoscale elements imaged by TEM and small angle X-ray scattering were performed, with the results of each analysis further indicating that nanoscale structure is

  9. Effect of Electron Blocking Layer Doping and Composition on the Performance of 310 nm Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kolbe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of composition and p-doping profile of the AlGaN:Mg electron blocking layer (EBL in 310 nm ultraviolet B (UV-B light emitting diodes (LEDs have been investigated. The carrier injection and internal quantum efficiency of the LEDs were simulated and compared to electroluminescence measurements. The light output power depends strongly on the temporal biscyclopentadienylmagnesium (Cp 2 Mg carrier gas flow profile during growth as well as on the aluminum profile of the AlGaN:Mg EBL. The highest emission power has been found for an EBL with the highest Cp 2 Mg carrier gas flow and a gradually decreasing aluminum content in direction to the p-side of the LED. This effect is attributed to an improved carrier injection and confinement that prevents electron leakage into the p-doped region of the LED with a simultaneously enhanced carrier injection into the active region.

  10. [Skull identification by means of superprojection using the electronic photo-composition technique, modified to the animated picture-difference procedure (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, R; Grüner, O

    1977-11-18

    Skull identification by electronic photo-composition can, with the help of a video-animation compositor, be further developed beyond the pure superprojection technique into an animated picture difference image. The employment of this combined technique to be recommended on account of the improved possibilities of control to be realized in the congruity of the superprojection composite picture.

  11. Recent advances in electron-beam curing of carbon fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coqueret, Xavier; Krzeminski, Mickael; Ponsaud, Philippe; Defoort, Brigitte

    2009-07-01

    Cross-linking polymerization initiated by high-energy radiation is a very attractive technique for the fabrication of high-performance composite materials. The method offers many advantages compared to conventional energy- and time-consuming thermal curing processes. Free radical and cationic poly-addition chemistries have been investigated in some details by various research groups along the previous years. A high degree of control over curing kinetics and material properties can be exerted by adjusting the composition of matrix precursors as well as by acting on process parameters. However, the comparison with state-of-the-art thermally cured composites revealed the lower transverse mechanical properties of radiation-cured composites and the higher brittleness of the radiation-cured matrix. Improving fiber-matrix adhesion and upgrading polymer network toughness are thus two major challenges in this area. We have investigated several points related to these issues, and particularly the reduction of the matrix shrinkage on curing, the wettability of carbon fibers, the design of fiber-matrix interface and the use of thermoplastic toughening agents. Significant improvements were achieved on transverse strain at break by applying original surface treatments on the fibers so as to induce covalent coupling with the matrix. A drastic enhancement of the K IC value exceeding 2 MPa m 1/2 was also obtained for acrylate-based matrices toughened with high T g thermoplastics.

  12. Molecular Engineering for Mechanically Resilient and Stretchable Electronic Polymers and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    Films Advantages of semiconducting small molecules—as opposed to semiconducting polymers— include synthetic simplicity, monodispersity, low cost...performance and mechanical deformability, and highlight potential strategies for overcoming this undesirable competition. A marriage of these two fields...of the advantages of electronic materials and devices exhibiting the unusual property of “stretchability.” For example, such devices can be bonded to

  13. Tunable Magnetic Proximity Effects in Graphene Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, Predrag; Belashchenko, Kirill; Zutic, Igor

    2015-03-01

    The characteristic length of the magnetic proximity effects exceed the thickness of a graphene layer leading to an important, but typically overlooked, modifications of equilibrium and transport properties, as well as the implications for graphene spintronics. Using the first-principles studies that integrate a real space density functional theory (GPAW) with the state-of-the art boundary elements electrostatic code based on the Robin Hood method, we explore tunable electronic structure and magnetic proximity effects in the ferromagnet/insulator/graphene junctions. We show that the inclusion of a finite-size gate electrodes and van der Walls interaction lead to nontrivial effects that could also be important in other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. Work supported by US ONR, NSF-DMR and Nebraska NSF MRSEC.

  14. The Effect of Lactulose on the Composition of the Intestinal Microbiota and Short-chain Fatty Acid Production in Human Volunteers and a Computer-controlled Model of the Proximal Large Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, K.; Nuenen, M.H.M.C. van; Heuvel, E.G. van den; Pool, W.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the in vivo effect of lactulose on faecal parameters with the effect in a dynamic, computer-controlled in vitro model of the proximal large intestine (TIM-2). Faecal samples from 10 human volunteers collected before (non-adapted) and after 1 week of

  15. Performance of a single layer fuel cell based on a mixed proton-electron conducting composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagórski, Krzysztof; Wachowski, Sebastian; Szymczewska, Dagmara; Mielewczyk-Gryń, Aleksandra; Jasiński, Piotr; Gazda, Maria

    2017-06-01

    Many of the challenges in solid oxide fuel cell technology stem from chemical and mechanical incompatibilities between the anode, cathode and electrolyte materials. Numerous attempts have been made to identify compatible materials. Here, these challenges are circumvented by the introduction of a working single layer fuel cell, fabricated from a composite of proton conducting BaCe0.6Zr0.2Y0.2O3-δ and a mixture of semiconducting oxides - Li2O, NiO, and ZnO. Structural and electrical properties of the composite, related to its fuel cell performance are investigated. The single layer fuel cell shows a maximum OCV of 0.83 V and a peak power density of 3.86 mW cm-2 at 600 °C. Activation and mass transport losses are identified as the major limiting factor for efficiency and power output.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and thermal properties of polymers based composites materials for High Power Electronic Packaging Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Spitaleri, Fabiola

    2015-01-01

    As devices evolve, it s necessary that also interconnections and all hardware circuits evolve, including packaging. Nowadays are required significant improvement in packaging properties: low resistance interconnections, less noise, less parasitic oscillations, increased reliability and improved thermal behaviour. For these purpose has designed a research activity for the synthesis of new composites materials capable to dissipating heat better in relation to the current ones. These material...

  17. A Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Method for Determining Manganese Composition in Welding Fume as a Function of Primary Particle Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Julie D; Livi, Kenneth J T; Geyh, Alison S

    2011-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the physicochemical properties of inhaled nanoparticles influence the resulting toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. This report presents a method using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to measure the Mn content throughout the primary particle size distribution of welding fume particle samples collected on filters for application in exposure and health research. Dark field images were collected to assess the primary particle size distribution and energy-dispersive X-ray and electron energy loss spectroscopy were performed for measurement of Mn composition as a function of primary particle size. A manual method incorporating imaging software was used to measure the primary particle diameter and to select an integration region for compositional analysis within primary particles throughout the size range. To explore the variation in the developed metric, the method was applied to 10 gas metal arc welding (GMAW) fume particle samples of mild steel that were collected under a variety of conditions. The range of Mn composition by particle size was -0.10 to 0.19 %/nm, where a positive estimate indicates greater relative abundance of Mn increasing with primary particle size and a negative estimate conversely indicates decreasing Mn content with size. However, the estimate was only statistically significant (p<0.05) in half of the samples (n=5), which all had a positive estimate. In the remaining samples, no significant trend was measured. Our findings indicate that the method is reproducible and that differences in the abundance of Mn by primary particle size among welding fume samples can be detected.

  18. Layered composites of PEDOT/PSS/nanoparticles and PEDOT/PSS/phthalocyanines as electron mediators for sensors and biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia García-Hernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensing properties of electrodes chemically modified with PEDOT/PSS towards catechol and hydroquinone sensing have been successfully improved by combining layers of PEDOT/PSS with layers of a secondary electrocatalytic material such as gold nanoparticles (PEDOT/PSS/AuNPs, copper phthalocyanine (PEDOT/PSS/CuPc or lutetium bisphthalocyanine (PEDOT/PSS/LuPc2. Layered composites exhibit synergistic effects that strongly enhance the electrocatalytic activity as indicated by the increase in intensity and the shift of the redox peaks to lower potentials. A remarkable improvement has been achieved using PEDOT/PSS/LuPc2, which exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of catechol. The kinetic studies demonstrated diffusion-controlled processes at the electrode surfaces. The kinetic parameters such as Tafel slopes and charge transfer coefficient (α confirm the improved electrocatalytic activity of the layered electron mediators. The peak currents increased linearly with concentration of catechol and hydroquinone over the range of 1.5 × 10−4 to 4.0 × 10−6 mol·L−1 with a limit of detection on the scale of μmol·L−1. The layered composite hybrid systems were also found to be excellent electron mediators in biosensors containing tyrosinase and laccase, and they combine the recognition and biocatalytic properties of biomolecules with the unique catalytic features of composite materials. The observed increase in the intensity of the responses allowed detection limits of 1 × 10−7 mol·L−1 to be attained.

  19. Structural, optical and electronic properties of indium sulfide compositions under influence of copper impurity produced by chemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Esmaili

    Full Text Available Aqueous solutions with 70 °C and pH = 2.5 constant values were prepared from convenient chemical compounds to produce In2S3: Cu crystals and thin films. Crystal compositions were grown in this solution under special conditions. Micrographs showed amorphous In2S3 orange powder and transparent vitreous pieces of CuInS2 crystals. Indium sulfide films were produced using the same solution in CBD method, on the glass substrates at different [Cu/In] molar ratio concentrations. Cu+ ions by different concentration doped from copper chloride source into In2S3 films. The produced films were post-annealed at 400 °C for about 1 h. Their crystallography, phase transitions, element analysis and nanostructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction, SEM, EDAX and AFM analyses. β-In2S3 phase was dominant and by doping copper impurity, XRD results suggested the formation of CuInS2 compositions. Morphology of the films, nano-structures, grain shapes and hardness was changed.Optical reflectance was measured in the UV-VIS wavelength range by a spectrophotometer. Other optical properties and optical band gaps were calculated using Kramers-Kronig relations on reflectivity curves. Electronic properties were calculated by full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW method within density functional theory (DFT. In this approach, generalized gradient approximation (GGA was used for the exchange-correlation potential calculation. Band gap structures, density of states and imaginary parts of dielectric function were calculated for In2S3: Cu compositions. Keywords: CuInS2, Structural properties, Optical properties, Electronic properties, Doping, Kramers-Kronig

  20. Preparation of MgO/Au Multilayer Composite Films and Related Studies on Secondary Electron Emission Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Wu, Shengli; Wei, Kongting; Li, Jie; Hu, Wenbo; Zhang, Jintao

    2017-09-01

    MgO thin film has a high secondary electron emission coefficient. However, the accumulation of electric charge on the surface of the thin film will inhibit it. This paper mainly discusses this phenomenon with the method of reactive magnetron sputtering. We prepared a MgO/Au buffer layer by co-sputtering Au in the inner layer of MgO. The experiments show that Au distributes mainly in the gap of the MgO grains. Adding appropriate Au will promote the growth of MgO grains in the longitudinal direction, increase the conductivity of the material, suppress the accumulation of electric charge on the surface, and increase the secondary electron emission coefficient of the thin film. NiO was also used as the transition layer of MgO and substrate in the experiments, so as to increase the adhesion of the MgO films and improve the quality of the thin film. According to the experiment results, the maximum secondary electron emission coefficient of MgOAu multilayer composite film increased by 28.9% compared with that of the pure MgO film. Under the continuous irradiation of 200 eV incoming energy, the decay rate decreased from 35.2% to 30.6% in 1 h.

  1. Preparation of MgO/Au Multilayer Composite Films and Related Studies on Secondary Electron Emission Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Wu, Shengli; Wei, Kongting; Li, Jie; Hu, Wenbo; Zhang, Jintao

    2018-01-01

    MgO thin film has a high secondary electron emission coefficient. However, the accumulation of electric charge on the surface of the thin film will inhibit it. This paper mainly discusses this phenomenon with the method of reactive magnetron sputtering. We prepared a MgO/Au buffer layer by co-sputtering Au in the inner layer of MgO. The experiments show that Au distributes mainly in the gap of the MgO grains. Adding appropriate Au will promote the growth of MgO grains in the longitudinal direction, increase the conductivity of the material, suppress the accumulation of electric charge on the surface, and increase the secondary electron emission coefficient of the thin film. NiO was also used as the transition layer of MgO and substrate in the experiments, so as to increase the adhesion of the MgO films and improve the quality of the thin film. According to the experiment results, the maximum secondary electron emission coefficient of MgOAu multilayer composite film increased by 28.9% compared with that of the pure MgO film. Under the continuous irradiation of 200 eV incoming energy, the decay rate decreased from 35.2% to 30.6% in 1 h.

  2. Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communication: Journalism Education Today, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Considers how photography is more than just pointing a camera in the right direction. Explains that good pictures use elements of composition such as the Rule of Thirds, leading lines, framing and repetition of shapes. Presents 16 photographs from college and secondary school publications, and describes the techniques that makes them effective.…

  3. Analysis of adhesion of radiation curable compositions to polyester substrate. [. gamma. rays or electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, W.K.; Barbery, J.; Gupta, B.S.

    1977-07-01

    Properties of bonds produced by radiation curing of adhesives on polyester film were studied. Investigation of bonding in polyester non-wovens had revealed that adhesion of binders to fibers was weak, which resulted in interfacial failures, judged from electron micrographs. If a binder droplet surrounds a cluster of fibers, tearing of binder took place but fibers still peeled out of droplets with interfacial separation. In order to understand the failure mechanism, a study was carried out on Mylar film bonded with adhesives cured by electron beam or gamma-rays from /sup 60/Co. Mixtures of isodecyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate were copolymerized between Mylar films to produce adhesives with a wide range of glass transition temperatures. Hexanediol diacrylate was added in various amounts to produce different degrees of cross-linking. Small amounts of fumed silica (Cab-O-Sil) were added to thicken the monomers used in the /sup 60/Co experiments. By varying rheological properties in this fashion, a maximum peel force of 3.5 lb/in. was obtained. This value is in line with peel strengths from polyester using commercial, prepolymerized adhesives with solubility parameters similar to those used here delta = 8.3 to 9.3). These results show that the primary reason for the poor adhesion of radiation curable adhesives to polyester is their high degree of cross-linking and that radiation curable adhesives are not basically different from other types, except in cases where their unique properties could be utilized with advantage.

