WorldWideScience

Sample records for proximate analysis micronutrients

  1. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  2. Proximate analysis, mineral composition and phytochemical screening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral analysis of P. thonningii showed the seed as good source of antioxidant micronutrients such as iron, calcium, selenium, zinc and manganese. The phytochemical screening of the seed showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phenolics, glycosides, anthraquinones as well as cardiac glycosides while tannins, ...

  3. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spigelia anthelmia is used traditionally in Southern Nigeria for the treatment of infant convulsion and epilepsy. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant effect of the methanolic extract of Spigelia anthelmia. Phytochemical evaluation and proximate analysis was carried ...

  4. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Vol. 15 (1) 9 - 11. Full-text Available Online at www.bioline.org.br/ja. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms. ADEDAYO, MAJEKODUNMI RACHEL. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, P.M.B.3032, Kano. ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in.

  5. Helminth infections and micronutrients in school-age children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; van de Bor, Margot; Doak, Colleen M; Polman, Katja

    2014-06-01

    Helminth infections and micronutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent in developing countries. Neither condition typically causes overt disease, but they do lead to indirect morbidity such as impaired physical and cognitive development. We aimed to systematically review current evidence on the relation of helminth infections with micronutrient status in school-age children worldwide. We included both observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We applied a random-effects meta-analysis to estimate 1) cross-sectional associations between helminths and micronutrient status, 2) effects of anthelminthic treatment on micronutrient status, and 3) effects of micronutrient supplementation on helminth infection and reinfection. Meta-analyses of observational studies showed an association between helminth infections and serum retinol [standardized mean difference (SMD): -0.30; 95% CI: -0.48, -0.13] but not serum ferritin (SMD: 0.00; 95% CI: -0.7, 0.7). Conversely, meta-analyses of anthelminthic treatment RCTs showed a positive effect on ferritin (SMD: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.22) but not retinol (SMD: 0.04; 95% CI: -0.06, 0.14). The number of studies on micronutrients other than ferritin and retinol was not sufficient for pooling. Meta-analyses of micronutrient-supplementation RCTs showed only a modest protective effect for multimicronutrient interventions on helminth infection and reinfection rates (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.97). In this review, we show evidence of distinct associations between helminth infections and micronutrients in school-age children. More studies are needed on micronutrients other than iron and vitamin A and on possible helminth species-specific effects. A thorough comprehension of the interplay between helminth infections and micronutrients will help guide integrated and sustainable intervention strategies in affected children worldwide. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. A meta-analysis of pica and micronutrient status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Diana; Young, Sera L; Golden, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Pica is the craving for and consumption of nonfood items, including the ingestion of earth (geophagy), raw starch (amylophagy), and ice (pagophagy). Pica has long been associated with micronutrient deficiencies, but the strength of this relationship is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the association between pica behavior and the risk of being anemic or having low hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), or plasma zinc (Zn) concentrations. We systematically reviewed studies in which micronutrient levels were reported by pica status. We calculated the pooled odds ratio for anemia or weighted mean difference in Hb, Hct, or Zn concentrations between groups practicing or not practicing pica behaviors. Forty-three studies including 6,407 individuals with pica behaviors and 10,277 controls were identified. Pica was associated with 2.35 times greater odds of anemia (95% CI: 1.94-2.85, P pica type and life stage. Pica is significantly associated with increased risk for anemia and low Hb, Hct, and plasma Zn. Although the direction of the causal relationship between pica and micronutrient deficiency is unknown, the magnitude of these relationships is comparable to other well-recognized causes of micronutrient deficiencies. Pica warrants greater public health attention; specifically the potential physiological mechanisms underpinning the relationship between pica and micronutrient deficiencies merit further study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity studies were carried out on the leaf extract of Cola lepidota, in accordance with established standard procedures. The proximate analysis reveals a moisture content of 27.43 ± 3.11 % w/w, total ash value 9.32 ± 0.27 % w/w, acid insoluble ash 3.12 ± 1.05 % w/w ...

  8. Micronutrients in HIV: a Bayesian meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, George M; Indyk, Debbie; Johnson, Matthew; Andreae, Michael; Suslov, Kathryn; Busani, Sudharani; Esmaeili, Aryan; Sacks, Henry S

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 28.5 million people living with HIV are eligible for treatment (CD4micronutrients is common in HIV disease. Micronutrient supplementation (MNS) may mitigate disease progression and mortality. We synthesized evidence on the effect of micronutrient supplementation on mortality and rate of disease progression in HIV disease. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central, AMED and CINAHL databases through December 2014, without language restriction, for studies of greater than 3 micronutrients versus any or no comparator. We built a hierarchical Bayesian random effects model to synthesize results. Inferences are based on the posterior distribution of the population effects; posterior distributions were approximated by Markov chain Monte Carlo in OpenBugs. From 2166 initial references, we selected 49 studies for full review and identified eight reporting on disease progression and/or mortality. Bayesian synthesis of data from 2,249 adults in three studies estimated the relative risk of disease progression in subjects on MNS vs. control as 0.62 (95% credible interval, 0.37, 0.96). Median number needed to treat is 8.4 (4.8, 29.9) and the Bayes Factor 53.4. Based on data reporting on 4,095 adults reporting mortality in 7 randomized controlled studies, the RR was 0.84 (0.38, 1.85), NNT is 25 (4.3, ∞). MNS significantly and substantially slows disease progression in HIV+ adults not on ARV, and possibly reduces mortality. Micronutrient supplements are effective in reducing progression with a posterior probability of 97.9%. Considering MNS low cost and lack of adverse effects, MNS should be standard of care for HIV+ adults not yet on ARV.

  9. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  10. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was about 0.01 in concentration. Proximate analysis also shows that it has a high nutritional value such as carbohydrate, fibre, Ash, fat and protein. These results recommended the consumption of these peels of desired physiochemical properties as sources of food fibres or low-calorie bulk ingredients in food applications ...

  11. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open markets in Benin City, Nigeria. Microbiological and proximate analysis were carried out using standard methods. Results of the proximate analysis revealed ...

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITIONS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde Emmanuel

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... Fish allows for protein improved nutrition in that it has a high biological value in terms of high ... marine algae upon which the fish feed [11]. ... Proximate composition of catfish Clarias gariepinus and Tarpon atlanticus were.

  13. The association between maternal dietary micronutrient intake and neonatal anthropometry - secondary analysis from the ROLO study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, Mary K

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients are necessary for fetal growth. However increasingly pregnant women are nutritionally replete and little is known about the effect of maternal micronutrient intakes on fetal adiposity in mothers with increased BMI. The aim of this study was to examine the association of maternal dietary micronutrient intake with neonatal size and adiposity in a cohort at risk of macrosomia.

  14. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  15. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    2009). The aim of this study was to analyses the extract of. Citrus sinensis peels for the phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials Fresh peels of Citrus sinensis were collected from Uselu market in Benin City, Edo. State, Nigeria. It was identified and authenticated by.

  16. Transcriptome analysis in benefit-risk assessment of micronutrients and bioactive food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijer, J.; Helden, Y.G.J.; Bunschoten, A.; Schothorst, van E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of functional effects due to variation in concentrations of micronutrients in our diet is difficult since they are often not immediately recognized as being healthy or unhealthy. Indeed, effects induced by micronutrients are hard to identify and therefore the establishment of the

  17. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yongyu; You, Wei; Zhu, Weimin; Cui, Jiaming; Chen, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases. PMID:29081829

  18. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyu Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases.

  19. Helminth infections and micronutrients in school-age children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gier, B.; Campos Ponce, M.; van de Bor, M.; Doak, C.M.; Polman, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Helminth infections and micronutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent in developing countries. Neither condition typically causes overt disease, but they do lead to indirect morbidity such as impaired physical and cognitive development. Objective: We aimed to systematically review

  20. Cost–benefit analysis of a micronutrient supplementation and early childhood stimulation program in Nicaragua

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boo, Florencia Lopez; Palloni, Giordano; Urzua, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    ...). Using longitudinal data, we estimate the average treatment effects of PAININ including micronutrient sprinkles on the prevalence of anemia and hemoglobin levels among disadvantaged children aged 6–36 months...

  1. Hair Zinc Level Analysis and Correlative Micronutrients in Children Presenting with Malnutrition and Poor Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Tae Hwan; Lee, Jin; Kim, Yong Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Zinc deficiency can induce serious clinical problems in the gastrointestinal (GI) system and immune system and can affect growth and development. It is more severe in younger patients. Chronic zinc deficiency is reflected more precisely in hair than in serum. We studied hair zinc levels and other hair and serum micronutrients in chronic malnourished children to identify which micronutrients are affected or correlated with the other ones. Methods Hair mineral analyses were performed in...

  2. Proximate analysis of Sweet Potato Toasted Granules | Meludu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato is an important root crop in the food system of many African countries. The yield, nutrition and economic potential of sweet potato have been identified as very high. In this study, sweet potato was processed and toasted into granules. The proximate analysis performed on the toasted granules showed protein, ...

  3. Comparative analysis of the Proximate composition and Sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of the Proximate composition and Sensory properties of dokuwa produced in Niger State Metropolis. ... Sensory evaluation of the samples on the basis of colour, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability showed that significant difference (p<0.05) existed between the samples. The sample from ...

  4. Local Perception and Proximate Analysis of some Edible Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local perception and proximate analysis of some edible forest plants around the University of Agriculture Makurdi Wildlife Park were investigated. The selected plants were Anona senegalensis, Cissus populnea, Tacca leontopetaloides and Vitex doniana. The Focus Group Discussion (FGD) technique was employed to ...

  5. local perception and proximate analysis of some edible forest plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2. S.A. Shomkegh and. 3. Mbakwe, R. 1. Department of Forest Production and Products, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State. ... Key words: Local Perception, Proximate Analysis, Edible Forest Plants, Focused Group. Discussions. INTRODUCTION ..... Deciduous Forests of India: An Explorative. Study Towards Non ...

  6. Microbiological, proximate analysis and sensory evaluation of baked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of making bread of good nutritional, microbiological and sensory qualities from blends of wheat-breadfruit flours was examined. Blends of wheat flour (WF) with percentages of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 of breadfruits flour (BF) were used in the production process. The proximate analysis, sensory evaluation and ...

  7. Proximate and mineral analysis of some wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate and mineral analysis of five species of mushroom, Lentinus squarrosulus, Volvariella volvacea, Coprinus micaceus, Lepiota procera, and Auricularia auricula were examined in this study to determine their nutritional value. These mushrooms were found to contain on the average, 3.24 to 8.70% of crude fibre; 4.12 ...

  8. Proximate and nutrient analysis of selected vegetable species: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... ascorbic acid and palpable concentration of trace minerals (Prakash and Pal, ... vegetables plays a crucial role in assessing their nutri- tional significance .... Table 4. Correlation matrix of the various parameters studied for the proximate analysis of selected plant species. Moisture. (wet). Moistures. (dry). Ash.

  9. Proximate analysis of selected sorghum cultivars | Jimoh | Bayero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate analysis revealed that sorghum samples contains appreciable nutrient contents. Also from the result, it has shown that the values of the improved varieties from the Institute for Agricultural research (IAR) Zaria is higher in the parameters analysed as compared to the local samples. The mineral composition of ...

  10. Cost-benefit analysis of a micronutrient supplementation and early childhood stimulation program in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Boo, Florencia; Palloni, Giordano; Urzua, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the cost-benefit ratio for an integrated early childhood development program in Nicaragua (PAININ). Using longitudinal data, we estimate the average treatment effects of PAININ including micronutrient sprinkles on the prevalence of anemia and hemoglobin levels among disadvantaged children aged 6-36 months. We also estimate the effects of PAININ excluding sprinkles on cognitive outcomes among children aged 2.5-5 years. In the younger age group the program reduced anemia by 4 percentage points after 8 months and nearly 6 percentage points after 1 year; the latter is a 26% decrease in anemia. In the older age group, the program improved verbal and numeric memory after a year and a half, but the effects were modest (0.13 SD). When analyzing its potential impact on earnings, we conclude that the discounted annual costs of the program per child are less than the discounted annual increase in beneficiary earnings. Specifically, we estimate a cost-benefit ratio of 1.50 from the PAININ plus sprinkles package. Our sensitivity analysis suggests a range for this ratio between 1.30 and 2.30. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Yongyu Ye; Wei You; Weimin Zhu; Jiaming Cui; Kang Chen; Daping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze...

  12. Proximate composition analysis posterior to the cryopreservation of Chaetoceros calcitrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Salas-Leiva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of cryopreservation on the proximate composition of microalgae Chaetoceros calcitrans was evaluated. Materials and methods. C. calcitrans was cultured and cryopreserved using 5% (v/v dimethylsulfoxide as cryoprotectant. The freezing was controlled at a rate of 3°C/min, up to -60°C and then the microalgae were immersed in liquid nitrogen (-196°C. After storage in liquid nitrogen, microalgae were rapidly thawed out and subcultured. The percentage of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates was analyzed using absorption spectrophotometry and the organic matter was studied by gravimetric analysis. Results. There was no significant variation between the proximate composition of C. calcitrans cryopreserved and the controls (p>0.05. Conclusion. Our results show that, despite low cell recovery after the preservation of this organism at low temperatures, there is no apparent loss of nutritional characteristics caused by the storing process at low temperatures.

  13. Hair Zinc Level Analysis and Correlative Micronutrients in Children Presenting with Malnutrition and Poor Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae Hwan; Lee, Jin; Kim, Yong Joo

    2016-12-01

    Zinc deficiency can induce serious clinical problems in the gastrointestinal (GI) system and immune system and can affect growth and development. It is more severe in younger patients. Chronic zinc deficiency is reflected more precisely in hair than in serum. We studied hair zinc levels and other hair and serum micronutrients in chronic malnourished children to identify which micronutrients are affected or correlated with the other ones. Hair mineral analyses were performed in 56 children (age, 1-15 years) presenting with malnutrition, poor growth, poor appetite, anorexia, with/without other GI symptoms (diarrhea, abdominal pain, constipation) from August 2012 to March 2015. Biochemical studies for macronutrients and major micronutrients were also conducted. Hair zinc deficiency was diagnosed in 88%, and serum zinc deficiency was diagnosed in 55% of the children. There was no statistical correlation between serum and tissue zinc level. Hair zinc levels were highly correlated with serum vitamin D (r=-0.479, p=0.001), which also showed correlation with hair levels of magnesium and calcium. (r=0.564, 0.339, p=0.001, 0.011). Hair calcium level was correlated with serum pre-albumin (r=0.423, p=0.001). These correlations may explain the phenomenon that the major clinical manifestation of zinc deficiency is poor body growth. Clinical symptoms were resolved in most children after zinc supplementation. Hair zinc and mineral analyses are useful as a therapeutic guide in the clinical investigation of children with malnutrition and poor growth.

  14. Database analysis of children and adolescents with Bipolar Disorder consuming a micronutrient formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gately Dermot

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eleven previous reports have shown potential benefit of a 36-ingredient micronutrient formula (known as EMPowerplus for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms. The current study asked whether children (7-18 years with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD benefited from this same micronutrient formula; the impact of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD on their response was also evaluated. Methods Data were available from an existing database for 120 children whose parents reported a diagnosis of PBD; 79% were taking psychiatric medications that are used to treat mood disorders; 24% were also reported as ADHD. Using Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF, data were analyzed from 3 to 6 months of micronutrient use. Results At LOCF, mean symptom severity of bipolar symptoms was 46% lower than baseline (effect size (ES = 0.78 (p 50% improvement at LOCF, with 38% still taking psychiatric medication (52% drop from baseline but at much lower levels (74% reduction in number of medications being used from baseline. The results were similar for those with both ADHD and PBD: a 43% decline in PBD symptoms (ES = 0.72 and 40% in ADHD symptoms (ES = 0.62. An alternative sample of children with just ADHD symptoms (n = 41 showed a 47% reduction in symptoms from baseline to LOCF (ES = 1.04. The duration of reductions in symptom severity suggests that benefits were not attributable to placebo/expectancy effects. Similar findings were found for younger and older children and for both sexes. Conclusions The data are limited by the open label nature of the study, the lack of a control group, and the inherent self-selection bias. While these data cannot establish efficacy, the results are consistent with a growing body of research suggesting that micronutrients appear to have therapeutic benefit for children with PBD with or without ADHD in the absence of significant side effects and may allow for a reduction in psychiatric medications while

  15. Proximate, Vitamins and Mineral Composition of Vitex doniana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Vitex doniana, micronutrients, proximate, vitamins and mineral composition, Fruit. ... Vitamin B2 and Spectrophotometric method for. Vitamin B6, while titremetric method was used for Vitamin C. Mineral content: Mineral analysis was carried out after sample .... to calcium for bone, teeth and muscles growth.

  16. Proximate Analysis and Total Lycopene Content of Some Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-06-05

    Jun 5, 2017 ... Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: ... Keywords: Antioxidant, lycopene content, proximate composition, tomato cultivars. INTRODUCTION ..... from oranges, tomatoes and carrots. African. Journal of ...

  17. Intraindividual Variability in Serum Micronutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Wong, Sze H.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Franke, Adrian A.; Goodman, Marc T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although serum measures of micronutrients are more specific than questionnaires in quantifying nutritional status, the reliability of serum measures depends on between- and within-person variability of circulating micronutrient levels. The extent to which multiple samples per person might improve reliability is useful information for planning studies and interpreting results. Methods: We analyzed levels of 25 micronutrients in serum samples taken from 381 Hawaii women at 4-month intervals. For all subjects and for subjects at the low and high end of the micronutrient distributions, we calculated inter- and intraindividual variability, reliability coefficients, and the number of measurements required to limit attenuation in estimated parameters (ie, to keep estimates close to their true values). Results: For 18 of the 25 micronutrients, a single measurement provided an estimate within 20% of the true value. For regression coefficients, 2 measurements were needed to limit attenuation to no more than 20% for nearly half of the micronutrients. To achieve no more than 10% attenuation, the number of measurements required ranged from 2 to 10 for correlation and from 3 to 20 for regression coefficients. To achieve no more than 5% attenuation, the corresponding ranges were 3 to 21 for correlation and 6 to 42 regression coefficients. In general, more measurements were required for adequate characterization of subjects with relatively high levels of micronutrients than for subjects with lower levels. Conclusions: Our analysis suggests that 2 or 3 blood measurements are enough to limit attenuation of regression coefficients within 20% of the true value for most carotenoids and tocopherols. For 10% attenuation or less, 4 or more micronutrient measurements may be needed. PMID:18813024

  18. MICRONUTRIENTS AND STRESS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    psychological stress influences micronutrient requirement~~or whether micronutrient interventions alleviate the effects of .... Several animal and human studies have shown that vitamin E deficiency is associated with an inadequate immune ..... Micronutrients and mood. In a recent double-blind controlled trial, healthy young ...

  19. Why RDAs and ULs are incompatible standards in the U-shape micronutrient model: a philosophically orientated analysis of micronutrients' standardizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanekamp, Jaap C; Bast, Aalt

    2008-12-01

    Risk assessments of micronutrients are carried out in the customary deficiency-excess model. It is regarded as straightforward and unambiguous. Nevertheless, it is a problematic amalgamation of two different and to a certain extent contrasting perspectives on risk and science that we will criticize in this contribution. Our critique is framed in a conceptual scheme of opposing perspectives highlighted by the rival characteristics of RDAs and SULs and the role of science therein. The one part of our scheme holds the typically modern approach that centers on risks that can be scientifically assessed more or less confidently. Subsequent policies are aimed at preventing major health problems that affect the majority of the population from early on in life. The RDAs are the ideal type-case here. The other part of our scheme holds a much more postmodern approach in which health risks are explicitly recognized as "uncertain." Dealing with those risks has little to do with major health problems from early on in life. Here, we encounter the scientific quandary of disentangling complex factors and impacts that may relate to some extra quality of life later on in life. SULs are exemplarily thereof. We will show that RDAs originally spawned from the scientific aim of securing objective knowledge "to lay down the requirements of an adequate" diet. SULs, conversely, are the upshot of generating acceptable outcomes driven by ever-increasing safety requirements. This shift from securing objective knowledge to generating acceptable outcomes will be addressed in relation to precautionary culture.

  20. Situation analysis of procurement and production of multiple micronutrient supplements in 12 lower and upper middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa, Eva C; Beesabathuni, Kalpana; van Zutphen, Kesso G; Steiger, Georg; Kupka, Roland; Fleet, Alison; Kraemer, Klaus

    2017-12-26

    Globally, there are few vitamin and mineral ingredient manufacturers. To support local, in-country or regional procurement and production of multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS), the following production scenarios are possible: (a) straight ingredients of vitamins and minerals forms imported or locally produced that are mixed, tableted, or encapsulated and packaged by a local manufacturer; (b) import or local production of a vitamin and minerals premix that is tableted or encapsulated and packaged locally; (c) import of a bulk, finished product (tablets or capsules) that is packaged and branded; and (d) or import of a branded packaged product. This paper is a situation analysis of the market, manufacturing, and policy factors that are driving the production of MMS in 12 lower and upper middle-income countries. Key informants completed a self-administered structured questionnaire, which examined the local context of products available in the market and their cost, regulations and policies, in Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Bangladesh, India, Vietnam, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa. Our study found that although most countries have the capacity to produce locally MMS, the major barriers observed for sustainable and affordable production include (a) poor technical capacity and policies for ensuring quality along the value chain and (b) lack of policy coherence to incentivize local production and lower the manufacture and retail price of MMS. Also, better guidelines and government oversight will be required because not one country had an MMS formulation that matched the globally recommended formulation of the United Nations Multiple Micronutrient Preparation (UNIMMAP). © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cloud-based data-proximate visualization and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ward

    2017-04-01

    The rise in cloud computing, coupled with the growth of "Big Data", has lead to a migration away from local scientific data storage. The increasing size of remote scientific data sets increase, however, makes it difficult for scientists to subject them to large-scale analysis and visualization. These large datasets can take an inordinate amount of time to download; subsetting is a potential solution, but subsetting services are not yet ubiquitous. Data providers may also pay steep prices, as many cloud providers meter data based on how much data leaves their cloud service. The solution to this problem is a deceptively simple one; move data analysis and visualization tools to the cloud, so that scientists may perform data-proximate analysis and visualization. This results in increased transfer speeds, while egress costs are lowered or completely eliminated. The challenge now becomes creating tools which are cloud-ready. The solution to this challenge is provided by Application Streaming. This technology allows a program to run entirely on a remote virtual machine while still allowing for interactivity and dynamic visualizations. When coupled with containerization technology such as Docker, we are able to easily deploy legacy analysis and visualization software to the cloud whilst retaining access via a desktop, netbook, a smartphone, or the next generation of hardware, whatever it may be. Unidata has harnessed Application Streaming to provide a cloud-capable version of our visualization software, the Integrated Data Viewer (IDV). This work will examine the challenges associated with adapting the IDV to an application streaming platform, and include a brief discussion of the underlying technologies involved.

  2. Non-matrix Matched Glass Disk Calibration Standards Improve XRF Micronutrient Analysis of Wheat Grain across Five Laboratories in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Georgia E; Stangoulis, James C R

    2016-01-01

    Within the HarvestPlus program there are many collaborators currently using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy to measure Fe and Zn in their target crops. In India, five HarvestPlus wheat collaborators have laboratories that conduct this analysis and their throughput has increased significantly. The benefits of using XRF are its ease of use, minimal sample preparation and high throughput analysis. The lack of commercially available calibration standards has led to a need for alternative calibration arrangements for many of the instruments. Consequently, the majority of instruments have either been installed with an electronic transfer of an original grain calibration set developed by a preferred lab, or a locally supplied calibration. Unfortunately, neither of these methods has been entirely successful. The electronic transfer is unable to account for small variations between the instruments, whereas the use of a locally provided calibration set is heavily reliant on the accuracy of the reference analysis method, which is particularly difficult to achieve when analyzing low levels of micronutrient. Consequently, we have developed a calibration method that uses non-matrix matched glass disks. Here we present the validation of this method and show this calibration approach can improve the reproducibility and accuracy of whole grain wheat analysis on 5 different XRF instruments across the HarvestPlus breeding program.

  3. Antioxidant micronutrients in the critically ill: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Critical illness is characterized by oxidative stress, which is a major promoter of systemic inflammation and organ failure due to excessive free radical production, depletion of antioxidant defenses, or both. We hypothesized that exogenous supplementation of trace elements and vitamins could restore antioxidant status, improving clinical outcomes. Methods We searched computerized databases, reference lists of pertinent articles and personal files from 1980 to 2011. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in critically ill adult patients that evaluated relevant clinical outcomes with antioxidant micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements) supplementation versus placebo. Results A total of 21 RCTs met inclusion criteria. When the results of these studies were statistically aggregated (n = 20), combined antioxidants were associated with a significant reduction in mortality (risk ratio (RR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 0.93, P = 0.002); a significant reduction in duration of mechanical ventilation (weighed mean difference in days = -0.67, 95% CI -1.22 to -0.13, P = 0.02); a trend towards a reduction in infections (RR= 0.88, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.02, P = 0.08); and no overall effect on ICU or hospital length of stay (LOS). Furthermore, antioxidants were associated with a significant reduction in overall mortality among patients with higher risk of death (>10% mortality in control group) (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.92, P = 0.003) whereas there was no significant effect observed for trials of patients with a lower mortality in the control group (RR = 1.14, 95% 0.72 to 1.82, P = 0.57). Trials using more than 500 μg per day of selenium showed a trend towards a lower mortality (RR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.02, P = 0.07) whereas trials using doses lower than 500 μg had no effect on mortality (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.33, P = 0.75). Conclusions Supplementation with high dose trace elements and vitamins may improve outcomes of

  4. Proximate Analysis and Antioxidant Properties of Selected Fruits in Batangas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielli Katherine C. Untalan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Five selected fruits in Batangas namely banana (Musa lacatan, chico (Manilkarasapota, papaya (Carica papaya L., pomelo (Citrus grandis and tamarind (Tamarindicusindica were analyzed for their proximate analysis, antioxidant properties and antioxidant activity. The study aimed to make a baseline database using the information obtained which will be useful for further studies and improvement of existing products and food processes and for development of new ones. Among the five selected fruits, tamarind got the highest ash content of 12.51%, crude protein of 4.68%, crude fat of 3.39% and total carbohydrates of 46.67% but the lowest moisture content of 33.45%. Pomelo got the highest moisture content of 91.74% while chico got the highest crude fiber content of 2.64%. Papaya had the lowest total carbohydrates of 7.54% while banana had the lowest crude fiber content of 0.51%. For the antioxidant properties, tamarind had the highest TFC of 0.007 mg quercetin / L, TPC of 0.223 mg gallic acid / L, and Vitamin C of 1024.41 mg/100cm³ while papaya had the highest Beta-carotene content of 286μg/100g. The selected fruits exerted remarkable antioxidant properties. Pomelowith 94.4% hadthe strongest antioxidant activity followed by chico with 91.96%, then banana with 90.84%, papaya with 88.72% and lastly by tamarind with only 70.69%. Based on the statistical treatment of results, there were significant differences in the antioxidant properties and antioxidant activity of selected fruits in Batangas.

  5. Analysis of Proximate and Protein Profile of Kefir from Fermented Goat and Cow Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin Hidayat; Irna Kinayungan W; Muhammad Irhas; Fathurrahman Sidiq

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the characteristics of proximate and protein profile in kefir from fermented goat milk and cow milk with different concentration of kefir grains. The research design was true experimental with Completely Randomized Design (CRD) of 3 repetitions. The research procedures consisted of kefir production, proximate analysis and protein profile characterization. Proximate assay result was analyzed by using LSD, whereas the protein profile was analyzed by descriptive qua...

  6. Modelling and Analysis of Proximity Effect in IGBT Fuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    . Even with an active protection, a high power IGBT still has a risk of exhibiting a violent rupture in the case of a fault if e.g. IGBT fuses are not protecting it. By introducing fuses into voltage source converters a better protection of IGBT's can be achieved. However, skin and proximity effects...... affect the current distribution in a fuse due to the high frequency currents and thus a need for de-rating the fuse. This paper shows an analytical model for studying the proximity effect into a fuse. The results obtained using this model are compared with experiments....

  7. Proximate analysis and total lycopene content of some tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: Roma VF, Ronita and UTC grown in six local government areas of Kano state, Nigeria. Results indicated mean values of 0.15±0.03, 0.16±0.01, 0.15±0.01% titratable acidity; ...

  8. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of. Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open .... Vegetable microbiota is very diverse and vegetable quality and safety depend on many factors, including soil, fertilizer, irrigation water, ...

  9. Comparative physico-chemical and proximate analysis of oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In rural areas of developing countries like Burkina Faso, nutritive elements are mainly composed of vegetable source. Shea nut, seeds of Sesamum indicum, Cucumis melo and Cucurbita pepo, four species widely consumed were studied. The proximate parameters: moisture, proteins and fat were analysed. Saponification ...

  10. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms | Adedayo | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in West Yagba Local Government Areas of Kogi state of Nigeria to ... The high fibre content make them a good source of roughages while their low acidity and alkalinity confirms their edibility and the fact that they are not likely to ...

  11. Rate of water absorption and proximate analysis of different varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water absorption and proximate composition of four varieties of maize; sweet corn, pop corn, white corn and yellow corn soaked at different temperatures and time duration were determined. Absorption increased with increase in temperatures and time but generally low at 45°C. The total average rate of hydration at different ...

  12. Proximate analysis of some dry season vegetables in Anyigba, Kogi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... the exotic vegetables cultivated in Nigeria are cabbage, lettuce, cauli-flower and turnip leafy as well as stems such as Carrot (Aliyu, 2006). ... at 550°C for 48 h, proximate chemical composition of each vegetable sample was carried out to determine the moisture, ash, fat, crude fibre, protein and carbohydrate ...

  13. Fertility decline in Malawi: An analysis of the proximate determinants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines trends in the proximate determinants of fertility (nuptiality or marriage, contraception and post-partum infecundability) in Malawi during the twelve-year period 1992-2004, with a view to explaining the factors responsible for fertility decline in the country. The study uses the Malawi Demographic and ...

  14. Some Proximate Analysis of African Pear ( Dacryodes Edulis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05) were observed between the samples for all the parameters measured. Fruit density showed a negative correlation (r = -0.86) with the pulp/seed ratio. Significant differences were also observed in the proximate composition of the African pear pulp. The major components of the pulp were moisture (36.5% to 53.82%), ...

  15. Impact of micronutrients supplementation on bone repair around implants: microCT and counter-torque analysis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Suzana Peres; Casarin, Renato Correa; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro; Rovaris, Karla; Haiter Neto, Francisco; Casati, Marcio Zaffalon

    2016-01-01

    The use of natural substances and micronutritional approaches has been suggested as a therapeutic alternative to benefit the bone healing associated with no side effects. Nevertheless, the influence of micronutritional interventions with therapeutic proprieties on the bone repair has yet to be intensely evaluated, and no evidence is available exploring the impact of micronutrient supplementation on the peri-implant bone healing. This study investigated the effect of micronutrients supplementation on the bone repair around implants. One screw-shaped titanium implant was inserted in each tibia of each rat, which were assigned to: daily administration, for 30 d, of the placebo solution (Placebo group-n:18) or micronutrients supplementation (Micronutrients group-n:18), based on calcium, magnesium, zinc, and vitamin D3 intake. After, the animals were sacrificed. One of the implants was removed by applying a counter-torque force to evaluate the force to rupture the bone-implant interface. The other implant was evaluated by microcomputed tomography (CT) examination to determine the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and the bone volume (BV/TV). No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups for both counter-torque values and microCT parameters (p>0.05). Within the limits of this study, micronutrients supplementation did not provide additional benefits to the bone healing around dental implants.

  16. Impact of micronutrients supplementation on bone repair around implants: microCT and counter-torque analysis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Peres Pimentel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of natural substances and micronutritional approaches has been suggested as a therapeutic alternative to benefit the bone healing associated with no side effects. Nevertheless, the influence of micronutritional interventions with therapeutic proprieties on the bone repair has yet to be intensely evaluated, and no evidence is available exploring the impact of micronutrient supplementation on the peri-implant bone healing. Objective This study investigated the effect of micronutrients supplementation on the bone repair around implants. Material and Methods One screw-shaped titanium implant was inserted in each tibia of each rat, which were assigned to: daily administration, for 30 d, of the placebo solution (Placebo group-n:18 or micronutrients supplementation (Micronutrients group-n:18, based on calcium, magnesium, zinc, and vitamin D3 intake. After, the animals were sacrificed. One of the implants was removed by applying a counter-torque force to evaluate the force to rupture the bone-implant interface. The other implant was evaluated by microcomputed tomography (CT examination to determine the bone-to-implant contact (BIC and the bone volume (BV/TV. Results No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups for both counter-torque values and microCT parameters (p>0.05. Conclusion Within the limits of this study, micronutrients supplementation did not provide additional benefits to the bone healing around dental implants.

  17. Copper in silicon: Quantitative analysis of internal and proximity gettering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugo, S.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Flink, C.; Weber, E.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The behavior of copper in the presence of a proximity gettering mechanism and a standard internal gettering mechanism in silicon was studied. He implantation-induced cavities in the near surface region were used as a proximity gettering mechanism and oxygen precipitates in the bulk of the material provided internal gettering sites. Moderate levels of copper contamination were introduced by ion implantation such that the copper was not supersaturated during the anneals, thus providing realistic copper contamination/gettering conditions. Copper concentrations at cavities and internal gettering sites were quantitatively measured after the annealings. In this manner, the gettering effectiveness of cavities was measured when in direct competition with internal gettering sites. The cavities were found to be the dominant gettering mechanism with only a small amount of copper gettered at the internal gettering sites. These results reveal the benefits of a segregation-type gettering mechanism for typical contamination conditions.

