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Sample records for proximate chemical compositions

  1. Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus thoracis from pasture fed LHRH immunocastrated, castrated and intact Bos indicus bulls.

  2. Proximate, chemical compositions and sulphur concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm) on the nutritional value and the proximate composition of six selected mango cultivars (Tommy Atkins, Peach, Saber, Sunshine, Keitt and Vhavenda) grown in South Africa. The study shows that ...

  3. Proximate and chemical composition of three species of snails in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial was conducted to determine the proximate and chemical composition of three common species of snails in Nigeria. The species were Archachatina marginata (T1), Achatina achatina (T2), and Achatina fulica (T3). The three species constituted the three treatments and thirty-six adult snails were used for this trial ...

  4. Effects of Polishing on Proximate Composition, Physico- Chemical Characteristics, Mineral Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Pigmented Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagam Koteswara Reddy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polishing on proximate compositions, physico-chemical characteristics, mineral compositions and antioxidant properties of the rice flours obtained from three different pigmented rice varieties (Chak-hao Angangba, Chak-hao Amubi and Chak-hao Poireiton were investigated. The rice varieties were significantly (P < 0.05 different in the contents of the test characteristics. Lipids, ash, minerals, phytochemicals (phenolic acids and flavonoids and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH activity of rice flours were decreased after polishing (9% degree of milling, while amylose content and lightness were increased. X-ray diffraction pattern of rice flours exhibited A-type crystalline pattern with reflections at 15.1°, 17.1°, 18.2° and 23.0°. Pasting properties and transition temperatures were decreased after polishing treatment. Polishing resulted in changes in the crystallinity, enthalpy and morphology of rice flours.

  5. [Proximal chemical composition and functional properties of fresh meat of crab claws (Homalaspis plana)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, L; Barrios, J; Guarda, A

    1996-12-01

    The research of alternative technological processes is being necessary in order to obtain a better utilization of hydrobiologic resources and food products, with higher added value. Crab (Homolaspis plana) is a crustacean found along the Chilean coast, whose flesh is exported as a frozen product. The resource crab is scantly studied in Chile and could became an excellent raw material for "delicatessen" products, with a high market value. The proximal composition, through the protein, fat, moisture and ashes content was determined. The non nitrogen extract was calculated by difference. The functional properties (water retention, emulsifying and gel-forming capacities) of fresh crab claws meat without additives were measured. The proximal composition for the claw meat was: 79,34 +/- 1.12% moisture, 16.75 +/- 1.29% protein, 1.86 +/- 0.11% ashes, 0.11 +/- 0.01 fat % and 1.93 +/- 1.07% N.N.E. In relation with the emulsifying capacity, claw meat was able to emulsify 2,259.03 +/- 73.04 g vegetal oil/g protein. The water retention was 154.49 +/- 6.85% representing the increase in mass percent; and the force of the gel formed in claw meat was 195.3 +/- 17.16 g-force x cm. According to these results, the claw crab is an attractive food, with a high protein and low fat content. Crab meat showed an excellent emulsifying capacity and water retention, so it can be used as a good raw material for the development of smearing products. In the case of gel-like products, further studies will be required, in order to optimize the conditions in which a stronger gel could be obtained.

  6. Yields, photosynthetic efficiencies, and proximate chemical composition of dense cultures of marine microalgae. A subcontract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.H.; Seibert, D.L.R.; Alden, M.; Eldridge, P.; Neori, A.

    1983-07-01

    The yields, photosynthetic efficiencies, and proximate composition of several microalgae were compared in dense cultures grown at light intensities up to 70% sunlight. Yields ranged from 3.4 to 21.7 g dry weight/m/sup 2/ day. The highest yield was obtained with Phaeodactylum; the lowest in Botryococcus cultures. The same species had the highest and lowest efficiencies of utilization of photosynthetically active radiation. In nitrogen-sufficient cells of all but one species, most of the dry weight consisted of protein. Lipid content of all species was 20 to 29%, and carbohydrate content 11 to 23%. Lipid content increased somewhat in N-deficient Phaeodactylum and Isochrysis cells, but decreased in deficient Monallanthus cells. Because the overall dry weight yield was reduced by deficiency, lipid yields did not increase. However, since the carbohydrate content increased to about 65% in N-deficient Dunaliella and Tetraselmis cells, the carbohydrate yield increased. In Phaeodactylum the optimum light intensity was about 40% of full sunlight. Most experimets with this alga included a CUSO/sub 4/ filter to decrease infrared irradiance. When this filter was removed, the yield increased because more red light in the photosynthetically active spectral range was included. These results should prove useful to workers attempting to maximize yields and efficiencies, but additional studies are needed. 69 references, 27 figures, 18 tables.

  7. Proximate, mineral composition, antioxidant activity, and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four varieties of the red pepper fruits (Capsicum species) were evaluated for chemical composition, antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents using standard analytical technique, ferric-ion reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and Folin-Colcalteau method respectively. The proximate composition values ...

  8. Evaluation of the Proximate, Chemical and Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased interest in the utilization of the leaves of Moringa oleifera necessitated this study which evaluated the proximate, chemical and phytochemical composition, especially the presence of anti- physiological and toxic factors in the leaves. The results of the phytochemical analyses were: alkaloid 1.24 ± 0.141%; ...

  9. Comparison of proximate chemical composition and texture of cupim, Rhomboideus m. and lombo, Longissimus dorsi m. of Nelore (Bos indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayka Reghiany Pedrão

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The proximate chemical composition of hump, known in Brazil as cupim, Rhomboideus m. (RB, of Nelore (Bos indicus aged 24 months revealed it to be a unique beef muscle. It presents a lipid fraction 14-fold as high as that of Longissimus dorsi m. (LD taken from the same animal (pA composição química percentual aproximada do cupim m. Rhomboideus (RB derivado de Nelore (Bos indicus de 24 meses de idade mostrou ser um músculo diferenciado. Há uma maior fração de material lipídico em RB chegando a ser 14 vezes proporcionalmente maior em comparação ao m. Longissimus dorsi (LD (p<0,05 a maior quantidade de gordura relatada em amostras de carne em literatura científica. Esse fato foi também observado pela avaliação histológica. Há proporcionalmente maior concentração da fração protéica e menor quantidade de umidade em RB. O teor de colágeno foi de 22,9% mais concentrado em RB enquanto que a quantidade da sua ligação cruzada, hidroxilisilpiridinolina (HP foi 14 vezes maior indicando que cupim seria mais rígido. Contrariando essa expectativa, a maciez da carne crua avaliada pelo texturômetro mostrou valores de 8.05 e 5.81 kg/F para LD e RB, respectivamente (p<0.05. Tais resultados mostram que em músculo contendo abundante gordura esta funciona como lubrificante para a lamina penetrar sem muita resistência através do cupim a despeito dar quantidade e qualidade das fibras de colágeno.

  10. SHORT COMMUNICATION PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  11. Chemical Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Willie; Cavanagh, Richard; Turk, Gregory; Winchester, Michael; Travis, John; Smith, Melody; Derose, Paul; Choquette, Steven; Kramer, Gary; Sieber, John; Greenberg, Robert; Lindstrom, Richard; Lamaze, George; Zeisler, Rolf; Schantz, Michele; Sander, Lane; Phinney, Karen; Welch, Michael; Vetter, Thomas; Pratt, Kenneth; Scott, John; Small, John; Wight, Scott; Stranick, Stephan

    Measurements of the chemical compositions of materials and the levels of certain substances in them are vital when assessing and improving public health, safety and the environment, are necessary to ensure trade equity, and are required when monitoring and improving industrial products and services. Chemical measurements play a crucial role in most areas of the economy, including healthcare, food and nutrition, agriculture, environmental technologies, chemicals and materials, instrumentation, electronics, forensics, energy, and transportation.

  12. PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS. 1 Alhassan, A. J. 1M .S. Sule, 1J. ... ABSTRACT. This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. Proximate ... days, before pulverized to powder and kept in plastic container.

  13. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  14. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 ... Key words: Rhynchophorus phoenicis, Oryctes monoceros, proximate composition, cholesterol, heat treatment. INTRODUCTION. Insects have played ...

  15. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITIONS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde Emmanuel

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... Fish allows for protein improved nutrition in that it has a high biological value in terms of high ... marine algae upon which the fish feed [11]. ... Proximate composition of catfish Clarias gariepinus and Tarpon atlanticus were.

  16. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  17. 37 Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research Vol. 19, 2014 Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AL-AMAANI

    Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research. Vol. 19, 2014. Proximate, Mineral and Anti-nutritional Composition of Cucurbita Maxima Fruits Parts. Mohaammed S. S. 1 ., Paiko Y. B. 2 ., Mann A. 2 ., Ndamitso M. M. 3 ., Mathew J. T. 2 . and Maaji, S. 1 . 1. Deparment of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M. B. 65, ...

  18. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was investigated using standard procedures. Proximate analysis included in g% dry weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a moisture content of 70.04 ...

  19. Phytochemical, proximate and anti-nutrient compositions of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical constituents of plants are influenced by environmental factors and fluctuations just as many other polygenic traits. Four different green leafy vegetables commonly used in the diets of South Eastern Nigeria were analyzed with a view to determine the phytochemicals, proximate and anti-nutrient compositions of ...

  20. Effect of Graded Bambara Nut Flour on Proximate Composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and some physico-chemical properties were determined using the parameters of protein, fat, fibre, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, swelling capacity, foam capacity, foam stability, loose and packed bulk density, water absorption capacity, pH and TTA. The protein content of the samples ranged between ...

  1. Proximate composition and the functional properties of defatted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition of the Kargo seeds and the physico-chemical properties of the seed oil have been determined. Matured dried seeds were collected. They were then dehusked and pulverized into a fine powder and kept in air tight sample bottle for further analysis. Functional properties of the defatted sample and ...

  2. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  3. Proximate composition and consumer acceptability of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to assess the organoleptic differences of Clarias gariepinus smoked with two different energy sources, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Tamarindus indica with the help of a hedonic scale and to determine possible proximate composition difference between the smoked products. Smoking of the fishes ...

  4. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins analysis of two varieties of honey (dark amber and light amber) were carried out using standard methods. The values for moisture, ash, crude lipid, crude protein and crude carbohydrate contents of the two honeys, (light amber and dark amber) are 9.39 ...

  5. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of Rhynchophorus phoenicis and Oryctes monoceros larvae subjected to different heat treatments. ... 514.63 mg/100g dry weight basis (DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 mg/100 g DWB in the smoke-dried samples. Similarly, the ...

  6. Proximate Composition, Macro and Trace Mineral Compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition of the whole portion was significantly (P<0.05) higher in levels of moisture and carbohydrates (9.10± 0.33 % and 62.66± 0.54%), crude protein in the flesh (41.94± 0.69% and 4.36± 0.14%) whereas fat, ash and crude fibre content (2.20± 0.05% and 0.56± 0.02%) were higher in the exoskeleton.

  7. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % respectively while ... were analyzed using flame photometer for K and ... low in methionine. Table 1: Proximate Composition of C. argentea. Parameter. Composition (%). Moisture content. Crude Fat. Crude protein. Crude fibre. Ash. Nitrogen ...

  8. Water Balance and Proximate Composition in Cowpea ( vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studying the water balance and proximate composition in plants subjected to these stresses compared the influence of drought and flooding on cowpea seedlings. In drought plants the leaf water potential, its components and the proximate composition were markedly reduced by the end of the experimental period.

  9. Proximate composition and mineral contents of Pebbly fish, Alestes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The objective of this study was to determine the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. ... and also develop suitable processing method. This study determined the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. baremoze fillets based on fish size. Materials and .... moisture contents can vary with sex of the fish ...

  10. Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants in four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants (anti-nutrients) in four commonly consumed spices were investigated. The spices were garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), onion (Allium cepa var. cepa), and Piper guineense seeds (Ashanti pepper). Proximate analyses showed the spices to contain (on ...

  11. Determination of Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of the seed of 30 Nigerian sesame genotypes were determined based on the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the Sequential Multi- sample amino acid Analyzer (TSM). Proximate analysis showed that sesame seed contained ...

  12. Effect of processing method on the Proximate composition, mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of processing method on the Proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of Taro (Colocasia esculenta, L.) growth in Ethiopia. T Adane, A Shimelis, R Negussie, B Tilahun, GD Haki ...

  13. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a little crude fibre content of 0.92 %. The results indicated that ginger rhizome is an excellent natural remedy for a wide range of ailments. Keywords: Zingiber officinale, spice, rhizome, phytochemistry, proximate analysis, Zingiberaceae, zingerone, methanolic extraction. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, Vol.

  14. Studies on the chemical composition and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... establish the proximate composition and the physico-chemical characteristics of the oil and effect of storage on the oil. Results obtained showed that the saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), acid value (AV), percentage free fatty acid (%FFA) and refractive index of the oil are 196 ± 0.05 mg/KOH ...

  15. THE PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN BUSH MANGO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    The proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, mineral ash and total carbohydrates) in the kernels and flour of African Bush Mango (. ) were investigated. The results revealed that the kernels contained moisture (2.5 g/100 g), crude protein (8.9 g/100 g), crude fat (68.4 g/100 g), mineral ash (2.3 g/100 g) and total ...

  16. Functional properties and proximate composition of cactus pear cladodes flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime López-Cervantes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the functional properties and proximate composition of three different flours prepared from cactus pear cladodes. Immature cactus pear cladodes were dried at 60 °C, 70 °C and 80 °C. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition, amino acid profile, fatty acid composition, functional properties and color. The analyses showed no significant differences in crude protein, total lipid, crude fiber and total ash content in the flours, possibly due to the drying temperature effect. Nevertheless, during the drying at 80 °C, a reduction of the water holding capacity (55% was observed, along with a reduction of the green color intensity (34% - characteristic of cactus pear. The heating produced larger concentrations of tyrosine, proline, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. In the lipids of the flours, the most abundant fatty acids were palmitic acid (C16:0, linoleic acid (C18:2n6, linolenic acid (C18:3n3, and oleic acid (C18:1n9. The cladodes flours prepared at 60 °C presented a higher quality regarding their nutritional and functional properties.

  17. Moderate exercise of rainbow trout induces only minor differences in fatty acid profile, texture, white muscle fibres and proximate chemical composition of fillets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Richard Skøtt; Heinrich, Maike Timm; Hyldig, Grethe

    2011-01-01

    g after nine weeks of experiment at 15.0 °C. The fatty acid composition in fillets differed only marginally between exercised fish (excF) and control fish (ctrlF) kept in standing water. ExcF fillets had a significantly lower content of fatty acids 16:0 (Pb0.05) and 18:1 (n−7) (Pb0.01) and a higher...... significantly among the two groups (Pb0.01). Moreover, moderate exercise induced small but significant changes in fibre circularity (excF: circ.=0.724; ctrlF:=0.720, Pb0.05) but neither muscle fibre diameter nor circularity was significantly related to fillet texture. Altogether, the results suggest...

  18. Effect of Soaking Time on Proximate and Mineral Compositions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of soaking time on some composition of yellow maize was investigated. Yellow maize seeds (Zea mays) were soaked in deionized water for 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours respectively followed by draining, drying and milling. The unsoaked seeds were milled and served as the control. Proximate and mineral compositions ...

  19. Proximate and Phytochemical composition and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Indigenous landraces of Omani fenugreek seeds are a rich source of protein, dietary fiber, and many important bioactive components, which were found to be significantly correlatedwith its antioxidant properties. Keywords: Omani fenugreek, landraces, phytochemical composition, antioxidant properties.

  20. SHORT COMMUNICATION Proximate, mineral composition and anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -nutrition composition. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used in determination of the leaves for P, K, Mg, Ca, Fe and Zn. Anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) including phytate, oxalate and trypsin inhibitor were also determined using appropriate ...

  1. proximate composition and consumer acceptability of african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... Additionally, Olomu (1995); Kreuzer and Heen (1962);. Waterman (1976) have also highlighted that fish is rich in protein with amino acid composition very well suited to human dietary requirements comparing favorably with egg, milk and meat in the nutritional value of its protein. Fish is however susceptible ...

  2. Chemical composition of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. W.; Anders, E.

    1979-01-01

    The chemical composition of Mars is estimated from the cosmochemical model of Ganapathy and Anders (1974) with additional petrological and geophysical constraints. The model assumes that planets and chondrites underwent the same fractionation processes in the solar nebula, and constraints are imposed by the abundance of the heat-producing elements, U, Th and K, the volatile-rich component and the high density of the mantle. Global abundances of 83 elements are presented, and it is noted that the mantle is an iron-rich garnet wehrlite, nearly identical to the bulk moon composition of Morgan at al. (1978) and that the core is sulfur poor (3.5% S). The comparison of model compositions for the earth, Venus, Mars, the moon and a eucrite parent body suggests that volatile depletion correlates mainly with size rather than with radial distance from the sun.

  3. Chemical composition, antimicrobial activity, proximate analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    GC-MS analyses were performed on a Hewlett-Packard HP 5973 mass spectrometer interfaced with an HP-6890 gas chromatogram. The temperature and column conditions used are as follows: initial temperature of 70°C, maximum temperature of 325°C, equilibration time of 3 min, ramp of 4°C/min, final temperature of ...

  4. Chemical composition, antimicrobial activity, proximate analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract showed significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus kristinae, Streptococcus faecalis, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumonia, Serratia marcescens and antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium notatum.

  5. Proximate, chemical compositions and sulphur concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... ... food will include its content of protein, carbohydrates, fat and oil, moisture ... to sugars such as fructose, glucose and sucrose ..... health benefits deriving from consuming high levels of ... mechanisms (Dragsted et al., 1993).

  6. Proximate, chemical compositions and sulphur concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Preference for dried mango is on the increase as it provides a good source of nutrients, whilst evading consumption of fatty in some ... good source of nutrients, particularly vitamin A and C and dietary fibre (Tiwari et al., 2013; ... of any food will include its content of protein, carbohydrates, fat and oil, moisture.

  7. Proximate composition and amino acid profile of rice husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Native rice husk (NRH) was fermented with Pleurotus ostreatus for 7, 14 and 21 days to improve the nutritional values. The proximate composition and amino acid profiles were determined. The results showed that crude fibre (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) were ...

  8. Proximate composition of traditional local sorghum beer “dolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dolo is a local beer manufactured from malted sorghum grains. It is the most commonly consumed alcoholic beverage in Burkina Faso (60% of population). Thirty (30) samples of dolo were collected from local markets in Ouagadougou and analyzed with respect to their proximate compositions and pH values using ...

  9. Effect of cooking method on proximate and mineral composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated effect(s) of cooking fresh fish (Lake Malawi tilapia) by boiling, roasting, pan frying and, using a locally made fireless cooker) on its proximate (protein, fat, ash and moisture) and mineral (calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and phosphorus) composition. Highest and lowest values for crude protein were ...

  10. Proximate composition of some agricultural wastes in Nigeria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition of five agricultural wastes were determined and latter subjected to low temperature conversion process in the presence of nitrogen atmosphere.These agricultural wastes are Cocos nucifera husk,Theobroma cacao pod, Kola nitida pods and Plantago major peels(ripe and unripe peels). All the ...

  11. Seasonal variations in the proximate compositions of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate compositions of five economically-important fish species from Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania were determined using standard methods and procedures of the Association of the Analytical Chemists. Samples of Lates niloticus, Oreochromis niloticus, Rastrineobola argentea, Limnothrissa miodon ...

  12. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition of small catfish, Mystus bleekeri, from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan was investigated and fluctuation in relation to body size and condition factor was carried out. Mean percentages for water, fat, protein and ash contents in the whole wet body weight of wild M. bleekeri were 77.87, 3.26, 15.01 and ...

  13. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... Changes in the heavy metal content and proximate composition during the 28 day composting of cassava peels used in the cultivation of the oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 was studied. Significant dry weight variations of cellulose, hemicellulose and fat contents were observed from day ...

  14. Comparative analysis of the Proximate composition and Sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of the Proximate composition and Sensory properties of dokuwa produced in Niger State Metropolis. ... Sensory evaluation of the samples on the basis of colour, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability showed that significant difference (p<0.05) existed between the samples. The sample from ...

  15. Studies on the proximate composition, functional properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study produced full fat and defatted flours from matured ackee apple arils and evaluated the proximate composition and the effect of pH and salt concentrations on some of the functional properties of the full fat flour and the defatted flour. Matured ackee apple arils were oven-dried at 60 oC and milled to obtain ...

  16. Proximate analyses and mineral compositions of the pulp and seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate analyses and mineral compositions of the pulp and seeds of Adansonia digitata (Baobab fruit) ... It was concluded that the pulp of Adansonia digitata is an important source of vitamin C, while the seed is a potential source of edible oil, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium. Keywords: Baobab, Adansonia ...

  17. Proximate and mineral composition of six commercially important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted from May 2015 to April 2016 on the proximate and mineral composition of six species of fish from Obueyinomo River in Edo State, Nigeria. The six (6) species are M. electricus, C. gariepinus, T. zilli, A. monkei, P. obscura, P. africana. Biochemical assay of moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fiber, ...

  18. Proximate and Amino Acid Composition of Celosia argentea Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, trace metals and amino acids composition of Celosia argentea were determined. The crude fat, fibre and protein contents were moderate with 1.10, 3.53 and 5.17% respectively while high in the ash content (22.43%). Results of the amino acid analysis revealed high contents of the essential amino acids with ...

  19. Proximate composition and functional properties of raw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water binding capacity was affected in the order boiled > roasted > steeped > control. No significant change was observed for oil absorption capacity of the processed samples when compared with increase observed in water binding capacity. Key Words: Plantain, proximate composition, functional properties and ...

  20. Proximate Compositions and physical properties of selected maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate compositions and physical properties of five different maize grain varieties, Oba Supa, DMR, Popcorn, local Tiv and SWAM 1 were determined in accordance with established methods. Significant differences (P≤ 0.05) were found in the moisture, ash, crude fibre, carbohydrate and fat contents among the varieties.

  1. Effects of Planting Locations on the Proximate Compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v21i2.14. Keywords: locations, moringa, LGA, proximate composition, soil factors. Moringa leaves contain more vitamin A than carrots, more calcium than milk, more iron than spinach, more potassium than bananas, and more vitamin C than oranges. The leaves are considered to offer great.

  2. Comparison of proximate and fatty acid compositions of wild brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fatty acid and proximate composition of two commercially exploited trout species (wild brown trout (WBT) and farmed rainbow trout (FRT)). The mean crude lipid content in FRT (4.3%) was significantly higher than that in WBT (2.7%). Total saturated fatty acid concentration ...

  3. Proximate and Cholesterol Composition of Selected Fast Foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fast foods consumption has been on the increase in Nigeria raising concerns about the nutritional and health implications. This study was carried out to determine the proximate composition and cholesterol contents of four commonly consumed fast foods (doughnut, chicken pie, roasted chicken, and Jollof rice) sold in ...

  4. Proximate composition and basic phytochemical assessment of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The nut of the yellow variety had terpenoids and steroids present in it while the nut of the red variety had alkaloids present. Statistical analyses carried out showed that there were no significant differences (p≤0.05) between the two varieties based on their proximate composition. INTRODUCTION. Terminalia catappa is ...

  5. Proximate, Vitamins and Mineral Composition of Vitex doniana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Vitex doniana, micronutrients, proximate, vitamins and mineral composition, Fruit. ... Vitamin B2 and Spectrophotometric method for. Vitamin B6, while titremetric method was used for Vitamin C. Mineral content: Mineral analysis was carried out after sample .... to calcium for bone, teeth and muscles growth.

  6. Heavy metal and proximate composition associated with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the heavy metal content and proximate composition during the 28 day composting of cassava peels used in the cultivation of the oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 was studied. Significant dry weight variations of cellulose, hemicellulose and fat contents were observed from day 0 to 12.

  7. Proximate, mineral and vitamin C composition of vegetable Gbolo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbolo (Crassocephalum crepidioides and Crassocephalum rubens) is a traditional leafy vegetable highly consumed in southern and central Benin, as well as in some part of northern Benin. The nutritional potential of the two species of Gbolo were evaluated through their proximate composition, mineral and vitamin C ...

  8. Effect of drying temperatures on the proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to dry chicken eggs in order to determine the effect of drying temperatures on the proximate composition and sensory attributes of dried eggs. The albumen, yolk and whole egg were dried separately at temperatures of 50, 55 and 60oC. The drying time for the samples ranged from 7hrs20mins to ...

  9. Effect of thermal processing methods on the proximate composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritive value of raw and thermal processed castor oil seed (Ricinus communis) was investigated using the following parameters; proximate composition, gross energy, mineral constituents and ricin content. Three thermal processing methods; toasting, boiling and soaking-and-boiling were used in the processing of the ...

  10. Determination of Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johnny

    livestock nutrition. Keywords: Sesamum indicum; Proximate composition; Amino acid profile; Nutrient value. Correspondence: ubi.benjamin@yahoo.com. Introduction. Sesame ... presence of oxygen in the air to CO2 at a temperature of 600 0C (dry ashing). The % ash content was ..... Effect of Heat Treatment and Defatting.

  11. Proximate composition and mineral content in different, types of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and mineral content in different, types of traditional TOGWA used in Tanzania as a weaning food. ... Crude fibre was also higher in traditional and simulated togwa than in the main ingredients, while carbohydrate percent of DM and energy contents were lower than in the ingredients. Ash contents in ...

  12. Proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALLSWELL

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... from Elaeis guineensis and consumed. There is paucity of literature on the exact chemical compositions of these seeds. There is the need to understand the chemical compositions of these seeds. Presumably, there could be toxic element in the seeds that have cumulative adverse effects on the consumers.

  13. Proximate composition analysis posterior to the cryopreservation of Chaetoceros calcitrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Salas-Leiva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of cryopreservation on the proximate composition of microalgae Chaetoceros calcitrans was evaluated. Materials and methods. C. calcitrans was cultured and cryopreserved using 5% (v/v dimethylsulfoxide as cryoprotectant. The freezing was controlled at a rate of 3°C/min, up to -60°C and then the microalgae were immersed in liquid nitrogen (-196°C. After storage in liquid nitrogen, microalgae were rapidly thawed out and subcultured. The percentage of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates was analyzed using absorption spectrophotometry and the organic matter was studied by gravimetric analysis. Results. There was no significant variation between the proximate composition of C. calcitrans cryopreserved and the controls (p>0.05. Conclusion. Our results show that, despite low cell recovery after the preservation of this organism at low temperatures, there is no apparent loss of nutritional characteristics caused by the storing process at low temperatures.

  14. Uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction of the proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Min

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allograft-prosthetic composite can be divided into three groups names cemented, uncemented, and partially cemented. Previous studies have mainly reported outcomes in cemented and partially cemented allograft-prosthetic composites, but have rarely focused on the uncemented allograft-prosthetic composites. The objectives of our study were to describe a surgical technique for using proximal femoral uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite and to present the radiographic and clinical results. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients who underwent uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction of the proximal femur after bone tumor resection were retrospectively evaluated at an average followup of 24.0 months. Clinical records and radiographs were evaluated. Results: In our series, union occurred in all the patients (100%; range 5-9 months. Until the most recent followup, there were no cases with infection, nonunion of the greater trochanter, junctional bone resorption, dislocation, allergic reaction, wear of acetabulum socket, recurrence, and metastasis. But there were three periprosthetic fractures which were fixed using cerclage wire during surgery. Five cases had bone resorption in and around the greater trochanter. The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS score and Harris hip score (HHS were 26.2 points (range 24-29 points and 80.6 points (range 66.2-92.7 points, respectively. Conclusions: These results showed that uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite could promote bone union through compression at the host-allograft junction and is a good choice for proximal femoral resection. Although this technology has its own merits, long term outcomes are yet not validated.

  15. Proximate composition, phytochemical analysis, and in vitro antioxidant potentials of extracts of Annona muricata (Soursop)

    OpenAIRE

    Agu, Kingsley C.; Okolie, Paulinus N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Numerous bioactive compounds and phytochemicals have been reported to be present Annona muricata (Soursop). Some of these chemical compounds have been linked to the ethnomedicinal properties of the plant and its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to assess the proximate composition, phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant properties of A. muricata using standard biochemical procedures. The defatted Annona muricata crude methanolic extracts of the different ...

  16. Chemical composition and nutritional value of boiled Christmas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and the nutritive value of boiled Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia) for starter broiler chickens. Dried Christmas bush fruits (Capsules + seed) were boiled for 30 minutes, sundried and ground into meal. The meal was analyzed for proximate composition and ...

  17. PROCESSING YELD AND PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF Rhamdia voulezi FILLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Souza dos Reis Goes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of slaughter weight and sex on processing yield and on the proximate composition of Rhamdia voulezi. We calculated the percentage yield of the whole fish (carcass, clean trunk, abdominal muscle, fillet, edible parts, head, skin, gonads and visceral fat yield. There was no statistical difference in yields among weight classes (P>0.05. However, when assessing the income between sexes we observed significant difference (P0.05 among the classes, however, moisture, lipids and calories had significant difference (P<0.05 among the classes, and humidity decreased with increasing size of the fish, and lipid content and calorific value were higher for fish weighing 301-400 g. We oncluded R. voulezi with mass between 100 and 400 g presents equal yield processing, and fish weighing 301-400 g have higher lipid content in the fillet.

  18. Chemical Composition of Different Varieties of Linseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laiq Khan*, M. Sharif, M. Sarwar, Sameea1 and M. Ameen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate chemical composition of six varieties of linseed (Chandni, LS-29, LS-49, LS-70, LS-75 and LS-76. Proximate composition, mineral profile and cyanogenic glycosides (linamarin were determined. Average proximate composition values for linseed i.e. crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash and nitrogen free extract were 24.18, 37.77, 4.78, 3.50 and 25.86%, respectively. Higher values of crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber and nitrogen free extract were observed in varieties LS-49, LS-70, LS-29 and Chandni, respectively. Average mineral contents in linseed i.e. Ca, Mg, K, Na, Cl, P, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were 0.39, 0.09, 1.41, 0.05, 0.08, 0.89, 4.67, 50.56, 8.29 and 13.55 ppm, respectively. Among micro minerals, varieties LS-29 and LS-70 were higher in Cu contents; LS-75 was higher in Fe content, while LS-49 was higher in Mn and Zn contents. Among macro minerals, level of Ca was higher in LS-70, levels of Mg, K and Na were higher in Chandni, while P was higher in LS-49. Average amount of linamarin in linseed was 31.05mg/100 gm DM. The variety LS-75 had the highest (35.22 mg/100 gm linamarin content, while variety LS-70 had least (26.22 mg/100 gm amount of linamarin. In conclusion, there is significant difference in chemical composition among linseed varieties. The varieties LS-49 showed higher crude protein content, LS-70 showed greater oil content, while LS-75 had higher content of linamarin.

  19. Preliminary Studies of the Chemical Composition and Sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary studies of chemical composition and sensory properties of instant noodles from blends of wheat flour and sweet potato starch were carried out. Sweet potato starch was used to replace wheat flour at 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70%. Proximate, vitamin A, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out by ...

  20. Changes in chemical composition and bioassay assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    2005-03-20

    Mar 20, 2005 ... Changes in chemical composition upon processing and bioassay assessment of nutritional potentials of almond fruit waste as an alternative feedstuff were conducted using day-old- cockerels. Proximate analyses revealed that AFW contained valuable nutrients, carbohydrate/dry matter, protein, fat, fiber, ...

  1. Ceramic superconductor/metal composite materials employing the superconducting proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Matthew J.

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting composite materials having particles of superconducting material disposed in a metal matrix material with a high electron-boson coupling coefficient (.lambda.). The superconducting particles can comprise any type of superconductor including Laves phase materials, Chevrel phase materials, A15 compounds, and perovskite cuprate ceramics. The particles preferably have dimensions of about 10-500 nanometers. The particles preferably have dimensions larger than the superconducting coherence length of the superconducting material. The metal matrix material has a .lambda. greater than 0.2, preferably the .lambda. is much higher than 0.2. The metal matrix material is a good proximity superconductor due to its high .lambda.. When cooled, the superconductor particles cause the metal matrix material to become superconducting due to the proximity effect. In cases where the particles and the metal matrix material are chemically incompatible (i.e., reactive in a way that destroys superconductivity), the particles are provided with a thin protective metal coating. The coating is chemically compatible with the particles and metal matrix material. High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cuprate ceramic particles are reactive and therefore require a coating of a noble metal resistant to oxidation (e.g., silver, gold). The proximity effect extends through the metal coating. With certain superconductors, non-noble metals can be used for the coating.

  2. Fatty Acid and Proximate Composition of Bee Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Kaplan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acid (FA composition of eight bee bread samples of different botanical origins were examined and significant variations were observed. The samples were all identified as monofloral, namely Castanea sativa (94.4 %, Trifolium spp. (85.6 %, Gossypium hirsutum (66.2 %, Citrus spp. (61.4 % and Helianthus annuus (45.4 %. Each had moisture content between 11.4 and 15.9 %, ash between 1.9 and 2.54 %, fat between 5.9 and 11.5 %, and protein between 14.8 and 24.3 %. A total of 37 FAs were determined with most abundant being (9Z,12Z,15Z-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic, (9Z,12Z-octadeca-9,12-dienoic, hexadecanoic, (Z-octadec-9-enoic, (Z-icos-11-enoic and octadecanoic acids. Among all, cotton bee bread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, i.e. 41.3 %. Unsaturated to saturated FA ratio ranged between 1.38 and 2.39, indicating that the bee bread can be a good source of unsaturated FAs.

  3. Fatty Acid and Proximate Composition of Bee Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Muammer; Karaoglu, Öznur; Eroglu, Nazife

    2016-01-01

    Summary Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acid (FA) composition of eight bee bread samples of different botanical origins were examined and significant variations were observed. The samples were all identified as monofloral, namely Castanea sativa (94.4%), Trifolium spp. (85.6%), Gossypium hirsutum (66.2%), Citrus spp. (61.4%) and Helianthus annuus (45.4%). Each had moisture content between 11.4 and 15.9%, ash between 1.9 and 2.54%, fat between 5.9 and 11.5%, and protein between 14.8 and 24.3%. A total of 37 FAs were determined with most abundant being (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic, (9Z,12Z)- -octadeca-9,12-dienoic, hexadecanoic, (Z)-octadec-9-enoic, (Z)-icos-11-enoic and octadecanoic acids. Among all, cotton bee bread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, i.e. 41.3%. Unsaturated to saturated FA ratio ranged between 1.38 and 2.39, indicating that the bee bread can be a good source of unsaturated FAs. PMID:28115909

  4. Fatty Acid and Proximate Composition of Bee Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Muammer; Karaoglu, Öznur; Eroglu, Nazife; Silici, Sibel

    2016-12-01

    Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acid (FA) composition of eight bee bread samples of different botanical origins were examined and significant variations were observed. The samples were all identified as monofloral, namely Castanea sativa (94.4%), Trifolium spp. (85.6%), Gossypium hirsutum (66.2%), Citrus spp. (61.4%) and Helianthus annuus (45.4%). Each had moisture content between 11.4 and 15.9%, ash between 1.9 and 2.54%, fat between 5.9 and 11.5%, and protein between 14.8 and 24.3%. A total of 37 FAs were determined with most abundant being (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic, (9Z,12Z)- -octadeca-9,12-dienoic, hexadecanoic, (Z)-octadec-9-enoic, (Z)-icos-11-enoic and octadecanoic acids. Among all, cotton bee bread contained the highest level of ω-3 FAs, i.e. 41.3%. Unsaturated to saturated FA ratio ranged between 1.38 and 2.39, indicating that the bee bread can be a good source of unsaturated FAs.

  5. Chemical compositions, methods of making the chemical compositions, and structures made from the chemical compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Cheng, Zhe; Liu, Ze; Liu, Meilin

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include chemical compositions, structures, anodes, cathodes, electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells, fuel cells, fuel cell membranes, separation membranes, catalytic membranes, sensors, coatings for electrolytes, electrodes, membranes, and catalysts, and the like, are disclosed.

  6. Carcass yield and proximate composition of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athos Alexandre Cesnik Ayres

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated five classes of weight of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus seeking to define the ideal slaughter weight for the species. We used 79 bullfrogs, distributed in a completely randomized design (class 1 251 g (n = 14, which were euthanized, weighted and gutted. For the carcass yield, we weighed the clean torso, thighs, liver, skin and head. The clean torso was subjected to chemical composition analysis. The carcass yield was, on average, 49% with no difference between weight classes (p > 0.05. The yield of posterior thighs was significantly higher for the lower weight class, which also presented higher percentage of paws (28.37 ± 0.63 and 9.33 ± 0.21, respectively (p < 0.05. The percentages of visceral fat and skin showed a progressive increase along with the weight of the animals; the class with individuals weighing 201-250 grams showed the higher values (p < 0.05. The chemical composition indicated that individuals above 251 grams showed lower values of ether extract and higher values of crude protein (0.99 ± 0.14and 15.80 ± 0.64, respectively (p < 0.05. So, it is recommended the slaughter of bullfrogs weighing more than 201 grams, because of better yield and meat quality.

  7. Comparative physico-chemical and proximate analysis of oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In rural areas of developing countries like Burkina Faso, nutritive elements are mainly composed of vegetable source. Shea nut, seeds of Sesamum indicum, Cucumis melo and Cucurbita pepo, four species widely consumed were studied. The proximate parameters: moisture, proteins and fat were analysed. Saponification ...

  8. Changes in proximate composition and oil characteristics during flaxseed development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herchi, W.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization-Mass Spectrometry (APPI-MS and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC are the two analytical methods that were used to characterize Triacylglycerols (TAGs during flaxseed development. The HPLC method of the oils showed the presence of 15 TAG species. In contrast to the HPLC chromatograms, the APPI-MS showed 17 peaks of TAG. APPI-MS is more rapid than the HPLC method (11 min. The iodine value of the oils showed a gradual increase, while the oil stability continuously decreased. Proximate composition during flaxseed development revealed that flaxseed is potentially a good source of dietary energy and protein. At full maturity, flaxseed contained 37% oil and 24% protein on a dry-weight basis; albumin was the major storage protein (53% of total storage proteins followed by globulin (33% and glutelin fractions (11%. Prolamins had the lowest percentage with 3%. α-amylase activity was higher in the mature seeds than the young ones.Fotoionización a presión atmosférica-Espectrometría de masas (APPI-MS y cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC son dos métodos de análisis que se utilizaron para caracterizar triglicéridos (TAGs durante el desarrollo de semillas de linaza. El método HPLC mostró la presencia de 15 especies de TAG, en contraste, los cromatogramas de APPI-MS mostraron 17 picos de TAG siendo el método APPI-MS más rápido que el de HPLC (11 min. El índice de yodo de los aceites mostró un aumento gradual, mientras que la estabilidad disminuyó continuamente. El estudio de la composición proximal de la linaza durante su desarrollo, mostró que esta semilla es una fuente potencialmente buena de energía y de proteína para la dieta. Al final de la maduración, la linaza contenía 37 % de aceite y 24 % de proteína sobre peso seco; albúmina fue la principal proteína de almacenamiento (53% sobre el total de las proteínas de almacenamiento seguido de la globulina (33 % y glutelina

  9. Proximate and anti-nutritional composition of leaves and seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate and anti-nutrient composition of the leaves and seeds of ten provenances of Moringa oleifera from parts of Nigeria, were examined at Nsukka, Nigeria in 2012. Results indicated absence of significant main effect on any of the proximate traits evaluated while protein content responded significantly to plant part, ...

  10. Influence of proximal box elevation on bond strength of composite inlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva Gonçalves, Dayana; Cura, María; Ceballos, Laura; Fuentes, Mª Victoria

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of proximal box elevation on microtensile bond strength (mTBS) of composite inlays to the proximal box floor, using either a total-etch or a self-adhesive resin cement. Twenty-five human molars were selected, and a class II OM (inlay) cavity preparation was performed in each tooth. Cavities were randomly assigned into four experimental groups, according to the location of the proximal cervical margin (located 1 mm below cementoenamel junction (CEJ), or with proximal box elevation with composite resin) and the resin cement used for luting (a total-etch resin cement RelyX ARC or a self-adhesive resin cement G-Cem). After 1-week water storage, samples were subjected to mTBS test. Results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (p box elevation improved the bond strength of composite inlays for both resin cements. However, only for G-Cem was this improvement statistically significant. The proximal box elevation improved the bond strength attained by G-Cem resin cement. For RelyX ARC, the position of the cervical margin did not affect composite inlays bond strength. Proximal box elevation does not decline bond strength of composite inlays to the proximal floor when a total-etch or a self-adhesive resin cement is used.

  11. Effect of cooking on the proximate composition of the leaves of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cooking on the proximate composition of the leaves of some accessions ... The accessions may be used in the management of obesity, diabetes, ... The accessions can also serve as good candidates for proteins in cereal-based diets.

  12. Proximate composition, phytochemical analysis, and in vitro antioxidant potentials of extracts of Annona muricata (Soursop)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agu, Kingsley C; Okolie, Paulinus N

    2017-01-01

    ... of A. muricata using standard biochemical procedures. The defatted Annona muricata crude methanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant were used for the estimation of proximate composition and phytochemical screening...

  13. Effect of NPK and Poultry Manure on Growth, Yield, and Proximate Composition of Three Amaranths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oyedeji, Stephen; Animasaun, David Adedayo; Bello, Abdullahi Ajibola; Agboola, Oludare Oladipo

    2014-01-01

      The study compares the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus deflexus, grown with poultry manure and NPK in relation to the unfertilized...

  14. Proximate and mineral composition of Tamarindus indica linn 1753 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science World Journal ... Physical parameters and nutrient contents of the whole seeds and seed nuts of Tamarindus indica L. 1753 were determined. ... were found to be potential sources of mineral elements while the whole seeds were richer in other proximate components with the exception of moisture and ash contents.

  15. Proximate and elemental composition of Bauhinia rufescens Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is aimed at investigating the proximate contents, concentrations of some micro/macroelements and anions of the stem bark and leaves of B. rufescens with the view of validating its used as forage and medicinally by man in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery and in wound healing. The stem bark and leaves of ...

  16. Proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The envelopes were put into an oven set at 60°C for 6 h. Seeds of each plant species were milled ... This research work recommends that little quantities of these seeds should be taken periodically to minimize the adverse effects arising from consuming large quantities of the seeds. Key words: Proximate, oil, Poga oleosa, ...

  17. Proximate composition and sensory properties of freeze-dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two Nigerian soups (Egusi soup and bitter leaf soup) were prepared and freeze - dried to produce instant soups. These instant soups and the freshly prepared portions were subjected to proximate and sensory analysis using standard methods. The results of the analysis showed that instant egusi soup contained 10.89 ...

  18. Effect of drought/irrigation on proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enset [Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman] is an important root crop serving as a carbohydrate rich food source in Ethiopia. Perennial crops, like enset, are often exposed to recurrent dry periods which could greatly affect their growth, physiology and yield. The effect of induced drought/irrigation on the proximate ...

  19. Proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of fish maws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Youhou; Sun, Yulin; Chen, Ziming; Fan, Sigang

    2016-01-01

    Fish maws are commonly recommended and consumed in Asia over many centuries because it is believed to have some traditional medical properties. This study highlights and provides new information on the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of fish maws of Cynoscion acoupa, Congresox talabonoides and Sciades proops. The results indicated that fish maws were excellent protein sources and low in fat content. The proteins in fish maws were rich in functional amino acids (FAAs) and the ratio of FAAs and total amino acids in fish maws ranged from 0.68 to 0.69. Among species, croaker C. acoupa contained the most polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapntemacnioc acid, showing the lowest value of index of atherogenicity and index of thrombogenicity, showing the highest value of hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio, which is the most desirable.