  4. Composition of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) by direct sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Graça; Pires, Ana; Saraiva, Luanha; Ribeiro, Rita

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in a recycling unit for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Portugal to characterize the plastic constituents of WEEE. Approximately 3400 items, including cooling appliances, small WEEE, printers, copying equipment, central processing units, cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors and CRT televisions were characterized, with the analysis finding around 6000 kg of plastics with several polymer types. The most common polymers are polystyrene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate blends, high-impact polystyrene and polypropylene. Additives to darken color are common contaminants in these plastics when used in CRT televisions and small WEEE. These additives can make plastic identification difficult, along with missing polymer identification and flame retardant identification marks. These drawbacks contribute to the inefficiency of manual dismantling of WEEE, which is the typical recycling process in Portugal. The information found here can be used to set a baseline for the plastics recycling industry and provide information for ecodesign in electrical and electronic equipment production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hardness and wear resistance of steel-based surface composites fabricated with Fe-based metamorphic alloy powders by high-energy electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyuhong [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Duk-Hyun [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sunghak [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: shlee@postech.ac.kr; Kim, Choongnyun Paul [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-25

    In this study, steel-based surface composites were fabricated with Fe-based metamorphic alloy powders by high-energy electron beam irradiation, and their microstructure, hardness, and wear resistance were investigated. Two kinds of Fe-based metamorphic powders were deposited on a plain carbon steel substrate, and then electron beam was irradiated on these powders to fabricate one-layered surface composites. Two-layered surface composites were also fabricated by irradiating electron beam again onto the powders deposited on the one-layered surface composites. The composite layers of 2.6-3.1 mm in thickness were homogeneously formed without defects, and contained a large amount (up to 64 vol.%) of Cr{sub 2}B or Cr{sub 1.65}Fe{sub 0.35}B{sub 0.96} borides in the Cr{sub 0.19}Fe{sub 0.7}Ni{sub 0.11} or martensite matrix. Since the hardness and wear resistance of the surface composite layers were directly influenced by hard borides, they were two to four times greater than those of the steel substrate. These borides also played a role in improving the high-temperature hardness because they are insoluble and thermally stable even at high temperatures. These findings suggested that various applications of the fabricated surface composites to materials requiring high resistance to heat and abrasion were expected.

  6. Estimation of the chemical composition in the 'knee' region from the muon/electron ratio in EAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, T.; Apel, W.D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bernloehr, K.; Bollmann, E.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engler, J.; Fessler, F.; Gils, H.J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haeusler, R.; Hafemann, W.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hoerandel, J.R.; Holst, T.; Kampert, K.-H.; Keim, H.; Kempa, J.; Klages, H.O.; Knapp, J.; Leibrock, H.; Mathes, H.J.; Mayer, H.J.; Milke, J.; Muehlenberg, D.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Schatz, G.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, F.K.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; Unger, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Weber, J.H.; Wentz, J.; Wibig, T.; Wiegert, T.; Wochele, D.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zagromski, S

    1999-03-01

    New data on the muon/electron ratio derived from the KASCADE extensive air shower experiment are presented. This ratio is known to be the most sensitive parameter in the determination of the mass of the primary particle when using ground array data. The particle numbers are measured with the KASCADE array comprising 500 m{sup 2} of e/{gamma}- and 620 m{sup 2} of {mu}- detectors. The primary mass is inferred on an event-by-event basis by comparing the experimental data to corresponding EAS simulations. We observe a change towards a heavier composition with increasing energy above the knee. The sensitivity of this result to the specific hadronic interaction model employed in the simulations (e.g. VENUS and QGSJET) is discussed.

  7. Effect of electron beam irradiation on mechanical properties of gelatin/Brazil nut shell fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Shimazaki, Kleber; Moura, Esperidiana Augusta Barretos de; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: patyoko@yahoo.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Colombo, Maria Aparecida [Faculdade de Tecnologia da Zona Leste (FATEC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rosa, Ricardo de [Amazon Brazil Nuts, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The use of natural fiber as polymeric matrix reinforcement has attracted interest, as fibers are renewable, of low cost, biodegradable and possesses non-toxic properties. In the present paper, Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) shell fiber (10% w/w) were mixed with gelatin (25% w/w), glycerin as plasticizer and acrylamide as copolymer to investigate the resultant mechanical properties effects upon ionizing radiation. The samples were irradiated at 40 kGy using a Dynamitron electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in the presence of air. The results showed that samples of gelatin with 10% of Brazil nuts shell fiber and irradiated at 40 kGy presented promising results for mechanical performance. (author)

  8. Electron-beam initiated polymerization of acrylate compositions 1 : FTIR monitoring of incremental irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Patacz, C; Coqueret, X

    2000-01-01

    The electron-beam induced polymerization of some representative formulations including acrylate functional oligomers and diluents has been investigated by means of FTIR spectroscopy applied to films that were cured under a nitrogen flow. In order to gain a deeper insight into the reactivity of the polymerizable systems, the conversion-dose relationship was examined with emphasis on the following points : depth cure profile of the films, and the additivity of effects of incremental radiation doses on monomer conversion. It was shown to be possible to reproduce the actual polymerization profile from discontinuous measurements. This remarkable result is tentatively explained by the geometry of the samples causing limited thermal effects and by the minor influence of possible inhibition and post-polymerization that could influence each of the incremental transformations compared to a single large dose treatment. This method provides a fine tool for revealing differences in kinetic behavior between polymerizable m...

  9. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  10. An Electronic Cigarette Vaping Machine for the Characterization of Aerosol Delivery and Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havel, Christopher M; Benowitz, Neal L; Jacob, Peyton; St Helen, Gideon

    2017-10-01

    Characterization of aerosols generated by electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is one method used to evaluate the safety of e-cigarettes. While some researchers have modified smoking machines for e-cigarette aerosol generation, these machines are either not readily available, not automated for e-cigarette testing or have not been adequately described. The objective of this study was to build an e-cigarette vaping machine that can be used to test, under standard conditions, e-liquid aerosolization and nicotine and toxicant delivery. The vaping machine was assembled from commercially available parts, including a puff controller, vacuum pump, power supply, switch to control current flow to the atomizer, three-way value to direct air flow to the atomizer, and three gas dispersion tubes for aerosol trapping. To validate and illustrate its use, the variation in aerosol generation was assessed within and between KangerTech Mini ProTank 3 clearomizers, and the effect of voltage on aerosolization and toxic aldehyde generation were assessed. When using one ProTank 3 clearomizer and different e-liquid flavors, the coefficient of variation (CV) of aerosol generated ranged between 11.5% and 19.3%. The variation in aerosol generated between ProTank 3 clearomizers with different e-liquid flavors and voltage settings ranged between 8.3% and 16.3% CV. Aerosol generation increased linearly at 3-6V across e-liquids and clearomizer brands. Acetaldehyde, acrolein, and formaldehyde generation increased markedly at voltages at or above 5V. The vaping machine that we describe reproducibly aerosolizes e-liquids from e-cigarette atomizers under controlled conditions and is useful for testing of nicotine and toxicant delivery. This study describes an electronic cigarette vaping machine that was assembled from commercially available parts. The vaping machine can be replicated by researchers and used under standard conditions to generate e-cigarette aerosols and characterize nicotine and

  11. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2015-01-01

    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  12. In situ electron microscopy of Braille microsystems: photo-actuation of ethylene vinyl acetate/carbon nanotube composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaniková, Klaudia; Krupa, Igor; Račko, Dušan; Šmatko, Vasilij; Campo, Eva M.; Pavlova, Ewa; Omastová, Mária

    2015-02-01

    The development of new types of tactile displays based on the actuation of composite materials can aid the visually impaired. Micro/nano systems based on ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) polymeric matrices enriched with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) can produce ensembles capable of light-induced actuation. In this report, we investigate two types of commercial EVA copolymers matrices containing 28 and 50 wt% vinyl-acetate (VA). Non-covalent modification of carbon nanotubes was achieved through a compatibilization technique that appends the pyrenenyl and cholesteryl groups on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) surface. EVA/MWCNT nanocomposites were prepared by casting from a solution. These composites were shaped into Braille elements using molds. The deformation of the Braille element (BE) under light-emitting diode (LED) illumination was observed for the first time by in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The superior actuation performance promoted by the EVA/MWCNT nanocomposites indicates that these materials will be useful in the future as light-driven micro/nano system actuators.

  13. Effect of electron beam irradiation and poly(vinylpyrrolidone addition on mechanical properties of polycaprolactone with empty fruit bunch fibre (OPEFB composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable composites or green composites were prepared by melt blending technique using polycaprolactone and oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre (OPEFB. Since OPEFB is not compatible with PCL a binder, poly(vinyl pyrrolidone, (PVP was used to improve the interaction between PCL and OPEFB. The composites produced were irradiated using electron beam to improve the mechanical properties. The tensile, flexural and impact strengths of PCL/OPEFB composites were improved by addition of 1% by weight of PVP and irradiated with 10 kGy of electron beam. The FTIR spectra indicate a slight increase of frequencies at C=O peaks from 1730 to 1732 cm–1 after irradiation indicates some interaction between C=O and O–H. The surface morphology of the facture surface obtained from tensile test shows no fibre pull out indicating good adhesion between the OPEFB and PCL after addition of PVP.

  14. Adaptive Optics System with Deformable Composite Mirror and High Speed, Ultra-Compact Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C.; Knowles, G. J.; Shea, B. G.

    2006-06-01

    We report development of a novel adaptive optics system for optical astronomy. Key components are very thin Deformable Mirrors (DM) made of fiber reinforced polymer resins, subminiature PMN-PT actuators, and low power, high bandwidth electronics drive system with compact packaging and minimal wiring. By using specific formulations of fibers, resins, and laminate construction, we are able to fabricate mirror face sheets that are thin (ceramic devices with large stroke (2- 20 microns), high linearity, low hysteresis, low power, and flat frequency response to >2 KHz. By utilizing QorTek’s proprietary synthetic impendence power supply technology, all the power, control, and signal extraction for many hundreds to 1000s of actuators and sensors can be implemented on a single matrix controller printed circuit board co-mounted with the DM. The matrix controller, in turn requires only a single serial bus interface, thereby obviating the need for massive wiring harnesses. The technology can be scaled up to multi-meter aperture DMs with >100K actuators.

  15. Synthesis and Electronic Properties of Thermoelectric and Magnetic Nanoparticle Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Mikio; Kito, Daichi; Sakai, Kengo; Ariga, Tomoki

    2011-05-01

    Application of a magnetic field greatly enhances the thermoelectric efficiency of bismuth-antimony (Bi-Sb) alloys. We synthesized a hybrid of Bi-Sb alloy and magnetic nanoparticles, expecting improvement of the thermoelectric performance due to the magnetic field generated by the nanoparticles. Powder x-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements of the synthesized hybrid Bi0.88Sb0.12(FeSb)0.05 sample indicated that the ferromagnetic FeSb nanoparticles, with a size of about 30 nm, were distributed in the main phase of the Bi-Sb alloy. The FeSb nanoparticles act as soft ferromagnets in the diamagnetic host Bi-Sb alloy. The electrical resistivity ρ of the host Bi0.88Sb0.12 sample decreased concomitantly with decreasing temperature, showing a shoulder at 80 K. In contrast, ρ for the hybrid sample was enhanced below 100 K because of carrier scattering by the nanoparticles. The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient S was also altered by the nanoparticle addition. In contrast, the addition of magnetic nanoparticles only slightly influenced the thermal conductivity κ. These results indicate that the addition of magnetic nanoparticles to thermoelectric materials modulates the electronic structures but does not influence the lattice system.

  16. Evaluation of Beef by Electronic Tongue System TS-5000Z: Flavor Assessment, Recognition and Chemical Compositions According to Its Correlation with Flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Xinzhuang Zhang; Yawei Zhang; Qingxiang Meng; Ning Li; Liping Ren

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of electronic tongue system TS-5000Z to evaluate meat quality based on flavor assessment, recognition and correlation with the meat chemical composition. Meat was sampled from eighteen beef cattle including 6 Wagyu breed cattle, 6 Angus breed cattle and 6 Simmental breed cattle. Chemical composition including dry matter, crude protein, fat, ash, cholesterol and taurine and flavor of the meat were measured. The results showed that different breed...

  17. PROXIMAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE EXTRACT OF PASSION FRUIT SEEDS (Passiflora edulis IN SOYBEAN OIL COMPOSIÇÃO CENTESIMAL E ATIVIDADE ANTIOXIDANTE DO EXTRATO DE SEMENTES DE MARACUJÁ (Passiflora edulis EM ÓLEO DE SOJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Milene Angelo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This study evaluated the antioxidant activity of passion fruit seeds extract in soybean oil. Dried seeds were ground and submitted to extraction with ethanol:water (95:5, for two hours, at room temperature. The resulting extract was centrifuged and the supernatant evaporated for dry extract yield calculation. The extract of passion fruit seeds was suspended again in ethanol:water (95:5 and applied to soybean oil in two concentrations (500 mg kg-1 and 1,000 mg kg-1, being submitted to oven accelerated test at 60oC, for 20 days. Oil samples were taken every 5 days and analyzed for peroxide value. As a parameter of comparison, it was used butyl hydroxytoluene (BHT as well as refined soybean oil without antioxidants (control. In the extract, the antioxidant activity was measured by the DPPH radical method and total phenols by using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. The yield of dry extract was 1.26%, the IC50 value was 113.41 µg mL-1, and the concentration of total phenolic compounds was 42.93 mg of gallic acid per gram of extract. At the final heating time, peroxide values were significantly different and the antioxidant activity order was: BHT > passion fruit 500 mg kg-1 > passion fruit 1,000 mg kg-1 > control.

    KEY-WORDS: Antioxidants; passion fruit seeds; peroxide value; proximal

  18. Proximate analysis and total lycopene content of some tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: Roma VF, Ronita and UTC grown in six local government areas of Kano state, Nigeria. Results indicated mean values of 0.15±0.03, 0.16±0.01, 0.15±0.01% titratable acidity; ...

  19. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of. Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open .... Vegetable microbiota is very diverse and vegetable quality and safety depend on many factors, including soil, fertilizer, irrigation water, ...