  18. Sensitivity Analysis of the Proximal-Based Parallel Decomposition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal-based parallel decomposition methods were recently proposed to solve structured convex optimization problems. These algorithms are eligible for parallel computation and can be used efficiently for solving large-scale separable problems. In this paper, compared with the previous theoretical results, we show that the range of the involved parameters can be enlarged while the convergence can be still established. Preliminary numerical tests on stable principal component pursuit problem testify to the advantages of the enlargement.

  19. [Clinical analysis of prosthesis replacement for proximal humerus tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiaojun; Liao, Qiande; Li, Xiaosheng; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    To explore surgical strategies, functions and prognosis of artificial prosthesis replacement and soft tissue reconstruction for patients with invasive benign or primary malignant proximal humerus tumor.
 A total of 17 patients with invasive benign or primary malignant proximal humerus tumor underwent prosthetic replacement after segment bone tumor resection and soft tissues reconstruction from April 2007 to April 2014 were enrolled. Based on histological types, tumor stages and surgical procedures, the effects of artificial prosthesis replacement and soft tissue reconstruction on prognosis and shoulder joint function were evaluated.
 All patients were followed up for 8 to 96 months (average time: 58.9 months). Among 11 patients with primary malignant tumor, 5 died of tumor recurrence or metastasis, and 6 showed tumor-free survival for 24 to 91 months (average time: 54.83 months). The 6 patients with aggressive benign tumors survived for 39 to 96 months, with an average of 72.33 months. The shoulder joint function of 17 patients recovered to 64.88% of normal. There were significant differences in the shoulder joint function between the patients who underwent half shoulder replacement and those who underwent total shoulder replacement (56.25% vs 72.56%, Pshoulder joint function between the patients who underwent Type I A excision (retention of abductor muscles and rotator cuff) and those who underwent Type I B excision (68.75% vs 61.44%, Pshoulder joint function is associated with the methods of prosthesis replacement and soft tissue resection.

  20. The use of MP-AES for analysis major and micronutrients in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonutare, Tonu; Rodima, Ako; Künnapas, Allan; Kõlli, Raimo; Albre, Imbi

    2016-04-01

    The ICP with OES or MS detectors is today the most common multielement technigues for soil element analysis. Although the micro-plasma has been available for decades, there were no commercially available instruments on the market. The situation changed in 2011 when the Agilent 4100 MP-AES appeared. The use of nitrogen plasma of the MP-AES provides reduction in the operational and maintenance costs compared to ICP and therefore makes it very perspective for soil analysis. The nitrogen microwave excited plasma has diferent properties compared to ICP argon plasma and this cause the specific behaviour of elements during the excitation. Here we present the results and optimal instrumental parameters for determination of soil nutrients (K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn) by MP-AES.

  1. Detecting Proximal Secondary Caries Lesions: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, F; Brouwer, F; Paris, S; Stolpe, M

    2016-02-01

    When choosing detection methods for secondary caries lesions, dentists need to weigh sensitivity, allowing early initiation of retreatments to avoid lesion progression, against specificity, aiming to reduce risks of false-positive diagnoses and invasive overtreatments. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of different detection methods for proximal secondary lesions using Monte Carlo microsimulations. A vital permanent molar with an occlusal-proximal restoration was simulated over the lifetime of an initially 20-y-old. Three methods were compared: biannual tactile detection, radiographic detection every 2 y, and biannual laser fluorescence detection. Methods were employed either on their own or in pairwise combinations at sensitive and specific thresholds estimated with systematically collected data. A mixed public-private payer perspective in the context of German health care was applied. Effectiveness was calculated as years of tooth retention. Net-benefit analyses were used to evaluate cost-effectiveness acceptability at different willingness-to-pay thresholds. Radiographic detection verified by tactile assessment (both at specific thresholds) was least costly (mean, 1,060 euros) but had limited effectiveness (mean retention time, 50 y). The most effective but also more costly combination was laser fluorescence detection verified by radiography, again at specific thresholds (1157 euros, 53 y, acceptable if willingness to pay >32 euro/y). In the majority of simulations, not combining detection methods or applying them at sensitive thresholds was less effective and more costly. Net benefits were not greatly altered by applying different discounting rates or using different baseline prevalence of secondary lesions. Current detection methods for secondary lesions should best be used in combination, not on their own, at specific thresholds to avoid false-positive diagnoses leading to costly and invasive overtreatment. The relevant characteristics, such as predictive

  2. Micronutrient status in phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert, M.; Rocha, J. C.; van Rijn, M.; Ahring, K.; Belanger-Quintana, A.; MacDonald, A.; Dokoupil, K.; Ozel, H. Gokmen; Lammardo, A. M.; Goyens, P.; Feillet, F.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) encompass an 'at risk' group for micronutrient imbalances. Optimal nutrient status is challenging particularly when a substantial proportion of nutrient intake is from non-natural sources. In PKU patients following dietary treatment supplementation with

  3. Micronutrients in Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Webb; Andrew Thorne-Lyman

    2005-01-01

    This chapter explores two main aspects of the micronutrient problem as it relates to entitlements in humanitarian emergencies: the diseases that arise directly or indirectly as a result of vitamin and mineral deficiencies often fatal in their own right; and knowledge, or awareness, of micronutrient concerns (and solutions) among income poor households. The delivery of nutrients in emergencies is a key aspect of all relief operations today, but that in itself is insufficient without empowering...

  4. [Micronutrients in parenteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Lorenzo, A; Alvarez, J; Bermejo, T; Gomis, P; Piñeiro, G

    2009-01-01

    At a multidisciplinary debate, and after reviewing the evidence available as well as experts' opinion, the IV Baxter-SENPE Working Panel established the indications and managemente guidelines for micronutrients (water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins, and oligoelements or trace elements) in parenteral nutrition. It was concluded about the convenience of daily intake of micronutrients with diferent options regarding deficiente or excessive dosages, administration systems, interactions, monitoring, and cots-effectiveness.

  5. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in low-income countries: a meta-analysis of effects on birth size and length of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Caroline H D; Fisher, David J; Osmond, Clive; Margetts, Barrie M

    2009-12-01

    Multiple micronutrient deficiencies are common among women in low-income countries and may adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. This meta-analysis reports the effects on newborn size and duration of gestation of multiple micronutrient supplementation mainly compared with iron plus folic acid during pregnancy in recent randomized, controlled trials. Original data from 12 randomized, controlled trials in Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, China, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Mexico, Nepal, Niger, Pakistan, and Zimbabwe, all providing approximately 1 recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of multiple micronutrients to presumed HIV-negative women, were included. Outcomes included birthweight, other birth measurements, gestation, and incidence of low birthweight (LBW) (birth (SGA, birthweight below the within-each-population 10th percentile), large-for-gestational age birth (LGA, birthweight above the within-each-population 90th percentile), and preterm delivery (supplementation (mainly with iron-folic acid), multiple micronutrient supplementation was associated with an increase in mean birthweight (pooled estimate: +22.4 g [95% CI, 8.3 to 36.4 g]; p = .002), a reduction in the prevalence of LBW (pooled OR = 0.89 [95% CI, 0.81 to 0.97]; p = .01) and SGA birth (pooled OR = 0.90 [95% CI, 0.82 to 0.99]; p = .03), and an increase in the prevalence of LGA birth (pooled OR = 1.13 [95% CI, 1.00 to 1.28]; p = .04). In most studies, the effects on birthweight were greater in mothers with higher body mass index (BMI). In the pooled analysis, the positive effect of multiple micronutrients on birthweight increased by 7.6 g (95% CI, 1.9 to 13.3 g) per unit increase in maternal BMI (p for interaction = .009). The intervention effect relative to the control group was + 39.0 g (95% CI, +22.0 to +56.1 g) in mothers with BMI of 20 kg/m2 or higher compared with -6.0 g (95% CI, -8.8 to +16.8 g) in mothers with BMI under 20 kg/m2. There were no significant effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation

  6. The shape of the hominoid proximal femur: a geometric morphometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Elizabeth H

    2007-01-01

    As part of the hip joint, the proximal femur is an integral locomotor component. Although a link between locomotion and the morphology of some aspects of the proximal femur has been identified, inclusive shapes of this element have not been compared among behaviourally heterogeneous hominoids. Previous analyses have partitioned complex proximal femoral morphology into discrete features (e.g. head, neck, greater trochanter) to facilitate conventional linear measurements. In this study, three-dimensional geometric morphometrics are used to examine the shape of the proximal femur in hominoids to determine whether femoral shape co-varies with locomotor category. Fourteen landmarks are recorded on adult femora of Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo and Hylobates. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) is used to adjust for position, orientation and scale among landmark configurations. Principal components analysis is used to collapse and compare variation in residuals from GPA, and thin-plate spline analysis is used to visualize shape change among taxa. The results indicate that knucklewalking African apes are similar to one another in femoral shape, whereas the more suspensory Asian apes diverge from the African ape pattern. The shape of the human and orangutan proximal femur converge, a result that is best explained in terms of the distinct requirements for locomotion in each group. These findings suggest that the shape of the proximal femur is brought about primarily by locomotor behaviour. PMID:17310545

  7. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqing; Lin, Faying; Wang, Bennett; Cao, Yihai; Hou, Xu; Wang, Yangang

    2016-12-22

    Research indicates that higher levels of traffic-related pollution exposure increase the risk of diabetes, but the association between road proximity and diabetes risk remains unclear. To assess and quantify the association between residential proximity to major roadways and type 2 diabetes, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Embase, Medline, and Web of Science were searched for eligible studies. Using a random-effects meta-analysis, the summary relative risks (RRs) were calculated. Bayesian meta-analysis was also performed. Eight studies (6 cohort and 2 cross-sectional) with 158,576 participants were finally included. The summary unadjusted RR for type 2 diabetes associated with residential proximity to major roadways was 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.44, p = 0.001, I² = 48.1%). The summary adjusted RR of type 2 diabetes associated with residential proximity to major roadways was 1.12 (95% CI: 1.03-1.22, p = 0.01, I² = 17.9%). After excluding two cross-sectional studies, the summary results suggested that residential proximity to major roadways could increase type 2 diabetes risk (Adjusted RR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02-1.27, p = 0.025, I² = 36.6%). Bayesian meta-analysis showed that the unadjusted RR and adjusted RR of type 2 diabetes associated with residential proximity to major roadways were 1.22 (95% credibility interval: 1.06-1.55) and 1.13 (95% credibility interval: 1.01-1.31), respectively. The meta-analysis suggested that residential proximity to major roadways could significantly increase risk of type 2 diabetes, and it is an independent risk factor of type 2 diabetes. More well-designed studies are needed to further strengthen the evidence.

  8. Prevalence of micronutrient deficiency in popular diet plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calton Jayson B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown micronutrient deficiency to be scientifically linked to a higher risk of overweight/obesity and other dangerous and debilitating diseases. With more than two-thirds of the U.S. population overweight or obese, and research showing that one-third are on a diet at any given time, a need existed to determine whether current popular diet plans could protect followers from micronutrient deficiency by providing the minimum levels of 27 micronutrients, as determined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administrations (FDA Reference Daily Intake (RDI guidelines. Methods Suggested daily menus from four popular diet plans (Atkins for Life diet, The South Beach Diet, the DASH diet, the DASH diet were evaluated. Calorie and micronutrient content of each ingredient, in each meal, were determined by using food composition data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. The results were evaluated for sufficiency and total calories and deficient micronutrients were identified. The diet plans that did not meet 100% sufficiency by RDI guidelines for each of the 27 micronutrients were re-analyzed; (1 to identify a micronutrient sufficient calorie intake for all 27 micronutrients, and (2 to identify a second micronutrient sufficient calorie intake when consistently low or nonexistent micronutrients were removed from the sufficiency requirement. Results Analysis determined that each of the four popular diet plans failed to provide minimum RDI sufficiency for all 27 micronutrients analyzed. The four diet plans, on average, were found to be RDI sufficient in (11.75 ± 2.02; mean ± SEM of the analyzed 27 micronutrients and contain (1748.25 ± 209.57 kcal. Further analysis of the four diets found that an average calorie intake of (27,575 ± 4660.72 would be required to achieve sufficiency in all 27 micronutrients. Six micronutrients (vitamin B7, vitamin D, vitamin E, chromium, iodine and molybdenum were

  9. Micronutrients and anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Kazi M; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Bardhan, P K; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Chowdhury, Fahima; Sarker, Shafiqul Alam; Khan, Ali Miraj; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2008-09-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and anaemia remain as major health concerns for children in Bangladesh. Among the micronutrient interventions, supplementation with vitamin A to children aged less than five years has been the most successful, especially after distribution of vitamin A was combined with National Immunization Days. Although salt sold in Bangladesh is intended to contain iodine, much of the salt does not contain iodine, and iodine deficiency continues to be common. Anaemia similarly is common among all population groups and has shown no sign of improvement even when iron-supplementation programmes have been attempted. It appears that many other causes contribute to anaemia in addition to iron deficiency. Zinc deficiency is a key micronutrient deficiency and is covered in a separate paper because of its importance among new child-health interventions.

  10. From micronutrient recommendations to policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timotijevic, Lada; Raats, Monique M.; Barnett, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To achieve the nutritional goals stipulated by micronutrient recommendations, greater attention must be paid to the behavioural routes to such nutritional outcomes. Coopting stakeholders and consumers into decisions regarding micronutrient recommendations is an important st...

  11. Phytochemical, Proximate and Metal Content Analysis of the Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the phytochemicals and some other constituents of the powdered leaves of Psidium guajava Linn and to evaluate the tolerability profile of the leaves because of their profound medicinal and non-medicinal uses. Methods: The phytochemical analysis of Psidium guajava was carried out by using a ...

  12. Proximate Analysis Of Castor Seeds And Cake | Annongu | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amino acid profile analysis of un-decorticated and decorticated seed and cake compared with soybeans as standard plant protein indicated that the cake is deficient in some indispensable amino acids like lysine (4.11), iso-leucine (3.09), tryptophan (0) compared with 6.30, 7.90 and 1.30 lysine, iso-leucine and tryptopha in ...

  13. Micronutrients: do small things matter?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition support practitioners considering supplementing antioxidant micronutrients in critically ill patients should proceed with caution and consider the amounts of such micronutrients a patient is already receiving through an oral diet and/or enteral/parenteral nutritional support. Inappropriate antioxidant micronutrient ...

  14. Avascular necrosis in proximal humeral fractures in patients treated with operative fixation: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaming; Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Tao

    2014-04-27

    Proximal humeral fractures are common lesions of the elderly, but there are no established treatment guidelines. A surgical treatment for comminuted and displaced fractures of the proximal humerus was developed and is still evolving. The aim of this study was to perform a quantitative review to evaluate the risk of avascular necrosis (AVN) in patients with proximal humeral fractures who were treated by operative fixation compared with conservative treatment. We searched the PubMed, MEDLINE, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (in Chinese), and Wanfang database (in Chinese) up to December 2013 to identify studies related to operative fixation and AVN in patients with proximal humeral fractures. Seven studies with a total of 291 patients (142 operative fixation cases and 149 conservative treatment cases) with proximal humeral fractures were considered in the meta-analysis. The overall meta-analysis showed no significant difference in the incidence of AVN between the two groups [odds ratio (OR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33-6.11, p = 0.64]. The subgroup meta-analysis by study design (retrospective/prospective), sample size (≤40/>40), and ethnicity (European/Asian) demonstrated similar results. However, the subgroup analysis by specific operative approach (plate fixation/tension band wiring fixation/others) indicated that plate fixation was associated with a higher rate of AVN than conservative treatment (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.76, p = 0.019). Plate fixation was associated with a higher risk of AVN development than conservative treatment in patients with proximal humeral fractures.

  15. proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel pellets from oil palm residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    This study carried out an investigation on the proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel pellets from oil palm residues such as palm kernel shell, PKS, palm fibre, PF and empty fruit bunch, EFB using the ASTM standards. The results obtained were compared. The percentage moisture content of the pellets, PKS, PF and EFB ...

  16. [Gait analysis after rotationplasty hip surgery for malignant tumor of the proximal femur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, D; Benedetti, M G; Catani, F; Berti, L; Capanna, R

    2004-10-01

    Rotationplasty of the hip joint is a special surgical technique used for the treatment of malignant tumors of the proximal part of the femur. We report a clinical case and gait analysis results before and after rehabilitation training. Evaluation of joint motion, kinetic moments, and the electromyographic findings enabled us to document progressive adaptation of muscle and joint function to their new role in the motor pattern, demonstrating the exceptional strength of rotationplasty. Active control of two fulcrums in the lower limb, the pseudo hip proximally and the pseudo knee intermedially, makes this type of operation extremely advantageous compared to the alternative of hip disarticulation or hemipelvectomy. Total absence of pain together with the preservation of articular and cutaneous proprioception are important advantages. Rotationplasty is an attractive alternative for treatment of malignant tumors of the proximal part of the femur.

  17. Proximate Determinants of Fertility in Zambia: Analysis of the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumbi Chola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of proximate determinants in influencing fertility has been well documented worldwide. Bongaarts’ aggregate model of the proximate determinants (which focuses on marriage, contraception, abortion, and sterility has been widely used to analyse the influence of proximate determinants on fertility. In Zambia, however, there is limited understanding of their effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of proximate determinants of fertility in Zambia using Bongaarts’ model. This was a cross-sectional analysis of women’s data from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS. A total of 7,146 women aged 15 to 49 years participated in the ZDHS. Bongaarts’ model was employed in the data analysis. Results showed that, overall, mean age was 27.8 years and rural-urban distribution was 56% and 44%, respectively. Marriage (40% and postpartum infecundity (22% accounted for the largest inhibiting effect on natural fertility from its biological maximum of 19.10. Contraception use accounted for only 3%. Therefore, in order to manage fertility in Zambia, policies and programmes should consider the effects of marriage, postpartum infecundity, and contraception on fertility. Without such targeted interventions, managing and maintaining population growth will remain a challenge in Zambia.

  18. Proximate cues for a short-distance migratory species: An application of survival analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, J.; Song, R.; Lutz, R.S.; Andersen, D.E.; Doherty, K.E.; Bruggink, J.G.; Oppelt, E.

    2008-01-01

    Investigation of bird migration has often highlighted the importance of external factors in determining timing of migration However, little distinction has been made between short- and long-distance migrants and between local and flight birds (passage migrants) in describing migration chronology. In addition, measures of food abundance as a proximate factor influencing timing of migration are lacking in studies of migration chronology. To address the relationship between environmental variables and timing of migration we quantified the relative importance of proximate external factors on migration chronology of local American woodcock (Scolopax minor), a short distance migrant, using event-time analysis methods (survival analysis). We captured 1,094 woodcock local to our study sites in Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin (USA) during autumn 2002-2004 and documented 786 departure dates for these birds. Photoperiod appeared to provide an initial proximate cue for timing of departure. Moon phase was important in modifying timing of departure, which may serve as a navigational aid in piloting and possibly orientation. Local synoptic weather variables also contributed to timing of departure by changing the rate of departure from our study sites. We found no evidence that food availability influenced timing of woodcock departure. Our results suggest that woodcock use a conservative photoperiod-controlled strategy with proximate modifiers for timing of migration rather than relying on abundance of their primary food, earthworms. Managing harvest pressure on local birds by adjusting season lengths may be an effective management tool with consistent migration patterns from year to year based on photoperiod.

  19. Role of Micronutrients on Subclinical Atherosclerosis Micronutrients in Subclinical Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Duygu; Gurses, Kadri Murat; Yalcin, Muhammed Ulvi; Tokgozoglu, Lale

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) leading to coronary heart disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Nutrition is one of the key factors in the etiology of atherosclerosis. Micronutrient supplements are widely used to prevent many chronic diseases including atherosclerosis. However, scientific evidence regarding this issue is still insufficient and current data on the association of dietary micronutrients and CVD risk is contradictory. Most of the randomized studies have failed to demonstrate beneficial effects of micronutrient supplementation on markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. In this review, role of each micronutrient on subclinical atherosclerosis will be evaluated thoroughly.

  20. Analysis of Proximate and Protein Profile of Kefir from Fermented Goat and Cow Milk

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    Erwin Hidayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the characteristics of proximate and protein profile in kefir from fermented goat milk and cow milk with different concentration of kefir grains. The research design was true experimental with Completely Randomized Design (CRD of 3 repetitions. The research procedures consisted of kefir production, proximate analysis and protein profile characterization. Proximate assay result was analyzed by using LSD, whereas the protein profile was analyzed by descriptive qualitative method. Based on the analysis of kefir proximate levels, the kefir grain (5% showed the highest proximate level of both kefirs from goat milk and cow milk. The analysis of protein profile of cow milk kefir showed 75 kDa of protein ribbon, while the goat milk kefir showed 48 kDa, 60 kDa and 75 kDa. Therefore it can be concluded that the proximate level of goat and cow milk kefir with different concentration of kefir grains showed significant differences in the nutrition content as well as its protein profiles.Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis karakteristik proksimat dan profil protein pada kefir hasil fermentasi susu kambing dan susu sapi dengan konsentrasi biji kefir yang berbeda-beda. Penelitian ini adalah eksperimen murni, dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL 3 kali ulangan. Prosedur penelitian meliputi pembuatan kefir, analisis proksimat dan profil protein. Data hasil proksimat dianalisi uji BNT, sedangkan profil protein dianalisis deskriptif kualitatif. Berdasarkan analisis kadar proksimat kefir, kefir grains 5% menunjukan kadar proksimat paling tinggi baik pada kefir susu kambing dan susu sapi. Sedangkan analisis profil protein kefir susu sapi menunjukan pita protein 75 kDa, pada kefir susu kambing yaitu 48 kDa, 60 kDa dan 75 kDa. Simpulan dari penelitian ini bahwa kadar proksimat kefir susu kambing dan susu sapi dengan konsentrasi kefir grains yang berbeda menunjukan perbedaan kandungan yang berbeda secara signifikan dengan

  1. Proximity to wood industries and respiratory symptoms in children: a sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rava, Marta; Crainicianu, Ciprian; Marcon, Alessandro; Cazzoletti, Lucia; Pironi, Vanda; Silocchi, Caterina; Ricci, Paolo; de Marco, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Increased prevalence of respiratory and irritation symptoms was found in children who live near a large wood industrial park. Proximity to the wood industries was used as indicator of exposure. This study describes a sensitivity analysis for the results of the survey. All the children (3-14 years) living in the area were surveyed through a parental questionnaire (n=3854) and their addresses were geocoded. The distances from each child's home and school to the closest industry were combined, weighted and used as an indicator of exposure. A sensitivity analysis was performed to check 1) the robustness of the results to the choice of weights used for defining the exposure indicator, 2) the effect of outliers on risk estimates and 3) the sensitivity on the functional form used for modeling the dose-response function. The choice of the weights did not influence the association between proximity to the industries and respiratory symptoms. Excluding the subjects who lived far away from the industries showed that in a radius of 5km from the industries the study did not had enough power to estimate a gradient in the dose-response function. Besides, results were sensitive to the choice of the functional form used for modeling the minimum distance. The sensitivity analyses confirmed the overall increasing trend of respiratory symptoms with proximity to the industries and pointed out that all the assumptions made for defining a proxy of exposure need to be carefully checked. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modifiers of the effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on stillbirth, birth outcomes, and infant mortality: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from 17 randomised trials in low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily R; Shankar, Anuraj H; Wu, Lee S-F; Aboud, Said; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Ali, Hasmot; Agustina, Rina; Arifeen, Shams; Ashorn, Per; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Christian, Parul; Devakumar, Delanjathan; Dewey, Kathryn G; Friis, Henrik; Gomo, Exnevia; Gupta, Piyush; Kæstel, Pernille; Kolsteren, Patrick; Lanou, Hermann; Maleta, Kenneth; Mamadoultaibou, Aissa; Msamanga, Gernard; Osrin, David; Persson, Lars-Åke; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Rivera, Juan A; Rizvi, Arjumand; Sachdev, H P S; Urassa, Willy; West, Keith P; Zagre, Noel; Zeng, Lingxia; Zhu, Zhonghai; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Sudfeld, Christopher R

    2017-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are common among women in low-income and middle-income countries. Data from randomised trials suggest that maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation decreases the risk of low birthweight and potentially improves other infant health outcomes. However, heterogeneity across studies suggests influence from effect modifiers. We aimed to identify individual-level modifiers of the effect of multiple micronutrient supplements on stillbirth, birth outcomes, and infant mortality in low-income and middle-income countries. This two-stage meta-analysis of individual patient included data from 17 randomised controlled trials done in 14 low-income and middle-income countries, which compared multiple micronutrient supplements containing iron-folic acid versus iron-folic acid alone in 112 953 pregnant women. We generated study-specific estimates and pooled subgroup estimates using fixed-effects models and assessed heterogeneity between subgroups with the χ 2 test for heterogeneity. We did sensitivity analyses using random-effects models, stratifying by iron-folic acid dose, and exploring individual study effect. Multiple micronutrient supplements containing iron-folic acid provided significantly greater reductions in neonatal mortality for female neonates compared with male neonates than did iron-folic acid supplementation alone (RR 0·85, 95% CI 0·75-0·96 vs 1·06, 0·95-1·17; p value for interaction 0·007). Multiple micronutrient supplements resulted in greater reductions in low birthweight (RR 0·81, 95% CI 0·74-0·89; p value for interaction 0·049), small-for-gestational-age births (0·92, 0·87-0·97; p=0·03), and 6-month mortality (0·71, 0·60-0·86; p=0·04) in anaemic pregnant women (haemoglobin supplements also had a greater effect on preterm births among underweight pregnant women (BMI supplements before 20 weeks gestation provided greater reductions in preterm birth (RR 0·89, 95% CI 0·85-0·93; p=0·03). Generally, the

  3. Micronutrients in Oncological Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber, Uwe; Holzhauer, Peter; Kisters, Klaus; Holick, Michael F; Adamietz, Irenäus A

    2016-03-12

    Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Depending on the type of malignancy and the gender 30%-90% of the cancer patients supplement their diets with antioxidant and immuno-stabilizing micronutrients, such as selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin D, often without the knowledge of the treating physician. From the oncological viewpoint, there are justifiable concerns that dietary supplements decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies, however, have provided increasing evidence that treatment is tolerated better-with an increase in patient compliance and a lower rate of treatment discontinuations-when micronutrients, such as selenium, are added as appropriate to the patient's medication. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual's background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician.

  4. Micronutrients and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sundus; Finkelstein, Julia L; Stewart, Anna M; Kenneth, John; Polhemus, Mark E; Endy, Timothy P; Cardenas, Washington; Mehta, Saurabh

    2014-11-01

    Dengue virus infection is the most widespread mosquito-borne viral infection in humans and has emerged as a serious global health challenge. In the absence of effective treatment and vaccine, host factors including nutritional status, which may alter disease progression, need investigation. The interplay between nutrition and other infections is well-established, and modulation of nutritional status often presents a simple low-cost method of interrupting transmission, reducing susceptibility, and/or ameliorating disease severity. This review examines the evidence on the role of micronutrients in dengue virus infection. We found critical issues and often inconsistent results across studies; this finding along with the lack of sufficient literature in this field have limited our ability to make any recommendations. However, vitamins D and E have shown promise in small supplementation trials. In summary, the role of micronutrients in dengue virus infection is an exciting research area and needs to be examined in well-designed studies with larger samples. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Micronutrients and Dengue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sundus; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Stewart, Anna M.; Kenneth, John; Polhemus, Mark E.; Endy, Timothy P.; Cardenas, Washington; Mehta, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus infection is the most widespread mosquito-borne viral infection in humans and has emerged as a serious global health challenge. In the absence of effective treatment and vaccine, host factors including nutritional status, which may alter disease progression, need investigation. The interplay between nutrition and other infections is well-established, and modulation of nutritional status often presents a simple low-cost method of interrupting transmission, reducing susceptibility, and/or ameliorating disease severity. This review examines the evidence on the role of micronutrients in dengue virus infection. We found critical issues and often inconsistent results across studies; this finding along with the lack of sufficient literature in this field have limited our ability to make any recommendations. However, vitamins D and E have shown promise in small supplementation trials. In summary, the role of micronutrients in dengue virus infection is an exciting research area and needs to be examined in well-designed studies with larger samples. PMID:25200269

  6. Micronutrients in Oncological Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gröber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Depending on the type of malignancy and the gender 30%–90% of the cancer patients supplement their diets with antioxidant and immuno-stabilizing micronutrients, such as selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin D, often without the knowledge of the treating physician. From the oncological viewpoint, there are justifiable concerns that dietary supplements decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies, however, have provided increasing evidence that treatment is tolerated better—with an increase in patient compliance and a lower rate of treatment discontinuations—when micronutrients, such as selenium, are added as appropriate to the patient’s medication. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual’s background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician.

  7. NMR-based urine analysis in rats: prediction of proximal tubule kidney toxicity and phospholipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Kai; Plötz, Thomas; Pestel, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    The aim of safety pharmacology is early detection of compound-induced side-effects. NMR-based urine analysis followed by multivariate data analysis (metabonomics) identifies efficiently differences between toxic and non-toxic compounds; but in most cases multiple administrations of the test compound are necessary. We tested the feasibility of detecting proximal tubule kidney toxicity and phospholipidosis with metabonomics techniques after single compound administration as an early safety pharmacology approach. Rats were treated orally, intravenously, inhalatively or intraperitoneally with different test compounds. Urine was collected at 0-8 h and 8-24 h after compound administration, and (1)H NMR-patterns were recorded from the samples. Variation of post-processing and feature extraction methods led to different views on the data. Support Vector Machines were trained on these different data sets and then aggregated as experts in an Ensemble. Finally, validity was monitored with a cross-validation study using a training, validation, and test data set. Proximal tubule kidney toxicity could be predicted with reasonable total classification accuracy (85%), specificity (88%) and sensitivity (78%). In comparison to alternative histological studies, results were obtained quicker, compound need was reduced, and very importantly fewer animals were needed. In contrast, the induction of phospholipidosis by the test compounds could not be predicted using NMR-based urine analysis or the previously published biomarker PAG. NMR-based urine analysis was shown to effectively predict proximal tubule kidney toxicity after single compound administration in rats. Thus, this experimental design allows early detection of toxicity risks with relatively low amounts of compound in a reasonably short period of time.

  8. Micronutrient supplementation in adults with HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marianne E; Durao, Solange; Sinclair, David; Irlam, James H; Siegfried, Nandi

    2017-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiencies are common among adults living with HIV disease, particularly in low-income settings where the diet may be low in essential vitamins and minerals. Some micronutrients play critical roles in maintenance of the immune system, and routine supplementation could therefore be beneficial. This is an update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2010. Objectives To assess whether micronutrient supplements are effective and safe in reducing mortality and HIV-related morbidity of HIV-positive adults (excluding pregnant women). Search methods We performed literature searches from January 2010 to 18 November 2016 for new randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of micronutrient supplements since the previous review included all trials identified from searches prior to 2010. We searched the CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library), Embase, and PubMed databases. Also we checked the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and the ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers. We also checked the reference lists of all new included trials. Selection criteria We included RCTs that compared supplements that contained either single, dual, or multiple micronutrients with placebo, no treatment, or other supplements. We excluded studies that were primarily designed to investigate the role of micronutrients for the treatment of HIV-positive participants with metabolic morbidity related to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Primary outcomes included all-cause mortality, morbidity, and disease progression. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, and appraised trial quality for risk of bias. Where possible, we presented results as risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous variables, as hazard ratios (HRs) for time-to-event data, and as mean differences (MD) for continuous variables, each with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Since we were often unable to pool the outcome

  9. Generation of an Atlas of the Proximal Femur and Its Application to Trabecular Bone Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Folkesson, Jenny; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Baum, Thomas; Link, Thomas M.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Krug, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Automatic placement of anatomically corresponding volumes of interest and comparison of parameters against a standard of reference are essential components in studies of trabecular bone. Only recently, in vivo MR images of the proximal femur, an important fracture site, could be acquired with high-spatial resolution. The purpose of this MRI trabecular bone study was two-fold: (1) to generate an atlas of the proximal femur to automatically place anatomically corresponding volumes of interest in a population study and (2) to demonstrate how mean models of geodesic topological analysis parameters can be generated to be used as potential standard of reference. Ten females were used to generate the atlas and geodesic topological analysis models, and 10 females were used to demonstrate the atlas-based trabecular bone analysis. All alignments were based on three-dimensional (3D) multiresolution affine transformations followed by 3D multiresolution free-form deformations. Mean distances less than 1 mm between aligned femora, and sharp edges in the atlas and in fused gray-level images of registered femora indicated that the anatomical variability was well accommodated and explained by the free-form deformations. PMID:21432904

  10. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Dracaena reflexa Lam. Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Abha; Vats, Swati; Shukla, R K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the antioxidant activity of successive leaf extracts of Dracaena reflexa was investigated using the scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Methanol extract was found potent in both the assays. IC50 values of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay for methanol extract was 0.97 mg/ml and ferric reducing antioxidant power value for the same is 1.19. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and total phenolic content were also determined. Qualitative screening for phytochemical showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides and saponins. Highest phenolic content was shown by methanol extract (49.69 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight). Proximate analysis showed moisture content (3.31%), ash content (8.02%), crude fibre (1.31%), crude fat (0.97%), total protein (3.70%), total carbohydrate (86.01) and nutritive value (367.56 kcal/100 g), which would make it a potential nutraceutical. This study suggested that Dracaena reflexa, a potential natural free radical scavenger, which could find use as an antioxidative.