  20. Influence of composite resin consistency and placement technique on proximal contact tightness of Class II restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of composite resin consistency and placement technique on proximal contact tightness of Class II composite resin restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A manikin model (KaVo Dental) was used with an artificial first molar in which a standardized MO preparation was

  1. Effects of Deboning Methods on Chemical Composition and Some Properties of Beef and Turkey Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Meltem SERDAROĞLU; TURP, Gülen YILDIZ

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare some chemical and physical characteristics of mechanically deboned and hand deboned turkey meat and beef. Samples were analyzed for proximate composition, cholesterol, TBA, calcium and iron contents, hunter colour parameters and fatty acid composition. Deboning method affected chemical composition of beef and turkey meat. Mechanical deboning resulted higher cholesterol values and calcium and iron content. In hand deboned turkey meat the most abund...

  2. Reduction of Allowed Inventory When Chemicals are Located in Close Proximity with Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Y P; Nguyen, S N

    2006-09-27

    The objective of this report is to determine the allowed inventory of chemicals stored in the same bay, building or magazine, i.e., in close proximity, with high explosives (HE) that would, in the event of an accident, result in acceptable risks to colocated workers and the public.

  3. Proximate Composition and Nutritional Value of Three Macroalgae: Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lorenzo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid and ash content and nutritional value (fatty acid, amino acid and mineral profile of three macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcate were studied. Chemical composition was significantly (p < 0.001 different among the three seaweeds. In this regard, the B. bifurcata presented the highest fat content (6.54% of dry matter; whereas, F. vesiculosus showed the highest protein level (12.99% dry matter. Regarding fatty acid content, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs were the most abundant followed by saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. On the other hand, the three seaweeds are a rich source of K (from 3781.35 to 9316.28 mg/100 g, Mn (from 8.28 to 1.96 mg/100 g, Na (from 1836.82 to 4575.71 mg/100 g and Ca (from 984.73 to 1160.27 mg/100 g. Finally, the most abundant amino acid was glutamic acid (1874.47–1504.53 mg/100 dry matter, followed by aspartic acid (1677.01–800.84 mg/100 g dry matter and alanine (985.40–655.73 mg/100 g dry matter.

  4. Effect of chitosan coatings enriched with cinnamon oil on proximate composition of rainbow trout fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Pınar Oǧuzhan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of chitosan coating enriched with cinnamon oil on proximate composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during storage at 4°C was investigated. The treatments included the following: C1 (control samples), C2 (chitosan coating) and C3 (chitosan + 1 % [v/w] cinnamon EO added). The control and the coated fish samples were analysed for chemical (moisture, protein, lipid and ash) composition. The mean of moisture, protein, lipid and ash in the control samples (C1) were 70.3%, 20.1%, 2.6% and 1.2%, in coated samples (C2) 69.70%, 24.21%, 2.4% and 2.2% and coated+cinnamon oil samples (C3) 69.70%, 25.05%, 2.5% and 2.2%, respectively. Moisture and lipid contents in control groups were higher than other groups, but protein and ash contents were lower. Significant increases (p<0.05) in protein content were observed between samples, which subsequently decreased the moisture content of these samples.

  5. Proximate and metal composition of buckwheat groats cultivated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, buckwheat can be safely eaten by people who have celiac disease as it does not contain gluten. Buckwheat can be a good substitute for wheat, oats, rye and barley in a gluten-free diet. Buckwheat's well-balanced starch, protein, fat and mineral composition has found a renewed interest, particularly among the ...

  6. Effects of Planting Locations on the Proximate Compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera is cultivated all over the world as it is commonly used as nutritional and medicinal plant. This study was carried out to determine the effect of various locations in Ejigbo and Egbedore Local Government Areas, (LGA) in Osun State and Surulere LGA in Oyo State on the nutritional compositions of Moringa ...

  7. Proximate Composition, Physical and Sensory Properties of Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the possibility of preparing non-wheat cakes using acha and Bambara nut flour blends and generate base line data on the chemical, physical and sensory properties of the cakes. Materials and methods: Acha grains and Bambara nut seeds were processed into flour ...

  8. Proximate composition of some agricultural wastes in Nigeria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    and labeled prior to analysis and conversion/pyrolysis. All chemicals used were analar grades and no futher purification were needed.Weight of the sample were taken using H 18 mettler balance of. 0.0001g accuracy and gallen kamp oven operating at 1050C was engaged. Method: Particle size of <2.360 – 1.000mm were.

  9. Proximate Composition and Organoleptic Qualities of Iron Fortified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    other chemical values were similar. The organoleptic qualities were carried out with gari and and both were well accepted. In conclusion, the fortified products were within acceptable limit and showed that gari is a promising food stuff for fortification and there was no significant difference in the acceptability of the products.

  10. Proximate and nutrient composition of three types of indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Tanzania wild edible mushrooms collected during the rainy season have broad cultural acceptance and constitute a traditionally very important nutritious food. However, their assessment as food, which is based on their chemical analysis, has not been adequately studied and documented. The objective of the study was ...

  11. Effects of Fermentation and Extrusion on the Proximate Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    biological value. About 80 percent of the proteins consumed by humans in the developing countries are supplied by plants (FAO, 1988). Fermentation has also been ..... The nutritional and fermentation characteristics of Uji produced from dry milled flour and whole wet milled maize. Chemical Microbiology Technology.

  12. Streptococcus Mutans Group And Lactobacillus Counts In Proximal Amalgam And Resin Composite Restorations: An In Vivo Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juliana Campos Junqueira; Alessandra Bühler Borges; Daphne Câmara Barcellos; Cinthya Lobo Pradella; Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge; Carlos Rocha Gomes Torres

    2011-01-01

    Aim & Objectives: This study assesses the quantity of streptococcus mutans group and lactobacillus in interproximal contact of posterior teeth with proximal amalgam and resin composite restorations. Methods...

  13. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques...

  14. Chemical composition of Chinese palm fruit and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PO and PKO exhibited good chemical properties and could be used as edible oils and for industrial applications. There are almost no data about Chinese palm fruit now and this study systematically researched on it, which can provide useful information for Chinese oil palm industry. Key words: Chemical composition, palm ...

  15. Comparison of proximal contacts of class II resin composite restorations in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Burgersdijk, R.C.W.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the tightness of the proximal contact when placing posterior resin composite restorations with circumferential and sectional matrix systems in an in vitro model using a special measuring device (Tooth Pressure Meter). A manikin model was used with an artificial first molar in

  16. Seasonal variation in the proximate composition of rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata from Bombay coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Nair, V.R.

    Changes in proximate composition of soft tissue of rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata inhabiting a polluted station at Bandra (stn. B) and a relatively clean area at Mudh Island (stn. M) were studied. An average protein content of 48.88 + or - 3...

  17. Chemical composition of Clinopodium menthifolium aqueous extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of Clinopodium menthifolium aqueous extract and its influence on antioxidant system in black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) and pepper (Capsicum annuum) seedlings and mortality rate of whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) adults.

  18. Proximate and Phytochemical Composition of Moringa oleifera Leaves at Three Stages of Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Bamishaiye, E.I.; F.F. Olayemi; E.F. Awagu; O.M. Bamshaiye

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the proximate and anti-nutrient composition of dried leaves of Moringa oleifera harvested at different stages of the plants maturity. The leaves were harvested at three period of time viz: 10th (early stage), 15th (Mid stage) and 20th (late stage) week after pruning. The result of the proximate analysis revealed that the early stage has the highest carbohydrate content (55.14%). Mid stage recorded the highest moisture (6.3%) while the late stage has highes...

  19. Proximate, mineral, and antinutrient compositions of indigenous Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) pod accessions: implications for mineral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemede, Habtamu Fekadu; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Beyene, Fekadu; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Z; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The promotion and consumption of indigenous vegetables could help to mitigate food insecurity and alleviate malnutrition in developing countries. Nutrient and antinutrient compositions of eight accessions of Okra Pods were investigated. Molar ratios and mineral bioavailability of Okra pod accessions were also calculated and compared to the critical values to predict the implications for mineral bioavailability. Proximate and mineral composition of Okra pod accessions were determined using standard methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The result of the study revealed that the proximate composition (g/100 g) in dry weight basis was significantly (P analysis showed that, except phytate, tannin, and oxalate contents of all the accessions were significantly (P associated with malnutrition in the country.

  20. Graphene composites containing chemically bonded metal oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Composites of graphene involving chemically bonded nano films of metal oxides have been prepared by reacting graphene containing surface oxygen functionalities with metal halide vapours followed by exposure to water vapour. The composites have been characterized by electron microscopy, atomic force ...

  1. Chemical composition of Annona senegalensis from Nupe land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... The proximate, mineral composition, amino acids content and phytochemical screening of Anona senegalensis seed vegetable collected from different farm site in Bida town, Niger State, Nigeria, were carried out using standard methods of food analysis. The results of the proximate composition show.

  2. Effect of parity on the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of the milk were collected in a single day and the milk was analyzed using gas chromatography. Parity had no effect of proximate composition (fat, DMC and moisture %) on milk. The fatty acids (FA) present in the milk of the three parity groups were primarily palmitic (33.3 to 40.5%), oleic (16.3 to 20.3%), myristic ...

  3. Effects of autoclaving on the proximate composition of stored castor (Ricinus communis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTHONY NEGEDU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Negedu A, Ameh JB, Umoh VJ, Atawodi SE, Rai MK. 2013. Effects of autoclaving on the proximate composition of stored castor (Ricinus communis seeds. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 51-56. The effect of autoclaving on the proximate composition, free fatty acids and peroxide value of castor (Ricinus communis L. seeds in storage were studied. Seeds of castor were surface sterilized, dried and divided into two equal sets of 300g each. One set was autoclaved at 15 1b pressure for 30 minutes at 121oC and the other set served as control. Each set was prepared in triplicates and both sets were stored under same room temperature conditions for a period of 180 days and agitated intermittently. Analysis of the proximate composition showed that autoclaving treatment caused an increased total fat content, reduced moisture, protein, nitrogen free extract (soluble sugar and ash contents of the seeds in storage, as well as a non-significant increase in crude fiber (non-soluble sugar content. It increased the free fatty acid content and decreased the peroxide value of seed oil.

  4. Effect of NPK and Poultry Manure on Growth, Yield, and Proximate Composition of Three Amaranths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Oyedeji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study compares the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus deflexus, grown with poultry manure and NPK in relation to the unfertilized soil of Ilorin, Nigeria. Viable seeds of the Amaranths raised in nursery for two weeks were transplanted (one plant per pot into unfertilized soil (control and soils fertilized with either NPK or poultry manure (PM at 30 Kg ha−1 rate arranged in randomized complete block design with four replicates. Data were collected on plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area, and number of branches from 1 week after transplanting (1 WAT. Fresh weight, dry weight, and proximate composition were determined at 6 WAT. Except for the length, breadth, and number of leaves, the order of growth parameters and yield in the three Amaranthus species was NPK > PM > control. NPK grown Amaranthus species had the highest protein while PM-grown vegetables had the highest ash content. Crude fibre in A. cruentus grown with PM was significantly higher than NPK and the control. The NPK treatment of A. hybridus and A. deflexus had the highest crude fibre content. NPK and PM favoured growth and yield of the Amaranthus species but influenced proximate composition differently.

  5. Restoring proximal integrity in posterior composite resin restorations: innovations using Ceromers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, W H

    1998-03-01

    Clinicians are increasingly being called upon to satisfy the restorative demands of patients requesting tooth coloured restorations but unable to afford an optimum indirect restorative option. Consequently, in clinical practice the envelope of what was hitherto considered the limit of appropriate application of the direct posterior composite resin technique is increasingly being stretched. Although our aesthetic endeavours are fairly easily accomplished in the posterior dentition, interproximal integrity is in many instances wanting and a major cause of restorative failure. This report highlights some of the authors innovations using Ceromers which satisfy the complex variables of clinical practice optimizing proximal contour, allowing for the successful utilization of posterior composite resin in the posterior dentition.

  6. [Seasonal variation of proximate composition in three commercially important species in the Gulf of Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Cristian Fonseca; Solera, Fabián Chavarriá; Mejía-Arana, Fernando

    2013-03-01

    Nutritional value of seafood for human consumption is worldwide recognized. Some information have been generated in other countries, nevertheless, there is limited information describing the chemical composition of some fishery important species caught in the Gulf of Nicoya. For this reason, we studied the levels of proximal components of the edible parts (fresh) of three commercially important species. The meat samples of snook Centropomus unionesis, the shrimp Trachypenaeus byrdi and the bivalve Polymesoda radiata, were collected from the Puntarenas local fish market during the fishing season of February 2009 to January 2010. Proximate composition analysis was determined according to AOAC methodology, and evaluated the moisture content, and protein and lipid composition of shellfish meats. The results indicated that the moisture content ranged from 74.6-80.6g/100g for snook 76.9-80.0g/100g for shrimp and 77.9-89.5g/100g for green mussel. After the moisture, the protein was the most abundant chemical fraction (6.8 to 21g/100g) showing the highest values in February for the shrimp and green mussel, and December for snook. The largest fluctuations in the lipid content were found in the snook, ranging from 0.7g/100g to 5.6g/100g; the highest values in this fraction were found in shrimp, green mussel and snook, for July, February and April samples respectively. Considering these results, we concluded that fish and shrimp species studied are a good alternative for human consumption as a source of protein and low lipid content.

  7. Binary stars: Mass transfer and chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that mass exchange (and mass loss) within a binary system should produce observable changes in the surface chemical composition of both the mass losing and mass gaining stars as a stellar interior exposed to nucleosyntheses is uncovered. Three topics relating mass exchange and/or mass loss to nucleosynthesis are sketched: the chemical composition of Algol systems; the accretion disk of a cataclysmic variable fed by mass from a dwarf secondary star; and the hypothesis that classical Ba II giants result from mass transfer from a more evolved companion now present as a white dwarf.

  8. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus

    OpenAIRE

    Zotti, Maurizio; Coco, Laura Del; Pascali, Sandra Angelica De; Migoni, Danilo; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus). The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. I...

  9. Effect of alternative mediums on production and proximate composition of the microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri as food in culture of the copepod Acartia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Córdova,Luis R; Campaña-Torres,Alfredo; Martinez-Porchas,Marcel; López-Elías,José A; García-Sifuentes,Celia O

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri was cultured in three different mediums consisting on an agricultural fertilizer (Agr-F), aquacultural fertilizer (Aq-F) and a conventional medium (F/2, control). These microalgae were later used as natural food to culture the copepod Acartia sp. The productive response and chemical proximate composition of microalgae and copepods were monitored. Growth rate and final cell concentration were higher in microalgae cultured in Agr-F compared to the control. In add...

  10. Chemical composition and strength of dolomite geopolymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizat, E. A.; Al Bakri, A. M. M.; Liew, Y. M.; Heah, C. Y.

    2017-09-01

    The chemical composition of dolomite and the compressive strength of dolomite geopolymer composites were studied. The both composites prepared with mechanical mixer manufactured by with rotor speed of 350 rpm and curing in the oven for 24 hours at 80˚C. XRF analysis showThe dolomite raw materials contain fewer amounts of Si and Al but high Ca in its composition. Dolomite geopolymer composites with 20M of NaOH shows greater and optimum compressive strength compared to dolomite geopolymer with other NaOH molarity. This indicated better interaction of dolomite raw material and alkaline activator need high molarity of NaOH in order to increase the reactivity of dolomite.

  11. determination the chemical composition, the physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. IDARA AKPABIO

    ... can be used in many industrial preparations such as food supplements and body cream. However sufficient information on the physicochemical properties of the oil extract and the amino acid profiles of the seeds of Telfairia occidentalis are inadequate. Therefore, in this study, the chemical composition of the seed of fluted.

  12. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aneldavh

    characteristics (thousand seed and hectolitre mass), chemical composition (dry matter, ash, crude protein. (CP), ether extract, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and mineral content), energy values (nitrogen corrected true metabolisable energy content (TMEn for roosters)) as well as the lysine and methionine.

  13. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and amino acid availability of grain legumes for poultry. ... TS Brand, DA Brandt, CW Cruywagen ... energy values (nitrogen corrected true metabolisable energy content (TMEn for roosters)) as well as the lysine and methionine availability (with roosters) of the ...

  14. Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, ... 1Biochemistry Department, National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. 2Department of Biochemistry, Michael ... alkaloid and 0.98 ± 0.00% flavonoid. The unripe plantain flour was found to have ...

  15. Fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of silage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation characteristics were determined by measuring: pH, lactic acid, acetic acid, butyric acid, and ammonia-nitrogen. Effective preservation with a favourable .... Table 1 Chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of manure and maize residues used in. Replications 1 and 2. Replication 1. Replication 2.

  16. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Geniosporum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Geniosporum rotundifolium Briq and Haumaniastrum villosum (Bene) AJ Paton (Lamiaceae) Essential Oils from Tanzania. ... The oil of G. rotundifolium exhibited weak to moderate activity against the bacterial species but showed no activity against the test fungi. However ...

  17. Determination of the chemical composition, the physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of the chemical composition, the physicochemical properties of the oil extract and the amino acid profiles of the seeds of Telfairia occidentalis ... The physicochemical properties of the seed oil show that the oil has high saponification value, low free fatty acid, low peroxide value and specific gravity of 0.87, thus ...

  18. Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical Composition, antioxidant activity, functional properties and inhibitory action of unripe plantain ( M. Paradisiacae ) flour. ... Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the gravimetric method of Harbone showed that it contained 1.58 ± 0.04% tannin, 1.82 ± 0.05% saponin, 1.37 ± 0.05% alkaloid and 0.98 ± 0.00% flavonoid.

  19. Proximate composition, nutritional values and phytochemical screening of Piper retrofractum vahl. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Jadid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the proximate and mineral composition of the Piper retrofractum (P. retrofractum vahl. Fruit and to evaluate its total alkaloids, phenol and flavonoid. Methods: The proximate composition of P. retrofractum fruit was ananlyzed using standard protocols according to Indonesian Standard and Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Meanwhile, mineral composition of the fruit was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Phytochemical screening and quantification were performed using standard protocols according to Harborn and spectrophotometric methods. Results: The results showed that P. retrofractum fruit contained carbohydrate (63.4%, crude protein (11.4%, total ash (4.29%, dietary fiber (28.8% and total fat (2.97%. The fruit also contained calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphor, potassium, sodium and zinc in different concentrations. Additionally, quinone, sterol, glycosides and alkaloid were detected in both n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. Moreover, tannin was presented also in ethylacetate and methanol extracts. Meanwhile, methanol extract contained sterol, glycosides, flavones, tannin and alkaloid. The results also revealed that methanol extract of the fruit contained highest phenol compared to other extract. Finally, small quantity of flavonoid (0.060 0%±0.000 2% was observed. Conclusions: The overall results show that P. retrofractum contains potential nutritional and phytochemicals values, which support their function for pharmaceutical purposes.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of digital images for detection of artificial chemical proximal caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Geum Mee; Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection between Kodak Insight film and the Biomedisys CDX2000HQ digital (CCD) sensor. 156 proximal surfaces of extracted teeth, 78 of which had chemical artificial caries, were used in this study. Four observers interpreted the radiographs using a five-point confidence rating scale to record their diagnoses. The results were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves, ANOVA and Kappa values. Analysis using receiver operating characteristic curves revealed the areas under each curve which indicated a diagnostic accuracy of 0.951 in Insight and 0.952 in CDX2000HQ digital sensor. ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the two images with respect to caries detection. Kappa values indicated that the mean intra-observer agreement was 0.85 and inter-observer agreement 0.71 in conventional radiography. In digital radiography, the mean intra-observer agreement was 0.84 and inter-observer agreement 0.72. The results suggest that no significant difference exists between the two modalities for artificial caries detection and that CDX2000HQ was as good as Insight film for this purpose.

  1. Proximate and Ultimate Compositional Changes in Corn Stover during Torrefaction using Thermogravimetric Analyzer and Microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2012-07-01

    regular and microwaves and their effect on proximate and ultimate composition. Studies indicated that microwave torrefaction is a good way to torrefy the biomass in short periods of time. A maximum calorific value of 21 MJ/kg is achievable at 6 min residence time compared to 15 min using the dry torrefaction technique. Increasing the residence time increased the carbon content where a maximum carbon content of 52.20 % was achievable at lower residence time. The loss of volatiles is comparatively lower compared to dry torrefaction technique. Moisture content of microwave torrefied samples was in between 2-2.5 % (w.b).

  2. Proximate Composition, Extraction, and Purification of Theobromine from Cacao Pod Husk (Theobroma Cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Van Tang Nguyen; Nghia Huu Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the proximate composition of cacao pod husk as well as the optimal conditions for extraction and purification of theobromine from cacao pod husk. The results indicated that cacao pod husk had high contents of moisture and carbohydrate (87.06% and 11.03% by fresh weight, respectively), but low contents of crude protein, crude lipid, and ash (0.31%, 0.12%, and 1.48% by fresh weight, respectively). The optimal conditions for extraction of theobromine from...

  3. Allograft-prosthetic composite versus megaprosthesis in the proximal tibia-What works best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Daniel A; Beltrami, Giovanni; Scoccianti, Guido; Cuomo, Pierluigi; Capanna, Rodolfo

    2016-10-01

    Modular megaprosthesis (MP) and allograft-prosthetic composite (APC) are the most commonly used reconstructions for large bone defects of the proximal tibia. The primary objective of this study was to compare the two different techniques in terms of failures and functional results. A total of 42 consecutive patients with a mean age of 39.6 years (range 15-81 years) who underwent a reconstruction of the proximal tibia between 2001 and 2012 were included. Twenty-three patients were given an MP, and 19 patients received an APC. There were nine reconstruction failures after an average follow-up of 62 months: five in the MP group and four in the APC group (p=0.957). The 10-year implant survival rate was 78.8% for the MP and 93.7% for the APC (p=0.224). There were no relevant differences between the two groups in functional results. Both MP and APC are valid and satisfactory reconstructive options for massive bone defects in the proximal tibia. In high-demanding patients with no further risk factors, an APC should be considered to provide the best possible functional result for the extensor mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Akway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Meilan Lisangan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Akway. Akway (Drimys piperita Hook f. is a woody, evergreen andaromatic plan that was a member of winteraceae. This plant is used by Sougb tribe lived in Sururey village, District ofManokwari, to heal malaria and to enhance the vitality of body. The objectives of this research were to know the yieldof essential oil using water distillation of leaves and its chemical composition using gas chromatography and massspectroscopy (GC-MS. The results indicated that the yield of leaves essential oil by using water distillation was 0.2%.The essential oil composed by 49 compounds categorized by terpene and its derivatives 83.67%, derivatives of benzene4.08% and alifatic compounds 8.16%.

  5. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  6. Investigating the influences of season and coastal proximity on the elemental composition of harvested rainwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A R; Coombes, P J; Dunstan, R H

    2010-01-01

    Chemical qualities of harvested rainwater were assessed at two residential study sites on the east coast of Australia in relation to coastal proximity and surrounding land uses over the course of a winter and summer month. Daily rainwater samples were collected from the base outlet and surface levels of stored water for chemical analyses. High resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyse 26 elements in all samples. The summer sampling regime for the industrial coastal Site 1 was dominated by wind gusts originating from the east with a total average elemental load of 25,900+/-17,000 microg/L compared to the significantly lower 10,600+/-3,370 microg/L measured during the winter month, where 84% of wind gust events originated from the west. Data for the inland Site 2, with no proximity to industry, revealed no significant changes in total average loads between the winter (4,870+/-578 microg/L) and summer (4,760+/-2,280 microg/L) months. The most abundant elements found at both sites included Na, K, Mg, and Zn. The rainwater storages at Site 2 fed from a relatively new concrete tiled roof catchment had significantly lower pH and conductivity measurements compared with those at Site 1 with an old galvanised iron roof catchment. It was concluded that seasonal differences in harvested water quality were likely influenced by prevailing wind direction and external influences such as surrounding land uses and proximity to the coast.

  7. Aflatoxin, proximate composition and mineral profile of stored broiler feed treated with medicinal plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S M; Sultana, B; Atta, A; Qureshi, N; Iqbal, M; Abbas, M

    2017-09-01

    In the present investigation, the Morus alba (M. alba), Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera), Ficus religiosa (F. religiosa) and Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) leaves anti-aflatoxigenic activities were evaluated in Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) inoculated feed. The broiler feed inoculated with A. flavus was treated with selected medicinal plant leaf powder (5%, 10% and 15% w/w) and stored for the period of six months at 28°C and 16% moisture. The aflatoxins (AFTs) were estimated at the end of each month by Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) method along with proximate composition and mineral contents. Plant leaves controlled AFTs efficiently without affecting the feed proximate composition and mineral contents. The M. alba leaves completely inhibition (100%) the AFTs (B1 and B2) in feed at very low concentration (5%). Other plants also showed significant (Pleaves, A. flavus produced AFTs could possibly be controlled in stored poultry feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Proximal contact tightness between direct-composite additions in the posterior dentition: an in vitro investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Diana; Hahn, Philipp; Ding, Paul; Maier-Kraus, Theresa; Frese, Cornelia; Doerfer, Christof; Staehle, Hans Joerg

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether a novel three-step matrix technique for posterior direct-composite additions creates sufficiently strong proximal contacts. Contact tightness was measured between direct-composite additions and between original teeth on a model. Therefore, the frictional forces required to remove a straight, 0.05-mm-thick, metal matrix band inserted between adjacent teeth and held by a universal testing machine (Zwicki, Zwick GmbH, Ulm, Germany) were recorded. Measurements were taken at three time points to carry out reference analysis: at baseline, after removal of the maxillary right second premolar (tooth #15) to simulate a diastema, and after closure of the diastema by inserting two direct-composite additions with the three-step matrix technique on the maxillary right first premolar (tooth #14) and first molar (tooth #16). Measurements were performed in the maxillary right (first) and left (second) quadrants to document sagittal displacement. The original contact tightness values were between 1.65 ± 0.88 N and 3.05 ± 0.60 N in the first quadrant and between 1.23 ± 0.51 N and 2.18 ± 0.43 N in the second quadrant. After removal of tooth 15, values decreased significantly in the first quadrant and insignificantly in the second. After reconstruction, the contact tightness between teeth 14 and 16 was significantly stronger (tighter) (3.20 ± 0.80 N) than the originally measured contact tightness between teeth 14 and 15 (2.86 ± 0.64 N) and teeth 15 and 16 (1.65 ± 0.88 N) (p=0.006 and 0.001, respectively). Within the limitations of an in vitro investigation, this study has shown that by using a novel, three-step matrix technique, direct posterior composite additions can form sufficiently tight proximal contacts.

  9. Proximate composition, phytochemical analysis, and in vitro antioxidant potentials of extracts ofAnnona muricata(Soursop).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, Kingsley C; Okolie, Paulinus N

    2017-09-01

    Numerous bioactive compounds and phytochemicals have been reported to be present Annona muricata (Soursop). Some of these chemical compounds have been linked to the ethnomedicinal properties of the plant and its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to assess the proximate composition, phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant properties of A. muricata using standard biochemical procedures. The defatted Annona muricata crude methanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant were used for the estimation of proximate composition and phytochemical screening. The crude methanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant were also fractionated using solvent-solvent partitioning. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and methanol-water (90:10) were the solvents used for the fractionation. The different fractions obtained were then used to perform in vitro antioxidant analyses including, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, ferric reducing properties, and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. The leaf methanolic extract had a higher lipid content, whereas its chloroform fraction demonstrated a better ability to quench DPPH free radical. The root-bark methanol-water, leaf methanol, fruit pulp chloroform, and leaf petroleum ether fractions demonstrated potent ferric reducing properties. The leaf and stem-bark petroleum ether fractions demonstrated better hydroxyl-free radical scavenging abilities. The leaf and fruit pulp of Annona muricata have a very potent antioxidant ability compared to the other parts of the plant. This can be associated with the rich phytochemicals and other phytoconstituents like phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, and essential lipids, etc. Significant correlations were observed between the antioxidant status and phytochemicals present. These results thus suggest that some of the reported ethnomedicinal properties of this plant could be due to its antioxidant potentials.

  10. In Vitro Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of DIAGNOdent and Digital Radiography for Detection of Secondary Proximal Caries Adjacent to Composite Restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoncheh, Zahra; Zonouzy, Zahra; Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Kharazifar, Mohammad Javad; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Early detection of secondary proximal caries is critical for the preservation of tooth vitality. This study sought to assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent and digital radiography for detection of secondary proximal caries adjacent to composite restorations.

  11. Phytochemical Properties and Proximate Composition of Papaya (Carica papaya L. var solo 8 Peels

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    Adingra Kouassi Martial-Didier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Papaya (Carica papaya is a common tropical fruit used for nutrition as well as medicinal purposes. Apart from fruit, seed, latex and other plant parts of papaya tree have been shown to have medicinal properties. Since, no systematic study has been performed on nutritional analysis of papaya (Carica papaya L. var solo 8 peels. In this study, the proximate composition, mineral element profile and phytochemical composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. var solo 8 peels were investigated. The peels were harvested fresh, dried in an oven at 45°C for 48 hours, ground and analyzed according to standard procedures. Proximate analysis showed high level of proteins (11.67 ± 0.04 %, crude fibre (32.51 ± 0.03 %, carbohydrate (47.33 ± 0.08 %, ash (5.98 ± 0.03 % 0.03 % and fat (2.51 ± 0.13 %. Mineral analysis indicated the papaya (Carica papaya L. var solo 8 peels were specifically rich in potassium and phosphorus. Potassium was found to be the most abundant mineral present in the peels (516.33 ± 0.82 mg/100g. Phytochemical composition showed high level of total phenolic (65.48 ± 0.39 mg (GAE/100 g DW, flavonoids (5.58 ± 0.83 mg (QE/100 g DW and tannins (10.51 ± 0.93 mg (TAE/100 g DW. The methanolic extracts of the papaya (Carica papaya L. var solo 8 peels exhibited the high DPPH radical scavenging activities (81.89 ± 0.14 %.These data indicated that this papaya (Carica papaya L. var solo 8 peels could constitute a potential good source of natural antioxidant for local population.

  12. Microbial Quality and Proximate Composition of Dried Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyxes in Uyo, Eastern Nigeria

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    Adebayo-tayo, B. C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried Hibiscus sabdarifa calyxes collected from different markets in Uyo, Eastern Nigeria were evaluated for microbial quality, Aflatoxin contamination and proximate composition. The results showed that all the calyxes were contaminated with microorganism. The total bacteria count ranged from 5.0 x 10^3 to 8.1 x 10^4 cfu/g in which the highest count was obtained from dried calyxes from Itam Market. Coliform were not detected in most of the sample except samples from Uyo main market and Ikot Ekpene market in which the coliform level is below the acceptable limit. Salmonella/Shigella was not detected in the sample. The fungi count ranged from 3.4 x 10^4 to 7.3 x 10^4. The associated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sp. Enterococuss faecalis, Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. The associated fungi were Aspergillus flavus, A. terreus, A. glaucus, Penicillium citrinum, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus sp. and Mucor sp. A. glaucus had the highest frequency of occurrence among the isolated fungi. Out of the sample obtained Aflatoxin B1 was detected in two samples and it ranged from 1.57 to 17.8 /µg/kg. The proximate analysis revealed that the crude protein ranged from 8.34 – 9.97%, crude fibre (7.26 – 7.82% and fat (8.51 – 9.26%. The moisture content ranged from 13.13 – 14.85%.

  13. Influence of Processing Methods on Proximate Composition and Dieting of Two Amaranthus Species from West Cameroon

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    Arnaud Landry Suffo Kamela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various processing methods on the proximate composition and dieting of Amaranthus hybridus and Amaranthus cruentus from West Cameroon were investigated in this study. Both amaranths leaves were subjected to same treatments (sun-dried and unsliced, sliced and cooked, milled, and analysed for their mineral and proximate composition. Thirty-Six Wistar albino rats of 21 to 24 days old were distributed in six groups and fed for 14 days with 10% protein based diets named D0 (protein-free diet, DI (egg white as reference protein, DII (sun-dried and unsliced A. hybridus, DIII (cooked and sliced A. hybridus, DIV (sun-dried and unsliced A. cruentus, and DV (cooked and sliced A. cruentus. The protein bioavailability and haematological and biochemical parameters were assessed in rats. The results showed that K, P, Mg, Zn, and Fe had the higher content in both samples regardless of processing method. The sun-dried and unsliced A. cruentus contained the highest value of crude protein 32.22 g/100 g DM (dry matter while the highest crude lipid, 3.80 and 2.58%, was observed, respectively, in sun-dried and unsliced A. hybridus and cooked and sliced A. cruentus. Cooked and sliced A. hybridus and A. cruentus contained high crude fiber of 14 and 12.18%, respectively. Rats fed with diet DIII revealed the best protein bioavailability and haematological parameters whereas 100% mortality rate was recorded with group fed with diet DIV. From this study, it is evident that cooked and sliced A. hybridus and A. cruentus could play a role in weight reduction regimes.

  14. Comparative physico-chemical, proximate and mineral analysis on raw and roasted seeds of groundnut

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    Bhanu Saravan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical, proximate and nutritionally valuable minerals were determined aiming to compare raw and roasted groundnut seeds. The results indicated that total ash content of raw groundnut (4.6% was higher than the roasted groundnut (4.1% seeds. Crude protein content of roasted groundnut was higher (26.1% when compared to that of raw groundnut (24.9%. Crude carbohydrates levels of raw groundnut (25.3% are lower when compared with that of roasted groundnut (26.5%. Crude fat ranged from 39.1% in raw groundnut to 39.6% in roasted groundnut. Crude fiber percentage both in raw (2.9% and roasted (3.1% conditions were good. The moisture content of the raw groundnut (4.1% was more than the roasted groundnut (3.6% because of not exposure to heat. Seeds showed higher energy values both in raw and roasted conditions. Significant amount of minerals like potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc were present both in raw and roasted conditions. Based on statistical analysis the results showed highly significant differences (P < 0.05 between the raw and roasted seeds.

  15. Synthesis and modeling of uniform complex metal oxides by close-proximity atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Robert L Z; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Musselman, Kevin P; Vaynzof, Yana; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L

    2015-05-27

    A close-proximity atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) reactor is developed for synthesizing high quality multicomponent metal oxides for electronics. This combines the advantages of a mechanically controllable substrate-manifold spacing and vertical gas flows. As a result, our AP-CVD reactor can rapidly grow uniform crystalline films on a variety of substrate types at low temperatures without requiring plasma enhancements or low pressures. To demonstrate this, we take the zinc magnesium oxide (Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O) system as an example. By introducing the precursor gases vertically and uniformly to the substrate across the gas manifold, we show that films can be produced with only 3% variation in thickness over a 375 mm(2) deposition area. These thicknesses are significantly more uniform than for films from previous AP-CVD reactors. Our films are also compact, pinhole-free, and have a thickness that is linearly controllable by the number of oscillations of the substrate beneath the gas manifold. Using photoluminescence and X-ray diffraction measurements, we show that for Mg contents below 46 at. %, single phase Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O was produced. To further optimize the growth conditions, we developed a model relating the composition of a ternary oxide with the bubbling rates through the metal precursors. We fitted this model to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measured compositions with an error of Δx = 0.0005. This model showed that the incorporation of Mg into ZnO can be maximized by using the maximum bubbling rate through the Mg precursor for each bubbling rate ratio. When applied to poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) hybrid solar cells, our films yielded an open-circuit voltage increase of over 100% by controlling the Mg content. Such films were deposited in short times (under 2 min over 4 cm(2)).

  16. Proximate composition of Turkish sesame seeds and characterization of their oils

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    Yalçın, Hasan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A proximate composition of four varieties of Turkish sesame seeds (moisture, ash, protein, oil was determined along with a characterization of their oils (fatty acids, triacylglycerols and desmethylsterols The results of the proximate analysis showed the following contents: moisture, 4,40%; ash, 4,41%; protein, 21,00%; and oil, 54,26%. Oleic and linoleic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids while palmitic and stearic were the main saturated. The triacylglycerol composition of the sesame oil samples was determined by HPLC and LOL; LOO; PLO; LLL; OOO were the major triglycerides while triacylglycerols containing oleic and linoleic acyl residues comprize 62,45% of the total. The major desmethyl sterols found in sesame seed oils were β-sitosterol, campasterol, stigma-sterol, and Δ-5, avenasterol. Small proportions of cholesterol, clerosterol 5,24 stigmastedienol, Δ-7, stigmastenol and avenasterol were also identified.Se ha evaluado la composición proximal de cuatro variedades de semillas de sésamo de Turquía así como el aceite obtenido mediante extracción en frío con hexano (composición en ácidos grasos, triglicéridos y esteroles. Las composiciones medias de las semillas fueron similares para todas las muestras siendo los valores medios 4,40%, 4,41%, 21,00%, 54,26% para humedad, cenizas, proteínas y aceite, respectivamente. Los ácidos oleico y linoleico fueron los ácidos grasos mayoritarios mientras los ácidos palmítico y estearico fueron los principales ácidos saturados. Los triglicéridos mayoritarios, determinados mediante HPLC fueron LOL; LOO; PLO; LLL y OOO, suponiendo un 62,45% del porcentaje total de los triglicéridos. Los esteroles mayoritarios fueron β-sitosterol, campesterol, estigmasterol, Δ-5, avenasterol, identificándose también pequeñas cantidades de colesterol, clerosterol 5,24 estigmastedienol, Δ-7 estigmastenol y avenasterol.

  17. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

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    Jolana Karovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and dietary fibre in nourishment. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of commercial fibres, obtained from different Grape sources concerning their chemical properties such as moisture, ash, fat, protein, total dietary fibre. The chemical composition of Grape fibre is known to vary depending on the Grape cultivar, growth climates, and processing conditions. The obliged characteristics of the fibre product are: total dietary fibre content above 50%, moisture lower than 9%, low content of lipids, a low energy value and neutral flavour and taste. Grape pomace represents a rich source of various high-value products such as ethanol, tartrates and malates, citric acid, Grape seed oil, hydrocolloids and dietary fibre. Used commercial Grape fibres have as a main characteristic, the high content of total dietary fibre. Amount of total dietary fibre depends on the variety of Grapes. Total dietary fibre content (TDF in our samples of Grape fibre varied from 56.8% to 83.6%. There were also determined low contents of moisture (below 9%. In the samples of Grape fibre were determined higher amount of protein (8.6 - 10.8%, mineral (1.3 - 3.8% and fat (2.8 - 8.6%. This fact opens the possibility of using both initial by-products as ingredients in the food industry, due to the effects associated with the high total dietary fibre content.

  18. The effect of proximal contour on marginal ridge fracture of Class II composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomans, B A C; Roeters, F J M; Opdam, N J M; Kuijs, R H

    2008-10-01

    To compare the marginal ridge fracture strength of Class II composite resin restorations placed with a straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity. In 60 artificial first molars standardized MO-preparations were ground. Two matrix systems were used: (1) A straight matrix (Standard Tofflemire Matrix, KerrHawe) in Tofflemire retainer (Produits Dentaire). (2) A contoured matrix (Standard matrix, Palodent, Dentsply). In both groups, a wooden wedge and separation ring (Composi-Tight Gold, GDS) were placed and the matrix was burnished against the adjacent tooth. Three composite resins together were used (Filtek Supreme: e-modulus 13.3 GPa (3M ESPE), Clearfil AP-X: 16.6 GPa (Kuraray) and Clearfil Majesty Posterior: 22.0 GPa (Kuraray)), resulting in six groups (n=10). Teeth were mounted into a MTS servo hydraulic testing machine (Mini Bionix II, MTS, USA) with stylus placed on the marginal ridge. Samples were loaded at a crosshead speed of 1.0mm/min until fracture occurred. Fracture resistance data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffé's post hoc test for multiple comparison of groups (p<0.05). Contoured proximal surfaces (365.5+/-87.6N) resulted in significant stronger marginal ridges compared to straight surfaces (290.5+/-64.2N) (p<0.001). Clearfil AP-X (378.1+/-94.63N) provided a higher resistance to fracture than Filtek Supreme (301.4+/-67.3N) (p=0.001) and Clearfil Majesty Posterior (304.5+/-70.6N) (p=0.002). No differences were found between Filtek Supreme and Clearfil Majesty Posterior (p=0.890). Within the limitations of this in vitro study it was shown that use of a contoured matrix results in a stronger marginal ridge of a Class II composite resin restoration.

  19. Proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of some capsicum (Capsicum annum varieties grown in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to generate baseline information on the nutritional composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors of three capsicum varieties (Marako fana, Bako local and Oda haro grown in Ethiopia. In relation to proximate composition, Marako fana, Bako local and Oda haro contained 9.2, 9.0 and 8.8% moisture; 11.9, 8.8 and 9.2% crude protein; 27.3, 26.0 and 28.6% crude fiber and 11.2, 9.5 and 9.2% fat (oleoresin on wet weight basis. They also contained 1.7, 1.6 and 1.8 mg/100 g potassium; 27.2, 38.2 and 54.6 mg/100 g calcium and 7.2, 6.9 and 9.6 mg/100 g iron on wet weight basis. Tannin was found to be 0.142, 0.164 and 0.148 mg/100 g, respectively, while phytate was not detected in any of the samples. Analysis of variance and LSD (least significant difference test revealed that protein and oleoresin of Marako fana were significantly higher (p<0.05 than Bako local and Oda haro. Potassium, calcium and iron contents of Oda haro were significantly higher (p<0.05. Based on these results Marako fana is preferable for large scale production of oleoresin, while Oda haro is nutritionally preferable because it contains high amounts of potassium, calcium and iron.

  20. Microbial Diversity and Proximate Composition of Tapai, A Sabah’s Fermented Beverage

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    Chiang Y. W.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tapai is a well-known indigenous fermented alcoholic beverage among Kadazan-Dusun-Murut (KDM ethnics during festive occasions and gatherings in East Malaysia. Unfortunately, very little research has been done on this beverage. The objective of this study was to identify functional microfloras involved in the production of tapai. Samples from local producers were obtained for microbiological and proximate analysis. The fermentation process was predominated by yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB with initial numbers (CFU/g of 10^5 and 10^6, respectively, which gradually increased during the first 2 weeks fermentation but decreased thereafter. The yeasts were identified as Sacchromyces cerevisiae, Candida krusei, C. pelliculosa, C. guillermondii, C. magnoliae and Rhodotorula glutinis, whereas the LAB were Lactobacillus brevis, L. plantarum, L. collinoides and Pediococcus sp. Moulds and Enterobacteriaceae were only present during the first 2 days of fermentation. Acetic acid bacteria were not detected throughout the entire process. The pH of tapai declined slowly from 6.6 to 3.4 in 14 days, and then showed an increment to 4.0. On the other hand, titratable acidity (as % lactic acidincreased from 0.06 to 0.86 in 10 days, and then decreased to 0.82 at the end of the fermentation process. Alcohol was produced and the content can reach as high as 12.3% after 3 weeks fermentation. Proximate composition analysis showed that the moisture content in the end product was 61.8±6.1% whereas ash, protein, fat and crude fiber (of dried samples were 0.50±0.1%, 8.7±0.1%, 0.29±0.01% and 0.56±0.03%, respectively.