  20. 7383 EFFECT OF PROCESSING METHOD ON THE PROXIMATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Tilahun

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... Although taro is widely grown in Ethiopia, it is an underutilized crop and little is known about its proximate and micro-element composition and the antinutritional factors of the raw, boiled and fermented products. Boiling and fermentation processing techniques are widely used in the country, especially ...

  1. Rate of water absorption and proximate analysis of different varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water absorption and proximate composition of four varieties of maize; sweet corn, pop corn, white corn and yellow corn soaked at different temperatures and time duration were determined. Absorption increased with increase in temperatures and time but generally low at 45°C. The total average rate of hydration at different ...

  2. Performance, proximate and mineral analyses of African giant land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance, proximate and mineral analyses of African giant land snail ( Archachatina marginata ) fed different nitrogen sources. ... Analysis of the Hemolymph mineral composition revealed that snails fed Diet I had the highest value for Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+ while the highest value in Na+ and Zn2+ was recorded in snails ...

  3. Proximate and Anti-Nutritional Constituents of Forage Legumes at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five non-conventional forage legumes used as alternative plant protein sources in livestock nutrition in Nigeria were assayed for proximate and anti-nutritional compositions. The forages, Cajanus cajan, Vigna radiata, Mucuna ghana, Mucuna conchinchinensis and Mucuna rajada were harvested at emergence, 4 and 8 ...

  4. Effect of Processing Methods on the Proximate and Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four methods of processing were assessed to investigate the effect of processing methods on the digestibility, proximate and energy composition of Lablab purpureus (Rongai) beans. The processing methods were boiling (in water), fermentation, toasting and fermentation plus toasting. Some of The beans were boiled for 0, ...

  5. Proximate analysis of some dry season vegetables in Anyigba, Kogi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... the exotic vegetables cultivated in Nigeria are cabbage, lettuce, cauli-flower and turnip leafy as well as stems such as Carrot (Aliyu, 2006). ... at 550°C for 48 h, proximate chemical composition of each vegetable sample was carried out to determine the moisture, ash, fat, crude fibre, protein and carbohydrate ...

  6. 37 Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research Vol. 19, 2014 Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AL-AMAANI

    Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research. Vol. 19, 2014. Proximate, Mineral and Anti-nutritional Composition of Cucurbita Maxima Fruits Parts. Mohaammed S. S. 1 ., Paiko Y. B. 2 ., Mann A. 2 ., Ndamitso M. M. 3 ., Mathew J. T. 2 . and Maaji, S. 1 . 1. Deparment of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M. B. 65, ...

  7. Some Proximate Analysis of African Pear ( Dacryodes Edulis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05) were observed between the samples for all the parameters measured. Fruit density showed a negative correlation (r = -0.86) with the pulp/seed ratio. Significant differences were also observed in the proximate composition of the African pear pulp. The major components of the pulp were moisture (36.5% to 53.82%), ...

  8. Proximate analysis of selected sorghum cultivars | Jimoh | Bayero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate analysis revealed that sorghum samples contains appreciable nutrient contents. Also from the result, it has shown that the values of the improved varieties from the Institute for Agricultural research (IAR) Zaria is higher in the parameters analysed as compared to the local samples. The mineral composition of ...

  9. Effect of Different Soaking Time and Boiling on the Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of soaking time on the proximate composition and functional properties of sprouted sesame seed flour were investigated. Sesame seed samples were cleaned and pretreated by soaking in clean water for 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 h. One batch was sprouted for 36 h and another portion was sprouted and then boiled ...

  10. Superconducting proximity effect for in situ and model layered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnemore, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    The primary drawback for in situ composites is that the ac losses are higher than for mechanically produced multifilamentary wire. To develop an understanding of the proximity effect so that analytical expressions will be available for design, a model system is developed based on PbCd. Items discussed include boundary conditions at SN interface, phonon spectral function, supercurrents through normal barriers, flux entry fields, and implications for in situ composites. (GHT)

  11. Surface Modification of Carbon Nanotubes with Conjugated Polyelectrolytes: Fundamental Interactions and Applications in Composite Materials, Nanofibers, Electronics, and Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Ezzeddine, Alaa

    2015-10-01

    the composites thermal, mechanical and electrical properties compared to pristine CNTs. Various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques such as UV-vis, fluorescence, TEM, AFM and SEM were used to study and characterize the CPE/CNT complexes. Also, TGA, DSC and DMA were used to study the thermal and mechanical properties of the composite materials. Our current work represents a fundamental study on the non-covalent interactions between CNTs and CPEs on one hand and gives a real life example on the CPE/CNT application in composite materials and electronics.

  12. Welding of a corrosion-resistant composite material based on VT14 titanium alloy obtained using an electron beam emitted into the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkovski, M. G.; Samoylenko, V. V.; Polyakov, I. A.; Lenivtseva, O. G.; Chakin, I. K.; Komarov, P. N.; Ruktuev, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigates the possibility of inert gas arc welding of a double layer composite material on a titanium base with an anti-corrosive layer obtained by fused deposition of a powder mix containing tantalum and niobium over a titanium base using an electron beam emitted into the atmosphere. Butt welding and fillet welding options were tested with two types of edge preparation. Welds were subjected to a metallographic examination including a structural study and an analysis of the chemical and phase composition of the welds. A conclusion was made regarding the possibility of using welding for manufacturing of items from the investigated composite material.

  13. Proximity and touch sensing using deformable ionic conductors (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, John D. W.; Dobashi, Yuta; Sarwar, Mirza S.; Preston, Eden C.; Wyss, Justin K. M.; Woehling, Vincent; Nguyen, Tran-Minh-Giao; Plesse, Cedric; Vidal, Frédéric; Naficy, Sina; Spinks, Geoffrey M.

    2017-04-01

    There is increasing interest in creating bendable and stretchable electronic interfaces that can be worn or applied to virtually any surface. The electroactive polymer community is well placed to add value by incorporating sensors and actuators. Recent work has demonstrated transparent dielectric elastomer actuation as well as pressure, stretch or touch sensing. Here we present two alternative forms of sensing. The first uses ionically conductive and stretchable gels as electrodes in capacitive sensors that detect finger proximity. In this case the finger acts as a third electrode, reducing capacitance between the two gel electrodes as it approaches, which can be detected even during bending and stretching. Very light finger touch is readily detected even during deformation of the substrate. Lateral resolution is achieved by creating a sensor array. In the second approach, electrodes placed beneath a salt containing gel are able to detect ion currents generated by the deformation of the gel. In this approach, applied pressure results in ion currents that create a potential difference around the point of contact, leading to a voltage and current in the electrodes without any need for input electrical energy. The mechanism may be related to effects seen in ionomeric polymer metal composites (IPMCs), but with the response in plane rather than through the thickness of the film. Ultimately, these ionically conductive materials that can also be transparent and actuate, have the potential to be used in wearable devices.

  14. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  15. Reparability of aged silorane with methacrylate-based resin composite: micro-shear bond strength and scanning electron microscopy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachetti, L; Scaminaci Russo, D; Baldini, M; Goracci, C; Ferrari, M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the compatibility between aged siloranes and methacrylate-based composites by simulating a common repair-technique. Twenty substrates were constructed using silorane (Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE) and methacrylate composites (Filtek Supreme XT, 3M ESPE). Substrates were aged in 0.9% NaCl solution at 37°C for 72 hours. Silorane build-ups were constructed on silorane substrates without any intermediate layer (IL). Methacrylate build-ups were constructed on silorane substrates without any IL, with a methacrylate IL (Heliobond, Ivoclar Vivadent), or with a phosphate-methacrylate IL (Silorane System Adhesive Bond, 3M ESPE). Methacrylate build-ups were also constructed on methacrylate substrates without any IL. The micro-shear bond strength test was carried out after thermocycling. Bond strength data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests. Failure modes were assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy observations. The silorane-methacrylate group without any IL showed the lowest bond strength values (0.4 ± 0.1 MPa). The use of a methacrylate-based IL (1.6 ± 1.7 MPa) led to a slight increase in bond strength, whereas the use of phosphate-methacrylate IL (9.1 ± 5.4 MPa) significantly increased bond strength. There was no statistically significant difference in bond strength between silorane-silorane (7.9 ± 3.6 MPa) and methacrylate-methacrylate (9.5 ± 4.1 MPa) groups without any IL.

  16. ON THE IDENTITY OF KARLODINIUM VENEFICUM AND DESCRIPTION OF KARLODINIUM ARMIGER SP. NOV. (DINOPHYCEAE), BASED ON LIGHT AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, NUCLEAR-ENCODED LSU RDNA, AND PIGMENT COMPOSITION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholtz, Trine; Daugbjerg, Niels; Moestrup, Øjvind

    2006-01-01

    An undescribed species of the dinoflagellate genus Karlodinium J. Larsen (viz. K. armiger sp. nov.) is described from Alfacs Bay (Spain), using light and electron microscopy, pigment composition, and partial large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequence. The new species differs from the type species of Karlo...

  17. Effects of extracellular fluid volume and plasma bicarbonate concentration on proximal acidification in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Alpern, R J; Cogan, M G; Rector, F C

    1983-01-01

    The effects of systemic bicarbonate concentration and extracellular fluid volume status on proximal tubular bicarbonate absorption, independent of changes in luminal composition and flow rate, were examined with in vivo luminal microperfusion of rat superficial proximal convoluted tubules. Net bicarbonate absorption and bicarbonate permeability were measured using microcalorimetry. From these data, net bicarbonate absorption was divided into two parallel components: proton secretion and passi...

  18. Test results for electron beam charging of flexible insulators and composites. [solar array substrates, honeycomb panels, and thin dielectric films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staskus, J. V.; Berkopec, F. D.

    1979-01-01

    Flexible solar-array substrates, graphite-fiber/epoxy - aluminum honeycomb panels, and thin dielectric films were exposed to monoenergetic electron beams ranging in energy from 2 to 20 keV in the Lewis Research Center's geomagnetic-substorm-environment simulation facility to determine surface potentials, dc currents, and surface discharges. The four solar-array substrate samples consisted of Kapton sheet reinforced with fabrics of woven glass or carbon fibers. They represented different construction techniques that might be used to reduce the charge accumulation on the array back surface. Five honeycomb-panel samples were tested, two of which were representative of Voyager antenna materials and had either conductive or nonconductive painted surfaces. A third sample was of Navstar solar-array substrate material. The other two samples were of materials proposed for use on Intelsat V. All the honeycomb-panel samples had graphite-fiber/epoxy composite face sheets. The thin dielectric films were 2.54-micrometer-thick Mylar and 7.62-micrometer-thick Kapton.

  19. Electronic materials high-T(sub c) superconductivity polymers and composites structural materials surface science and catalysts industry participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The fifth year of the Center for Advanced Materials was marked primarily by the significant scientific accomplishments of the research programs. The Electronics Materials program continued its work on the growth and characterization of gallium arsenide crystals, and the development of theories to understand the nature and distribution of defects in the crystals. The High Tc Superconductivity Program continued to make significant contributions to the field in theoretical and experimental work on both bulk materials and thin films and devices. The Ceramic Processing group developed a new technique for cladding YBCO superconductors for high current applications in work with the Electric Power Research Institute. The Polymers and Composites program published a number of important studies involving atomistic simulations of polymer surfaces with excellent correlations to experimental results. The new Enzymatic Synthesis of Materials project produced its first fluorinated polymers and successfully began engineering enzymes designed for materials synthesis. The structural Materials Program continued work on novel alloys, development of processing methods for advanced ceramics, and characterization of mechanical properties of these materials, including the newly documented characterization of cyclic fatigue crack propagation behavior in toughened ceramics. Finally, the Surface Science and Catalysis program made significant contributions to the understanding of microporous catalysts and the nature of surface structures and interface compounds.

  20. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors. [hand mounted IR device to detect nearby objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    Optical proximity sensing devices suitable for hand mounting on a manipulator are described, which use near IR LED light sources operating at 0.94 micron and silicon detectors, with appropriate signal processing so that the data are unaffected by ambient light. Laboratory tests with simple proximity sensors are described. Extension of the same techniques to yield multipoint or digital sensors is also discussed. A cooperative proximity sensor concept is described, which employs a composite mirror attached to the work piece to generate an unambiguous set of position and orientation signals. A very rudimentary experiment in local control of a manipulator with a pair of hand mounted proximity sensors is also described.

  1. Scattering Effects in Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Wei

    PETS (Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy) technique has been applied to Niobium/Yttrium and Niobium/Lutetium bilayers. We have determined electron - phonon interaction parameter lambda_{rm e -ph} is 0.55 for Yttrium and 0.67 for Lutetium. Spin fluctuations parameter lambda_{ rm S} is 0.20 for Yttrium and 0.33 for Lutetium. We found that the large spin fluctuations in Yttrium and Lutetium has responsibility to the absence of superconductivity in them. Our results have given a reasonable explanation of high superconducting transition temperature in them under high pressure. The large reflection coefficient and strong diffuse scattering at Nb/Y and Nb/Lu interface has been discovered and it should have strong influence on the transport properties of metallic superlattices. From the modeling study of elastic scattering in proximity effect tunnel junctions, we have explained why some conventional made high {rm T_{C}} superconducting tunnel junctions give ideal like characteristics in the gap region but variable strength phonon structures in the phonon region.