  11. Asymmetry and structural system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis: osteoarticular anatomical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baydoun Safaa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human femur is commonly considered as a subsystem of the locomotor apparatus with four conspicuous levels of organization. This phenomenon is the result of the evolution of the locomotor apparatus, which encompasses both constitutional and individual variability. The work therein reported, therefore, underlies the significance of observing anatomical system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis in normal conditions, according to the anatomic positioning with respect to the right or left side of the body, and the presence of system asymmetry in the meta-epiphysis structure, thus indicating structural and functional asymmetry. Methods A total of 160 femur bones of both sexes were compiled and a morphological study of 15 linear and angulated parameters of proximal femur epiphysis was produced, thus defining the linear/angulated size of tubular bones. The parameters were divided into linear and angulated groups, while maintaining the motion of the hip joint and transmission of stress to the unwanted parts of the limb. Furthermore, the straight and vertical diameters of the femoral head and the length of the femoral neck were also studied. The angle between the neck and diaphysis, the neck antiversion and angle of rotation of the femoral neck were subsequently measured. Finally, the condylo-diaphyseal angle with respect to the axis of extremity was determined. To visualize the force of intersystem ties, we have used the method of correlation galaxy construction. Results The absolute numeral values of each linear parameter were transformed to relative values. The values of superfluity coefficient for each parameter in the right and left femoral bone groups were estimated and Pearson's correlation coefficient has been calculated (> 0.60. Retrospectively, the observed results have confirmed the presence of functional asymmetry in the proximal femur meta-epiphysis. On the basis of compliance or insignificant difference in

  12. Asymmetry and structural system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis: osteoarticular anatomical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, Ali A; Ivanov, Alexander V; Haddad, John J; Kolesnik, Alexander I; Baydoun, Safaa; Arabi, Maher R; Yashina, Irena N; Samaha, Rana A; Ivanov, Dimetry A

    2008-02-27

    The human femur is commonly considered as a subsystem of the locomotor apparatus with four conspicuous levels of organization. This phenomenon is the result of the evolution of the locomotor apparatus, which encompasses both constitutional and individual variability. The work therein reported, therefore, underlies the significance of observing anatomical system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis in normal conditions, according to the anatomic positioning with respect to the right or left side of the body, and the presence of system asymmetry in the meta-epiphysis structure, thus indicating structural and functional asymmetry. A total of 160 femur bones of both sexes were compiled and a morphological study of 15 linear and angulated parameters of proximal femur epiphysis was produced, thus defining the linear/angulated size of tubular bones. The parameters were divided into linear and angulated groups, while maintaining the motion of the hip joint and transmission of stress to the unwanted parts of the limb. Furthermore, the straight and vertical diameters of the femoral head and the length of the femoral neck were also studied. The angle between the neck and diaphysis, the neck antiversion and angle of rotation of the femoral neck were subsequently measured. Finally, the condylo-diaphyseal angle with respect to the axis of extremity was determined. To visualize the force of intersystem ties, we have used the method of correlation galaxy construction. The absolute numeral values of each linear parameter were transformed to relative values. The values of superfluidity coefficient for each parameter in the right and left femoral bone groups were estimated and Pearson's correlation coefficient has been calculated (> 0.60). Retrospectively, the observed results have confirmed the presence of functional asymmetry in the proximal femur meta-epiphysis. On the basis of compliance or insignificant difference in the confidence interval of the linear parameters, we

  13. Double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy: A potential tool for the analysis of contaminants and macro/micronutrients in organic mineral fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodelli, Gustavo; Senesi, Giorgio Saverio; de Oliveira Perazzoli, Ivan Luiz; Marangoni, Bruno Spolon; De Melo Benites, Vinícius; Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira

    2016-09-15

    Organic fertilizers are obtained from waste of plant or animal origin. One of the advantages of organic fertilizers is that, from the composting, it recycles waste-organic of urban and agriculture origin, whose disposal would cause environmental impacts. Fast and accurate analysis of both major and minor/trace elements contained in organic mineral and inorganic fertilizers of new generation have promoted the application of modern analytical techniques. In particular, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is showing to be a very promising, quick and practical technique to detect and measure contaminants and nutrients in fertilizers. Although, this technique presents some limitations, such as a low sensitivity, if compared to other spectroscopic techniques, the use of double pulse (DP) LIBS is an alternative to the conventional LIBS in single pulse (SP). The macronutrients (Ca, Mg, K, P), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Na, Mn, Zn) and contaminant (Cr) in fertilizer using LIBS in SP and DP configurations were evaluated. A comparative study for both configurations was performed using optimized key parameters for improving LIBS performance. The limit of detection (LOD) values obtained by DP LIBS increased up to seven times as compared to SP LIBS. In general, the marked improvement obtained when using DP system in the simultaneous LIBS quantitative determination for fertilizers analysis could be ascribed to the larger ablated mass of the sample. The results presented in this study show the promising potential of the DP LIBS technique for a qualitative analysis in fertilizers, without requiring sample preparation with chemical reagents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of subject-specific automated p-FE analysis of the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Nir; Yosibash, Zohar; Milgrom, Charles

    2009-02-09

    The use of subject-specific finite element (FE) models in clinical practice requires a high level of automation and validation. In Yosibash et al. [2007a. Reliable simulations of the human proximal femur by high-order finite element analysis validated by experimental observations. J. Biomechanics 40, 3688-3699] a novel method for generating high-order finite element (p-FE) models from CT scans was presented and validated by experimental observations on two fresh frozen femurs (harvested from a 30 year old male and 21 year old female). Herein, we substantiate the validation process by enlarging the experimental database (54 year old female femur), improving the method and examine its robustness under different CT scan conditions. A fresh frozen femur of a 54 year old female was scanned under two different environments: in air and immersed in water (dry and wet CT). Thereafter, the proximal femur was quasi-statically loaded in vitro by a 1000N load. The two QCT scans were manipulated to generate p-FE models that mimic the experimental conditions. We compared p-FE displacements and strains of the wet CT model to the dry CT model and to the experimental results. In addition, the material assignment strategy was reinvestigated. The inhomogeneous Young's modulus was represented in the FE model using two different methods, directly extracted from the CT data and using continuous spatial functions as in Yosibash et al. [2007a. Reliable simulations of the human proximal femur by high-order finite element analysis validated by experimental observations. J. Biomechanics 40, 3688-3699]. Excellent agreement between dry and wet FE models was found for both displacements and strains, i.e. the method is insensitive to CT conditions and may be used in vivo. Good agreement was also found between FE results and experimental observations. The spatial functions representing Young's modulus are local and do not influence strains and displacements prediction. Finally, the p-FE results of

  15. Analysis of Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.

    2011-01-01

    To synchronize clocks between spacecraft in proximity, the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol has been proposed. PITS is based on the NTP Interleaved On-Wire Protocol and is capable of being adapted and integrated into CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol with minimal modifications. In this work, we will discuss the correctness and liveness of PITS. Further, we analyze and evaluate the performance of time synchronization latency with various channel error rates in different PITS operational modes.

  16. Proximate, mineral and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of H. myriantha and Urera trinervis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcel, Andzouana; Bievenu, Mombouli Jean

    2012-06-01

    The vegetal materials were bought on 20th October, 2010 at the local Total market from Bacongo, South-Brazzaville. The proximate and phytochemical compositions of the leaves of H. myriantha and Urera trinervis were investigated in accordance with standard procedures. Mineral concentrations were determined by using flame photometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer and calorimetry. The proximate analysis revealed high moisture (62.90%), crude protein (24.18%) and energy content values (562.19 kJ/100 g) in U. trinervis leaves while the carbohydrate (06.07%), crude fat (1.32%) and ash content (5.54%) were low. Similarly H. myriantha showed a high content of crude protein (25.37%), energy (1508.32 kJ/100 g) and carbohydrate (60.02%) however, the moisture (6.93%), crude fat (1.54%) and ash content (6.14%) were low. The minerals present in both plant leaves were phosphorus (18.97 and 18.73% for H. myriantha and U. trinervis, respectively), followed by potassium (1.25 and 1.29%), calcium and magnesium, which were found in very low concentrations (0.21-0.29%). While sodium, iron and manganese were present as trace elements (0.02-0.09%), aluminum was not detected. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, triterpenoids and steroids. Flavonoids were absent solely in H. myriantha while saponins and anthraquinones were not detected in both samples. The study showed that these vegetables contained nutrients, mineral elements and phytochemicals that were nutritionally important for body health. Thus they could be recommended in Congolese nutrition with nutrient and non-nutrient supplementation to help in various protective and therapeutic actions for consumers.

  17. Static bending test after proximal femoral nail (PFN removal - in vitro analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Morais Paiva

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate, through biomechanical testing, the resistance to and energy required for the occurrence of proximal femoral fracture in synthetic bone after removal of a proximal femoral nail model (PFN, comparing the results obtained with a reinforcement technique using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA. Methods Fifteen synthetic bones were used: five units for the control group (CG, five for the test group without reinforcement (TGNR, and five for the test group with reinforcement (TGR. The biomechanical analysis was performed simulating a fall on the trochanter using a servo-hydraulic machine. In the GC, the assay was performed with the PFN intact. In the TGNR and TGR groups, a model of PFN was introduced and the tests were performed in the TGNR, after simple removal of the synthesis material, and in the TGR, after removal of the same PFN model and filling of the cavity in the femoral neck with PMMA. Results All groups presented a basicervical fracture. The CG presented a mean of 1427.39 Newtons (N of maximum load and 10.14 Joules (J of energy for the occurrence of the fracture. The TGNR and TGR presented 892.14 N and 1477.80 N of maximum load, and 6.71 J and 11.99 J of energy, respectively. According to the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, there was a significant difference in the maximum load (p = 0.009 and energy (p = 0.007 between these groups. Conclusion The simple removal of a PFN in synthetic bone showed a significant reduction of the maximum load and energy for the occurrence of fracture, which were re-established with a reinforcement technique using PMMA.

  18. Bioinformatics analysis of proteomics profiles in senescent human primary proximal tubule epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Wang, Jingchao; Dapeng, Chen; Wu, Di; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2016-04-01

    Dysfunction of renal tubule epithelial cells is associated with renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Exploration of the proteomic profiles of senesced tubule epithelial cells is essential to elucidate the mechanism of tubulointerstitium development. Primary human proximal tubule epithelial cells from passage 3 (P3) and passage 6 (P6) were selected for evaluation. EdU and SA-β-galactosidase staining were used to detect cell senescence. p53, p21, and p16 were detected by Western blot analysis. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to examine differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between P6 and P3 cells. The expression of DEPs was examined by Western blot analysis. Bioinformatics analysis was performed by protein-protein interaction and gene ontology analyses. The majority of tubule cells from passage 6 (P6) stained positive for SA-β-galactosidase, whereas passage 3 (P3) cells were negative. Senescence biomarkers, including p53, p21, and p16, were upregulated in P6 cells relative to P3 cells. EdU staining results showed a lower rate of EdU positive cells in P6 cells than in P3 cells. LC-MS was used to examine DEPs between P6 and P3 cells. These DEPs are involved in glycolysis, response to stress, cytoskeleton regulation, oxidative reduction, ATP binding, and oxidative stress. Using Western blot analysis, we validated the down-regulation of AKR1B1, EEF2, EEF1A1, and HSP90 and the up-regulation of VIM in P6 cells seen in the LC-MS data. More importantly, we built the molecular network based on biological functions and protein-protein interactions and found that the DEPs are involved in translation elongation, stress, and glycolysis, and that they are all associated with cytoskeleton regulation, which regulates senescent cell activities such as apoptosis and EMT in tubule epithelial cells. We explored proteomic profile changes in cell culture-induced senescent cells and built senescence-associated molecular networks, which will help to elucidate the

  19. RELATIONS AMONG SIX MICRONUTRIENTS IN GRAIN DETERMINED IN A MAIZE POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Šimić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Limited results are published about the relations among micronutrients in cereal grains, although micronutrients play important physiological roles in animals and humans. The objective of this study was to determine relations among boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, molybdenum (Mo and zinc (Zn concentrations in grain of 297 genotypes of a maize population measured by inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES in two years. Correlation coefficients showed generally weak, though positive associations between individual micronutrient concentrations in both years. Principal component analysis revealed not the same relations among the micronutrients across two years, indicating the importance of environment. Still, close relations between Cu and Fe, and to lesser extent between B and Mo were observed in both years. Mn was consistently one of the least related micronutrients to others. Our results suggest that it is possible to improve density of various micronutrients in maize grain simultaneously, although the progress would be very slow.

  20. Micronutrients and Diabetic Retinopathy A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Chee-Tin Christine; Gayton, Emma L.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Flanagan, Declan W.; Adler, Amanda I.

    Background: We have evaluated the evidence for the association between intake and blood levels of micronutrients and diabetic retinopathy. Treatment for diabetic retinopathy requires significant clinical input and specialist ophthalmologic care. Micronutrients, including vitamin C, vitamin E, and

  1. Proximate and elemental analysis of five selected medicinal plants of family Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Ishfaq; Hussain, Farrukh

    2015-07-01

    The proximate analysis revealed the presence of ash, moisture, protein, fiber, fats and carbohydrate. ANOVA showed that ash and moisture contents was non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages. Crude protein was non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages except for Datura innoxia parts but not for its phenolgical stages, while crude fats were non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages except for Solanum nigrum and Solanum surattense parts but not for their phenolgical stages. Crude fiber was non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages except for Datura innoxia parts but not for its phenolgical stages. And carbohydrates was non significant between the plant parts and phenological stages except for the phenolgical stages of Solanum surattense and Withania coagulans. The mineral analysis showed the presence of Cr, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, K, Mg and Na in the roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits of the plants in three different phenological stages. Only the micro-minerals were present in traces while the macro-minerals were present high quantities as compared to the micro-minerals.

  2. Vegetation cover analysis using a low budget hyperspectral proximal sensing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Daquino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the implementation of a hyperspectral proximal sensing low-budget acquisition system and its application to the detection of terrestrian vegetation cover anomalies in sites of high environmental quality. Anomalies can be due to stress for lack of water and/or pollution phenomena and weed presence in agricultural fields. The hyperspectral cube (90-bands ranging from 450 to 900 nm was acquired from the hill near Segni (RM, approximately 500 m far from the target, by means of electronically tunable filters and 8 bit CCD cameras. Spectral libraries were built using both endmember identification method and extraction of centroids of the clusters obtained from a k-means analysis of the image itself. Two classification methods were applied on the hyperspectral cube: Spectral Angle Mapper (hard and Mixed Tuned Matching Filters (MTMF. Results show the good capability of the system in detecting areas with an arboreal, shrub or leafage cover, distinguishing between zones with different spectral response. Better results were obtained using spectral library originated by the k-means method. The detected anomalies not correlated to seasonal phenomena suggest a ground true analysis to identify their origin.

  3. Proximate Analysis and Calorific Value Prediction using Linear Correlation Model for Torrefied Palm Oil Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Siti Raishan Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is one of the pretreatment processes to upgrade the chemical and physical properties of biomass for power production. In this study, four types of palm oil wastes were selected. The wastes, which consisted of oil palm frond (OPF, palm kernel shell (PKS, palm mesocarp fibre (PMF, and empty fruit bunch (EFB, were subjected to torrefaction process at different temperatures of 240°C, 270°C, 300°C, and 330°C for 30 min residence time. Based on the analysis of torrefied palm oil wastes, it was observed that there is a linear relationship between the properties of torrefied palm oil wastes and torrefaction temperature. Based on this, linear correlation model as a function of mass loss was developed to predict the energy yield (EY, calorific value (HHV, and proximate analysis. A reliable correlation model (R2 > 0.90 for predicting calorific value (HHV, fixed carbon (FC, and volatile matter (VM was obtained, indicating the developed linear model is indeed reliable. Meanwhile, an acceptable coefficient of determination (R2 ≈ 0.75 was obtained when the linear model is used to estimate the energy yield (EY and ash content (ASH. These developed linear correlation models are cost effective and can be used as a tool to predict the properties of palm oil wastes and to assess the suitability of biomass in torrefaction process.

  4. Comparative morphometric analysis of the proximal femur of African hominids and felids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gallagher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Size and shape of the mammalian proximal femur and taxon-specific distinctions in the relative proportions of the proximal articulation, the femoral neck and the proximal femoral diaphysis, are critical determinants in its adaptation to differential biomechanical stresses and observed locomotor habitus in different taxa. The morphometrics of the proximal femur are considered equally critical in the assessment of locomotor habitus of extinct fossil mammals, particularly extinct Miocene anthropoids and Plio-Pleistocene hominins. Analyses of size and shape of k=10 dimensions of the proximal femur were undertaken for a large sample series of two extant mammal families the Felidae and Hominidae using conventional multivariate statistical procedures, commonly used size-correction methods, and post-hoc tests of significance. While significant differences in form do exist, there are equally striking convergences in the functional morphology of extant hominid and felid taxa. Multivariate and bivariate allometric analyses confirm that the proximal femur of these two mammalian families share a common underlying structure manifest in a shared first common principal component. Nevertheless, while considerable convergences in general form of the proximal femur of African hominids and large-bodied felids are apparent, there exist equally discreet distinctions which are consistent with the differential structural demands imposed by their distinct locomotor and behavioural habitus.

  5. Proximate composition, phytochemical analysis, and in vitro antioxidant potentials of extracts of Annona muricata (Soursop)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agu, Kingsley C; Okolie, Paulinus N

    2017-01-01

    ... of A. muricata using standard biochemical procedures. The defatted Annona muricata crude methanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant were used for the estimation of proximate composition and phytochemical screening...

  6. Suicides on the Austrian railway network: hotspot analysis and effect of proximity to psychiatric institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Markus J; Klimek, Peter; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Railway suicide is a significant public health problem. In addition to the loss of lives, these suicides occur in public space, causing traumatization among train drivers and passengers, and significant public transport delays. Prevention efforts depend upon accurate knowledge of clustering phenomena across the railway network, and spatial risk factors. Factors such as proximity to psychiatric institutions have been discussed to impact on railway suicides, but analytic evaluations are scarce and limited. We identify 15 hotspots on the Austrian railway system while taking case location uncertainties into account. These hotspots represent 0.9% of the total track length (5916 km/3676 miles) that account for up to 17% of all railway suicides (N=1130). We model suicide locations on the network using a smoothed inhomogeneous Poisson process and validate it using randomization tests. We find that the density of psychiatric beds is a significant predictor of railway suicide. Further predictors are population density, multitrack structure and-less consistently-spatial socio-economic factors including total suicide rates. We evaluate the model for the identified hotspots and show that the actual influence of these variables differs across individual hotspots. This analysis provides important information for suicide prevention research and practice. We recommend structural separation of railway tracks from nearby psychiatric institutions to prevent railway suicide.

  7. Comparative physico-chemical, proximate and mineral analysis on raw and roasted seeds of groundnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Saravan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical, proximate and nutritionally valuable minerals were determined aiming to compare raw and roasted groundnut seeds. The results indicated that total ash content of raw groundnut (4.6% was higher than the roasted groundnut (4.1% seeds. Crude protein content of roasted groundnut was higher (26.1% when compared to that of raw groundnut (24.9%. Crude carbohydrates levels of raw groundnut (25.3% are lower when compared with that of roasted groundnut (26.5%. Crude fat ranged from 39.1% in raw groundnut to 39.6% in roasted groundnut. Crude fiber percentage both in raw (2.9% and roasted (3.1% conditions were good. The moisture content of the raw groundnut (4.1% was more than the roasted groundnut (3.6% because of not exposure to heat. Seeds showed higher energy values both in raw and roasted conditions. Significant amount of minerals like potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc were present both in raw and roasted conditions. Based on statistical analysis the results showed highly significant differences (P < 0.05 between the raw and roasted seeds.

  8. Essential and Nonessential Micronutrients and Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M.; Serra, Monica C.

    The purpose of this chapter is to review the role of micronutrients in sport. Attention is given to the function of micronutrients in the body, examples of quality dietary sources of each micronutrient, and an assessment of the literature examining how the recommended daily intake of a micronutrient may or may not change with exercise. The discussion includes plausible biological mechanisms of proposed performance enhancement and current research to support or negate these claims. Water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, macrominerals, and select microminerals are discussed in detail, and a comprehensive table reviewing all micronutrients recommendations for the athlete is provided. Practical applications for professionals working with athletes conclude the chapter.

  9. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Lab.

    2002-06-01

    Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals to investigate the various factors influencing airborne respirable dust generation. Bituminous coal samples from 8 mines (5 U.S. and 3 Polish) were uniformly prepared and processed through a double roll crusher located in a low air velocity wind tunnel. Experimental factors studied included inherent coal seam constituents, specific energy of crushing, product size characteristics, dust cloud electrostatic field, and specific quantity of airborne respirable dust generated. A combination of factors is associated with the generation of airborne respirable dust. One factor involved is the effect of coal rank, described by the inherent moist fuel ratio, on the product size characteristics. However, since coals of high moist fuel ratio (high rank) are generally more extensively cleated, it is suggested that the degree of cleating is directly responsible for the quantity of respirable-sized particles produced in the crushed product material for eastern U.S. coals. This is implied by the relationship of ash content and at least one mineral constituent (pyrite, determined from pyritic sulfur analysis) to the percentage of airborne respirable dust. A clear delineation of coals, based on well-known proximate analysis characteristics, that generate the most respirable dust appears to be possible. It was also shown that the dust-generating characteristics of coals could be reasonably described by both the moist fuel ratio and the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI). These results show a clear distinction between eastern and western U.S. coals. However, no consistent distinction for Polish coal was observed.

  10. Systematic review and meta-analysis shows a specific micronutrient profile in people with Down Syndrome: Lower blood calcium, selenium and zinc, higher red blood cell copper and zinc, and higher salivary calcium and sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Amene; Mahmoudi, Maryam; Dehghani Ashkezari, Atefeh; Oliaie Rezaie, Nooshin; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-01-01

    Different metabolic profiles as well as comorbidities are common in people with Down Syndrome (DS). Therefore it is relevant to know whether micronutrient levels in people with DS are also different. This systematic review was designed to review the literature on micronutrient levels in people with DS compared to age and sex-matched controls without DS. We identified sixty nine studies from January 1967 to April 2016 through main electronic medical databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of knowledge. We carried out meta-analysis of the data on four essential trace elements (Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn), six minerals (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, and P), and five vitamins (vitamin A, B9, B12, D, and E). People with DS showed lower blood levels of Ca (standard mean difference (SMD) = −0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI): −1.16 to −0.09), Se (SMD = -0.99; 95% CI: -1.55 to -0.43), and Zn (SMD = -1.30; 95% CI: -1.75 to -0.84), while red cell levels of Zn (SMD = 1.88; 95% CI: 0.48 to 3.28) and Cu (SMD = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.96 to 3.57) were higher. They had also higher salivary levels of Ca (SMD = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.33) and Na (SMD = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.39 to 1.69). Our findings that micronutrient levels are different in people with DS raise the question whether these differences are related to the different metabolic profiles, the common comorbidities or merely reflect DS. PMID:28422987

  11. Systematic review and meta-analysis shows a specific micronutrient profile in people with Down Syndrome: Lower blood calcium, selenium and zinc, higher red blood cell copper and zinc, and higher salivary calcium and sodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amene Saghazadeh

    Full Text Available Different metabolic profiles as well as comorbidities are common in people with Down Syndrome (DS. Therefore it is relevant to know whether micronutrient levels in people with DS are also different. This systematic review was designed to review the literature on micronutrient levels in people with DS compared to age and sex-matched controls without DS. We identified sixty nine studies from January 1967 to April 2016 through main electronic medical databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of knowledge. We carried out meta-analysis of the data on four essential trace elements (Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn, six minerals (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, and P, and five vitamins (vitamin A, B9, B12, D, and E. People with DS showed lower blood levels of Ca (standard mean difference (SMD = -0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI: -1.16 to -0.09, Se (SMD = -0.99; 95% CI: -1.55 to -0.43, and Zn (SMD = -1.30; 95% CI: -1.75 to -0.84, while red cell levels of Zn (SMD = 1.88; 95% CI: 0.48 to 3.28 and Cu (SMD = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.96 to 3.57 were higher. They had also higher salivary levels of Ca (SMD = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.33 and Na (SMD = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.39 to 1.69. Our findings that micronutrient levels are different in people with DS raise the question whether these differences are related to the different metabolic profiles, the common comorbidities or merely reflect DS.

  12. Development and testing of texture discriminators for the analysis of trabecular bone in proximal femur radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, M. B.; Carballido-Gamio, J.; Fritscher, K.; Schubert, R.; Haenni, M.; Hengg, C.; Majumdar, S.; Link, T. M. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); University of Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, 6060 Hall (Austria); AO Development Institute, 7270 Davos Platz (Switzerland); Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, 400 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Texture analysis of femur radiographs may serve as a potential low cost technique to predict osteoporotic fracture risk and has received considerable attention in the past years. A further application of this technique may be the measurement of the quality of specific bone compartments to provide useful information for treatment of bone fractures. Two challenges of texture analysis are the selection of the best suitable texture measure and reproducible placement of regions of interest (ROIs). The goal of this in vitro study was to automatically place ROIs in radiographs of proximal femur specimens and to calculate correlations between various different texture analysis methods and the femurs' anchorage strength. Methods: Radiographs were obtained from 14 femoral specimens and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in the femoral neck. Biomechanical testing was performed to assess the anchorage strength in terms of failure load, breakaway torque, and number of cycles. Images were segmented using a framework that is based on the usage of level sets and statistical in-shape models. Five ROIs were automatically placed in the head, upper and lower neck, trochanteric, and shaft compartment in an atlas subject. All other subjects were registered rigidly, affinely, and nonlinearly, and the resulting transformation was used to map the five ROIs onto the individual femora. Results: In each ROI, texture features were extracted using gray level co-occurence matrices (GLCM), third-order GLCM, morphological gradients (MGs), Minkowski dimensions (MDs), Minkowski functionals (MFs), Gaussian Markov random fields, and scaling index method (SIM). Coefficients of determination for each texture feature with parameters of anchorage strength were computed. In a stepwise multiregression analysis, the most predictive parameters were identified in different models. Texture features were highly correlated with anchorage strength estimated by the failure load of up to R{sup 2

  13. Positional error and time-activity patterns in near-highway proximity studies: an exposure misclassification analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kevin J; Kangsen Scammell, Madeleine; Levy, Jonathan I; Fuller, Christina H; Parambi, Ron; Zamore, Wig; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Brugge, Doug

    2013-09-08

    The growing interest in research on the health effects of near-highway air pollutants requires an assessment of potential sources of error in exposure assignment techniques that rely on residential proximity to roadways. We compared the amount of positional error in the geocoding process for three different data sources (parcels, TIGER and StreetMap USA) to a "gold standard" residential geocoding process that used ortho-photos, large multi-building parcel layouts or large multi-unit building floor plans. The potential effect of positional error for each geocoding method was assessed as part of a proximity to highway epidemiological study in the Boston area, using all participants with complete address information (N = 703). Hourly time-activity data for the most recent workday/weekday and non-workday/weekend were collected to examine time spent in five different micro-environments (inside of home, outside of home, school/work, travel on highway, and other). Analysis included examination of whether time-activity patterns were differentially distributed either by proximity to highway or across demographic groups. Median positional error was significantly higher in street network geocoding (StreetMap USA = 23 m; TIGER = 22 m) than parcel geocoding (8 m). When restricted to multi-building parcels and large multi-unit building parcels, all three geocoding methods had substantial positional error (parcels = 24 m; StreetMap USA = 28 m; TIGER = 37 m). Street network geocoding also differentially introduced greater amounts of positional error in the proximity to highway study in the 0-50 m proximity category. Time spent inside home on workdays/weekdays differed significantly by demographic variables (age, employment status, educational attainment, income and race). Time-activity patterns were also significantly different when stratified by proximity to highway, with those participants residing in the 0-50 m proximity category reporting significantly

  14. Proximal Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  15. Influence of first proximal phalanx geometry on hallux valgus deformity: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Orcajo, Enrique; Bayod, Javier; Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, Ricardo; Losa-Iglesias, Marta; Doblare, Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Hallux abducto valgus (HAV), one of the most common forefoot deformities, occurs primarily in elderly women. HAV is a complex disease without a clearly identifiable cause for its higher prevalence in women compared with men. Several studies have reported various skeletal parameters related to HAV. This study examined the geometry of the proximal phalanx of the hallux (PPH) as a potential etiologic factor in this deformity. A total of 43 cadaver feet (22 males and 21 females) were examined by means of cadaveric dissection. From these data, ten representative PPHs for both genders were selected, corresponding to five percentiles for males (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) and five for females. These ten different PPHs were modeled and inserted in ten foot models. Stress distribution patterns within these ten PPH models were qualitatively compared using finite element analysis. In the ten cases analyzed, tensile stresses were larger on the lateral side, whereas compressive stresses were larger on the medial side. The bones of males were larger than female bones for each of the parameters examined; however, the mean difference between lateral and medial sides of the PPH (mean ± SD) was larger in women. Also the shallower the concavity at the base of the PPH, the larger the compressive stresses predicted. Internal forces on the PPH, due to differences in length between its medial and lateral sides, may force the PPH into a less-stressful position. The geometry of the PPH is a significant factor in HAV development influencing the other reported skeletal parameters and, thus, should be considered during preoperative evaluation. Clinical assessment should evaluate the first ray as a whole and not as isolated factors.

  16. Optimal micronutrients delay mitochondrial decay and age-associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Bruce N

    2010-01-01

    Three of our research efforts are reviewed, which suggest that optimizing metabolism will delay aging and the diseases of aging in humans. (1) Research on delay of the mitochondrial decay of aging by supplementing rats with lipoic acid and acetyl carnitine. (2) The triage theory, which posits that modest micronutrient deficiencies (common in much of the population) accelerate molecular aging, including mitochondrial decay, and supportive evidence, including an analysis in depth of vitamin K, that suggests the importance of achieving optimal micronutrient intake for longevity. (3) The finding that decreased enzyme binding constants (increased Km) for coenzymes (or substrates) can result from protein deformation and loss of function due to loss of membrane fluidity with age, or to polymorphisms or mutation. The loss of enzyme function can be ameliorated by high doses of a B vitamin, which raises coenzyme levels, and indicates the importance of understanding the effects of age, or polymorphisms, on micronutrient requirements. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barrera de Azambuja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%. The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively. A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  18. Multiple-Micronutrient Fortified Non-Dairy Beverage Interventions Reduce the Risk of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in School-Aged Children in Low-Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (i-iv).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J; Dror, Daphna K; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-05-21

    Multiple-micronutrient (MMN) fortification of beverages may be an effective option to deliver micronutrients to vulnerable populations. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the nutritional impacts of MMN fortified beverages in the context of low-middle income countries. A systematic search of published literature yielded 1022 citations, of which 10 randomized controlled trials (nine in school-aged children and one in pregnant women) met inclusion criteria. Results of school-aged children were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to iso-caloric controls, children who received MMN fortified beverages for 8 weeks to 6 months showed significant improvements in hemoglobin (+2.76 g/L, 95% CI [1.19, 4.33], p = 0.004; 8 studies) and serum ferritin (+15.42 pmol/L, [5.73, 25.12], p = 0.007; 8 studies); and reduced risk of anemia (RR 0.58 [0.29, 0.88], p = 0.005; 6 studies), iron deficiency (RR 0.34 [0.21, 0.55], p = 0.002; 7 studies), and iron deficiency anemia (RR 0.17 [0.06, 0.53], p = 0.02; 3 studies). MMN fortified beverage interventions could have major programmatic implications for reducing the burden of anemia and iron deficiency in school-aged children in low-middle income countries. Additional research is needed to investigate effects on other biochemical outcomes and population subgroups.

  19. Micronutrient-fortified rice can increase hookworm infection risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Perignon, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    in environments with high infection pressure. When considering fortification of staple foods, a careful risk-benefit analysis is warranted, taking into account severity of micronutrient deficiencies and local prevalence of parasitic infections. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01706419........6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%).Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where...

  20. Micronutrients and neurodevelopment: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Horacio F; Visentin, Silvana

    2016-12-01

    Micronutrients make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate nerve cell development, migration, and differentiation. The goal of this study is to review the scientific literature regarding the role of micronutrients in infant brain structure and function. Thus, we aim at providing pediatricians with knowledge on the importance of introducing all nutrients into the diet based on breast milk composition. The following databases were reviewed: MEDLINE, through PubMed, TRIP Database, and LILACS. An adequate nutrient supply, including calcium, copper, choline, iron, folic acid, iodine, and vitamins during pregnancy and lactation and in complementary feeding will have an effect on brain development and/or function. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  1. Micronutrient deficiency and treatment adherence in a randomized controlled trial of micronutrient supplementation in ART-naïve persons with HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Balfour

    Full Text Available The MAINTAIN study is an on-going RCT comparing high-dose micronutrient and anti-oxidant supplementation versus recommended daily allowance (RDA vitamins in slowing HIV immune deficiency progression in ART-naïve people with HIV infection.We planned analysis of the first 127 participants to determine the baseline prevalence of serum micronutrient deficiencies and correlates, as well as tolerance and adherence to study interventions.Participants receive eight capsules twice daily of 1 high-dose or 2 RDA supplements for two years and are followed-up quarterly for measures of immune deficiency progression, safety and tolerability. Regression analysis was used to identify correlates of micronutrient levels at baseline. Adherence was measured by residual pill count, self-report using the General Treatment Scale (GTS and short-term recall HIV Adherence Treatment Scale (HATS.Prior micronutrient supplementation (within 30 days was 27% at screening and 10% of study population, and was not correlated with baseline micronutrient levels. Low levels were frequent for carotene (24%80% in 75% of participants.Micronutrient levels in asymptomatic HIV+ persons are in keeping with population norms, but micronutrient deficiencies are frequent. Adherence levels are high, and will permit a valid evaluation of treatment effects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00798772.