  1. Proximate Composition, Mineral Content and Fatty Acids Analyses of Aromatic and Non-Aromatic Indian Rice

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    Deepak Kumar Verma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness on nutritive value and health benefits of rice is of vital importance in order to increase the consumption of rice in daily diet of the human beings. In this study, a total of six aromatic and two non-aromatic rice accessions grown in India were analysed for their nutritional quality attributes including proximate composition, mineral contents and fatty acids. Data with three replications were used to measure Pearson's simple correlation co-efficient in order to establish the relationship among various nutritional quality attributes. The result on proximate composition showed that Govind Bhog had the highest moisture (13.57% and fat (0.92% content, which signifies its tasty attribute. Badshah Bhog exhibited the highest fibre content (0.85%, carbohydrate content (82.70% and food energy (365.23 kCal per 100 g. Among the minerals, the higher Ca (98.75 mg/kg, Zn (17.00 mg/kg and Fe (31.50 mg/kg were in Gopal Bhog, whereas the highest Na (68.85 mg/kg was in Badshah Bhog, the highest K (500.00 mg/kg was in Swetganga, Khushboo and Sarbati. The highest contents of unsaturated fatty acids viz. oleic acid (49.14%, linoleic acid (46.99% and linolenic acid (1.27% were found in Sarbati, whereas the highest content of saturated fatty acids viz. myristic acid (4.60% and palmitic acid (31.91% were found in Govind Bhog and stearic acid (6.47% in Todal. The identified aromatic rice accessions Gopal Bhog, Govind Bhog and Badshah Bhog and non-aromatic rice accession Sarbati were found nutritionally superior among all eight tested accessions. The nutritional quality oriented attributes in this study were competent with recognized prominent aromatic and non-aromatic rice accessions as an index of their nutritional worth and recommend to farmers and consumers which may be graded as export quality rice with good unique nutritional values in international market.

  2. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Proximal Contour of Class II Composite Restorations on Stress Distribution

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    Hossein Abachizadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proximal contour of class II composite restorations placed with straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity on stress distribution by finite element method. Methods: In order to evaluate the stress distribution of class II composite restorations using finite element method, upper right first molar and second premolar were modeled. Proximal boxes were designed and restored with universal Z250 and packable P60 composite resins (3M ESPE using two matrix systems: flat Tofflemire matrix and precurved sectional matrix. Finally models were evaluated under loads of 200 and 400 Newton at 90 degrees angle and the results were graphically illustrated in the form of Von Misses stresses. Results: In general the stress obtained under 400 Newton load was significantly greater than the stress of models under 200 Newton load. Von Misses stress distribution pattern of two different Z250 and P60 composites were very similar in all modes of loading and proximal contour. In all analyzed models there was a significant difference between models restored with Tofflemire matrix with flat contour and models restored with sectional matrix with curved contour. This difference was greater in first molar than second premolar. Conclusion: Use of a contoured matrix band results in less stress in class II composite resin restorations.

  3. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Proximal Contour of Class II Composite Restorations on Stress Distribution

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    Mohammad Javad Moghaddas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proximal contour of class II composite restorations placed with straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity on stress distribution by finite element method. Methods: In order to evaluate the stress distribution of class II composite restorations using finite element method, upper right first molar and second premolar were modeled. Proximal boxes were designed and restored with universal Z250 and packable P60 composite resins (3M ESPE using two matrix systems: flat Tofflemire matrix and precurved sectional matrix. Finally models were evaluated under loads of 200 and 400 Newton at 90 degrees angle and the results were graphically illustrated in the form of Von Misses stresses. Results: In general the stress obtained under 400 Newton load was significantly greater than the stress of models under 200 Newton load. Von Misses stress distribution pattern of two different Z250 and P60 composites were very similar in all modes of loading and proximal contour. In all analyzed models there was a significant difference between models restored with Tofflemire matrix with flat contour and models restored with sectional matrix with curved contour. This difference was greater in first molar than second premolar. Conclusion: Use of a contoured matrix band results in less stress in class II composite resin restorations.

  4. Molecular diversity of Annona species and proximate fruit composition of selected genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuragi, Hirdayesh; Dhaduk, Haresh L; Kumar, Sushil; Dhruve, Jitendra J; Parekh, Mithil J; Sakure, Amar A

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the genetic variation in germplasm is of utmost importance for crop improvement. Therefore, efforts were made to analyse the molecular marker based genetic diversity of 20 Annona genotypes from five different species of family Annonaceae. During analysis, a set of 11 RAPD primers yielded a total of 152 bands with 80.01 % polymorphism and PIC for RAPD ranged from 0.86 to 0.92 with a mean of 0.89. With 93.05 % polymorphism, 12 SSR primers produced 39 amplicons. The PIC for SSRs ranged from 0.169 to 0.694 with of average of 0.339. The dendrogram produced from pooled molecular data of 11 RAPD and 12 SSR primers showed seven clusters at a cutoff value of 0.78. The dendrogram discriminated all the Annona genotypes suggesting that significant genetic diversity was present among the genotypes. Proximate fruit composition study of nine fruiting genotypes of Annona revealed that A. squamosa possessed significantly higher amount of most of studies biochemical which gives an opportunity to fruit breeders to improve the other Annona species. Likewise, A. muricata being rich in seed oil content can be exploited in oil industries.

  5. Proximate composition of CELSS crops grown in NASA's Biomass Production Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.; Berry, W. L.

    1996-01-01

    Edible biomass from four crops of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), four crops of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), four crops of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), and three crops of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) grown in NASA's CELSS Biomass Production Chamber were analyzed for proximate composition. All plants were grown using recirculating nutrient (hydroponic) film culture with pH and electrical conductivity automatically controlled. Temperature and humidity were controlled to near optimal levels for each species and atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained near 100 Pa during the light cycles. Soybean seed contained the highest percentage of protein and fat, potato tubers and wheat seed contained the highest levels of carbohydrate, and lettuce leaves contained the highest level of ash. Analyses showed values close to data published for field-grown plants with several exceptions: In comparison with field-grown plants, wheat seed had higher protein levels; soybean seed had higher ash and crude fiber levels; and potato tubers and lettuce leaves had higher protein and ash levels. The higher ash and protein levels may have been a result of the continuous supply of nutrients (e.g., potassium and nitrogen) to the plants by the recirculating hydroponic culture.

  6. Proximate Composition, Extraction, and Purification of Theobromine from Cacao Pod Husk (Theobroma Cacao L.

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    Van Tang Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the proximate composition of cacao pod husk as well as the optimal conditions for extraction and purification of theobromine from cacao pod husk. The results indicated that cacao pod husk had high contents of moisture and carbohydrate (87.06% and 11.03% by fresh weight, respectively, but low contents of crude protein, crude lipid, and ash (0.31%, 0.12%, and 1.48% by fresh weight, respectively. The optimal conditions for extraction of theobromine from cacao pod husk were of 70% ethanol, with an extraction time of 90 min, and 1 as the number of extractions. A concentration of 10% by volume of 10% lead acetate solution was the best selection for purification of the crude extracts containing theobromine from cacao pod husk. Under these optimal conditions, theobromine content obtained from cacao pod husk was 6.79 mg/100 g dry weight. The finding from this study is a valuable contribution for obtaining theobromine from an abundant, inexpensive, renewable, and sustainable source for potential application in the nutraceutical, medical, and pharmaceutical industries.

  7. Proximate composition, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of seagrape (Caulerpa lentillifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Tang; Ueng, Jinn-Pyng; Tsai, Guo-Jane

    2011-09-01

    The proximate composition of seagrape (Caulerpa lentillifera) from culture ponds in Penghu, Taiwan was analyzed. The phenolic content and the antioxidant activities including the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric ion-reducing activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) activity of the ethanolic extracts of dry seagrape samples using 2 drying methods of freeze drying and thermal drying were compared with the ethanolic extract of Oolong tea as a reference. The contents (dry weight basis) of carbohydrate, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fiber, and ash of seagrape obtained from culture ponds in Taiwan were 64.00%, 9.26%, 1.57%, 2.97%, and 22.20%, respectively. The total phenolic content (1.30 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight) of the ethanolic extract of thermally dried seagrape was significantly lower (P Caulerpa lentillifera) in Taiwan were determined in this research to indicate nutritionally of this edible seaweed to human health, and compared these results to previous studies. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Proximate Composition, and l-Carnitine and Betaine Contents in Meat from Korean Indigenous Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Hyun Jung; Seo, Dong Won; Park, Hee Bok; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the proximate composition and l-carnitine and betaine content of meats from 5 lines of Korean indigenous chicken (KIC) for developing highly nutritious meat breeds with health benefits from the bioactive compounds such as l-carnitine and betaine in meat. In addition, the relevance of gender (male and female) and meat type (breast and thigh meat) was examined. A total of 595 F1 progeny (black [B], grey-brown [G], red-brown [R], white [W], and yellow-brown [Y]) from 70 full-sib families were used. The moisture, protein, fat, and ash contents of the meats were significantly affected by line, gender, and meat type (pprotein and the lowest fat content of the meats. l-carnitine and betaine content showed effects of meat type, line, and gender (pcontent was found in breast and thigh meats from line Y in both genders. The breast meat from line G and the thigh meat from line R had the highest betaine content in males. The female breast and thigh meats showed the highest betaine content in line R. These data could be valuable for establishing selection strategies for developing highly nutritious chicken meat breeds in Korea.

  9. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DRY PASTA INCORPORATED WITH MICRONIZED CORN PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO RENATO DE JESUS JUNQUEIRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastas are generally accepted all over the world, mainly because they are versatile, cheap and easy - to - prepare. They are not nutritionally balanced, since they provide mainly carbohydrates. As a result of this, it is important to use ingredients which could improve the nutritional deficiencies, without affecting the technological and sensorial characteristics. This study evaluated the effect of using wheat semolina and micronized corn pericarp (MCP, on the proximate composition, cooking quality and color of spaghetti type pasta. Spaghetti pasta was produced using wheat semolina with the incorporation of micronized corn pericarp, at levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between the formulated samples with regards to the contents of moisture and lipid, cooking time, weight gain and volume increase. As observed, supplementation with micronized corn pericarp presented significant difference on the contents of proteins, minerals, dietary fiber and solid soluble loss of the spaghetti pasta (p < 0.05. With increase in micronized corn pericarp concentration, the color difference became accentuated. The use of MCP appears to be viable, providing a nutritionally enriched product without further impairment on pasta quality.

  10. Proximate Composition, and -Carnitine and Betaine Contents in Meat from Korean Indigenous Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samooel Jung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the proximate composition and l-carnitine and betaine content of meats from 5 lines of Korean indigenous chicken (KIC for developing highly nutritious meat breeds with health benefits from the bioactive compounds such as l-carnitine and betaine in meat. In addition, the relevance of gender (male and female and meat type (breast and thigh meat was examined. A total of 595 F1 progeny (black [B], grey-brown [G], red-brown [R], white [W], and yellow-brown [Y] from 70 full-sib families were used. The moisture, protein, fat, and ash contents of the meats were significantly affected by line, gender, and meat type (p<0.05. The males in line G and females in line B showed the highest protein and the lowest fat content of the meats. l-carnitine and betaine content showed effects of meat type, line, and gender (p<0.05. The highest l-carnitine content was found in breast and thigh meats from line Y in both genders. The breast meat from line G and the thigh meat from line R had the highest betaine content in males. The female breast and thigh meats showed the highest betaine content in line R. These data could be valuable for establishing selection strategies for developing highly nutritious chicken meat breeds in Korea.

  11. physical and chemical composition of storage-ripened papaya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    The proximate composition (ash, titratable acidity, crude fat, crude fibre, moisture and sugars), soluble solids ... during room temperature storage. ... in the stomach. Papaya is known for its fine and natural laxative virtue which aids digestion. Papaya fruits are rich in enzymes called papain and chymopapain that break.

  12. chemical composition and nutritive. significance of the land crab

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that ash was the highest with a value of 42.23i0.02% while protein, moisture, fat, fibre and ... values. C. armatum is a rich source of animal nutrients and it could therefore be used in human diets and animal feeds formulations. Key words: Proximate composition, ..... Akubor, P. I. and Chukwu, J. K. (1999).

  13. Volume 10 No. 2 February 2010 2124 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-02

    Feb 2, 2010 ... Volume 10 No. 2. February 2010. 2125. ABSTRACT. Proximate composition, mineral and vitamin contents of Syzygium malaccensis (red) and Eugenia owariensis (green) apples obtained from Calabar, Nigeria were determined. Musts of the two apple species were fermented for six days into wines.

  14. Chemical composition and nutritive value of South African sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mabelebele, Monnye

    2015-07-20

    Jul 20, 2015 ... sorghum varieties should be evaluated for their suitability as food and feed. The physical characteristics and proximate composition, total phenolic content, mineral content, amino acid profile and digestibility, and true metabolizable energy of four sorghum varieties were studied. The condensed tannin ...

  15. Chemical and nutrient composition of tomato varieties grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-06

    Sep 6, 1997 ... esculantum) grown in ligarulll. Bush, Money-maker, Maglope, Heinz and Italia tomato varieties were purchased at the red ripe sl:age of matur i(y frorn Nakasero market, Kampala and their pH, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, proximate composition, vitamin (A and C) and mineral (sodium, ...

  16. Effect of fermentation on the chemical composition of mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... proximate composition as well as the anti-nutritional content. ... The fungi iso- lates were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus oryzae. The changes in pH in fermenting mango peels are shown in Table 1. There was decrease ... The levels of tannin and phytate which the plant proba-.

  17. Physico-chemical composition of unripe (green) plantain and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post harvest characteristics are important selection criteria in the genetic improvement of starchy staple food crops. This study aimed at determining the proximate chemical constituents of thirteen clones of new plantain and banana hybrids at harvest. Flour was produced and analysed for starch and sugar contents. The pulp ...

  18. On-line chemical composition analyzer development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Garrison, A.A.; Muly, E.C.; Moore, C.F.

    1992-02-01

    The energy consumed in distillation processes in the United States represents nearly three percent of the total national energy consumption. If effective control of distillation columns can be accomplished, it has been estimated that it would result in a reduction in the national energy consumption of 0.3%. Real-time control based on mixture composition could achieve these savings. However, the major distillation processes represent diverse applications and at present there does not exist a proven on-line chemical composition sensor technology which can be used to control these diverse processes in real-time. This report presents a summary of the findings of the second phase of a three phase effort undertaken to develop an on-line real-time measurement and control system utilizing Raman spectroscopy. A prototype instrument system has been constructed utilizing a Perkin Elmer 1700 Spectrometer, a diode pumped YAG laser, two three axis positioning systems, a process sample cell land a personal computer. This system has been successfully tested using industrially supplied process samples to establish its performance. Also, continued application development was undertaken during this Phase of the program using both the spontaneous Raman and Surface-enhanced Raman modes of operation. The study was performed for the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, whose mission is to conduct cost-shared R D for new high-risk, high-payoff industrial energy conservation technologies. Although this document contains references to individual manufacturers and their products, the opinions expressed on the products reported do not necessarily reflect the position of the Department of Energy.

  19. Proximate composition, minerals and fatty acid composition of Juglans Regia L. genotypes and cultivars grown in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemile Yerlikaya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition of eleven walnut (Juglans regia L. genotypes (28 ŞK 010, 28 ŞK 055, 28 ŞK 041, 28 ŞK 601, 28 ŞK 925, 28 ŞK 028, 28 ŞK 118, 28 ŞK 350, 28 ŞK 930, 28 ŞK 850, 28 ŞK 036 and three walnut cultivars (Şebin, Bilecik, Kaman 1 produced in Turkey were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 61.32 to 69.35%, corresponding to an energy value of approximately 710 kcal per 100 g of kernel. The protein content ranged from 10.58 to 18.19%, and the carbohydrate composition was between 9.05 and 18.92%. The ash content ranged from 1.53 to 1.99%, and the moisture content of the kernels was between 1.91 and 4.48% the oleic acid content of the oils ranged from 17.90 to 33.35% of the total fatty acids. The linoleic acid content ranged from 43.15 to 60.20%. The linolenic acid content ranged from 9.98 to 13.00%. The palmitic acid content was between 5.21 and 8.40%. Stearic acid ranged from 2.36 to 4.25%. Potassium was the major mineral in all the samples, ranging from 359.73 to 482.97 mg/100 g. Calcium was the next most abundant mineral, ranging from 109.45 to 335.97 mg/100 g, followed by magnesium, ranging from 126.01 to 165.15 mg/100 g.

  20. Chemical composition analysis and authentication of whisky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-08-30

    Whisky (whiskey) is one of the most popular spirit-based drinks made from malted or saccharified grains, which should mature for at least 3 years in wooden barrels. High popularity of products usually causes a potential risk of adulteration. Thus authenticity assessment is one of the key elements of food product marketing. Authentication of whisky is based on comparing the composition of this alcohol with other spirit drinks. The present review summarizes all information about the comparison of whisky and other alcoholic beverages, the identification of type of whisky or the assessment of its quality and finally the authentication of whisky. The article also presents the various techniques used for analyzing whisky, such as gas and liquid chromatography with different types of detectors (FID, AED, UV-Vis), electronic nose, atomic absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In some cases the application of chemometric methods is also described, namely PCA, DFA, LDA, ANOVA, SIMCA, PNN, k-NN and CA, as well as preparation techniques such SPME or SPE. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Chemical Composition of Ceramic Tile Glazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufrik, S. S.; Kurian, N. N.; Zhukova, I. I.; Znosko, K. F.; Belkov, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    We have carried out laser emission and x-ray fluorescence spectral analysis of glaze before and after its application to ceramic tile produced by Keramin JSC (Belarus). We have studied the internal microstructure of the ceramic samples. It was established that on the surface and within the bulk interior of all the samples, there are micropores of sizes ranging from a few micrometers to tens of micrometers and microcracks as long as several hundred micrometers. The presence of micropores on the surface of the ceramic tile leads to an increase in the water absorption level and a decrease in frost resistance. It was found that a decrease in the surface tension of ceramic tile coatings is promoted by substitution of sodium by potassium, silica by boric anhydride, magnesium and barium by calcium, CaO by sodium oxide, and SiO2 by chromium oxide. We carried out a comparative analysis of the chemical composition of glaze samples using S4 Pioneer and ElvaX x-ray fluorescence spectrometers and also an LIBS laser emission analyzer.

  2. Amino acid and proximate composition of fish bone gelatin from different warm-water species: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atma, Y.

    2017-03-01

    Research on fish bone gelatin has been increased in the last decade. The quality of gelatin depends on its physicochemical properties. Fish bone gelatin from warm-water fishes has a superior amino acid composition than cold-water fishes. The composition of amino acid can determine the strength and stability of gelatin. Thus, it is important to analyze the composition of amino acid as well as proximate composition for potential gelatin material. The warm water fish species used in this study were Grass carp, Pangasius catfish, Catfish, Lizard fish, Tiger-toothed croaker, Pink perch, Red snapper, Brown spotted grouper, and King weakfish. There werre five dominant amino acid in fish bone gelatin including glycine (21.2-36.7%), proline (8.7-11.7%), hydroxyproline (5.3-9.6%), alanine (8.48-12.9%), and glutamic acid (7.23-10.15%). Different warm-water species has some differences in amino acid composition. The proximate composition showed that fishbone gelatin from Pangasius catfish has the highest protein content. The water composition of all fishbone gelatin was well suited to the standard. Meanwhile, based on ash content, only gelatin from gelatin Pangasius catfish met the standard for food industries.

  3. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the needles of Pinus caribaea by ... chemical compositions of essential oil of many Pinus species .... Synergistic bactericidal effect of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde or thymol and refrigeration of inhibit Bacillus cereus in carrot broth. Food Microbiol.

  4. Fatty acid and cholesterol content, chemical composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the fatty acid and chemical composition and cholesterol concentration of horsemeat, and to evaluate its taste acceptability by the Brazilian population. Horsemeat samples (M. longissimus dorsi) were obtained from a Paraná State slaughterhouse. The chemical composition revealed a low lipid ...

  5. Chemical composition of chicken meat produced in extensive indoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of chicken meat produced in extensive indoor and free range rearing systems. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The present study involves the analysis of the chemical composition of white meat (breast muscles) and dark meat (leg muscles) of broilers in extensive indoor and free range systems.

  6. Influence of age and formalin treatment on the chemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition and in vitro dry-matter digestibility (IVDMD) of manure collected from steers fed ... Formalin treatment under these conditions negatively influenced the chemical composition and IVDMD of these parameters with respect to nutritive value. .... value comparable to that of heat-damaged haylage.

  7. THE STUDY OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION FOR ANIMAL FATS DURING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Pop; Cornel Laslo

    2009-01-01

    In this article the chemical composition for 3 types of animal fats (pork fat, beef tallow and buffalo tallow), following the variation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids proportion during freezing storage was studied. Determination of chemical composition of animal fats is important in establishing organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters, the variation of them in time, nature and proportion of fatty acids conferring specific characteristics to them. For pork fat was determined the...

  8. Proximate Amino Acid Anti-Nutritional Factor And Mineral Composition Of Different Varieties Of Raw Lablab Purpureus Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaahu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Proximate chemical amino acid anti- nutritional factors ANF and mineral composition of Highworth Rongai White and Rongai Brown varieties of Lablab purpureus seed were determined. Lablab purpureus seed irrespective of the variety was lower in crude protein but higher in crude fibre than FFSB. The three varieties of lablab seed analyzed in the present study contained between 7.22-9.23 of crude fibre while the crude protein content ranged between 24.88-34.33g100g. The ether extract EE content 2.99-5.87 of lablab seed is low compare to other legume seeds such as soyabeans and groundnuts. Due to this low oil content lablab seed may not be suitable as a commercial source of oil reducing the competition for lablab seed from vegetable oil industries. The natural limiting amino acid lysine in cereals is satisfactorily high mean value is above FAO reference pattern in lablab seed. The mean values of the essential amino acids lysine histidine valine methionine isoleucine leucine and phenylalanine in lablab seed are higher than the values reported for FFSB. This suggests that lablab seed can be exploited in feed formulation as an excellent source of amino acid. The aniti-nutritional factors identified in lablab seed are trypsin inhibitors hydrogen cyanide phytate tannin oxalates alkaloids saponin and haemagglutinins which must be deactivated to improve seed utilization. Lablab seed contained 0.3-5.3g100g of major and 14.9-54.5mgkg of minor minerals assayed and this is also low compared to soyabean and groundnut.

  9. Studies on the seasonal variations in the proximate composition of ascidians from the Palk Bay, Southeast coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthan, G; Karthikeyan, MM; Selva, Prabhu A; Raghunathan, C

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the seasonal fluctuations of the proximate composition of the ascidians muscle. Methods The moisture content was estimated by drying 1 g of fresh tissue at a constant temperature at 105 °C for 24 h.The loss of weight was taken as moisture content. The total protein was estimated using the Biuret method. The total carbohydrate in dried sample was estimated spectrophotometrically following the phenol- sulphuric acid method. The lipid in the dried sample tissue was gravimetrically estimated following the chloroform-methanol mixture method. Ash content was determined gravimetrically by incinerating 1 g dried sample in muffle furnace at about 550 °C for 6 h and results are expressed in percentage. Results It was found very difficult to compare the monthly variations, as all the ten species, exhibited wide fluctuations in their proximate compositions. For the sake of convenience, average seasonal values were calculated by summing the monthly values. Conclusions The proximate composition of the 10 commonly available ascidians showed high nutritive value and hence these groups especially solitary ascidians can be recommended for human consumption in terms of pickles, soup, curry and others after ensuring the safety of consumers. PMID:23569849

  10. Understanding API-polymer proximities in amorphous stabilized composite drug products using fluorine-carbon 2D HETCOR solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anuji; Crull, George

    2014-10-06

    A simple and robust method for obtaining fluorine-carbon proximities was established using a (19)F-(13)C heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) two-dimensional (2D) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) experiment under magic-angle spinning (MAS). The method was applied to study a crystalline active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), avagacestat, containing two types of fluorine atoms and its API-polymer composite drug product. These results provide insight into the molecular structure, aid with assigning the carbon resonances, and probe API-polymer proximities in amorphous spray dried dispersions (SDD). This method has an advantage over the commonly used (1)H-(13)C HETCOR because of the large chemical shift dispersion in the fluorine dimension. In the present study, fluorine-carbon distances up to 8 Å were probed, giving insight into the API structure, crystal packing, and assignments. Most importantly, the study demonstrates a method for probing an intimate molecular level contact between an amorphous API and a polymer in an SDD, giving insights into molecular association and understanding of the role of the polymer in API stability (such as recrystallization, degradation, etc.) in such novel composite drug products.

  11. Propolis chemical composition and honeybee resistance against Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, M; Reyes, M; Le Conte, Y; Bankova, V

    2014-01-01

    Propolis is known as honeybee chemical defence against infections and parasites. Its chemical composition is variable and depends on the specificity of the local flora. However, there are no data concerning the relationship between propolis chemical composition and honeybee colony health. We tried to answer this question, studying the chemical composition of propolis of bee colonies from an apiary near Avignon, which are tolerant to Varroa destructor, comparing it with colonies from the same apiary which are non-tolerant to the mites. The results indicated that non-tolerant colonies collected more resin than the tolerant ones. The percentage of four biologically active compounds - caffeic acid and pentenyl caffeates - was higher in propolis from tolerant colonies. The results of this study pave the way to understanding the effect of propolis in individual and social immunity of the honeybees. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between propolis chemical composition and honeybee colony health.

  12. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  13. Proximate, Antinutrients and Mineral Composition of Raw and Processed (Boiled and Roasted) Sphenostylis stenocarpa Seeds from Southern Kaduna, Northwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndidi, Uche Samuel; Ndidi, Charity Unekwuojo; Olagunju, Abbas; Muhammad, Aliyu; Billy, Francis Graham; Okpe, Oche

    2014-01-01

    This research was aimed at evaluating the proximate composition, level of anti-nutrients, and the mineral composition of raw and processed Sphenostylis stenocarpa seeds and at examining the effect of processing on the parameters. From the proximate composition analysis, the ash content showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the processed and unprocessed (raw) samples. However, there was significant difference (P antinutrient composition show that the processed S. stenocarpa registered significant reduction in levels of hydrogen cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, phytate, oxalate, and tannins compared to the unprocessed. Evaluation of the mineral composition showed that the level of sodium, calcium, and potassium was high in both the processed and unprocessed sample (150-400 mg/100 g). However, the level of iron, copper, zinc, and magnesium was low in both processed and unprocessed samples (2-45 mg/100 g). The correlation analysis showed that tannins and oxalate affected the levels of ash and nitrogen-free extract of processed and unprocessed seeds. These results suggest that the consumption of S. stenocarpa will go a long way in reducing the level of malnutrition in northern Nigeria.

  14. Origin and chemical composition of evaporite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, George William

    1960-01-01

    A comparative study of marine evaporite deposits forming at the present time along the pacific coast of central Mexico and evaporite formations of Permian age in West Texas Basin was made in order to determine if the modern sediments provide a basis for understanding environmental conditions that existed during deposition of the older deposits. The field work was supplemented by investigations of artificial evaporite minerals precipitated in the laboratory and by study of the chemical composition of halite rock of different geologic ages. The environment of deposition of contemporaneous marine salt deposits in Mexico is acidic, is strongly reducing a few centimeters below the surface, and teems with microscopic life. Deposition of salt, unlike that of many other sediments, is not wholly a constructional phenomenon. Permanent deposits result only if a favorable balance exists between deposition in the dry season and dissolution in the wet season. Evaporite formations chosen for special study in the West Texas Basin are, in ascending order, the Castile, Salado, and Rustler formations, which have a combined thickness of 1200 meters. The Castile formation is largely composed of gypsum rock, the Salado, halite rock, and the Rustler, quartz and carbonate sandstone. The lower part of the Castile formation is bituminous and contains limestone laminae. The Castile and Rustler formations thicken to the south at the expense of salt of the intervening Salado formation. The clastic rocks of the Rustler formation are interpreted as the deposits of a series of barrier islands north of which halite rock of the Salado was deposited. The salt is believed to have formed in shallow water of uniform density that was mixed by the wind. Where water depth exceeded the depth of the wind mixing, density stratification developed, and gypsum was deposited. Dense water of high salinity below the density discontinuity was overlain by less dense, more normally saline water which was derived from

  15. Proximate composition and fatty acid content of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae along the year seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cavalcanti Martino

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove oysters, Crassostrea rhizophorae were collected at the mangrove of "Barra de Guaratiba" district, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with the aim to determine the proximate composition and fatty acid content. Along the year seasons no statistical (P>0.05 difference was observed in the values of moisture, crude protein, crude lipid and ash. They were 82.0%; 9.7%; 1.7%; 3.2%, in average, respectively. However, glycogen was significantly (PCom o objetivo de determinar a composição centesimal e de ácidos graxos da ostra de mangue Crassostrea rhizophorae, amostras foram coletadas durante um ano no manguezal localizado na Barra de Guaratiba, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Nenhuma diferença estatística (P>0,05 foi observada para os valores de umidade, proteína bruta, lipídio bruto e cinza, que foram em média: 82%; 9,7%; 1,7% e 3,2%, respectivamente. Por outro lado, os valores encontrados para o glicogênio foram significativamente diferentes (P<0,05 para as amostras de primavera (4,4% e inverno (4,2% do que para as amostras de verão (2,7% e outono (2,9%. Os ácidos graxos saturados e poliinsaturados foram respectivamente, os principais grupos de ácidos graxos das ostras, sendo que o ácido palmítico (16:0 foi o ácido graxo mais abundante em todos as amostras de ostras coletadas. O presente estudo demonstrou que esta espécie é caracterizada tanto por uma baixa concentração de lipídios (< 2,0% como também, por uma elevada concentração dos ácidos eicosapentaenóico (20:5n-3, EPA e docosahexaenóico (22:6n-3, DHA. Portanto, baseado no presente resultado é possível concluir que em termos de lipídios e de ácidos graxos a composição nutricional da C.rhizophorae é recomendável para o consumo humano.

  16. Chemical composition and nutritive significance of the land crab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate, nutritionally valuable minerals and anti-nutrient compositions were determined in land crab, Cardisoma armatum. Results showed that ash was the highest with a value of 42.23±0.02% while protein, moisture, fat, fibre and carbohydrate levels were 33.30±1.20%, 9.60±0.06%, 5.35±0.01%, 8.31±0.01% and ...

  17. Chemical composition of Hyptis suaveolens and Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four medicinal plants belonging to the family Lamiaceae were chemically screened for their chemical constituents including alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids and phenols. The medicinal plants investigated were Hyptis suaveloens and three putative hybrids of Ocimum gratissimum (Hybrid A, B and C). All the plants ...

  18. Chemical composition and nutritional value of raw and cooked black scabbardfish (Aphanopus carbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisa Maria Bandarra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to follow the seasonal chemical changes and to study the effect of culinary treatments on the nutritional value of black scabbardfish (Aphanopus carbo. The proximate chemical composition of black scabbardfish (BSF landed in Sesimbra (Portugal was followed for one year. The nutritional quality (proximate chemical composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, cholesterol and minerals of raw, fried and grilled BSF was evaluated in one period of the year. BSF is a semi-fatty species, the protein content was 15-17.5% and the most abundant amino acids were glutamic acid, aspartic acid and lysine. The dominant fatty acids were monounsaturated (66%, followed by saturated (19% and polyunsaturated (10% ones. Potassium, phosphorus and sodium were the most abundant minerals. Some dehydration occurred in cooked BSF but fat content was the most affected nutrient, particularly in fried fish. These results may suggest that the absorption of frying oil led to important changes in the fatty acid profile, and particularly in the linoleic acid level. The highest protein losses were recorded in fried BSF. In general, the nutritional quality of grilled fish seemed to be more balanced than that of fried fish.

  19. Advancing Consumer Product Composition and Chemical ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes EPA efforts to collect, model, and measure publically available consumer product data for use in exposure assessment. The development of the ORD Chemicals and Products database will be described, as will machine-learning based models for predicting chemical function. Finally, the talk describes new mass spectrometry-based methods for measuring chemicals in formulation and articles. This presentation is an invited talk to the ICCA-LRI workshop "Fit-For-Purpose Exposure Assessments For Risk-Based Decision Making". The talk will share EPA efforts to characterize the components of consumer products for use in exposure assessment with the international exposure science community.

  20. An investigation into the chemical composition of alternative invertebrate prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Dierenfeld, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of eight invertebrate species and evaluate their suitability as alternative prey. The species selected were rusty red cockroaches (Blatta lateralis), six-spotted cockroaches (Eublaberus distanti), Madagascar hissing cockroaches

  1. Chemical composition and microbial load of cheese produced using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aframomum sceptrum) on the chemical composition and microbial load of cheese was evaluated in a Completely Randomized Design. Cheese produced with 1% bear berry (Aframomum sceptrum) had the highest (P < 0.05) crude protein content ...

  2. Studies on chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of bioactive molecules from date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) pollens and seeds. ... using different techniques, including optical density and GC/MS analyses of the natural extracts.

  3. Antimicrobial activity and chemical compositions of Turkish propolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative bacteria and its chemical composition were evaluated by the method of agar-well diffusion and GC-MS, respectively. Some typical compounds samples were identified in the propolis samples. Principal component analysis revealed that the ...

  4. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of twig essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of twig essential oils from three Xylopia (Annonaceae) species. Siti Humeirah Abdul Ghani, Nor Azah Mohamad Ali, Mailina Jamil, Mastura Mohtar, Saiful Azmi Johari, Mazurah Mohamad Isa, Mohd Faridz Zoll Patah ...

  5. Proximate Composition, Nutritional Attributes and Mineral Composition of Peperomia pellucida L. (Ketumpangan Air Grown in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the proximate and mineral composition of Peperomia pellucida L., an underexploited weed plant in Malaysia. Proximate analysis was performed using standard AOAC methods and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated Peperomia pellucida to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high amount of total ash (31.22% suggests a high-value mineral composition comprising potassium, calcium and iron as the main elements. The present study inferred that Peperomia pellucida would serve as a good source of protein and energy as well as micronutrients in the form of a leafy vegetable for human consumption.

  6. Peculiarities of chemical composition of sainfoin seeds powder

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Aleksandrovna Tarasenko; Elena Aleksandrovna Butina; Evgeny Olegovich Gerasimenko

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to studying chemical composition of the powder of the seeds of non-traditional legume, sainfoin. The experimental studies showed that crushed seeds of sainfoin make a flowing fine powder of light brown color with a pleasant unpronounced specific smell with floral notes. The taste is grassy with the after-taste typical for legumes. The chemical composition of sainfoin seeds is dominated by proteins and fiber, and fat content does not exceed 8%. The total content of amino-...

  7. Evaluation of chemical composition of defect wine distillates

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaljević Žulj, Marin; Posavec, Barbara; Škvorc, Melanija; Tupajić, Pavica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the distillate obtained from wine with off-flavour. The chemical composition of wine distillates obtained by distillation of Chardonnay wine with oxidation off-flavour was investigated. Distillation of wine was carried out using a simple distillation pot still by double distillation and separation the different portion of the first fraction. Volatile compounds of wine and wine distillates (acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol ...

  8. Effect of processing method on the proximate composition, mineral content and antinutritional factors to taro (Colocasia esculenta, L.) grown in Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adane, T; Tilahun, B; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Shimelis, A; Negussie, R

    2013-01-01

    Although taro is widely grown in Ethiopia, it is an underutilized crop and little is known about its proximate and micro-element composition and the antinutritional factors of the raw, boiled and fermented products...

  9. Honey: Chemical composition, stability and authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Priscila Missio; Gauche, Cony; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Fett, Roseane

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the chemical characteristics of compounds present in honey, their stability when heated or stored for long periods of time and the parameters of identity and quality. Therefore, the chemical characteristics of these compounds were examined, such as sugars, proteins, amino acids, enzymes, organic acids, vitamins, minerals, phenolic and volatile compounds present in honey. The stability of these compounds in relation to the chemical reactions that occur by heating or prolonged storage were also discussed, with increased understanding of the behavior regarding the common processing of honey that may compromise its quality. In addition, the identity and quality standards were described, such as sugars, moisture, acidity, ash and electrical conductivity, color, 5-HMF and diastase activity, along with the minimum and maximum limits established by the Codex Alimentarius. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical composition of hulled, dehulled and naked oat grains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In grain samples of hulled (5 samples), dehulled (5 samples) and naked (4 samples) oats, the following components were determined: chemical composition (ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and its components) and amino acids and fatty acid composition. The grain of naked and dehulled oats contained ...

  11. Chemical composition of the clays as indicator raw material sources

    OpenAIRE

    Khramchenkova Rezida Kh.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of study on the chemical composition of unglazed pottery from the excavations of the Bulgar fortified settlement site and the clay, selected from the modern deposits of ceramic raw materials located near the medieval settlement sites. Significant differences in macro- and microelement composition of different groups of ceramics have been revealed. The difference in the macroelemental composition is largely determined by the ceramic fabric recipe. Thus, the high ...

  12. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aneldavh

    Erickson, J.P., 1985. Lupins show potential as protein source for livestock. Feedstuffs 57, 22–23. Evans, A.J. & Cheung, P.C.K., 1993. The carbohydrate composition of cotyledons and hulls of cultivars of. Lupinus angustifolius from Western Australia. J. Sci. Food Agric. 61, 189–194. Garrido, A., Gomez-Cabrera, A., Guerrero, ...

  13. Chemical composition of the early universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harwit, M; Spaans, M

    2003-01-01

    A prediction of standard inflationary cosmology is that the elemental composition of the medium out of which the earliest stars and galaxies condensed consisted primarily of hydrogen and helium (4)He, with small admixtures of deuterium, lithium (7)Li, and (3)He. The most redshifted quasars,

  14. Chemical composition and mutagenic assessment of petrochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    was first introduced by Levan (1938) and later was proposed as a standard method for the testing of chemicals, in environmental monitoring and in toxicity screening of wastewater and river water (Fiskesjö,. 1985a; 1985b; 1993). The Allium genetic material has been widely exploited for such purpose because of its excellent ...

  15. Chemical composition and physical characteristics of cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    The main aim of this research was to determine the effect of variety on physical and chemical characteristics of straws of long season cowpeas and also to determine if haulms of varieties that retain greenness longer will have a better nutritional value than those that dry early. Materials and Methods. Sixteen forages used in ...

  16. Chemical Composition, Resistant, Total Starch Content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is aimed at the potential use of cowpea starch (CS) as resistant starch in the production of noodle as a functional food and its overall acceptability. Alkaline noodle was prepared from a mixture of 100% wheat flour and varying substitution of wheat flour (2, 4% and 6%) with cowpea starch (CS). Chemical analysis ...

  17. Relationship between chemical composition and magnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    younger (Quaternary) caldera forming lava dome/flows (e.g., tephriphonolite, trachyte) and pyro- ... rocks. In this paper, it is aimed (i) to present geo- chemical content of the volcanic rocks from the. Isparta area (SW Turkey), and (ii) to discuss the relationship between ..... highly oxidized magma during crystallization and cool-.

  18. Genus Mikania: chemical composition and phytotherapeutical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane C. Rufatto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Mikania ranks high in the list of best-selling natural products in the world. Its main distribution is in South America, but some species are found in Asia, North America and Africa. It is used for treating fever, rheumatism, colds and respiratory diseases, as well as snake bites and scorpion stings, due to its broad spectrum of action. There are approximately 430 species of this genus and only 12% have been studied, highlighting their chemical and pharmacological diversity. The main chemical groups are: coumarins and derivatives, sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpenes lactones, diterpenes, phytosterols/terpenoids and flavonoids. This review aims to supply useful references for scientists interested in natural products and the search for new compounds, from over the 300 already described for the genus.

  19. Genus Mikania: chemical composition and phytotherapeutical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane C. Rufatto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Mikania ranks high in the list of best-selling natural products in the world. Its main distribution is in South America, but some species are found in Asia, North America and Africa. It is used for treating fever, rheumatism, colds and respiratory diseases, as well as snake bites and scorpion stings, due to its broad spectrum of action. There are approximately 430 species of this genus and only 12% have been studied, highlighting their chemical and pharmacological diversity. The main chemical groups are: coumarins and derivatives, sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpenes lactones, diterpenes, phytosterols/terpenoids and flavonoids. This review aims to supply useful references for scientists interested in natural products and the search for new compounds, from over the 300 already described for the genus.

  20. Yield, chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reza

    Feed Sci. Technol. 94,. 15-27. Ammar, H., 2002. Compositión química, digestibilidad y cinética de fermentacion ruminal in vitro de arbustos. PhD tesi, Universidad de León, Spain. Anderson, T.P. & Hoffman, P., 2006. Nutrient composition of straw used in dairy cattle diets. University of. Wisconsin Extension Focus on Forage.

  1. The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ikhtiar; Azam, Andaleeb; Mahmood, Abid

    2013-01-01

    The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere.

  2. Relationships between botanical and chemical composition of forages: a multivariate approach to grasslands in the Western Italian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravetto Enri, Simone; Renna, Manuela; Probo, Massimiliano; Lussiana, Carola; Battaglini, Luca M; Lonati, Michele; Lombardi, Giampiero

    2017-03-01

    Plant composition of species-rich mountain grasslands can affect the sensorial and chemical attributes of dairy and meat products, with implications for human health. A multivariate approach was used to analyse the complex relationships between vegetation characteristics (botanical composition and plant community variables) and chemical composition (proximate constituents and fatty acid profile) in mesophilic and dry vegetation ecological groups, comprising six different semi-natural grassland types in the Western Italian Alps. Mesophilic and dry grasslands were comparable in terms of phenology, biodiversity indices and proportion of botanical families. The content of total fatty acids and that of the most abundant fatty acids (alpha-linolenic, linoleic and palmitic acids) were mainly associated to nutrient-rich plant species, belonging to the mesophilic grassland ecological group. Mesophilic grasslands showed also higher values of crude protein, lower values of fibre content and they were related to higher pastoral values of vegetation compared to dry grasslands. The proximate composition and fatty acid profile appeared mainly single species dependent rather than botanical family dependent. These findings highlight that forage from mesophilic grasslands can provide higher nutritive value for ruminants and may be associated to ruminant-derived food products with a healthier fatty acid profile. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Chemical composition of Lake Orta sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica BELTRAMI

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Lake Orta (18.2 km2, 1.3 km3, 143 m max. depth has been severely polluted since industrialisation of its watershed began in 1926, at which time the lake began to receive industrial effluents containing high concentrations of copper and ammonia. Chromium-, nickel-, and zinc-rich effluents from plating factories have also contributed to pollution levels, and pH -levels dropped below 4.0 as a result of the oxidation of ammonia to nitrates. More than 60 papers have documented the evolution of the chemical characteristics of both water and sediment, and the sudden decline of plankton, as well as benthos and fish. As a remedial action the lake was limed from May 1989 to June 1990 with 10,900 tons of CaCO3. The treatment was immediately effective in raising the pH and decreasing the metal concentrations in the water column, and plankton and fish communities quickly rebounded. However, the chemical characteristics of sediments were influenced by the liming to a much lesser extent. Since 900 tons of copper and the same amount of chromium were contained in the top 10 cm of sediment, it appears likely that the sediment could potentially act as a current and future source of these metals to the water column. This observation has resulted in the implementation of a vigorous monitoring regime to track the post-liming recovery of Lake Orta.

  4. Proximate compositions and bioactive compounds of edible wild and cultivated mushrooms from Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporn Srikram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are known as an excellent source of nutrients including macronutrients and bioactive compounds. Nutritional values were investigated involving proximate analysis, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total phenol content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC of 10 edible wild mushroom species—Amanita calyptroderma Ark. et al., Amanita princeps Corner et Bas, A., Astraeus odoratus, Heimiella retispora (Pat. et. Bak. Boedijn., Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis (Pat. Trappe, Russula alboareolata Hongo, Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff.ex.Fr., Russula emetic (Schaeff. ex Fr. S.F.Gray., Russula virescens (Schaeff. fr., Termitomyces clypeatus Heim—and five cultivated mushroom species—Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinus polychrous Lev., Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Sing, Volvariella vovacea (Bull. Ex.Fr. Sing. From the proximate analysis, the moisture contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms ranged from 84.15% fresh weight (FW to 90.21% FW. The ash, crude protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms were in the dry weight ranges 2.56–13.96%, 11.16–50.29%, 1.43–21.94%, 2.11–38.11% and 9.56–59.73%, respectively, and the contents of macronutrients in the mushrooms varied by variety. Wild mushrooms had a high fiber content compared to cultivated mushrooms. The contents of biologically active compounds of both wild and cultivated mushrooms also varied depending on the variety. Values for the TAC, TPC and TFC of wild mushrooms were higher than those of cultivated mushrooms. In conclusion, the proximate analysis for both wild and cultivated mushrooms was variety dependent and wild mushrooms contained a higher fiber content and more biologically active compounds than cultivated mushrooms.