  2. The effect of the undigested fraction of maize products on the activity and composition of the microbiota determined in a dynamic in vitro model of the human proximal large intestine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maathuis, A.; Hoffman, A.; Evans, A.; Sanders, L.; Venema, K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of 5 newly developed maize-based fibers on the activity and composition of the microbiota in the colon. The fibers tested were glucose-based and had variable structures, including 2 resistant starch preparations, soluble corn fiber, pullulan, and soluble fiber

  3. The theoretical simulation on electrostatic distribution of 1st proximity region in proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liandong; Bai, Xiaofeng; Song, De; Fu, Shencheng; Li, Ye; Duanmu, Qingduo

    2015-03-01

    Low-light-level night vision technology is magnifying low light level signal large enough to be seen by naked eye, which uses the photons - photoelectron as information carrier. Until the micro-channel plate was invented, it has been possibility for the realization of high performance and miniaturization of low-light-level night vision device. The device is double-proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier which places a micro-channel plate close to photocathode and phosphor screen. The advantages of proximity focusing low-light-level night vision are small size, light weight, small power consumption, no distortion, fast response speed, wide dynamic range and so on. It is placed parallel to each other for Micro-channel plate (both sides of it with metal electrode), the photocathode and the phosphor screen are placed parallel to each other. The voltage is applied between photocathode and the input of micro-channel plate when image intensifier works. The emission electron excited by photo on the photocathode move towards to micro-channel plate under the electric field in 1st proximity focusing region, and then it is multiplied through the micro-channel. The movement locus of emission electrons can be calculated and simulated when the distributions of electrostatic field equipotential lines are determined in the 1st proximity focusing region. Furthermore the resolution of image tube can be determined. However the distributions of electrostatic fields and equipotential lines are complex due to a lot of micro-channel existing in the micro channel plate. This paper simulates electrostatic distribution of 1st proximity region in double-proximity focusing low-light-level image intensifier with the finite element simulation analysis software Ansoft maxwell 3D. The electrostatic field distributions of 1st proximity region are compared when the micro-channel plates' pore size, spacing and inclination angle ranged. We believe that the electron beam movement

  4. Scanning electron microscopic study of teeth restored with fiber posts and composite resin: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Sridhara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate the thickness of resin dentin interface zones (RDIZ obtained by luting carbon fiber post to intra-radicular dentin, either with All-Bond 2 bonding agent and C and B composite cement or Panavia F dentin-bonding system and Panavia F resin cement. Materials and Methods: Twenty single rooted mandibular premolars of similar sizes were prepared for the carbon fiber post after biomechanical preparation and obturation. They were divided into two groups, Group 1 and 2 of 10 samples each. Carbon fiber posts used for Group 1 samples were luted using All-Bond 2 and C and B cement. For Group 2 carbon fiber posts were luted using Panavia F dentin-bonding system and Panavia F resin cement. All the 20 samples were sectioned longitudinally and marked at three points on the length of the tooth from the dentin-core interface to the apex at 2 mm, 5 mm, and 8 mm to get coronal, middle, and apical areas, respectively. The formation and thickness (width of the RDIZ at the marked areas was evaluated by scanning electron microscope using ×1000 magnification. The results were statistical analyzed. Results: Irrespective of the adhesive systems used all specimens showed a RDIZ formation. Microscopic examination of Group 1 showed significantly higher percentage of RDIZ (P < 0.05 than Group 2. RDIZ morphology was easily detectable at coronal and middle areas of all specimens. Conclusion: All-Bond 2 showed denser and wider RDIZ compared with the Panavia F.

  5. Impacts of nitrate and electron donor on perchlorate reduction and microbial community composition in a biologically activated carbon reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanping; Wu, Min; Gao, Naiyun; Chu, Wenhai; Wang, Shuaifeng

    2016-12-01

    The sensitivity of perchlorate reduction and microbial composition to varied nitrate and acetate loadings was studied in a biologically activated carbon reactor with perchlorate loading and empty bed contact time fixed at 5 mg/L and 226 min, respectively. In stage 1, the sole electron acceptor ClO4- realized complete removal with ≥21.95 mg C/L of acetate supply. As nitrate loading gradually increased to 5 mg/L (stage 2), perchlorate reduction was slightly promoted and both ClO4- and NO3- were completely removed at an acetate loading of 29.7 mg C/L. When nitrate loading continued increasing to 10-60 mg/L (stage 3), perchlorate reduction converted to be inhibited, along with nondetectable NO3- and approximately exhausted DOC in effluent. When acetate loading increased to 43.9 mg C/L in stage 4, both ClO4- and NO3- were again removed, though lags still existed in perchlorate reduction. β-Proteobacteria accounted for about 60%, 55%, 58%, 61% and 12% in samples from the base and top of the filter in stage 1 and those from the base, middle and top in stage 4, respectively. These findings implied that ratio of NO3- to ClO4- loadings and acetate loading were two key factors impacting ClO4- reduction and microbial structure along the filter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Differently substituted sulfonated polyanilines: the role of polymer compositions in electron transfer with pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarauli, David; Xu, Chenggang; Dietzel, Birgit; Schulz, Burkhard; Lisdat, Fred

    2013-09-01

    Sulfonated polyanilines have become promising building blocks in the construction of biosensors, and therefore we use here differently substituted polymer forms to investigate the role of their structural composition and properties in achieving a direct electron transfer with the redox enzyme pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH). To this end, new copolymers containing different ratios of 2-methoxyaniline-5-sulfonic acid (MAS), 3-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS) and 3-aminobenzoic acid (AB) units have been chemically synthesized. All polymers have been studied with respect to their ability to react directly with PQQ-GDH. This interaction has been monitored initially in solution, and subsequently on electrode surfaces. The results show that only copolymers with MAS and aniline units can directly react with PQQ-GDH in solution; the background can be mainly ascribed to the emeraldine salt redox state of the polymer, allowing rather easy reduction. However, when polymers and the enzyme are immobilized on the surface of carbon nanotube-containing electrodes, direct bioelectrocatalysis is also feasible in the case of copolymers composed of ABS/AB and MAS/AB units, existing initially in pernigraniline base form. This verifies that a productive interaction of the enzyme with differently substituted polymers is feasible when the electrode potential can be used to drive the reaction towards the oxidation of the substrate-reduced enzyme. These results clearly demonstrate that enzyme electrodes based on sulfonated polyanilines and direct bioelectrocatalysis can be successfully constructed. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Photoactivated In Vivo Proximity Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David B; Bonasio, Roberto

    2017-06-19

    Identification of molecular interactions is paramount to understanding how cells function. Most available technologies rely on co-purification of a protein of interest and its binding partners. Therefore, they are limited in their ability to detect low-affinity interactions and cannot be applied to proteins that localize to difficult-to-solubilize cellular compartments. In vivo proximity labeling (IPL) overcomes these obstacles by covalently tagging proteins and RNAs based on their proximity in vivo to a protein of interest. In IPL, a heterobifunctional probe comprising a photoactivatable moiety and biotin is recruited by a monomeric streptavidin tag fused to a protein of interest. Following UV irradiation, candidate interacting proteins and RNAs are covalently biotinylated with tight spatial and temporal control and subsequently recovered using biotin as an affinity handle. Here, we describe experimental protocols to discover novel protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions using IPL. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Clinical applicability of resin infiltration for proximal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarabulsi, Mohammad Basel; Alkilzy, Mohammad; Splieth, Christian H

    2013-02-01

    Resin infiltration is a new microinvasive treatment to arrest the progress of proximal initial caries lesions. This study evaluated the clinical applicability of proximal caries infiltration. In the study population of 50 children, adolescents, and young adults (mean age, 17.3 ± 6.4 years), 10 dentists at the University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany, applied the infiltration material Icon on noncavitated proximal lesions in permanent and primary teeth as described by the manufacturer. The applicability was evaluated using two questionnaires filled out by clinicians and patients assessing the comfort, complexity, time, and difficulties of the application in comparison to a filling. The results showed good patient satisfaction with the procedure. The mean time for infiltration (24.3 ± 7.4 minutes), which included rubber dam application (7.7 ± 4 minutes) and the effort were perceived to be comparable to or even easier than a composite filling by clinicians. In three patients (6%), it was not possible to gain sufficient proximal space for the application of an infiltration. The location of the infiltrated tooth, separation problems, and the routine of clinicians with the infiltration technique had an effect on the duration of the infiltration. A clear learning curve with a reduction of treatment time for subsequent treatments was observed (P proximal lesion showed good clinical applicability for clinicians and very high acceptance by patients.

  9. Prox-1 Automated Proximity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-13

    on demonstrating the functionality required to meet minimum mission success criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of...also includes deployment of LightSail-B from the P-POD, and imaging of LightSail-B for 20 minutes as it recedes from Prox-1. small satellite ; proximity...criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of all spacecraft subsystems, including flight qualification of the following new

  10. Nickel-induced transformation of diamond into graphite and carbon nanotubes and the electron field emission properties of resulting composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunlu; Deng, Zejun; Zhou, Bo; Wei, Qiuping; Long, Hangyu; Wang, Yijia; Li, Jiaxin; Hu, Naixiu; Ma, Li; Lin, Cheng-Te; Yu, Zhiming; Zhou, Kechao

    2018-01-01

    The metal-induced transformation of diamond into graphite and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was achieved by catalytic deposition with nickel as the catalyst. The quality of catalytic products was assessed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that the catalytic process could be controlled by adjusting the carbonaceous concentration in the deposition atmosphere, and new information concerning the diamond/Ni/graphite multi-phase mixed interface between diamond and carbon nanotube has been analyzed. A model was put forward to elucidate the mechanism of catalytic etching and growth on the diamond surface. In addition, the resulting diamond/CNTs composite film (10% CH4) was found to exhibit the lowest turn-on field of 6.9 V/μm as well as good current emission stability compared to the other composite films.

  11. Combined use of optical and electron microscopic techniques for the measurement of hygroscopic property, chemical composition, and morphology of individual aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kang-Ho; Kim, Sun-Man; Jung, Hae-Jin; Lee, Mi-Jung; Eom, Hyo-Jin; Maskey, Shila; Ro, Chul-Un

    2010-10-01

    In this work, an analytical method for the characterization of the hygroscopic property, chemical composition, and morphology of individual aerosol particles is introduced. The method, which is based on the combined use of optical and electron microscopic techniques, is simple and easy to apply. An optical microscopic technique was used to perform the visual observation of the phase transformation and hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles on a single particle level. A quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis, named low-Z particle EPMA, was used to perform a quantitative chemical speciation of the same individual particles after the measurement of the hygroscopic property. To validate the analytical methodology, the hygroscopic properties of artificially generated NaCl, KCl, (NH(4))(2)SO(4), and Na(2)SO(4) aerosol particles of micrometer size were investigated. The practical applicability of the analytical method for studying the hygroscopic property, chemical composition, and morphology of ambient aerosol particles is demonstrated.

  12. Separate electron-hole confinement in composite InAsyP1-y/GaxIn1-xAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silov, A. Y.; Aneeshkumar, Balakrishnan N.; Leys, M. R.; Averkiev, N. S.; Christianen, P. C. M.; Wolter, Joachim H.

    2003-06-01

    Composite double qunatum wells made from materials with a type-II band line-up have been grown to realize separate confinement in real space for electrons and holes. We have observed a substantial blue shift of the lowest energy transition in such composite double quantum wells. The photocurrent measurements demonstrate a linear Stark shift due to the separate confinement in real space for electrons and holes. The charge separation is up to 45 Å in the strain balanced InAs0.42P0.58/Ga0.67In0.33As samples. The experimental results agree very well with calculations in the framework of Bir-Pikus strain Hamiltonian.

  13. Whole-journey nanomaterial research in an electron microscope: from material synthesis, composition characterization, property measurements to device construction and tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhiqiang; Li, Xing; Wu, Gongtao; Gao, Song; Chen, Qing; Peng, Lianmao; Wei, Xianlong

    2016-12-01

    The whole-journey nanomaterial research from material synthesis, composition and structure characterizations, property measurements to device construction and tests in one equipment chamber provides a quick and unambiguous way of establishing the relationships between synthesis conditions, composition and structures, physical properties and nanodevice performances of nanomaterials; however, it still proves challenging. Herein, we report the whole-journey research of tungsten oxide nanowires in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) equipped with an x-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and a multifunctional nanoprobe system. Tungsten oxide nanowires are synthesized by irradiating a tungsten filament using a high-energy laser in O2 atmosphere with the dynamic growth processes of nanowires being directly visualized under ESEM observation. The as-synthesized nanowires are then characterized to be monoclinic W18O49 nanowires by combing in situ EDS and ex situ transmission electron microscopy. Important physical parameters, i.e. Young’s modulus, breaking strength, and electrical conductivity, of W18O49 nanowires are determined based on in situ property measurements. Two-terminal electronic devices employing single W18O49 nanowires as the channel are in situ constructed and their performances as near-infrared photodetectors and water vapor sensors are studied. The whole-journey research establishes the relationships between synthesis conditions, composition and structures, physical properties and nanodevice performances of tungsten oxide nanowires, and can be applied to other nanomaterials.

  14. Effect of different parameters of Er:YAG laser irradiations on class V composite restorations: A scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Emre; Tuna, Elif Bahar; Firatli, Sonmez; Firatli, Erhan

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare different parameters of Er:YAG laser irradiations on the marginal microleakage of Class V resin composite restorations. A total of 45 extracted premolars were selected for the study. Class V cavities prepared on both buccal and lingual surfaces of teeth by Er:YAG laser or bur and divided into nine groups. The occlusal margins were in enamel and the cervical margins were in cementum. Group-1: bur preparation; Group-2: laser preparation (lp) (600 mJ/5 Hz); Group-3: lp (300 mJ/10 Hz); Group-4: lp (200 mJ/15 Hz); Group-5: lp (150 mJ/20 Hz); Group-6: lp (200 mJ/20 Hz); Group-7: lp (300 mJ/14 Hz); Group-8: lp (400 mJ/10 Hz); Group-9: lp (700 mJ/5 Hz). All teeth were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h, then thermocycled 1,000 times (5-55°C). Five teeth from each group were chosen for the microleakage investigation and two teeth for the scanning electron microscope (SEM) evaluation. Teeth, which were prepared for the microleakage test were immersed in 0.5% methylene blue dye for 24 h. After immersing, the teeth were sectioned and observed under a stereomicroscope for dye penetration. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (p  0.05). No significant difference was observed among groups in terms of occlusal and cervical surfaces, separately (p > 0.05). It may be concluded that the cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser showed higher degree of microleakage than bur prepared at cervical regions. Different parameters of Er:YAG laser irradiations affected microleakage. SCANNING 38:434-441, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. La música electroacústica de Gustavo Becerra (Homenaje a sus 80 años Gustavo Becerra: His Electronic Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Schumacher Ratti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El distinguido compositor chileno Gustavo Becerra-Schmidt cumplió 80 años el 26 de agosto de 2005. Como un homenaje a su vigésimo octavo aniversario se escribió este artículo, dando cuenta de los aportes del Maestro en el campo de la música electroacústica a través de un breve análisis de sus creaciones en ese ámbito. Además, se elaboró un catálogo de sus obras electrónicasThis article has been written as a hommage to the distinguished Chilean composer Gustavo Becerra-Schmidt on his 80th birthday (August 26, 2005. It examines his creative output in the field of electronic music by means of an analytical survey of his main electronic compositions. A catalog of his electronic works is provided

  16. Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise; Cerepani, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Finger dislocations are common injuries that are often managed by emergency nurse practitioners. A systematic physical examination following these injuries is imperative to avoid complications. Radiographic views, including the anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views, are imperative to evaluate these finger dislocations. A dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is the most common finger dislocation type often easily reduced. A volar PIP dislocation can often be difficult to reduce and may result in finger deformity. Finger dislocations should be reduced promptly. Referral to an orthopedic hand specialist is required if the dislocation is unable to be reduced or if the finger joint is unstable following reduction attempts.