  2. Flux analysis of the human proximal colon using anaerobic digestion model 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motelica-Wagenaar, A.M.; Nauta, A.; van den Heuvel, E.G.H.M.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2014-01-01

    The colon can be regarded as an anaerobic digestive compartment within the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). An in silico model simulating the fluxes in the human proximal colon was developed on basis of the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1), which is traditionally used to model waste conversion to

  3. Spatiotemporal Proximity Effects in Visual Short-Term Memory Examined by Target-Nontarget Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Raju P.; Pardhan, Shahina; van der Linde, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a limited-capacity system that holds a small number of objects online simultaneously, implying that competition for limited storage resources occurs (Phillips, 1974). How the spatial and temporal proximity of stimuli affects this competition is unclear. In this 2-experiment study, we examined the effect of the…

  4. Hip abductor moment arm - a mathematical analysis for proximal femoral replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple H Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing proximal femoral replacement for tumor resection often have compromised hip abductor muscles resulting in a Trendelenberg limp and hip instability. Commercially available proximal femoral prostheses offer several designs with varying sites of attachment for the abductor muscles, however, no analyses of these configurations have been performed to determine which design provides the longest moment arm for the hip abductor muscles during normal function. Methods This study analyzed hip abductor moment arm through hip adduction and abduction with a trigonometric mathematical model to evaluate the effects of alterations in anatomy and proximal femoral prosthesis design. Prosthesis dimensions were taken from technical schematics that were obtained from the prosthesis manufacturers. Manufacturers who contributed schematics for this investigation were Stryker Orthopaedics and Biomet. Results Superior and lateral displacement of the greater trochanter increased the hip abductor mechanical advantage for single-leg stance and adduction and preserved moment arm in the setting of Trendelenberg gait. Hip joint medialization resulted in less variance of the abductor moment arm through coronal motion. The Stryker GMRS endoprosthesis provided the longest moment arm in single-leg stance. Conclusions Hip abductor moment arm varies substantially throughout the hip's range of motion in the coronal plane. Selection of a proximal femur endoprosthesis with an abductor muscle insertion that is located superiorly and laterally will optimize hip abductor moment arm in single-leg stance compared to one located inferiorly or medially.

  5. MICRONUTRIENTS AND STRESS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It must also be borne in mind that people differ in their responsiveness to environmental threats ... B-Iyrnphocyte activity and natural killer (NK) cell activity.' A recent meta-analysis has shown that suppression of ..... Serial coronary angiography evidence that antioxidant vitamin intake reduces progression of coronary artery ...

  6. The Micronutrient Genomics Project: A community-driven knowledge base for micronutrient research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; El-Sohemy, A.; Hesketh, J.; Kaput, J.; Fenech, M.; Evelo, C.T.; McArdle, H.J.; Bouwman, J.; Lietz, G.; Mathers, J.C.; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Kranen, H. van; Elliott, R.; Wopereis, S.; Ferguson, L.R.; Méplan, C.; Perozzi, G.; Allen, L.; Rivero, D.

    2010-01-01

    Micronutrients influence multiple metabolic pathways including oxidative and inflammatory processes. Optimum micronutrient supply is important for the maintenance of homeostasis in metabolism and, ultimately, for maintaining good health. With advances in systems biology and genomics technologies, it

  7. Micronutrients after burn injury: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Megan J; Pham, Tam N; Gibran, Nicole S

    2014-01-01

    Supplementation of micronutrients after burn injury is common practice in order to fight oxidative stress, support the immune system, and optimize wound healing. Assessing micronutrient status after burn injury is difficult because of hemodilution in the resuscitation phase, redistribution of nutrients from the serum to other organs, and decreases in carrier proteins such as albumin. Although there are many preclinical data, there are limited studies in burn patients. Promising research is being conducted on combinations of micronutrients, especially via the intravenous route.

  8. Fluid transport and ion fluxes in mammalian kidney proximal tubule: a model analysis of isotonic transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Møbjerg, N.; Sørensen, J. N.

    2006-01-01

    'blocking' of apical water channels and in 'aquaporin-null' simulation. Reduced rate of volume reabsorption in AQP(-/-) mice would also require decreased apical sodium permeability. Paracellular convection accounts for approx. 36% of the net Na+ absorption, and the model epithelium accomplishes uphill water...... simulates major physiological features of proximal tubule, including significantly lower water permeability of the AQP1-null preparation, and a ratio of net sodium uptake and oxygen consumption exceeding that predicted from stoichiometry of the Na+/K+-pump. Physical properties of interspace basement......Aim: By mathematical modelling, we analyse conditions for near-isotonic and isotonic transport by mammalian kidney proximal tubule. Methods: The model comprises compliant lateral intercellular space (lis) and cells, and infinitely large luminal and peritubular compartments with diffusible species...

  9. Fluid transport and ion fluxes in mammalian kidney proximal tubule: a model analysis of isotonic transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, E.H.; Møbjerg, N.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2006-01-01

    'blocking' of apical water channels and in 'aquaporin-null' simulation. Reduced rate of volume reabsorption in AQP(-/-) mice would also require decreased apical sodium permeability. Paracellular convection accounts for approx. 36% of the net Na+ absorption, and the model epithelium accomplishes uphill water...... simulates major physiological features of proximal tubule, including significantly lower water permeability of the AQP1-null preparation, and a ratio of net sodium uptake and oxygen consumption exceeding that predicted from stoichiometry of the Na+/K+-pump. Physical properties of interspace basement......Aim: By mathematical modelling, we analyse conditions for near-isotonic and isotonic transport by mammalian kidney proximal tubule. Methods: The model comprises compliant lateral intercellular space (lis) and cells, and infinitely large luminal and peritubular compartments with diffusible species...

  10. Convergence Analysis of a Proximal Point Algorithm for Minimizing Differences of Functions

    OpenAIRE

    An, Nguyen Thai; Nam, Nguyen Mau

    2015-01-01

    Several optimization schemes have been known for convex optimization problems. However, numerical algorithms for solving nonconvex optimization problems are still underdeveloped. A progress to go beyond convexity was made by considering the class of functions representable as differences of convex functions. In this paper, we introduce a generalized proximal point algorithm to minimize the difference of a nonconvex function and a convex function. We also study convergence results of this algo...

  11. Proximate composition, phytochemical analysis, and in vitro antioxidant potentials of extracts of Annona muricata (Soursop)

    OpenAIRE

    Agu, Kingsley C.; Okolie, Paulinus N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Numerous bioactive compounds and phytochemicals have been reported to be present Annona muricata (Soursop). Some of these chemical compounds have been linked to the ethnomedicinal properties of the plant and its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to assess the proximate composition, phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant properties of A. muricata using standard biochemical procedures. The defatted Annona muricata crude methanolic extracts of the different ...

  12. Outcome analysis following removal of locking plate fixation of the proximal humerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Florian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerning surgical management experience with locking plates for proximal humeral fractures has been described with promising results. Though, distinct hardware related complaints after fracture union are reported. Information concerning the outcome after removal of hardware from the proximal humerus is lacking and most studies on hardware removal are focused on the lower extremity. Therefore the aim of this study was to analyze the functional short-term outcome following removal of locking plate fixation of the proximal humerus. Methods Patients undergoing removal of a locking plate of the proximal humerus were prospectively followed. Patients were subdivided into the following groups: Group HI: symptoms of hardware related subacromial impingement, Group RD: persisting rotation deficit, Group RQ: patients with request for a hardware removal. The clinical (Constant-Murley score and radiologic (AP and axial view follow-up took place three and six months after the operation. To evaluate subjective results, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36, was completed. Results 59 patients were included. The mean length of time with the hardware in place was 15.2 ± 3.81 months. The mean of the adjusted overall Constant score before hardware removal was 66.2 ± 25.2% and increased significantly to 73.1 ± 22.5% after 3 months; and to 84.3 ± 20.6% after 6 months (p Conclusion A significant improvement of clinical outcome following removal was found. However, a general recommendation for hardware removal is not justified, as the risk of an anew surgical and anesthetic procedure with all possible complications has to be carefully taken into account. However, for patients with distinct symptoms it might be justified.

  13. Proximity systems: Analysis of health risks; Varchi magneticianalysis of health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbaro, V.; Bartolini, P.; Donato, A. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Ingegneria Biomedica; Militello, C.; Polichetti, A.; Vecchia, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Fisica

    1996-03-01

    The results of a study on the magnetic fields generated by proximity systems for the controlled access of personnel are reported. Besides data from experimental measurements, the results are presented of theoretical calculations of induced currents inside the body. Health risks are also evaluated based on a comparison with the most advanced international standards. Finally, possible effects of interference with implanted pacemakers are analyzed in detail.

  14. Explaining the Female Black-White Obesity Gap: A Decomposition Analysis of Proximal Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, David W.; Lee, Wang-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    There exists remarkably large differences in body weights and obesity prevalence between black and white women in the US, and crucially these differences are a significant contributor to black-white inequalities in health. In this paper, we investigate the most proximal explanations for the weight gap, namely differences in diet and exercise. More specifically, we decompose black-white differences in body mass index and waist-to-height ratio into components reflecting black-white differences ...

  15. the principles of diversity and geographical proximity in an industrial ecosystem: social network analysis in the Toluca-Lerma region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alexis Vazquez Zacarias

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial ecology allows the traditional model of industrial activity, where individual manufacturing process that takes raw materials in order to generate products, to be transformed into a more comprehensive model of a regional economy named industrial ecosystem. This ecosystem functions through industrial symbiosis alliances formed by firms that cooperate through the exchange of residues in order to use them as inputs to transform them into valuable products. Moreover, the principles of geographical proximity and diversity of the firms have been found in successful ecosystems in developed countries. This study contributes empirically by using social network analysis (SNA methods to explore, the presence of these two principles in an industrial ecosystem in the Toluca-Lerma region in Mexico, consisting of 30 firms that have industrial symbiosis alliances. We conclude that in the context of developing countries, the symbiotic exchanges may not be fully explained with the principles of geographical proximity and diversity.

  16. Flux analysis of the human proximal colon using anaerobic digestion model 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motelica-Wagenaar, Anne Marieke; Nauta, Arjen; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2014-08-01

    The colon can be regarded as an anaerobic digestive compartment within the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). An in silico model simulating the fluxes in the human proximal colon was developed on basis of the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1), which is traditionally used to model waste conversion to biogas. Model calibration was conducted using data from in vitro fermentation of the proximal colon (TIM-2), and, amongst others, supplemented with the bio kinetics of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) fermentation. The impact of water and solutes absorption by the host was also included. Hydrolysis constants of carbohydrates and proteins were estimated based on total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ammonia production in vitro. Model validation was established using an independent dataset of a different in vitro model: an in vitro three-stage continuous culture system. The in silico model was shown to provide quantitative insight in the microbial community structure in terms of functional groups, and the substrate and product fluxes between these groups as well as the host, as a function of the substrate composition, pH and the solids residence time (SRT). The model confirms the experimental observation that methanogens are washed out at low pH or low SRT-values. The in silico model is proposed as useful tool in the design of experimental setups for in vitro experiments by giving insight in fermentation processes in the proximal human colon. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of invitation to food supplementation early in pregnancy combined with multiple micronutrients on infant survival: analysis of data from MINIMat randomized trial, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Rubina; Persson, Lars Åke; Ahmed, Shakil; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Lindholm, Lars

    2015-05-28

    Absence of cost-effectiveness (CE) analyses limits the relevance of large-scale nutrition interventions in low-income countries. We analyzed if the effect of invitation to food supplementation early in pregnancy combined with multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS) on infant survival represented value for money compared to invitation to food supplementation at usual time in pregnancy combined with iron-folic acid. Outcome data, infant mortality (IM) rates, came from MINIMat trial (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab, ISRCTN16581394). In MINIMat, women were randomized to early (E around 9 weeks of pregnancy) or usual invitation (U around 20 weeks) to food supplementation and daily doses of 30 mg, or 60 mg iron with 400 μgm of folic acid, or MMS with 15 micronutrients including 30 mg iron and 400 μgm of folic acid. In MINIMat, EMMS significantly reduced IM compared to UFe60F (U plus 60 mg iron 400 μgm Folic acid). We present incremental CE ratios for incrementing UFe60F to EMMS. Costing data came mainly from a published study. By incrementing UFe60F to EMMS, one extra IM could be averted at a cost of US$907 and US$797 for NGO run and government run CNCs, respectively, and at US$1024 for a hypothetical scenario of highest cost. These comparisons generated one extra life year (LY) saved at US$30, US$27, and US$34, respectively. Incrementing UFe60F to EMMS in pregnancy seems worthwhile from health economic and public health standpoints. Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab; ISRCTN16581394 ; Date of registration: Feb 16, 2009.

  18. The effect of posterior polyester tethers on the biomechanics of proximal junctional kyphosis: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Shay; Harris, Jeffrey E; Turner, Alexander W L; LaFage, Virginie; Smith, Justin S; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Schwab, Frank J; Haid, Regis W

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) remains problematic following multilevel instrumented spine surgery. Previous biomechanical studies indicate that providing less rigid fixation at the cranial aspect of a long posterior instrumented construct, via transition rods or hooks at the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV), may provide a gradual transition to normal motion and prevent PJK. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of posterior anchored polyethylene tethers to distribute proximal motion segment stiffness in long instrumented spine constructs. METHODS A finite element model of a T7-L5 spine segment was created to evaluate range of motion (ROM), intradiscal pressure, pedicle screw loads, and forces in the posterior ligament complex within and adjacent to the proximal terminus of an instrumented spine construct. Six models were tested: 1) intact spine; 2) bilateral, segmental pedicle screws (PS) at all levels from T-11 through L-5; 3) bilateral pedicle screws from T-12 to L-5 and transverse process hooks (TPH) at T-11 (the UIV); 4) pedicle screws from T-11 to L5 and 1-level tethers from T-10 to T-11 (TE-UIV+1); 5) pedicle screws from T-11 to L-5 and 2-level tethers from T-9 to T-11 (TE-UIV+2); and 6) pedicle screws and 3-level tethers from T-8 to T-11 (TE-UIV+3). RESULTS Proximal-segment range of motion (ROM) for the PS construct increased from 16% at UIV-1 to 91% at UIV. Proximal-segment ROM for the TPH construct increased from 27% at UIV-1 to 92% at UIV. Posterior tether constructs distributed ROM at the UIV and cranial adjacent segments most effectively; ROM for TE-UIV+1 was 14% of the intact model at UIV-1, 76% at UIV, and 98% at UIV+1. ROM for TE-UIV+2 was 10% at UIV-1, 51% at UIV, 69% at UIV+1, and 97% at UIV+2. ROM for TE-UIV+3 was 7% at UIV-1, 33% at UIV, 45% at UIV+1, and 64% at UIV+2. Proximal segment intradiscal pressures, pedicle screw loads, and ligament forces in the posterior ligament complex were progressively reduced with

  19. Micronutrient Intake Is Inadequate for a Sample of Pregnant African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Susan W; Stewart, Patricia A; Ossip, Deborah J; Block, Robert C; Wixom, Nellie; Fernandez, I Diana

    2017-04-01

    Micronutrient intake is critical for fetal development and positive pregnancy outcomes. Little is known about the adequacy of micronutrient intake in pregnant African-American women. To describe nutrient sufficiency and top food groups contributing to dietary intake of select micronutrients in low-income pregnant African-American women and determine whether micronutrient intake varies with early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and/or gestational weight gain. Secondary analysis of data collected in a cohort study of pregnant African-American women. A total of 93 women aged 18 to 36 years, pregnant, with early pregnancy BMIs ≥18.5 and women with dietary intakes below Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin D, folate, iron, calcium, and choline throughout pregnancy. Top food groups from which women derived these micronutrients was also determined. Descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations, and percentages. Percent of women reaching EAR or AI was calculated. The χ 2 test was used to assess micronutrient intake differences based on early pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain. A large percentage of pregnant women did not achieve the EAR or AI from dietary sources alone; EAR for folate (66%), vitamin D (100%), iron (89%), and AI for choline (100%). Mean micronutrient intake varied throughout pregnancy. Top food sources included reduced-fat milk, eggs, and mixed egg dishes, pasta dishes, and ready-to-eat cereal. The majority of study participants had dietary micronutrient intake levels below EAR/AI throughout pregnancy. Findings suggest that practitioners should evaluate dietary adequacy in women to avoid deficits in micronutrient intake during pregnancy. Top food sources of these micronutrients can be considered when assisting women in improving dietary intake. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proteomic profiling and pathway analysis of the response of rat renal proximal convoluted tubules to metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Kevin L; Freund, Dana M; Prenni, Jessica E; Curthoys, Norman P

    2013-09-01

    Metabolic acidosis is a relatively common pathological condition that is defined as a decrease in blood pH and bicarbonate concentration. The renal proximal convoluted tubule responds to this condition by increasing the extraction of plasma glutamine and activating ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis. The combined processes increase the excretion of acid and produce bicarbonate ions that are added to the blood to partially restore acid-base homeostasis. Only a few cytosolic proteins, such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, have been determined to play a role in the renal response to metabolic acidosis. Therefore, further analysis was performed to better characterize the response of the cytosolic proteome. Proximal convoluted tubule cells were isolated from rat kidney cortex at various times after onset of acidosis and fractionated to separate the soluble cytosolic proteins from the remainder of the cellular components. The cytosolic proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Spectral counting along with average MS/MS total ion current were used to quantify temporal changes in relative protein abundance. In all, 461 proteins were confidently identified, of which 24 exhibited statistically significant changes in abundance. To validate these techniques, several of the observed abundance changes were confirmed by Western blotting. Data from the cytosolic fractions were then combined with previous proteomic data, and pathway analyses were performed to identify the primary pathways that are activated or inhibited in the proximal convoluted tubule during the onset of metabolic acidosis.

  1. Proteomic profiling and pathway analysis of the response of rat renal proximal convoluted tubules to metabolic acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Kevin L.; Freund, Dana M.; Prenni, Jessica E.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is a relatively common pathological condition that is defined as a decrease in blood pH and bicarbonate concentration. The renal proximal convoluted tubule responds to this condition by increasing the extraction of plasma glutamine and activating ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis. The combined processes increase the excretion of acid and produce bicarbonate ions that are added to the blood to partially restore acid-base homeostasis. Only a few cytosolic proteins, such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, have been determined to play a role in the renal response to metabolic acidosis. Therefore, further analysis was performed to better characterize the response of the cytosolic proteome. Proximal convoluted tubule cells were isolated from rat kidney cortex at various times after onset of acidosis and fractionated to separate the soluble cytosolic proteins from the remainder of the cellular components. The cytosolic proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Spectral counting along with average MS/MS total ion current were used to quantify temporal changes in relative protein abundance. In all, 461 proteins were confidently identified, of which 24 exhibited statistically significant changes in abundance. To validate these techniques, several of the observed abundance changes were confirmed by Western blotting. Data from the cytosolic fractions were then combined with previous proteomic data, and pathway analyses were performed to identify the primary pathways that are activated or inhibited in the proximal convoluted tubule during the onset of metabolic acidosis. PMID:23804448

  2. EURRECA-principles and future for deriving micronutrient recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, M.M.A.E.; Contor, L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Gurinovic, M.; Koletzko, B.; Ommen, van B.; Raats, M.M.; Veer, van 't P.

    2013-01-01

    The EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence (NoE) explored an approach for setting micronutrient recommendations, which would address the variation in recommendations across Europe. Therefore, a framework for deriving and using micronutrient Dietary Reference

  3. The role of biofortification in the reduction of micronutrient food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2013-09-11

    Sep 11, 2013 ... Micronutrient malnutrition is a global public health problem, especially in developing countries. Hunger and starvation which ... Key words: Micronutrient food insecurity, biofortification, developing nations, Micronutrients. INTRODUCTION .... level food insecurity in developing and some developed countries.

  4. Proximal major limb amputations – a retrospective analysis of 45 oncological cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goertz Ole

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proximal major limb amputations due to malignant tumors have become rare but are still a valuable treatment option in palliation and in some cases can even cure. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse outcome in those patients, including the postoperative course, survival, pain, quality of life, and prosthesis usage. Methods Data of 45 consecutive patients was acquired from patient's charts and contact to patients, and general practitioners. Patients with interscapulothoracic amputation (n = 14, shoulder disarticulation (n = 13, hemipelvectomy (n = 3 or hip disarticulation (n = 15 were included. Results The rate of proximal major limb amputations in patients treated for sarcoma was 2.3% (37 out of 1597. Survival for all patients was 42.9% after one year and 12.7% after five years. Survival was significantly better in patients with complete tumor resections. Postoperative chemotherapy and radiation did not prolong survival. Eighteen percent of the patients with malignant disease developed local recurrence. In 44%, postoperative complications were observed. Different modalities of postoperative pain management and the site of the amputation had no significant influence on long-term pain assessment and quality of life. Eighty-seven percent suffered from phantom pain, 15.6% considered their quality of life worse than before the operation. Thirty-two percent of the patients who received a prosthesis used it regularly. Conclusion Proximal major limb amputations severely interfere with patients' body function and are the last, albeit valuable, option within the treatment concept of extremity malignancies or severe infections. Besides short survival, high complication rates, and postoperative pain, patients' quality of life can be improved for the time they have remaining.

  5. Outcomes of trochanteric femoral fractures treated with proximal femoral nail: an analysis of 100 consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz MF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Fatih Korkmaz,1 Mehmet Nuri Erdem,2 Zeliha Disli,3 Engin Burak Selcuk,4 Mustafa Karakaplan,1 Abdullah Gogus5 1Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey; 2Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Nisantasi University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Anesthesiology, Malatya Government Hospital, Malatya, Turkey; 4Department of Family Medicine, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey; 5Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: In this study, we aimed to report the results of a retrospective study carried out at our institute regarding cases of patients who had suffered proximal femoral fractures between January 2002 and February 2007, and who were treated with a proximal femoral nail. Materials and methods: One hundred consecutive cases were included in the study. A case documentation form was used to obtain intraoperative data including age, sex, mechanism of injury, type of fracture according to Association for Osteosynthesis/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF classification and the American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA physical status classification (ASA grade. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at the time of admission and at the 6th week; subsequent visits were organized on the 3rd month, 6th month, and 12th month, and in patients with longer follow-up and annually postoperatively. The Harris score of hip function was used, and any change in the position of the implants and the progress of the fracture union, which was determined radiologically, was noted. Results: The mean age of the patients was 77.66 years (range: 37–98 years, and the sex distribution was 32 males and 68 females. Seventy-three fractures were reduced by closed means, whereas 27 needed limited open reduction. The mean follow-up time for the study group was 31.3 months (range

  6. Maternal cortisol and stress are associated with birth outcomes, but are not affected by lipid-based micronutrient supplements during pregnancy: an analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial in rural Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Prenatal micronutrient supplements have been found to increase birth weight, but mechanisms for increased growth are poorly understood. Our hypotheses were that 1) women who receive lipid-based micronutrient supplements (LNS) during pregnancy would have lower salivary cortisol concentrat...

  7. Optimizing micronutrient intake of lactating women through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micronutrient consumption in many developing countries is insufficient to meet the needs of numerous individuals, resulting in a negative impact on health. Increasing consumption of wild edible plants, which are micronutrient rich, easy to grow, and culturally familiar, has been recommended to combat these deficiencies, ...

  8. Common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ethiopia is amongst the African countries that have received significant food aid. Nonetheless, the common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries are not well documented. Objective: To find out the common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries in the country based on ...

  9. [Proximal femoral intramedullary nail versus DHS plate for the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. A prospective analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, A; Ramos, T; Vilchez, F; Mendoza-Lemus, O; Peña, V; Cárdenas-Estrada, E; Acosta-Olivo, C

    2013-01-01

    To show that patients with intertrochanteric fractures treated with a proximal femoral nail have a better postoperative course than those treated with a DHS plate (dynamic hip screw). Patients with a Boyd & Griffin type II intertrochanteric fracture were randomly divided into two groups: a group of patients treated with a PFN and another one treated with a DHS plate. All patients were assessed at 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks using the Harris scale and the visual analog scale pre- and postoperatively, as well as the operative time, incision size, intraoperative bleeding, onset of partial and/or total weight bearing, healing time, time to attain prior physical activity level, and radiographic result. 32 patients met our criteria. The variables that had a significant reduction were: incision, operative time, postoperative pain according to the visual analog scale, onset of mobility, partial weight bearing and pain at 2 weeks. The proximal femoral nail has better short-term outcomes than the DHS plate; however, in the medium term both implants have the same outcomes.

  10. Morphological analysis of the proximal femur by computed tomography in Japanese subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Masashi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-11-01

    In order to evaluate the morphological features of the proximal femur in the Japanese, 100 femora of normal Japanese subjects (normal group) and 60 femora of 43 Japanese patients with secondary osteoarthrosis of the hip (OA group) were analyzed using CT images. The scans for the dried bones (normal group) were done at a setting of 80 kV and 20 mA, for 2 sec duration. The scans were reconstructed using the soft tissue algorithm built into the GE-9800 scanner. The patient scans (OA group) were done at 120 kV and 170 mA also for 2 sec duration, and reconstructed using the same bone algorithm. The results were as follows: Thinning of the femoral cortex occurred in normal females over 60 years of age. The canal flare index at the proximal part of the femoral diaphysis was negatively correlated with the canal diameter at the isthmus. The index at the upper part was greater than that at the lower part. The two groups showed no statistical difference in this index. In the metaphysis, the canal flare index at the anterior portion was twice that at the posterior portion. In absolute terms, the OA group had a reduced flare or curve along the medial portion. In cross-section, the canal shape of the diaphysis was more elliptical in the OA group than in the normal group. The longitudinal axis of the canal was directed more sagittally in the OA group than in the normal group. (author).

  11. Multiple-Micronutrient Fortified Non-Dairy Beverage Interventions Reduce the Risk of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in School-Aged Children in Low-Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (i–iv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant J. Aaron

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-micronutrient (MMN fortification of beverages may be an effective option to deliver micronutrients to vulnerable populations. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the nutritional impacts of MMN fortified beverages in the context of low-middle income countries. A systematic search of published literature yielded 1022 citations, of which 10 randomized controlled trials (nine in school-aged children and one in pregnant women met inclusion criteria. Results of school-aged children were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to iso-caloric controls, children who received MMN fortified beverages for 8 weeks to 6 months showed significant improvements in hemoglobin (+2.76 g/L, 95% CI [1.19, 4.33], p = 0.004; 8 studies and serum ferritin (+15.42 pmol/L, [5.73, 25.12], p = 0.007; 8 studies; and reduced risk of anemia (RR 0.58 [0.29, 0.88], p = 0.005; 6 studies, iron deficiency (RR 0.34 [0.21, 0.55], p = 0.002; 7 studies, and iron deficiency anemia (RR 0.17 [0.06, 0.53], p = 0.02; 3 studies. MMN fortified beverage interventions could have major programmatic implications for reducing the burden of anemia and iron deficiency in school-aged children in low-middle income countries. Additional research is needed to investigate effects on other biochemical outcomes and population subgroups.

  12. The influence of micronutrients on oral and general health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present clinical pilot study was to examine the influence of a combination of micronutrients on individuals with high stress experience. Methods 40 healthy students (28 female, 12 male) with a mean age of 27.1 ± 3.0 years, experiencing high examination stress, were chosen. After approval of the ethics commission, one group of students (n = 19) took a combination of micronutrients (Orthomol vital m/f) for three months, whereas other students (n = 21) served as control group. All participants underwent at the beginning and at the end of the trial a dental examination, a determination of 10 periodontal pathogens, a salivary and a blood analysis. In addition, the participants filled in a questionnaire on nutrition, quality of life and degree of stress experienced during their final examinations. Results The evaluation of the results, obtained at the end of the trial period, showed that for all students a slight worsening of oral hygiene and an increased consumption of unhealthy food could be observed. The intake of the micronutrients led to a slight improvement of the degree of gingival inflammation in comparison to the control group. The blood analysis showed an increase in vitamin (vitamin C, vitamin E) and zinc concentrations, and a lower increase in CRP. In the male subjects, a decrease in the serum concentrations of triglycerides (p = 0.073) and LDL (p = 0.048) was observed. Conclusions This pilot study shows that micronutrients, taken during periods of high stress experience, had a beneficial effect on inflammatory processes and helped reduce the level of some of the plasma lipids in males, and thus can be recommended for supplementing the diet. However, additional studies with a higher number of subjects, also suffering from periodontal disease, are necessary to show the effect of a micronutrient supplementation more clearly. PMID:22027646

  13. The influence of micronutrients on oral and general health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willershausen, Brita; Ross, A; Försch, M; Willershausen, I; Mohaupt, Ph; Callaway, A

    2011-11-10

    The aim of the present clinical pilot study was to examine the influence of a combination of micronutrients on individuals with high stress experience. 40 healthy students (28 female, 12 male) with a mean age of 27.1 ± 3.0 years, experiencing high examination stress, were chosen. After approval of the ethics commission, one group of students (n = 19) took a combination of micronutrients (Orthomol vital m/f) for three months, whereas other students (n = 21) served as control group. All participants underwent at the beginning and at the end of the trial a dental examination, a determination of 10 periodontal pathogens, a salivary and a blood analysis. In addition, the participants filled in a questionnaire on nutrition, quality of life and degree of stress experienced during their final examinations. The evaluation of the results, obtained at the end of the trial period, showed that for all students a slight worsening of oral hygiene and an increased consumption of unhealthy food could be observed. The intake of the micronutrients led to a slight improvement of the degree of gingival inflammation in comparison to the control group. The blood analysis showed an increase in vitamin (vitamin C, vitamin E) and zinc concentrations, and a lower increase in CRP. In the male subjects, a decrease in the serum concentrations of triglycerides (p = 0.073) and LDL (p = 0.048) was observed. This pilot study shows that micronutrients, taken during periods of high stress experience, had a beneficial effect on inflammatory processes and helped reduce the level of some of the plasma lipids in males, and thus can be recommended for supplementing the diet. However, additional studies with a higher number of subjects, also suffering from periodontal disease, are necessary to show the effect of a micronutrient supplementation more clearly.

  14. The influence of micronutrients on oral and general health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willershausen B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of the present clinical pilot study was to examine the influence of a combination of micronutrients on individuals with high stress experience. Methods 40 healthy students (28 female, 12 male with a mean age of 27.1 ± 3.0 years, experiencing high examination stress, were chosen. After approval of the ethics commission, one group of students (n = 19 took a combination of micronutrients (Orthomol vital m/f for three months, whereas other students (n = 21 served as control group. All participants underwent at the beginning and at the end of the trial a dental examination, a determination of 10 periodontal pathogens, a salivary and a blood analysis. In addition, the participants filled in a questionnaire on nutrition, quality of life and degree of stress experienced during their final examinations. Results The evaluation of the results, obtained at the end of the trial period, showed that for all students a slight worsening of oral hygiene and an increased consumption of unhealthy food could be observed. The intake of the micronutrients led to a slight improvement of the degree of gingival inflammation in comparison to the control group. The blood analysis showed an increase in vitamin (vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc concentrations, and a lower increase in CRP. In the male subjects, a decrease in the serum concentrations of triglycerides (p = 0.073 and LDL (p = 0.048 was observed. Conclusions This pilot study shows that micronutrients, taken during periods of high stress experience, had a beneficial effect on inflammatory processes and helped reduce the level of some of the plasma lipids in males, and thus can be recommended for supplementing the diet. However, additional studies with a higher number of subjects, also suffering from periodontal disease, are necessary to show the effect of a micronutrient supplementation more clearly.

  15. The analysis of densitometric and geometric parameters of bilateral proximal phalanges in horses with the use of peripheral quantitative computed tompgraphy

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    Dzierzęcka Małgorzata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proximal phalanges in horses are among bones that are most prone to injuries. So far, the detailed analysis of densitometric and geometric parameters of both front legs proximal phalanges in horses has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the densitometric and geometric parameters between proximal phalanges in equine both front legs with the use of peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. Methods The study material comprised isolated both front legs proximal phalanges derived from 22 horses. The structure analysis of the proximal phalanges was conducted with the pQCT. The following bone parameters were determined: bone mineral content, volumetric bone mineral density, total bone area, trabecular area, cortical area, cortical thickness, periosteal circumference, endocortical circumference, Strength Strain Index. Tomographic analysis of proximal phalanges was conducted at three levels: at 15%, 50% and 85% of the bone length. Results The statistical analysis showed that both the densitometric and geometric parameters of the bone at 50% and 85% of its length, did not present any statistically significant differences for the left or right proximal phalanges of the forelimb. At the same time, all examined parameters measured at 15% of the bone length, in the vicinity of the proximal metaphysis revealed significant statistical differences between both front legs proximal phalanges. Conclusions The proximal phalanx parameters in the forelimbs are significantly different for the left and right proximal phalanx at 15% of the length and they indicate higher Strength Strain Index of the left bone in this location. The densitometric and geometric parameters of the bone at 50% and 85% of its length, did not present any statistically significant differences for the left or right proximal phalanges of the left and right forelimbs. The most serious changes caused by asymmetrical load of the thoracic limbs in

  16. Proximity sounding analysis for derechos and supercells: an assessment of similarities and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doswell, Charles A.; Evans, Jeffry S.