  5. Effect of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer on the growth and proximate composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, Sandeep; Masud, Sahar; Khan, Asma

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of chicken manure and inorganic fertilizer (single super phosphate and urea) on growth performance viz. increase in wet body weight, length, specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor (CF), survival rate and proximate composition of Cyprinus carpio. Experimental water in tubs was treated in duplicates with low (PT) @8000 kgha , medium (PT2) @10,000 kgha(-1) and high (PT) @12,000 kg/ha doses of chicken manure and also with low, medium and high dose of inorganic fertilizer(urea + SSP) @ 104 kgha(-1) + 155 kgha(-1) (IT(1)), @218 kgha(-1) + 310 kg/ha (IT2) and 322 kgha(-1) +470 kgha(-1)(IT3) respectively, along with control. At the end of the experiment, C. carpio showed maximum growth in PT, with significant higher SGR and CF. Survival rate ranged beween 93.3 to 100 % in all the treatments. Level of crude protein and total fat were a2so highest in PT, Moisture and carbohydrate showed no significant changes while ash content changed significantly in all the treatments and control. These observations indicate that chicken manure alone was effective to stimulate productivity and growth of fish without affecting proximate composition of fish meat.

  6. [Seasonal variation in proximate composition of mussels Tagelus peruvianus (Bivalvia: Solecurtidae) from the Gulf of Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca Rodríguez, Cristian; Marín-Vindas, Carolina; Chavarría-Solera, Fabián; Agüero Pedro, Toledo

    2011-12-01

    Marine bivalves are a very important food source for human consumption, and species that has not been of traditional use as a fishery resource are gaining interest. Seasonal variation in proximate composition, condition index and energy or caloric content of the mussel Tagelus peruvianus were studied in the Gulf of Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. From November 2007 to October 2008, a total of 35 to 40 specimens per month were collected. The proximate composition using the AOAC methods was determined. Results showed that the condition index during December, January and May decreased, indicative of two spawning periods and one gonadal resting phase. Soft tissues were respectively characterized by protein (61.9 +/- 4.3%), carbohydrates (15.7 +/- 2.4%), ash (14.0 +/- 1.9%) and lipids (8.5 +/- 1.7%). The average caloric content was 5.0 +/- 0.1 kcal/g. The results showed that the decrease in protein and fat percentage, and calories content, occurred during the spawning seasons. We suggest that T. peruvianus has an optimal nutritional value for human consumption because of the low-fat and moderate protein content.

  7. A correlation study of proximate composition, physical and cooking properties of new high yielding and disease resistant rice varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Rasool

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to compare proximate composition, physical, and cooking properties of locally cultivated rice varieties of Kashmir division viz.; SR-1, K-448, and K-39. Various physiochemical properties were studied. The relationship between physical, proximate composition, and cooking properties was determined using Pearson’s correlation. Length–breadth (L/B ratio showed a significant positive correlation with kernel length and negative correlation with thousand kernel weight, with a correlation coefficient (r of 0.893 and −0.855, respectively, (p  0.05. Solid loss in gruel was observed to have a negative correlation with L/B ratio (r = −0.432, p > 0.05, water uptake ratio (r = −0.742, p < 0.05, and cooking time (r = −0.678, p < 0.05. The rice cultivars with higher cooking time showed lower gruel solid loss and vice versa. Water uptake was observed to be positively correlated with L/B ratio (r = 0.768, p < 0.05. Among all the cultivars studied, K-448 variety has potential for consumers’ preference and it could be used for breeding programs for the improvement of valuable grain quality traits.

  8. Chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelakun, O E; Oyelade, O J; Ade-Omowaye, B I O; Adeyemi, I A; Van de Venter, M

    2009-06-01

    Studies on the chemical composition and the antioxidative properties of Nigerian Okra Seed (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench) Flour were carried out. This is done to establish the nutritional composition and the antioxidative potentials of the seeds, both of which are highly implicated in health. Okra seeds were roasted at 160 degreeC for 10-60 mins. The roasted seeds were subjected to proximate, yield and antioxidative activity determination. Pre-treatment by roasting was found to increase the yield, but was found to be time dependent. The range means obtained for protein, fat, ash, fiber and sugar contents were 42.14-38.10, 31.04-17.22, 4.06-3.42, 3.45-3.60 and 8.82-8.65, respectively. The antioxidant activity was significantly increased by roasting, while in vitro digestibility showed that most antioxidative activities were available in the intestinal phase of gastrointestinal tracts.

  9. The effect of proximal contour on marginal ridge fracture of Class II composite resin restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Kuijs, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the marginal ridge fracture strength of Class II composite resin restorations placed with a straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity. METHODS: In 60 artificial first molars standardized MO-preparations were ground. Two

  10. Chemical composition of polluted mist droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, Manabu; Kamijo, Kosuke; Nanzai, Ben; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2017-12-01

    Mist events occur frequently worldwide, but the chemical characteristics of the mist droplets has never been investigated because of very low liquid water contents of them. We estimated the concentrations of the mist water, the average concentration of the mist droplets, via the determination of water-soluble components of the coarse aerosol and the observation of the imprints of the droplets on a MgO-coated glass slide. The pH of the mist water was estimated from the equilibrium calculation with the data of the Gran plot of the solution of the dissolved coarse particles, the inorganic ion concentrations of aerosol larger than 10 μm, and the estimated volume of mist water. The mist water was measured as about 1 eq/L total concentration for typical inorganic ions and about pH 4.5 in Yokohama. Such highly concentrated mist droplets may have intense environmental effects.

  11. Unraveling the chemical composition of caramel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golon, Agnieszka; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2012-03-28

    Caramel is one of mankind's best known dietary materials obtained from carbohydrates by heating. Much effort has been expended toward the chemical characterization of the components of caramel but impeded by a lack of suitable analytical techniques sufficiently powerful for providing insight into an extraordinarily complex material. This paper reports the characterization of caramel formed by heating from glucose, fructose, and saccharose using a conceptually novel combination of mass spectrometrical techniques. The analytical strategy employed uses high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) followed by targeted liquid chromatography-tandem MS experiments. Caramel is composed from several thousand compounds formed by a small number of unselective and chemoselective reactions. Caramelization products include oligomers with up to six carbohydrate units formed through unselective glycosidic bond formation, dehydration products of oligomers losing up to a maximum of eight water molecules, hydration products of sugar oligomers, disproportionation products, and colored aromatic products.

  12. Evaluation of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. leaves during its developmental stages: a chemical composition study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Batoqui França Biondo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Beetroot leaves (Beta vulgaris L. are commonly cut off and discarded before using its bulb due to lack of knowledge of how to use them. Aiming at using these leaves, in the present study, in natura and dehydrated beetroot leaves were chemically characterized in terms of fatty acid composition, proximate composition, minerals, total phenolic compounds (TPC, and antioxidant activity by DPPH• in different stages (60, 80, and 100 days of development. The beetroot leaves showed significant levels of protein and lipids in all developmental stages, and all proximate composition nutrients decreased during these maturation stages; the highest content was observed at 60 days. The Fe content decreased during the developmental stages (from 342.75 to 246.30 mg.kg-1, while the content of K increased (from 13,367.64 to 20,784.90 mg.kg-1. With regard to to fatty acid composition, linolenic acid was present in the greatest quantity, and it increase up to 2.58 mg.g-1 (in natura and 40.11 mg.g-1 (dehydrated at 100 days of development. The n-6/n-3 ratios were low in all stages. The TPC and antioxidant activity by DPPH• changed during the developmental stages. The TPC was highest in the 100-day dehydrated leaves (15.27±0.12 mg GAE.g-1 FW, and the 50% inhibition of DPPH• (IC50 89.52 µg.mL-1 were better in the 60-day in natura leaves. This study shows that all developmental stages produced satisfactory results, and therefore, these leaves can be reused as food. The antioxidant activity and the chemical constituents, mainly the ω-3fatty acid, increased during the stages of development.

  13. Influence of volumetric shrinkage and curing light intensity on proximal contact tightness of class II resin composite restorations: in vitro study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Shamy, H.; Saber, M.H.; Dorfer, C.E.; El-Badrawy, W.; Loomans, B.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Proximal contact tightness of class II resin composite restorations is influenced by a myriad of factors. Previous studies investigated the role of matrix band type and thickness, consistency of resin composite, and technique of placement. However, the effect of volumetric shrinkage of

  14. Sensory properties and chemical composition of Sharri cheese from Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agim Rysha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Food sensory properties, analyses and chemical composition are very important because they provide information about product quality and end-user acceptance or preferences. An assessment of sensory characteristics and chemical composition of mountain sheep and cow’s-milk cheese from shepherd’s huts and industrial manufacturers in Kosovo was carried out. Consumer-oriented tests using a 9 point hedonic scale were conducted in order to determine Sharri cheese acceptability. Chemical parameters (fat content, fat content of dry matter, acidity, protein, dry matter, mineral and water content and sodium chloride content of 45-day brine cheese samples were also analyzed. Chemical and sensory assessment demonstrated large property differences. A recommendation stems from the results showing that the standardization of both artisanal and industrial production of Sharri cheese is required.

  15. Inorganic chemical composition of native trees of the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De França, E J; De Nadai Fernandes, E A; Bacchi, M A; Rodrigues, R R; Verburg, T G

    2005-03-01

    The Atlantic Forest with its exuberant vegetation of high level of biodiversity is classified as one hotspot of the world. Chemical composition of leaves from native trees and underlying soils was evaluated by INAA. The predominant species Euterpe edulis, Bathysa meridionalis, Hyeronima alchorneoides, Marlierea tomentosa, Gomidesia flagellaris, and Gomidesia spectabilis belonging to the diverse plant families were studied. Euterpe edulis, the most abundant understory specie, presented the lowest element concentrations except for Zn. Some variation in chemical composition was noted, however, the chemical specificity of tree species can be more predominant than the soil variability for the obtained leaf concentrations. Factor values obtained through the Monte-Carlo assisted factor analysis were used for species discrimination, The results indicate that chemical investigation of native trees is a quite promising tool for biodiversity studies in the Atlantic Forest.

  16. Chemical food composition: implications for atherosclerosis prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Carlos; Ribeiro, Jorge Pinto

    2011-01-01

    To compare the fatty acid and cholesterol content in food acquired in Brazil with the composition found in the most frequently used reference tables in the country. The fatty acid and cholesterol content in 41 food items frequently used in our country and the various directions to prepare them were reviewed by using specific methodology and the information was compared to the tables adopted by Unicamp and UNIFESP. According to Unicamp table, the cholesterol content found in parmesan cheese was 100.7 mg/100 g, while it was 68 mg/100 g in UNIFESP table, that is, a 48% (p cholesterol content 31% lower (94 mg/100 g vs. 123 mg/100 g, p cheese. For whole milk, we found a 52% difference regarding cholesterol content, while the difference for saturated fat ranged from 1.4 g/100 g in Unicamp table to 2.130 g/100 g in our study table (p cholesterol content formally analyzed and the content shown on commonly used tables, and this can compromise our recommendations on preventing atherosclerosis. One possible explanation for the differences would be the fact that the UNIFESP table is American in origin.

  17. Predição da composição química de bermudas (Cynodon spp. pela espectroscopia de reflectância no infravermelho proximal Prediction of chemical composition of Cynodon spp. by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Serena Fontaneli

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversos cultivares de Cynodon dactylon têm sido cultivados no Rio Grande do Sul para alimentação do rebanho leiteiro, na forma de pastejo ou feno. A rápida determinação do valor nutritivo dessas forrageiras pode ser útil para seu manejo e para o planejamento da dieta dos animais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver curvas de calibração para análise do valor nutritivo de quatro cultivares de Cynodon (Tifton 68, Tifton 85, Florakirk, Coastcross, utilizando o método de reflectância no infravermelho proximal (NIRS. Foram utilizadas 129 amostras de forragem verde, coletadas e analisadas entre 1998 e 2001. Os coeficientes de determinação para proteína bruta, fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro, fibra insolúvel em detergente ácido, matéria seca, cálcio, fósforo, potássio e magnésio foram, respectivamente: 0,98; 0,97; 0,99; 1; 0,92; 0,97; 0,99 e 0,72%. Os erros-padrão de calibração foram de 0,38; 0,60; 0,35; 0,14; 0,02; 0,01; 0,05 e 0,01%, respectivamente. As equações obtidas foram consideradas de excelente resolução para todos os parâmetros estimados, o que indica a acurácia do método para a espécie avaliada.Many Cynodon dactylon cultivars have been cultivated in Rio Grande do Sul state to be used as pasture or hay to feed dairy cattle. Quick determination of the nutritional value of these forages would be valuable for management and diet planning. This work had the objective to develop calibration curves for analysis of the nutritional value of four Cynodon cultivars (Tifton 68, Tifton 85, Florakirk, Coastcross, using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS. A total of 129 fresh samples of green pasture were collected and analyzed from 1998 to 2001. The determination coefficients for crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, dry matter, calcium, phosphorus, potash and magnesium were, respectively, .98, .97, .99, 1, .92, .97, .99 and .72%. The calibration standard error for the same

  18. Effects of Replacement of Fishmeal with other Alternative Plant Sources in the Feed on Proximate Composition of Muscle, Liver and Ovary in Tilapia (Oreochromis nioloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ghanim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The major objective of this experiment was to assess the effect of alternate plant protein sources as a replacement for fish meal in feed on the proximate composition of muscle, liver and tissue in Oreochromis niloticus. O. niloticus of average size (average Weight 45.00±1.25 g, total length 13.28±1.42 cm were stocked in 100 L glass aquarium. Fish were fed with three experimental feeds (A, B and C and reference commercial feed (D for 16 weeks. Feed A, B and C was prepared from four different plant sources and fish meal (40 % crude protein. Fish were fed at the rate 3 % of body weight daily. It has been observed that tilapia fed with feed B in which 20 % fish meal was replaced compared to feed C with other plant sources of protein, had shown significantly higher total protein in their muscle compared to diet other experimental and commercial feeds. In O. niloticus minimum lipid content was recorded in fish fed with diet B compared to A, C and commercial feed. It has been concluded that 20-40% level of fish meal can be replaced in the diet of fish without having any impact on growth and chemical composition of muscle.

  19. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Zotti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus. The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. In the blue crab, protein content was significantly lower than in the other two species, while its carbon content resulted lower than that characterizing only the warty crab. Among micro-elements, Ba, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, and Pb showed extremely low concentrations and negligible among-species differences. Significant inter-specific differences were observed for Na, Sr, V, Ba, Cd and Zn; in particular, cadmium and zinc were characterized in the blue crab by concentrations significantly lower than in the other two species. The analysis of the available literature on the three species indicated a general lack of comparable information on their elemental composition. The need to implement extended elemental fingerprinting techniques for shellfish quality assessment is discussed, in view of other complementary profiling methods such as NMR-based metabolomics.

  20. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Maurizio; Coco, Laura Del; Pascali, Sandra Angelica De; Migoni, Danilo; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-02-01

    The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus). The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. In the blue crab, protein content was significantly lower than in the other two species, while its carbon content resulted lower than that characterizing only the warty crab. Among micro-elements, Ba, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, and Pb showed extremely low concentrations and negligible among-species differences. Significant inter-specific differences were observed for Na, Sr, V, Ba, Cd and Zn; in particular, cadmium and zinc were characterized in the blue crab by concentrations significantly lower than in the other two species. The analysis of the available literature on the three species indicated a general lack of comparable information on their elemental composition. The need to implement extended elemental fingerprinting techniques for shellfish quality assessment is discussed, in view of other complementary profiling methods such as NMR-based metabolomics.

  1. Anti-inflammation activity and chemical composition of flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... tonic, excitant and anti-rheumatic in the Ayurvedic system of traditional Indian medicine (Jain et al., 1995). Studies on the chemical composition of the rhizome and flower of H. coronarium resulted in the isolation of several labdane-type diterpenes and farnesane-type sesquiterpenes (Itokawa et al., 1988a,b; ...

  2. Carcass properties, chemical content and fatty acid composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine carcass properties and variability in chemical content and fatty acid composition in the musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) of different genotypes of pigs. Of 36 male castrated animals used in the trial, 24 were from two strains of Mangalitsa pigs (12 Swallow - bellied ...

  3. The chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leendert Snynan

    The chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of untreated and ammoniated ... IVDMD of maize residues obtained by means of a whole plant maize harvester was found to be relatively high .... This value is high when compared with in vitro organic matter digestibility values reported for wheat straw.

  4. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Zanthoxylum gilletii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, larvicidal potential of essential oil from Zanthoxylum gilletii was evaluated against malaria vector mosquito, A. gambiae. The essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation, and its chemical compositions determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The oil was dominated by sesquiterpenes and ...

  5. Microbial Quality and Chemical Composition of Raw Whole Milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the microbial quality and chemical composition of raw milk from Horro cows raised at rural farm households was conducted in Guto Wayu and Bila Sayo districts of East Wolloga. Thirty willing households owning one or more cows were randomly selected from Guto Wayu and Bila Sayo districts of East Wollega.

  6. Chemical composition of essential oils of Eugenia caryophylla and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition was assigned by GC and GC/SM and showed that E. caryophylla was mainly composed of eugenol (80.0 %), E-caryophyllene (8.3%), and eugenol acetate (6.7%) while Mentha sp cf piperita was characterized by piperitone (67.5 %), menthol (10.0 %) and ß-phellandrene (5.8%). The result ...

  7. Chemical composition of essential oil of exudates of Dryobalanops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify the chemical composition of essential oil from the exudates of Dryobalanops aromatica from Malaysia. Methods: Exudate was collected from D. aromatica and subjected to fractional distillation to obtain essential oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to characterize the ...

  8. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Properties of Essential Oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare Linnaeus (Lamiaceae) on the growth of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Methods: The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The minimum inhibitory ...

  9. Variation of the chemical composition of four forage shrubs ( Albizia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology and results: The leaves of each species were harvested at the beginning, at mid-season and at the end of dry season. They were dried and crushed to determine their chemical composition. The results showed that, with A. lebbeck, the levels of DM obtained at mid-season and the end that one, were higher ...

  10. Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and palatability of nine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work studied the chemical composition of plants, and their digestibility and palatability to camels, selecting plants most eaten by camels from the Iranian desert of the province of Semnan. The results indicated that the order of usefulness, from the most useful, was: Salsola arbuscula, Seidlitzia rosmarinus, Suaeda ...

  11. Distribution and Chemical Composition of Browse Plants of Egbado ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four herds of cattle were used to investigate the distribution and chemical composition of browse plants in Egbado North of Ogun State. The results showed that a wide variety of browse plants abound-trees and shrubs. Glyricidia sepium and Ficus exasperata were the most frequent trees while Manihot utilissima was the ...

  12. Chemical composition and anti-diabetic properties of Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the chemical composition and anti-diabetic properties of fresh and shade dried Jatropha curcas aqueous leaves extracts (JCLE) on alloxan induced diabetic female wistar rats. Seven (7) kg of J. curcas leaves were pulverized and aqueous extracts produced. Thirty five (35) mature female rats were ...

  13. Chemical composition of essential oil from the leaves of Premna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the chemical composition of the essential oil of Premna coriacea leaves was investigated. Extraction by hydrodistillation followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) yielded 27 compounds representing 99.89% of the oil. The major volatile components of the oil were aromadendrene ...

  14. Chemical composition and volatile compounds in the artisanal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and volatile compounds in the artisanal fermentation of mezcal in Oaxaca, Mexico. ... ethyl acetate, and acetic acid production, and this practice is more convenient in fall than in spring. Key words: Fermentation, ammonium sulfate, volatile compounds, higher alcohol, gas chromatography, mezcal.

  15. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their chemical composition and antifungal activity against four phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., albedinis sp, Penicelium sp., Alternaria sp. and Fusarium sp.) were studied. The inhibiting minimal concentration (CMI) effect was also given for four oils. Ten compounds were recorded jointly among the 51 ...

  16. Chemical composition and nutritive value of irrigated tall fescue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and produce less milk than ruminants that eat forages of similar chemical composition (Lassiter el ai., 1956; Seath el ai., 1956; Jacobson el ai., 1970; Warren el at., 1974; Smith el ai., 1975; Reid et ai., 1975; Nichols et ai., 1976), prompted this investigation into the nutritive value and potential of fescue for dairy production in ...

  17. Chemical composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit | Salim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of pulp, skin and seeds of fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica was investigated. Results showed high amount of water in the pulp (84.14%) and skin (90.33%). Glucose and fructose (29 and 24%, respectively) in the pulp were greater than in the skin (14 and 2.29%, respectively), whereas saccharose was very ...

  18. The chemical composition and potential nutritive value of the foliage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition and potential nutritive value of the foliage of four subtropical tree species in southern Africa for ruminants. ... The foliage contained relatively low levels of sodium (Na), 0.041 g/kg DM, based on beef cattle standards. The IVOMD ranged from 53% for C. mopane to 64% C. apiculatum and the rumen ...

  19. The chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of untreated and ammoniated crop residues. ... high (IVDMD = 55.6±7.0%) while the crude protein (CP) (46±10 g/kg dry matter (DM)) and phosphorus (P) (1.2±0.5 g/kg DM) concentrations were below the maintenance requirement for dry gestating beef cows.

  20. Effect of Chemical and Mineralogical Composition of Rocks on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in Hewanie and its surrounding areas of 169.82 km2 with a major objective of identifying the effect of chemical and mineralogical composition of rocks on the chemistry of the groundwater quality. This was conducted by taking 11 groundwater and 5 rock samples from the main geological units of ...

  1. effect of chemical and mineralogical composition of rocks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    The study was conducted in Hewanie and its surrounding areas of 169.82 km2 with a major objective of identifying the effect of chemical and mineralogical composition of rocks on the chemistry of the groundwater quality. This was conducted by taking 11 groundwater and 5 rock samples from the main geological units of ...

  2. Chemical composition and biological studies of the essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and biological studies of the essential oil of Thymus decussatus benth growing in Egypt. A A El-Hela. Abstract. The essential oil of Thymus decussatus Benth herb growing in Egypt was prepared by hydro distillation of the dried herb and analyzed by GC/ MS. It revealed the presence of 12 peaks, which ...

  3. Effect of fungal treatment on chemical composition and in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Trichoderma harzianum isolate T.447 (T.447) on the chemical composition and in vitro ruminal digestibility of treated maize, wheat, rapeseed and soybean straws. Preparation of each straw was divided into two equal parts and was treated with a.

  4. Effect of Trichoderma spp. inoculation on the chemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... To evaluate the cultural ability of some Trichoderma isolates on wheat straw and the influence of their exogenous enzyme activities on chemical compositions as well as in vitro digestibility and upgrading of the nutritive value of lignocellulolytic materials, sterilized and non sterilized wheat straw were.

  5. Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of vetch ( Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of vetch (Vicia sativa) and some browse and grass species from northern Ethiopia were investigated. Vetch (fresh cut) was sampled in September and vetch hay samples were taken in October both during the early dry period. Samples of the browse and grass species were ...

  6. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum L. growing in Eastern Kenya. ... aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the

  7. Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of maturity stage and processing on chemical composition, in vitro gas production and preference of Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum. ... It is concluded that in order to optimize DM intake farmers should consider the type of grasses and their age at harvest particularly for Muturu. Pelleting improves ...

  8. Chemical composition profiling and antifungal activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimum inhibitory activity was compared with four other different crude extracts of hexane, acetone, ethanol and aqueous samples from the same plant. The chemical composition of the essential oil, hexane, acetone and ethanol extracts was determined using GC-MS. Result: GC/MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in ...

  9. Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Abdullahi and Audu. 35. Comparative Analysis on Chemical Composition of Bentonite Clays. Obtained from Ashaka and Tango Deposits in Gombe State, Nigeria. Abdullahi S.L1 and Audu A.A2. 1Kano State Polytechnic, Kano - Nigeria. 2Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University Kano ...

  10. The chemical composition of silages produced in a Mediterranean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    chemical composition of silages was also determined. Material and Methods. About 120 samples of seven silage crops were collected during 1996 on five farms in the Piketberg-. Eendekuil area of the Swartland. Samples were randomly collected from silage crops made in big bales, sealed in plastic bags and kept in cooler ...

  11. The chemical composition and industrial quality of Barite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that the mineralization is of high industrial quality and compares favourably with the Azara barite deposits of the Benue Trough. The quality of the barite meets American Petroleum institute (API) requirements for use as drilling mud. KEYWORDS: Barite, mineralization, quality, chemical composition, southeastern Nigeria.

  12. Chemical Composition, in situ Degradability and in vitro Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the quality profile of tagasaste forage harvested at different re-growth stages by measuring the chemical composition, in situ degradability and in vitro gas production. Tagasaste re-growths after one year of establishment was harvested and the re-growths starting from the main rainy season (July) was ...

  13. Analysis of physical and chemical composition of honey samples in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the physical and chemical compositions of seven honey samples, which were obtained from selected markets in Ibadan metropolis. Seven samples of honey were obtained namely from sample A (Forestry honey Ibadan), Sample B (Pure honey), Sample C (Mr. honey), Sample D (Taraba honey), sample ...

  14. Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem C.; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation

  15. Chemical composition changes of post-harvest coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coconut inflorescence sap (CIS) is sweet, oyster-white and translucent and was reported to be highly nutritive and a good digestive agent. The chemical composition changes including total sugar, reducing sugar, ethanol, total acidity, volatile acid, amino acid, vitamin C and total phenolic contents of postharvest coconut ...

  16. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Ostericum grosseserratum against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamaisD. Methods: Steam distillation of the aerial parts of O. grosseserratum during the flowering stage was carried out using a Clavenger ...

  17. Seasonal chemical composition of wall barley ( Hodreum murinum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wall barley (Hodreum murinum L.) is an annual cool-season grass species that grows in areas with a Mediterranean climate. It has potential as a forage source in Jordan. The objective was to determine seasonal chemical composition of wall barley grown under sub-humid Mediterranean conditions. A field trial

  18. Genesis of some tertiary Indian coals from the chemical composition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vassilev S V, Vassileva C G, Baxter D and Andersen. L K 2010b Relationship between chemical and min- eral composition of coal and their potential appli- cation as genetic indicators. Part 2. Mineral classes, groups and species; Geologica Balcanica 39.3 Sofia. 43–67. Yudovich Ya E 1978 Geochemistry of Fossil Coals; ...

  19. Chemical Composition and Effect of Processing and Flour Particle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work investigated the chemical composition of cocoyam corms and cormels and the effect of processing and particle size on the physicochemical and organoleptic properties of the flours for use as soup thickener. Fresh cocoyam corms and cormels were peeled, sliced, washed, divided into four parts that were variously ...

  20. Effect of Trichoderma spp. inoculation on the chemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the cultural ability of some Trichoderma isolates on wheat straw and the influence of their exogenous enzyme activities on chemical compositions as well as in vitro digestibility and upgrading of the nutritive value of lignocellulolytic materials, sterilized and non sterilized wheat straw were inoculated with ...

  1. Antimicrobial properties and chemical compositions of the petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial and chemical compositions of the petroleum ether extract of theaerial parts of Rauvolfia vomitoria. The aerial parts of the plant were air dried under shade, pounded using wooden mortar and pestle into coarse powder. The coarse powder was extracted in aSoxhlet ...

  2. Qualitative determination of chemical and nutritional composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative determination of chemical and nutritional composition of Parkia biglobosa seeds an underexploited crop seed in Nigeria was carried out. Seeds of P. biglobosa were found to be rich in lipid, protein, carbohydrate, soluble sugars and ascorbic acid. The cotyledon was very nutritious, has less fibre and ash contents ...

  3. Comparative chemical composition of 24-hour fermented sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative chemical composition of 24-hour fermented sweet orange fruit ( Citrus sinensis ) peel meal and maize and effect on performance response of starting pullet ... Substitution of maize with SOFPM significantly (p<0.05) reduced feed cost/25kg, feed cost/bird and cost of production while decreasing efficiency of feed ...

  4. effects of heat input on the chemical composition and hardness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... This study examines the thermochemical reactions which alter weld metal chemistry by applying the arc heat ... Keywords: alloying element, brinell hardness number (BHN), chemical composition, heat input, thermochemical reaction ..... national Journal of Advances in Science and Tech- nology, Vol.

  5. Chemical composition of essential oil from Psidium cattleianum var.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rajuc

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical ...

  6. Chemical composition and anti-diabetic properties of Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joy

    This study evaluates the chemical composition and anti-diabetic properties of fresh and shade dried. Jatropha curcas aqueous leaves extracts ... urgent health care intervention. Jatropha curcas is a drought resistant shrub or tree ..... Ipomea batata (11.10%) and Moringa oleifera (15.09%. DW) (Antia et al., 2006; Lockeett et ...

  7. Study on the chemical composition and extraction technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of hydro-distilled oil from the ground aerial parts of Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc. was analysed by gas chromatography/gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/GC–MS). 18 compounds ... The study offers theoretic basis for utilization of the medicinal herb W. trilobata. Key words: Wedelia ...

  8. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of three spices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of three spices – Allium sativum L. Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Capsicum frutescens L. commonly consumed in Nigeria. ... Phytochemical screening indicated that these spices are also rich in phytonutrients including alkaloid, tannin, carotenoids, saponin and flavonoids.

  9. Chemical Composition, Dry Matter Intake by West African Dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted to determine dry matter intake (DMI) by West African dwarf (WAD) goats, chemical composition, in vitro gas production and dry matter digestibility of Panicum maximum (common name: Guinea grass or Panicum) with graded levels of palm kernel cake (PKC). Five diets were evaluated: ...

  10. Seasonal and species variation in chemical composition of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKER

    Association of Official Analytical Chemists,. International ®. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Batista, A.M.V., Mustafa, A.F., Santos, G.R.A., de Carvalho, F.F.R., Dubeux Jr, J.C.B., Lira, M.A. &. Barbosa, S.B.P., 2003. Chemical composition and ruminal dry matter and crude protein degradability of spineless cactus.

  11. Chemical composition and anti-biofilm activity of burdock ( Arctium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the chemical composition and anti-biofilm activity of burdock leaf fractions against Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: The anti-biofilm activity of burdock leaf fractions obtained by column chromatography against S. aureus was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Scanning electron ...

  12. Effect of chemical composition and alumina content on structure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 37; Issue 2. Effect of chemical composition and alumina content on structure and properties of ceramic insulators. Arman Sedghi Nastaran Riahi-Noori Naser Hamidnezhad Mohammad Reza Salmani. Electronic Supplementary Material Volume 37 Issue 2 April 2014 pp ...

  13. Effect Of Processing On Proximate Energy Anti-Nutritional Factor Amino Acid And Mineral Composition Of Lablab Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shaahu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A study was conducted to assess the effect of various techniques of processing decortication toasting and boiling in tap water on proximate anti-nutritional factor ANF amino acid and mineral composition of Highworth variety of Lablab purpureus seed. Processing reduced the levels of all the ANFs evaluated in the present study. Boiling in water was determined to be the best method reduced tannins alkaloids oxalates Trypsin inhibitors and HCN by 37 33 38 100 and 89 respectively. Processing also resulted in reductions in crude protein crude fibre ether extracts ash and gross energy by 8 14 17 23 10 and 8 while NFE increased by 10. The levels of nutrients in boiled lablab however compared favourably with feed grade soybean while being likely to be much cheaper.

  14. Characterization of chemical composition of bee pollen in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Wu, Dan; Ye, Xingqian; Liu, Donghong; Chen, Jianchu; Sun, Peilong

    2013-01-23

    Bee pollen has been praised for its good nutrition and therapeutic values. China is the largest producer in the world. Twelve common varieties of monofloral bee pollen collected from China's main producing regions were selected for nutritional composition analysis, including proximate contents, dietary fibers, amino acid distribution, fatty acid composition, and mineral elements. The proximate compositions mostly met the specifications regulating pollen load quality of China. Proline and glutamic acids were found to be the predominant amino acids in the form of both total amino and free amino acids. Lysine was the relative limiting amino acid. The percentage of total essential amino acids (TEAA) to total amino acids (TAA) reached the nutrition recommendation of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). The major fatty acids, presented as mean values, were C18:3 (25.1%), C16:0 (19.6%), C18:1 (17.3%), C18:2 (8.78%), C22:0 (4.07%), and C18:0 (2.96%) acids. The proportions of C18:3 were generally higher than those of C18:2, and the ratio of total unsaturated fatty acids (TUS) to total saturated fatty acids (TS) was >1.0, except for Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. pollen for the characteristic absence of C18:3 acids. High levels of beneficial elements such as K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn. and Cu were observed in pollen samples. The contents of detrimental trace elements of Cd, Pb, and Hg were primarily lower or not detected. However, more attention should be paid to a large amount of Al, with a concentration of >100 mg/kg DW in most samples. There were some significant differences between samples. On the whole, the Chinese bee pollen was evaluated as a good complement to diet.

  15. Electromagnetic response of the composites containing chemically modified carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemilentsau, A M; Shuba, M V; D' yachkov, P N; Slepyan, G Y A; Kuzhir, P P; Maksimenko, S A, E-mail: andrei.nemilentsau@gmail.co

    2010-11-01

    We demonstrate theoretically that the chemical modification of the bundles and composites containing mixture of semiconducting and metallic single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) leads to the substantial enhancement of the characteristics of their electromagnetic response in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. Boron and nitrogen doping is used to illustrate the effect. In particular, frequencies of antenna resonances in the bundles containing doped SWNTs are shifted to the blue in comparison to the ones in the bundles containing the same number of pristine SWNTs. Moreover, doping increases the resonant values of the bundles polarizability. Enhancement of the conductivity of the composite containing doped SWNTs is also demonstrated. The origin of the behavior is the metallization of the chemically modified semiconducting SWNTs in the bundles and composites due to the injection of the additional charge carriers.

  16. Estimation of Length-Weight Relationship and Proximate Composition of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 from Two Different Culture Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi Alaba Olopade

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine and compare the proximate composition and length weight relationship of C. gariepinus from two culture systems (earthen and concrete ponds. The fish samples were collected from three fish farms with same cultural condition in different areas of Obio-akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Result on the length- weight relationship revealed that C.gariepinus reared in concrete tank had a total length of 15.50- 49.00cm with a mean of 32.71cm and weight of 150-625g, while total length of C. gariepinus reared in the earthen pond ranged from 19.90-58.0cm with a mean of 39.8cm and weight of 195-825g. The T- test shows that the total length of earthen pond were significantly higher than the concrete tank and the weight in the earthen pond was significantly higher than the concrete tank. Parameters of proximate composition analysed were moisture, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, ash and fiber from the fish flesh. Protein content showed a significantly higher in the earthen ponds than the concrete tanks. Ash contents varied from 1.5±1.66-7.4±0.67% in the concrete tanks and were significantly higher than the earthen ponds which ranged from 3.1±0.94-4.5±2.11%. Lipid was significantly higher in earthen ponds than concrete tanks. Generally, the two culture systems have a significant influence on length–weight relationship and nutritional value of C. gariepinus. However, C. gariepinus reared in concrete tank had a heavier body weight than earthen pond and also C. gariepinus reared in earthen pond had highest nutritive values than the concrete tank.

  17. Growth performance and proximate composition of mixed cultures of marine microalgae (Nannochloropsis sp. & Tetraselmis sp. with monocultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasana Arkronrat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and proximate composition of two marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp., in monoculture and mixed culture of both species under laboratory conditions were compared. Microalgae were cultured in enriched seawater (28 ppt in 8 L plastic bottles using Conway medium. Microalgae were grown in a temperature-controlled room (25°C under continuous illumination at a light intensity of about 3,000 Lux for 240 hours (10 days. Results showed that maximum cell density and growth rate of both species (45.06±2.67×105 cells ml-1 and 0.43±0.02 day-1, reps. in mixed culture had a significantly higher than Tetraselmis sp. (5.09±0.99×105 cells ml-1 and 0.16±0.03 day-1, reps., but not significantly different with Nannochloropsis sp. (29.25±22.70×105 cells ml-1 and 0.37±0.14 day-1, reps. in monoculture. For proximate composition, protein content of both species in mixed culture and Nannochloropsis sp. in monoculture was significantly higher than for Tetraselmis sp. in monoculture after 120 and 240 hours of cultivation. Carbohydrate and lipid contents of each treatment were found to be significantly different after 120 hours of cultivation but not significantly different after 240 hours of cultivation. Therefore, this study indicates that an alternative option for commercial microalgal production is to use a mixed culture to obtain higher production.

  18. Variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile recovered from Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi) waste from Patagonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cretton, M.; Rost, E.; Mazzuca-Sobczuk, T.; Mazzuca, M.

    2016-07-01

    The fish processing operations in Patagonia produce large amounts of waste. The main fishery resource in Argentina is the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi). The ports of the province of Chubut (the most important of which are Puerto Madryn, Rawson and Comodoro Rivadavia), together with Caleta Paula Port (province of Santa Cruz), in the Argentine Patagonia, capture more than 82,000 tons of hake annualy, 80% of which are of M. hubbsi, which is mostly converted into fillets. From this capture, about 2,296 tons of liver would be available for the extraction of oil. To promote the recovery and industrial use of fish oil, in the present study, we determined the variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of Argentine hake waste from the ports mentioned above at different catch times. Proximate composition was determined according of the Official Methods of Analysis (AOAC). Fatty acid profile was analyzed by gas chromatography of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). A standard mixture of FAMEs was run under identical conditions to identify the compounds on the basis of their retention times. Fatty acids were quantified using heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) as internal standard. The highest lipid recovery (27.0 to 41.8% of total lipids) was obtained from the liver fraction. Palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (18:1 n9), docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) were the main constituents. Protein levels in viscera without livers (V-L) were higher than those in the liver. The extraction of marine fish oil and the production of fish offal meal from waste from fish factories would contribute to the sustainability of the regional industry, because it would also decrease the volume of waste, with benefits to the environment. (Author)

  19. Chemical composition, nutritional and antioxidant properties of the red edible seaweed Porphyra columbina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cian, Raúl E; Fajardo, María A; Alaiz, Manuel; Vioque, Javier; González, Rolando J; Drago, Silvina R

    2014-05-01

    Proximate composition, fatty acids and amino acid profiles and nutritional (chemical score, protein digestibility, PDCAAS and mineral dialyzability) and antioxidant properties (TEAC, DPPH and power reduction) from Porphyra columbina were evaluated. Total dietary fiber (48.02 ± 1.13 g/100 g dry weight) and protein (24.61 ± 0.21 g/100 g dry weight) were the two most abundant components in this seaweed. The main saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were C16:0 and C20:5 (n-3), respectively. The limiting amino acid was tryptophan with a chemical score of 57%. Protein digestibility was 74.33 ± 3.0%. Porphyra columbina has high mineral content with good Na/K relationship and medium value of potential mineral accessibility (P, Ca and Zn dializability: 18.75 ± 0.01, 17.62 ± 0.16 and 16.70 ± 0.44, respectively). The highest antioxidant properties were obtained with an acetone/water extraction system. This work provides important information about chemical composition and nutraceutical new properties of P. columbina.

  20. The Brittleness and Chemical Stability of Optimized Geopolymer Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinerova, Michaela; Matulova, Lenka; Vermach, Pavel; Kotas, Jindrich

    2017-04-09

    Geopolymers are known as high strength and durable construction materials but have a brittle fracture. In practice, this results in a sudden collapse at ultimate load, without any chance of preventing the breakdown of parts or of withstanding the stress for some time. Glass fiber usage as a total anisotropic shape acting as a compact structure component should hinder the fracture mechanism. The optimized compositions in this study led to a significant reinforcement, especially in the case of flexural strength, but also in terms of the compressive strength and notch toughness. The positive and negative influence of the fibers on the complex composite properties provided chemical stability.

  1. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Royal Jelly - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Ioana Bărnuţiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the literature data regarding the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of RoyalJelly. Royal Jelly is a secretion from the hypofaringeal glands of worker bees which serves as a food for queen beeand to the growing up larvae. Having biological properties already proven, Royal Jelly has considerable commercialappeal and is today used in many sectors (pharmaceutical, food industries and cosmetic products. Thephysicochemical composition of pure royal jelly are analyzed by determining moisture, ash, lipids, proteins,vitamins,aminoacids, carbohydrates, 10-HDA; RJ is the key substance in the antimicrobial function of the system Apismellifera. The intact Royal Jelly exhibited the highest antibacterial activity.

  2. Proximate, functional and pasting properties of FARO 44 rice, African yam bean and brown cowpea seeds composite flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Iwe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available FARO 44 rice, brown cowpea and African yam bean seeds were processed into flours and their proximate, functional and pasting properties were assessed. Functional properties—loose bulk density, packed bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, emulsion capacity, foam capacity, gelation capacity and swelling index ranged from 0.63 to 0.69 g/ml, 0.84 to 1.00 g/ml, 0.63 to 1.32%, 0.46 to 1.48%, 42.50 to 56.78%, 10.40 to 18.17%, 50.93 to 57.90°C and 0.45 to 0.67, respectively. Proximate and amylose composition ranged as follows; Moisture: 8% (75% rice:25% African yam bean to 14% (100% rice; Protein: 12.86% (100% wheat to 28.13% (50% rice:50% African yam bean; Fat: 1.64% (100% rice to 5.79% (100% cowpea; Ash: 1% (100% cowpea, 75% rice:25% African yam bean, 50% rice:50% African yam bean to 1.97% (25% rice:75% African yam bean; Crude fibre: 0.95% (100% wheat to 6.27% (100% African yam bean; Carbohydrate: 52.62% (50% rice:50% African yam bean to 72.58% (100% wheat and Amylose: 17.13% (100% rice to 28.07% (100% African yam bean. Pasting properties—peak, trough, breakdown, final, peak time and pasting temperature ranged from 128.50 to 245 RVU, 85.08 to 159.25 RVU, 22.08 to 106.75 RVU, 123.58 to 294.33 RVU, 33.50 to 135.08 RVU, 5.18 to 5.92 min and 79.95 to 84.75°C.

  3. Chemical Composition and Bioactive Compounds of Some Wild Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda NAGY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the consumption of mushrooms has significantly increased due to the scientific evidence of their ability to help the organism in the combat and prevention of several diseases (Kalac, 2009. Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are consumed as a delicacy for their texture and flavour, but also for their nutritional properties that makes them even more attractable (Heleno S. 2015. In this paper data were collected from several scientific studies with the aim to characterize the chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds of various mushrooms species: Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lactarius piperatus. The chemical composition of 5 wild edible studied mushrooms, including moisture, ash, total carbohydrates, total sugars, crude fat, crude protein and energy were determined according to AOAC procedures.

  4. The Influence of Chemical Composition on LNG Pool Vaporization

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zhidong

    2017-01-01

    A model is used to examine the influence of chemical composition on the vaporization rate of LNG during spreading. Calculations have been performed whereby the vaporization rate of the LNG mixtures has been compared to the vaporization of pure methane under the initial conditions. The detailed results indicate that the vaporization rate LNG mixture is different to that of pure methane. LNG as the liquid mixture gets rich in ethane and isobaric latent heat increases rapidly, leading to the rat...