  17. Proximity coupling in superconductor-graphene heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2018-02-16

    This review discusses the electronic properties and the prospective research directions of superconductor-graphene heterostructures. The basic electronic properties of graphene are introduced to highlight the unique possibility of combining two seemingly unrelated physics, superconductivity and relativity. We then focus on graphene-based Josephson junctions, one of the most versatile superconducting quantum devices. The various theoretical methods that have been developed to describe graphene Josephson junctions are examined, together with their advantages and limitations, followed by a discussion on the advances in device fabrication and the relevant length scales. The phase-sensitive properties and phase-particle dynamics of graphene Josephson junctions are examined to provide an understanding of the underlying mechanisms of Josephson coupling via graphene. Thereafter, microscopic transport of correlated quasiparticles produced by Andreev reflections at superconducting interfaces and their phase-coherent behaviors are discussed. Quantum phase transitions studied with graphene as an electrostatically tunable two-dimensional platform are reviewed. The interplay between proximity-induced superconductivity and the quantum-Hall phase is discussed as a possible route to study topological superconductivity and non-Abelian physics. Finally, a brief summary on the prospective future research directions is given. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of Beef by Electronic Tongue System TS-5000Z: Flavor Assessment, Recognition and Chemical Compositions According to Its Correlation with Flavor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhuang Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the ability of electronic tongue system TS-5000Z to evaluate meat quality based on flavor assessment, recognition and correlation with the meat chemical composition. Meat was sampled from eighteen beef cattle including 6 Wagyu breed cattle, 6 Angus breed cattle and 6 Simmental breed cattle. Chemical composition including dry matter, crude protein, fat, ash, cholesterol and taurine and flavor of the meat were measured. The results showed that different breed cattle had different chemical compositions and flavor, which contains sourness, umami, saltiness, bitterness, astringency, aftertaste from astringency, aftertaste from bitterness and aftertaste from umami, respectively. A principal component analysis (PCA showed an easily visible separation between different breeds of cattle and indicated that TS-5000Z made a rapid identification of different breeds of cattle. In addition, TS-5000Z seemed to be used to predict the chemical composition according to its correlation with the flavor. In conclusion, TS-5000Z would be used as a rapid analytical tool to evaluate the beef quality both qualitatively and quantitatively, based on flavor assessment, recognition and chemical composition according to its correlation with flavor.

  19. Evaluation of Beef by Electronic Tongue System TS-5000Z: Flavor Assessment, Recognition and Chemical Compositions According to Its Correlation with Flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzhuang; Zhang, Yawei; Meng, Qingxiang; Li, Ning; Ren, Liping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ability of electronic tongue system TS-5000Z to evaluate meat quality based on flavor assessment, recognition and correlation with the meat chemical composition. Meat was sampled from eighteen beef cattle including 6 Wagyu breed cattle, 6 Angus breed cattle and 6 Simmental breed cattle. Chemical composition including dry matter, crude protein, fat, ash, cholesterol and taurine and flavor of the meat were measured. The results showed that different breed cattle had different chemical compositions and flavor, which contains sourness, umami, saltiness, bitterness, astringency, aftertaste from astringency, aftertaste from bitterness and aftertaste from umami, respectively. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed an easily visible separation between different breeds of cattle and indicated that TS-5000Z made a rapid identification of different breeds of cattle. In addition, TS-5000Z seemed to be used to predict the chemical composition according to its correlation with the flavor. In conclusion, TS-5000Z would be used as a rapid analytical tool to evaluate the beef quality both qualitatively and quantitatively, based on flavor assessment, recognition and chemical composition according to its correlation with flavor.

  20. Graphene oxide reinforced poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid)/polyvinyl alcohol blend composites with enhanced dielectric properties for portable and flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Kalim, E-mail: deshmukh.kalim@gmail.com [Department of Physics, B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai, 600048, TN (India); Ahamed, M. Basheer [Department of Physics, B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai, 600048, TN (India); Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; AlMaadeed, Mariam Al-Ali [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Khadheer Pasha, S.K. [Department of Physics, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, 632014, TN (India); Deshmukh, Rajendra R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai, 400019 (India); Chidambaram, K. [Department of Physics, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, 632014, TN (India)

    2017-01-15

    In this work, Graphene Oxide (GO) reinforced novel polymer composites comprising of poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSSA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blend matrix have been developed using colloidal processing technique. The properties and the structure of prepared composites were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectroscopy (UV), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Polarized optical microscopy (POM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FTIR and Raman spectroscopy analysis indicate the strong interfacial interaction between GO and PSSA/PVA blend matrix. The XRD and SEM analysis confirm that GO was fully exfoliated into individual graphene sheets and dispersed homogeneously within the polymer matrix. The effective reinforcement of GO into PSSA/PVA blend matrix has resulted in the enhancement of dielectric constant. The dielectric constant has increased from 82.67 (50 Hz, 150 °C) for PSSA/PVA (50/50) blend to 297.91 (50 Hz, 150 °C) for PSSA/PVA/GO composites with 3 wt % GO loading. The dielectric loss (tan δ) has increased from 1.56 (50 KHz, 140 °C) for PSSA/PVA (50/50) blend to 2.64 (50 KHz, 140 °C) for PSSA/PVA/GO composites with 3 wt % GO loading. These findings provide a new insight to fabricate flexible, high-k dielectric composite as a promising material for energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Graphene Oxide was prepared from natural graphite using modified Hummers method. • Novel PSSA/PVA/GO composites were prepared by reinforcing GO into PSSA/PVA blend matrix. • Molecular level dispersion of GO in PSSA/PVA blend matrix was successfully achieved. • Enhancement in the dielectric constant was observed due to effective reinforcement of GO in PSSA/PVA blend matrix. • PSSA/PVA/GO composites with high dielectric performances can be considered for energy storage applications.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Liquid Crystalline Polyurethane/Al2O3/Epoxy Resin Composites for Electronic Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaorong Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystalline polyurethane (LCPU/Al2O3/epoxy resin composites were prepared by using LCPU as modifier. The mechanical properties, thermal stability, and electrical properties of the LCPU/Al2O3/epoxy resin composites were investigated systematically. The thermal oxidation analysis indicated that LCPU/Al2O3/epoxy resin composites can sustain higher thermal decomposition temperature. Meanwhile, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE was also found to decrease with addition of LCPU and nano-Al2O3.

  2. Facile and single step synthesis of three dimensional reduced graphene oxide-NiCoO2 composite using microwave for enhanced electron field emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Rajesh K.; Singh, Ashwani K.; Vaz, Alfredo R.; Rout, Chandra S.; Moshkalev, Stanislav A.

    2017-09-01

    We report the enhanced field emission properties of three-dimensional (3D) mixed transition metal oxide with reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rGO-NSs) using a simple and fast synthesis route. The rGO-NSs with different/mixed transition metal oxide (rGO-MxOy) (MxOy = CoO, NiO and NiCoO2) composite has been synthesized for comparative studies for the electron field emission properties. The various rGO-MxOy composite materials were synthesized by microwave irradiation using soild precursor powder. The electron field emission properties were studied for all the samples as rGO-NSs, rGO-CoO, rGO-NiO and 3D rGO-NiCoO2 composite. It was found that specially, rGO-NiCoO2 composite shows the enhanced field emission performance due to synergic effect of mixed transition metal oxide as NiCoO2 nanoparticles with rGO-NSs and also the proper anchoring of NiCoO2 nanoparticles on rGO-NSs. The attachment of NiCoO2 mixed transition metal oxide with rGO-NSs exhibited lower turn-on field, lower threshold field, larger field enhancement factor and stable emission current stability as compared with those of the rGO-NSs, rGO-CoO and rGO-NiO composite. The surface microstructural analysis and morphology were probed by XRD, scanning and Raman. We suggest that anchoring of binary metal oxide nanoparticles on rGO-NSs could be exploited for the development of efficient field emitters.

  3. Titanium oxide:fullerene composite films as electron collector layer in organic solar cells and the use of an easy-deposition cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Maldonado, José-Luis; Nolasco, Jairo; Ramos-Ortíz, Gabriel; Rodríguez, Mario; Torre, Ulises Mendoza-De la; Meneses-Nava, Marco-Antonio; Barbosa-García, Oracio; García-Ortega, Héctor; Farfán, Norberto; Granados, Giovana; Santillan, Rosa; Juaristi, Eusebio

    2014-06-01

    Here is reported the use of a titanium oxide:fullerene (TiOx:PC71BM) composite film as electron collector layer in organic photovoltaic devices (OPV cells). OPV cells were fabricated under the bulk heterojunction architecture: the active layer was a blend of either the photoconductor polymer MEH-PPV or P3HT with the fullerene derivative PC71BM. As cathode the eutectic alloy of Bi, In and Sn, known as Field’s metal, was used. The melting point of this alloy is above 62 °C, which makes it suitable for a vacuum-free deposition process and easy and fast device test. Cell fabrication and testing were carried out at normal room conditions. For OPV cells based on MEH-PPV, the composite thin electron collector layer improved the power conversion efficiency (η) from 1.12% to 2.07%, thus the η increase was about 85%. Meanwhile, for devices based on P3HT the use of the composite film improved the photocurrent in almost 1 mA/cm2 and the efficiency slightly increase from 2.48% to 2.68%.

  4. [Photo-induced electron transfer effects of poly(2-methoxy-5-octyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene/Y2O3:Eu3+ nano-composites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-ping; Ma, Lin-pu; Lin, Ting

    2010-01-01

    The photoelectric nano-composites of poly(2-methoxy-5-octyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene/Y2O3:Eu3+ (PMOCOPV/Y2O3:Eu3+) were prepared by dehydrochlorination in-situ polymerization. The result of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates that PMOCOPV is coated on the surface of Y2O3:Eu3+. Compared with PMOCOPV, the absorption of PMOCOPV/Y2O3:Eu3+ is strengthened, and a red shift of the absorption peak can be clearly observed in the UV-Vis spectrum. Photoluminescence spectroscopy indicates that the maximum emission wavelength of the PMOCOPV/Y2O3:Eu3+ is red-shifted and the intensity of photoluminescence increases in comparison with PMOCOPV. PMOCOPV/Y2O3:Eu3+ shows fluorescence increasing, which involved the inter-molecular photo-induced charge transfer process. The optical band gap of PMOCOPV/Y2O3:Eu3+ decreases. The third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility of PMOCOPV/Y2O3:Eu3+ nano-composites was measured by degenerate four wave mixing. The results show that the third-order nonlinear optical responses of PMOCOPV/Y2O3:Eu3+ nano-composites are enhanced in comparison with PMOCOPV, which can be attributed to inter-molecular photo-induced electron transfer and delocalized pi electron coupling between PMOCOPV and Y2O3:Eu3+.

  5. Biomechanical superiority of plate fixation for proximal tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartford, James M; Hester, Peter; Watt, Phil M; Hamilton, Doris; Rohmiller, Michael; Pienkowski, David

    2003-07-01

    Proximal tibial osteotomies require secure and durable fixation to allow early range of motion; however, biomechanical data comparing commonly used fixation methods are lacking. The current study was done to quantify the dynamic biomechanical performance of blade staple fixation and plate fixation of simulated proximal tibial osteotomies. A 15 degrees proximal tibial osteotomy was done on each of 18 synthetic adult composite tibias. Blade staples were used as the means of fixation in nine tibias; plate fixation was used in the remaining nine tibias. The specimens were stressed cyclically in sinusoidal loading whose peak compression and tension loads imitate those measured during normal gait. Device performance was quantified by measuring displacement at the osteotomy site and the number of cycles to failure. Plate fixation had a greater fatigue life than staples (eight plates surviving past 200,000 cycles versus one blade staple) and showed a trend toward less displacement (0.69 mm versus 0.97 mm). Plate fixation of proximal tibial osteotomies offers better fixation and dynamic mechanical performance than blade staples.

  6. In-situ measurements of delamination crack tip behaviour in composite laminates inside a scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Isabelle

    Delamination is an important failure mode for composite laminates. As it affects the mechanical response of the structure and is difficult to detect from the surface, this type of damage is of great concern, particularly in the aerospace industry. The topic of delamination growth has received much attention, with Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) being the most common approach to predict the behaviour of a crack from the global applied conditions. However, local perturbations such as resin rich regions, fibre bridging and friction have been noticed by many investigators. Thus global applied loads are often not transposed directly into equivalent local crack tip conditions. Moreover, there is currently considerable controversy about the exact nature of mixed-mode fracture behaviour. Therefore, the objective of this thesis is to measure the load and displacement applied to a specimen and, at the same time, the crack tip behaviour, in order to establish a quantitative relation between them. An experimental loading jig designed to fit inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been developed. Mode I, mode II and mixed-mode loadings can be applied. The applied loads and displacements are measured and the images obtained from the SEM are stored. After the test, the crack opening and shear displacements are calculated from the applied loads and displacements using LEFM, and are compared with those measured from the images. Mode I and mode II tests have been conducted that show good agreement between LEFM predictions and measurements. For a brittle material, the behaviour remains linear elastic up to failure. The comparison of the crack faces displacements with the ones obtained from a finite element analysis are also excellent. The effect of the increase in fracture toughness with mode I crack growth on the local crack tip behaviour has been studied. As the crack grows, the magnitude of the measured crack opening displacement profiles is reduced. The

  7. Logarithmic 3-Band Color Encoding: Robust Method for Display and Comparison of Compositional Maps in Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E.; Bright, David S.