    Proximity soundings (within 2 h and 167 km) of derechos (long-lived, widespread damaging convective windstorms) and supercells have been obtained. More than 65 derechos, accompanied by 115 proximity soundings, are identified during the years 1983 to 1993. The derechos have been divided into categories according to the synoptic situation: strong forcing (SF), weak forcing (WF), and "hybrid" cases (which are neither weakly nor strongly forced). Nearly 100 supercell proximity soundings have been found for the period 1998 to 2001, subdivided into nontornadic and tornadic supercells; tornadic supercells were further subdivided into those producing significant (>F1 rating) tornadoes and weak tornadoes (F0-F1 rating). WF derecho situations typically are characterized by warm, moist soundings with large convective available potential instability (CAPE) and relatively weak vertical wind shear. SF derechos usually have stronger wind shears, and cooler and less moist soundings with lower CAPE than the weakly forced cases. Most derechos exhibit strong storm-relative inflow at low levels. In WF derechos, this is usually the result of rapid convective system movement, whereas in SF derechos, storm-relative inflow at low levels is heavily influenced by relatively strong low-level windspeeds. "Hybrid" cases collectively are similar to an average of the SF and WF cases. Supercells occur in environments that are not all that dissimilar from those that produce SF derechos. It appears that some parameter combining instability and deep layer shear, such as the Energy-Helicity Index (EHI), can help discriminate between tornadic and nontornadic supercell situations. Soundings with significant tornadoes (F2 and greater) typically show high 0-1 km relative humidities, and strong 0-1 km shear. Results suggest it may not be easy to forecast the mode of severe thunderstorm activity (i.e., derecho versus supercell) on any particular day, given conditions that favor severe thunderstorm activity

  17. Detection and treatment of proximal caries lesions: Milieu-specific cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Paris, Sebastian; Stolpe, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Dental caries lesions are highly prevalent, concentrated in high-risk groups, and often affect proximal tooth surfaces. Choosing a caries detection method determines the available treatment options: radiographically detected early lesion stages might receive non-, micro-, or invasive treatments, whilst visually tactile detected lesions are often advanced and mostly require invasive treatment. Thus, the choice of detection method impacts on patients via the applied treatment. We compared the cost-effectiveness of combinations of detections and treatments of proximal lesions in different populations which did or did not receive prevention during adolescence. These cost-effectiveness comparisons of different detection-treatment combinations should aid clinical decision making and improve resource allocation. A Markov-model was constructed to follow a proximal posterior surface in a 12-year-old German over his lifetime. Prevalence, validity and transition probabilities were extracted from the literature. Microsimulations were performed to evaluate costs (Euro) per tooth-retention-time (years). For populations with low risk, radiographic detection plus non-invasive treatment without (270 Euro, 61.5 years) and with prevention (312 Euro, 63.0 years), as well as radiographic detection plus micro-invasive treatment and prevention (373 Euro, 64.0 years) were cost-effective. For populations with high risk, radiographic detection plus micro-invasive treatment without (427 Euro, 58.5 years) and with prevention (436 Euro, 61.0 years) were cost-effective. Combinations involving invasive treatments had limited cost-effectiveness. Caries detection methods should be evaluated regarding the cost-effectiveness resulting from their use in different populations. Caries detection methods are usually evaluated regarding their validity compared to a gold standard. We demonstrate that the cost-effectiveness stemming from using different detection methods additionally depends on the

  18. A quantitative analysis of rotary, ultrasonic and manual techniques to treat proximally flattened root canals

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    Fabiana Soares Grecca

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The efficiency of rotary, manual and ultrasonic root canal instrumentation techniques was investigated in proximally flattened root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty human mandibular left and right central incisors, lateral incisors and premolars were used. The pulp tissue was removed and the root canals were filled with red die. Teeth were instrumented using three techniques: (i K3 and ProTaper rotary systems; (ii ultrasonic crown-down technique; and (iii progressive manual technique. Roots were bisected longitudinally in a buccolingual direction. The instrumented canal walls were digitally captured and the images obtained were analyzed using the Sigma Scan software. Canal walls were evaluated for total canal wall area versus non-instrumented area on which dye remained. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found between the instrumentation techniques studied (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that no instrumentation technique was 100% efficient to remove the dye.

  19. Arthroplasty for the surgical management of complex proximal humerus fractures in the elderly: a cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Schairer, William W; McCormick, Frank; Dines, David M; Craig, Edward V; Gulotta, Lawrence V

    2016-05-01

    Shoulder hemiarthroplasty (HA) has been the standard treatment for complex proximal humerus fractures in the elderly requiring surgery but not amenable to fixation. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) has also emerged as a costly albeit highly effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of nonoperative fracture care, HA, and RTSA for complex proximal humerus fractures from the perspective of both U.S. payors and hospitals. A Markov model was constructed for the treatment alternatives. Costs were expressed in 2013 U.S. dollars and effectiveness in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The principal outcome measure was incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate model assumptions. In the base case, from the payor perspective, RTSA was associated with an ICER of $8100/QALY; HA was eliminated from payor analysis as a cost-ineffective strategy. From the hospital perspective, however, HA was not cost-ineffective and the ICER for HA was $36,700/QALY, with RTSA providing incremental effectiveness at $57,400/QALY. RTSA was the optimal strategy in 61% and 54% of payor and hospital probabilistic sensitivity analyses, respectively. The preferred strategy was dependent on associated QALY gains, primary RTSA cost, and failure rates for RTSA. RTSA can be a cost-effective intervention in the surgical treatment of complex proximal humerus fractures. HA can also be a cost-effective intervention, depending on the cost perspective (cost-ineffective for payor but cost-effective for the hospital). This analysis highlights the opportunities for increased cost-sharing strategies to alleviate the cost burden on hospitals. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Analysis of Biomechanical Properties of Proximal Femur after Implant Removal

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    Jae Hyuk Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To compare the biomechanical stability of the femur following the removal of proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA-II and dynamic hip screw (DHS. Material and Methods. 56 paired cadaveric femurs were used as experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, PFNA-II and DHS were randomly inserted into femurs on both sides and then removed. Thereafter, compression load was applied until fracture occurred; biomechanical stability of the femurs and associated fracture patterns were studied. Results. The ultimate load and stiffness of the control group were 6227.8±1694.1 N and 990.5±99.8 N/mm, respectively. These were significantly higher than experimental group (p=0.014, <0.001 following the removal of PFNA-II (4085.6±1628.03 N and 656.3±155.3 N/mm and DHS (4001.9±1588.3 N and 656.3±155.3 N/mm. No statistical differences in these values were found between the 2 device groups (p=0.84, 0.71, regardless of age groups. However, fracture patterns were different between two devices, intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures. Conclusions. Mechanical stability of the proximal femurs does not differ after the removal of 2 different of fixation devices regardless of the age. However, it was significantly lower compared to an intact femur. Different fracture patterns have been shown following the removal of different fixation devices as there are variations in the site of stress risers for individual implants.

  1. Proximate and The Calorific Value Analysis of Brown Coal for High-Calorie Hybrid Briquette Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahaluddin Hasan, Erzam; Jahiding, Muhammad; Mashuni; Ilmawati, WOS; Wati, Wa; Nyoman Sudiana, I.

    2017-05-01

    A study has been conducted about the quality of young coal (brown coal ) briquettes from North Kolaka to determine the effect of varied adhesive on the proximate characteristics and calorific value. The young coal briquettes were made by using adhesives of starch, cassava starch and Castor oil plant starch at a concentration of 5 to 15% of the total mass. The grain size of young coal and the adhesive used were 60 mesh and 100 mesh, respectively. The samples were molded in a cylindrical mold with a diameter of 2.5 cm and a high of 6 cm, and with a pressure of 100 kg/cm2. After having been compacted, the young coal samples were then analyzed proximately i.e. moisture content, volatile matter, ash content and fixed carbon, as well as their calorific values calculation. The results showed that the increase of the adhesive could tend to increased the water content and volatile matter, but reduced the ash content, and the fixed carbon tend to constant except coal briquettes using starch adhesive it were increased. The calorific value of the young coal briquettes increased for all kinds of adhesives when the adhesive increased. The calorific value per one gram ranged from 3162.7 cal/g to 4678.7 cal/g. The highest calorific value, 4678.7 cal/g, was observed at the adhesive of 15 % of starch. The characteristics of young coal can be used as a raw material for making high-calorie hybrid briquettes.

  2. Effect of Micronutrient Powder Addition on Sensory Properties of Foods for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Katherine M; Duncan, Alison M; Keller, Heather H; Stark, Ken D; Duizer, Lisa M

    2017-10-01

    Micronutrient fortification can improve nutrient intake of older adults in long-term care. However, previous studies indicate that micronutrient fortification can alter food sensory attributes and, potentially, consumer liking. Others have found no effect of fortification on liking. This research investigates the effect of micronutrient powder addition on the sensory properties of selected foods commonly served in long-term care. A micronutrient powder containing 9 vitamins and 3 minerals was added to tomato soup and oatmeal at different levels. Using projective mapping, changes in sensory properties were observed with powder addition. Descriptive analysis, used to quantify these changes, showed that both the tomato soup and oatmeal had reduced flavor as the amount of added micronutrient powder increased. Oatmeal also showed changes in texture with fortification. Consumer liking scores for tomato soup showed that micronutrient addition affected liking when 100% of a daily dose was added into the soup. Addition of 50% of the daily dose did not affect liking. Oatmeal liking did not differ between fortified and unfortified samples. Results from this research can be used to decide whether a micronutrient powder of selected vitamins and minerals can be added to foods served to older adults in long-term care. Although sensory properties of the foods will be altered, fortification of both tomato soup and oatmeal with the developed powder is possible without reducing consumer liking to the point where it is disliked. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Menopause, micronutrients, and hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2005-05-01

    Micronutrient and herbal/phytochemical supplements are of increasing interest as potential alternatives to using estrogen therapy in treating menopausal symptoms. This article provides an overview of the questionnaires that assess menopausal symptoms and research efforts to better standardize symptom assessment. The reported rate of symptoms varies by ethnicity, stage of menopause, hormonal therapy and the measurement method. The use of estrogen therapy has declined sharply after the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Hormone Trial was stopped early because the potential risks outweighed potential benefits. There is a limited research base that addresses the efficacy of supplements in controlling menopausal symptoms. The generalizability of several studies is limited because the study participants experiences menopause as the results of treatment for breast cancer. The article concludes with a review of guidelines and of issues that need to be addressed in future research studies with emphasis on questions related to clinical practice.

  4. Comparative mapping of canine and human proximal Xq and genetic analysis of canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschenes, S.M.; Puck, J.M.; Dutra, A.S. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Parallel genetic analysis of animal and human genetic diseases can facilitate the identification and characterization of the causative gene defects. For example, canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by clinical, pathological, and immunological manifestations similar to the most common form of human SCID. To derive a canine syntenic map including genes that in humans are located in proximal Xq, near human X-linked SCID, poly (TG) polymorphisms were identified at the canine phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and choroideremia (CHM) loci. These plus a polymorphic poly (CAG) sequence in exon 1 of the canine androgen receptor gene (AR) were used to genotype members of the colony informative for X-linked SCID. No recombinations among SCIDX1, AR, PGK, or CHM were observed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized PGK and CHM to proximal Xq in the dog, in the same chromosomal location occupied by the human genes. Somatic cell hybrid analysis and methylation differences at AR demonstrated that female dogs carrying X-linked SCID have the same lymphocyte-limited skewed X-chromosome inactivation patterns as human carriers. These genetic and phenotypic findings provide evidence that mutations in the same gene, now identified as the {gamma} chain of the IL-2 receptor, cause canine and human X-linked SCID. This approach is an efficient method for comparative gene mapping and disease identification. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Metabolic engineering of micronutrients in crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancquaert, Dieter; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-02-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a widespread phenomenon, most prevalent in developing countries. Being causally linked to the occurrence of a range of diseases, it affects billions of people worldwide. Enhancing the content of micronutrients in crop products through biotechnology is a promising technique to fight micronutrient malnutrition worldwide. Micronutrient fortification of food products has been implemented in a number of Western countries, but remains inaccessible for poor rural populations in a major part of the developing world. Moreover, evidence of the negative impacts of this practice on human health, at least for some vitamins, is accumulating. Biofortification of crop plants-the enhancement of vitamins and minerals through plant biotechnology-is a promising alternative or complement in the battle against micronutrient deficiencies. Owing to a growing knowledge about vitamin metabolism, as well as mineral uptake and reallocation in plants, it is today possible to enhance micronutrient levels in crop plants, offering a sustainable solution to populations with a suboptimal micronutrient intake. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kaganov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population.

  7. Analysis and Results from a Flush Airdata Sensing System in Close Proximity to Firing Rocket Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aliyah N.; Borrer, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents information regarding the nosecap Flush Airdata Sensing (FADS) system on Orion’s Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) vehicle. The purpose of the nosecap FADS system was to test whether or not useful data could be obtained from a FADS system if it was placed in close proximity to firing rocket nozzles like the Attitude Control Motor (ACM) nozzles on the PA-1 Launch Abort System. The nosecap FADS system used pressure measurements from a series of pressure ports which were arranged in a cruciform pattern and flush with the surface of the vehicle to estimate values of angle of attack, angle of sideslip, Mach number, impact pressure, and freestream static pressure. This paper will present the algorithms employed by the FADS system along with the development of the calibration datasets and a comparison of the final results to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET) data for PA-1. Also presented in this paper is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study to explore the impact of the ACM on the nosecap FADS system. The comparison of the nosecap FADS system results to the BET and the CFD study showed that more investigation is needed to quantify the impact of the firing rocket motors on the FADS system.

  8. Terahertz Spectroscopy for Proximal Soil Sensing: An Approach to Particle Size Analysis

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    Volker Dworak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatially resolved soil parameters are some of the most important pieces of information for precision agriculture. These parameters, especially the particle size distribution (texture, are costly to measure by conventional laboratory methods, and thus, in situ assessment has become the focus of a new discipline called proximal soil sensing. Terahertz (THz radiation is a promising method for nondestructive in situ measurements. The THz frequency range from 258 gigahertz (GHz to 350 GHz provides a good compromise between soil penetration and the interaction of the electromagnetic waves with soil compounds. In particular, soil physical parameters influence THz measurements. This paper presents investigations of the spectral transmission signals from samples of different particle size fractions relevant for soil characterization. The sample thickness ranged from 5 to 17 mm. The transmission of THz waves was affected by the main mineral particle fractions, sand, silt and clay. The resulting signal changes systematically according to particle sizes larger than half the wavelength. It can be concluded that THz spectroscopic measurements provide information about soil texture and penetrate samples with thicknesses in the cm range.

  9. On-the-Job Ethics – Proximity Morality Forming in Medical School: A grounded theory analysis using survey data

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    Hans O. Thulesius, MD, Ph.D.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available On-the-job-ethics exist in all businesses and can also be called proximity morality forming. In this paper we propose that medical students take a proximity morality stance towards ethics education at medical school. This means that they want to form physician morality “on the job” instead of being taught ethics like any other subject. On-the-job-ethics for medical students involves learning ethics that is used when practicing ethics. Learning ethics includes comprehensive ethics courses in which quality lectures provide ethics grammar useful for the ethics practicing in attitude exercises and vignette reflections in tutored group discussions. On-the-job-ethics develops professional identity, handles diversity of religious and existential worldviews, trains students described as ethically naive, processes difficult clinical experiences, and desists negative role modeling from physicians in clinical or teaching situations. This grounded theory analysis was made from a questionnaire survey on attitudes to ethics education with 409 Swedish medical students participating. We analyzed over 8000 words of open-ended responses and multiplechoice questions using classic grounded theory procedures, but also compared questionnaire data using statistics such as multiple regression models. The paper gives an example of how grounded theory can be used with a limited amount of survey data.

  10. A three-dimensional analysis of the geometry and curvature of the proximal tibial articular surface of hominoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Emily K.; Karnick, Pushpak

    2006-02-01

    This study uses new three-dimensional imaging techniques to compare the articular curvature of the proximal tibial articular surface of hominoids. It has been hypothesized that the curvature of the anteroposterior contour of the lateral condyle in particular can be used to differentiate humans and apes and reflect locomotor function. This study draws from a large comparative sample of extant hominoids to obtain quantitative curvature data. Three-dimensional models of the proximal tibiae of 26 human, 15 chimpanzee, 15 gorilla, 17 orangutan, 16 gibbon and four Australopithecus fossil casts (AL 129-1b, AL 288-1aq, AL 333x-26, KNM-KP 29285A) were acquired with a Cyberware Model 15 laser digitizer. Curvature analysis was accomplished using a software program developed at Arizona State University's Partnership for Research In Stereo Modeling (PRISM) lab, which enables the user to extract curvature profiles and compute the difference between analogous curves from different specimens. Results indicate that the curvature of chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan tibiae is significantly different from the curvature of human tibiae, thus supporting the hypothesized dichotomy between humans and great apes. The non-significant difference between gibbons and all other taxa indicates that gibbons have an intermediate pattern of articular curvature. All four Australopithecus tibia were aligned with the great apes.

  11. Proximal Femoral Nail versus Dynamic Hip Screw Fixation for Trochanteric Fractures: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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    Xiao Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to find out whether the proximal femoral nail was better than the dynamic hip screw in the treatment of trochanteric fractures with respect to operation time, blood transfusion, hospital stay, wound complications, number of reoperation, and mortality rate. Methods. All randomized controlled trials comparing proximal femoral nail and dynamic hip screw in the treatment of trochanteric fractures were included. Articles and conference data were extracted by two authors independently. Data was analyzed using RevMan 5.1 version. Eight trials involving 1348 fractures were retrieved. Results. Compared with DHS fixation, PFN fixation had similar operation time (95% CI: −15.28–2.40, P=0.15. Blood loss and transfusion during perioperative time were also comparable between the two fixations (95% CI: −301.39–28.11, P=0.10; 95% CI: −356.02–107.20, P=0.29, resp.. Outcomes of hospital stay (95% CI: −0.62–1.01, P=0.64, wound complication (95% CI: 0.66–1.67, P=0.82, mortality (95% CI: 0.83–1.30, P=0.72, and reoperation (95% CI: 0.61–1.54, P=0.90 were all similar between the two groups. Conclusion. PFN fixation shows the same effectiveness as DHS fixation in the parameters measured.

  12. Outcome after Reconstruction of the Proximal Tibia--Complications and Competing Risk Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan E Puchner

    Full Text Available The proximal tibia (pT is a common site for bone tumors. Improvements in imaging, chemotherapy and surgical technique made limb salvage surgery the treatment of choice. Yet, reconstructions of the pT have been associated with less favorable outcome compared to other parts of the extremities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients with a modular endoprosthetic reconstruction of the pT.Eighty-one consecutive patients with an average age of 29 years underwent endoprosthetic reconstruction of the pT. Postoperative complications were categorized according to the ISOLS classification, and revision-free survival until first complication (any Type 1-5, soft tissue failure (Type 1, aseptic loosening (Type 2, structural failure (Type 3, infection (Type 4, and local tumor progression (Type 5 was estimated by using a Fine-Gray model for competing risk analyses for univariate and multivariable regression with Firth's bias correction.A total of 45 patients (56% had at least one complication. Cumulative incidence for complication Types 1 to 5 at 5 years with death and amputation as competing events revealed a risk of 41% for the first complication, 14% for Type 1, 16% for Type 2, 11% for Type 3, 17% for Type 4, and 1% for Type 5.Despite inclusion of amputation and death as strong competing events, pT replacements are still associated with a high risk of postoperative failures. The results suggest that infection and soft tissue failures (Type 1 and 5 seem to depend from each other. Sufficient soft tissue reconstruction and closure allow better function and reduce the risk of infection as the most prominent complication. The use of a rotating hinge design has significantly reduced structural failures over time.

  13. The Importance of Antioxidant Micronutrients in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiten D.; Williams, Paula J.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy places increased demands on the mother to provide adequate nutrition to the growing conceptus. A number of micronutrients function as essential cofactors for or themselves acting as antioxidants. Oxidative stress is generated during normal placental development; however, when supply of antioxidant micronutrients is limited, exaggerated oxidative stress within both the placenta and maternal circulation occurs, resulting in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The present paper summarises the current understanding of selected micronutrient antioxidants selenium, copper, zinc, manganese, and vitamins C and E in pregnancy. To summarise antioxidant activity of selenium is via its incorporation into the glutathione peroxidase enzymes, levels of which have been shown to be reduced in miscarriage and preeclampsia. Copper, zinc, and manganese are all essential cofactors for superoxide dismutases, which has reduced activity in pathological pregnancy. Larger intervention trials are required to reinforce or refute a beneficial role of micronutrient supplementation in disorders of pregnancies. PMID:21918714

  14. The importance of antioxidant micronutrients in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiten D; Williams, Paula J

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy places increased demands on the mother to provide adequate nutrition to the growing conceptus. A number of micronutrients function as essential cofactors for or themselves acting as antioxidants. Oxidative stress is generated during normal placental development; however, when supply of antioxidant micronutrients is limited, exaggerated oxidative stress within both the placenta and maternal circulation occurs, resulting in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The present paper summarises the current understanding of selected micronutrient antioxidants selenium, copper, zinc, manganese, and vitamins C and E in pregnancy. To summarise antioxidant activity of selenium is via its incorporation into the glutathione peroxidase enzymes, levels of which have been shown to be reduced in miscarriage and preeclampsia. Copper, zinc, and manganese are all essential cofactors for superoxide dismutases, which has reduced activity in pathological pregnancy. Larger intervention trials are required to reinforce or refute a beneficial role of micronutrient supplementation in disorders of pregnancies.

  15. The Importance of Antioxidant Micronutrients in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiten D. Mistry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy places increased demands on the mother to provide adequate nutrition to the growing conceptus. A number of micronutrients function as essential cofactors for or themselves acting as antioxidants. Oxidative stress is generated during normal placental development; however, when supply of antioxidant micronutrients is limited, exaggerated oxidative stress within both the placenta and maternal circulation occurs, resulting in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The present paper summarises the current understanding of selected micronutrient antioxidants selenium, copper, zinc, manganese, and vitamins C and E in pregnancy. To summarise antioxidant activity of selenium is via its incorporation into the glutathione peroxidase enzymes, levels of which have been shown to be reduced in miscarriage and preeclampsia. Copper, zinc, and manganese are all essential cofactors for superoxide dismutases, which has reduced activity in pathological pregnancy. Larger intervention trials are required to reinforce or refute a beneficial role of micronutrient supplementation in disorders of pregnancies.

  16. Micronutrients in Soils, Crops, and Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Umesh C.; Wu, Kening; Liang, Siyuan

    Micronutrient concentrations are generally higher in the surface soil and decrease with soil depth. In spite of the high concentration of most micronutrients in soils, only a small fraction is available to plants. Micronutrients, also known as trace elements, are required in microquantities but their lack can cause serious crop production and animal health problems. Crops vary considerably in their response to various micronutrients. Brassicas and legumes are highly responsive to molybdenum (Mo) and boron (B), whereas corn and other cereals are more responsive to zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Micronutrient deficiencies are more common in humid temperate regions, as well as in humid tropical regions, because of intense leaching associated with high precipitation. Soil pH is one of the most important factors affecting the availability of micronutrients to plants. With increasing pH, the availability of these nutrients is reduced with the exception of Mo whose availability increases as soil pH increases. In most plant species, leaves contain higher amounts of nutrients than other plant parts. Therefore, whenever possible, leaves should be sampled to characterize the micronutrient status of crops. Deficiency symptoms for most micronutrients appear on the younger leaves at the top of the plant, whereas toxicity symptoms generally appear on the older leaves of plants. As summarized by Deckers and Steinnes, micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in developing countries, which have much poorer soil resources than the fertile soils of Europe and North America. Many of these areas lie in the humid tropics with extremely infertile, highly weathered, and/or highly leached soils, which are intensely deficient in nutrients. The rest of such soils are in the semiarid and areas adjacent to the latter, where alkaline and calcareous soil conditions severely limit the availability of micronutrients to plants. Frequently, the Cu, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), Zn, and selenium (Se) levels

  17. Evaluation of the micronutrient composition of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Duncan; Foster, Meika; McArthur, Jennifer O; Ojha, Rachel; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the micronutrient content of plant foods produced by organic and conventional agricultural methods. Studies were identified from a search of electronic databases (1980-2007, inclusive) as well as manual searches. A total of 66 studies (describing 1440 micronutrient comparisons) were identified. Thirty-three studies (908 comparisons) satisfied the screening criteria which considered cultivar, harvesting, and soil conditions. In studies that satisfied the screening criteria, the absolute levels of micronutrients were higher in organic foods more often than in conventional foods (462 vs 364 comparisons, P=0.002), and the total micronutrient content, expressed as a percent difference, was higher in organic (+5.7%, Pfood groups was more frequently reported to be higher for organic vegetables and legumes compared to their conventional counterparts (vegetables, 267 vs 197, Porganic vegetables (+5.9%, Porganic agricultural methods on a broader range of nutrients and their potential impact on health.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of the proximal metacarpus in Quarter Horses used for cutting: Retrospective analysis of 32 horses 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, M F; Manchon, P T; Hersman, J; Kawcak, C E

    2018-03-01

    Injury to the proximal suspensory ligament is a common cause of lameness in cutting horses. Radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging of lesions responsible for lameness can provide ambiguous results. MRI provides the most comprehensive diagnostic imaging evaluation of lesions specifically affecting cutting horses. To describe the distribution and severity of bone and soft tissue lesions present in the proximal metacarpus of Quarter Horse cutting horses and to assess the impact of these lesions on return to competition. Retrospective case series. Retrospective analysis of 32 cutting horses referred for MRI of the proximal metacarpus between 2009 and 2012 with a 2-year follow-up period. MRI studies were evaluated by a board-certified veterinary radiologist; the severity of lesions was graded from 0 (absent) to 3 (severe). A total of 20 right and 24 left forelimbs (12 bilateral studies) of 32 horses were evaluated. The most common findings were: third metacarpal (McIII) sclerosis at the proximal suspensory ligament (PSL) origin (42/44), McIII resorption at the PSL origin (32/44), PSL dorsal margin fibre irregularity (30/44) and McIII bone contusion (22/39). Of the 30 horses, 22 horses successfully returned to competition, irrespective of severity of injury. Strong correlation exists between the degree of resorption in the palmar cortex of proximal McIII, degree of McIII sclerosis and severity of dorsal margin fibre irregularity. Statistical significance was limited by small study population. Further analysis of prognosis was limited by availability of comprehensive medical records. Cutting horses with proximal metacarpal pain have significant pathological change within the proximal suspensory ligament and its enthesis on the palmar cortex of McIII. Severity of lesions and degree of lameness at the time of diagnosis does not influence return to performance. Accurate diagnosis of proximal metacarpal lesions based on MRI offers clinicians the capacity to select

  19. How frequently do clusters occur in hierarchical clustering analysis? A graph theoretical approach to studying ties in proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Wilmer; Llanos, Eugenio J; Restrepo, Guillermo; Suárez, Carlos F; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) is a widely used classificatory technique in many areas of scientific knowledge. Applications usually yield a dendrogram from an HCA run over a given data set, using a grouping algorithm and a similarity measure. However, even when such parameters are fixed, ties in proximity (i.e. two equidistant clusters from a third one) may produce several different dendrograms, having different possible clustering patterns (different classifications). This situation is usually disregarded and conclusions are based on a single result, leading to questions concerning the permanence of clusters in all the resulting dendrograms; this happens, for example, when using HCA for grouping molecular descriptors to select that less similar ones in QSAR studies. Representing dendrograms in graph theoretical terms allowed us to introduce four measures of cluster frequency in a canonical way, and use them to calculate cluster frequencies over the set of all possible dendrograms, taking all ties in proximity into account. A toy example of well separated clusters was used, as well as a set of 1666 molecular descriptors calculated for a group of molecules having hepatotoxic activity to show how our functions may be used for studying the effect of ties in HCA analysis. Such functions were not restricted to the tie case; the possibility of using them to derive cluster stability measurements on arbitrary sets of dendrograms having the same leaves is discussed, e.g. dendrograms from variations of HCA parameters. It was found that ties occurred frequently, some yielding tens of thousands of dendrograms, even for small data sets. Our approach was able to detect trends in clustering patterns by offering a simple way of measuring their frequency, which is often very low. This would imply, that inferences and models based on descriptor classifications (e.g. QSAR) are likely to be biased, thereby requiring an assessment of their reliability. Moreover, any

  20. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients for breastfeeding women for improving outcomes for the mother and baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sarah K; Balogun, Olukunmi O; Ota, Erika; Takahashi, Kenzo; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-02-18

    out in Brazil (36 adolescent mothers) and the USA (16 women) and included women with a low socioeconomic status. A lack of information in the study reports meant that risk of bias could not be adequately assessed (unclear risk of bias for many domains). There were no quantitative data for any of this review's outcomes so meta-analysis was not possible.Neither of the studies reported on the primary outcomes of interest in this review: maternal morbidity (febrile illness, respiratory tract infection, diarrhoea), adverse effects of micronutrients within three days of receiving the supplement, infant mortality (defined as a child dying before completing the first year of age).One study reported qualitatively on maternal anaemia (a secondary outcome of this review) - the study found that multiple-micronutrient supplementation was effective for recuperating from anaemia but there were no data for inclusion in our analyses. Maternal satisfaction was not reported in the included studies. Similarly, none of this review's infant secondary outcomes were reported in the included studies: clinical micronutrient deficiency; morbidity episodes (febrile illness, respiratory tract infection, diarrhoea, other), adverse effects of micronutrients within three days of receiving the supplement. We found no evidence to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of multiple-micronutrient supplementation in improving health outcomes in mother and baby. The results of this review are limited by the small numbers of studies available, small sample sizes and the studies not reporting on the outcomes of interest in this review. There is no evidence to evaluate potential adverse effects of multiple-micronutrient supplements, particularly excess dosages.There is a need for high-quality studies to assess the effectiveness and safety of multiple-micronutrient supplementation for breastfeeding women for improving outcomes for the mother and her baby. Further research should focus on whether multiple-micronutrient

  1. Analysis of the relationship between the blood concentration of several metals, macro- and micronutrients and endocrine disorders associated with male aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Iwona; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Safranow, Krzysztof; Kuczyńska, Magdalena; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Beyond 30 years of age, men experience a decline in the production of testosterone, yet only a few develop late-onset hypogonadism. This study was designed to determine the relationship between blood concentrations of metals, macro- and micronutrients and age-related testosterone deficiency and associated hormonal changes in aging men. The research involved 313 men aged 50-75 years. We used ELISA to determine the concentrations of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), estradiol (E2), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). We calculated free androgen index (FAI). With the use of emission spectrometry in inductively coupled argon plasma, we determined the whole-blood concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As) and tungsten (W), as well as serum concentrations of magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn) and molybdenum (Mo). The study showed no relationship between TT and FT and the concentrations of metals. Men with TT deficiency had significantly lower concentrations of Mg and Fe and increased Mn. Men with FT deficiency had higher W and Cr levels and lower Fe. Assessing the correlation between the concentrations of hormones, SHBG and FAI, and the concentration of metals and macro- and microelements in the blood of the men, we found positive correlations between the concentrations of TT-Mg, TT-Fe, TT-Mo, FT-Fe, E2-As, SHBG-Mn, FAI-W, FAI-As, FAI-Zn and FAI-Ca, and negative correlations between the concentrations of TT-Mn, FT-Cd, FT-Cr, E2-Hg, E2-Cr, SHBG-W, SHBG-As, SHBG-Zn, SHBG-Ca, FAI-Pb and FAI-Mn. Positive correlations between As and E2 and between As and FAI may suggest a lack of association between this metal and hypogonadism in people not exposed to excess As levels. Our research indicates a positive relationship between the concentrations of Mg, Fe and Zn and endocrine system in aging men, in contrast to Mn and

  2. Analysis of the AHR gene proximal promoter GGGGC-repeat polymorphism in lung, breast, and colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spink, Barbara C. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Bloom, Michael S. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Wu, Susan [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Sell, Stewart; Schneider, Erasmus [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Ding, Xinxin [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Spink, David C., E-mail: spink@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates expression of numerous genes, including those of the CYP1 gene family. With the goal of determining factors that control AHR gene expression, our studies are focused on the role of the short tandem repeat polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, located in the proximal promoter of the human AHR gene. When luciferase constructs containing varying GGGGC repeats were transfected into cancer cell lines derived from the lung, colon, and breast, the number of GGGGC repeats affected AHR promoter activity. The number of GGGGC repeats was determined in DNA from 327 humans and from 38 samples representing 5 species of non-human primates. In chimpanzees and 3 species of macaques, only (GGGGC){sub 2} alleles were observed; however, in western gorilla, (GGGGC){sub n} alleles with n = 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 were identified. In all human populations examined, the frequency of (GGGGC){sub n} was n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6. When frequencies of the (GGGGC){sub n} alleles in DNA from patients with lung, colon, or breast cancer were evaluated, the occurrence of (GGGGC){sub 2} was found to be 8-fold more frequent among lung cancer patients in comparison with its incidence in the general population, as represented by New York State neonates. Analysis of matched tumor and non-tumor DNA samples from the same individuals provided no evidence of microsatellite instability. These studies indicate that the (GGGGC){sub n} short tandem repeats are inherited, and that the (GGGGC){sub 2} allele in the AHR proximal promoter region should be further investigated with regard to its potential association with lung cancer susceptibility. - Highlights: • The AHR proximal promoter contains a polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, where n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6 • Matched tumor and non-tumor DNA did not show (GGGGC){sub n} microsatellite instability • AHR promoter activity of a construct with (GGGGC){sub 2} was lower than that of (GGGGC){sub 4} • The frequency of (GGGGC){sub 2} in lung

  3. Micronutrients and pregnancy; effect of supplementation on pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerfu, Taddese Alemu; Ayele, Henok Taddese

    2013-01-31

    Every year more than 20 million infants are born with low birth weight worldwide. About 3.6 million infants die during the neonatal period. More than one third of child deaths are thought to be attributable to maternal and child under nutrition. To systematically review the effect of supplementing various combinations and types of micronutrients on the course and outcomes of pregnancy. Electronic search of Medline, Pub Med, Health Internetwork access to Research Initiative, and Google Scholar databases was conducted. Outcomes of interest were birth weight, low birth weight, small size for gestational age, prenatal mortality and neonatal mortality. After exclusion of irrelevant /incomplete ones, 17 out of 115 articles were considered for the final analysis. Majority of the articles reviewed favored the supplementation of micronutrients to pregnant mother. Some studies suggested calcium supplementation is associated with a significant protective benefit in the prevention of pre-eclampsia. The remaining articles reviewed, showed significant benefit of Multiple Micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy in reducing low birth weight, small for Gestational Age births as compared to the usual iron-folate supplements. Supplying micronutrients, mainly multiple micronutrients have beneficial effect in reducing the risk of low birth weight and other complications. Further studies at various combination and doses of micronutrient supplements are recommended.