  5. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Marrubium Vulgare L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Burcu; Gündüz, Hatice; Usta, Tuba; Şahin, Esma; Özdemir, Zeynep; Kayır, Ömer; Sen, Özkan; Akşit, Hüseyin; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    – The essential oils are significant for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Marrubium vulgare L. has been used as a traditional medicine to treat the various illnesses. The chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L.was obtained by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was α-pinene (28.85%)

  6. Chemical composition of the flower oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum blume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Jagan Mohan Rao, L; Sakariah, K K

    2000-09-01

    The steam-distilled oil of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) flowers was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. It consists of 23% hydrocarbons and 74% oxygenated compounds. A total of 26 compounds constituting approximately 97% of the oil were characterized. (E)-Cinnamyl acetate (41.98%), trans-alpha-bergamotene (7.97%), and caryophyllene oxide (7.2%) are found to be major compounds. This is the first report on the chemical composition of the flower oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

  7. Chemical composition and mineral elements of edible insects (at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Chemical Composition and Mineral Elements of two edible insects' larvae and termite soldiers were assayed. Their ash content were between 1.01% and 7.50%. The legless larva (LS) had 28.52% fat, while the solider ant had 7.14% and the Legged larva (LG) had 1.50%. The white ant (SA) had 15.61% protein while ...

  8. Influence of Chemical Composition on Porosity in Aluminium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Kucharčík L.; Brůna M.; Sládek A.

    2014-01-01

    Porosity is one of the major defects in aluminum castings, which results is a decrease of a mechanical properties. Porosity in aluminum alloys is caused by solidification shrinkage and gas segregation. The final amount of porosity in aluminium castings is mostly influenced by several factors, as amount of hydrogen in molten aluminium alloy, cooling rate, melt temperature, mold material, or solidification interval. This article deals with effect of chemical composition on porosity in Al-Si alu...

  9. Chemical composition of silica-based biocidal modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishina Anna Nikolaevna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Increase of the amount of fungi spores and micotixines causes the increase in the number of different diseases. Because of this, ensuring the biological safety in buildings is becoming more and more important today. The preferred way to guarantee the biological safety of a building is to employ modern building materials that prevent the settlement of the fungi colonies on the inner surfaces of walls. Such building materials can be produced using novel biocidal modifiers that allow controlling the number of microorganisms on the surface and in the bulk of a composite construction. The precipitation product of zinc hydrosilicates and sodium sulfate is one of the mentioned modifiers. Till now, the exact chemical composition of such precipitation product is controversial; it is obvious, though, that the efficacy of the biocidal modifier is mostly determined by the type of the copper compounds. In the present work an integrated approach is used for the investigation of the chemical composition of the biocidal modifier. Such an approach consists in the examination of the modifier’s composition by means of different, yet complementary, research methods: X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and DTA. It is shown that the chemical composition of the modifier mainly depends on the amount of precipitant. X-ray diffraction reveals that the major part of the modifier is represented by amorphous phase. Along with the increase of the precipitant’s amount the crystalline phase Zn4SO4(OH6•xH2O formation takes place. Such a crystalline phase is not appropriate as a component of the biocidal modifier. Another two methods - DTA and IR spectroscopy - reveal that the amorphous phase consists essentially of zinc hydrosilicates.

  10. Variation in chemical composition and physical characteristics of cereal grains from different genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodehutscord, Markus; Rückert, Christine; Maurer, Hans Peter; Schenkel, Hans; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Schollenberger, Margit; Laux, Meike; Eklund, Meike; Siegert, Wolfgang; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Genotypes of cereal grains, including winter barley (n = 21), maize (n = 27), oats (n = 14), winter rye (n = 22), winter triticale (n = 21) and winter wheat (n = 29), were assayed for their chemical composition and physical characteristics as part of the collaborative research project referred to as GrainUp. Genotypes of one grain species were grown on the same site, except maize. In general, concentrations of proximate nutrients were not largely different from feed tables. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the ether extract concentration of maize was high because the data pool comprised speciality maize bred for its high oil content. A subset of 8 barley, 20 rye, 20 triticale and 20 wheat samples was analysed to differ significantly in several carbohydrate fractions. Gross energy concentration of cereal grains could be predicted from proximate nutrient concentration with good accuracy. The mean lysine concentration of protein was the highest in oats (4.2 g/16 g N) and the lowest in wheat (2.7 g/16 g N). Significant differences were also detected in the concentrations of macro elements as well as iron, manganese, zinc and copper. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium and lead were below the limit of detection. The concentration of lower inositol phosphates was low, but some inositol pentaphosphates were detected in all grains. In barley, relatively high inositol tetraphosphate concentration also was found. Intrinsic phytase activity was the highest in rye, followed by triticale, wheat, barley and maize, and it was not detectable in oats. Substantial differences were seen in the thousand seed weight, test weight, falling number and extract viscoelasticity characteristics. The study is a comprehensive overview of the composition of different cereal grain genotypes when grown on the same location. The relevance of the variation in composition for digestibility in different animal species will be subject of other communications.

  11. Chemical composition of the clays as indicator raw material sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khramchenkova Rezida Kh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of study on the chemical composition of unglazed pottery from the excavations of the Bulgar fortified settlement site and the clay, selected from the modern deposits of ceramic raw materials located near the medieval settlement sites. Significant differences in macro- and microelement composition of different groups of ceramics have been revealed. The difference in the macroelemental composition is largely determined by the ceramic fabric recipe. Thus, the high calcium content corresponds to the addition of river shells, the high content of silicon results from sand addition. A more interesting picture has been revealed in the course of studies of the so-called “trace elements” (microelements. Nine groups of ceramics with different elemental set have been distinguished. The first two groups consist of imported ceramics; other groups have demonstrated a rather pronounced elemental composition. The most notable variations are observed in chromium, vanadium and nickel content. Similar microelement composition variety has been observed in clays from deposits of different localization, while the concentration of the mentioned elements in a variety of clays also differs considerably. Therefore, marker elements typical of different clays have been identified. A comparative analysis of the data obtained for clay raw materials and ceramics has been conducted. The results demonstrate the potential of studying the elemental composition in order to determine the localization of the raw material sources for ceramic production.

  12. Preliminary study of chemical compositional data from Amazon ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyota, Rosimeiri G.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Luz, Fabio A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: rosimeiritoy@yahoo.com.br; Neves, Eduardo G. [Museu de Arqueologia e Etnolgia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: egneves@usp.br; Oliveira, Paulo M.S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica]. E-mail: poliver@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    Eighty seven ceramic samples from Acutuba, Lago Grande and Osvaldo archaeological sites located in the confluence of the rivers Negro and Solimoes were submitted to chemical analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Rb, Na, Nd, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Yb, Zn, and U. The database were studied using the Mahalanobis distance, and discriminant analysis. The results showed that the ceramics of each site differ from each other in chemical composition and that they form three different groups. Chemical classification of the ceramics suggests that vessels were made locally, as only ceramics from the same area show homogeneity of data. (author)

  13. Chemical composition of microalgae Heterochlorella luteoviridis and Dunaliella tertiolecta with emphasis on carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diprat, Andressa Bacalau; Menegol, Tania; Boelter, Juliana Ferreira; Zmozinski, Ariane; Rodrigues Vale, Maria Goreti; Rodrigues, Eliseu; Rech, Rosane

    2017-08-01

    Microalgae have been used as food supplements owing to their high protein, polyunsaturated fatty acid and carotenoid contents. As different carotenoids have distinct properties and the carotenoid composition of microalgae has been poorly explored in the literature, this study determined the complete carotenoid composition of two microalgae species, Heterochlorella luteoviridis and Dunaliella tertiolecta, using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/MS 2 ). Additionally, the proximate composition and major minerals were evaluated. The carotenoid composition of the two microalgae was similar, with 13 carotenoids being found in H. luteoviridis and 12 in D. tertiolecta. The major carotenoids were all-trans-lutein (1.18 mg g -1 in H. luteoviridis and 1.59 mg g -1 in D. tertiolecta), all-trans-violaxanthin (0.52 mg g -1 in H. luteoviridis and 0.45 mg g -1 in D. tertiolecta) and all-trans-β-carotene (0.50 mg g -1 in H. luteoviridis and 0.62 mg g -1 in D. tertiolecta). All-trans-lutein was the predominant carotenoid in both microalgae, representing around 40% (mass fraction) of the total carotenoids. The lutein content found in these microalgae was significantly higher (2-40 times) than that in other important food sources of lutein (e.g. parsley, carrot, red pepper and broccoli). The microalgae H. luteoviridis and D. tertiolecta are excellent sources of lutein that could be commercially exploited by the food and pharmaceutical industries. Moreover, it was confirmed that both microalgae are good sources of protein, lipids and calcium. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. [Chemical composition, dietary fiber and mineral content of frequently consumed foods in northwest Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, M I; Caire, G; Sánchez, A; Valencia, M E

    1995-06-01

    Nutrient composition in foods is very important specially in evaluation of nutritional status in populations. In this study the proximate composition, dietary fiber (DF) and mineral content of 15 frequently consumed foods in Northwest Mexico were determined. The procedures used were AOAC (1984) official methods, chemical-enzymatic method for DF and atomic absorption spectrophometry for minerals. Foods were grouped into cereals, legumes, meat and dairy products, fat was the most variable component in all foods (0,41 to 21,1 g/100 g). Fired beans (Phaseolus vulgaris: variedad pinto) had the highest DF content (9,21 g/100g); as is basis). Sodium among the minerales was also highly variable mainly due to the addition of salt during preparation of foods, except in corn tortillas were salt is not added. In contrast wheat flour tortillas had the highest sodium content of the foods analysed. Fresh white cheese had the highest calcium content (563 mg/100g). The meat group had the highest content of Fe and Zn (2,4-5,4 and 4,2-5,4 mg/100 g respectively). This study has provided information with current analytical techniques of important foods in northwest Mexico that will contribute to food composition tables in Latin America.

  15. Chemical Composition and Quality Characteristics of Wheat Bread Supplemented with Leafy Vegetable Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Odunlade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of supplementation of the leaf powders of Telfairia occidentalis, Amaranthus viridis, and Solanum macrocarpon on the chemical composition and the quality characteristics of wheat bread. The bread samples were supplemented with each of the vegetable leaf powders at 1%, 2%, and 3% during preparation. The bread samples were assayed for proximate composition, mineral composition, physical, sensory, and antioxidant properties using standard methods. The addition of vegetable powders significantly increased the protein (9.50 to 13.93%, fibre (1.81 to 4.00%, ash (1.05 to 2.38%, and fat (1.27 to 2.00%. Supplementation with vegetable powder however significantly decreased (p<0.05 the carbohydrate and moisture contents. Significant (p<0.05 increases were recorded for all evaluated minerals as the level of vegetable powder increased. Supplementation with vegetable powder caused significant decrease in total phenolic content, percentage DPPH inhibition, metal chelating ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total antioxidant capacity. Sensory results showed that there was significant decrease in sensory qualities with increasing supplementation. This therefore suggests that bread supplemented with vegetable powder could have more market penetration if awareness is highly created.

  16. Chemical Composition Measurements of LAWA44 Glass Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-11-15

    DOE is building the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Both low-activity and high-level wastes will then be vitrified into borosilicate glass using Joule-heated ceramic melters. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in the glass. One area of work is enhancing waste glass composition/property models and broadening the compositional regions over which those models are applicable. In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analysis results for several samples of a simulated low-activity waste glass, LAWA44, provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as part of an ongoing development task. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. A detailed review showed no indications of errors in the preparation or measurement of the study glasses. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 97.9 to 102.6 wt %, indicating acceptable recovery of the glass components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. It was noted that the measured B2O3 concentrations are somewhat above the targeted values for the study glasses. No obvious trends were observed with regard to the multiple melting steps used to prepare the study glasses, indicating that any potential effects of volatility were below measurable thresholds.

  17. Bioactive carbon-PEEK composites prepared by chemical surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Matsunami, Chisato; Shirosaki, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has attracted much attention as an artificial intervertebral spacer for spinal reconstruction. Furthermore, PEEK plastic reinforced with carbon fiber has twice the bending strength of pure PEEK. However, the PEEK-based materials do not show ability for direct bone bonding, i.e., bioactivity. Although several trials have been conducted for enabling PEEK with bioactivity, few studies have reported on bioactive surface modification of carbon-PEEK composites. In the present study, we attempted the preparation of bioactive carbon-PEEK composites by chemical treatments with H2SO4 and CaCl2. Bioactivity was evaluated by in vitro apatite formation in simulated body fluid (SBF). The apatite formation on the carbon-PEEK composite was compared with that of pure PEEK. Both pure PEEK and carbon-PEEK composite formed the apatite in SBF when they were treated with H2SO4 and CaCl2; the latter showed higher apatite-forming ability than the former. It is conjectured that many functional groups able to induce the apatite nucleation, such as sulfo and carboxyl groups, are incorporated into the dispersed carbon phase in the carbon-PEEK composites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical Analysis of Different Parts of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Using Ultimate, Proximate and Thermo-Gravimetric Techniques for Energy Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan A. Nasser; Mohamed Z. M. Salem; Salim Hiziroglu; Hamad A. Al-Mefarrej; Ahmed S. Mohareb; Manawwer Alam; Aref, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze chemical structure of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by employing ultimate, proximate and thermo-gravimetric techniques. Samples from different anatomical parts of date palm, namely trunk, frond base, frond midrib, leaflets, coir, fruit stem, date stone, and fruit empty bunches were considered for the experiments. Based on the findings in this work palm leaflet samples gave the highest amount of extractives content (32.9%), followed by date palm s...

  19. Proximate composition and selected physicochemical properties of the seed, pulp and oil of sour sop (Annona muricata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onimawo, I A

    2002-01-01

    Proximate composition and physicochemical analyses were carried out on the seed, pulp and extracted oil of sour sop (Annona muricata). The results showed that the seed contained 8.5% moisture, 2.4% crude protein, 13.6% ash, 8.0% crude fiber, 20.5% fat and 47.0% carbohydrate. The seed also contained 0.2% water soluble ash, 0.79% titratable acidity and 17.0 mg calcium/100 g. The pulp was found to contain 81% moisture, 3.43% titratable acidity and 24.5% non-reducing sugar. Selected physicochemical characteristics included refractive indices of 1.335 for the seed and 1.356 for the pulp, specific gravities of 1.250 for the seed and 1.023 for the pulp, pH values of 8.34 for the seed and 4.56 for the pulp, and soluble solids contents of 1.5 degrees Brix for the seed and 15 degrees Brix for the pulp. The extracted oil (20.5% yield) had a 60.43% unsaponifiable value, 23.54 KOH/g acid value, 100.98 KOH/g saponification value, 1.1 KOH/g peroxide value, 1.464 refractive index, 5.77 pH, 69.5 degrees Brix sosluble solids and 0.2900 specific gravity.

  20. RET Recognition of GDNF-GFRα1 Ligand by a Composite Binding Site Promotes Membrane-Proximal Self-Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry M. Goodman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The RET receptor tyrosine kinase is essential to vertebrate development and implicated in multiple human diseases. RET binds a cell surface bipartite ligand comprising a GDNF family ligand and a GFRα coreceptor, resulting in RET transmembrane signaling. We present a hybrid structural model, derived from electron microscopy (EM and low-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS data, of the RET extracellular domain (RETECD, GDNF, and GFRα1 ternary complex, defining the basis for ligand recognition. RETECD envelopes the dimeric ligand complex through a composite binding site comprising four discrete contact sites. The GFRα1-mediated contacts are crucial, particularly close to the invariant RET calcium-binding site, whereas few direct contacts are made by GDNF, explaining how distinct ligand/coreceptor pairs are accommodated. The RETECD cysteine-rich domain (CRD contacts both ligand components and makes homotypic membrane-proximal interactions occluding three different antibody epitopes. Coupling of these CRD-mediated interactions suggests models for ligand-induced RET activation and ligand-independent oncogenic deregulation.

  1. Proximate composition and functionality of the culinary-medicinal tiger sawgill mushroom, Lentinus tigrinus (higher Basidiomycetes), from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulay, Rich Milton R; Arenas, Minerva C; Kalaw, Sofronio P; Reyes, Renato G; Cabrera, Esperanza C

    2014-01-01

    The proximate composition and functionality of Lentinus tigrinus were evaluated to establish and popularize this mushroom as functional food source. The evaluation of functionality focused on the antibacterial and hypoglycemic activities of the mushroom extracts. An acute single oral dose toxicity test in mice was used for its biosafety analysis. The pileus contained higher amounts of protein (25.9%), fat (2.1%), and ash (7.4%) and a higher energetic value (142.1 kcal/100 g) than the corresponding stipe, whereas the stipe contained higher amounts of total carbohydrates (67.7%), which consist of dietary fiber (63.0%) and reducing sugar (4.7%), than the pileus. Biosafety analysis confirmed that L. tigrinus is an edible mushroom species; it was found to be toxicologically safe in imprinting control region mice. The administration of lyophilized hot water extract of the fruiting body (both 100 and 250 mg/ kg doses) to diabetic mice significantly lowered the glucose level by 26.9% in the third week, which was significantly comparable to the results of the antidiabetic agent glibenclamide, which was used as a positive control. In vitro antibacterial assay showed that the ethanolic extract of the fruiting body and the immobilized secondary mycelia had high antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus but not on Escherichia coli. Combining its useful nutrients and significant biological properties, L. tigrinus can be considered a natural source of safe nutraceuticals.

  2. Proximate Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Three Varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Sirajuddin; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Uddin, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.28–13.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and ascorbic acid (AA) ranged between 16.21–24.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 26.41–31.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 0.97–1.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging actity, 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.89–2.12, 6.12–9.89 and 0.56–0.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences. PMID:22837655

  3. Chemical Composition of Rainwater in Córdoba City, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M. L.; Asar, M. L.; Ceppi, S.; Bürgesser, R. E.; Avila, E.

    2013-05-01

    Sampling and chemical analysis of rainwater has proved to be a useful technique for studying its chemical composition and provides a greater understanding of local and regional dispersion of pollutants and their potential impacts to ecosystems through deposition processes. Samples of rainwater were collected during 2009-2012, in Córdoba city, Argentina. Two kind of sampling were performed: event-specific and sequential. The objective of the first of these was to determine the chemical concentration of the total rain, while the objective of the second one was to analyze the variability of the chemical concentration during an individual rain event. The total volume of each sample was divided in halves. One half was filtered through 0.45 μm membrane filter. After this, all the samples were reduced by evaporation to a final volume of 10 ml. The non-filtered samples were acidified and digested in accordance to the method 3050B of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for acid digestion of sediments. Multi-elemental standard solutions in different concentrations were prepared by adequate dilutions. Gallium was added as an internal standard in all standard solutions and samples. Exactly 5 μL of these solutions were deposited on acrylic supports. When these droplets were dried, Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence technique was used for determining the chemical elements. Spectra were analyzed with the AXIL package for spectrum analysis. Due to the intrinsic characteristics of the total reflection technique, the background of the measurements is significantly reduced and there are no matrix effects, therefore quantification can be obtained from the linear correlation between fluorescence intensity and the concentration of the element of interest. The elements quantified were S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Pb. For all of them a calibration curve was performed in order to quantify their concentrations on the

  4. A bootstrap estimation scheme for chemical compositional data with nondetects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palarea-Albaladejo, J; Martín-Fernández, J.A; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2014-01-01

    The bootstrap method is commonly used to estimate the distribution of estimators and their associated uncertainty when explicit analytic expressions are not available or are difficult to obtain. It has been widely applied in environmental and geochemical studies, where the data generated often represent parts of whole, typically chemical concentrations. This kind of constrained data is generically called compositional data, and they require specialised statistical methods to properly account for their particular covariance structure. On the other hand, it is not unusual in practice that those data contain labels denoting nondetects, that is, concentrations falling below detection limits. Nondetects impede the implementation of the bootstrap and represent an additional source of uncertainty that must be taken into account. In this work, a bootstrap scheme is devised that handles nondetects by adding an imputation step within the resampling process and conveniently propagates their associated uncertainly. In doing so, it considers the constrained relationships between chemical concentrations originated from their compositional nature. Bootstrap estimates using a range of imputation methods, including new stochastic proposals, are compared across scenarios of increasing difficulty. They are formulated to meet compositional principles following the log-ratio approach, and an adjustment is introduced in the multivariate case to deal with nonclosed samples. Results suggest that nondetect bootstrap based on model-based imputation is generally preferable. A robust approach based on isometric log-ratio transformations appears to be particularly suited in this context. Computer routines in the R statistical programming language are provided. 

  5. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Algerian propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Mencherini, Teresa; Celano, Rita; Mouhoubi, Zina; Tamendjari, Azeddine; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Rastrelli, Luca

    2013-05-29

    Chemical composition of propolis samples from north Algeria was characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses. High-performance liquid chromatorgaphy with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) fingerprint of the methanol extracts allowed the definition of two main types of Algerian propolis (AP) directly related to their secondary metabolite composition. Investigation of two representative types of AP by preparative chromatographic procedure and mass spectrometric (MS) and NMR techniques led to the identification of their main constituents: caffeate esters and flavonoids from an AP type rich in phenolic compounds (PAP) and labdane and clerodane diterpenes, together with a polymethoxyflavonol, from an AP type containing mainly diterpenes (DAP). Subsequently, two specific HPLC-MS/MS methods for detection of PAP and DAP markers were developed to study the chemical composition of propolis samples of different north Algerian regions. Antioxidant activity of AP samples was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay, and a significant free-radical scavenging effect was observed for propolis of the PAP series rich in polyphenols.

  6. Values below detection limit in compositional chemical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palarea-Albaladejo, J; Martín-Fernández, J A

    2013-02-18

    Samples representing part of a whole, usually called compositional data in statistics, are commonplace in analytical chemistry--say chemical data in percentage, ppm, or μg g(-1). Their distinctive feature is that there is an inherent relationship between all the analytes constituting a chemical sample as they only convey relative information. Some compositional data analysis principles and the log-ratio based methodology are outlined here in practical terms. Besides, one often finds that some analytes are not present in sufficient concentration in a sample to allow the measuring instruments to effectively detect them. These non-detects are usually labelled as "data set, indicating that the values are below known detection limits. Many data analysis techniques require complete data sets. Thus, there is a need of sensible replacement strategies for less-thans. The peculiar nature of compositional data determines any data analysis and demands for a specialised treatment of less-thans that, unfortunately, is not usually covered in chemometrics. Some well-founded statistical methods are revisited in this paper aiming to prevent practitioners from relying on popular but untrustworthy approaches. A new proposal to estimate less-thans combining a log-normal probability model and a multiplicative modification of the samples is also introduced. Their performance is illustrated and compared on a real data set, and guidelines are provided for practitioners. Matlab and R code implementing the methods are made available for the reader. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical composition of the sediment from Lake 20 (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria ROSSI

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Lake 20 (19,000 m2 is located on the coast of the Ross Sea, in the North-Central part of Victoria Land, and its surface is ice-free between the end of December and early February. Within the framework of the Italian National Research Programme in Antarctica, a study was made of the chemical composition of sediments from the lake, with the intention of using this information to contribute to a better understanding of the processes involved in the long range transport of pollutants and their role in global changes. A sediment core from Lake 20 (Antarctica, 18 cm long, was collected in 1994, sliced into 2 cm sections and analysed using X Ray fluorescence spectrometry for 17 elements (Si, Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg, Ti, S, P, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, Cr, Na, Cl, by CHN Elemental Analyser for C and N, by Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for As, and by Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Hg. The chemical composition of the sediments is consistent with the known geochemical characteristics of the drainage basin. While the chemical analyses reveal that sedimentation in Lake 20 has changed through time, the variations along the core are most probably related to the climatic evolution of the area, to the consequent changes in weathering processes, and possibly to an increase in the primary productivity of the lake, rather than to anthropogenic influences on the biogeochemical cycles of the elements.

  8. Microstructure, chemical composition and mucilage exudation of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) nutlets from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Marianela I; Ixtaina, Vanesa Y; Nolasco, Susana M; Tomás, Mabel C

    2013-12-01

    The micromorphology and anatomy of nutlets, myxocarpy (mucilage exudation) and mucilage structure of Argentinean chia were described using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The proximal composition of nutlets and mucilage was also studied. Chia nutlets are made up of a true seed and a pericarp enclosing the seed; they are small, glabrous, elliptic and apically rounded. The pericarp has cuticle, exocarp, mesocarp and bone cells vertically arranged and endocarp. The myxocarpy was carefully recorded by SEM. After 5 min in contact with water, the cuticle of nutlets is broken and the exocarp cell content gradually surrounds the rest of the nutlet. The proximal composition of chia nutlets was studied; fat is the major component (327 ± 8.0 g kg(-1)) followed by protein (293 ± 4.0 g kg(-1)) and fiber (276 ± 1.0 g kg(-1)). Extractions of chia nutlets with water at room temperature yielded 38 ± 1.0 g kg(-1) (dry basis) of mucilage. The fresh mucilage structure was similar to a network of open pores. The freeze-dried crude mucilage contained more ash, residual fat and protein than commercial guar and locust bean gum. The solubility of 10.0 g L(-1) w/v solution of chia freeze-dried crude mucilage in water increased with temperature, being maximal at 60 °C (870 g kg(-1)). The results obtained show a fast exudation of chia mucilage when nutlets are in contact with water. The freeze-dried crude mucilage hydrates easily in water, even at low temperatures. Chia nutlets have mucilaginous substances, with interesting functional properties from a technological and physiological point of view. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Chemical composition of cold pressed Brazilian grape seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Branco SHINAGAWA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Grape seed oil (GSO is an important by-product of the wine-making industry which has received attention as an alternative source of vegetable oils; its chemical compounds can be influenced by agricultural practices and industrial processing. Knowledge of the composition of Brazilian GSO is scarce; thus, this study aimed to analyze the chemical characteristics, as well as the antioxidant activity of these oils. GSO samples were obtained from Brazilian markets and showed significantly high amounts of phenolic, γ-tocotrienol and phytosterols as well as, the presence of several volatile compounds. Based on these results, is possible to show that oils exhibited good antioxidant activity. Therefore, it can be inferred that Brazilian GSO had a considerable content of phytochemical compounds with biological activity, which allows its association with other vegetable oils.

  10. Physical Characterization and Steam Chemical Reactivity of Carbon Fiber Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, Robert Andrew; Pawelko, Robert James; Smolik, Galen Richard

    2001-05-01

    This report documents experiments and analyses that have been done at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to measure the steam chemical reactivity of two types of carbon fiber composites, NS31 and NB31, proposed for use at the divertor strike points in an ITER-like tokamak. These materials are 3D CFCs constituted by a NOVOLTEX preform and densified by pyrocarbon infiltration and heat treatment. NS31 differs from NB31 in that the final infiltration was done with liquid silicon to reduce the porosity and enhance the thermal conductivity of the CFC. Our approach in this work was twofold: (1) physical characterization measurements of the specimens and (2) measurements of the chemical reactivity of specimens exposed to steam.

  11. Nepheline structural and chemical dependence on melt composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcial, José; Crum, Jarrod; Neill, Owen; McCloy, John

    2016-02-01

    Nepheline crystallizes upon slow-cooling in some melts concentrated in Na2O and Al2O3, which can result in a residual glass phase of low chemical durability. Nepheline can incorporate many components often found in high-level waste radioactive borosilicate glass, including glass network ions (e.g., Si, Al, Fe), alkali metals (e.g., Cs, K, Na, and possibly Li), alkaline-earth metals (e.g., Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg), and transition metals (e.g., Mn, and possibly Cr, Zn, Ni). When crystallized from melts of different compositions, nepheline chemistry varies as a function of starting glass composition. Five simulated high level nuclear waste borosilicate glasses shown to crystallize large fractions of nepheline on slow cooling, were selected for study. These melts constituted a range of Al2O3, B2O3, CaO, Na2O, K2O, Fe2O3, and SiO2 compositions. Compositional analyses of nepheline crystals in glass by electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) indicate that boron is unlikely to be present in any significant concentration, if at all, in nepheline. Also, several models are presented for calculating the fraction of vacancies in the nepheline structure.

  12. Chemical composition and temperature influence on honey texture properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroian, Mircea; Paduret, Sergiu; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition and temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C) influence on the honey texture parameters (hardness, viscosity, adhesion, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness). The honeys analyzed respect the European regulation in terms of moisture content and inverted sugar concentration. The texture parameters are influenced negatively by the moisture content, and positively by the °Brix concentration. The texture parameters modelling have been made using the artificial neural network and the polynomial model. The polynomial model predicted better the texture parameters than the artificial neural network.

  13. Chemical composition of volatile oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Rao, Lingamallu Jaganmohan; Sakariah, Kunnumpurath K

    2002-01-01

    The hydro-distilled volatile oil of the Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) buds was analyzed using GC and GC-MS for the first time. Thirty-four compounds representing approximately 98% of the oil was characterized. It consists of terpene hydrocarbons (78%) and oxygenated terpenoids (9%). alpha-Bergamotene (27.38%) and alpha-copaene (23.05%) are found to be the major compounds. A comparison of the chemical composition of the oil was made with that of flowers and fruits.

  14. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni - chemical composition and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinek, Katarzyna; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Sweetleaf (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni), currently investigated by many researchers, has been known and used for more than a thousand years indigenous tribes of South America, who called it "kaa-hee" ("sweet herb"). Thanks to its chemical composition and processability sweetleaf may be an alternative for synthetic sweeteners. Nutritional and health-promoting aspects of Stevia rebaudiana are presently being studied in many research centres. The aim of this study is to present nutritional and health-promoting value of the still-little known sweetleaf.

  15. Chemical composition and fatty acid contents in farmed freshwater prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Gasperi Portella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition and fatty acid contents of Amazonian and giant river prawns. After four-month farming, with the same diet for both species, palmitic and stearic acids were the main saturated fatty acids. Oleic acid was the main monounsatured fatty acid, and the eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the most abundant polyunsaturated acids. Amazonian prawn has higher levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids than those of the giant river prawn, which shows its potential for aquaculture.

  16. Chemical vapor deposited fiber coatings and chemical vapor infiltrated ceramic matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetz, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Conventional Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) were employed to deposit a series of interfacial coatings on SiC and carbon yarn. Molybdenum, tungsten and chromium hexacarbonyls were utilized as precursors in a low temperature (350[degrees]C) MOCVD process to coat SiC yarn with Mo, W and Cr oxycarbides. Annealing studies performed on the MoOC and WOC coated SiC yarns in N[sub 2] to 1,000[degrees]C establish that further decomposition of the oxycarbides occurred, culminating in the formation of the metals. These metals were then found to react with Si to form Mo and W disilicide coatings. In the Cr system, heating in N[sub 2] above 800[degrees]C resulted in the formation of a mixture of carbides and oxides. Convention CVD was also employed to coat SiC and carbon yarn with C, Bn and a new interface designated BC (a carbon-boron alloy). The coated tows were then infiltrated with SiC, TiO[sub 2], SiO[sub 2] and B[sub 4]C by a chemical vapor infiltration process. The B-C coatings were found to provide advantageous interfacial properties over carbon and BN coatings in several different composite systems. The effectiveness of these different coatings to act as a chemically inert barrier layer and their relationship to the degree of interfacial debonding on the mechanical properties of the composites were examined. The effects of thermal stability and strength of the coated fibers and composites were also determined for several difference atmospheres. In addition, a new method for determining the tensile strength of the as-received and coated yarns was also developed. The coated fibers and composites were further characterized by AES, SEM, XPS, IR and X-ray diffraction analysis.

  17. Effect of Grewia venusta FRESEN mucilage on the proximate composition, physical and sensory properties of bread produced from wheat and cassava composite flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arubi P. Alobo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat and cassava composite breads are generally associated with volume and textural defects in contrast with the traditional wheat based variants. Efforts to mitigate this challenge through use of synthetic additives have been unsuccessful owing to safety concerns. The objective of this study was to explore Grewia venusta mucilage as a potential natural additive in wheat-cassava composite bread production. Sweet cassava flour was used to replace wheat flour at 100: 0 (control, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30% ratios in bread making. Aqueous extract of G. venusta stem bark was oven dried (50±3 oC, milled and added at 0, 1.0 and 2.0% (w/w to the flour mixtures. These, along with other conventional inputs were mixed, and used to produce bread. Proximate compositions, physical and sensory properties of the bread loaves were evaluated. Cassava flour inclusion resulted in significant (P≤0.05 decrease in the protein content of the control from 18.1% to 12.1% (90:10%, 11.5% (80:20% and 9.9% (70:30%. Addition of mucilage marginally increased the protein and dietary fibre contents of the loaves. Loaves containing 1-2% mucilage were more regular in shape with smoother crust than those without mucilage. Cassava flour addition at 10%, 20% and 30% decreased loaf height from 6.0 cm to 5.8 cm, 5.7 cm and 5.5 cm, as well as loaf volume from 815.5 cm3 to 783.1 cm3, 776.8 cm3 and 744.5 cm3, respectively. Mucilage inclusion resulted in increased heights and volumes of the loaves and reduced weights of loaf fragments upon slicing. The mucilage significantly improved the texture of the bread loaves. 

  18. Proximate composition, bread

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... 0, 10, 20 and 30% levels of cocoyam flours substitution respectively and assessed for proximatecomposition ... decreased significantly with progressive increase in the cocoyam flour substitution. The significant (p<0.05) ... flour from locally grown crops replaces a portion of wheat flour for use in breads,.

  19. Variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile recovered from Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi waste from Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cretton, M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fish processing operations in Patagonia produce large amounts of waste. The main fishery resource in Argentina is the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi. The ports of the province of Chubut (the most important of which are Puerto Madryn, Rawson and Comodoro Rivadavia, together with Caleta Paula Port (province of Santa Cruz, in the Argentine Patagonia, capture more than 82,000 tons of hake annualy, 80% of which are of M. hubbsi, which is mostly converted into fillets. From this capture, about 2,296 tons of liver would be available for the extraction of oil. To promote the recovery and industrial use of fish oil, in the present study, we determined the variation in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of Argentine hake waste from the ports mentioned above at different catch times. Proximate composition was determined according of the Official Methods of Analysis (AOAC. Fatty acid profile was analyzed by gas chromatography of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs. A standard mixture of FAMEs was run under identical conditions to identify the compounds on the basis of their retention times. Fatty acids were quantified using heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 as internal standard. The highest lipid recovery (27.0 to 41.8% of total lipids was obtained from the liver fraction. Palmitic acid (C16:0, oleic acid (18:1 n9, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n3, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n3 and palmitoleic acid (16:1 were the main constituents. Protein levels in viscera without livers (V-L were higher than those in the liver. The extraction of marine fish oil and the production of fish offal meal from waste from fish factories would contribute to the sustainability of the regional industry, because it would also decrease the volume of waste, with benefits to the environment.El procesamiento de pescados en Patagonia produce gran cantidad de residuos. El recurso de pesca más importante en la Argentina es la merluza argentina (Merluccius hubbsi. En Patagonia

  20. Proximate composition, phytochemical screening, GC-MS studies of biologically active cannabinoids and antimicrobial activities of Cannabis indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqib Isahq

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the proximate composition, minerals analysis, phytochemical screening, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS studies of active cannabinoids and antimicrobial activities of Cannabis indica (C. indica leaves, stems, and seeds. Methods: Standard qualitative protocols of phytochemical screening were accomplished for the identification of biologically active phytochemicals. Minerals in plant samples were analyzed by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The resins of C. indica were analyzed for medicinally active cannabinoid compounds by GC-MS. The sample for GC-MS study was mixed with small quantity of n-hexane and 30 mL of acetonitrile solution for the identification of cannabinoids. Agar well diffusion method was used for antibacterial activity. For antifungal activity, the tested fungal strains were sub-cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar at 28 °C. Results: Mineral analysis revealed the presence of sodium, potassium, magnesium and some other minerals in all parts of C. indica. Phytochemical investigation showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, sterols and terpenoids. C. indica divulged wide spectrum of antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. The extracts of plant leaves, seeds and stems showed significant antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Aspergillus oryzae. The biologically active cannabinoids of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (25.040% and cannabidiol (resorcinol, 2-p-mentha-1,8-dien-4-yl-5-pentyl (50.077% were found in Cannabis resin in high percentage. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggested that the existence of biologically active remedial cannabinoids in elevated concentrations and antimicrobial bioassays of C. indica make it a treasured source to be used in herbal preparation for various ailments.

  1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF PLUM FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina BOZHKOVA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plum fruits (Prunus domestica L. have long been known as food for people since ancient times. They are consumed fresh, dried or processed. The increasing consumers’ demand for quality of fruit is a relevant reason to present information about the differences in the chemical composition and the sensory characteristics between the widely spread and newly studied plum cultivars. The present study was carried out in the period 2009 - 2012 at the Fruit-Growing Institute – Plovdiv, Bulgaria on 12 plum cultivars. The results of chemical composition analysis showed that the fruits of ‘Jojo’, ‘Topking’, ‘Topfive’ and ‘Mirabelle de Nancy’ have a total soluble solid above 20 0Brix. The highest sugar content was found in the fruits of ‘Jojo’. Fruits of ‘Pacific’ have the highest titratable acids content (1.28% compared to the other cultivars. The highest vitamin C content (11.92 mg/100 g was determined in the fruits of ‘Stanley’ cultivar. According to the sensory data, fruits of the cultivars ‘Bellamira’, ‘President’ and ‘Tuleu Timpuriu’ were grouped as the most delicious fruits and were regarded as suitable for fresh consumption. The general sensory evaluation showed that the fruits of ‘Bellamira’, ‘Haganta’, ‘President’ and ‘Tuleu Timpuriu’ are excellent in quality and they could be recommended to consumers and traders.

  2. Chemical Composition of Sea Buckthorn Leaves, Branches and Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradt Ina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea buckthorn leaves and branches presently create waste-/by-products of harvesting after pruning the plants. It is already known that sea buckthorn berries are important for their chemical composition and based on this occupy a wide field in nutrition. We raised the idea that sea buckthorn leaves, branches, and especially the bark, have also an extraordinary chemical composition like the berries. The aim of this study was to describe these by-products. For this purpose, detailed full analyses of corresponding samples from Russia (seven varieties and Germany (four varieties were performed. Especially the dry mass, fat content, proteins, carbohydrates, starch content, and crude fiber were investigated to obtain an overview. Minor components like total phenol content, metals, and water- and fat-soluble vitamins were also studied. All analytical parameters were based on an official collection of analysis methods (German ASU - amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsverfahren. The results of the full analysis of leaves and branches show some interesting aspects about the differences between male and female plants. Furthermore, we observed differences between Russian and German sea buckthorn varieties. Investigation of minor components showed that vitamins were present in very low amount (< 0.1 %.

  3. Methods of chemical and phase composition analysis of gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorova, E. I.; Pantushev, V. V.; Voloshin, A. E.

    2017-11-01

    This review presents the instrumental methods used for chemical and phase composition investigation of gallstones. A great body of data has been collected in the literature on the presence of elements and their concentrations, obtained by fluorescence microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis, proton (particle) induced X-ray emission, atomic absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry, electron paramagnetic resonance. Structural methods—powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy—provide information about organic and inorganic phases in gallstones. Stone morphology was studied at the macrolevel with optical microscopy. Results obtained by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopy with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry are discussed. The chemical composition and structure of gallstones determine the strategy of removing stone from the body and treatment of patients: surgery or dissolution in the body. Therefore one chapter of the review describes the potential of dissolution methods. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the disease depend on the development of clinical methods for in vivo investigation, which gave grounds to present the main characteristics and potential of ultrasonography (ultrasound scanning), magnetic resonance imaging, and X-ray computed tomography.

  4. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Rollinia leptopetala (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa, Edinilza M.A.; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Oliveira, M. Conceicao F. de; Vasnconcelos, Jackson Nunes e; Lima, Jefferson Q.; Malcher, Grazielle T. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: angelamcarriaga@yahoo.com.br; Santiago, Gilvandete M.P. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia; Nascimento, Ronaldo F. do [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2009-07-01

    The aim of present study was to describe the chemical composition of the essential oils from the leaf and stem of Rollinia leptopetala R. E. Fries (Annonaceae) and to evaluate the larvicidal activities of these essential oils, of the methanol extract from roots of this plant and of the oxoaporphine alkaloid, liriodenine (1) against the third-instar of Aedes aegypti larvae. The methanol extract from the roots showed larvicidal activity with LC{sub 50} 64.6 {+-} 1.5 ppm. Higher activity was observed for the isolated alkaloid liriodenine (1), LC{sub 50} 3.6 {+-} 0.4 ppm. The essential oils from the leaves and stems, also exhibited larvicidal activity with LC{sub 50} 104.7 {+-} 0.2 and 34.7 {+-} 0.3 ppm, respectively. These results suggest R. leptopetala as a source of natural larvicidal compounds. This is the first report about the chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the leaf and stem essential oils of R. leptopetala. (author)

  5. Chemical composition of selected seaweeds from the Indian Ocean, KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Judie; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-08-02

    The chemical composition of three edible seaweeds (Codium capitatum, Hypnea spicifera and Sargassum elegans) and two inedible seaweeds (Halimeda cuneata and Spyridia hypnoides) from the Indian Ocean along the KwaZulu-Natal East Coast, South Africa were investigated as a function of seasonal variation. The proximate compositions of the edible seaweeds were determined. In edible seaweeds, the moisture level ranged from 85.4 to 89.5%, protein from 6.1 to 11.8%, lipids from 7.5 to 13.1% and carbohydrates from 37.8 to 71.9%. Elemental concentrations in the five studied seaweeds varied significantly with season (P Pb (4.84), Co (0.87) and Se (0.86). The concentrations of As were particularly high in S. elegans, ranging from 94.70 ± 6.6 µg g(-1) in winter to 65.10 ± 2.3 µg g(-1) in summer. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed similar distribution of elements in edible seaweeds which was dissimilar to that in inedible seaweeds. This study suggests that edible macro alga, C. capitatum and H. spicifera, could be potential sources of most essential nutrients and may contribute positively to the diet without posing the risk of adverse health effects due to low concentrations of toxic elements. However, due to high levels of As in S. elegans, its consumption should be moderated to reduce dietary exposure to this toxic element.

  6. Galactic Archaeology: The Chemical Composition of a Fossil Stellar Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivans, I. I.

    2001-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the Milky Way may have formed by an ``assembly'' process. Star formation and chemical enrichment possibly took place in proto-galactic fragments (subsystems possibly resembling small irregular galaxies) prior to and during their assembly into the Galaxy. Clear evidence of an ancient galactic merger has been uncovered in the local solar neighbourhood (in a statistically significant clumping of stars in angular momentum phase space, along with an additional trail of stars). These stars, possibly the debris originating from the accretion of a dwarf galaxy system, could have experienced an entirely different chemical history from those born within the Milky Way. Equally interesting is the prospect of discovering that the smaller and less massive dwarf galaxy or proto-galactic fragment could have produced abundance patterns indistinguishable from those of ``normal'' halo field stars. I have employed high resolution stellar spectra to analyze the abundances of important elements which are required (i) to help unravel the nucleosynthetic history of these stars and (ii) that could set further constraints on the evolution of low-mass dwarf galaxies as they existed at the time of the merger. At this meeting, I will report initial chemical composition results which were derived in order to infer the mass function and star formation history of the merger object, as well as to test the ``universality'' of the heavy element r-process production mechanism.

  7. The effect of age on the carcass composition, portion yield and proximate composition of two rabbit genetic types in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. North

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the carcass component yields and meat proximate composition of 2 rabbit genetic types (Californian and hybrid New Zealand Red×Californian, with 5 rabbits per genetic type being slaughtered every 2 wk throughout the study period (9-17 wk to evaluate the effect of age on these traits. Slaughter weight, reference yield, portion yield (hind leg, foreleg and fore part, as percentage of slaughter weight, meat yield, skin weight and the fat content of the meat (percentage of wet weight increased significantly with age, while the full gastrointestinal tract, liver, head and feet decreased significantly. This is likely a reflection of the early-maturing nature of bone and viscera and later maturing nature of muscle and fat. These results indicate that delaying slaughter to 13 wk tends to improve yields for valuable carcass components. The Californian had a significantly higher total meat yield at 11 and 17 wk and higher portion meat yields at 9 (hind leg, 11 (hind leg and fore part and 13 (foreleg weeks than the hybrid. This was likely due to the later maturation of the hybrid and the influence of the New Zealand Red on carcass quality. It therefore appears that the Californian may be more favourable for meat production, from a carcass and meat quality perspective.