    1999-10-01

    Electron-excited X-ray maps recorded with the scanning electron microscope (SEM)/electron probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPMA) are a major method of presenting compositional information. Digitally recorded maps are processed in a variety of ways to improve the visibility of features. Scaling of the recorded signal to match the 8-bit gray-scale intensity range of a typical computer display system is almost always necessary. Inherent limitations of gray-scale displays have led to other intensity-encoding methods for X-ray maps, including clipping, histogram normalization, and pseudocolor scales. While feature visibility is improved by applying these scales, comparisons among image sets are difficult. Quantitative comparisons must be based on standardized intensities corrected for background to produce intensity ratio (k-value) maps. We have developed a new logarithmic, multiband color-encoding method to view these k-value maps more effectively. Three color bands are defined, starting with a dark primary color and grading to a bright pastel: blue = trace (0.001 to 0.01); green = minor (0.01 to 0.1); and red = major (0.1 to 1.0). Within each band, the color is assigned according to a logarithmic scale that depends on intensity ratio or compositional measurements. Logarithmic multiband color encoding permits direct comparisons of maps, such as maps of different elements in the same field of view or maps of the same element in different areas, because the color scale is identical for all maps.

  8. Complications in proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative in vitro evaluation of internal adaptation of resin-modified glass ionomer, flowable composite and bonding agent applied as a liner under composite restoration: A scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubhagya, M; Goud, K Mallikarjun; Deepak, B S; Thakur, Sophia; Nandini, T N; Arun, J

    2015-04-01

    The use of resin-modified glass Ionomer cement in sandwich technique is widely practiced with the advent of various newer generation of composites the bond between resin-modified glass Ionomer and these resins should be validated. This study is done to evaluate the interfacial microgaps between different types of liners and dentin, liners and composite (Filtek p60 [FLp60]) using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Standardized Class V preparations were performed in buccal/lingual surfaces of 30 caries, crack and defect-free extracted human third molars. The prepared teeth were divided into three groups. Group I: Single bond (SB), Group II: SB + synergy flow, Group III: SB + vitrebond. They were restored with composite resin FLp60, according to the manufacturer instructions. The SB + vitrebond, cross-sectioned through the canter of the restoration. The specimens were fixed, dehydrated, polished, and processed for SEM. The internal adaptation of the materials to the axial wall was analyzed under SEM with ×1000 magnification. The data obtained were analyzed with nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis, P < 0.05). flowable composite or resin-modified glass ionomer applied in conjunction with adhesive resulted in statistically wider microgaps than occurred when the dentin was only hybridized prior to the restoration. Hybridization of dentin only provides superior sealing of the dentin-restoration interface than does flowable resin or resin-modified glass ionomer.

  10. Effect of Different Powers of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Treatment on Surface Morphology of Microhybride Composite Resin: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mansore; Yasini, Esmaeil; Tavakoli, Atefeh; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare microhybride composite treated by bur and different power of Erbium, Chromium doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). 21 microhybride composite blocks (DiaFil TM, DiaDent, Korea) with 2 × 4 × 4 mm dimensions were made. The bonding surface of these blocks were polished, The samples were put into 6 groups for laser irradiation as follows: Group 1 (power: 1W, Energy: 50 mJ); Group 2(power: 2 W, Energy: 100mJ); Group 3 (power: 3W, Energy: 150mJ); Group 4 (power: 4W, Energy: 200mJ); Group 5 (power: 5W, Energy: 250mJ) and Group 6(power:6 W, Energy:300mJ). One group prepared by bur- treated. All samples were prepared by repetition rate of 20 Hz. Then, the samples were prepared for SEM examination. Some irregularities were seen in Er,Cr:YSGG laser samples in comparison to Bur group that produced favorable surface for adhesion of repair composite. Among different lasers, Er;Cr:YSGG laser can be chosen as a suitable technique for surface treatment of unsatisfactory composites.

  11. Rhodium Catalysts in the Oxidation of CO by O2 and NO: Shape, Composition, and Hot Electron Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renzas, James R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-03-08

    It is well known that the activity, selectivity, and deactivation behavior of heterogeneous catalysts are strongly affected by a wide variety of parameters, including but not limited to nanoparticle size, shape, composition, support, pretreatment conditions, oxidation state, and electronic state. Enormous effort has been expended in an attempt to understand the role of these factors on catalytic behavior, but much still remains to be discovered. In this work, we have focused on deepening the present understanding of the role of nanoparticle shape, nanoparticle composition, and hot electrons on heterogeneous catalysis in the oxidation of carbon monoxide by molecular oxygen and nitric oxide. These reactions were chosen because they are important for environmental applications, such as in the catalytic converter, and because there is a wide range of experimental and theoretical insight from previous single crystal work as well as experimental data on nanoparticles obtained using new state-of-the-art techniques that aid greatly in the interpretation of results on complex nanoparticle systems. In particular, the studies presented in this work involve three types of samples: ~ 6.5 nm Rh nanoparticles of different shapes, ~ 15 nm Rh1-xPdx core-shell bimetallic polyhedra nanoparticles, and Rh ultra-thin film (~ 5 nm) catalytic nanodiodes. The colloidal nanoparticle samples were synthesized using a co-reduction of metal salts in alcohol and supported on silicon wafers using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. This synthetic strategy enables tremendous control of nanoparticle size, shape, and composition. Nanoparticle shape was controlled through the use of different organic polymer capping layers. Bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by careful choice of metal salt precursors. Rh/TiOx and Rh/GaN catalytic nanodiodes were fabricated using a variety of thin film device fabrication techniques, including reactive DC magnetron

  12. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  13. Design and fabrication of a InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a composition-graded electron-blocking layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, B. C.; Chang, Y. A.; Chen, K. J.; Chiu, C. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lan, Y. P.; Lin, C. C.; Lee, P. T.; Kuo, Y. K.; Shih, M. H.; Kuo, H. C.; Lu, T. C.; Wang, S. C.

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the design and fabrication of a InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a composition-graded electron blocking layer (GEBL) are revealed experimentally and theoretically. It has been demonstrated that laser output performance is improved by using a GEBL when compared to the typical VCSEL structure of a rectangular EBL. The output power obtained at 20 kA cm-2 is enhanced by a factor of 3.8 by the successful reduction of threshold current density from 12.6 to 9.2 kA  cm-2 and the enlarged slope efficiency. Numerical simulation results also suggest that the improved laser output performances are due mainly to the reduction of electron leakage current and the enhanced hole injection efficiency in the multiple-quantum-well (MQW) active region.

  14. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asztalos, Stephen J. [XIA, LLC, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need.

  15. Structural, optical and compositional stability of MoS2 multi-layer flakes under high dose electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotunno, E.; Fabbri, F.; Cinquanta, E.; Kaplan, D.; Longo, M.; Lazzarini, L.; Molle, A.; Swaminathan, V.; Salviati, G.

    2016-06-01

    MoS2 multi-layer flakes, exfoliated from geological molybdenite, have been exposed to high dose electron irradiation showing clear evidence of crystal lattice and stoichiometry modifications. A massive surface sulfur depletion is induced together with the consequent formation of molybdenum nanoislands. It is found that a nanometric amorphous carbon layer, unwillingly deposited during the transmission electron microscope experiments, prevents the formation of the nanoislands. In the absence of the carbon layer, the formation of molybdenum grains proceeds both on the top and bottom surfaces of the flake. If carbon is present on both the surfaces then the formation of Mo grains is completely prevented.

  16. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.; Ebrahimi, S. R.; Azizi, S.; Shawrang, P.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased ( Pcanola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased ( Pcanola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved ( Pcanola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  17. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Thyagarajan David; Haridas Samarth; Jones Denise; Dent Colin; Evans Richard; Williams Rhys

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system) for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years...

  18. Best Proximity Points for a New Class of Generalized Proximal Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Kamran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The best proximity points are usually used to find the optimal approximate solution of the operator equation Tx = x, when T has no fixed point. In this paper, we prove some best proximity point theorems for nonself multivalued operators, following the foot steps of Basha and Shahzad [Best proximity point theorems for generalized proximal contractions, Fixed Point Theory Appl., 2012, 2012:42].

  19. Imaging the interphase of carbon fiber composites using transmission electron microscopy: Preparations by focused ion beam, ion beam etching, and ultramicrotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qing

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Three sample preparation techniques, focused ion beam (FIB, ion beam (IB etching, and ultramicrotomy (UM were used in comparison to analyze the interphase of carbon fiber/epoxy composites using transmission electron microscopy. An intact interphase with a relatively uniform thickness was obtained by FIB, and detailed chemical analysis of the interphase was investigated by electron energy loss spectroscopy. It shows that the interphase region is 200 nm wide with an increasing oxygen-to-carbon ratio from 10% to 19% and an almost constant nitrogen-to-carbon ratio of about 3%. However, gallium implantation of FIB tends to hinder fine structure analysis of the interphase. For IB etching, the interphase region is observed with transition morphology from amorphous resin to nano-crystalline carbon fiber, but the uneven sample thickness brings difficulty for quantitative chemical analysis. Moreover, UM tends to cause damage and/or deformation on the interphase. These results are meaningful for in-depth understanding on the interphase characteristic of carbon fiber composites.

  20. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  1. Grouping by Proximity in Haptic Contour Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Wagemans, Johan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection. PMID:23762364

  2. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Vol. 15 (1) 9 - 11. Full-text Available Online at www.bioline.org.br/ja. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms. ADEDAYO, MAJEKODUNMI RACHEL. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, P.M.B.3032, Kano. ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in.

  3. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

  4. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spigelia anthelmia is used traditionally in Southern Nigeria for the treatment of infant convulsion and epilepsy. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant effect of the methanolic extract of Spigelia anthelmia. Phytochemical evaluation and proximate analysis was carried ...

  5. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the enzymatic degradation of composites based on biodegradable polymers and coconut fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Yasko; Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Goncalves; Machado, Luci Diva Brocardo, E-mail: ykodama@ipen.b, E-mail: marcelo.bardi@usp.b, E-mail: lmachado@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rosa, Derval dos Santos, E-mail: derval.rosa@ufabc.edu.b [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The development of polymeric materials that are susceptible to microbiological degradation and that have properties similar to the conventional polymers would reduce waste deposit. Degradable plastics suffer significant change on chemical structure when submitted to specific environmental condition. PCL and PLLA have been extensively investigated due to their bio-assimilation and because they are considered as eco-friendly. So the degradation of PCL and PLLA homopolymers, PCL:PLLA 20:80 (w:w) blend and coconut fiber-modified composites were studied by means of their degradation under lipase enzyme from Pseudomonas cepacia. Non-irradiated and EB-irradiated samples at 50 kGy and 100 kGy were exposed during 24, 72, 120 and 168 hours to the enzyme-buffer solution and the retained mass of dried samples was accompanied over time. The results were compared to the not submitted to the enzyme solution samples. Degradation rate of PCL was higher than PLLA in the presence of Pseudomonas lipase. PLLA presence reduced PCL's enzymatic degradation in the PCL:PLLA 20:80 w:w blend. After 120 h exposure, blend mass loss variation approached pure PLLA behavior. Composites degradation behavior through time was similar to the blend. Values of retained mass for composites were superior to the blends suggesting that coconut fiber did not significantly degrade in the period of test. Degradation rate of 50 kGy-irradiated PCL slightly reduced, and it was observed increase of degradation rate of samples irradiated with 100 kGy, probably attributed to its crystallinity decrease. Degradation rate of irradiated composite was similar to the blend, suggesting that fiber presence did not affect significantly this parameter. Samples tested during 168 h were affected by the water absorption by PLLA or coconut fibers through time testing. Studied samples degraded accentuatedly in the enzyme presence and were not negatively affected by the radiation processing. (author)

  6. Intramedullary compression device for proximal ulna fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Han, Fucai; Decruz, Joshua; Pannirselvam, Vinodhkumar; Murphy, Diarmuid

    2015-02-01

    Proximal ulna fractures account for 20% of all proximal forearm fractures. Many treatment options are available for such fractures, such as cast immobilisation, plate and screw fixation, tension band wiring and intramedullary screw fixation, depending on the fracture pattern. Due to the subcutaneous nature of the proximal forearm, it is vulnerable to open injuries over the dorsal aspect of the proximal ulna. This may in turn prove challenging, as it is critical to obtain adequate soft tissue coverage to reduce the risk of implant exposure and bony infections. We herein describe a patient with a Gustillo III-B open fracture of the proximal ulna, treated with minimally invasive intramedullary screw fixation using a 6.0-mm cannulated headless titanium compression screw (FusiFIX, Péronnas, France).

  7. Chemical composition, effective atomic number and electron density study of trommel sieve waste (TSW), Portland cement, lime, pointing and their admixtures with TSW in different proportions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurudirek, Murat [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: mkurudirek@gmail.com; Aygun, Murat; Erzeneoglu, Salih Zeki [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2010-06-15

    The trommel sieve waste (TSW) which forms during the boron ore production is considered to be a promising building material with its use as an admixture with Portland cement and is considered to be an alternative radiation shielding material, also. Thus, having knowledge on the chemical composition and radiation interaction properties of TSW as compared to other building materials is of importance. In the present study, chemical compositions of the materials used have been determined using a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (WDXRFS). Also, TSW, some commonly used building materials (Portland cement, lime and pointing) and their admixtures with TSW have been investigated in terms of total mass attenuation coefficients ({mu}/{rho}), photon interaction cross sections ({sigma}{sub t}), effective atomic numbers (Z{sub eff}) and effective electron densities (N{sub e}) by using X-rays at 22.1, 25 keV and {gamma}-rays at 88 keV photon energies. Possible conclusions were drawn with respect to the variations in photon energy and chemical composition.

  8. Modulation of the silica sol-gel composition for the promotion of direct electron transfer to encapsulated cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Quijano, Alonso; Huerta, Francisco; Morallón, Emilia; Montilla, Francisco

    2014-09-02

    The direct electron transfer between indium-tin oxide electrodes (ITO) and cytochrome c encapsulated in different sol-gel silica networks was studied. Cyt c@silica modified electrodes were synthesized by a two-step encapsulation method mixing a phosphate buffer solution with dissolved cytochrome c and a silica sol prepared by the alcohol-free sol-gel route. These modified electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, UV-vis spectroscopy, and in situ UV-vis spectroelectrochemistry. The electrochemical response of encapsulated protein is influenced by the terminal groups of the silica pores. Cyt c does not present electrochemical response in conventional silica (hydroxyl terminated) or phenyl terminated silica. Direct electron transfer to encapsulated cytochrome c and ITO electrodes only takes place when the protein is encapsulated in methyl modified silica networks.