  4. Micronutrients and pregnancy; effect of supplementation on pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerfu Taddese Alemu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Every year more than 20 million infants are born with low birth weight worldwide. About 3.6 million infants die during the neonatal period. More than one third of child deaths are thought to be attributable to maternal and child under nutrition. Objectives To systematically review the effect of supplementing various combinations and types of micronutrients on the course and outcomes of pregnancy. Methods Electronic search of Medline, Pub Med, Health Internetwork access to Research Initiative, and Google Scholar databases was conducted. Outcomes of interest were birth weight, low birth weight, small size for gestational age, prenatal mortality and neonatal mortality. After exclusion of irrelevant /incomplete ones, 17 out of 115 articles were considered for the final analysis. Findings Majority of the articles reviewed favored the supplementation of micronutrients to pregnant mother. Some studies suggested calcium supplementation is associated with a significant protective benefit in the prevention of pre-eclampsia. The remaining articles reviewed, showed significant benefit of Multiple Micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy in reducing low birth weight, small for Gestational Age births as compared to the usual iron-folate supplements. Conclusions Supplying micronutrients, mainly multiple micronutrients have beneficial effect in reducing the risk of low birth weight and other complications. Further studies at various combination and doses of micronutrient supplements are recommended.

  5. Dating widespread tephras and their proximal equivalents by SIMS analysis of accessory mineral rims and by argon geochronology (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, J. A.; Calvert, A. T.; Matthews, N. E.; Till, C.; Stelten, M. E.; Cooper, K. M.; Marcaida, M.; Lidzbarski, M. I.; Coble, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Dating the deposition of regionally distributed ash beds whose vent-proximal equivalents are unknown, eroded, or buried by the products of younger eruptions may be challenging because the potassium-rich minerals necessary for high-precision argon geochronology are absent, too small, or altered. Where correlative proximal deposits can be identified, juvenile pyroclasts can be sampled to date their coarse-grained crystals. Zircon is the premier mineral for dating via the U-Pb system, and is commonly present in distal ash beds produced by eruption of silicic magma. However, zircon often yields ages older than eruption due to protracted crystallization in subvolcanic magma chambers, recycling of antecrysts, and/or inheritance. High-spatial resolution sampling of unpolished crystal faces on indium-mounted zircon and other accessory minerals via SIMS (ion microprobe) analysis provides U-Pb or 238U-230Th ages for the final few micrometers of rim crystallization, and represents an alternative technique for avoiding, or at least minimizing, the aforementioned problems. To explore the utility of this technique for dating distal tephras erupted from Quaternary volcanoes in the western United States, we performed U-Pb and U-Th dating of unpolished rims on zircon and allanite in tandem with sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating for rhyolitic ash beds and proximal pyroclastic deposits or lava associated with a variety of Pleistocene eruptions. Tephra beds generated by late Pleistocene eruptions from Mono Craters, east-central California, are distributed over a significant area of the Great Basin, but their ages have been difficult to resolve due to contamination by sanidine xenocrysts and accidental lithic clasts. Rims on zircon and allanite from a regionally distributed tephra and its correlative rhyolite dome in the Mono Craters both yield U-Th isochron ages of ca. 21 ka, which are indistinguishable from the 40Ar/39Ar age for sanidine from the dome. A distinct tephra that erupted from

  6. Factors influencing micronutrient bioavailability in biofortified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie

    2017-02-01

    Dietary and human factors have been found to be the major factors influencing the bioavailability of micronutrients, such as provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC), iron, and zinc, in biofortified crops. Dietary factors are related to food matrix structure and composition. Processing can improve pVAC bioavailability by disrupting the food matrix but can also result in carotenoid losses. By degrading antinutrients, such as phytate, processing can also enhance mineral bioavailability. In in vivo interventions, biofortified crops have been shown to be overall efficacious in reducing micronutrient deficiency, with bioconversion factors varying between 2.3:1 and 10.4:1 for trans-β-carotene and amounts of iron and zinc absorbed varying between 0.7 and 1.1 mg/day and 1.1 and 2.1 mg/day, respectively. Micronutrient bioavailability was dependent on the crop type and the presence of fat for pVACs and on antinutrients for minerals. In addition to dietary factors, human factors, such as inflammation and disease, can affect micronutrient status. Understanding the interactions between micronutrients is also essential, for example, the synergic effect of iron and pVACs or the competitive effect of iron and zinc. Future efficacy trials should consider human status and genetic polymorphisms linked to interindividual variations. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Impact of micronutrients on respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christopher E; Camargo, Carlos A

    2011-05-01

    Several studies have documented the impact of vitamin D and other micronutrients on host responses to upper and lower respiratory tract infections, such as influenza and tuberculosis. These studies include observational as well as micronutrient intervention studies. Other studies have been conducted to understand the mechanisms by which micronutrients alter immune responses. However, critical information gaps and challenges remain. An immediate need exists for randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation in high-risk populations, such as infants, children, and patients with immunocompromised health. Other important areas of research include vitamin D genetics, the impact of other micronutrient deficiencies on innate and adaptive immunity, the 25(OH)D threshold for insufficiency, the need for valuable reliable markers, standardization of assays to detect 25(OH)D, novel functional markers beyond serum 25(OH)D, and further development of in vitro and animal models that could be useful for preclinical studies. Lastly, a new systems biology approach is needed to address the complexity of micronutrient effects and regulation. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  8. Enrichment analysis of Alu elements with different spatial chromatin proximity in the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoya Gu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Transposable elements (TEs have no longer been totally considered as “junk DNA” for quite a time since the continual discoveries of their multifunctional roles in eukaryote genomes. As one of the most important and abundant TEs that still active in human genome, Alu, a SINE family, has demonstrated its indispensable regulatory functions at sequence level, but its spatial roles are still unclear. Technologies based on 3C (chromosome conformation capture have revealed the mysterious three-dimensional structure of chromatin, and make it possible to study the distal chromatin interaction in the genome. To find the role TE playing in distal regulation in human genome, we compiled the new released Hi-C data, TE annotation, histone marker annotations, and the genome-wide methylation data to operate correlation analysis, and found that the density of Alu elements showed a strong positive correlation with the level of chromatin interactions (hESC: r = 0.9, P < 2.2 × 1016; IMR90 fibroblasts: r = 0.94, P < 2.2 × 1016 and also have a significant positive correlation with some remote functional DNA elements like enhancers and promoters (Enhancer: hESC: r = 0.997, P = 2.3 × 10−4; IMR90: r = 0.934, P = 2 × 10−2; Promoter: hESC: r = 0.995, P = 3.8 × 10−4; IMR90: r = 0.996, P = 3.2 × 10−4. Further investigation involving GC content and methylation status showed the GC content of Alu covered sequences shared a similar pattern with that of the overall sequence, suggesting that Alu elements also function as the GC nucleotide and CpG site provider. In all, our results suggest that the Alu elements may act as an alternative parameter to evaluate the Hi-C data, which is confirmed by the correlation analysis of Alu elements and histone markers. Moreover, the GC-rich Alu sequence can bring high GC content and methylation flexibility to the regions with more distal chromatin contact, regulating the transcription of tissue

  9. [Micronutrients in diabetology: complementary medicine update 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber, Uwe; Kisters, Klaus; Schmidt, Joachim

    2014-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent endocrine diseases that is associated with high oxidative stress and vascular inflammation. Type 1 and 2 diabetes are characterized by significant losses of important micronutrients such as vitamin C, magnesium, zinc or vitamin D due to metabolic basis of the disease, medication and/or its complications. The evidence of changes in micronutrient metabolism as a consequence of the disease and the influence of selective supplementation are reviewed in this paper. The importance of micronutrients, notably vitamin C, B-group vitamins, vitamin D, vitamin K, coenzyme Q10, magnesium, zinc, chromium and copper under practical conditions are assessed. There is a lot of evidence that demonstrates the positive influence ofmicronutrient supplementation on glycemic control and the risk of diabetic complications.

  10. Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mensink, G. B. M.; Fletcher, R.; Gurinovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    . The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current minerals......Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative......, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country....

  11. Estimation of coal proximate analysis factors and calorific value by multivariable regression method and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Behnamfard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The proximate analysis is the most common form of coal evaluation and it reveals the quality of a coal sample. It examines four factors including the moisture, ash, volatile matter (VM, and fixed carbon (FC within the coal sample. Every factor is determined through a distinct experimental procedure under ASTM specified conditions. These determinations are time consuming and require a significant amount of laboratory equipment. The calorific value is one of the most important properties of a solid fuel and its experimental determination requires special instrumentation and highly trained analyst to operate it. This paper develops mathematical and ANFIS models for estimation of two factors of proximate analysis based on the other two factors. Furthermore, the estimation of calorific value of coal samples based on proximate analysis factors is performed using multivariable regression, the Minitab 16 software package, and the ANFIS, Matlab software package. The results indicate that ANFIS is a more powerful tool for estimation of proximate analysis factors and calorific value than multivariable regression method. The following equation estimates the calorific value of coal samples with high precision: Calorific value (btu/lb= 12204 - 170 Moisture + 46.8 FC - 127 Ash

  12. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  13. Micronutrient deficiency in obese subjects undergoing low calorie diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damms-Machado, Antje; Weser, Gesine; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2012-01-01

    .... Furthermore, we determined the micronutrient status in obese subjects undergoing a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet to analyze if the DRI meet the micronutrient requirements of obese individuals...

  14. EURRECA—Principles and Future for Deriving Micronutrient Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, M.; Contor, L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.; Groot, L.C.P.Q.M. de; Fairweather-Tait, S.J.; Gurinovic, M.; Koletzko, B.; Ommen, B. van; Raats, M.M.; Veer, P. van 't

    2013-01-01

    The EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence (NoE) explored an approach for settingmicronutrient recommendations, which would address the variation in recommendations across Europe. Therefore, a framework for deriving and using micronutrient Dietary Reference

  15. Micronutrient Daily Intake of Elementary School Children in Bandung as Determined by Using NAA and AAS Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damastuti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients in human diet are known to be among the most essential sources of nutrition, that required by the human body in small amount to maintain normal physiological function. Micronutrient malnutrition (MNM is widespread all over the world, mostly in the developing country, where young children tend to be the most at risk of developing micronutrient deficiencies. In Indonesia, data of micronutrient status of children is limited. Therefore, the assessment of micronutrient intake of young children is needed to carry out. Food samples were taken by duplicate diet method of 19 elementary school children in Bandung and were analyzed using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet. The result was giving the average daily intake of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were 228, 0.15, 0.57, 9.3, 929, 106, 2,1, 2314, 0.022 and 4.6 mg/day respectively and gives 22, 527, 86, 111, 17, 54, 116, 49 and 63% of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA values. Its generally concluded that these children are still lack of micronutrient intake, and many of them were below their recommended dietary allowances. These result were expected could be used as baseline data and reference to encourage government and related institution in making policies for public health improvement and micronutrient malnutrition solution as well.

  16. Prediction of coal grindability based on petrography, proximate and ultimate analysis using multiple regression and artificial neural network models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelgani, S. Chehreh; Jorjani, E.; Mesroghli, Sh.; Bagherieh, A.H. [Department of Mining Engineering, Research and Science Campus, Islamic Azad University, Poonak, Hesarak Tehran (Iran); Hower, James C. [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    The effects of proximate and ultimate analysis, maceral content, and coal rank (R{sub max}) for a wide range of Kentucky coal samples from calorific value of 4320 to 14960 (BTU/lb) (10.05 to 34.80 MJ/kg) on Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) have been investigated by multivariable regression and artificial neural network methods (ANN). The stepwise least square mathematical method shows that the relationship between (a) Moisture, ash, volatile matter, and total sulfur; (b) ln (total sulfur), hydrogen, ash, ln ((oxygen + nitrogen)/carbon) and moisture; (c) ln (exinite), semifusinite, micrinite, macrinite, resinite, and R{sub max} input sets with HGI in linear condition can achieve the correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) of 0.77, 0.75, and 0.81, respectively. The ANN, which adequately recognized the characteristics of the coal samples, can predict HGI with correlation coefficients of 0.89, 0.89 and 0.95 respectively in testing process. It was determined that ln (exinite), semifusinite, micrinite, macrinite, resinite, and R{sub max} can be used as the best predictor for the estimation of HGI on multivariable regression (R{sup 2} = 0.81) and also artificial neural network methods (R{sup 2} = 0.95). The ANN based prediction method, as used in this paper, can be further employed as a reliable and accurate method, in the hardgrove grindability index prediction. (author)

  17. Radiographic fit and fill analysis of a new second-generation proximally coated cementless stem compared to its predicate design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Kimona; Pivec, Robert; Wuestemann, Thies; Tatevossian, Tiffany; Nevelos, Jim; Mont, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare in vivo fit and fill analysis of a new second-generation proximally coated cementless stem compared to its predicate design. This prospective trial of 100 total hip arthroplasties compared specific radiographic "Fit and Fill" parameters between the two designs. Fit type was assessed by comparing the type of canal fill. Post-operative fill parameters such as mean stem-to-canal ratios and mean minimum and maximum gaps between the stems to the cortical bone in different sections and areas were compared. A significantly higher proportion of the second-generation stems had Type I fit (82% vs. 54%), had better stem to canal fill ratio in the middle (90.6% vs. 85.3%) and distal sections (88.1% vs. 78.6%) compared to the older design. The new second-generation stem design had a significantly better canal fit and distal canal fill in the medial and lateral portions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A new convergence analysis and perturbation resilience of some accelerated proximal forward-backward algorithms with errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reem, Daniel; De Pierro, Alvaro

    2017-04-01

    Many problems in science and engineering involve, as part of their solution process, the consideration of a separable function which is the sum of two convex functions, one of them possibly non-smooth. Recently a few works have discussed inexact versions of several accelerated proximal methods aiming at solving this minimization problem. This paper shows that inexact versions of a method of Beck and Teboulle (fast iterative shrinkable tresholding algorithm) preserve, in a Hilbert space setting, the same (non-asymptotic) rate of convergence under some assumptions on the decay rate of the error terms The notion of inexactness discussed here seems to be rather simple, but, interestingly, when comparing to related works, closely related decay rates of the errors terms yield closely related convergence rates. The derivation sheds some light on the somewhat mysterious origin of some parameters which appear in various accelerated methods. A consequence of the analysis is that the accelerated method is perturbation resilient, making it suitable, in principle, for the superiorization methodology. By taking this into account, we re-examine the superiorization methodology and significantly extend its scope. This work was supported by FAPESP 2013/19504-9. The second author was supported also by CNPq grant 306030/2014-4.

  19. Micronutrients against oxidative stress - time for clinical recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant micronutrient supplementation may be beneficial for critically ill patients. Often, cocktails of antioxidant micronutrients are used. Consequently, meta-analyses of available randomized controlled trials of antioxidant micronutrient supplementation are of particular interest. Because the majority of randomized controlled trials included in these meta-analyses use a combination of several antioxidant micronutrients, conclusions are difficult to draw. The scientific step to take now is to gain more knowledge about antioxidant mechanisms by coupling plasma concentrations to effects and outcomes. PMID:22577982

  20. PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS. 1 Alhassan, A. J. 1M .S. Sule, 1J. ... ABSTRACT. This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. Proximate ... days, before pulverized to powder and kept in plastic container.

  1. Chelates for Micronutrient Nutrition among Crops

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    playa major role in bringing stability and sustainability in the production of food grains, pulses and oilseeds in the coming decade. The three main classes of micronutrient sources are inorganic, synthetic chelates and organic complexes. Inorganic sources such as sulphates of Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn are the most common.

  2. Common micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    The information obtained from the above mentioned sources was grouped under the major common micronutrient deficiencies in tabular forms that included the site where the study was conducted, subjects included in the assessment, sample size used, indicators used (clinical, biochemical and dietary) and the findings.

  3. Chelates for Micronutrient Nutrition among Crops

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 7. Chelates for Micronutrient Nutrition among Crops. B S Sekhon. General Article Volume 8 Issue 7 July 2003 pp 46-53. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/07/0046-0053. Keywords.

  4. MICRONUTRIENT ZINC DEFICIENCY AS A POSSIBLE CO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-four HIV/AIDS patients at various stages of disease progression volunteered to manage their health using a nutritional supplement that contained several micronutrients that included a 15 mg daily dose of elemental zinc. This initial publication only focuses on trends in the serum zinc levels and the observed ...

  5. A CONCISE OVERVIEW OF MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite some encouraging progress, micronutrient malnutrition remains a public health problem affecting all countries in Africa. Estimates show that over 85 million people living on the African continent are iodine deficient. A further 180 million are at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. With iodized salt reaching about 70% of ...

  6. Micronutrient Fortification of Food: Issues for Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffry

    2015-01-01

    More than 2 billion individuals globally suffer some degree of deficiency of one or more micronutrients, with the largest numbers in Africa and Asia. Fortification of foods with vitamins and minerals is a proven public health intervention. In Asia, salt iodization, fortified flour and condiments such as fish sauce and soy sauce are reaching hundreds of millions. However, many individuals still do not have adequate intakes of numerous micronutrients, and better fortification strategies and practices will help to alleviate these deficiencies. The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) has supported research and scientific dialog about technical and health issues related to micronutrients. Recent studies have indicated widespread vitamin D deficiency among children in SE Asia, and in India. A new trial shows the efficacy of vitamin D-fortified milk in addressing deficiencies, which may have applicability in school feeding programs in India and other parts of Asia. Infant nutrition is also critical, and complementary foods can play an important role after exclusive breastfeeding in providing critical nutrients. A formulation developed in China, Ying Yang Bao, has shown significant reduction of anemia and improved growth in infants. Fortification in Asia has the potential to greatly reduce micronutrient deficiencies and improve health, but more structured efforts are needed to achieve these goals.

  7. Variability of Soil Micronutrients Concentration along the Slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathayo Mpanda Mathew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil micronutrients are important elements for plant growth despite being required in small quantities. Deficiency of micronutrients can result in severe crop failure while excess levels can lead to health hazards; therefore, investigating their status in agricultural land is crucial. Fifty plots were established along an altitudinal gradient from 680 to 1696 m a.s.l. on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Soils were sampled at the top- (0–20 cm and subsoils (21–50 cm in four locations within each plot. Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared (FT-MIR spectroscopy and wet chemistry were used for soil analysis. Results indicated that the mean concentrations of the micronutrients in the topsoil were Fe (130.4±6.9 mgkg−1, Mn (193.4±20.5 mgkg−1, Zn (2.8±0.2 mgkg−1, B (0.68±0.1 mgkg−1, and Cu (8.4±0.8 mgkg−1. Variations of the micronutrients were not statistically different by elevation (df = 41, p>0.05 and by soil depth (df = 49, p>0.05. Correlations among micronutrients were significant for Fe versus Mn (r=0.46, p<0.001, B versus Zn (r=0.40, p=0.003, B versus Cu (r=0.34, p=0.013, and Cu versus Zn (r=0.88, p<0.001. The correlated micronutrients implied that they were affected by similar factors. Soil pH correlated positively with B, Fe, and Mn and negatively with Cu and Zn, hence probably influencing their availability. Therefore, the need for sustaining micronutrient at sufficient levels is crucial. Management interventions may include moderating soil pH by reducing acidity through liming in the higher elevations and incorporation of organic matter in the lowlands.

  8. Micronutrient-Fortified Rice Can Increase Hookworm Infection Risk: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brechje de Gier

    Full Text Available Fortification of staple foods is considered an effective and safe strategy to combat micronutrient deficiencies, thereby improving health. While improving micronutrient status might be expected to have positive effects on immunity, some studies have reported increases in infections or inflammation after iron supplementation.To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren.A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program. Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice n = 506. Intestinal parasite infection was measured in fecal samples by Kato-Katz method at baseline and after three and seven months. In a subgroup (N = 330, fecal calprotectin was measured by ELISA as a marker for intestinal inflammation.Baseline prevalence of hookworm infection was 18.6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%.Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where baseline prevalence was high (>15%, and only by UltraRice_original in schools with low baseline prevalence. Neither hookworm infection nor fortified rice was related to fecal calprotectin.Consumption of rice fortified with micronutrients can increase hookworm prevalence, especially in environments with high infection pressure. When considering fortification of staple foods, a careful risk-benefit analysis is warranted, taking into account severity of micronutrient deficiencies and local

  9. Adjunctive Treatment of Psychotic Disorders with Micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl-Madrona, Lewis; Mainguy, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of micronutrients (minerals and vitamins) on adult psychosis when added to conventional medications by using a placebo-controlled randomized design with a 1-month open-label run-in. Longitudinal comparison study following a randomized, controlled trial that had failed because participants declined to undergo randomization. Setting/Locations: Rural primary care and psychiatry clinic in northern New England (town of 16,000 people). People older than age 18 years diagnosed with a psychotic disorder who were receiving medications. Fifty consecutive clients seen in 1 month's time were invited to participate; 19 completed a 1-month open-label phase of the addition of a micronutrient to their medication regimen; all 19 then withdrew rather than risk randomization to a placebo. This finding itself was important, so the study was restructured to compare the response of those 19 patients during 24 months of micronutrients + medication to the response of the 31 people who declined participation, enriched by an additional 28 consecutive patients recruited over the second month of the study. This yielded a total of 59 patients who received medication without micronutrients. All clients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and the Clinical Global Impression scale at study baseline and after 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months. Psychosis was confirmed with clinical interview by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision, criteria. All participants had normal physical examinations and laboratory studies. Outcomes were similar for both groups until 15 months, although the micronutrient group used significantly less antipsychotic medication throughout that time (p micronutrients + medication group exhibited significantly fewer symptoms than the medication-only group, a difference that was even stronger at 24 months. Micronutrients may appear to be a beneficial long-term, adjunctive

  10. Water and solute absorption from carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions in the human proximal small intestine: a review and statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaocai; Passe, Dennis H

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to summarize water, carbohydrate (CHO), and electrolyte absorption from carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) solutions based on all of the triple-lumen-perfusion studies in humans since the early 1960s. The current statistical analysis included 30 reports from which were obtained information on water absorption, CHO absorption, total solute absorption, CHO concentration, CHO type, osmolality, sodium concentration, and sodium absorption in the different gut segments during exercise and at rest. Mean differences were assessed using independent-samples t tests. Exploratory multiple-regression analyses were conducted to create prediction models for intestinal water absorption. The factors influencing water and solute absorption are carefully evaluated and extensively discussed. The authors suggest that in the human proximal small intestine, water absorption is related to both total solute and CHO absorption; osmolality exerts various impacts on water absorption in the different segments; the multiple types of CHO in the ingested CHO-E solutions play a critical role in stimulating CHO, sodium, total solute, and water absorption; CHO concentration is negatively related to water absorption; and exercise may result in greater water absorption than rest. A potential regression model for predicting water absorption is also proposed for future research and practical application. In conclusion, water absorption in the human small intestine is influenced by osmolality, solute absorption, and the anatomical structures of gut segments. Multiple types of CHO in a CHO-E solution facilitate water absorption by stimulating CHO and solute absorption and lowering osmolality in the intestinal lumen.

  11. Proximal balloon occlusion versus distal filter protection in carotid artery stenting: A meta-analysis and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Jad; Mahmud, Ehtisham; White, Christopher J; Aronow, Herbert D; Drachman, Douglas E; Gray, William; Abdullah, Obai; Abu-Fadel, Mazen; Firwana, Belal; Mishkel, Gergory; Al-Dadah, Ashraf S

    2017-04-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is typically performed using embolic protection devices (EPDs) as a means to reduce the risk of procedure-related stroke. In this study, we compared procedural morbidity and mortality associated with distal (D-EPD) vs. proximal (P-EPD) protection. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were queried from January 1998 through May 2015. Only studies comparing (D-EPD) and (P-EPD) were included. Two independent reviewers selected and appraised studies and extracted data in duplicate. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool outcomes across studies. Heterogeneity of treatment effect among studies was assessed using the I2 statistics. Publication bias was assessed using inspection of funnel plots. The primary endpoints included 30-day mortality and stroke. Secondary endpoints included new cerebral lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and contralateral lesions on DW-MRI. A total of 12,281 patients were included from 18 studies (13 prospective and 5 retrospective) comparing (D-EPD) and (P-EPD) in the setting of CAS. The mean patient age was 69 years and 64% of patients were male. No evidence of publication bias was detected. There was no significant difference between the two modalities in terms of the risk of stroke (risk difference [RD] 0.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.01 to 0.01) or mortality (RD 0.0, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.01) nor was there any difference in the incidence of new cerebral lesions on DW-MRI or contralateral DW-MRI lesions. In patients undergoing CAS, both D-EPD and P-EPD provide similar levels of protection from peri-procedural stroke and 30 days mortality. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Internal fixation versus nonoperative treatment for displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchuan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A few studies focused on open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients have been published, all of whom had a low number of patients. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs, we aimed to assess the effect of ORIF or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients on the clinical outcomes and re-evaluate of the potential benefits of conservative treatment. METHODS: We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomized controlled trials comparing ORIF and nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients. Our outcome measures were the Constant scores. RESULTS: Three randomized controlled trials with a total of 130 patients were identified and analyzed. The overall results based on fixed-effect model did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures (WMD -0.51, 95% CI: -7.25 to 6.22, P = 0.88, I(2 = 0%. CONCLUSIONS: Although our meta-analysis did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures, this result must be considered in the context of variable patient demographics. Only a limited recommendation can be made based on current data. Considering the limitations of included studies, a large, well designed trial that incorporates the evaluation of clinically relevant outcomes in participants with different underlying risks of shoulder function is required to more adequately assess the role for ORIF or

  13. Utilizing Dietary Micronutrient Ratios in Nutritional Research May be More Informative than Focusing on Single Nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Owen J; Gilman, Jennifer C; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2018-01-19

    The 2015 US dietary guidelines advise the importance of good dietary patterns for health, which includes all nutrients. Micronutrients are rarely, if ever, consumed separately, they are not tissue specific in their actions and at the molecular level they are multitaskers. Metabolism functions within a seemingly random cellular milieu however ratios are important, for example, the ratio of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine monophosphate, or oxidized to reduced glutathione. Health status is determined by simple ratios, such as the waist hip ratio, or ratio of fat mass to lean mass. Some nutrient ratios exist and remain controversial such as the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio and the sodium/potassium ratio. Therefore, examining ratios of micronutrients may convey more information about how diet and health outcomes are related. Summarized micronutrient intake data, from food only, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, were used to generate initial ratios. Overall, in this preliminary analysis dietary ratios of micronutrients showed some differences between intakes and recommendations. Principles outlined here could be used in nutritional epidemiology and in basic nutritional research, rather than focusing on individual nutrient intakes. This paper presents the concept of micronutrient ratios to encourage change in the way nutrients are regarded.

  14. Association between Micronutrients Intake/Status and Carotid Intima Media Thickness: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Banafshe; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Skilton, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Carotid intima media thickness (IMT) is a noninvasive marker of the extent and severity of subclinical atherosclerosis. Micronutrient intake may affect atherosclerosis and play a major role in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The primary aim of this review was to synthesize the evidence regarding the association between carotid IMT and selected micronutrients. The authors searched PubMed, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases from inception to June 2016 for selected micronutrients, CVD, carotid IMT, and antioxidants. Thirty-five original studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed following preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis guidelines. Although not all studies found consistent results, the weight of the evidence suggests that high intakes and/or circulatory levels of magnesium, as well as vitamin D and the vitamin B group, may be associated with lower carotid IMT or reduced progression of carotid IMT. The majority of studies did not find any significant association between vitamin E and C and carotid IMT. Less evidence was available for associations of retinol, zinc, and iron with carotid IMT. In general, the current evidence concerning micronutrient intake and carotid IMT is largely inconclusive. Pragmatic clinical trials are required to determine whether dietary or supplemental intake of specific micronutrients alters carotid IMT, which is a surrogate measure of cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Species-Specific Associations Between Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Micronutrients in Vietnamese Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Nga, Tran Thuy; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Khan, Nguyen Cong; van de Bor, Margot; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Polman, Katja; Wieringa, Frank T

    2016-07-06

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and micronutrient deficiencies are closely related and often coexist among low-income populations. We studied the association between infections with specific STH species and micronutrient status in rural Vietnamese schoolchildren. Children (N = 510) aged 6-9 years were recruited from two primary schools. STH infections were determined in stool samples. Hemoglobin, ferritin, retinol, and zinc were measured in blood samples, as well as C-reactive protein to control for inflammation. Iodine excretion was measured in urine. Associations of single and multiple infections with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm with micronutrient status (hemoglobin, plasma ferritin, retinol, zinc, and urinary iodine) were estimated by multiple regression analysis. Ascaris infections showed a specific and intensity-dependent negative association with vitamin A. Trichuris and hookworm infections were associated with lower hemoglobin concentration, but not with plasma ferritin. Trichuris-infected children had zinc deficiency less often than uninfected children. In conclusion, our study shows species-specific associations between STH infections and micronutrient status in children. The different life cycles of STH species might have specific effects on the absorption or loss of specific micronutrients. Tailor-made combinations of deworming and nutritional interventions may be needed to improve child health and nutrition. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Prevention of Mutation, Cancer, and Other Age-Associated Diseases by Optimizing Micronutrient Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce N. Ames

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I review three of our research efforts which suggest that optimizing micronutrient intake will in turn optimize metabolism, resulting in decreased DNA damage and less cancer as well as other degenerative diseases of aging. (1 Research on delay of the mitochondrial decay of aging, including release of mutagenic oxidants, by supplementing rats with lipoic acid and acetyl carnitine. (2 The triage theory, which posits that modest micronutrient deficiencies (common in much of the population accelerate molecular aging, including DNA damage, mitochondrial decay, and supportive evidence for the theory, including an in-depth analysis of vitamin K that suggests the importance of achieving optimal micronutrient intake for longevity. (3 The finding that decreased enzyme binding constants (increased Km for coenzymes (or substrates can result from protein deformation and loss of function due to an age-related decline in membrane fluidity, or to polymorphisms or mutation. The loss of enzyme function can be compensated by a high dietary intake of any of the B vitamins, which increases the level of the vitamin-derived coenzyme. This dietary remediation illustrates the importance of understanding the effects of age and polymorphisms on optimal micronutrient requirements. Optimizing micronutrient intake could have a major effect on the prevention of cancer and other degenerative diseases of aging.

  17. Proteomic analysis of proteins surrounding occludin and claudin-4 reveals their proximity to signaling and trafficking networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Fredriksson

    Full Text Available Tight junctions are complex membrane structures that regulate paracellular movement of material across epithelia and play a role in cell polarity, signaling and cytoskeletal organization. In order to expand knowledge of the tight junction proteome, we used biotin ligase (BioID fused to occludin and claudin-4 to biotinylate their proximal proteins in cultured MDCK II epithelial cells. We then purified the biotinylated proteins on streptavidin resin and identified them by mass spectrometry. Proteins were ranked by relative abundance of recovery by mass spectrometry, placed in functional categories, and compared not only among the N- and C- termini of occludin and the N-terminus of claudin-4, but also with our published inventory of proteins proximal to the adherens junction protein E-cadherin and the tight junction protein ZO-1. When proteomic results were analyzed, the relative distribution among functional categories was similar between occludin and claudin-4 proximal proteins. Apart from already known tight junction- proteins, occludin and claudin-4 proximal proteins were enriched in signaling and trafficking proteins, especially endocytic trafficking proteins. However there were significant differences in the specific proteins comprising the functional categories near each of the tagging proteins, revealing spatial compartmentalization within the junction complex. Taken together, these results expand the inventory of known and unknown proteins at the tight junction to inform future studies of the organization and physiology of this complex structure.

  18. Comparison of micronutrient levels in children with cerebral palsy and neurologically normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Swati; Aggarwal, Anju; Chillar, Neelam; Faridi, M M A

    2015-02-01

    To measure levels of micronutrients in children with cerebral palsy and compare them with neurologically normal children of similar nutritional status. Fifty children with cerebral palsy (2-12 y) and 50 age and sex matched controls of similar nutritional status were enrolled. Detailed dietary history was recorded and nutritional status assessed. Venous blood (3 ml) was drawn for analysis. Micronutrient levels were measured as per standard technique. Serum iron was 12.6 ± 5.9 and 20.9 ± 3.3 μmol/L in CP and controls respectively (P  0.05). There was no difference in micronutrient levels with respect to gross motor functional classification system (GMFCS) grades and limb involvement (P > 0.05). The serum levels of iron, copper and magnesium are significantly less in children with cerebral palsy, hence the need for supplementation.