  8. In Vitro Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of DIAGNOdent and Digital Radiography for Detection of Secondary Proximal Caries Adjacent to Composite Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Zahra; Zonouzy, Zahra; Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Kharazifar, Mohammad Javad; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Early detection of secondary proximal caries is critical for the preservation of tooth vitality. This study sought to assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent and digital radiography for detection of secondary proximal caries adjacent to composite restorations. Methods: Sixty extracted molars including 30 teeth with carious lesions and 30 sound teeth were randomly selected. Class II cavities were prepared in all teeth and carious dentin was intentionally left in the gingival floor of cavities in 30 carious teeth. All cavities were restored with composite resin. The teeth were mounted in wax blocks (three teeth per block) and examined for caries using (DIAGNOdent kaVo Dental, Biberach, Germany). Digital radiographs using DIGORA photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plates (Soredex Corporation, Helsinki, Finland) were obtained from all teeth using the parallel technique and were evaluated by 4 observers. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to calculate sensitivity and specificity values of the two diagnostic techniques. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for DIAGNOdent results and based on that, the cutoff points were determined. Results: The sensitivity and specificity values at the cut-off point of 10.5 were 0.622±0.038 and 0.822±0.077 for DIAGNOdent and 0.591±0.093 and 0.891±0.083 for digital radiography, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.7 for DIAGNOdent. Weighted kappa revealed moderate to almost perfect intra-observer agreement (0.46-0.99). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for DIAGNOdent was calculated to be 0.88. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was noted in diagnostic accuracy of DIAGNOdent and digital radiography for detection of secondary proximal caries adjacent to composite restorations. Thus, DIAGNOdent may be used as an adjunct diagnostic tool for detection of secondary proximal caries beneath composite restorations.

  9. Evaluating the freezing impact on the proximate composition of immature cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) pods: classical versus spectroscopic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Nelson; Oppolzer, David; Ramos, Ana; Ferreira, Luis; Rosa, Eduardo As; Rodrigues, Miguel; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Barros, Ana Irna

    2017-10-01

    Freezing represents a common conservation practice regarding vegetal foodstuffs. Since compositional features need to be monitored during storage, the development of rapid monitoring tools suitable for assessing nutritional characteristics arises as a pertinent issue. In this study, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) pods, both fresh and after 6 and 9 months of freezing at -18 °C, were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography for their content of protein as well as of essential and nonessential amino acids, while their Fourier transform infrared spectra in the mid infrared (MIR) and near infrared (NIR) ranges were concomitantly registered to assess the feasibility of this approach for the traceability of these frozen matrices. For the NIR interval, the application of the 1st derivative to the spectral data retrieved the best results, while for lower concentrations the application of the Savitzky-Golay algorithm was indispensable to achieve quantification models for the amino acids. MIR is also suitable for this purpose, though being unable to quantify amino acids with concentrations below 0.07 mmol g(-1) dry weight, irrespective of the data treatment used. The spectroscopic approach constitutes a methodology suitable for monitoring the impact of freezing on the nutritional properties of cowpea pods, allowing accurate quantification of the protein and amino acid contents, while NIR displayed better performance. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions of composite rocket propellants combustion products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLA KILIBARDA

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available An adequate method for calculating chemical equilibrium in a predominantly gaseous, multi-component reactive mixture was investigated and successfully applied. This method involves the stated equilibrium reaction scheme, including, first, the formation of chemical species, of which concentrations prevail in the mixture, then the formation of gaseous atomic species by dissociation of previous ones, and, finally, the formation of complex chemical species from the atomic species. A computer program, which permits calculations of equilibrium compositions by the iteration procedure, has been developed. The results of calculations have been compared with data obtained by the programs OPHELIE, MICROPEP, and the program SPP, as documented in the NASA-Lewis Code, which is presently the world-wide standard. All comparisons gave satisfactory agreement.

  11. Prebiotic Potential and Chemical Composition of Seven Culinary Spice Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing‐Yi; Summanen, Paula H.; Lee, Ru‐Po; Huang, Jianjun; Henning, Susanne M.; Heber, David; Finegold, Sydney M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate prebiotic potential, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of spice extracts. Seven culinary spices including black pepper, cayenne pepper, cinnamon, ginger, Mediterranean oregano, rosemary, and turmeric were extracted with boiling water. Major chemical constituents were characterized by RP‐HPLC‐DAD method and antioxidant capacity was determined by measuring colorimetrically the extent to scavenge ABTS radical cations. Effects of spice extracts on the viability of 88 anaerobic and facultative isolates from intestinal microbiota were determined by using Brucella agar plates containing serial dilutions of extracts. A total of 14 phenolic compounds, a piperine, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde were identified and quantitated. Spice extracts exhibited high antioxidant capacity that correlated with the total amount of major chemicals. All spice extracts, with the exception of turmeric, enhanced the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. All spices exhibited inhibitory activity against selected Ruminococcus species. Cinnamon, oregano, and rosemary were active against selected Fusobacterium strains and cinnamon, rosemary, and turmeric were active against selected Clostridium spp. Some spices displayed prebiotic‐like activity by promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria and suppressing the growth of pathogenic bacteria, suggesting their potential role in the regulation of intestinal microbiota and the enhancement of gastrointestinal health. The identification and quantification of spice‐specific phytochemicals provided insight into the potential influence of these chemicals on the gut microbial communities and activities. Future research on the connections between spice‐induced changes in gut microbiota and host metabolism and disease preventive effect in animal models and humans is needed. PMID:28678344

  12. Prebiotic Potential and Chemical Composition of Seven Culinary Spice Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Summanen, Paula H; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Henning, Susanne M; Heber, David; Finegold, Sydney M; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate prebiotic potential, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of spice extracts. Seven culinary spices including black pepper, cayenne pepper, cinnamon, ginger, Mediterranean oregano, rosemary, and turmeric were extracted with boiling water. Major chemical constituents were characterized by RP-HPLC-DAD method and antioxidant capacity was determined by measuring colorimetrically the extent to scavenge ABTS radical cations. Effects of spice extracts on the viability of 88 anaerobic and facultative isolates from intestinal microbiota were determined by using Brucella agar plates containing serial dilutions of extracts. A total of 14 phenolic compounds, a piperine, cinnamic acid, and cinnamaldehyde were identified and quantitated. Spice extracts exhibited high antioxidant capacity that correlated with the total amount of major chemicals. All spice extracts, with the exception of turmeric, enhanced the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. All spices exhibited inhibitory activity against selected Ruminococcus species. Cinnamon, oregano, and rosemary were active against selected Fusobacterium strains and cinnamon, rosemary, and turmeric were active against selected Clostridium spp. Some spices displayed prebiotic-like activity by promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria and suppressing the growth of pathogenic bacteria, suggesting their potential role in the regulation of intestinal microbiota and the enhancement of gastrointestinal health. The identification and quantification of spice-specific phytochemicals provided insight into the potential influence of these chemicals on the gut microbial communities and activities. Future research on the connections between spice-induced changes in gut microbiota and host metabolism and disease preventive effect in animal models and humans is needed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of

  13. Effect of chemical composition of sheep’s milk on the chemical composition of Livno and Travnik cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Hrković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bosnia and Herzegovina has a centuries-old tradition in the family dairy products, among which 2-3 types of cheeses dominate. Well known dairy products in BiH are indigenous Livno and Travnik cheese, a group of cheeses produced from thermally untreated raw sheep milk. The aim of this study was assessing the effects of certain parameters on the chemical composition of the milk composition of indigenous cheeses - Livno and Travnik. Two manufacturers within two different locations (Livno and Travnik during summer grazing of sheep, were selected for this research. The study included 117sheep (Livno 57 sheep, Travnik 60 sheep. The cheese milk was used for determination of fat, protein and lactose content. Six samples were taken from obtained cheeses: 3 samples of Livno and 3samples of Travnik cheese, which means one for each sampling period. In cheese dry matter content, water, fat, fat in dry matter and acidity (pH were determined, and then correlation between the constituents of milk and cheese ingredients content was set. The most common causes of such phenomenon is non-standard production, storage and ripening. On Travnik area, the content of fat and milk protein varied according to sampling period, which can be attributed to the already mentioned diet and stage of lactation. At the same time the protein content decreased mainly by the end of lactating period. Lactose content has proven to be the most stable parameter of milk. In both investigated cheese samples slightly higher water content was found compared to normal values for these two local cheese, while the proportion of fat and dry matter varied within the sampling period. Variation of certain parameters of the chemical composition of investigated samples of Livno and Travnik cheese, as well as their correlation with parameters of milk is primarily a consequence of changing the chemical composition of milk as the basic raw materials and/or significant variations in technology that could

  14. Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borugă, O; Jianu, C; Mişcă, C; Goleţ, I; Gruia, A T; Horhat, F G

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Romania. The essential oil was isolated in a yield of 1.25% by steam distillation from the aerial part of the plant and subsequently analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were p-cymene (8.41%), γ-terpinene (30.90%) and thymol (47.59%). Its antimicrobial activity was evaluated on 7 common food-related bacteria and fungus by using the disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate that the Thymus vulgaris essential oil tested possesses strong antimicrobial properties, and may in the future represent a new source of natural antiseptics with applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

  15. Martensitic zirconium alloys: Influence of chemical composition on creep characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahutova, M.; Kucharova, K.; Cadek, J. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Ustav Fyzikalni Metalurgie)

    1985-03-01

    Results of an extensive investigation of creep in martensitic zirconium alloys are summarized with the aim to show the influence of chemical composition on the main creep characteristics - the steady state creep rate and the time and strain to fracture. The activation energy of creep and the parameter of stress sensitivity of steady state creep rate are determined and possible creep mechanisms as well as creep strenghtening mechanisms are discussed. The time to fracture tsub(f) is related to the steady state creep rate epsilonsub(s) through the Monkman-Grant relation as modified by Dobes and Milicka. The creep fracture shows features different from those of ''classical'' intergranular cavitation creep fracture. Most probably the creep fracture is controlled by the same deformation mechanism as the creep.

  16. Influence of Chemical Composition on Porosity in Aluminium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucharčík L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Porosity is one of the major defects in aluminum castings, which results is a decrease of a mechanical properties. Porosity in aluminum alloys is caused by solidification shrinkage and gas segregation. The final amount of porosity in aluminium castings is mostly influenced by several factors, as amount of hydrogen in molten aluminium alloy, cooling rate, melt temperature, mold material, or solidification interval. This article deals with effect of chemical composition on porosity in Al-Si aluminum alloys. For experiment was used Pure aluminum and four alloys: AlSi6Cu4, AlSi7Mg0, 3, AlSi9Cu1, AlSi10MgCu1.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis and its chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoubi M.J.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Iranian propolis on some microorganisms using disc diffusion method. The chemical composition of the propolis was also investigated using thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometric methods. Ethanol extract of propolis showed activity only against Gram-positives and fungi, whereas no activity was observed against Gram-negatives. Thin layer chromatography screening revealed the presence of pinocembrine, caffeic acid, kaempferol, phenethyl caffeate, chrysin, and galangin in Iranian propolis. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents were 7.3% and 36%, respectively, which suggests that the strong antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis may be due to high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.

  18. Yield, chemical composition and nutritional quality responses of carrot, radish and turnip to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Andaleeb; Khan, Ikhtiar; Mahmood, Abid; Hameed, Abdul

    2013-10-01

    Future concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is very important due to its apparent economic and environmental impact in terms of climate change. However, a compressive assessment of its effect on the nutritional and chemical characteristics of food crops has yet to be established. In the present study the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the yield, chemical composition and nutritional quality of three root vegetables, carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. T-1-111), radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Mino) and turnip (Brassica rapa L. cv. Grabe) has been investigated. The yield of carrot, radish and turnip increased by 69, 139 and 72%, respectively, when grown under elevated CO2 conditions. Among the proximate composition, protein, vitamin C and fat contents decreased significantly for all the vegetables while sugar and fibre contents were increased. Response of the vegetables to elevated CO2 , in terms of elemental composition, was different with a significant decrease in many important minerals. Elevated CO2 decreased the amount of majority of the fatty acids and amino acids in these vegetables. It was observed that elevated CO2 increased the yield of root vegetables but many important nutritional parameters including protein, vitamin C, minerals, essential fatty acids and amino acids were decreased. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal activities of Salvia essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jija; Thoppil, John E

    2011-05-01

    Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. In this context, essential oils have received much attention as potentially useful bioactive compounds against insects. Therefore, our present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of essential oils from the aerial parts of Salvia elegans Vahl, Salvia dorisiana Standl., Salvia splendens Sello ex J.A. Schult Blue Ribbon, and S. splendens Sello ex J.A. Schult Scarlet Sage Red (Lamiaceae) against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The mosquito larvicidal activities of the essential oils and chemical composition of four taxa of Salvia are investigated in this article for the first time. Chemical compositions of essential oils obtained from four taxa of Salvia were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-FID, and the effects of essential oils on fourth instar larvae of A. albopictus were investigated. The main components identified from each Salvia essential oils were as follows: spathulenol (38.73%) and caryophyllene (10.32%) from S. elegans; ledol (45.8%) and 4,4'-[(p-phenylene)diisopropylidene]diphenol (17.38%) from S. dorisiana; β-cubebene (22.9%), and caryophyllene (12.99%) from S. splendens Blue Ribbon; phytol (41.46%) and cyclooctasulfur (24.88%) from S. splendens Scarlet Sage Red. The essential oils of S. elegans and S. splendens Blue Ribbon had excellent inhibitory larvicidal effect against A. albopictus larvae, and their LC(50) values in 24 h were 46.4 ppm (LC(90) = 121.8 ppm) and 59.2 ppm (LC(90) = 133.0 ppm), respectively. These findings demonstrate that the essential oils of these Salvia species could be considered as the powerful candidates to bring about useful botanicals so as to prevent the resurgence of mosquito vectors.

  20. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as confirmed by their low PV which also serves as

  1. Linking Remotely Sensed Aerosol Types to Their Chemical Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Kyle William; Kacenelenbogen, Meloe S.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Burton, Sharon P.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Meskhidze, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol types measured during the Ship-Aircraft Bio-Optical Research (SABOR) experiment are related to GEOS-Chem model chemical composition. The application for this procedure to link model chemical components to aerosol type is desirable for understanding aerosol evolution over time. The Mahalanobis distance (DM) statistic is used to cluster model groupings of five chemical components (organic carbon, black carbon, sea salt, dust and sulfate) in a way analogous to the methods used by Burton et al. [2012] and Russell et al. [2014]. First, model-to-measurement evaluation is performed by collocating vertically resolved aerosol extinction from SABOR High Spectral Resolution LiDAR (HSRL) to the GEOS-Chem nested high-resolution data. Comparisons of modeled-to-measured aerosol extinction are shown to be within 35% +/- 14%. Second, the model chemical components are calculation into five variables to calculate the DM and cluster means and covariances for each HSRL-retrieved aerosol type. The layer variables from the model are aerosol optical depth (AOD) ratios of (i) sea salt and (ii) dust to total AOD, mass ratios of (iii) total carbon (i.e. sum of organic and black carbon) to the sum of total carbon and sulfate (iv) organic carbon to black carbon, and (v) the natural log of the aerosol-to-molecular extinction ratio. Third, the layer variables and at most five out of twenty SABOR flights are used to form the pre-specified clusters for calculating DM and to assign an aerosol type. After determining the pre-specified clusters, model aerosol types are produced for the entire vertically resolved GEOS-Chem nested domain over the United States and the model chemical component distributions relating to each type are recorded. Resulting aerosol types are Dust/Dusty Mix, Maritime, Smoke, Urban and Fresh Smoke (separated into 'dark' and 'light' by a threshold of the organic to black carbon ratio). Model-calculated DM not belonging to a specific type (i.e. not meeting a threshold

  2. Linking remotely sensed aerosol types to their chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, K. W.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Johnson, M. S.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Meskhidze, N.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol types measured during the Ship-Aircraft Bio-Optical Research (SABOR) experiment are related to GEOS-Chem model chemical composition. The application for this procedure to link model chemical components to aerosol type is desirable for understanding aerosol evolution over time. The Mahalanobis distance (DM) statistic is used to cluster model groupings of five chemical components (organic carbon, black carbon, sea salt, dust and sulfate) in a way analogous to the methods used by Burton et al. [2012] and Russell et al. [2014]. First, model-to-measurement evaluation is performed by collocating vertically resolved aerosol extinction from SABOR High Spectral Resolution LiDAR (HSRL) to the GEOS-Chem nested high-resolution data. Comparisons of modeled-to-measured aerosol extinction are shown to be within 35% ± 14%. Second, the model chemical components are calculation into five variables to calculate the DM and cluster means and covariances for each HSRL-retrieved aerosol type. The layer variables from the model are aerosol optical depth (AOD) ratios of (i) sea salt and (ii) dust to total AOD, mass ratios of (iii) total carbon (i.e. sum of organic and black carbon) to the sum of total carbon and sulfate (iv) organic carbon to black carbon, and (v) the natural log of the aerosol-to-molecular extinction ratio. Third, the layer variables and at most five out of twenty SABOR flights are used to form the pre-specified clusters for calculating DM and to assign an aerosol type. After determining the pre-specified clusters, model aerosol types are produced for the entire vertically resolved GEOS-Chem nested domain over the United States and the model chemical component distributions relating to each type are recorded. Resulting aerosol types are Dust/Dusty Mix, Maritime, Smoke, Urban and Fresh Smoke (separated into `dark' and `light' by a threshold of the organic to black carbon ratio). Model-calculated DM not belonging to a specific type (i.e. not meeting a threshold

  3. Chemical Composition of Iran's Pistacia atlantica Cold-Pressed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saber-Tehrani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid fraction of Pistacia atlantica seeds was extracted for the first time by means of cold-press technique and analyzed for its chemical composition. The fatty acids, sterols, triacylglycerols (TAG, tocopherols, polyphenols, and pigments were identified and their concentrations were determined by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and gas chromatography (GC. Because of its high content of unsaturated fatty acids, it might prove to be of value in diets and it may be used as edible cooking or salad oils or for margarine manufacture. Pistacia atlantica seed oil has the unique sterols and tocopherols content providing source of natural antioxidants. The main triacylglycerols were SLL + PLO, SOL + POO, OOLn + PLL, OOO, and SOO. This paper examined the phenolic fraction of Pistacia atlantica seed oil. Moreover, caffeic acid followed by cinnamic acid, pinoresinol, vanillin, p-Coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and o-Coumaric acid was also determined. This paper presents the first investigation of chlorophyll's and carotene's composition in Pistacia atlantica seed oil. Furthermore, pheophytin a was the major component, followed by luteoxanthin, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, lutein isomers, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a′, and pheophytin a′ were also determined.

  4. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal, E-mail: ana_allves2008@hotmail.co [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10{sup 11}ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000mug.g{sup -1}. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  5. Epicuticular wax crystals of Wollemia nobilis: morphology and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragota, Simona; Riederer, Markus

    2007-08-01

    The morphology of the epicuticular leaf waxes of Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae) was studied with special emphasis on the relationship between the microstructure of epicuticular wax crystals and their chemical composition. Wollemia nobilis is a unique coniferous tree of the family Araucariaceae and is of very high scientific value as it is the sole living representative of an ancient genus, which until 1994 was known only from fossils. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used for characterizing the morphology and the chemical structure of the epicuticular wax layer of W. nobilis needles. The main component of the leaf epicuticular wax of W. nobilis is nonacosan-10-ol. This secondary alcohol together with nonacosane diols is responsible for the tubular habit of the epicuticular wax crystals. Scanning electron micrographs revealed differences in the fine structure of adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces that could be explained by gas chromatographic studies after selective mechanical removal of the waxes. SEM investigations established the tubular crystalline microstructure of the epicuticular wax of W. nobilis leaves. GC-MS and NMR experiments showed that nonacosan-10-ol is the major constituent of the epicuticular wax of W. nobilis leaves.

  6. Chemical composition of precipitation and its sources in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Bi, Xiao-Hui; Feng, Yin-Chang; Lin, Feng-Mei; Jiao, Li; Hong, Sheng-Mao; Liu, Wen-Gao; Zhang, Xiao-Yong

    2011-12-01

    To understand the origin and chemical characteristics of precipitation in Hangzhou, rainwater samples were collected from June 2006 to May 2008. All samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, and major ions (NH⁴⁺, Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, Na⁺, K⁺, SO₄²⁻, NO₃⁻, F⁻, and Cl⁻). Acidification of precipitation in Hangzhou was serious with volume-weighted mean pH value of 4.5, while frequency of acid rain was 95%. The calculated SO₄²⁻/NO₃⁻ ratio in Hangzhou precipitation was 2.87, which indicated that the precipitation of Hangzhou belonged to sulfate-based acid rain. The results of acid neutralization analysis showed that not all the acidity in the precipitation of Hangzhou was neutralized by alkaline constituents. The results of sea salt contribution analysis showed that nearly all SO₄²⁻, Ca²⁺, and Mg²⁺ and 33.7% of K⁺ were of non-sea origins, while all Na⁺ and Cl⁻ and 66.3% of K⁺ originated from sea sources. The principal component analysis which was used to analyze the sources of various ions indicated that chemical compositions of precipitation in Hangzhou mainly came from terrestrial sources, factory emissions, fuel wood burning, and marine sources.

  7. Chemical Composition and Hypotensive Effect of Campomanesia xanthocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Santariano Sant’Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Campomanesia xanthocarpa is known in Brazil as Guabiroba and is popularly used for various diseases, such as inflammatory, renal, and digestive diseases and dyslipidemia. The aim of the study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the effects of aqueous extract of C. xanthocarpa on the blood pressure of normotensive rats, analyzing the possible action mechanism using experimental and in silico procedures. The extract was evaluated for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content. The chemical components were determined by HPLC analyses. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured with extract and drugs administration. The leaves of C. xanthocarpa presented the relevant content of phenolics and flavonoids, and we suggested the presence of chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, and theobromine. The acute administration of aqueous extract of C. xanthocarpa has a dose-dependent hypotensive effect in normotensive rats, suggesting that the action mechanism may be mediated through the renin-angiotensin system by AT1 receptor blockade and sympathetic autonomic response. Docking studies showed models that indicated an interaction between chlorogenic acid and quercetin with the AT1 receptor (AT1R active site. The findings of these docking studies suggest the potential of C. xanthocarpa constituents for use as preventive agents for blood pressure.

  8. Chemical composition and nutritive value of lantana and sweet pepper seeds and nabak seed kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaby, Hassan El-Sayed; Mokhtar, Sayed Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Chemical analysis was carried out on lantana (Lantana camara) and sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds and nabak (Zizyphus spina-christi) seed kernels. The proximate analysis (on dry weight basis) of sweet pepper seeds, lantana seeds, and nabak seed kernels showed the following composition: moisture 70.95%, 17.27%, and 4.22%; ash 4.88%, 1.81%, and 3.51%; fat 19.57%, 11.0%, and 30.19%; crude protein 19.28%, 6.3%, and 38.2%; and carbohydrate 56.3%, 80.9%, and 28.1%, respectively. For minerals, potassium was the most abundant element, followed by phosphorus and sodium. Also, zinc, iron, copper, and manganese were detected. Analysis of amino acids revealed that the first limiting amino acid was valine, for both lantana and sweet pepper seeds, but it was threonine for nabak seed kernels. Antinutritional compounds, including, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor, and tannins, were detected in all seeds. Results of fatty acid compositions showed that the major fatty acid was oleic acid in both lantana (48.73%) and nabak oils (53.25%), but it was linoleic acid in sweet pepper oil (71.55%). Moreover, the degree of unsaturation of these oils was close to that of common vegetable oils. In all oils, there was absorbance in the ultraviolet (UV)-B and UV-C ranges with potential for use as broad spectrum UV protectants. It can be inferred that the seeds investigated are good sources of crude fat, crude protein, ash, carbohydrate, and some minerals. Furthermore, the oil extracts could be useful as edible oils and for industrial applications. The nutritional composition of the investigated seeds suggested that they could be used to meet part of the nutritional requirements of animal feeds. Also, they could be regarded as good sources of food ingredients and as new sources of edible oils. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Blepharocalyx salicifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Barcelos Furtado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural products represent a source of biologically active molecules that have an important role in drug discovery. The aromatic plant Blepharocalyx salicifolius has a diverse chemical constitution but the biological activities of its essential oils have not been thoroughly investigated. The aims of this paper were to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities of an essential oil from leaves of B. salicifolius and to identify its main chemical constituents. The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation, chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and biological activities were performed by a microdilution broth method. The yield of essential oil was 0.86% (w/w, and the main constituents identified were bicyclogermacrene (17.50%, globulol (14.13%, viridiflorol (8.83%, γ-eudesmol (7.89% and α-eudesmol (6.88%. The essential oil was cytotoxic against the MDA-MB-231 (46.60 μg·mL−1 breast cancer cell line, being more selective for this cell type compared to the normal breast cell line MCF-10A (314.44 μg·mL−1. Flow cytometry and cytotoxicity results showed that this oil does not act by inducing cell death, but rather by impairment of cellular metabolism specifically of the cancer cells. Furthermore, it presented antifungal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (156.25 μg·mL−1 but was inactive against other fungi and bacteria. Essential oil from B. salicifolius showed promising biological activities and is therefore a source of molecules to be exploited in medicine or by the pharmaceutical industry.

  10. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Blepharocalyx salicifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabiana Barcelos; Borges, Bruna Cristina; Teixeira, Thaise Lara; Garces, Hans Garcia; Almeida Junior, Luiz Domingues de; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; Silva, Claudio Vieira da; Fernandes Junior, Ary

    2018-01-04

    Natural products represent a source of biologically active molecules that have an important role in drug discovery. The aromatic plant Blepharocalyx salicifolius has a diverse chemical constitution but the biological activities of its essential oils have not been thoroughly investigated. The aims of this paper were to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities of an essential oil from leaves of B. salicifolius and to identify its main chemical constituents. The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation, chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and biological activities were performed by a microdilution broth method. The yield of essential oil was 0.86% (w/w), and the main constituents identified were bicyclogermacrene (17.50%), globulol (14.13%), viridiflorol (8.83%), γ-eudesmol (7.89%) and α-eudesmol (6.88%). The essential oil was cytotoxic against the MDA-MB-231 (46.60 μg·mL-1) breast cancer cell line, being more selective for this cell type compared to the normal breast cell line MCF-10A (314.44 μg·mL-1). Flow cytometry and cytotoxicity results showed that this oil does not act by inducing cell death, but rather by impairment of cellular metabolism specifically of the cancer cells. Furthermore, it presented antifungal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (156.25 μg·mL-1) but was inactive against other fungi and bacteria. Essential oil from B. salicifolius showed promising biological activities and is therefore a source of molecules to be exploited in medicine or by the pharmaceutical industry.

  11. The simulation method of chemical composition of vermicular graphite iron on the basis of genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupov, L. R.; Klochkova, K. V.; Simonova, L. A.

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents a methodology of modeling the chemical composition of the composite material via genetic algorithm for optimization of the manufacturing process of products. The paper presents algorithms of methods based on intelligent system of vermicular graphite iron design

  12. Comparison of Multiple Linear Regression and Artificial Neural Network Models to Estimate of Amino acid Values in Pearl Millet Hybrid Based on Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    paresa soulimani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet has tolerance to harsh growing conditions such as drought. It is at least equivalent to maize and generally superior to sorghum in protein content and metabolizable energy levels. Thus it is of importance for poultry feeding. Amino acid (AA determination is expensive and time consuming. Therefore nutritionists have prompted a search for alternatives to estimate AA levels. Traditionally, two methods of predicting AA levels have been developed using multiple linear regression (MLR with an input of either CP or proximate analysis. Artificial neural networks (ANN may be more effective to predict AA concentration in feedstuff. Therefore a study was conducted to predict the AAs level in pearl millet with either MLR or ANN. Fifty two samples of pearl millet’s data lines contained chemical compositions and AAs which collected from literature were used to find the relationship between chemical analysis as xi and AA contents as y. For both MLR and ANN models chemical composition (dry matter, ash, crude fiber, crude protein, ether extract was used as inputs and each individual AA was the output in each model. The results of this study showed that it is possible to predict AAs with a simple analytical determination of proximate analysis. Furthermore ANN models could more effectively identify the relationship between AAs and proximate analysis than linear regression model.

  13. Chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols resolved via positive matrix factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Äijälä, Mikko; Junninen, Heikki; Heikkinen, Liine; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas; Ehn, Mikael

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter is a complex mixture of various chemical species such as organic compounds, sulfates, nitrates, ammonia, chlorides, black carbon and sea salt. As aerosol chemical composition strongly influences aerosol climate effects (via cloud condensation nucleus activation, hygroscopic properties, aerosol optics, volatility and condensation) as well as health effects (toxicity, carcinogenicity, particle morphology), detailed understanding of atmospheric fine particle composition is widely beneficial for understanding these interactions. Unfortunately the comprehensive, detailed measurement of aerosol chemistry remains difficult due to the wide range of compounds present in the atmosphere as well as for the miniscule mass of the particles themselves compared to their carrier gas. Aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS; Canagaratna et al., 2007) is an instrument often used for characterization of non-refractive aerosol types: the near-universal vaporization and ionisation technique allows for measurement of most atmospheric-relevant compounds (with the notable exception of refractory matter such as sea salt, black carbon, metals and crustal matter). The downside of the hard ionisation applied is extensive fragmentation of sample molecules. However, the apparent loss of information in fragmentation can be partly offset by applying advanced statistical methods to extract information from the fragmentation patterns. In aerosol mass spectrometry statistical analysis methods, such as positive matrix factorization (PMF; Paatero, 1999) are usually applied for aerosol organic component only, to keep the number of factors to be resolved manageable, to retain the inorganic components for solution validation via correlation analysis, and to avoid inorganic species dominating the factor model. However, this practice smears out the interactions between organic and inorganic chemical components, and hinders the understanding of the connections between primary and

  14. Mechanical properties of uniaxial natural fabric Grewia tilifolia reinforced epoxy based composites: Effects of chemical treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jayaramudu, J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chemical treatment on the mechanical, morphological, and chemical resistance properties of uniaxial natural fabrics, Grewia tilifolia/epoxy composites, were studied. In order to enhance the interfacial bonding between the epoxy matrix...

  15. Proximate composition, functional properties, amino acid, mineral and vitamin contents of a novel food: Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farga, Ammar; Zhang, Hui; Siddeeg, Azhari; Shamoon, Muhammad; V M Chamba, Moses; Al-Hajj, Nabil

    2016-11-15

    Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour was evaluated for chemical and nutritional composition, and functional properties in a pursuit to identify an innovative plant with high nutraceuticals value which could be exploited in other food applications. The flour was found to be rich in dietary fiber (30.13%), protein (14.60%), crude fat (11.49%), carbohydrates (30.77%), and ash (6.88%) and encompassed adequate amounts of essential amino acids and minerals, whereas, sucrose constituted 71.3% of total sugar contents. Vitamins analysis revealed that flour is rich in water-soluble vitamins such as Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2) and Niacin (B3), to the amounts of 19.3, 8.2 and 2.3mg/100g, respectively. Results on functional properties demonstrated high water and oil absorption capacities of 6.31 and 2.43g/g, respectively. Foaming capacity, foam stability and emulsion capacity were 9.35%, 6.90%, and 29.60%, respectively. It can be concluded that alhydwan is an excellent food material with a high nutritional value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of seeding date and seeding rate on yield, proximate composition and total tannins content of two Kabuli chickpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ruggeri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted in open field to assess the effect of seeding season and density on the yield, the chemical composition and the accumulation of total tannins in grains of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cultivars (Pascià and Sultano. Environmental conditions and genetic factors considerably affected grain yield, nutrient and total tannins content of chickpea seeds, giving a considerable range in its qualitative characteristics. Results confirmed cultivar selection as a central factor when a late autumn-early winter sowing is performed. In effect, a more marked resistance to Ascochyta blight (AB of Sultano, allowed better agronomic performances when favourable-to-AB climatic conditions occur. Winter sowing appeared to be the best choice in the Mediterranean environment when cultivating to maximise the grain yield (+19%. Spring sowing improved crude protein (+10% and crude fibre (+8% content, whereas it did not significantly affect the accumulation of anti-nutrients compounds such as total tannins. The most appropriate seeding rate was 70 seeds m–2, considering that plant density had relatively little effect on the parameters studied.

  17. Chemical composition of olive oils of the cultivar Colombaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunin, P.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of monovarietal olive oils from the cultivar Colombaia was studied. Free acidity, peroxide value and UV absorbance attested to the good quality of the analyzed oils. Their fatty acid composition appeared to be quite different from the typical fatty acid profile of olive oils from Liguria but met the limits reported in the EC Regulations for olive oils. On the contrary, the amounts of Δ7-stigmastenol were often higher than the 0.5 % limit set by EC Regulations and total ß-sitosterol was below the minimum 93 % limit. The composition of polar compounds and of the volatile fraction was representative of the peculiar organoleptic character of these oils. Thus, the anomalous sterol composition of the monovarietal oils from the cultivar Colombaia calls for blending with other oils. Moreover, the use of these oils for the production of PDO oils “Riviera Ligure” must also be carefully controlled because it changes their nutritional and sensorial featuresEn este trabajo se ha estudiado la composición química de aceites de oliva mono-varietales de la variedad Colombaia. La acidez libre, el índice de peróxidos y la absorción UV confirmaron la buena calidad de los aceites analizados. Su composición en ácidos grasos resultó bastante diferente del perfil típico de ácidos grasos de los aceites de oliva virgen de la región de Liguria, pero se mantuvo dentro de los límites establecidos por los Reglamentos EC para aceites de oliva. Por otro lado, las cantidades de Δ7-estigmastenol resultaron normalmente superiores al 0.5 % del límite fijado por los Reglamentos EC y el ß-sitosterol total fue inferior al 93 % del límite mínimo. La composición en compuestos polares y de la fracción volátil confirmó las características organolépticas peculiares de estos aceites. Por tanto, la composición esterólica anómala de los aceites mono-varietales de la variedad Colombaia hace necesaria una mezcla con otros

  18. Studies of marine macroalgae: saline desert water cultivation and effects of environmental stress on proximate composition. Final subcontract report. [Gracilaria tikvahiae; Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Peterson, J.E.

    1985-11-01

    The results presented in this report address the growth potential of marine macroalgae cultivated in desert saline waters, and the effects of certain environmental stresses (e.g., nitrogen, salinity, and temperature) on the proximate composition of several marine macroalgae. Two major desert saline water types were assayed for their ability to support the growth of Gracilaria, Ulva, and Caulerpa. Both water types supported short term growth, but long term growth was not supported. Carbohydrate levels in Gracilaria were increased by cultivation under conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and low nitrogen and phosphorous availability. Data suggests that it may be possible to maximize production of useful proximate constituents by cultivating the algae under optimum conditions for growth, and then holding the resulting biomass under the environmental conditions which favor tissue accumulation of the desired storage products. 16 refs., 21 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. The Relationship of Culture Media Composition and Chemical Composition on Spirulina sp for Metal Ion Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Zulkifli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis relationship of Spirulina sp medium with chemical composition has been conducted. Chemical analysis was performed using X-Ray Fluorescence analysis. Furthermore, potention of Spirulina sp as adsorbent of metal ions was analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy. The results showed that metals such as Zn, Fe, Mn, Ca, Cu, and Mo were mainly metals in Spirulina sp. These metals were not correlated with cultivated medium of Spirulina sp. Analysis of potention Spirulina sp as metal ions adsorbent showed that Spirulina sp has functional groups –C=O and –OH as ligand. Intercation of metal ions Cu(II and Cr(III with Spirulina sp indicated that metal ions bond to –C=O functional group.

  20. Proximate analysis of some dry season vegetables in Anyigba, Kogi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... the exotic vegetables cultivated in Nigeria are cabbage, lettuce, cauli-flower and turnip leafy as well as stems such as Carrot (Aliyu, 2006). ... at 550°C for 48 h, proximate chemical composition of each vegetable sample was carried out to determine the moisture, ash, fat, crude fibre, protein and carbohydrate ...

  1. Vector diagram of the chemical compositions of tektites and earth lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasha, L. G.; Gorshkov, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    The chemical compositions of tektites and various volcanic glasses, similar in composition to tektites are compared by a petrochemical method. The advantage of the method is that a large number of chemical analyses of igneous rocks can be graphically compared with the help of vectors, plotted in relation to six parameters. These parameters, calculated from ratios of the main oxides given by silicate analysis, reflect the chief characteristics of igneous rock. Material for the study was suppled by data from chemical analysis characterizing tektites of all known locations and data from chemical analyses of obsidians similar in chemical composition to tektites of various petrographical provinces.

  2. Chemical profile and amino acids composition of edible mushrooms Pleurotus sajor-caju.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetayo, F L; Akindahunsi, A A; Oyetayo, V O

    2007-01-01

    Two varieties of Pleurotus sajor-caju, obtained from the wild and cultivated (on shredded corncobs) were separated into cap and stalk and analysed on dry weight basis. The proximate composition (g/100 g) showed that both varieties were highly concentrated in crude protein. The cultivated cap (Cc) was found to accumulate higher concentration of crude protein (26.34%) and ash (10.37%) than the wild cap (Wc), which had higher crude fat (3.90%) and crude fibre (16.32%) concentrations while the wild stalk (Ws) contained the highest concentration of crude fibre (26.14%). Amino acid analysis showed the mushroom protein to be a rich source of nutritionally useful essential amino acids with leucine as the most abundant occurring in highest concentration (mg/g) in the Cc (64.8 +/- 0.24). Methionine and cysteine concentrations were low as confirmed by their chemical scores (0.29-0.59). There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in the distribution of amino acids in the mushroom varieties and parts. The total essential amino acid (TEAA) in the cultivated range between 42.91-43.69% while in the wild it was between 42.90-43.73 % of the total amino acid content. The amino acid concentration was a function of mushroom variety and part selected.

  3. Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2011-08-01

    The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent.

  4. Exploring the chemical composition of water in the Kandalaksha Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Khaitov, Vadim; Maksimova, Victoria; Belkina, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    Oil films were noted at the head of the Kandalaksha Bay as far back as in 1971, as soon as the first stage of the oil tank farm had been commissioned (the autumn of 1970). In 1997-1998 there were accidental oil spills posing a real threat to the Kandalaksha Reserve biota. In May 2011, oil spills from the Belomorsk oil tank farm resulted in a local environmental emergency. In this work we have traced the evolution of polluted water by means of hydrogeochemical monitoring and reconstructing the chemical composition of surface and near-bottom water of the Kandalaksha Bay by using physical-chemical modeling (Selector software package, Chudnenko, 2010). The surface and near-bottom water was sampled in the summer of 2012 and 2013 at the following sites: under the numbers 3 (N 67.2.673, E 32.23.753); 4 (N 67.3.349, E 32.28.152); 1 (N 67.5.907, E 32.29.779), and 2 (N 67.6.429, E 32.30.539). The monitored objects and sampling time were sensitive to both the effects of the White Sea water (high tide), fresh water, and water affected by human impact (the oil tank farm). At each site, three samples were taken. The next stage involved reconstructing of the sea water ion composition by modeling within the Al-B-Br-Ar-He-Ne-C-Ca-Cl-F-K-Mg-Mn-N-Na-P-S-Si-Sr-Cu-Zn-H-O-e system, where e is an electron. Modeling of the chemical composition of near-bottom water (site 3) has revealed high contents of carbon dioxide, hydrogen disulphide, hydrocarbonates, and no oxygen (Eh<0). All this suggests a transformation of hydrocarbons that might have got to the sampling area in May 2011, or as the result of constant leakage of petroleum hydrocarbons from the oil tank farm. Sampling at site 4 in 2013 has revealed petroleum hydrocarbons both in surface (0.09 mg/l) and near-bottom (0.1 mg/l) water. Both monitoring and modeling have demonstrated that hydrobionts on areas adjoining the oil tank farm are far from prospering. Monitoring should be accompanied by express analysis of oxidizing conditions

  5. Composite-Material Tanks with Chemically Resistant Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    Lightweight composite-material tanks with chemically resistant liners have been developed for storage of chemically reactive and/or unstable fluids . especially hydrogen peroxide. These tanks are similar, in some respects, to the ones described in gLightweight Composite-Material Tanks for Cryogenic Liquids h (MFS-31379), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January, 2001), page 58; however, the present tanks are fabricated by a different procedure and they do not incorporate insulation that would be needed to prevent boil-off of cryogenic fluids. The manufacture of a tank of this type begins with the fabrication of a reusable multisegmented aluminum mandrel in the shape and size of the desired interior volume. One or more segments of the mandrel can be aluminum bosses that will be incorporated into the tank as end fittings. The mandrel is coated with a mold-release material. The mandrel is then heated to a temperature of about 400 F (approximately equal to 200 C) and coated with a thermoplastic liner material to the desired thickness [typically approxiamtely equal to 15 mils (approximately equal to 0.38 mm)] by thermal spraying. In the thermal-spraying process, the liner material in powder form is sprayed and heated to the melting temperature by a propane torch and the molten particles land on the mandrel. The sprayed liner and mandrel are allowed to cool, then the outer surface of the liner is chemically and/or mechanically etched to enhance bonding of a composite overwrap. The etched liner is wrapped with multiple layers of an epoxy resin reinforced with graphite fibers; the wrapping can be done either by manual application of epoxy-impregnated graphite cloth or by winding of epoxy-impregnated filaments. The entire assembly is heated in an autoclave to cure the epoxy. After the curing process, the multisegmented mandrel is disassembled and removed from inside, leaving the finished tank. If the tank is to be used for storing hydrogen peroxide, then the liner material

  6. Chemical composition of sediments from White Sea, Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamza, Olga; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Novigatsky, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    The White Sea, the only Russian inland sea, is located on the north of outlying districts of the European part of Russia, belongs to Arctic Ocean. Area of water of sea occupies about 90 tousend square kilometers. The sea can be divided into some general parts: neck, funnel, basin and 4 Bays: Dvina Bay, Kandalaksha Bay, Mezen Bay and Onega Bay. The purpose of this work was geochemical mapping of the surface sediments of this area. The main tasks were: compilation data base of element composition of the surface sediments, geochemical mapping of each element, research of the anormal concentration of elements on the surface. To detect the content of chemical elements several methods were used: atomic absorption spectrometry (P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology); neutron activation analysis (Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry), total and organic carbon analysis, photometric method to detection Si, Al, P (P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology). Bulk composition is one of the fundamental characteristics of sediments and bottom deposites of modern basins. Coarse-grained sediments with portion of pelitic component 80%). Character of elements distribution correlates with facial distribution of sediments from White Sea. According to litologic description, bottom surface of Dvina Bay is practically everywhere covered by layer of fine-grained sand. In the border area between Dvina Bay and White Sea basin on terraced subwater slope aleurite politic silts are abundant. They tend to exhange down the slope to clay silts. In Onega Bay fractions of non-deposition are observed. They are characterized by wide spread of thin blanket poorgraded sediments, which are likely to be relic. Relief of Kandalakscha Bay bottom is presented as alternation of abyssal fosses (near 300 m) with silles and elevations (depressions and in central part of the sea, which is quite wide from both places of original sedimentation and run off sources [2]. Thus, the interrelation

  7. Physical Characteristics, Chemical Composition, Organoleptic Test And The Number Of Microbes In The Biscuits With Addition Of Flour Banana Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernawati; Aryani, A.; Shintawati, R.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study to analyze the physical characteristics, chemical composition and organoleptic test of biscuit flour with the addition of flour banana peel. Materials used are banana peels Kepok. Kepok banana peel has been found to contain high fiber food. Biscuit-making stage includes the formation of cream, adding flour and wheat flour dietary fiber from banana peels to concentrations of 0% as control, 25%, 50% and 75% of 100 grams of wheat flour; mixing; molding; baking in the oven for 20-25 minutes with a temperature of 180°C. Parameters to be measured, namely the physical characteristics include: hardness, softness, consistency, crispness. Furthermore, the biscuits were tested by chemical analysis (proximate). Organoleptic test include: aroma, taste, mouthfeel, aftertaste. Data were analyzed statistically using SAS computing programs. Physical and organoleptic test results biscuits with the addition of flour banana peels has sufficient level of preference between like-liked. Based on the results of the proximate analysis of biscuits with the addition of flour banana peels has generally been in accordance with the National Standards of Indonesia (SNI). Conclusion of the study that the addition of flour banana peels in biscuits has the potential to become functional foods that contain high fiber.