  9. Influence of the electronic distribution of polymers in the spatial conformation of polymer grafted carbon nanotube composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garate, H. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Fisica IFIBA-CONICET LPyMC, Pabellon I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Quimica Organica, (CIHIDECAR-CONICET) Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); De Falco, A. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Fisica IFIBA-CONICET LPyMC, Pabellon I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Moreno, M.S. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Fascio, M.L. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Quimica Organica, (CIHIDECAR-CONICET) Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Fisica IFIBA-CONICET LPyMC, Pabellon I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); D' Accorso, N.B., E-mail: norma@qo.fcen.uba.ar [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Quimica Organica, (CIHIDECAR-CONICET) Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    In this work we report the covalent functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polyvinylpyridine (PVP) by the graft from method. Differences in the electronic distribution of both polymers resulted in different interaction between polymers and the nanotubes. It was found that PVP chains wrapped the nanotubes while nanotubes functionalized with PAN presented PAN chains forming amorphous entanglements on the nanoscale linked to the MWCNTs. Differences in the conformation between both polymers and the MWCNTs can be attributed to interactions between the aromatic groups in PVP and the MWCNTs through {pi}-{pi} stacking. The absence of aromatic groups in the case of the PAN chains favours the interaction between them. The functionalization efficiency was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and UV-vis spectroscopy, while morphological changes were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Volatile Composition in Chinese Truffles via GC × GC/HR-TOF/MS and Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To compare the volatile compounds of Chinese black truffle and white truffle from Yunnan province, this study presents the application of a direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (DSE-SAFE coupled with a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HR-TOF/MS and an electronic nose. Both of the analytical methods could distinguish the aroma profile of the two samples. In terms of the overall profile of truffle samples in this research, more kinds of acids were detected via the method of DSE-SAFE. Besides, compounds identified in black truffle (BT, but not in white truffle (WT, or vice versa, and those detected in both samples at different levels were considered to play an important role in differentiating the two samples. According to the analysis of electronic nose, the two samples could be separated, as well.

  11. Network topology for the formation of solvated electrons in binary CaO–Al2O3 composition glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akola, Jaakko; Kohara, Shinji; Ohara, Koji; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Masuno, Atsunobu; Usuki, Takeshi; Kubo, Takashi; Nakahira, Atsushi; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Uruga, Tomoya; Weber, J. K. Richard; Benmore, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    Glass formation in the CaO–Al2O3 system represents an important phenomenon because it does not contain typical network-forming cations. We have produced structural models of CaO–Al2O3 glasses using combined density functional theory–reverse Monte Carlo simulations and obtained structures that reproduce experiments (X-ray and neutron diffraction, extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and result in cohesive energies close to the crystalline ground states. The O–Ca and O–Al coordination numbers are similar in the eutectic 64 mol % CaO (64CaO) glass [comparable to 12CaO·7Al2O3 (C12A7)], and the glass structure comprises a topologically disordered cage network with large-sized rings. This topologically disordered network is the signature of the high glass-forming ability of 64CaO glass and high viscosity in the melt. Analysis of the electronic structure reveals that the atomic charges for Al are comparable to those for Ca, and the bond strength of Al–O is stronger than that of Ca–O, indicating that oxygen is more weakly bound by cations in CaO-rich glass. The analysis shows that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals occurs in cavity sites, suggesting that the C12A7 electride glass [Kim SW, Shimoyama T, Hosono H (2011) Science 333(6038):71–74] synthesized from a strongly reduced high-temperature melt can host solvated electrons and bipolarons. Calculations of 64CaO glass structures with few subtracted oxygen atoms (additional electrons) confirm this observation. The comparable atomic charges and coordination of the cations promote more efficient elemental mixing, and this is the origin of the extended cage structure and hosted solvated (trapped) electrons in the C12A7 glass. PMID:23723350

  12. Network topology for the formation of solvated electrons in binary CaO-Al2O3 composition glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akola, Jaakko; Kohara, Shinji; Ohara, Koji; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Masuno, Atsunobu; Usuki, Takeshi; Kubo, Takashi; Nakahira, Atsushi; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Uruga, Tomoya; Weber, J K Richard; Benmore, Chris J

    2013-06-18

    Glass formation in the CaO-Al2O3 system represents an important phenomenon because it does not contain typical network-forming cations. We have produced structural models of CaO-Al2O3 glasses using combined density functional theory-reverse Monte Carlo simulations and obtained structures that reproduce experiments (X-ray and neutron diffraction, extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and result in cohesive energies close to the crystalline ground states. The O-Ca and O-Al coordination numbers are similar in the eutectic 64 mol % CaO (64CaO) glass [comparable to 12CaO·7Al2O3 (C12A7)], and the glass structure comprises a topologically disordered cage network with large-sized rings. This topologically disordered network is the signature of the high glass-forming ability of 64CaO glass and high viscosity in the melt. Analysis of the electronic structure reveals that the atomic charges for Al are comparable to those for Ca, and the bond strength of Al-O is stronger than that of Ca-O, indicating that oxygen is more weakly bound by cations in CaO-rich glass. The analysis shows that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals occurs in cavity sites, suggesting that the C12A7 electride glass [Kim SW, Shimoyama T, Hosono H (2011) Science 333(6038):71-74] synthesized from a strongly reduced high-temperature melt can host solvated electrons and bipolarons. Calculations of 64CaO glass structures with few subtracted oxygen atoms (additional electrons) confirm this observation. The comparable atomic charges and coordination of the cations promote more efficient elemental mixing, and this is the origin of the extended cage structure and hosted solvated (trapped) electrons in the C12A7 glass.

  13. Effect of protonation, composition and isomerism on the redox properties and electron (de)localization of classical polyoxometalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Xavier

    2017-10-01

    This publication reviews some relevant features related with the redox activity of two inorganic compounds: [XM12O40]q- (Keggin structure) and [X2M18O62]q- (Wells-Dawson structure). These are two well-known specimens of the vast Polyoxometalate (POM) family, which has been the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical research owing to their unmatched properties. In particular, their redox activity focus a great deal of attention from scientists due to their prospective related applications. POMs are habitually seen as `electron sponges' since many of them accept several electrons without losing their chemical identity. This makes them excellent models to study mechanisms of electrochemical nature. Their redox properties depend on: (i) the type and number of transition metal atoms in the structure, (ii) the basicity of the first reduced species and, occasionally, of the fully oxidized species; (iii) the size of the molecule, (iv) the overall negative charge of the POM, and (v) the size of the central heteroatom. In the last years, important collaboration between the experimental and theoretical areas has been usual on the development of POM science. In the present chapter three of these synergies are highlighted: the influence of the internal heteroatom upon the redox potentials of Keggin anions; the dependence of the redox waves of Fe-substituted Wells-Dawson compounds with pH; and the role of electron delocalization and pairing in mixed-metal Mo/W Wells-Dawson compounds in their ability to accept electrons. In these three cases, a complete understanding of the problem would not have been possible without the mutual benefit of experimental and computational data.

  14. WC/Co composite surface structure and nano graphite precipitate induced by high current pulsed electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, S. Z.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Gey, N.; Grosdidier, T.; Dong, C.

    2013-11-01

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) irradiation was conducted on a WC-6% Co hard alloy with accelerating voltage of 27 kV and pulse duration of 2.5 μs. The surface phase structure was examined by using glancing-angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) methods. The surface tribological properties were measured. It was found that after 20 pulses of HCPEB irradiation, the surface structure of WC/Co hard alloy was modified dramatically and composed of a mixture of nano-grained WC1-x, Co3W9C4, Co3W3C phases and graphite precipitate domains ˜50 nm. The friction coefficient of modified surface decreased to ˜0.38 from 0.6 of the initial state, and the wear rate reduced from 8.4 × 10-5 mm3/min to 6.3 × 10-6 mm3/min, showing a significant self-lubricating effect.

  15. WC/Co composite surface structure and nano graphite precipitate induced by high current pulsed electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, S.Z., E-mail: ebeam@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification and School of Physics and Optoelectronics Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Y. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification and School of Physics and Optoelectronics Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870 (China); Xu, Y. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification and School of Physics and Optoelectronics Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin 123000 (China); Gey, N.; Grosdidier, T. [Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire d’Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), CNRS UMR 7239, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire d’Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for Low-Mass Structure (DAMAS), Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Dong, C. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification and School of Physics and Optoelectronics Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire d’Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for Low-Mass Structure (DAMAS), Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France)

    2013-11-15

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) irradiation was conducted on a WC-6% Co hard alloy with accelerating voltage of 27 kV and pulse duration of 2.5 μs. The surface phase structure was examined by using glancing-angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) methods. The surface tribological properties were measured. It was found that after 20 pulses of HCPEB irradiation, the surface structure of WC/Co hard alloy was modified dramatically and composed of a mixture of nano-grained WC{sub 1−x}, Co{sub 3}W{sub 9}C{sub 4}, Co{sub 3}W{sub 3}C phases and graphite precipitate domains ∼50 nm. The friction coefficient of modified surface decreased to ∼0.38 from 0.6 of the initial state, and the wear rate reduced from 8.4 × 10{sup −5} mm{sup 3}/min to 6.3 × 10{sup −6} mm{sup 3}/min, showing a significant self-lubricating effect.

  16. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-12

    Sep 12, 2011 ... percentages for water, fat, protein and ash contents in the whole wet body weight of wild M. bleekeri were 77.87, 3.26 ... however, condition factor remains constant with observed body constituents (% water, fat, protein, ash and organic ..... Javaid MY, Salam A, Khan MN, Naeem M (1992). Weight-length and.

  17. Proximate composition and mineral profile of eight different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-31

    May 31, 2010 ... Protein contents were generally high and varied between 32.5 ± 1.52% in .... for children's as well as adults. ... Fats are required for brain structure and are necessary for ... Copper is a multi-talented mineral which sustains life.

  18. Proximate Composition, Physical and Sensory Properties of Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the possibility of preparing non-wheat cakes using acha and Bambara nut flour blends and generate base line data on the chemical, physical and sensory properties of the cakes. Materials and methods: Acha grains and Bambara nut seeds were processed into flour ...

  19. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... Significant dry weight variations of cellulose, hemicellulose and fat contents were observed from day 0 to 12. Decreases from day 12 to ... degradation and mineralization (Mckinley and Vestal,. 1984). The main purpose of .... easily degradable by fungi and bacteria present as compared to lignin a polymer of ...

  20. Proximate composition and heavy metal analyses of commercial fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the results obtained, glutamic acid was the most abundant followed by aspartic acid, leucine, arginine, phenylalanine, lysine, valine and proline. All the amino acid content of Imported fingerling (IF) and juvenile (IJ) feeds are higher than the amino acid content of Imported and local grower (IG, LG) feeds.

  1. Proximate and mineral composition of four edible mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    carbohydrates, amino acids and minerals (Jiskani, 2001). All essential amino acids are present as well as water- soluble vitamins and all the essential minerals (Buigut,. 2002). Mushroom are ... combinations to cure headache, stomach ailments, colds and fever (Oso, 1977) asthma, smallpox and high blood pressure (Fasidi ...

  2. Physical and Proximate Composition of Some Indigenous Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abakaliki mars had the least and Ikwo the highest volume. Weight per standard cup was between 215.50 g – 224.77 g with Ikwo and Abakaliki having the highest and least values. Prices per cup were in the range of N25 to N35. Abakaliki and Tomato were being sold for N35. The fat content varied from 1.11 – 1.87% and ...

  3. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amino acids with the WHO recommended values, the vegetable is adequate in these acids. ... Vegetables are sources of vitamins, ascorbic acid, niacin, riboflavin and thiamine and minerals, calcium and iron, as well as supplementary protein and calories. (FAO, 1988). ... pupa and cultivars with deep green narrow leaves.

  4. Effects of Fermentation and Extrusion on the Proximate Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    groundnut flour blends were investigated. The corn-groundnut flour blends were prepared to six combinations (100:0, 90;10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50) during extrusion. During fermentation of the extrudates, a total number of 14 micro-organisms ...

  5. Effect of processing on the proximate composition and mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    potassium was significantly (P< 0.05) affected by processing while manganese was not detectable after processing. Other minerals studied were not significantly affected by processing. The results show that the processing improved the nutritional value of the nut which could serve as important component of food.

  6. Proximate nutrient composition of sickle-pod ( Cassia obtusifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This prelimary study has revealed sicked-pod (Cassia obtusifolia) plant as a promising animal feed. Feeding evaluation of both materials in domestic animals in desired and would be reported later. Keywords: sickle-pod, Cassia obtusifolia, detergent fibers, Hemicellulose Plant Products Research Journal Vol.8 (1) 2004: 13- ...

  7. Effects of fermentation and extrusion on the proximate composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They include Flavobacterium rigense, Micrococcus icristinae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter spp., Corynebacterium cystitidis, C. pilosun, Staphylococcus albus, Brevibacterium spp., Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, B. brevis, B. megaterium, Candida famata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Geotrichum candidium, C. utilis, ...

  8. Proximate composition and mineral profile of eight different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-31

    May 31, 2010 ... Traditionally, dates are propagated from of shoots produced by elite individual trees. Now dates are also clonally propagated. In morocco, more than 220 varieties, clonally propagated, have been enumerated (Toutain et al., 1971). Another interesting property about dates is that all commercial varieties are.

  9. Survey of production, utilization and proximate composition of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These crops play key roles in the food supply system, income generation, improved health and preservation of cultural heritage of the rural household. To fully harness their potentials, the need for more research efforts in the areas of crop improvement, agronomic practices, pests and disease control, nutritional studies, ...

  10. Proximate nutrient composition of some wild edible medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are high levels of malnutrition especially among children in Africa. In Uganda, this is compounded by widespread food insecurity. There are various wild edible plant species in Uganda. However, little research has been carried out to document and validate the claims associated with their use. A study was, therefore, ...