  19. Toward Consistent Methodology to Quantify Populations in Proximity to Oil and Gas Development: A National Spatial Analysis and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czolowski, Eliza D; Santoro, Renee L; Srebotnjak, Tanja; Shonkoff, Seth B C

    2017-08-23

    Higher risk of exposure to environmental health hazards near oil and gas wells has spurred interest in quantifying populations that live in proximity to oil and gas development. The available studies on this topic lack consistent methodology and ignore aspects of oil and gas development of value to public health-relevant assessment and decision-making. We aim to present a methodological framework for oil and gas development proximity studies grounded in an understanding of hydrocarbon geology and development techniques. We geospatially overlay locations of active oil and gas wells in the conterminous United States and Census data to estimate the population living in proximity to hydrocarbon development at the national and state levels. We compare our methods and findings with existing proximity studies. Nationally, we estimate that 17.6 million people live within 1,600m (∼1 mi) of at least one active oil and/or gas well. Three of the eight studies overestimate populations at risk from actively producing oil and gas wells by including wells without evidence of production or drilling completion and/or using inappropriate population allocation methods. The remaining five studies, by omitting conventional wells in regions dominated by historical conventional development, significantly underestimate populations at risk. The well inventory guidelines we present provide an improved methodology for hydrocarbon proximity studies by acknowledging the importance of both conventional and unconventional well counts as well as the relative exposure risks associated with different primary production categories (e.g., oil, wet gas, dry gas) and developmental stages of wells. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1535.

  20. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus

    OpenAIRE

    Zotti, Maurizio; Coco, Laura Del; Pascali, Sandra Angelica De; Migoni, Danilo; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus). The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. I...

  1. Is non-cavitated proximal lesion sealing an effective method for caries control in primary and permanent teeth? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, Michelle Mikhael; Soviero, Vera Mendes; da Silva Fidalgo, Tatiana Kelly; Lenzi, Michele; Ferreira, Daniele Masterson T P; Mattos, Cláudia Trindade; de Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of sealing non-cavitated proximal caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Only controlled clinical trials and randomized controlled clinical trials that evaluated the effectiveness of sealing on non-cavitated proximal caries with a minimum follow-up of 12 months were included in the study. The primary outcome should be arrestment/progression of proximal caries evaluated by bitewing radiographs. A risk of bias evaluation based on the Cochrane Collaboration common scheme for bias was carried out for each study. The meta-analysis was performed on the studies considered low risk of bias and with pair-wise visual reading results through RevMan software. A comprehensive search was performed in the Systematic Electronic Databases: Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, IBI Web of Science, Lilacs, SIGLE, and on website Clinical trials.gov, through until June 2013. From 967 studies identified, 10 articles and 3 studies with partial results were assessed for eligibility. However three articles were excluded and our final sample included 10 studies. According to the risk of bias evaluation, six studies were considered "high" risk of bias, and four "low" risk of bias. The forest plot of the meta-analysis showed low heterogeneity (I(2)=29%) and a favourable outcome for the Infiltrant. The chance of caries progression when this technique was used was significantly lower (p=0.002) compared with Placebo. Our results suggest that the technique of sealing non-cavitated proximal caries seems to be effective in controlling proximal caries in the short and medium term. Further long-term randomized clinical trials are still necessary to increase this evidence. Contemporary dentistry is focused in minimally invasive approaches that prevent the destruction of sound dental tissues next to carious lesions. This paper searches for evidence of the efficacy of sealing/infiltrating non

  2. Plasma Pencil Atmospheric Mass Spectrometry Detection of Positive Ions from Micronutrients Emitted from Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M. Jeanette; Lo, Edward; Castner, David G.; Ratner, Buddy D.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis and detection of micronutrients is important for the reduction of the global burden of malnutrition-related disease. A relatively new technique, plasma pen atmospheric mass spectrometry (PPAMS) was applied in a comprehensive evaluation for rapid, simultaneous detection of the key micronutrients: zinc, iron, folate, vitamin A, and iodine. PPAMS was performed through the coupling of a low-temperature plasma pen to an atmospheric mass spectrometer (MS). The effectiveness of the PPAMS system was demonstrated through the generation of characteristic mass spectra and tandem mass spectra on neat micronutrient powders suspended on double sided tape. The analytical performance and ability to qualitatively separate out the nutrients from a complex biological solution and each other was then assessed through the application of PPAMS on a sample matrix of micronutrients in porcine plasma in which nutrient concentration is varied from high blood level concentrations (HBLCs) to low blood level concentrations (LBLCs). A multivariate software model, principal components analysis (PCA) was then used to qualitatively separate the fragments obtained by nutrient type. The resulting PCA scores plots of the positive ion spectra from each mixed sample showed excellent separation of HBLCs and LBLCs of single nutrients at the 95% confidence level.1 The associated PCA loadings plots showed that key loadings could be attributed to the expected micronutrient fragments. The PPAMS technique was successfully demonstrated and compared with traditional MS techniques: time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Separation of the nutrients at concentrations relevant for human blood-based nutrient detection was possible in both ESI-MS and PPAMS. However, only PPAMS could detect the nutrients at physiological concentrations from porcine plasma. ToF-SIMS could detect the nutrients from plasma solution but required 5× to

  3. Combination of Micronutrients for Bone (COMB Study: Bone Density after Micronutrient Intervention

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    Stephen J. Genuis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with other investigations, patients presenting to an environmental health clinic with various chronic conditions were assessed for bone health status. Individuals with compromised bone strength were educated about skeletal health issues and provided with therapeutic options for potential amelioration of their bone health. Patients who declined pharmacotherapy or who previously experienced failure of drug treatment were offered other options including supplemental micronutrients identified in the medical literature as sometimes having a positive impact on bone mineral density (BMD. After 12 months of consecutive supplemental micronutrient therapy with a combination that included vitamin D3, vitamin K2, strontium, magnesium and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, repeat bone densitometry was performed. The results were analyzed in a group of compliant patients and demonstrate improved BMD in patients classified with normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic bone density. According to the results, this combined micronutrient supplementation regimen appears to be at least as effective as bisphosphonates or strontium ranelate in raising BMD levels in hip, spine, and femoral neck sites. No fractures occurred in the group taking the micronutrient protocol. This micronutrient regimen also appears to show efficacy in individuals where bisphosphonate therapy was previously unsuccessful in maintaining or raising BMD. Prospective clinical trials are required to confirm efficacy.

  4. Combination of Micronutrients for Bone (COMB) Study: Bone Density after Micronutrient Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Bouchard, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Along with other investigations, patients presenting to an environmental health clinic with various chronic conditions were assessed for bone health status. Individuals with compromised bone strength were educated about skeletal health issues and provided with therapeutic options for potential amelioration of their bone health. Patients who declined pharmacotherapy or who previously experienced failure of drug treatment were offered other options including supplemental micronutrients identified in the medical literature as sometimes having a positive impact on bone mineral density (BMD). After 12 months of consecutive supplemental micronutrient therapy with a combination that included vitamin D3, vitamin K2, strontium, magnesium and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), repeat bone densitometry was performed. The results were analyzed in a group of compliant patients and demonstrate improved BMD in patients classified with normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic bone density. According to the results, this combined micronutrient supplementation regimen appears to be at least as effective as bisphosphonates or strontium ranelate in raising BMD levels in hip, spine, and femoral neck sites. No fractures occurred in the group taking the micronutrient protocol. This micronutrient regimen also appears to show efficacy in individuals where bisphosphonate therapy was previously unsuccessful in maintaining or raising BMD. Prospective clinical trials are required to confirm efficacy. PMID:22291722

  5. Antioxidant activity characterization, phytochemical screening, and proximate analysis of Cermela Hutan (Phyllanthus gomphocarpus Hook. F) roots and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, Ebby-Anuar; Zaaba, Nur Eleza; Haron, Norhisham; Dasiman, Razif; Amom, Zulkhairi

    2014-11-07

    Roots and leaves of the Cermela Hutan (Phyllanthus gomphocarpus Hook. F) plant were studied to determine antioxidant activity, phytochemical compounds, proportion of carbohydrate, crude protein, moisture, ash, fat, total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC). Ten percent (10%) aqueous extract from both Phyllanthus gomphocarpus roots (PGR) and leaves (PGL) were used in this study. Antioxidant activity characterization by TPC, TFC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, and phytochemical screening, as well as proximate analysis from both extracts were analyzed in this study. Phyllanthus gomphocarpus roots (PGR) and leaves (PGL) tested positive for flavonoid, saponin, tannins, and terpenoids, but PGR showed negative result for anthraquinones. In average weight of 100.0 g dry sample, the carbohydrates, protein, moisture, ash, fat, and energy content in PGR and PGL were 80.9%, 5.5%, 7.8%, 3.4%, 2.4%, and 367 Kcal/100g, and 66.5%, 14.8%, 10.7%, 6.5%, 1.5%, and 399 Kcal/100 g, respectively. Antioxidant assessments using FRAP and DPPH assay showed that PGL extracts possessed higher antioxidant capacity by reducing the ferric ion-TPTZ complex by 0.14 mg/ml ±0.0018 and higher scavenging activity, 83.83% ±0.54 as compared to PGR, 0.07 mg/ml ±0.0035 for FRAP and 62.87% ±1.33 for DPPH, respectively. The total phenolics content was significantly higher in PGL (208.77 mg GAE/g ±3.79) as compared to PGR (27.53 mg GAE/g ±0.42). However, there was no significant different in the total flavonoid contents for PGR (34.8 mg QE/g ±3.12) and PGL (32.43 mg QE/g ±3.92). Further investigations are suggested to isolate and characterize the other active constituents from this plant in combatting diseases.

  6. Micronutrient Deficiency Conditions: Global Health Issues

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    Tulchinsky Theodore H

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiency conditions are widespread among 2 billion people in developing and in developed countries. These are silent epidemics of vitamin and mineral deficiencies affecting people of all genders and ages, as well as certain risk groups. They not only cause specific diseases, but they act as exacerbating factors in infectious and chronic diseases, greatly impacting morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. Deficiencies in some groups of people at special risk require supplementation, but the most effective way to meet community health needs safely is by population based approaches involving food fortification. These complementary methods, along with food security, education, and monitoring, are challenges for public health and for clinical medicine. Micronutrient deficiency conditions relate to many chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis osteomalacia, thyroid deficiency colorectal cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Fortification has a nearly century long record of success and safety, proven effective for prevention of specific diseases, including birth defects. They increase the severity of infectious diseases, such as measles, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. Understanding the pathophysiology and epidemiology of micronutrient deficiencies, and implementing successful methods of prevention, both play a key part in the New Public Health as discussed in this section, citing the examples of folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin D.

  7. Proximate Composition, Nutritional Attributes and Mineral Composition of Peperomia pellucida L. (Ketumpangan Air Grown in Malaysia

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    Maznah Ismail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the proximate and mineral composition of Peperomia pellucida L., an underexploited weed plant in Malaysia. Proximate analysis was performed using standard AOAC methods and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated Peperomia pellucida to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high amount of total ash (31.22% suggests a high-value mineral composition comprising potassium, calcium and iron as the main elements. The present study inferred that Peperomia pellucida would serve as a good source of protein and energy as well as micronutrients in the form of a leafy vegetable for human consumption.

  8. Accurate measurement of the essential micronutrients methionine, homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12, B9 and their metabolites in plasma, brain and maternal milk of mice using LC/MS ion trap analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterink, J Efraim; Naninck, Eva F G; Korosi, Aniko; Lucassen, Paul J; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Schierbeek, Henk

    2015-08-15

    Methionine, homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12, B9, and their metabolites are crucial co-factors and substrates for many basic biological pathways including one-carbon metabolism, and they are particularly important for brain function and development and epigenetic mechanisms. These are essential nutrients that cannot be synthesized endogenously and thus need to be taken in via diet. A novel method was developed that enables simultaneous assessment of the exact concentrations of these essential micronutrients in various matrices, including maternal milk, plasma, and brain of neonatal mice. The protocol for analysis of these components in the various matrices consists of a cleanup step (i.e. lipid extraction followed by protein precipitation) combined with a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) ion trap method with high sensitivity and selectivity (SRM mode). This novel method enables the measurement of these essential nutrients with good recoveries (69-117%), and high intra-day (<10%) and high intra-day precision (defined as <15% for compounds with an isotopologue and <20% for compounds without an isotopologue as internal standard) in plasma, maternal milk, and brain of mice at low and high levels. In addition, lower limits of quantitation (LOQ) were determined for the various matrices in the range for methionine (700-2000nmol/L), homocysteine (280-460-nmol/L), vitamins B6 (5-230nmol/L), B12 (7-11nmol/L), B9 (20-30nmol/L). Degradation of vitamins and oxidation of homocysteine is limited to a minimum, and only small sample volumes (30μL plasma, 20mg brain and maternal milk) are needed for simultaneous measurement. This method can help to understand how these nutrients are transferred from mother to offspring via maternal milk, as well as how these nutrients are absorbed by the offspring and eventually taken up in various tissues amongst the brain in preclinical and clinical research settings. Therefore the method can help to explore critical periods in

  9. Do Chinese Children Get Enough Micronutrients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huijun; Wang, Dantong; Ouyang, Yifei; Huang, Feifei; Ding, Gangqiang; Zhang, Bing

    2017-04-18

    The aim of this study was to examine usual daily micronutrient intake of Chinese children based on data from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey. We analyzed data from 4 to 17-year-old participants, who provided dietary data on three consecutive days combined with the household weighing method in 2011. Usual daily intake of each nutrient was estimated using a mixed effects model based on the China Food Composition published in 2009. The means, medians and percentages below Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) were reported for selected micronutrients, including calcium, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin C. For sodium and potassium, the means and the distribution of intakes were compared to the Adequate Intake (AI) level. The average usual daily intakes of all micronutrients increase with age, and the intakes of boys were found to be higher than girls in the same age group. The average calcium intake increased from 272 mg/day in 4-6 years to 391 mg/day in 14-17 years, but the percentage of inadequate calcium intake remained very high (>96%). The prevalence of inadequacy of calcium was the highest among the mineral nutrients reported in this study. As the requirements of micronutrients increased with age, the percentage of subjects with inadequate intake increased in the 11-17 years age groups. Among 14-17 years group, the percentages of study participants with dietary intakes of calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin C below the EAR were 96.8%, 18.8%, 37.6%, 72.8%, 36.8%, 91.8%. 85.9% and 75.5%, respectively. Among 11-13 years group, the percentages of study participants with dietary intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin A below the EAR were 23.5%, 41.5%, and 41.6%, respectively. Thus, micronutrient deficiency is a problem in Chinese children. Nutrition education and intervention programs are needed to address these nutritional gaps.

  10. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Proximal Contour of Class II Composite Restorations on Stress Distribution

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    Hossein Abachizadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proximal contour of class II composite restorations placed with straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity on stress distribution by finite element method. Methods: In order to evaluate the stress distribution of class II composite restorations using finite element method, upper right first molar and second premolar were modeled. Proximal boxes were designed and restored with universal Z250 and packable P60 composite resins (3M ESPE using two matrix systems: flat Tofflemire matrix and precurved sectional matrix. Finally models were evaluated under loads of 200 and 400 Newton at 90 degrees angle and the results were graphically illustrated in the form of Von Misses stresses. Results: In general the stress obtained under 400 Newton load was significantly greater than the stress of models under 200 Newton load. Von Misses stress distribution pattern of two different Z250 and P60 composites were very similar in all modes of loading and proximal contour. In all analyzed models there was a significant difference between models restored with Tofflemire matrix with flat contour and models restored with sectional matrix with curved contour. This difference was greater in first molar than second premolar. Conclusion: Use of a contoured matrix band results in less stress in class II composite resin restorations.

  11. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Proximal Contour of Class II Composite Restorations on Stress Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Moghaddas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proximal contour of class II composite restorations placed with straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity on stress distribution by finite element method. Methods: In order to evaluate the stress distribution of class II composite restorations using finite element method, upper right first molar and second premolar were modeled. Proximal boxes were designed and restored with universal Z250 and packable P60 composite resins (3M ESPE using two matrix systems: flat Tofflemire matrix and precurved sectional matrix. Finally models were evaluated under loads of 200 and 400 Newton at 90 degrees angle and the results were graphically illustrated in the form of Von Misses stresses. Results: In general the stress obtained under 400 Newton load was significantly greater than the stress of models under 200 Newton load. Von Misses stress distribution pattern of two different Z250 and P60 composites were very similar in all modes of loading and proximal contour. In all analyzed models there was a significant difference between models restored with Tofflemire matrix with flat contour and models restored with sectional matrix with curved contour. This difference was greater in first molar than second premolar. Conclusion: Use of a contoured matrix band results in less stress in class II composite resin restorations.

  12. Proximal hypospadias: A persistent challenge. Single institution outcome analysis of three surgical techniques over a 10-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippi Salle, J L; Sayed, S; Salle, A; Bagli, D; Farhat, W; Koyle, M; Lorenzo, A J

    2016-02-01

    The optimal treatment of proximal hypospadias remains controversial. Several techniques have been described, but the best approach remains unsettled. To evaluate and compare the complication rates of proximal hypospadias with and without ventral curvature (VC), according to three different surgical techniques: tubularized incised plate (TIP) uretroplasty, dorsal inlay graft TIP (DIG), and staged preputial repair (SR). It was hypothesized that SR performs better than TIP and DIG for proximal hypospadias. Single-center, retrospective chart review of all patients with primary proximal hypospadias reconstructed between 2003 and 2013. The DIG was selectively employed in cases with narrow urethral plate (UP) and deficient spongiosum. Extensive urethral plate (UP) mobilization (UPM), dorsal plication (DP) and/or deep transverse incisions of tunica albuginea (DTITA) were selectively performed when attempting to spare transecting the UP. Division of UP and SR was favored in cases with severe VC (>50°), which was often concurrently managed with DTITA if intrinsic curvature was present. For SR, tubularization of the graft was performed 6 months later. A total of 140 patients were included. Tubularized incised plate (TIP), DIG, and SR techniques were performed in 57, 23, and 60 patients, respectively. The TIP and DIG techniques achieved similar success rates, although DIG was performed in cases of narrow and spongiosum-deficient plates. Reoperation rates with TIP and DIG techniques was 52.6% and 52.1% (NS). Urethro-cutaneous fistulas were seen in 31.5% and 13% of TIP and DIG techniques, respectively. Staged repair accomplished better results than both TIP and DIG techniques, despite being performed in the most unfavorable cases (reoperation rate 28%). After technical modifications, the DIG technique achieved similar outcomes of SR. Proximal hypospadias remains challenging, regardless of the technique utilized for its repair. Urethro-cutaneous fistulas were more commonly seen

  13. Micronutrient Status in 153 Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

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    Achamrah Najate

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient status in Anorexia Nervosa (AN has been poorly documented and previous data are often contradictory. We aimed to assess micronutrient status in a large population of AN patients. The relationships between micronutrient status and body composition were also determined. Anthropometric, biochemical parameters and body composition data were collected at referral in 153 patients with AN (28.5 ± 11 years. At least one trace element deficit was observed in almost half of patients; the most frequent was selenium deficit (40% of patients. At least one vitamin deficit was observed in 45.7% of patients, mostly vitamin A and B9. Albumin, transthyretin and CRP were within normal range in most patients. No correlations were found between body composition and micronutrient status. Our study suggests that micronutrient status is often altered in AN patients, which may contribute to neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Monitoring of micronutrients and correction of deficits should be included in the routine care of AN patients.

  14. Micronutrient Status in 153 Patients with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achamrah, Najate; Coëffier, Moïse; Rimbert, Agnès; Charles, Jocelyne; Folope, Vanessa; Petit, André; Déchelotte, Pierre; Grigioni, Sébastien

    2017-03-02

    Micronutrient status in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been poorly documented and previous data are often contradictory. We aimed to assess micronutrient status in a large population of AN patients. The relationships between micronutrient status and body composition were also determined. Anthropometric, biochemical parameters and body composition data were collected at referral in 153 patients with AN (28.5 ± 11 years). At least one trace element deficit was observed in almost half of patients; the most frequent was selenium deficit (40% of patients). At least one vitamin deficit was observed in 45.7% of patients, mostly vitamin A and B9. Albumin, transthyretin and CRP were within normal range in most patients. No correlations were found between body composition and micronutrient status. Our study suggests that micronutrient status is often altered in AN patients, which may contribute to neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Monitoring of micronutrients and correction of deficits should be included in the routine care of AN patients.

  15. Micronutrient Status in 153 Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Achamrah Najate; Coëffier Moïse; Rimbert Agnès; Charles Jocelyne; Folope Vanessa; Petit André; Déchelotte Pierre; Grigioni Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient status in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been poorly documented and previous data are often contradictory. We aimed to assess micronutrient status in a large population of AN patients. The relationships between micronutrient status and body composition were also determined. Anthropometric, biochemical parameters and body composition data were collected at referral in 153 patients with AN (28.5 ± 11 years). At least one trace element deficit was observed in almost half of patients; th...

  16. Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy worldwide: health effects and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Stewart, Christine P.; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrients, vitamins and minerals accessible from the diet, are essential for biologic activity. Micronutrient status varies widely throughout pregnancy and across populations. Women in low-income countries often enter pregnancy malnourished, and the demands of gestation can exacerbate micronutrient deficiencies with health consequences to the fetus. Examples of efficacious single micronutrient interventions include folic acid to prevent neural tube defects, iodine to prevent cretinism, zinc to reduce of preterm birth, and iron to reduce the risk of low birth weight. Folic acid and vitamin D might also increase birth weight. While extensive mechanism and association research links antenatal multiple micronutrients to plausible materno-fetal health advantages, hypothesized benefits have often been absent, minimal or unexpected in trials. These findings suggest a role for population context in determining health responses and extensive gaps in knowledge. Multiple micronutrient supplements reduce risks of being born low birth weight, small for gestational age or stillborn in undernourished settings, and justify micronutrient interventions with antenatal care. Measurable health effects of gestational micronutrient exposure may persist into childhood but few data exists on potential long-term benefits. In this Review, we discuss micronutrient intake recommendations, risks and consequences of deficiencies, and the effects of interventions with a particular emphasis on offspring. PMID:27032981

  17. Food Alone May Not Provide Sufficient Micronutrients for Preventing Deficiency

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    Misner Bill

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The American Dietetic Association (ADA has stated that the best nutritional strategy for promoting optimal health and reducing the risk of chronic disease is to wisely choose a wide variety of foods. Seventy diets were computer analyzed from the menu of athletes or sedentary subjects seeking to improve the quality of micronutrient intake from food choices. All of these dietary analyses fell short of the recommended 100% RDA micronutrient level from food alone. Therefore, based on diets analyzed for adequacy or inadequacy of macronutrients and micronutrients, a challenging question is proposed: "Does food selection alone provide 100% of the former RDA or newer RDI micronutrient recommended daily requirement?"

  18. Micronutrient intakes from food and supplements in Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Caroline M; Black, Lucinda J; Oddy, Wendy H

    2014-01-14

    Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n=991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements.

  19. Multiset proximity spaces

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    A. Kandil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  20. First report on distribution of heavy metals and proximate analysis in marine edible puffer fishes collected from Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, South India

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    Kaleshkumar Karunanidhi

    Full Text Available In the present study, the heavy metal concentration in different organs (skin, tissue, liver, kidney, gill, intestine, and ovary and muscle proximate composition were studied in marine edible puffer fishes Takifugu oblongus, Lagocephalus guentheri, Arothron hispidus, Chelonodon patoca and Arothron immaculatus collected from Mandapam fish landing centre, South east coast of India. Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb & Zn were analyzed in different organs for the above mentioned species. The heavy metals concentration ranges in fish organs of all the five species were Cu (0.42 –6.31 mg/kg, Cd (0.01–0.79 mg/kg, Pb (5.80–19.87 mg/kg, and Zn (6.75–65.08 mg/kg. Zn was detected higher in all the samples followed by Pb, Cu and Cd. The proximate composition was determined in edible muscle tissues of all the five species. The highest and lowest protein contents were observed in T. oblongus (20.6 ± 0.6% and C. patoca (17.9 ± 0.3%. In the present study, heavy metal concentrations were found very high in all the internal organs when compared to muscle tissues. Further, this is the first report on distribution of heavy metals and proximate compositions of commercialized important edible puffer fishes from Mandapam coast of Gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of India. Keywords: Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodontidae, Edible puffer fishes, Heavy metals and proximate analysis

  1. The treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures: analysis of the results of 55 cases treated with PHILOS plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattoretto, D; Borgo, A; Iacobellis, C

    2016-08-01

    Complex proximal humerus fractures are often difficult to treat. Their frequency is high, especially in the elderly, and their treatment is still controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and radiological results achieved by patients with complex proximal humerus fractures, treated with PHILOS plate only. A cohort of 55 patients was selected. The mean age was 63.4 (range 33-89), while the mean follow-up time was 21.5 months (range 6-75). Clinical outcome was evaluated with the "Constant-Murley shoulder score." All the informations about the presence of complications were gathered, and radiological images were used to calculate the head-shaft angle. The overall mean Constant score was 61.93 ± 18.59, the Individual CS was 70 ± 20 % and the Relative CS was 83 ± 23 %. No significant differences were found between fractures Neer 3 and Neer 4 and between the surgical approaches (delta-split vs. delto-pectoral). Six patients had a fracture with dislocation, seven patients (12.7 %) had complications while in four patients a head-shaft angle beyond the normal range was found. Osteosynthesis with PHILOS plate is stable in the greater part of the cases, and it allows an earlier rehabilitation and so a good functional result, which could be compromised by a prolonged immobilization. Therefore, PHILOS plate is a good option for the treatment of complex proximal humerus fractures.

  2. Effect of germination time on proximate analysis, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) sprouts

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ahmed Fouad; Ali Rehab, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The lentil plant, Lens culinaris L., is a member of the Leguminoceae family and constitutes one of the most important traditional dietary components. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of sprouting for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days on proximate, bioactive compounds and antioxidative characteristics of lentil (Lens culinaris) sprouts. Material and methods. Lentil seeds were soaked in distilled water (1:10, w/v) for 12 h at room temperature (~25°C), then ke...

  3. Biomechanical Analysis Of The Proximal Femoral Locking Compression Plate: Do Quality Of Reduction And Screw Orientation Influence Construct Stability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zderic, Ivan; Oh, Jong-Keon; Stoffel, Karl; Sommer, Christoph; Helfen, Tobias; Camino, Gaston; Richards, R Geoff; Nork, Sean E; Gueorguiev, Boyko

    2017-08-22

    To investigate biomechanically in a human cadaveric model the failure modes of the Proximal Femoral Locking Compression Plate (PF-LCP) and explore the underlying mechanism. Twenty-four fresh-frozen paired human cadaveric femora with simulated unstable intertrochanteric fractures (AO/OTA 31-A3.3) were assigned to four groups with six specimens each for plating with PF-LCP. The groups differed in the quality of fracture reduction and plating fashion of the first and second proximal screws as follows: 1) anatomical reduction with on-axis screw placement; 2) anatomical reduction with off-axis screw placement; 3) malreduction with on-axis screw placement; 4) malreduction with off-axis screw placement. The specimens were tested until failure using a protocol with combined axial and torsional loading. Mechanical failure was defined as abrupt change in machine load-displacement data. Clinical failure was defined as 5° varus tilting of the femoral head as captured with optical motion tracking. Initial axial stiffness (N/mm) in groups 1 to 4 was 213.6±65.0, 209.5±134.0, 128.3±16.6 and 106.3±47.4, respectively. Numbers of cycles to clinical and mechanical failure were 16642±10468 and 8695±1462 in group 1, 14076±3032 and 7449±5663 in group 2, 8800±8584 and 4497±2336 in group 3 and 9709±3894 and 5279±4119 in group 4. Significantly higher stiffness as well as numbers of cycles to both clinical and mechanical failure were detected in group 1 in comparison to group 3, P≤0.044. Generally, malreduction led to significantly earlier construct failure. The observed failures were cut-out of the proximal screws in the femoral head, followed by either screw bending, screw loosening or screw fracture. Proper placement of the proximal screws in anatomically reduced fractures led to significantly higher construct stability. Our data also indicates that once the screws are placed off-axis (>5 degrees), the benefit of an anatomic reduction is lost.

  4. Micronutrients and Animal Nutrition and the Link between the Application of Micronutrients to Crops and Animal Health

    OpenAIRE

    FISHER, George E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Micronutrients (or 'trace elements') are required in animal diets for health and welfare, and therefore they are essential for the agricultural production of milk, meat, fibre, and eggs. It is clear from the literature that deficiencies of micronutrients, particularly in their sub-clinical form where they are not visually apparent, can result in major reductions in productivity. Micronutrients are used mostly as the central elements of enzymes and co-enzymes in the biochemis...

  5. Micronutrient deficiencies in obese Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Kangwanpornsiri, Channagan

    2013-01-01

    We reported the cases of 3 obese children who presented variously with costochondral beading, numbness of both hands and feet, and hypochromic-microcytic anemia. Serum ascorbic acid concentration, erythrocyte thiamin pyrophosphate effect, and serum hepcidin concentration were done to investigate these symptoms, respectively, with findings of ascorbic acid insufficiency, thiamin deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia from poor iron absorption due to a hyper-inflammatory state, respectively. This report indicated that obese children not only have energy excess but may also risk being micronutrient deficiencies; therefore, weight management with special attention to an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals should be provided.

  6. Biomechanical Analysis of the Proximal Adjacent Segment after Multilevel Instrumentation of the Thoracic Spine: Do Hooks Ease the Transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Melodie F.; Robinson, Samuel T.; Svet, Mark T.; Liu, John C.; Acosta, Frank L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Biomechanical cadaveric study. Objective Clinical studies indicate that using less-rigid fixation techniques in place of the standard all-pedicle screw construct when correcting for scoliosis may reduce the incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis and improve patient outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is a biomechanical advantage to using supralaminar hooks in place of pedicle screws at the upper-instrumented vertebrae in a multilevel thoracic construct. Methods T7–T12 spines were biomechanically tested: (1) intact; (2) following a two-level pedicles screw fusion from T9 to T11; and after proximal extension of the fusion to T8–T9 with (3) bilateral supra-laminar hooks, (4) a unilateral hook + unilateral screw hybrid, or (5) bilateral pedicle screws. Specimens were nondestructively loaded while three-dimensional kinematics and intradiscal pressure at the supra-adjacent level were recorded. Results Supra-adjacent hypermobility was reduced when bilateral hooks were used in place of pedicle screws at the upper-instrumented level, with statistically significant differences in lateral bending and torsion (p spine and the flexible native spine and is the first to demonstrate these results with laminar hooks. PMID:27190735

  7. Micronutrient intakes among women of reproductive age in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong H Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies are a public health concern worldwide negatively affecting maternal and child health outcomes. The primary underlying causes of micronutrient deficiencies are insufficient intake and poor bioavailability of micronutrients. However, reliable data on micronutrient intakes are sparse. The objectives of this study were to identify the key local food sources providing the majority of micronutrients and assess the adequacy and determinants of micronutrient intakes. METHODS: The study used data from a survey of 4,983 rural women of reproductive age (WRA participating in a preconception micronutrient supplementation trial in Vietnam. Micronutrient intakes were assessed using a validated 107-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between socioeconomic status and micronutrient intakes. RESULTS: Starchy staples were the main source of iron and zinc (37% and 54%, respectively with only a small proportion from meat (10% and 18%, respectively. The primary source of folate and vitamin A were vegetables; vitamin B12 came from meat and eggs. The proportion of the population with intakes below the estimated average requirement was 25% for iron, 16% for zinc, 54% for folate, 64% for vitamin B12 and 27% for vitamin A. Socioeconomic status was the main determinant of micronutrient intakes. WRA in the highest quintile consumed 26% more iron, 19% more zinc, 36% more folate, 82% more vitamin B12 and 47% more vitamin A compared to those in the lowest quintile. Women in the upper quintiles of SES were more likely to obtain nutrients from more nutritious and higher bioavailable foods than those in the lowest quintile. CONCLUSIONS: Underprivileged women were at increased risk for insufficient micronutrient intakes due to poor diet quality. Targeted efforts to promote the consumption of local nutrient rich foods along with

  8. Semi-targeted metabolomic approaches to validate potential markers of health for micronutrients: Analytical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayle, M.L.; Wopereis, S.; Bouwman, J.; Ommen, B. van; Scalbert, A.; Pujos-Guillot, E.

    2012-01-01

    Recommended dietary allowances for micronutrients fluctuate noticeably within European Union countries. The Network of Excellence EURRECA (EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned) aims at harmonising micronutrient intake recommendations through population groups. The lack of proper markers of

  9. Micronutrient Deficiencies among Breastfeeding Infants in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra L. Bellows

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Infant mortality accounts for the majority of child deaths in Tanzania, and malnutrition is an important underlying cause. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to describe the micronutrient status of infants in Tanzania and assess predictors of infant micronutrient deficiency. We analyzed serum vitamin D, vitamin B12, folate, and ferritin levels from 446 infants at two weeks of age, 408 infants at three months of age, and 427 mothers three months post-partum. We used log-Poisson regression to estimate relative risk of being deficient in vitamin D and vitamin B12 for infants in each age group. The prevalence of vitamin D and vitamin B12 deficiency decreased from 60% and 30% at two weeks to 9% and 13% at three months respectively. Yet, the prevalence of insufficiency at three months was 49% for vitamin D and 17% for vitamin B12. Predictors of infant vitamin D deficiency were low birthweight, urban residence, maternal education, and maternal vitamin D status. Maternal vitamin B12 status was the main predictor for infant vitamin B12 deficiency. The majority of infants had sufficient levels of folate or ferritin. Further research is necessary to examine the potential benefits of improving infants’ nutritional status through vitamin D and B12 supplements.