  8. Chemical composition of bioactive pressurized extracts of Romanian aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, T L; Plaza, M; Bahrim, G; Ibáñez, E; Herrero, M

    2011-07-29

    In this contribution, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) has been employed to isolate bioactive compounds from three native Romanian plants, oregano (Origanum vulgare), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) and wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum). Different PLE conditions have been tested including extraction with water, ethanol and their mixtures in a wide range of extraction temperatures (50-200°C), and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was measured using different assays (DPPH radical scavenging, TEAC assay and Folin-Ciocalteau assay to measure total phenols). Moreover, a complete chemical characterization by using LC-MS/MS was carried out to be able to correlate the bioactivity with the particular chemical composition of each extract and plant. The use of PLE with water as a solvent at the highest temperature tested (200°C) always provided the highest extraction yields for the three studied plants, being maximum for oregano (>60%). Besides, oregano's pressurized water extracts at lower temperatures (50°C) presented the highest content on total phenols (184.9 mg gallic acid/g extract) and the best antioxidant activities (EC(50) 6.98 μg/ml). In general, oregano extracts were the most active, followed by wild thyme extracts. The antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH assay was highly correlated with the amount of total phenols. Moreover, the use of a LC-MS/MS method allowed the identification of 30 different phenolic compounds in the different extracts, including phenolic acids, flavones, flavanones and flavonols, which have an important influence on the total antioxidant capacity of the different extracts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic Diversity Evaluation of Moringa Oleifera, Lam From East Flores Regency Using Marker Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Its Relationship to Chemical Composition and in Vitro Gas Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kleden, Markus Miten; Soetanto, Hendrawan; Kusmartono, Kusmartono; Kuswanto, Kuswanto

    2017-01-01

    The research objective was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Moringa oleifera, Lam (MO) and its relationship to chemical composition and in vitro gas production (IVGP). Fresh MO leaves were kept frozen in ice gels pack until laboratory analysis. Four methods applied: RAPD marker for measuring DNA concentration and purification; Kjeldhal and HPLC for analysing proximate and amino acid (AA) composition; and IVGP. MO's four distinct morphology found: green, red, reddish green and aromatic gre...

  10. Evaluation of the performance of four chemical transport models in predicting the aerosol chemical composition in Europe in 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prank, M.; Sofiev, M.; Tsyro, S.; Hendriks, C.; Semeena, V.; Francis, X.V.; Butler, T.; Gon, H.D. van der; Friedrich, R.; Hendricks, J.; Kong, X.; Lawrence, M.; Righi, M.; Samaras, Z.; Sausen, R.; Kukkonen, J.; Sokhi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Four regional chemistry transport models were applied to simulate the concentration and composition of particulate matter (PM) in Europe for 2005 with horizontal resolution 20 km. The modelled concentrations were compared with the measurements of PM chemical composition by the European Monitoring

  11. Bark anatomy, chemical composition and ethanol-water extract composition of Anadenanthera peregrina and Anadenanthera colubrina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciene S Mota

    Full Text Available The bark of Anadenanthera peregrina (L. Speg and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan were characterized in relation to anatomical and chemical features. The barks were similar and included a thin conducting phloem, a largely dilated and sclerified non-conducting phloem, and a rhyridome with periderms with thin phellem interspersed by cortical tissues. Only small differences between species were observed that cannot be used alone for taxonomic purposes. The summative chemical composition of A. peregrina and A. colubrina was respectively: 8.2% and 7.7% ash; 28.8% and 29.3% extractives; 2.4% and 2.6% suberin; and 18.9% lignin. The monosaccharide composition showed the predominance of glucose (on average 82% of total neutral sugars and of xylose (9%. The ethanol-water extracts of A. peregrina and A. colubrina barks included a high content of phenolics, respectively: total phenolics 583 and 682 mg GAE/g extract; 148 and 445 mg CE/g extract; tannins 587 and 98 mg CE/g extract. The antioxidant activity was 238 and 269 mg Trolox/g extract. The barks of the Anadenanthera species are a potential source of polar extractives that will represent an important valorization and therefore contribute to improve the overall economic potential and sustainability of A. peregrina and A. colubrina.

  12. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of two strawberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilas Sonja M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The macro- and micro-chemical composition, as well as antioxidant activity of two strawberry cultivars, Marmolada and Clery, were studied. Results showed a noticeable difference in the sugar, protein and pectin contents. Clery had 6.92% and Marmolada 4.93% of total sugar. Also, protein and pectin contents were higher in the Clery cultivar. No significant difference was observed in acidity, as well as in ash and cellulose content. Marmolada had a higher content of total phenolics and flavonoids (228.04 mg GAE /100 g FW and 136.01 mg RE/100 g FW, respectively . The anthocyanins content in Marmolada (32.0 mg CGE/100 g FW was slightly lower than in Clery (36.0 mg CGE/100 g FW. The antioxidant activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically, using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, expressed as EC50 value, of Marmolada (0.77 mg/ml was higher than of Clery (0.83 mg/ml. There was a significant positive correlation (R2>0.90 between the concentration of phenolics/flavonoids/anthocyanins and DPPH radical scavenging activity of both strawberry cultivars. These results also showed that the antioxidant value of 100 g FW Marmolada and Clery is equivalent to 237.91 mg and 219.01 mg of vitamin C, respectively.

  13. Brazilian kefir: structure, microbial communities and chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Campos, Cássia Roberta; Dragone, Giuliano; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Microbial ecology and chemical composition of Brazilian kefir beverage was performed. The microorganisms associated with Brazilian kefir were investigated using a combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods. A total of 359 microbial isolates were identified. Lactic acid bacteria (60.5%) were the major isolated group identified, followed by yeasts (30.6%) and acetic acid bacteria (8.9%). Lactobacillus paracasei (89 isolates), Lactobacillus parabuchneri (41 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (32 isolates), Lactobacillus kefiri (31 isolates), Lactococcus lactis (24 isolates), Acetobacter lovaniensis (32 isolates), Kluyveromyces lactis (31 isolates), Kazachstania aerobia (23 isolates), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (41 isolates) and Lachancea meyersii (15 isolates) were the microbial species isolated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the microbiota was dominated by bacilli (short and curved long) cells growing in close association with lemon-shaped yeasts cells. During the 24 h of fermentation, the protein content increased, while lactose and fat content decreased. The concentration of lactic acid ranged from 1.4 to 17.4 mg/ml, and that of acetic acid increased from 2.1 to 2.73 mg/ml. The production of ethanol was limited, reaching a final mean value of 0.5 mg/ml. PMID:24031681

  14. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB{sub 2} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Miller, J.H.; Cooley, K.C.; Lowden, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Starr, T.L. [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Efficiency of the Hall-Heroult electrolytic reduction of aluminum can be substantially improved by the use of a TiB{sub 2} cathode surface. The use of TiB{sub 2}, however, has been hampered by the brittle nature of the material and the grain-boundary attack of sintering-aid phases by molten aluminum. In the current work, TiB{sub 2} is toughened through the use of reinforcing fibers, with chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) used to produce pure TiB{sub 2}. It has been observed, however, that the formation of TiB{sub 2} from chloride precursors at fabrication temperatures below 900 to 1000{degrees}C alloys the retention of destructive levels of chlorine in the material. At higher fabrication temperatures and under appropriate infiltration conditions, as determined from the use of a process model, a TIB{sub 2}THORNEL P-25 fiber composite, 45 mm in diam and 6 mm thick, has been fabricated in 20 h. The material has been demonstrated to be stable in molten aluminum in short-duration tests.

  15. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB[sub 2] composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Miller, J.H.; Cooley, K.C.; Lowden, R.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Starr, T.L. (Georgia Tech Research Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Efficiency of the Hall-Heroult electrolytic reduction of aluminum can be substantially improved by the use of a TiB[sub 2] cathode surface. The use of TiB[sub 2], however, has been hampered by the brittle nature of the material and the grain-boundary attack of sintering-aid phases by molten aluminum. In the current work, TiB[sub 2] is toughened through the use of reinforcing fibers, with chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) used to produce pure TiB[sub 2]. It has been observed, however, that the formation of TiB[sub 2] from chloride precursors at fabrication temperatures below 900 to 1000[degrees]C alloys the retention of destructive levels of chlorine in the material. At higher fabrication temperatures and under appropriate infiltration conditions, as determined from the use of a process model, a TIB[sub 2]THORNEL P-25 fiber composite, 45 mm in diam and 6 mm thick, has been fabricated in 20 h. The material has been demonstrated to be stable in molten aluminum in short-duration tests.

  16. Soursop (Annona muricata) vinegar production and its chemical compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chin Wai; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Fazry, Shazrul; Zaki, Umi Kalsum Hj Hussain; Lim, Seng Joe

    2016-11-01

    Vinegar is a liquid product that undergoes double fermentations, which are alcoholic and acetous fermentation. Sugar source was converted to ethanol in alcoholic fermentation, meanwhile ethanol was oxidised to acetic acid during acetous fermentation. Soursop (Annona muricata) was the starting material in this study, as it is easily available in Malaysia. Its highly aromatic, juicy and distinctive flavours enables the production of high quality vinegar. The objective of this research is to produce good quality soursop vinegar as an innovative method to preserve and utilise the soursop fruit in Malaysia and to determine its chemical compositions. It was found that the sugar content reduces over time, and it is inversely proportional to the ethanol concentration, due to the production of ethanol from sugar. Acetic acid was also found to increase with increasing fermentation time. pH showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in the reduction of sugar and the production of ethanol. However, significantly higher (p 0.05) in Vitamin C contents in all soursop vinegar samples produced using different treatments.

  17. Pereskia aculeata Muller (Cactaceae Leaves: Chemical Composition and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucèia Fàtima Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to study the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata and to evaluate some biological activities of three leaf extracts. The phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities were determined. The methanol extract showed antioxidant activity (EC50 7.09 mg/mL and high polyphenols content (15.04 ± 0.31 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. The petroleum ether extract exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, whereas the chloroform extract showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The petroleum ether and methanol extracts were more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor. The possible cytotoxicity of extracts on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cancer cell line and the influence on adenylate cyclase (ADCY expression was also studied. P. aculeata chloroform extract showed antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 262.83 µg/mL. Treatments of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 100 µg/mL of methanol extract significantly reduced ADCY1 expression.

  18. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  19. Essential oil of Algerian Eucalyptus citriodora: Chemical composition, antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, H; Moghrani, H; Benelmouffok, A; Kellou, D; Maachi, R

    2015-12-01

    Essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora is a natural product which has been attributed for various medicinal uses. In the present investigation, E. citriodora essential oil was used to evaluate its antifungal effect against medically important dermatophytes. Essential oil from the Algerian E. citriodora leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antifungal effect of E. citriodora essential oil was evaluated against four dermatophytes: Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum using disc diffusion method, disc volatilization method, and agar dilution method. The chemical composition of the oil revealed the presence of 22 compounds accounting for 95.27% of the oil. The dominant compounds were citronellal (69.77%), citronellol (10.63%) and isopulegol (4.66%). The disc diffusion method, MIC and MFC determination, indicated that E. citriodora essential oil had a higher antifungal potential against the tested strains with inhibition zone diameter which varied from (12 to 90mm) and MIC and MFC values ranged from (0.6 to 5μL/mL and 1.25 to 5μL/mL) respectively. The M. gypseum was the most resistant to the oil. The results of the present study indicated that E. citriodora essential oil may be used as a new antifungal agent recommended by the pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Bubonium imbricatum volatile oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKIM ALILOU

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted from the aerial parts of Bubonium imbricatum, an endemic plant of southern Morocco, was analysed. GC-MS showed 51 compounds, representing 60.2% of the total oil. Thymol isobutyrate (18.3% and 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (16.2% were the major constituents of the oil. The oil was tested for antifungal activity in mycelial growth inhibition tests in vitro against three agricultural pathogenic fungi: Penicillium digitatum, P. expansum and Botrytis cinerea. The oil at 1000 ppm was highly effective against mycelial growth of P. digitatum with 99% inhibition. For P. expansum and B. cinerea the percentage of mycelial growth inhibition at 1000 ppm was respectively 87.2% and 87.8%. At 2000 ppm the oil was 100% effective in controlling mycelial growth of all three fungi. B. imbricatum essential oil was also tested at different concentrations on citrus fruits (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Nules inoculated with P. digitatum (105 conidia ml-1. The oil had a fungistatic or fungicidal effect on C. reticulata.

  1. Microbial population, chemical composition and silage fermentation of cassava residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napasirth, Viengsakoun; Napasirth, Pattaya; Sulinthone, Tue; Phommachanh, Kham; Cai, Yimin

    2015-09-01

    In order to effectively use the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) residues, including cassava leaves, peel and pulp for livestock diets, the chemical and microbiological composition, silage preparation and the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on silage fermentation of cassava residues were studied. These residues contained 10(4) to 10(5) LAB and yeasts, 10(3) to 10(4) coliform bacteria and 10(4) aerobic bacteria in colony forming units (cfu) on a fresh matter (FM) basis. The molds were consistently at or below the detectable level (10(2) cfu of FM) in three kinds of cassava residues. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of cassava residues were 17.50-30.95%, 1.30-16.41% and 25.40-52.90% on a DM basis, respectively. The silage treatments were designed as control silage without additive (CO) or with LAB inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum) and Snow Lacto (SN, Lactobacillus rhamnosus) at a rate of 5 mg/kg of FM basis. All silages were well preserved with a low pH (below 4.0) value and when cassava residues silage treated with inoculants CH and SN improved fermentation quality with a lower pH, butyric acid and higher lactic acid than control silage. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Atmospheric aerosol over Vermont: chemical composition and sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polissar, A.V.; Hopke, P.K. [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-12-01

    Aerosol chemical composition data for PM{sub 2.5} samples collected during the period from 1988 to 1995 at Underhill, VT were analyzed. The six sources representing wood burning, coal and oil combustion, coal combustion emissions plus photochemical sulfate production, metal production plus municipal wastes incineration, and emissions from motor vehicles were identified. Emissions from smelting of nonferrous metal ores, arsenic smelting, and soil particles and particles with high concentrations of Na were also identified by PMF. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis for the black carbon factor shows high probabilities in the area surrounding the sampling wood combustion in northern New England and southwestern Quebec. Similar large potential source areas in the midwestern United States were identified for the coal combustion factors. The oil combustion factor was associated with the east coast of the United States. canadian Ni smelters are the main sources for the As factor, although there is some contribution from coal-fired power plants to the south and west of Underhill, VT. It is concluded that the combination of the two receptor modeling methods, PMF and PSCF, provides an effective way in identifying atmospheric aerosol sources and their likely locations. Emissions from different anthropogenic activities as well as secondary aerosol production are the main sources of aerosol measured in Vermont. Fuel combustion, local wood smoke, municipal waste incineration and the secondary sulfate production collectively accounted for about 87% of the fine mass concentrations measured in Vermont. 29 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Chemical composition of some seaweed from Mediterranean Sea coast, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Ghada F; El-Sikaily, Amany

    2013-07-01

    This study pointed to the assessment of the chemical composition (F, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Cd, and carbohydrate) of different marine seaweeds (red, green, and brown) from the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. The results showed that green seaweeds supplied better calcium sources than the red and brown ones. Also, red and brown seaweeds showed higher averages of Na and K than that in green species and these seaweeds could play an important role in the electrolyte balance in humans. On the other hand, green seaweeds gave the highest average carbohydrate concentration; thus, these green species could be used as a source of polysaccharides. Ion quotient values for almost seaweed species were between 1.4 and 4.0, so they can reduce hypertension, preeclampsia, and heart disease in human beings. Interestingly, the calculated hazard quotient of elements was below 1. Accordingly, these seaweed species were of high quality and safety and might be used in the field of nutrition.

  4. Brazilian kefir: structure, microbial communities and chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Teixeira Magalhães

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial ecology and chemical composition of Brazilian kefir beverage was performed. The microorganisms associated with Brazilian kefir were investigated using a combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods. A total of 359 microbial isolates were identified. Lactic acid bacteria (60.5% were the major isolated group identified, followed by yeasts (30.6% and acetic acid bacteria (8.9%. Lactobacillus paracasei (89 isolates, Lactobacillus parabuchneri (41 isolates, Lactobacillus casei (32 isolates, Lactobacillus kefiri (31 isolates, Lactococcus lactis (24 isolates, Acetobacter lovaniensis (32 isolates, Kluyveromyces lactis (31 isolates, Kazachstania aerobia (23 isolates, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (41 isolates and Lachancea meyersii (15 isolates were the microbial species isolated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the microbiota was dominated by bacilli (short and curved long cells growing in close association with lemon-shaped yeasts cells. During the 24 h of fermentation, the protein content increased, while lactose and fat content decreased. The concentration of lactic acid ranged from 1.4 to 17.4 mg/ml, and that of acetic acid increased from 2.1 to 2.73 mg/ml. The production of ethanol was limited, reaching a final mean value of 0.5 mg/ml.

  5. Proximal Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  6. Effect of white striping on chemical composition and nutritional value of chicken breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available White striping defect (appearance of white striations parallel to muscle fiber on surface of breast is considered an emerging issue in chicken breast meat which is related to increasing growth rate of modern hybrid birds. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of white striping on chemical composition and nutritional value of chicken breast meat. During three replications, a total of 108 Pectoralis major muscles representing three degrees of white striping (absence=normal; presence classified in 2 levels as moderate or severe were selected to determine proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid and collagen as well as sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The results showed that both severe and moderate white-striped fillets had higher fat content (2.53 vs 1.46 vs 0.78%; P<0.001, lower protein level (20.9 vs 22.2 vs 22.9%; P<0.001, decreased quality of protein as proven by higher collagen content (1.30 vs 1.37 vs 1.43%; P<0.001, and different pattern on myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic fractions when compared to normal fillets. Moreover, severe white-striped fillets exhibited higher energy content (450.7 vs 421.1 kJ/100g; P<0.01 with respect to normal meat. In conclusion, there was a large worsening of nutritional value of chicken breast meat following occurrence of white striping and this might impair consumer attitude towards poultry meat.

  7. Chemical composition and immunomodulatory effects of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamaiah, M; Hemalatha, R; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Bhaskarachary, K; Vajreswari, A; Ramesh Kumar, R; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare protein hydrolysates from underutilized common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg and to investigate their immunomodulatory effects in vivo. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) egg (roe) was hydrolysed by pepsin, trypsin, and Alcalase. Chemical composition (proximate, amino acid, mineral and fatty acid compositions) and molecular mass distribution of the three hydrolysates were determined. The carp egg protein hydrolysates (CEPHs) were evaluated for their immunomodulatory effects in BALB/c mice. CEPHs (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg body weight) were orally administered daily to female BALB/c mice (4-6 wk, 18-20 g) for a period of 45 d. After 45 d, mice were sacrificed and different tissues were collected for the immunologic investigations. The three hydrolysates contained high protein content (64%-73%) with all essential amino acids, and good proportion of ω-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid. Molecular mass analysis of hydrolysates confirmed the conversion of large-molecular-weight roe proteins into peptides of different sizes (5-90 kDa). The three hydrolysates significantly enhanced the proliferation of spleen lymphocytes. Pepsin hydrolysate (0.5 g/kg body weight) significantly increased the splenic natural killer cell cytotoxicity, mucosal immunity (secretory immunoglobulin A) in the gut and level of serum immunoglobulin A. Whereas Alcalase hydrolysate induced significant increases in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in spleen. The results demonstrate that CEPHs are able to improve the immune system and further reveal that different CEPHs may exert differential influences on the immune function. These results indicate that CEPHs could be useful for several applications in the health food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of fortification of fresh cow milk with coconut milk on the proximate composition and yield of warankashi, a traditional cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Balogun, Mutiat Adebanke; Kolawole, Fausat Lola; J. K. Joseph; Adebisi, Taibat Tunrayo; Ogunleye, Opeyemi Toyin

    2016-01-01

    Cheese is a concentrated dairy product produced by acid or rennet coagulation or curdling of milk, stirring and heating the curd, draining off the whey, collecting and pressing the curd. The effect of partial substitution of fresh cow milk with coconut milk on the yield and proximate composition of cheese was examined. Extracted coconut milk was mixed with fresh raw cow milk at varying proportions of 5%: 95%, 10%: 90%, 15%: 85%, 20%: 80%, 25%:75%, 70%: 30% and the control (0%:100%) to produce...

  9. Evaluation of the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of representative green, brown and red seaweeds from the Persian Gulf of Iran as potential food and feed resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani-Ghadikolaei, Kiuomars; Abdulalian, Eessa; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2012-12-01

    The proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition were determined for green (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis), brown (Sargassum ilicifolium and Colpomenia sinuosa) and red (Hypnea valentiae and Gracilaria corticata) seaweeds collected from the Persian Gulf of Iran. Results showed that the seaweeds were high in carbohydrate (31.8-59.1%, dry weight) and ash (12.4-29.9%) but low in lipid content (1.5-3.6%). The protein content of red or green seaweeds was significantly higher (p minerals examined (K, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Co) compared to terrestrial vegetables. Seaweeds could potentially be used as a food or feed additive in Iran.

  10. Gross Chemical Composition Of Some Pond Raised And River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were subjected to proximate analysis and such parameters as crude protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates (CHO), and some minerals such as calcium and magnesium determined. Two samples of fish were collected from river and pond sources and analyzed. The students\\' t-test was used to test for significant ...

  11. Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is the fifth most important grain crop after wheat, rice, maize and barley. It is cultivated for food and feed in America, Asia, Australia and Africa. Newly developed sorghum varieties should be evaluated for their suitability as food and feed. The physical characteristics and proximate ...

  12. Genesis of some tertiary Indian coals from the chemical composition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present investigation, 37 numbers of high sulphur tertiary coal samples from Meghalaya, India have been studied on the basis of proximate and ash analysis. Various statistical tools like Bivariant Analysis, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA), and also the geochemical ...

  13. Between-group variation in female dispersal, kin composition of groups, and proximity patterns in a black-and-white colobus monkey (Colobus vellerosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva C Wikberg

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence shows within-population variation in natal dispersal, but the effects of such variation on social relationships and the kin composition of groups remain poorly understood. We investigate the link between dispersal, the kin composition of groups, and proximity patterns in a population of black-and-white colobus (Colobus vellerosus that shows variation in female dispersal. From 2006 to 2011, we collected behavioral data, demographic data, and fecal samples of 77 males and 92 females residing in eight groups at Boabeng-Fiema, Ghana. A combination of demographic data and a genetic network analysis showed that although philopatry was female-biased, only about half of the females resided in their natal groups. Only one group contained female-female dyads with higher average relatedness than randomly drawn animals of both sexes from the same group. Despite between-group variation in female dispersal and kin composition, female-female dyads in most of the study groups had higher proximity scores than randomly drawn dyads from the same group. We conclude that groups fall along a continuum from female dispersed, not kin-based, and not bonded to female philopatric, kin-based, and bonded. We found only partial support for the predicted link between dispersal, kin composition, and social relationships. In contrast to most mammals where the kin composition of groups is a good predictor of the quality of female-female relationships, this study provides further support for the notion that kinship is not necessary for the development and maintenance of social bonds in some gregarious species.

  14. RESEARCH REGARDING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AT VINEGAR TYPES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liviu Giurgiulescu; Olimpia Mihaela Hoban

    2009-01-01

    In this article are presented some physico-chemical applied vinegar, to see some chemical properties of vinegar suchas total acidity, volatile and fixed, by colorimetric determination of iron content...

  15. Proximate composition of marine invertebrates from tropical coastal waters, with emphasis on the relationship between nitrogen and protein contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela S Diniz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical profiles of Desmapsamma anchorata, Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera, Bunodosoma caissarum, Renilla muelleri (Cnidaria, Aplysia brasiliana, Eledone massyae, Isognomon bicolor (Mollusca, Echinaster brasiliensis, Echinometra lucunter, Holothuria grisea, Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata, and Phallusia nigra (Chordata were determined. Hydrosoluble protein was the most abundant class of substances for all species, except for the ascidian Phallusia nigra, in which the carbohydrate content was higher. The percentages of hydrosoluble protein (dry weight, dw varied widely among the invertebrates, ranging from 5.88% (R. muelleri to 47.6% (Eledone massyae of the dw .The carbohydrate content fluctuated from 1.3% (R. muelleri to 18.4% (Aplysia brasiliana of the dw. For most of the species, lipid was the second most abundant class of substances, varying from 2.8% (R. muelleri to 25.3% (Echinaster brasiliensis of the dw. Wide variations were also found for the invertebrates nitrogen content, with the lowest value recorded in the cnidarian R. muelleri (2.02% of the dw and the highest in the molluscan E. massyae (12.7% of the dw. The phosphorus content of the dw varyed from 0.24% (R. muelleri to 1.16% (E. massyae. The amino acid composition varied largely among the species, but for most of the species glycine, arginine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were the most abundant amino acids, with histidine and tyrosine among the less abundant amino acids. The actual content of total protein in the samples was calculated by the sum of amino acid residues, establishing dw values that fluctuated from 11.1% (R. muelleri to 66.7% (E. massyae. The proteinaceous nitrogen content was high in all species, with an average value of 97.3% of the total nitrogen. From data of total amino acid residues and total nitrogen, specific nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors were calculated for each species. The nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors ranged from 5.10 to

  16. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Iranian Propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrouzan, Houshang; Tahghighi, Azar; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Es-haghi, Ali

    2018-01-01

    With considering the importance of natural products for their remedial and therapeutic value, this research was aimed to analyze the chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of four propolis samples from different areas of Iran (Chenaran, Taleghan, Morad Beyg, and Kalaleh) with various climates and flora. Ethanolic (70% EtOH) and dichlromethane (DCM) extracts of Iranian propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods, and antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus using disk diffusion antimicrobial method. The results of GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fatty acids, flavonoids, terpenes, aromatic-aliphatic acids, and their related esters. The total flavonoids in DCM extract of Chenaran, Taleghan, Morad Beyg, and Kalaleh propolis were pinocembrin and pinostrobin chalcone. The common phenolic and terpene compounds detected in all four tested EtOH extracts were P-cumaric acid and dimethyl -1,3,5,6-tetramethyl-[1,3-(13C2)] bicycloce [5.5.0] dodeca-1,3,5,6,8,10-hexaene-9,10-dicarboxylate, respectively. The highest inhibitory diameter zone of the Iranian propolis against C. albicans, E. coli, and S. aureus was for DCM extract of Kalaleh propolis (13.33 mm), Morad Beyg propolis (12 mm), and Kalaleh (11.67 mm), respectively. Iranian propolis showed antimicrobial activities against C. albicans, E. coli, and S. aurous, perhaps due to the presence of flavonoids, phenolic acids, and terpenes as active components that can be used alone or in combination with the selected antibiotics to synergize antibiotic effect, as well as to prevent microbial resistance to available antimicrobial drugs.

  17. Chemical composition and pharmacological activities of Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilani, Md Nazmul Hasan; Sultana, Tamanna; Asabur Rahman, S M; Anisuzzman, Md; Islam, Md Amirul; Shilpi, Jamil A; Hossain, Md Golam

    2017-03-27

    Consumption of vegetables has been proven to be effective in the prevention of different diseases. Traditionally edible aerial part of Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum (Fabaceae) is used to treat diabetes, heart diseases and as blood purifier. Present study was aimed to explore the traditional use of aerial parts of P. sativum as a source of antidiabetic agent. In addition, antioxidant activity and chemical composition was carried out. Total polyphenol content was spectrophotometrically determined using Folin Chiocalteu's reagent while the flavonoids by aluminum chloride colorimetric assay. Identification of compounds of the extract was made through HPLC and LCMS. Antihyperglycemic activity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test in mice. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging and reducing power assay. Total polyphenol and total flavonoids content were found to be 51.23 mg gallic acid equivalent and 30.88 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of dried plant extract respectively. Ellagic acid and p-coumeric acid were detected through HPLC. A total of eight compounds including naringenin, β-sitosterol were indentified through LCMS. In OGTT, extract (200 mg/kg bw) showed a 30.24% decrease (P< 0.05) in blood glucose levels at 30 min compared to the normal control. The extract showed IC50 value of 158.52 μg/mL in DPPH scavenging assay and also showed comparable reducing power. Along with other compounds ellagic acid and β-sitosterol present in the extract may be responsible for its antioxidant as well as antihyperglycemic activities. Altogether these results rationalize the use of this vegetable in traditional medicine.

  18. Chemical composition and antimicrobial evaluation of Achillea aucheri essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The majority of the Achillea spp. are used as medicinal plants with therapeutic applications worldwide. Achillea aucheri was selected in our study to assess its essential oil chemical composition along with antimicrobial evaluation. Methods: The essential oil of A. aucheri achieved through hydrodistillation, was analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Afterwards, the microbial growth inhibitory property of the A. aucheri essential oil was determined using the agar disk-diffusion method against five Gram-positive strains (Staphylococus aureus, Staphylococus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, three Gram-negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Psedumonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and a fungus (Candida albicans. Besides, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the sensitive strains were determined by broth dilution method to evaluate the inhibitory properties.Results: The GC-MS analysis, allowed us to identify 28 compounds, representing 98.1% of the total essential oil. The main components of the oil were identified as α-thujone (45.6%, artemisia alcohol (26.5% and yomogi alcohol (8.8%. The findings of the antimicrobial assay indicated that S. aureus was the most sensitive strain with the strongest inhibition zone of 31.5 ± 0.5 and MIC of 2.5 % v/v, followed by S. epidermidis and M. luteus, respectively.Conclusion: Overall, A. aucheri essential oil possessed potential antibacterial and antioxidant activities that could be attributed to the high content of oxygenated monoterpenes present in the oil which requisite for further exploration of the compounds in charge, considering the growing statistics of bacterial resistance worldwide.

  19. Chemical composition of fruits of some important chestnut cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümran Ertürk

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, chemical compositions of the fruits of some important domestic chestnut types and cultivars were investigated. They contained (g/100g dry matter basis total carbohydrates 75.32 - 86.31, total sugar 10.32 - 22.79, invert sugar 0.08 - 1.25, starch 54.45 - 69.70, sucrose 8.86 - 21.28, ash 1.02 - 3.22, crude cellulose 3.58 - 5.96, total fat 0.49 - 2.01, total protein 4.88 - 10.87. Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, P, Na and K contents were (mg/100g 43 - 230, 70 - 160, 0.4 - 5.7, 0.7 - 5.5, 0.6 - 3.8, 1.8 - 9.1, 107 - 191, 6 - 41, 761 - 1271, respectively.Neste estudo, a composição química das frutas domésticas importadas tipo castanha e seus cultivares foram investigados. Seu conteúdo (base da matéria seca de g/100g com base em matéria seca carboidratos totais 75,32 - 86,31, açúcares total 10,32 - 22,79, açúcar invertido 0,08 - 1,25, amido 54,45 - 69,70, sacarose 8,86 - 21,28, cinzas 1,02 - 3,22, celulose bruta 3,58 - 5,96, gordura total 0,49 - 2,01 do total, proteína total 4,88 - 10,87. Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, P, Na e k índice foi (mg/100g 43 - 230, 70 - 160, 0,4 - 5,7, 0,7 - 5,5, 0,6 - 3,8, 1,8 - 9,1, 107 - 191, 6 - 41, 761 - 1271, respectivamente.

  20. Brazilian Propolis: Correlation between Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Salomão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of ethanol extracts from samples of Brazilian propolis (EEPs determined by HPLC and their activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Sporothrix schenckii and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were determined. Based on the predominant botanical origin in the region of samples' collection, the 10 extracts were separated into three groups: A (B. dracunculifolia + Auraucaria spp, B (B. dracunculifolia and C (Araucaria spp. Analysis by the multiple regression of all the extracts together showed a positive correlation, higher concentrations leading to higher biological effect, of S. aureus with p-coumaric acid (PCUM and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-(oxo-butenyl-phenylacrylic acid (DHCA1 and of trypomastigotes of T. cruzi with 3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid derivative 4 (DHCA4 and 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-2H-1-benzopyran (DCBEN. When the same approach was employed for each group, due to the small number of observations, the statistical test gave unreliable results. However, an overall analysis revealed for group A an association of S. aureus with caffeic acid (CAF and dicaffeoylquinic acid 3 (CAFQ3, of S. pneumoniae with CAFQ3 and monocaffeoylquinic acid 2 (CAFQ2 and of T. cruzi also with CAFQ3. For group B, a higher activity against S. pneumoniae was associated DCBEN and for T. cruzi with CAF. For group C no association was observed between the anitmicrobial effect and any component of the extracts. The present study reinforces the relevance of PCUM and derivatives, especially prenylated ones and also of caffeolyquinic acids, on the biological activity of Brazilian propolis.

  1. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of berry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajčić Slađana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main chemical composition, contents of total phenolic (TPh, total flavonoid (TF, and total monomeric anthocyianin (TMA, as well as the antioxidant activity of two raspberry cultivars (Meeker and Willamette, two blackberry cultivars (Čačanska bestrna and Thornfree and wild bilberry were studied. The raspberry cultivars had the highest total solids among fruits investigated. Bilberry fruits had the highest sugar-to-acid ratio. Blackberry fruits were richer in crude fibers (cellulose in comparison to raspberry and bilberry fruits. The content of pectic substances was highest in the bilberry. Also, bilberry had a highest content of TPh (808.12 mg GAE/100 g FW, TF (716.31 mg RE/100 g FW and TMA (447.83 mg CGE/100 g FW. The antioxidant activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically, using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, expressed as the EC50 value (in mg of fresh weight of berry fruit per ml of the reaction mixture, of bilberry (0.3157 ± 0.0145 mg/ml was the highest. These results also showed that the antioxidant value of 100 g FW bilberry, raspberry - Willamette, raspberry - Meeker, blackberry - Čačanska bestrna and blackberry - Thornfree is equivalent to 576.50 mg, 282.74 mg, 191.58 mg, 222.28 mg and 272.01 mg of vitamin C, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the antioxidant activities and content of total phenolics (RTPh 2=0.9627, flavonoids (RTF 2=0.9598 and anthocyanins (RTMA 2=0.9496 in berry fruits. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  2. Estimation of Macronutrient Content in Kindergartens Meals: Food Composition Tables or Chemical Analysis?

    OpenAIRE

    Konstansa, Lazarevic; Dusica, Stojanovic; Dragan, Bogdanovic

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The nutrition of children in kindergartens has a great significance for proper growth and development of children. In order to save time and money, the control of macronutrients content is performed by calculations using food composition tables instead of performing a chemical analysis. Methods: We examined the macronutrients content of 240 whole day meals using food composition tables and performed chemical analysis of meals to determine adequacy and validity of food composition t...

  3. Polypropylene-modified kaolinite composites: Effect of chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanical properties of the composites exhibited important variations, the morphology of the composites was further studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and showed poor dispersion of used nanoclay in PP matrix. Keywords: polypropylene; composites; kaolinite; surface treatment; melt intercalation ...

  4. Comparison of proximate composition and sensory attributes ofClariidcatfish species ofClarias gariepinus,Heterobranchus bidorsalis, and their hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyi, Wasiu A; Makinde, Olukayode A; Omitogun, Ofelia G

    2017-03-01

    Clariid catfish are favorite food fish especially in African and Asian continents. Recently there has been preference for particular species or hybrids of these species based on quality assurance and value addition. Consequently, this study aimed to evaluate the possible effect of different catfish species and their hybrids on proximate composition and sensory attributes. Catfish species, Clarias gariepinus (CC), Heterobranchus bidorsalis (HH), with their hybrid (CH), and reciprocal hybrid (HC) were evaluated for sensory variables - cognitive (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and recent characteristic taste 'umami' ) and qualitative (texture, aroma, flavor, and color) tests; and nutritional variables - proximate composition (moisture, protein, ether/fat, and ash). A 5-point hedonic scale from 'neutral/neither like nor dislike' to 'excellent/like extremely' was employed in sensory testing. The results showed similar ( P  > 0.05) high moisture contents (>70%) in all species and high but different ( P   0.05) across species (>57%). Fat or ether extract was different ( P  attributes. All the fish species did not rate 'excellent/like extremely' for any attribute. It can be concluded that the parent catfish species possess better sensory qualities than hybrids, but all species need exogenous enhancement to their natural sensory components.

  5. In vitro crude protein digestibility of Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens insect meals and its correlation with chemical composition traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Marono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlation between in vitro crude protein digestibility coefficients of insect meals from Tenebrio molitor (TI and Hermetia illucens (HI and their chemical composition traits as well as to develop regression equations able to estimate the in vitro crude protein digestibility (CPd from proximate analysis of insect meals. Twelve samples of insect meals (6 from TM larvae, TM 1-6 and 6 from HI larvae, HI 1-6 were obtained from different producers and analysed for chemical composition and in vitro crude protein digestibility by a two-step enzymatic method (digestion with pepsin and trypsin-enriched pancreatin. For both insect meal samples, CPd was negatively correlated to ADF and chitin contents, while just for HI there was a positive correlation (P<0.01 between CP percentage of the samples and CPd. For both insect meals the former variable chosen in the stepwise analysis was the chitin, explaining the 79.45% of CPd variability for Tenebrio molitor samples and the 98.30% for Hermetia illucens. In the second step, the amount of protein linked to ADF was added in the model for T. molitor and CP for H. illucens samples. The coefficients chitin is the main constituent of insect body able to affect the crude protein digestibility of Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens larvae meals estimated by an in vitro enzymatic method.

  6. Estimation of macronutrient content in kindergartens meals: food composition tables or chemical analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstansa, Lazarevic; Dusica, Stojanovic; Dragan, Bogdanovic

    2014-10-01

    The nutrition of children in kindergartens has a great significance for proper growth and development of children. In order to save time and money, the control of macronutrients content is performed by calculations using food composition tables instead of performing a chemical analysis. We examined the macronutrients content of 240 whole day meals using food composition tables and performed chemical analysis of meals to determine adequacy and validity of food composition tables in calculation of macronutrient contents in kindergarten meals. We established no correlation (P>0.05) between the value of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Significant difference was established between the average content of proteins (t=2.57; P0.05) (food composition tables vs chemical analysis). Until we establish new food composition tables, chemical analysis remains the only valid method for assessment of macronutrients content and energy value of a meal in kindergarten.

  7. Effect of chemical treatments on the chemical composition and properties of flax fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Biljana D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flax fibers were modified with NaOH and NaClO2 under different conditions in order to clarify effects of hemicelluloses and lignin removal on the morphology and properties of flax fibers, but also to improve fiber quality. The quality of flax fibers was characterized in terms of chemical composition, fineness, whiteness, mechanical and sorption properties. Both treatments, alkali treatment leading to hemicelluloses removal (up to 72 % of hemicelluloses removed and chlorite treatment leading to lignin removal (up to 96 % of lignin removed, induce a modification of morphology and properties of flax fibers. For 5 % NaOH treatments, as well as all NaClO2 treatments, increase in the crystallinity was observed, while for higher NaOH concentrations, the mercerization phenomenon induces a slight decrease of the crystallinity. Modification with NaClO2 results in fiber fibrillation while modification with NaOH at boiling temperature results in smoother fiber surfaces. Both treatments cause decrease in tensile strength and water retention values, with maximal decrease obtained for NaOH treatment at boiling temperature. Chlorite treatment results in finer fibers having a higher whiteness index compare to alkali modified fibers. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 172029

  8. Effect of a carbonated HAP/β-glucan composite bone substitute on healing of drilled bone voids in the proximal tibial metaphysis of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, Leszek, E-mail: leszek.borkowski@umlub.pl [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Pawłowska, Marta; Radzki, Radosław P.; Bieńko, Marek [Department of Animal Physiology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 12, 20-033 Lublin (Poland); Polkowska, Izabela [Department and Clinic of Animal Surgery, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głęboka 30, 20-612 Lublin (Poland); Belcarz, Anna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Karpiński, Mirosław [Department of Companion and Wildlife Animals, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Słowik, Tymoteusz [Independent Radiology Unit at Lublin Small Animals Medical Centre, Stefczyka 11, 20-151 Lublin (Poland); Matuszewski, Łukasz [Children' s Orthopaedic Clinic and Rehabilitation Department, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 2, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Ślósarczyk, Anna [Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Ginalska, Grażyna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-08-01

    A novel elastic hydroxyapatite-based composite of high surgical handiness has been developed. Its potential application in orthopedics as a filler of bone defects has been studied. The biomaterial was composed of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAP) granules and polysaccharide polymer (β-1,3-glucan). Cylinders of 4 mm in diameter and 6 mm in length were implanted into bone cavities created in the proximal metaphysis of tibiae of 24 New Zealand white rabbits. 18 sham-operated animals were used as controls. After 1, 3 or 6 months, the rabbits were euthanized, the bones were harvested and subjected to analysis. Radiological images and histological sections revealed integration of implants with bone tissue with no signs of graft rejection. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) indicated the stimulating effect of the biomaterial on bone formation and mineralization. Densitometry (DXA) analysis suggested that biomineralization of bones was preceded by bioresorption and gradual disappearance of porous ceramic granules. The findings suggest that the CHAP–glucan composite material enables regeneration of bone tissue and could serve as a bone defect filler. - Highlights: • Highly porous carbonate HAP granules and β-1,3-glucan were used to fill bone voids. • Critical size defects of rabbit tibiae were filled with the composite scaffolds. • Biocompatibility, mineralization and osseointegration of implants were examined. • Histological analysis indicated a high biocompatibility of composite grafts. • We report penetration of bony tissue into implants and advanced osseointegration.

  9. Effect of Dietary Protein and Energy Level on Proximate Composition of Breast and Thigh Meat in White Leghorn Layers at Molt and Post Molt Production Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Javaid*, M. I. Anjum1 and M. Akram2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of varying protein and energy levels in molt diets on meat composition of White Leghorn layers. One hundred and fifty four, 70 weeks old, layers were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 8 hens each in addition to 10 birds that were slaughtered at pre molt and post fast stages. After 10 days of fasting during molting, 6 experimental diets having 3 levels of crude protein (CP i.e. 14, 16 and 18% and 2 levels of metabolizable energy (ME i.e. 2700 and 2900 kcal/kg were given to the birds at the rate of 45 g/bird for 25 day. There after the birds were offered ad-libitum layer ration during production phase. Two birds per replicate at post molt, at 50% egg production and at the end of experiment were slaughtered and then breast and thigh meat samples were analyzed for proximate composition. Moisture (71.7 and 70.0% content was significantly (P<0.05 higher while, ether extract (2.13 and 3.49% was significantly (P<0.05 lower in both breast and thigh meat, respectively, with 18% CP diet as compared to 14 and 16% CP diets. Medium Protein-High Energy (MPHE molt diet having 16% CP with 2900 kcal/kg ME produced more dry matter and protein content in meat at the expense of ether extract. Results regarding proximate composition of layer meat determined at different stages of molting and post molt production revealed that moisture and protein contents of both breast and thigh meat were significantly increased where as, ether extract and ash contents were significantly decreased at post fast stage with respect to other stages.