  11. Proximate composition and anti-nutritional factors of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lupine seeds (Lupinus albus L.) growing in two different agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia (Dangla and Chagni) were traditionally processed to evaluate the changes in their nutritional status and anti-nutritional factors. The traditional processing methods included roasting followed by soaking; boiling followed by soaking ...

  12. Age factor and proximate compositions of the muscle of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Signiicant decreases (P < 005) in the EE content of the fish muscle could be attributed to the harmful effects of petroleum-relatedaromatic compound (ACs) on animals. These ACs might have caused decreases in the muscle triglycerides of the total lipid (EE) content of thethree age groups of the fish. Significant increases (P ...

  13. Proximate composition of some agricultural wastes in Nigeria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    and labeled prior to analysis and conversion/pyrolysis. All chemicals used were analar grades and no futher purification were needed.Weight of the sample were taken using H 18 mettler balance of. 0.0001g accuracy and gallen kamp oven operating at 1050C was engaged. Method: Particle size of <2.360 – 1.000mm were.

  14. Genetic and cropping cycle effects on proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plantains had lower ash than the cooking and dessert bananas. Principal component analysis suggested carbohydrate, fat, moisture and level of antinutrient factors as major discriminant variables for characterizing bananas and plantains fruit flour into quality groupings. The study showed that the new Musa hybrids ...

  15. Proximate Composition and Organoleptic Qualities of Iron Fortified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    other chemical values were similar. The organoleptic qualities were carried out with gari and and both were well accepted. In conclusion, the fortified products were within acceptable limit and showed that gari is a promising food stuff for fortification and there was no significant difference in the acceptability of the products.

  16. Proximate and Mineral Composition of the Pulp of Chrysophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2014-11-13

    , calcium .... bioavailability by hindering their hydrolytic ... of the pulp of Chrysophyllum albidum (mg/100g). ELEMENTS. PULP (mg/100g). Potassium. 256.57+5.77. Sodium. 40.00+0.00. Phosphorus. 2.21+0.03. Calcium.

  17. Volume 10 No. 1 January 2010 2012 PROXIMATE COMPOSITION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-01

    Jan 1, 2010 ... for livestock products, research into locally available food with potential use as additional sources of protein and energy is imperative. L. lanceolata possesses potential for utilization as animal feed as well as a source of human food. Presently, only the lipid extracted from the seed is used and constitutes.

  18. Proximate and mineral composition of four edible mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 10 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. effect of drought/irrigation on proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    Starch/Stärke 50(10):413–419. 8. Chapin, F.S. (III) (1991). Effects of multiple environmental stresses on nutrient availability and use. In: Response of Plants to Multiple. Stresses, pp. 67–88, (Monney, H.A., Winner,. W.E. and Pell, E.J., eds). Academic Press, San. Diego. 9. Correia, M.J., Fonesca, F., Azedo-Silva, J., Dias, C.,.

  20. Proximate Composition and Mineral Content in Different ,Types of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, patio"; the fibre absorbs water and provides if some cO!1lponents disapp~ar, the relationships o'f . roughage for th~,bowels, a~sisti~g in.te,stinal amounts of components may change. Similar in- transit (Anderspn et al., 19,90). This may be a creases in piotein content of gerroina,ted ~d f~r- reason w~y tog~a is fed ...

  1. Proximate and mineral compositions of Schilbe mystus (Linne 1758 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Research International ... A total of 10 fresh samples of each species obtained from fishermen catch (weight: 315.20 – 436.10 g) were separately stunted, de-gutted, washed, grounded and analyzed for moisture, crude protein, fat, ash, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, sodium, potassium and magnesium following ...

  2. Proximate composition of fresh water bighead carp, Aristichthys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... Each fish was measured, weighed, dried and powdered for the analysis of water, ash, fat and protein contents. It was observed that for Aristichthys nobilis, significant inverse correlation existed ... within the species and also with size, sexual condition, ... samples were taken for ash and fat determination.

  3. Proximate and nutrient composition of three types of indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Tanzania wild edible mushrooms collected during the rainy season have broad cultural acceptance and constitute a traditionally very important nutritious food. However, their assessment as food, which is based on their chemical analysis, has not been adequately studied and documented. The objective of the study was ...

  4. Effect of organic and mineral fertilization on proximate composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leafy vegetables are part of natural resources traditionally harvested from forests in Benin. Some of these wild plants foods have been introduced in the small scale production system. The low productivity and the increasing demand for such products urged to use fertilizers. However, the impact of such practices on the ...

  5. Proximate compositions and grain weevil ( S. zeamais Mot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka to evaluate seventeen maize varieties (Sammaz – 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 and 37) developed at Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR) in collaboration with International Institute for Tropical ...

  6. Proximate Composition and Nutrient Content of Some Wild and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ash content ranged between 2.9 to 24.2 percent. Mineral content (P and K) in the mushroom sporophores were found to be higher than in many fruits, and vegetables. From the sensory data Termitomyces species was the most preferred and accepted of the mushrooms studied. Journal of the Ghana Science Association Vol ...

  7. Proximate, Mineral and Anti-nutritional Composition of Cucurbita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sodium and potassium contents were determined using flame photometer model JEANWAY PFP7, while calcium, iron, manganese, zinc and copper were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer model HULK 211 and phosphorus was determined using UV/Visible spectrophotometer model 752 .

  8. Proximate composition and tannin content of some multipurpose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves from tree legumes Enterolobium cyclocarpum (EC), Pterocarpus santalonoides (Ps), Gliricidia sepium (Gs), Leucaena leucocephala (LL) and Senna sIamea (Ss) were analysed for ash, crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), Ether entract (EE) neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and tannins.

  9. Effects of Fermentation and Extrusion on the Proximate Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    biological value. About 80 percent of the proteins consumed by humans in the developing countries are supplied by plants (FAO, 1988). Fermentation has also been ..... The nutritional and fermentation characteristics of Uji produced from dry milled flour and whole wet milled maize. Chemical Microbiology Technology.

  10. Effect of heat processing on the proximate composition and energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    2006-08-05

    Aug 5, 2006 ... In each of these locations, heat processing generally increased moisture content of all the samples (yam, cassava products, cocoyam and maize), but decreased dry matter, crude protein, ash, crude fat, total carbohydrate and calorific value. With the exception of moisture and ash, other nutrients were ...

  11. Effect of Storage Materials on Viability and Proximate Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    These include its use as an antidote for snake bites, poison and overdose, snake repellents and vomiting. Considering the various uses ..... Nutritional and phytochemical screening of Garcinia kola. Adv. J. Food. Sci. Technol. 4(1): 9-14. Aiyelaagbe, I.O., LabodePopoola, Adeola, A.O., Obisesan,. K.O and Ladipo, D.O. (1996) ...

  12. Physical characteristics, proximate composition and anti-nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology and results: The length, thickness and width were determined using Vernier callipers. Dry matter, protein, fat and ash were determined using standard association of official analytical chemists (AOAC) methods. Phytates were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while the tannins ...

  13. Pomegranate (Punica granatum: a natural source for the development of therapeutic compositions of food supplements with anticancer activities based on electron acceptor molecular characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko Veljkovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies, in addition to clinical data, demonstrate that pomegranate juice can prevent or slow-down the progression of some types of cancers. Despite the well-documented effect of pomegranate ingredients on neoplastic changes, the molecular mechanism(s underlying this phenomenon remains elusive. Methods: For the study of pomegranate ingredients the electron-ion interaction potential (EIIP and the average quasi valence number (AQVN were used. These molecular descriptors can be used to describe the long-range intermolecular interactions in biological systems and can identify substances with strong electron-acceptor properties. In this study, candidate human proteins interacting with pomegranate flavonoids have been analyzed by the informational spectrum method (ISM. This represents a virtual spectroscopy method for studying protein molecular interactions. Results: Our analysis indicates that the anti-cancer properties of pomegranate juice can be ascribed to the strong electron-acceptor properties of its chemical ingredients. This analysis also suggests that pomegranate flavonoids inhibit the “NF-kappaB” (NF-B pathway, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Conclusion: The results offer a possible explanation for an important molecular mechanism underlying the anticancer activity of pomegranate ingredients, which could also serve as a basis for the development of new therapeutic compositions of food supplements with pomegranate-like anticancer properties.

  14. Proximity Induced Superconducting Properties in One and Two Dimensional Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten

    This report is concerned with the properties of one and two dimensional semiconducting materials when brought into contact with a superconductor. Experimentally we study the 2D electron gas in an InGaAs/InAs heterostructure with aluminum grown in situ on the surface, and theoretically we show...... that a superconducting 1D nanowire can harbor Majorana bound states in the absence of spin–orbit coupling. We fabricate and measure micrometer–sized mesoscopic devices demonstrating the inheritance of superconducting properties in the 2D electron gas. By placing a quantum point contact proximal to the interface between...... a voltage is passed through the Josephson junction, we observe multiple Andreev reflections and preliminary results point to a highly transmissive interface between the 2D electron gas and the superconductor. In the theoretical section we demonstrate analytically and numerically, that in a 1D nanowire...

  15. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  16. Dielectric and Optical Characterization of RF Sputtered Ba5Nb4O15-BaWO4 Composite Films for Electronic and Smart Window Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil Kumar, C.; Pamu, D.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate the deposition of Ba5Nb4O15-BaWO4 (BNO-BWO) composite thin films by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering under different oxygen mixing percentages (OMP). Significantly, the x-ray diffractometer revealed the coexistence of both BNO hexagonal perovskite structure with BWO scheelite structure. The microstructures of the composite films reveal two types of grains: BNO exhibited small rod-shaped grains, whereas the BWO showed large hexagonal grains, and the chemical compositions of these grains are confirmed using energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. The optical transmittance of the as-deposited films show the transmittance above 90% and after annealing they exhibit pale yellow color, and this response may be due to the electrochromic response of these films. The refractive index of the films decreases for the films deposited above 25% OMP, whereas the optical bandgap increases with an increase in OMP. The dielectric response of Ag/BNO-BWO Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si thin film capacitors showed that the obtained dielectric properties are independent of measured frequency and temperature. The split-post dielectric resonator method was used to measure dielectric properties at discrete microwave frequencies (5, 10, and 15 GHz) and are in the range of ɛ r = 22.47-49.81 and tan δ = 0.0038-0.0010, for annealed films. The activation energies of the composite films obtained from the Arrhenius relation are in the range of 0.021-0.008 eV. BNO-BWO nanocomposite films find applications in integrated electronic devices, smart windows, and information display applications.

  17. An analysis of the composition and metal contamination of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenvall, Erik, E-mail: erik.stenvall@chalmers.se [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Tostar, Sandra [Department of Industrial Materials Recycling, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Boldizar, Antal [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Foreman, Mark R.StJ. [Department of Industrial Materials Recycling, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Möller, Kenneth [Chemistry and Materials Technology, SP, 50115 Borås (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    The compositions of three WEEE plastic batches of different origin were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, and the metal content was determined with inductively coupled plasma. The composition analysis of the plastics was based mainly on 14 samples collected from a real waste stream, and showed that the major constituents were high impact polystyrene (42 wt%), acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer (38 wt%) and polypropylene (10 wt%). Their respective standard deviations were 21.4%, 16.5% and 60.7%, indicating a considerable variation even within a single batch. The level of metal particle contamination was found to be low in all samples, whereas wood contamination and rubber contamination were found to be about 1 wt% each in most samples. In the metal content analysis, iron was detected at levels up to 700 ppm in the recyclable waste plastics fraction, which is of concern due to its potential to catalyse redox reactions during melt processing and thus accelerate the degradation of plastics during recycling. Toxic metals were found only at very low concentrations, with the exception of lead and cadmium which could be detected at 200 ppm and 70 ppm levels, respectively, but these values are below the current threshold limits of 1000 ppm and 100 ppm set by the Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive.

  18. An analysis of the composition and metal contamination of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenvall, Erik; Tostar, Sandra; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R StJ; Möller, Kenneth

    2013-04-01

    The compositions of three WEEE plastic batches of different origin were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, and the metal content was determined with inductively coupled plasma. The composition analysis of the plastics was based mainly on 14 samples collected from a real waste stream, and showed that the major constituents were high impact polystyrene (42 wt%), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (38 wt%) and polypropylene (10 wt%). Their respective standard deviations were 21.4%, 16.5% and 60.7%, indicating a considerable variation even within a single batch. The level of metal particle contamination was found to be low in all samples, whereas wood contamination and rubber contamination were found to be about 1 wt% each in most samples. In the metal content analysis, iron was detected at levels up to 700 ppm in the recyclable waste plastics fraction, which is of concern due to its potential to catalyse redox reactions during melt processing and thus accelerate the degradation of plastics during recycling. Toxic metals were found only at very low concentrations, with the exception of lead and cadmium which could be detected at 200 ppm and 70 ppm levels, respectively, but these values are below the current threshold limits of 1000 ppm and 100 ppm set by the Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Proximate and phytochemical of Cola nitida and Cola acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewole, E A; Dewumi, D F A; Alabi, J Y T; Adegoke, A

    2013-11-15

    The aim of the research was to examine Cola nitida and Cola acuminata for their phytochemical and proximate compositions. Presence of secondary metabolites do provide information about the plants for their potentials as a lead candidates for the novel drug discovery. The proximate analysis was done using the method of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the phytochemical analysis was done using methods of Markkar and Goodchild for tannin, Brunner for saponin, Harbone for alkaloid and Bohm and Koupai-Abyazani for flavonoid. The proximate results showed that the moisture content of Cola acuminata and Cola nitida were in the range of 9.73-9.81%, ash 2.72-2.21%, fat 3.02-2.20%, protein 19.14-15.24%, crude fiber 7.30-4.18% and carbohydrate 58.09 66.45%. Cola acuminate has more protein content, ash and fat than Cola nitida. The result of phytochemical analysis showed that Cola acuminata has more alkaloids (2.22%), tannin (6.46%) and saponin (8.06%) than Cola nitida. The phenol contents of the two kola nuts were the same range 0.27%, the flavonoid were in the range of 0.12-0.14%. The presence of secondary metabolites in these plants are indications that if well researched, novel bioactive compounds can be discovered in them as there are worldwide efforts by scientists looking for new bioactive compounds to combat various ailments which have developed high resistant to already known antibiotics.

  20. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...