  10. [Quality evaluation of Gualou Guizhi decoction based on chemical compositions and biological effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huang; Qiao, Li-Fei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Xu, Wen; Xu, Wei; Chu, Ke-Dan; Lin, Yu

    2017-05-01

    The paper was aimed to establish a quality evaluation model for Gualou Guizhi decoction based on the chemical compositions and biological effects. Ultra high performance liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer was used to analyze and determine 24 kinds of chemical compositions in Gualou Guizhi decoction, and then, biological activity effect was quantitatively assessed in a zebrafish neuronal injury model which was induced by mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). As a result, the established method for quality evaluation of Gualou Guizhi decoction based on the chemical compositions and biological effects is feasible, stable and reliable, which can provide reference for quality control of compound Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. RESEARCH REGARDING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AT VINEGAR TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Giurgiulescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article are presented some physico-chemical applied vinegar, to see some chemical properties of vinegar suchas total acidity, volatile and fixed, by colorimetric determination of iron content in the vinegar, the extract andresidue determination dry.

  12. Prediction of chemical composition of South African Medicago sativa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict chemical and digestibility parameters was investigated. Samples (n = 168) representing the spectral characteristics of the South African. Medicago sativa L. hay population were chemically analysed for the development of calibration equations. Values for r² and ...

  13. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF Paracalyx scariosus (ROXB. ALI A WILD RELATIVE OF CAJANUS FROM SOUTHERN PENINSULAR INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondragunta Sri Rama Murthy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Paracalyx scariosus (Roxb. Ali locally known as ";;adavi tellakandulu";; in Telugu, used as food by local tribes people in the Rollapenta forest, Kurnool district, Nallamalais of Andhra Pradesh of southern Peninsular India. The mature seed samples were analysed for proximate composition, total (true seed protein fractions, amino acid composition, fatty acids profile, mineral and antinutritional factors. They contained higher amount of crude protein, crude fat, ash and nitrogen free extractives constitute 20.56, 5.19, 5.12 and 56.25 % respectively of the seed weight. The calorific value of 100g dry matter of seed material was 1680.92 kJ DM. The essential amino acids, isoleucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine, were present in relatively large quantities.  The fatty acid profiles revealed that the seed lipids contained higher concentrations of palmitic and linoleic acids. The seeds are rich in sodium, phosphorus, calcium, zinc, manganese and iron. Anti-nutritional factors such as total free phenols, (5.56% tannins (2.78%, L -DOPA (0.63%, hydrogen cyanide (0.065% and phytic acid (0.85% are present in variable quantities. From the results these plant have a good potential as food crops in Andhra Pradesh.  This paper presents the chemical composition and nutritional potential of Paracalyx scariosus seeds with regard to its suitability as a regular component in human diet.

  14. Age and whole rock glass compositions of proximal pyroclastics from the major explosive eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius: A review as a tool for distal tephrostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacroce, Roberto; Cioni, Raffaello; Marianelli, Paola; Sbrana, Alessandro; Sulpizio, Roberto; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Donahue, Douglas J.; Joron, Jean Louis

    2008-10-01

    A review of compositional data of the major explosive eruptions of Vesuvius is presented, comparing compositions (major elements) of whole rock with glass shards from the proximal deposits, hopefully useful for long-distance correlation. A critical review of published and new geochronological data is also provided. All available 14C ages are calibrated to give calendar ages useful for the reconstruction of the volcanological evolution of the volcanic complex. The pyroclastic deposits of the four major Plinian eruptions (22,000 yr cal BP "Pomici di Base", 8900 yr cal BP "Mercato Pumice", 4300 yr cal BP "Avellino Pumice", and A.D. 79 "Pompeii Pumice") are widely dispersed and allow a four-folded, Plinian to Plinian, stratigraphic division: 1. B-M (between Pomici di Base and Mercato); 2. M-A (between Mercato and Avellino); 3. A-P (between Avellino and Pompeii); 4. P-XX (from the Pompeii Pumice to the last erupted products of the XXth century). Within each interval, the age, lithologic and compositional features of pyroclastic deposits of major eruptions, potentially useful for tephrostratigraphic purposes on distal areas, are briefly discussed. The Vesuvius rocks are mostly high Potassic products, widely variable in terms of their silica saturation. They form three groups, different for both composition and age: 1. slightly undersaturated, older than Mercato eruption; 2. mildly undersaturated, from Mercato to Pompeii eruptions; 3. highly undersaturated, younger than Pompeii eruption. For whole rock analyses, the peculiar variations in contents of some major and trace elements as well as different trends in element/element ratios, allow a clear, unequivocal, easy diagnosis of the group they belong. Glass analyses show large compositional overlap between different groups, but selected element vs. element plots are distinctive for the three groups. The comparative analysis of glass and whole rock major element compositions provides reliable geochemical criteria helping

  15. Chemical composition of nanomodified composite binder with nano- and microsized barium silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOROLEV Evgenij Valerjevich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are several possibilities to improve cement-based binders. In particular, many properties of cement stone can be enhanced by means of micro- and nanoscale modification. In a number of previous works we had shown that application of barium hydrosilicates leads to such improvement. The present article is devoted to the investigation of the chemical composition of the cement stone which is modified by means of addition of barium hydrosilicates. The modification was performed on different scales: micro- and nanoscale; the results of simultaneous multi-scale modification are also presented. The examination was carried out with help of different modern research techniques – FT IR spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray phase analysis. Identification of the new phases and comparative quantitative assessment of their content are performed. It is found that the use of nano- and micro-sized barium hydrosilicates as additives leads to reduction of portlandite by 27...28%; by means of multi-scale modification it is possible to reduce the content of portlandite much more (by 83.3%. Due to addition of nano- and micro-sized barium-based modifiers both the amount of calcium hydrosilicates in reaction products is enlarged, and structure of the mentioned hydrosilicates is changed (the formation of a fine-grained structure of hydration products takes place. Micro-sized barium hydrosilicates are chemically active additives and promote the formation of an additional quantity of calcium hydrosilicates of type CSH (I. The use of nanoscale barium hydrosilicates promotes the formation of CSH (I and CSH (II calcium hydrosilicates, and also both riversidite and xonotlite. As a result of simultaneous application of nano- and micro-sized barium hydrosilicates the content of CSH (II increases. This can be confirmed by means of differential thermal and X-ray analysis. The amount of CSH (I, riversidite and various tobermorites is also increases. It is

  16. Atmospheric aerosol over Vermont: chemical composition and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polissar, A V; Hopke, P K; Poirot, R L

    2001-12-01

    Aerosol chemical composition data for PM2.5 samples collected during the period from 1988 to 1995 at Underhill, VT, were analyzed. Sulfur and black carbon mass concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.5 microg m(-3) and from 0.05 to 2.2 microg m(-3), respectively, while the total fine aerosol mass concentration ranged from 0.2 to 51.1 microg m(-3). Seasonal variations with maxima during the summer and minima in winter/spring were observed for sulfur and the fine mass concentrations. No annual pattern was observed for black carbon. Seasonal variations for most of the other anthropogenic species had maxima in winter and spring and minima in the summer. A factor analysis method, positive matrix factorization (PMF), utilizing error estimates of the data to provide optimum data point scaling was used to obtain information about possible sources of the aerosol. An 11-factor solution was obtained. The six sources representing wood burning, coal and oil combustion, coal combustion emissions plus photochemical sulfate production, metal production plus municipal waste incineration, and emissions from motor vehicles were identified. Emissions from smelting of nonferrous metal ores, arsenic smelting, and soil particles and particles with high concentrations of Na were also identified by PMF. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis combines the aerosol data with the air parcel backward trajectories. PSCF was applied to identify possible source areas and pathways that give rise to the observed high particulate mass concentrations from these 11 sources. The CAPITA Monte Carlo trajectory model was used to obtain 10 sets of 5-day air parcel back trajectories arriving every 2 h for the 7-yr period from 1988 to 1995. The PSCF plot for the black carbon factor shows high probabilities in the area surrounding the sampling site, indicating a strong local influence from residential wood combustion in northern New England and southwestern Quebec. Similar large potential source

  17. Particle size distribution and physico-chemical composition of clay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Chemically and Thermally Stable High Energy Density Silicone Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal energy storage systems with 300 ? 1000 kJ/kg energy density through either phase changes or chemical heat absorption are sought by NASA. This proposed effort...

  19. PASTA ADDED WITH CHICKPEA FLOUR: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, IN VITRO STARCH DIGESTIBILITY AND PREDICTED GLYCEMIC INDEX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osorio-Díaz, P; Agama-Acevedo, E; Mendoza-Vinalay, M; Tovar, J; Bello-Pérez, L. A

    2008-01-01

    Pasta was prepared with of durum wheat flour mixed with chickpea flour at two different levels and its chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index were assessed...

  20. Variation in size, morphology and chemical composition of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Parthiban, G.

    Chemical composition of 613 polymetallic nodules from 150 stations in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) are determined and variations in Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn and moisture content are studied with respect to their size and surface texture...

  1. Collocated observations of cloud condensation nuclei, particle size distributions, and chemical composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmale, J.; Henning, S.; Henzing, B.; Keskinen, H.; Sellegri, K.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Bougiatioti, A.; Kalivitis, N.; Stavroulas, I.; Jefferson, A.; Park, M.; Schlag, P.; Kristensson, A.; Iwamoto, Y.; Pringle, K.; Reddington, C.; Aalto, P.; Äijälä, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Bialek, J.; Birmili, W.; Bukowiecki, N.; Ehn, M.; Fjæraa, A.M.; Fiebig, M.; Frank, G.; Fröhlich, R.; Frumau, A.; Furuya, M.; Hammer, E.; Heikkinen, L.; Herrmann, E.; Holzinger, R.; Hyono, H.; Kanakidou, M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kinouchi, K.; Kos, G.; Kulmala, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Motos, G.; Nenes, A.; O'Dowd, C.; Paramonov, M.; Petäjä, T.; Picard, D.; Poulain, L.; Prévôt, A.S.H.; Slowik, J.; Sonntag, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Svenningsson, B.; Tsurumaru, H.; Wiedensohler, A.; Wittbom, C.; Ogren, J.A.; Matsuki, A.; Yum, S.S.; Myhre, C.L.; Carslaw, K.; Stratmann, F.; Gysel, M.

    2017-01-01

    Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations alongside with submicrometer particle number size distributions and particle chemical composition have been measured at atmospheric observatories of the Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure (ACTRIS) as well as other

  2. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils against human pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 aromatic plants Matricaria chamommilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Citrus limon and C. aurantium have been determined.

  3. Variación estacional de la composición proximal en tres especies de importancia comercial del Golfo de Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica Seasonal variation of proximate composition in three commercially important species in the Gulf of Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Fonseca Rodríguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La información disponible sobre la composición química de algunos recursos pesqueros que se capturan en el Golfo de Nicoya es muy limitada. Por tal razón se determinaron los niveles de los componentes proximales de las partes comestibles (fresco de tres especies de importancia comercial. Las muestras fueron adquiridas en el Mercado de Puntarenas entre febrero 2009 y enero 2001 durante la temporada de pesca. Los análisis de la composición proximal se determinaron según la metodología de AOAC. Los resultados indicaron que el contenido de humedad varió entre 74.6-80.6g/100g en robalo (Centropomus unionesis, 76.9-80.0g/100g en camarón (Trachypenaeus byrdi y 77.9-89.5g/100g en almeja verde (Poymesoda radiata. Después de la humedad la fracción química más abundante fue la proteína presentando los valores más altos en diciembre para el robalo y febrero para el camarón y la almeja verde. Las mayores fluctuaciones en el contenido de lípidos se presentaron en el robalo, variando desde 0.7g/100g hasta 5.6g/100g. Los valores más altos en esta fracción fueron encontrados en julio, febrero y abril en camarones, almeja y robalo respectivamente. Se concluye que la especie de pescado y camarón estudiados son una buena alternativa para el consumo humano por ser una fuente importante de proteínas y por su bajo contenido en lípidos.Nutritional value of seafood for human consumption is worldwide recognized. Some information have been generated in other countries, nevertheless, there is limited information describing the chemical composition of some fishery important species caught in the Gulf of Nicoya. For this reason, we studied the levels of proximal components of the edible parts (fresh of three commercially important species. The meat samples of snook Centropomus unionesis, the shrimp Trachypenaeus byrdi and the bivalve Polymesoda radiata, were collected from the Puntarenas local fish market during the fishing season of February 2009 to

  4. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairul Alam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC and total polyphenol content (TPC. Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI Sweet Potato 7 (SP7 contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  5. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Rana, Ziaul Hasan; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-09-14

    In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC) and total polyphenol content (TPC). Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) Sweet Potato 7 (SP7) contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  6. Computation of air chemical equilibrium composition until 30000K - Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Rocha Pimentel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm was developed to obtain the air chemical equilibrium composition. The air was considered to be composed of 79% N2 and 21% O2, and the models are 5 chemical species, N2, O2, NO, N, O, NO+, e-, respectively. The air chemical equilibrium composition is obtained through the equilibrium constants method and it was used the Absolute Newton method for convergence.The algorithm can be coupled as a subroutine into a Computational Fluid Dynamics code, given the flow field over an atmosphere reentry vehicle where, due to high velocities, dissociative chemical reactions and air ionization can occur. This work presents results of air chemical equilibrium composition for pressures of 1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 atm in a temperature range from 300 to 30000K.

  7. Differential effects of conifer and broadleaf litter inputs on soil organic carbon chemical composition through altered soil microbial community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Shi-Rong; Wang, Jing-Xin; Shi, Zuo-Min; Xu, Jia; Hong, Pi-Zheng; Ming, An-Gang; Yu, Hao-Long; Chen, Lin; Lu, Li-Hua; Cai, Dao-Xiong

    2016-06-01

    A strategic selection of tree species will shift the type and quality of litter input, and subsequently magnitude and composition of the soil organic carbon (SOC) through soil microbial community. We conducted a manipulative experiment in randomized block design with leaf litter inputs of four native subtropical tree species in a Pinus massoniana plantation in southern China and found that the chemical composition of SOC did not differ significantly among treatments until after 28 months of the experiment. Contrasting leaf litter inputs had significant impacts on the amounts of total microbial, Gram-positive bacterial, and actinomycic PLFAs, but not on the amounts of total bacterial, Gram-negative bacterial, and fungal PLFAs. There were significant differences in alkyl/O-alkyl C in soils among the leaf litter input treatments, but no apparent differences in the proportions of chemical compositions (alkyl, O-alkyl, aromatic, and carbonyl C) in SOC. Soil alkyl/O-alkyl C was significantly related to the amounts of total microbial, and Gram-positive bacterial PLFAs, but not to the chemical compositions of leaf litter. Our findings suggest that changes in forest leaf litter inputs could result in changes in chemical stability of SOC through the altered microbial community composition.

  8. Effect Of Heat Processing On The Proximate Composition And Energy Values Of African Walnut Plukenetiaconophora And African Elemi Canariumschweinfurthii Consumed As Masticatories In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Onyeike

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of heat processing on the proximate composition and energy values of the seed kernel flours of African walnut AWand pulps of African elemi AE used as traditional snacks in most parts of Nigeria were investigated. In the AW values of moisture ash crude fibre and carbohydrate decreased from raw to heat treated samples while those of crude protein and crude fat generally increased. The increase or decrease in these values was not significant at the 5 level. For instance ash decreased from 6.051.71 in AWraw to 5.450.86 in AW135. Crude fat was highest in AW45 52.82.70 followed by AW90 51.71.61 and was lowest in AWraw 49.81.08 while calorific value was highest in AW45 612.211.7 followed by AW90 609.36.23 and lowest in AWraw 593.46.75. Similar trends were observed in proximate composition of raw and macerated African elemi pulp flour and values between raw and heat processed samples did not generally differ significantly Pamp7070.05. In AWrawthe percentage crude protein crude fat and then energy value in kcal 100g-1 sample were 26.2 49.8 and 593.4 respectively while in AEraw values were 14.6 41.9 and 568.6 respectively. It can be concluded that both AW and AE are oil-rich seeds and pulps good nutrient sources that could contribute to the total protein ash and energy requirements of humans.

  9. Black soldier fly as dietary protein source for broiler quails: meat proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile, oxidative status and sensory traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullere, M; Tasoniero, G; Giaccone, V; Acuti, G; Marangon, A; Dalle Zotte, A

    2017-07-24

    In the perspective of improving the sustainability of meat production, insects have been rapidly emerging as innovative feed ingredient for some livestock species, including poultry. However, at present, there is still limited knowledge regarding the quality and sensory traits of the derived meat. Therefore, the present study tested the effect of a partial substitution of soya bean meal and oil with defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal (H) in the diet for growing broiler quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) on meat proximate composition, cholesterol, amino acid and mineral contents, fatty acid profile, oxidative status and sensory characteristics. To this purpose, three dietary treatments were designed: a control diet (C) and two diets (H1 and H2) corresponding to 10% and 15% H inclusion levels, respectively, were fed to growing quails from 10 to 28 days of age. At 28 days of age, quails were slaughtered and breast meat was used for meat quality evaluations. Meat proximate composition, cholesterol content and oxidative status remained unaffected by H supplementation as well as its sensory characteristics and off-flavours perception. Differently, with increasing the dietary H inclusion, the total saturated fatty acid and total monounsaturated fatty acid proportions raised to the detriment of the polyunsaturated fatty acid fraction thus lowering the healthiness of the breast meat. The H2 diet increased the contents of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, serine, tyrosine and threonine thus further enhancing the biological value of the meat protein. As a direct result of the dietary content of Ca and P, the meat of quails fed with the highest H level, displayed the highest Ca and the lowest P values. Therefore, meat quality evaluations confirmed H to be a promising insect protein source for quails. The only potential drawback from feeding H to broiler quails regarded the fatty acid profile of the meat, therefore requiring further research

  10. Surge-Resistant Nanocomposite Enameled Wire Using Silica Nanoparticles with Binary Chemical Compositions on the Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Jeseung Yoo; Yongbeom Kim; Suyong Kwon; Joohyun Lee; Young-Soo Seo

    2015-01-01

    We developed polyesterimide (PEI) nanocomposite enameled wires using surface-modified silica nanoparticles with binary chemical compositions on the surface. The modification was done using silanes assisted by ultrasound, which facilitated high density modification. Two different trimethoxysilanes were chosen for the modification on the basis of resemblance of chemical compositions on the silica surface to PEI varnish. The surface-modified silica was well dispersed in PEI varnish, which was co...

  11. Microflora and chemical composition of dental plaque from subjects with hereditary fructose intolerance.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoover, C I; Newbrun, E; Mettraux, G; Graf, H

    1980-01-01

    We compared the microbiological and chemical composition of dental plaque from subjects with hereditary fructose intolerance who restrict their dietary sugar intake with that of control subjects who do not. The two groups showed no significant differences in chemical composition of plaque: the mean protein, carbohydrate, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate contents were similar. Dental plaque from both groups contained similar numbers of total colony-forming units per microgram of plaque protei...

  12. Electrical performance and chemical composition studies on original and falsified Ni-MH batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Urbano; Jair Scarminio; Carlos Roberto Appoloni; Ricardo Floriano; Fábio Luiz Melquíades; Adenílson de Oliveira dos Santos; Paulo Rogério Catarini da Silva; Fábio Lopes; Rafael Bonacin de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    We show in this paper that falsifications on technological products have hit even rechargeable nickel metal hydride batteries (Ni-MH). The electrical performance and the electrode chemical composition were investigated for authentic and falsified AAA Ni-MH batteries, purchased in the Londrina market, Paraná State. Battery charge capacities were measured at 0,2 C discharge rate and average electrical power was measured at 0.2 and 0.8 C discharge rate. To perform chemical composition analysis, ...

  13. Soybean root suberin: anatomical distribution, chemical composition, and relationship to partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Raymond; Fang, Xingxiao; Ranathunge, Kosala; Anderson, Terry R; Peterson, Carol A; Bernards, Mark A

    2007-05-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is a versatile and important agronomic crop grown worldwide. Each year millions of dollars of potential yield revenues are lost due to a root rot disease caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae (Kaufmann & Gerdemann). Since the root is the primary site of infection by this organism, we undertook an examination of the physicochemical barriers in soybean root, namely, the suberized walls of the epidermis and endodermis, to establish whether or not preformed suberin (i.e. naturally present in noninfected plants) could have a role in partial resistance to P. sojae. Herein we describe the anatomical distribution and chemical composition of soybean root suberin as well as its relationship to partial resistance to P. sojae. Soybean roots contain a state I endodermis (Casparian bands only) within the first 80 mm of the root tip, and a state II endodermis (Casparian bands and some cells with suberin lamellae) in more proximal regions. A state III endodermis (with thick, cellulosic, tertiary walls) was not present within the 200-mm-long roots examined. An exodermis was also absent, but some walls of the epidermal and neighboring cortical cells were suberized. Chemically, soybean root suberin resembles a typical suberin, and consists of waxes, fatty acids, omega-hydroxy acids, alpha,omega-diacids, primary alcohols, and guaiacyl- and syringyl-substituted phenolics. Total suberin analysis of isolated soybean epidermis/outer cortex and endodermis tissues demonstrated (1) significantly higher amounts in the endodermis compared to the epidermis/outer cortex, (2) increased amounts in the endodermis as the root matured from state I to state II, (3) increased amounts in the epidermis/outer cortex along the axis of the root, and (4) significantly higher amounts in tissues isolated from a cultivar ('Conrad') with a high degree of partial resistance to P. sojae compared with a susceptible line (OX760-6). This latter correlation was extended by an

  14. Aspergillus-fermented Jatropha curcas seed cake: proximate composition and effects on biochemical indices in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAOZIYAT SULAIMAN ADENIKE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated Jatropha curcas seed cake fermented by Aspergillus niger for use as a potential source of protein in animal feed production. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (A–D, of 3 rats each and fed different protein-rich diets for 4 weeks. Group 1 (control was fed with soybean as a protein source, while Groups 2, 3, and 4 were given feeds supplemented instead with Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas, unfermented J. curcas, and a mix of Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas and soybean (1:1, respectively. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, and their serum and vital organs were harvested for further analyses. Proximate analyses of the various diet combinations showed significant (P < 0.05 variations in crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, and ash content. Enzyme assays (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase in rat serum and tissue homogenates indicate that the detoxification of J. curcas kernel cake by A. niger fermentation is viable and promising. Body weight generally did not differ significantly between the groups, but all rats put on weight in week 1 (Group 2 most strongly. The initial weight gain was followed by a slight decreasing trend in all groups in weeks 2–4, probably due to an adaptation mechanism. One rat fed with the unfermented cake (Group 3 died in week 2, confirming that the cake is not safe for direct consumption until it is processed. Our data support further use of Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas as an alternative protein source in animal feed preparation.

  15. Chemical composition and amino acid profile of differently processed feather meal

    OpenAIRE

    Adejumo Oluseun Isaac; Adetunji Oluwaseun Charles; Ogundipe Kunle; Osademe Ndudi Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Feather wastes represent potential alternative ingredients for animal feedstuffs which can ameliorate the protein shortage for food and feed. Previous attempts to provide information about the nutrient composition of feather meal are either too complicated for rural livestock farmers in developing countries or they provided incomplete information on chemical composition. Washed feathers were subjected to different processing techniques such as pre-soaking i...

  16. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    OpenAIRE

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  17. The chemical composition of the low-mass Galactic globular cluster NGC 6362

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massari, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Dalessandro, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Cassisi, S.; Fiorentino, G.; Ibata, R. A.; Lardo, C.; Salaris, M.

    We present chemical abundances for 17 elements in a sample of 11 red giant branch stars in NGC 6362 from UVES spectra. NGC 6362 is one of the least massive globulars where multiple populations have been detected, yet its detailed chemical composition has not been investigated so far. NGC 6362 turns

  18. Chemical erosion of different carbon composites under ITER-relevant plasma conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, J.; Borodin, D.; Al, R.S.; Brezinsek, S.; Hoen, Mhjt; Kirschner, A.; Lisgo, S.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Philipps, V.; van de Pol, M.J.; Shumack, A. E.; De Temmerman, G.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; Wright, G. M.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; Rapp, J.; van Rooij, G. J.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the chemical erosion of different carbon composites in Pilot-PSI at ITER-relevant hydrogen plasma fluxes (similar to 10(24) m(-2) s(-1)) and low electron temperatures (T-e similar to 1 eV). Optical emission spectroscopy on the CH A-X band was used to characterize the chemical

  19. Chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles over the Aegean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezantakos, S.; Barmpounis, K.; Giamarelou, M.; Bossioli, E.; Tombrou, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Kalogiros, J.; Allan, J.D.; Bacak, A.; Percival, C.J.; Coe, H.; Biskos, G.

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition and water uptake characteristics of sub-micrometre atmospheric particles over the region of the Aegean Sea were measured between 25 August and 11 September 2011 within the framework of the Aegean-Game campaign. High temporal-resolution measurements of the chemical

  20. The effect of plant age on the chemical composition of fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the second study the chemical composition of whole leaves from young, bud and mature micro-ensilaged (3.5 kg as fed) Agave was determined over a 36 weeks fermentation period. Agave silage had acceptable chemical characteristics. As time of fermentation increased, a linear decrease in DM and saponin ...

  1. Biological resistance of polyethylene composites made with chemically modified fiber or flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons

    2002-01-01

    The role of moisture in the biological decay of wood-plastic composites was investigated. Southern pine wood fiber and ponderosa pine wood flour were chemically modified using either acetic anhydride (AA), butylene oxide (BO), or propylene oxide (PO). A 50:50 mixture of high density polyethylene and either chemically modified fiber or flour, or untreated fiber or flour...

  2. Recent Advances in the Chemical Composition of Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a honeybee product with broad clinical applications. Current literature describes that propolis is collected from plant resins. From a systematic database search, 241 compounds were identified in propolis for the first time between 2000 and 2012; and they belong to such diverse chemical classes as flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, terpenenes, stilbenes, lignans, coumarins, and their prenylated derivatives, showing a pattern consistent with around 300 previously reported compounds. The chemical characteristics of propolis are linked to the diversity of geographical location, plant sources and bee species.

  3. Chemical composition of clays as indicator of the raw material sources

    OpenAIRE

    Khramchenkova Rezida Kh.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of study on the chemical composition of unglazed pottery from the excavations of the Bulgar fortified settlement site and the clay, selected from the modern deposits of ceramic raw materials located near the medieval settlement sites. Significant differences in macro- and microelement composition of different groups of ceramics have been revealed. The difference in the macroelemental composition is largely determined by the ceramic fabric recipe. Thus, the high ...

  4. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Commiphora erythraea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotullio, Maria Carla; Santi, Claudio; Mwankie, Gildas Norbert Oball-Mond; Curini, Massimo

    2009-12-01

    The essential oil composition of Commiphora erythraea (Ehrenb) Engl. is reported for the first time. The oil is rich in sesquiterpenes, particularly furanosesquiterpenes (50.3%). GC-MS analysis of the oil permitted differentiation between C. erythraea and C. kataf, two often confused species.

  5. Chemical and sulphur isotope compositions of pyrite in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 3 ... Pyrite; minor element; sulphur isotope; evolution; Jaduguda; Singhbhum; India. ... By integrating minor element and sulphur isotope compositions of pyrite in conjunction with other published data on the Jaduguda deposit, it is proposed that reduced ...

  6. Chemical composition of essential oil of exudates of Dryobalanops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Su J, Chen L, Li B, Li L. Extraction and Composition. Analysis of Volatile Components in Leaves of. Cinnamomun burmannii B1. J Food Science 2010; 31: 399-401. 11. Buchbauer G, Jager W, Jirovetz L, Meyer F, Dietrich H. Effects of valerian root oil, borneol, isoborneol, bornyl acetate and isobornyl acetate on the motility of.

  7. Chemical composition and palaeobotanical origin of Miocene resins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The terpenoid composition of resins from the Miocene lignite horizons from the Kerala –Konkan Coast,western India was analyzed by Curie-point pyrolysis –gas chromatography –mass spectrometry (Cupy –GC –MS).The major pyrolysates were cadalene-based bicyclic sesquiterpenoids including some C30-C31 ...

  8. The chemical composition of tertiary Indian coal ash and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The regression analysis of high temperature ash (HTA) composition and initial deformation temperature (IDT) show a definite increasing or decreasing trend, which has been used to determine the predictive indices for slagging, fouling, and abrasion propensities during combustion practices. The increase or decrease of IDT ...

  9. Physio-chemical, mineral composition and antioxidant properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dried roselle calyces at a ratio of 1:10 (dried roselle calyces: water) were extracted at 50oC for 30 minutes. The roselle extracts were blended at various proportions of fruit (mango, papaya and guava) juices. Physiochemical, mineral composition and antioxidant properties were evaluated in all the roselle fruit juice blends ...

  10. Composition and chemical variability of Corsican Pinus halepensis cone oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Anne-Marie; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Bighelli, Ange

    2014-09-01

    The composition of the essential oil isolated from cones of Pinus halepensis grown in Corsica has been investigated by a combination of chromatographic (CC, GC) and spectroscopic (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 48 compounds that accounted for 95.5% of the whole composition have been identified. α-Pinene (47.5%) was the major component followed by myrcene (11.0%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (8.3%) and caryophyllene oxide (5.9%). Various diterpenes have been identified by 13C NMR in the fractions of CC. Fifteen oil samples isolated from cones harvested in three forests have been analyzed and two groups of similar importance have been differentiated within the 15 compositions. Oil samples of the first group contained α-pinene (mean 45.0 g/100 g, SD = 5.5) as the major component. The composition of samples of the second group was dominated by myrcene (mean 30.3 g/100g, SD = 9.0) and α-pinene (mean 24.6 g/100 g, SD = 3.1).

  11. Morphology and chemical composition of Tunisian caper seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caper, as a spontaneous plant, has a large natural distribution in the Mediterranean Sea basin. It is an interesting crop with an economic importance; especially the species Capparis spinosa. The morphology of seeds and their composition in lipid and protein were studied in 15 wild Tunisian caper populations: 9 ...

  12. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by ... The presence of many terpenic and ester compounds is thought to contribute to the unique flavor of the P. cattleianum var. lucidum leaves. Keywords: Psidium ...

  13. Chemical composition, cytotoxic activity and antimicrobial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrodistillation of berries and leaves of Juniperus phoenicea grown in Sinai yielded volatile oils in the yield of 0.36 and 1.96%, respectively. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique, fifty eight compounds were identified in berry oil representing 99.2% of the oil composition. α-Pinene was the major

  14. The chemical composition, energy and amino acid digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the AA's ranged from 72.8 to 81.0%, with methionine having the highest digestibility and lysine the lowest. Cowpeas appear to be suitable for use in poultry feeds, their composition being equivalent to plant protein sources such as lupins and field peas, but lower in most nutrients compared with soybeans and canola.

  15. Chemical and essential amino acid composition of South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-05-05

    May 5, 1997 ... Since there is no information regarding the essential amino acid requirements of these ani- mals, further research is required. To determine the amino acid composition of the carcass, at least half the carcass has to be milled, thoroughly mixed and a representative sample taken for analysis (MacRae er al.,.

  16. Effect of chemical composition and alumina content on structure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the present work, six electrical porcelain compositions with different amount of alumina and silica have been prepared and fired in an industrial furnace at 1300 ◦C. Density, porosity, bending strength and electrical strength were measured in the samples. In order to find a relationship between properties and ...

  17. Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Essential Oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the composition of essential oils of two types of mint as well as compare the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the two oils. Methods: Peppermint (M. piperita L.) and chocolate mint (M. piperita L.) oils were obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus.

  18. Relationships of chemical composition, quantity of milt to fertility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biochemical composition of milt and the effect of its varying quantity on fertility and hatchability of Clarias gariepinus (African catfish) eggs were investigated. The study aimed at determining the right quantity of milt that can be used to fertilize certain quantity of eggs. The study further examined the effect of varying ...

  19. Chemical Compositions of Soils in Parts of Edo State, Southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    Clay mineral composition and such physical characteristics as particle size distribution, organic matter content and geologic history also influence their agricultural productivity and engineering performance. (Onyeobi, et al 2013). In agricultural terms, this is because the soil's capacity for ion – exchange, water retention and ...

  20. Chemical composition of acid precipitation in central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal B. H., Jr. Cooper; Jerry M. Demo; Jose A. Lopez

    1976-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine factors affecting composition of acidic precipitation formation in the Austin area of Central Texas. The study was initiated to determine background levels of acid and alkalinity producing constituents in an area with elevated natural dust levels from nearby limestone rock formations. Results showed normal rainfall pH values of 6.5...

  1. Chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torstein H. Garmo

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of 45 samples of different species of lichen are reported. Mean content (g/100 g dry matter of the main nutrients was: crude protein 4.2, crude fat 3.2, crude fibre 16.6, ash 1.9, Ca 0.15, P 0.09, Mg 0.05, K 0.13, Na 0.035, S 0.07. The content of microminerals (mg/kg dry matter was: Cu 2.5, Mo 0.11, Zn 27.2, Se 0.12, Fe 898, Mn 154. The mean in vitro dry matter digestibility was 35%. However, the in vitro method do underestimate the dry matter digestibility of lichens. Stereocaulon spp. showed higher levels of crude protein, P, S, Cu and Mo than Cetraria spp. and Cladonia spp. Cetraria nivalis showed higher digestibility and contained more NFE, ash, Ca, Mg, but less crude fibre than Cladonia stellaris. Lichens contained less amounts of most nutrients compared with grasses (Fig. 1, exept for crude fat, NFE, Se and Fe.Kjemisk innhald og in vitro fordøyelsesgrad av lav.Abstract in Norwegian / Samandrag: Kjemisk innhald og in vitro fordøyelsesgrad av tørrstoffet er bestemt i 45 prøver av beitelav frå to stader i Sør-Noreg. Middel innhald (g/100g tørrstoff av følgjande næringsstoff var: protein 4.2, feitt 3.2, trevlar 16.6, oske 1.9, kalsium 0.15, fosfor 0.09, magnesium 0.05, kalium 0.13, natrium 0.035, svovel 0.07. Innhaldet (mg/kg tørrstoff av mikronæringsstoffa var: kopar 2.5, molybden 0.11, sink 27.2, selen 0.12, jern 898 og mangan 154. Den midlare fordøyelsesgraden av tørrstoffet i lav-prøvene var 35%, men in vitro fordøyelsesanalyser undervurderer fordøyelsesgraden av lav. Det var ein stor variasjon mellom dei ulike lavartane for dei fleste næringsstoffa og fordøyelsesgraden. Stereocaulon spp. inneheldt meir protein, fosfor, svovel, kopar og molybden enn Cetraria spp. og Cladonia spp. Gulskinn hadde høgare fordøyelsesgrad, og innehaldet av NFE, oske, kalsium og magnesium var høgre enn i kvitkrull, medan trevleinnhaldet var størst i kvitkrull. Lav inneheldt

  2. Chemical compositions of snow from Mt. Yulong, southeastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    404. Hewen Niu et al. climate change and are natural archives of varia- tions in atmospheric circulation processes and ion burdens. Chemical and physical analyses of ice cores or snowpits recovered from carefully selected accumulation zones of Asian glaciers or ice caps not only hold great potential for the development.

  3. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent decades, the essential oils of plants have drawn great interest as sources of natural products. Essential oil from the fruits of Vismia guianensis was tested for its chemical constituents and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil revealed ...

  4. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Rosmarinus Officinalis L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Türkmen, Necla; Öz, Ayşenur; Sönmez, Aslı; Erol, Tuğçe; Gülümser, Deniz; Yurdakul, Burcu; Kayır, Ömer; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    – The chemical constituents of the essential oil from leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L. was produced by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was 1,8-cineole with 81.47% which is important for medicinal and pharmaceutical

  5. Chemical compositions of seven essential oils from Blighia sapida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Blighia sapida traditionally to treat many ailments, these chemical constituents identified might be useful pharmaceutically and industrially. These results indicate that Blighia sapida essential oils were mostly dominated by terpenoids and esters. Keywords: Hydrodistillation, gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry ...

  6. Chemical Composition, Fibre Fraction and Anti-Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Many plants also produce chemicals which are not directly involved in the process of plant growth (secondary compound) but act as deterrents to insects and fungal attack. These compounds also affect animals and the nutritive value of the forages. Mycotoxins (fungal metabolites) produced by saprophytic and endophytic ...

  7. Seasonal variation in chemical composition, aroma volatiles and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TSS and TA showed strong relationships with most of the chemical indices, each showing significantly (p < 0.05) strong correlations with phenolic components as well as with the antioxidant capacity (FRAP and DPPH) measured. There were no significant (p < 0.05) seasonal effects on juice absorbance (colouration) and TA ...

  8. The Chemical Composition of Different Sources of Liming Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of some liming materials on soil chemical properties. The treatments comprised Cocoa Husk Pod Ash (CPHA), Oyster Shell Ash (OSA), Palm Bunch Ash (PBA), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3), Kitchen Residues Ash (KRA) and Saw Dust Ash (SDA) at five levels ...

  9. Tuning chemical potential in the dirac cone by compositional engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, R. K.; Singh, Sourabh; Sarkar, Jit; Mitra, Chiranjib

    2017-10-01

    To realize fully topological transport for any device applications it is essential to tune the chemical potential in the bulk gap of the Dirac cone. Bi2Se3 (BS) and Bi2Te3 (BT) thin films do not show in general topological transport as the chemical potential doesn't lie entirely in the bulk gap. We report the successful formation of bulk insulating ternary topological insulators Bi2Se2Te (BST) by double target pulsed laser deposition technique. The films were deposited with sequential ablation of separate BS and BT targets. From the X-ray diffraction analysis and temperature dependent resistivity, we were able to conclude that the as-grown thin films have ordered chalcogen layers and the chemical potential in these thin films lie in the bulk gap. We have been able to achieve this fully topological transport in our sample grown by this technique. Our Magnetotransport data exhibits pronounced two-dimensional weak-antilocalization behavior (WAL) at low temperatures. It was possible to tune the chemical potential at will in the gap by depositing thin films through pulsed laser deposition technique using this simple and cost effective double target approach to grow quaternary TI thin films.

  10. Chemical composition and nutritive value of hot pepper seed (Capsicum annuum grown in Northeast Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu ZOU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and nutritive value of hot pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum grown in Northeast Region of China were investigated. The proximate analysis showed that moisture, ash, crude fat, crude protein and total dietary fiber contents were 4.48, 4.94, 23.65, 21.29 and 38.76 g/100 g, respectively. The main amino acids were glutamic acid and aspartic acid (above 2 g/100 g, followed by histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, arginine, cysteine, leucine, tryptophan, serine, glycine, methionine, threonine and tyrosine (0.8-2 g/100 g. The contents of proline, alanine, valine and isoleucine were less than 0.8 g/100 g. The fatty acid profile showed that linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid and linolenic acid (above 0.55 g/100 g as the most abundant fatty acids followed lauric acid, arachidic acid, gondoic acid and behenic acid (0.03-0.15 g/100 g. Analyses of mineral content indicated that the most abundant mineral was potassium, followed by magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, sodium and manganese. The nutritional composition of hot pepper seeds suggested that they could be regarded as good sources of food ingredients and as new sources of edible oils.

  11. Indirect Determination of Chemical Composition and Fuel Characteristics of Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    Determination of chemical composition of solid waste can be performed directly or indirectly by analysis of combustion products. The indirect methodology instrumented by a full scale incinerator is the only method that can conclude on elements in trace concentrations. These elements are of great...... interest in evaluating waste management options by for example LCA modeling. A methodology description of indirect determination of chemical composition and fuel properties of waste is provided and validated by examples. Indirect analysis of different waste types shows that the chemical composition...... is significantly dependent on waste type. And the analysis concludes that the transfer of substances in the incinerator is a function of waste chemical content, incinerator technology and waste physical properties. The importance of correct representation of rare items in the waste with high concentrations...

  12. Prediction of the chemical body composition of Nellore and crossbreed bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, A; Lanna, D P D; da Cruz, G M; Tullio, R R; Sakamoto, L S; de Alencar, M M

    2017-09-01

    Young Nellore and crossbreed bulls were comparatively slaughtered to generate equation models for predicting the chemical composition of the empty body and carcass from the chemical composition of the Hankins and Howe section (; ). Data were collected from 236 animals from different genetic groups: Nellore, one-half Canchim + one-half Nellore, one-half Angus + one-half Nellore, and one-half Simmental + one-half Nellore, with 48 baseline animals (BW range from 218 to 433 kg) and 188 animals finished in the feedlot (BW range from 356 to 618 kg). The chemical composition prediction equation model was developed for all genetic groups using stepwise regression analysis. Across all animals, the percentages of water and ether extract in the HH section were highly correlated ( composition were lower than those obtained from the empty body composition. It was concluded that the chemical composition of the empty body and the carcass can be predicted from the composition of the HH section, using a general equation for different genetic groups.

  13. Mechanical behavior of chemically treated Jute/Polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali B

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiber which serves as a reinforcement in reinforced plastics may be synthetic or natural past studies show that only artificial fibers such as glass, carbon etc., have been used in fiber reinforced plastics. Although glass and other synthetic fiber reinforced plastics possess high specific strength, their fields of application are very limited because of their inherent higher cost of production. In this connection, an investigation has been carried out to make use of jute , a natural fiber abundantly available in India. Natural fibers are not only strong and lightweight but also relatively very cheap. In the present work, jute composites are developed and their mechanical properties are evaluated. Mechanical properties of jute/polymer and compared with glass fiber/epoxy. These results indicate that jute can be used as a potential reinforcing material for making low load bearing thermoplastic composites.

  14. Chemical Composition and Particle Size Analysis of Kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehu Yahaya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mineral and elemental composition, crystal structure and particle size distribution of kaolin clays have been determined to ascertain its industrial significance. The mineral composition is evaluated by X- Ray Fluorescence (XRF, crystalline structure by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and particle size distribution using low angle laser light scattering (LALLS technique. The results shows the presence of eight elements expressed in percentages in form of their oxides as: SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, K2O, TiO2 and P2O5. Five crystalline structures are revealed by XRD result. The particle size distribution shows that kaolin particles are mainly in the range of 25–35 µm, while few particles have size distribution varied between 0.4–0.75 μm. The report is found to be in agreement with other researchers.

  15. Studies on the chemical compositions and anti nutrients of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    showed that tannin content ranged between 1.0 and 7.5 mg/g catechin equivalent. Phytate, oxalate and trypsin inhibitor ranged from 0.20 - 6.65 mg/g, 0.23 - 1.17 g /100 g, 9.64 - 58.2 TIU/g respectively. The fruit parts with low level of anti nutrient, high elemental composition, protein, lipid, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid ...

  16. Particle size distribution and physico-chemical composition of clay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loss on Ignition (LOI) was by gravimetry. The data obtained on the alkaline metals, alkali metals, silica, sesquioxides/titanium, pH and Loss on ignition (LOI) reveal a general reduction in composition as particles sizes reduces. However, Mg (MgO) increased (16.09% - 30.86%) through <300μm to <44μm as sieved sizes ...

  17. Classification Characteristics of Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composite Chemical Vapor Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    eight- detector carbon black/polymer composite array was exposed to DMMP, DIMP, THF, benzene, methanol, toluene , water, lighter fluid, vinegar, or diesel...the same SWNT in a flow of argon (Ar) containing 1% NH3 (Kong et al., 2000:624).... 16 Figure 5. Calibration curve for nitrotoluene (Li et al...sensors could differentiate between these agents and other background analytes (benzene, toluene , diesel fuel, etc.) at limits of detection lower than the

  18. The Brittleness and Chemical Stability of Optimized Geopolymer Composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steinerová, Michaela; Matulová, Lenka; Vermach, P.; Kotas, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 396. ISSN 1996-1944 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP104/12/P477 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : metakaolin * interfacial transition zone * compressive * flexural strength * elastic modulus * impact strength * acid leaching * porosity Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 2.654, year: 2016 http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/10/4/396

  19. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-06-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  20. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.