  10. Metallothionein’s role in PCB126 induced hepatotoxicity and hepatic micronutrient disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D Klaren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, industrial chemicals and persistent environmental pollutants, are found in rural and urban settings. Rodent studies have shown that exposure to PCB126, a dioxin-like PCB, causes a significant disruption of hepatic micronutrient homeostasis and an increase in metallothionein (MT, an antioxidant protein and metal carrier. A MT knockout mouse strain was used to assess metallothionein’s role in micronutrient disruption and overall hepatotoxicity. Twenty four 129S male mice (12 wild type (WT and 12 MT knockout (MTKO were placed on a purified diet (AIN-93G for 3 weeks to achieve hepatic metal equilibrium. Mice were then given a single IP injection of either vehicle or 150 μmol/kg PCB126 in vehicle. The animals were sacrificed 2 weeks later and organs processed for analysis. Liver histology, hepatic lipids, gene expression, micronutrient and ROS status were investigated. Liver weights, liver lipids, ROS, and hepatocyte vacuolation were increased with PCB126 exposure along with AhR responsive genes. The MTKO animals had more severe histological changes in the liver and elevated liver lipids than their wild type counterparts. Hepatic and renal metals levels (Cu, Zn, Se and Mn were mostly reduced by PCB126 treatment. Renal micronutrients were more affected by PCB126 treatment in the MTKO animals. This research suggests that MT may not be the sole/primary cause of the metal disruption caused by PCB126 exposure in mice, but may provide protection against overall hepatotoxicity.

  11. [THE CONTENT OF SOME ESSENTIAL MICRONUTRIENTS IN INFANTS WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT WITH INTRAUTERINE HERPES INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussupkaliev, B; Zhumalina, A; Zhekeyeva, B; Sergazina, T

    2016-04-01

    To study the comparative aspect of the content of certain essential trace elements in the blood serum of infants with low birth weight, identify the clinical signs of deficiency. The study involved 127 infants, of which 69 constituted the main group and 58 infants constituted the comparison group. All newborns were identified haematological and biochemical blood tests, some Essential micronutrients (copper, selenium, zinc). Laboratory diagnosis of microelement composition of blood was determined by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled argon plasma (ICP-MS). The analysis of some essential trace elements was diagnosed copper and selenium deficiency in all newborns. Mean while neonatal treatment group indicators selenium, copper are lower, than similar nutrients infants in the control group. The zinc content in both groups mostly within the normal parameters. Thus, the level of essential micronutrients (copper, selenium) in the blood serum of newborn infants in the study group and the control group was below the reference value, indicating that insufficient intake data trace in the fetus located in the mother's womb. 1. In the diagnosis of various diseases in newborns with low birth weight should take into account the level of serum essential micronutrients (copper, selenium). 2. In the appointment of the underlying disease treatment in these infants need to be borne in mind also correct micronutrient deficiencies.

  12. Analysis and Results from a Flush Airdata Sensing (FADS) System in Close Proximity to Firing Rocket Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aliyah N.; Borrer, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation presents information regarding the nose-cap flush airdata sensing (FADS) system on Orion's Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) vehicle. The purpose of the nose-cap FADS system was to test whether or not useful data could be obtained from a FADS system if it was placed in close proximity to firing rockets nozzles like the attitude control motor (ACM) nozzles on the PA-1 launch abort system (LAS). The nose-cap FADS systems use pressure measurements from a series of pressure ports which are arranged in a cruciform pattern and flush with the surface of the vehicle to estimate values of angle of attack, angle of side-slip, Mach number, impact pressure and free-stream static pressure.

  13. A data analysis workflow to enhance clay and organic carbon models using proximal Vis-NIR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabai, Salman; Knadel, Maria; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    data preprocessing (preprocessing survey) and two variable selection methods to significantly increase visible near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) model performance and stability. Spectra of eight agricultural fields were measured in the range of 350-2200 nm using a mobile sensor platform (Veris......Modelling proximal sensors data is becoming a norm in soil characterization and mapping. In many cases, these models still have low predictive capabilities and lack robustness due to the large amount of noise from several environmental factors. In this study we proposed a combination of extensive...... Technologies, USA) towed by a tractor. A fuzzy c-means clustering was performed based on the first 3 principal components to select 15 representative sampling locations in each field. Clay and organic carbon (OC) were determined for all calibration samples using pipette and ignition methods, respectively...

  14. Improved prediction of higher heating value of biomass using an artificial neural network model based on proximate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Harun; Yıldız, Zeynep; Goldfarb, Jillian L; Ceylan, Selim

    2017-06-01

    As biomass becomes more integrated into our energy feedstocks, the ability to predict its combustion enthalpies from routine data such as carbon, ash, and moisture content enables rapid decisions about utilization. The present work constructs a novel artificial neural network model with a 3-3-1 tangent sigmoid architecture to predict biomasses' higher heating values from only their proximate analyses, requiring minimal specificity as compared to models based on elemental composition. The model presented has a considerably higher correlation coefficient (0.963) and lower root mean square (0.375), mean absolute (0.328), and mean bias errors (0.010) than other models presented in the literature which, at least when applied to the present data set, tend to under-predict the combustion enthalpy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; H Hansen, Tue

    2015-01-01

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients was ...

  16. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G Engel, Matthew; J Kern, Hua; Brenna, J Thomas; H Mitmesser, Susan

    2018-01-20

    Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet ( n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B 12 , B₃, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B 12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets.

  17. Evaluation of micronutrients level and antinociceptive property of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the plant was investigated for different micronutrients including, phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), boron (B), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) and compared with adequate level of micronutrients for orchid crops. The crude methanol extract and different fractions of E. laciniata were also investigated for in vivo ...

  18. Evaluation of micronutrients level and antinociceptive property of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... compared with adequate level of micronutrients for orchid crops. The crude methanol extract and different fractions of E. laciniata were also investigated for in vivo antinociceptive activity using Tail- flick model. Except for boron, all other micronutrients investigated were well in the limits recommended.

  19. Micronutrient deficiencies in food aid beneficiaries: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information was drawn from agency reports, personal communications, national survey data, and academic literature, primarily published since the year 2000. Among food aid ... Useful insights were obtained by the review although limited micronutrient data were available for food aid beneficiaries. The micronutrient status ...

  20. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G. Engel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL, high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (<90% DRI in B1, D, E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. The EDH diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets.

  1. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Kern, Hua; Brenna, J. Thomas; H. Mitmesser, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets. PMID:29361684

  2. Magnetic resonance neurography evaluation of chronic extraspinal sciatica after remote proximal hamstring injury: a preliminary retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucknor, Matthew D; Steinbach, Lynne S; Saloner, David; Chin, Cynthia T

    2014-08-01

    Extraspinal sciatica can present unique challenges in clinical diagnosis and management. In this study, the authors evaluated qualitative and quantitative patterns of sciatica-related pathology at the ischial tuberosity on MR neurography (MRN) studies performed for chronic extraspinal sciatica. Lumbosacral MRN studies obtained in 14 patients at the University of California, San Francisco between 2007 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients had been referred by neurosurgeons or neurologists for chronic unilateral sciatica (≥ 3 months), and the MRN reports described asymmetrical increased T2 signal within the sciatic nerve at the level of the ischial tuberosity. MRN studies were also performed prospectively in 6 healthy volunteers. Sciatic nerve T2 signal intensity (SI) and cross-sectional area at the ischial tuberosity were calculated and compared between the 2 sides in all 20 subjects. The same measurements were also performed at the sciatic notch as an internal reference. Adjacent musculoskeletal pathology was compared between the 2 sides in all subjects. Seven of the 9 patients for whom detailed histories were available had a specific history of injury or trauma near the proximal hamstring preceding the onset of sciatica. Eight of the 14 patients also demonstrated soft-tissue abnormalities adjacent to the proximal hamstring origin. The remaining 6 had normal muscles, tendons, and marrow in the region of the ischial tuberosity. There was a significant difference in sciatic nerve SI and size between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides at the level of the ischial tuberosity, with a mean adjusted SI of 1.38 compared with 1.00 (p sciatica remains a diagnosis of exclusion, this distinct category of patients has not been described in the radiographic literature and merits special attention from clinicians and radiologists in the management of extraspinal sciatica. Magnetic resonance neurography is useful for evaluating chronic sciatic neuropathy both

  3. Analysis of close associations of uropod-associated proteins in human T-cells using the proximity ligation assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Baumann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have shown previously that the raft-associated proteins flotillin-1 and -2 are rapidly recruited to the uropods of chemoattractant-stimulated human neutrophils and T-cells and are involved in cell polarization. Other proteins such as the adhesion receptor PSGL-1, the actin-membrane linker proteins ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM and the signaling enzyme phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type Iγ90 (PIPKIγ90 also accumulate in the T-cell uropod. Using the in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA we now have investigated putative close associations of these proteins in human freshly isolated T-cells before and after chemokine addition. The PLA allows in situ subcellular localization of close proximity of endogenous proteins at single-molecule resolution in fixed cells. It allows detection also of weaker and transient complexes that would not be revealed with co-immunoprecipitation approaches. We previously provided evidence for heterodimer formation of tagged flotillin-1 and -2 in T-cells before and after chemokine addition using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET. We now confirm these findings using PLA for the endogenous flotillins in fixed human T-cells. Moreover, in agreement with the literature, our PLA findings confirm a close association of endogenous PSGL-1 and ERM proteins both in resting and chemokine-activated human T-cells. In addition, we provide novel evidence using the PLA for close associations of endogenous activated ERM proteins with PIPKIγ90 and of endogenous flotillins with PSGL-1 in human T-cells, before and after chemokine addition. Our findings suggest that preformed clusters of these proteins coalesce in the uropod upon cell stimulation.

  4. Proximate composition, phytochemical analysis, and in vitro antioxidant potentials of extracts ofAnnona muricata(Soursop).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, Kingsley C; Okolie, Paulinus N

    2017-09-01

    Numerous bioactive compounds and phytochemicals have been reported to be present Annona muricata (Soursop). Some of these chemical compounds have been linked to the ethnomedicinal properties of the plant and its antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to assess the proximate composition, phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant properties of A. muricata using standard biochemical procedures. The defatted Annona muricata crude methanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant were used for the estimation of proximate composition and phytochemical screening. The crude methanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant were also fractionated using solvent-solvent partitioning. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and methanol-water (90:10) were the solvents used for the fractionation. The different fractions obtained were then used to perform in vitro antioxidant analyses including, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, ferric reducing properties, and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. The leaf methanolic extract had a higher lipid content, whereas its chloroform fraction demonstrated a better ability to quench DPPH free radical. The root-bark methanol-water, leaf methanol, fruit pulp chloroform, and leaf petroleum ether fractions demonstrated potent ferric reducing properties. The leaf and stem-bark petroleum ether fractions demonstrated better hydroxyl-free radical scavenging abilities. The leaf and fruit pulp of Annona muricata have a very potent antioxidant ability compared to the other parts of the plant. This can be associated with the rich phytochemicals and other phytoconstituents like phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, and essential lipids, etc. Significant correlations were observed between the antioxidant status and phytochemicals present. These results thus suggest that some of the reported ethnomedicinal properties of this plant could be due to its antioxidant potentials.

  5. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  6. Worms, bacteria, and micronutrients: an elegant model of our diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Lutfu Safak; Walhout, Albertha J M

    2014-11-01

    Micronutrients are required in small proportions in a diet to carry out key metabolic roles for biomass and energy production. Humans receive micronutrients either directly from their diet or from gut microbiota that metabolize other nutrients. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and its bacterial diet provide a relatively simple and genetically tractable model to study both direct and microbe-mediated effects of micronutrients. Recently, this model has been used to gain insight into the relationship between micronutrients, physiology, and metabolism. In particular, two B-type vitamins, vitamin B12 and folate, have been studied in detail. Here we review how C. elegans and its bacterial diet provide a powerful interspecies systems biology model that facilitates the precise delineation of micronutrient effects and the mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Age estimation in a sub-adult Western Australian population based on the analysis of the pelvic girdle and proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Siobhan; Flavel, Ambika; Franklin, Daniel

    2017-10-16

    The accurate and precise estimation of skeletal age by a forensic anthropologist is both a professional and judicial requirement. When unknown skeletal remains are referred to the anthropologist, the estimation of the requisite biological attributes (e.g., age and sex) should accordingly be based on the application of population-specific standards (statistical data). Deviations from the latter practice may result in reduced accuracy and compromised identification. Towards informing appropriate forensic practice, the aim of the present study is to develop statistically quantified age estimation models for a contemporary sub-adult Western Australian population based on the timing of fusion in the os coxa and proximal femur. The study sample comprises 562 known age and sex MDCT scans (292 male, 270 female) representing contemporary Western Australian individuals birth through 30 years of age. Scans are viewed in multi-planar reconstructed (MPR) and/or three-dimensionally reconstructed images using OsiriX(®). Fusion status is scored according to a three-stage system across a total of nine sites in the proximal femur and os coxae. Observer accordance, bilateral asymmetry and sex-specific variation in fusion timing are statistically quantified. Polynomial regression is used to formulate age prediction models; transition analysis is used to calculate age ranges and determine the mean age for transition between an unfused, fusing and fused status. Observer accordance in stage assignation is acceptable (ϰ=0.79) and there is no significant bilateral variation in fusion timing. It was found that the mean age of commencement of fusion is significantly earlier (∼2 years) in females. The accuracy (SEE) of the polynomial models ranges from ±3.29 to ±3.80 years and the transition analysis shows that fusion of the iliac crest is delayed in comparison to other attributes of os coxa and proximal femur. Results of the present study confirm that the pelvic girdle and proximal

  8. Combating micronutrient deficiency disorders amongst children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kapil

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients (MN are the nutrients that are needed by the body in small quantities which play leading roles in the production of enzymes, hormones and other substances that help to regulate growth activity, development and functioning of the immune and reproductive systems. Children, adolescent boys & girls and expectant mothers form a vulnerable group in developing countries where economic stress and food security are issues of concern. MNs deficiencies, which have been considered as major risk factors in child survival are the leading cause of mental retardation, preventable blindness, morbidity, birth defects, morbidity and mortality. Micronutrient malnutrition has many adverse effects on human health, not all of which are clinically evident. Even moderate levels of deficiency (which can be detected by biochemical or clinical measurements can have serious detrimental effects on human function. Thus, in addition to the obvious and direct health effects, the existence of MN deficiency has profound implications for economic development and productivity, particularly in terms of the potentially huge public health costs and the loss of human capital formation.According to WHO mortality data, around 0.8 million deaths (1.5% of the total can be attributed to iron deficiency each year, and a similar number to vitamin A deficiency. In terms of the loss of healthy life, expressed in  disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, iron-deficiency anaemia results in  25 million DALYs lost (or 2.4% of the global total, vitamin A deficiency  in 18 million DALYs lost (or 1.8% of the global total and iodine deficiency  in 2.5 million DALYs lost (or 0.2% of the global total [1].A child belonging to low socio-economic families residing in poor environmental and sanitation settings consume low quantity of foods which deficient not only in 2-3 MNs Deficiencies but also in macronutrients. These children also suffer from recurrent episodes of morbidities which

  9. Micronutrient Action Plan Instructional Tool (MAPit): A Training Tool to Support Public Health Professionals' Efforts to Eliminate Micronutrient Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbon, Suzanne; Nsubuga, Peter; Knowles, Jacky; Bobrow, Emily; Parvanta, Ibrahim; Timmer, Arnold; van der Haar, Frits

    2006-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition (MM) is a global health problem that affects the national socioeconomic stability of an affected country. This article describes a multimedia training tool, the Micronutrient Action Plan instructional tool (MAPit), which has been designed to support public health professionals' efforts to eliminate MM. An overview and…

  10. Nutritional composition and micronutrient status of home made and commercial weaning foods consumed in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosha TCE; Laswai, H S; Tetens, I

    2000-01-01

    About 50% of young children in Tanzania suffer from protein-energy undernutrition (PEU) while more than 45% of children under the age of five suffer from various micronutrient deficiency disorders. The immediate cause of these conditions is inadequate intake and poor utilization of nutrients, which begins in the weaning period and amplifies in the subsequent years. This study was conducted to assess the potential of some home made and commercial weaning foods commonly consumed in Tanzania to supply adequate amounts of both macro- and micronutrients as recommended in the Tanzania and FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Standards for cereal/milk-based weaning foods. Six types of home made weaning foods, maize, cassava, millet, sorghum and millet-sardine-peanut composite gruels and plantain pap, and four types of commercial weaning foods, Cerelac- 1, Cerelac-2, Lactogen-1 and Lactogen-2, popularly consumed in Tanzania, were chemically assayed for proximate composition, energy and mineral density. Results of the study indicated that, both the home made and commercial weaning foods were good sources of macro- and micronutrients. When compared with the Codex Alimentarius and Tanzania Bureau of Standards specifications for weaning foods, both home made and commercial weaning foods had some shortcomings in terms of nutrient composition and energy balance. Many of the foods were low in fat. Fe, Ca, Zn and P but high in crude fiber, carbohydrate and magnesium. Ca, Fe and Zn were the most common deficient macro/micronutrients in the home made weaning foods. In spite of these shortcomings, most of the home made and commercial weaning foods were nutritionally sound since they could provide reasonable percentages of the recommended daily allowances for macro/micronutrients and energy. It is suggested that, more efforts must be directed towards increasing the concentration of Ca, Fe and Zn in the home made weaning foods through supplementation of the starchy staples with mineral rich

  11. Biomechanical effect of medial cortical support and medial screw support on locking plate fixation in proximal humeral fractures with a medial gap: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pan; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jian; Xiao, Jin; Ma, Li Min; Zhu, Chang Rong

    2015-01-01

    This finite element analysis aimed to examine the effect of medial cortical support and medial screw support on loads at the implant-bone interface of locking plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures with a medial gap. An intact humerus from a healthy volunteer was used as the basis for a 3-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design (CAD) model. The 3D CAD model of the locking plate system was based on information in the manufacturer's catalogue. The proximal part of the humerus was osteotomized to create standard three-part fractures, which were then divided into a -MSC group (which lacked medial cortical support, and in which fractures with a 5-mm medial bone gap simulated this lack) and +MCS group (which had medial cortical support, and in which fractures with medial cortical-to-cortical contact simulated this). Both fracture groups were respectively fixed with either +MSS (in which medial screw support was simulated by the addition of two calcar screws to the locking plate system), or with -MSS (in which the lack of medial screw support was simulated by absence of the two additional calcar screws to the locking plate system). All the modeling was conducted to represent 90° arm abduction. On the screw-bone interface, medial screw support and medial cortical support decreased maximum shear stress by 17% and 23% respectively. On the locking plate, medial screw support and medial cortical support decreased maximum von Mises stress by 11% and 22% respectively. However, a combination of these two appeared to decrease maximum shear stress by 56% for the screw-bone interface, and maximum von Mises stress by 54% for the locking plate. Placement of calcar screws combined with good medial cortical contact in varus in locking plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures with a medial gap may provide optimal stability for the fixation.

  12. Estimation of proximate composition, micronutrients and phytochemical compounds in traditional vegetables from Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shrawan; Singh, D R; Salim, K M; Srivastava, Amit; Singh, L B; Srivastava, R C

    2011-11-01

    In present study, 10 preferred traditional vegetables from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, were analysed for nutritional profiles. Moisture content in their edible parts ranged from 83.43 to 94.78%. Maximum ash content was recorded in Portulaca oleracea, crude protein in Colocasia esculenta, crude fibre in Eryngium foetidum and fat in E. foetidum. Phosphorus was maximum in Ipomea aquatica, potassium in C. esculenta, zinc, calcium and manganese in Centella asiatica, copper in Sauropus androgynous, sodium and iron in P. oleracea, magnesium in Amaranthus viridi and cobalt in C. esculenta. Maximum polyphenol was recorded in Hibiscus sabdariffa, carotenoids in A. viridi, ascorbic acid in Saursops androgynus, anthocyanin in C. esculenta and chlorophyll in S. androgynus. Antioxidant activity was maximum in P. oleracea. Positive correlation was observed between polyphenol and tannin content and also between antioxidant activity and photochemicals. The developed nutritional profiles is being used in health and nutrition related schemes in Islands.

  13. Antioxidant micronutrients and cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Roberta Aguiar; Silva, Flávia Moraes; Sbruzzi, Graciele; Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord; Almeida, Jussara Carnevale de

    2013-09-01

    Inverse associations between micronutrient intake and cardiovascular outcomes have been previously shown, but did not focus on diabetic patients. To systematically review the role of micronutrients in the development/presence of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes. We searched Medline, Embase, and Scopus (January/1949-March/2012) for observational studies that evaluated micronutrients and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes, and then selected and extracted the data (two independent reviewers). From the 15 658 studies identified, five were included, comprising three case-control and two cohorts, with a follow-up of 7-15 years. A meta-analysis was not performed due to the different antioxidant micronutrients (types and measurement methods) and outcomes evaluated. The micronutrients assessed were vitamin C intake in diet and/or supplementation, chromium and selenium in toenail samples, and α-tocopherol and zinc in serum levels. Intake of >300 mg of vitamin C through supplementation was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease (CAD), and stroke (RR 1.69-2.37). High levels of α-tocopherol in serum were associated with 30% lower CAD risk in another study (HR 0.71; 95%CI 0.53-0.94). Among minerals (zinc, selenium, and chromium), an inverse association between zinc and CAD was observed; levels lower than 14.1 µmol/L were associated with an increased risk for CAD (RR 1.70; 95%CI 1.21-2.38). The information available on this issue is scarce. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the role of these nutrients in the cardiovascular risk of patients with diabetes.

  14. Multiple-micronutrient supplementation: Evidence from large-scale prenatal programmes on coverage, compliance and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Cristiana; Gaffey, Michelle F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Cetin, Irene

    2017-12-22

    Micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy pose important challenges for public-health, given the potential adverse outcomes not only during pregnancy but across the life-course. Provision of iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements is the strategy most commonly practiced and recommended globally. How to successfully implement IFA and multiple micronutrient supplementation interventions among pregnant women and to achieve sustainable/permanent solutions to prenatal micronutrient deficiencies remain unresolved issues in many countries. This paper aims to analyse available experiences of prenatal IFA and multiple micronutrient interventions to distil learning for their effective planning and large-scale implementation. Relevant articles and programme-documentation were comprehensively identified from electronic databases, websites of major-agencies and through hand-searching of relevant documents. Retrieved documents were screened and potentially relevant reports were critically examined by the authors with the aim of identifying a set of case studies reflecting regional variation, a mix of implementation successes and failures, and a mix of programmes and large-scale experimental studies. Information on implementation, coverage, compliance, and impact was extracted from reports of large-scale interventions in Central America, Southeast Asia, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. The WHO/CDC Logic-Model for Micronutrient Interventions in Public Health was used as an organizing framework for analysing and presenting the evidence. Our findings suggest that to successfully implement supplementation interventions and achieve sustainable-permanent solutions efforts must focus on factors and processes related to quality, cost-effectiveness, coverage, utilization, demand, outcomes, impacts, and sustainability of programmes including strategic analysis, management, collaborations to pilot a project, and careful monitoring, midcourse corrections, supervision and logistical-support to

  15. Antioxidant Micronutrients and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, Roberta Aguiar [Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul - Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Flávia Moraes [Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Sbruzzi, Graciele [Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul - Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Schaan, Beatriz D' Agord [Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul - Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Interna - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Almeida, Jussara Carnevale de, E-mail: jussara.carnevale@gmail.com [Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Interna - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Inverse associations between micronutrient intake and cardiovascular outcomes have been previously shown, but did not focus on diabetic patients. To systematically review the role of micronutrients in the development/presence of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes. We searched Medline, Embase, and Scopus (January/1949-March/2012) for observational studies that evaluated micronutrients and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes, and then selected and extracted the data (two independent reviewers). From the 15 658 studies identified, five were included, comprising three case-control and two cohorts, with a follow-up of 7-15 years. A meta-analysis was not performed due to the different antioxidant micronutrients (types and measurement methods) and outcomes evaluated. The micronutrients assessed were vitamin C intake in diet and/ or supplementation, chromium and selenium in toenail samples, and α-tocopherol and zinc in serum levels. Intake of > 300 mg of vitamin C through supplementation was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease (CAD), and stroke (RR 1.69-2.37). High levels of α-tocopherol in serum were associated with 30% lower CAD risk in another study (HR 0.71; 95%CI 0.53-0.94). Among minerals (zinc, selenium, and chromium), an inverse association between zinc and CAD was observed; levels lower than 14.1 μmol/L were associated with an increased risk for CAD (RR 1.70; 95%CI 1.21-2.38). The information available on this issue is scarce. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the role of these nutrients in the cardiovascular risk of patients with diabetes.

  16. Gastric and intestinal barrier impairment in tropical enteropathy and HIV: limited impact of micronutrient supplementation during a randomised controlled trial

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    Smith Geoff

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although micronutrient supplementation can reduce morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoea, nutritional influences on intestinal host defence are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that micronutrient supplementation can enhance barrier function of the gut. Methods We carried out two sub-studies nested within a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of daily micronutrient supplementation in an urban community in Lusaka, Zambia. In the first sub-study, gastric pH was measured in 203 participants. In the second sub-study, mucosal permeability, lipopolysaccharide (LPS and anti-LPS antibodies, and serum soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor p55 (sTNFR55 concentrations were measured in 87 participants. Up to three stool samples were also analysed microbiologically for detection of asymptomatic intestinal infection. Gastric histology was subsequently analysed in a third subset (n = 37 to assist in interpretation of the pH data. Informed consent was obtained from all participants after a three-stage information and consent process. Results Hypochlorhydria (fasting gastric pH > 4.0 was present in 75 (37% of participants. In multivariate analysis, HIV infection (OR 4.1; 95%CI 2.2-7.8; P P = 0.01 and allocation to micronutrient supplementation (OR 0.53; 0.28-0.99; P Helicobacter pylori or HIV status. Intestinal permeability, LPS concentrations in serum, anti-LPS IgG, and sTNFR55 concentrations did not differ significantly between micronutrient and placebo groups. Anti-LPS IgM was reduced in the micronutrient recipients (P 0.05. Conclusions We found evidence of a specific effect of HIV on gastric pH which was readily reversed by anti-retroviral therapy and not mediated by gastric atrophy. Micronutrients had a modest impact on gastric pH and one marker of bacterial translocation. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31173864

  17. Comparison of micronutrient intake measured by a dietary questionnaire and biochemical indicators of micronutrient status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, P F; Sulsky, S I; Sadowski, J A; Phillips, J C; Rush, D; Willett, W C

    1993-02-01

    We compared the intake of 12 micronutrients as reported on a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire with corresponding biochemical indicators of nutrient status in a sample of 57 males and 82 females aged 40-83 y. Age-, sex-and energy-adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from near zero for thiamin, vitamin A, and zinc to 0.63 for folate. Correlation coefficients between intake and the biochemical measures were > 0.30 for carotenoids, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin B-12, folate, and vitamin C. Differences of 50% or more were observed between extreme quartiles of intake for mean plasma concentrations of folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin C. Excluding nutrient supplement users generally reduced the correlations. These data demonstrate that food frequency questionnaires can provide valid information on intake for a number of micronutrients.

  18. Decreased serum homocysteine levels after micronutrient supplementation in older people

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    Pusparini Pusparini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a gradual impairment in cognitive function. The elderly also show a high prevalence of undernutrition, whereas nutrition plays an important role in the metabolism of neuronal cells and enzymes. Homocysteine is an amino acid resulting from methionine metabolism and is dependent on intake of vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Homocysteine is said to play a role in cognitive function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation for 6 months on serum homocysteine levels and cognitive function in older people. This study was an experimental study of pre-post test design, carried out in Mampang subdistrict, South Jakarta. A total of 94 elderly people was recruited for this study, consisting of 44 females and 50 males. Serum homocysteine level was assessed by fluorescent polarization immunoassay and cognitive function by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE before and after micronutrient supplementation. Mean serum homocysteine concentration after supplementation decreased significantly to 14.8 ± 5.8 mmol/L, compared with mean serum homocysteine level of 15.9 ± 5.9 mmol/L before supplementation (p=0.000. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors influencing post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender (â=-0.350; p=0.000, education (â=0.510; p=0.000 and post-supplementation homocysteine levels (â=-0.201; p=0.000, while age, pre-supplementation homocysteine levels and BMI did not affect MMSE scores. Homocysteine concentration decreased significantly after 6 months of supplementation. The factors affecting post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender, level of education, and post-supplementation homocysteine level.

  19. Decreased serum homocysteine levels after micronutrient supplementation in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusparini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a gradual impairment in cognitive function. The elderly also show a high prevalence of undernutrition, whereas nutrition plays an important role in the metabolism of neuronal cells and enzymes. Homocysteine is an amino acid resulting from methionine metabolism and is dependent on intake of vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Homocysteine is said to play a role in cognitive function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation for 6 months on serum homocysteine levels and cognitive function in older people. This study was an experimental study of pre-post test design, carried out in Mampang subdistrict, South Jakarta. A total of 94 elderly people was recruited for this study, consisting of 44 females and 50 males. Serum homocysteine level was assessed by fluorescent polarization immunoassay and cognitive function by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE before and after micronutrient supplementation. Mean serum homocysteine concentration after supplementation decreased significantly to 14.8 ± 5.8 mmol/L, compared with mean serum homocysteine level of 15.9 ± 5.9 mmol/L before supplementation (p=0.000. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors influencing post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender (â=-0.350; p=0.000, education (â=0.510; p=0.000 and post-supplementation homocysteine levels (â=-0.201; p=0.000, while age, pre-supplementation homocysteine levels and BMI did not affect MMSE scores. Homocysteine concentration decreased significantly after 6 months of supplementation. The factors affecting post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender, level of education, and post-supplementation homocysteine level.

  20. Running to Safety: Analysis of Disaster Susceptibility of Neighborhoods and Proximity of Safety Facilities in Silay City, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, C. L.; Saripada, N. A.; Olavides, R. D.; Sinogaya, J.

    2016-06-01

    Going on foot is the most viable option when emergency responders fail to show up in disaster zones at the quickest and most reasonable time. In the Philippines, the efficacy of disaster management offices is hampered by factors such as, but not limited to, lack of equipment and personnel, distance, and/or poor road networks and traffic systems. In several instances, emergency response times exceed acceptable norms. This study explores the hazard susceptibility, particularly to fire, flood, and landslides, of neighborhoods vis-à-vis their proximity to safety facilities in Silay City, Philippines. Imbang River exposes communities in the city to flooding while the mountainous terrain makes the city landslide prone. Building extraction was done to get the possible human settlements in the city. The building structures were extracted through image processing using a ruleset-based approach in the process of segmentation and classification of LiDAR derivatives and ortho-photos. Neighborhoods were then identified whether they have low to high susceptibility to disaster risks in terms of floods and landslides based on the hazards maps obtained from the Philippines' Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB). Service area analyses were performed to determine the safety facilities available to different neighborhoods at varying running times. Locations which are inaccessible or are difficult to run to because of distance and corresponding hazards were determined. Recommendations are given in the form of infrastructure installation, relocation of facilities, safety equipment and vehicle procurement, and policy changes for specific areas in Silay City.

  1. Micronutrient Antioxidants and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Guanliang Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most important chronic liver diseases worldwide and has garnered increasing attention in recent decades. NAFLD is characterized by a wide range of liver changes, from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The blurred pathogenesis of NAFLD is very complicated and involves lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, inflammation, and fibrogenesis. NAFLD is closely associated with complications such as obesity, diabetes, steatohepatitis, and liver fibrosis. During the progression of NAFLD, reactive oxygen species (ROS are activated and induce oxidative stress. Recent attempts at establishing effective NAFLD therapy have identified potential micronutrient antioxidants that may reduce the accumulation of ROS and finally ameliorate the disease. In this review, we present the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and introduce some dietary antioxidants that may be used to prevent or cure NAFLD, such as vitamin D, E, and astaxanthin.

  2. Lipophilic Micronutrients and Adipose Tissue Biology

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    Franck Tourniaire

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipophilic micronutrients (LM constitute a large family of molecules including several vitamins (A, D, E, K and carotenoids. Their ability to regulate gene expression is becoming increasingly clear and constitutes an important part of nutrigenomics. Interestingly, adipose tissue is not only a main storage site for these molecules within the body, but it is also subjected to the regulatory effects of LM. Indeed, several gene regulations have been described in adipose tissue that could strongly impact its biology with respect to the modulation of adipogenesis, inflammatory status, or energy homeostasis and metabolism, among others. The repercussions in terms of health effects of such regulations in the context of obesity and associated pathologies represent an exciting and emerging field of research. The present review will focus on the regulatory effects of vitamin A, D, E and K as well as carotenoids on adipose tissue biology and physiology, notably in the context of obesity and associated disorders.

  3. Proximal femoral nail shows better concordance of gait analysis between operated and uninjured limbs compared to hemiarthroplasty in intertrochanteric femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Melih; Kocadal, Onur; Akman, Budak; Poyanlı, Oğuz S; Kemah, Bahattin; Atay, Evren Fehmi

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of pedobarographic gait analysis between the patients treated by proximal femoral nail or bipolar partial hemiarthroplasty due to intertrochanteric fractures. Thirty-seven patients with a minimum 1-year follow-up who had been operated for intertrochanteric fractures were evaluated clinically, radiologically and with pedobarographic gait analysis. Proximal femoral nail had been performed to 21 patients (group A), whilst 16 patients had been operated by partial bipolar hemiarthroplasty (group B). Pedobarographic analysis was performed by measuring plantar pressure, force and contact area values in both static and dynamic manner. Pedobarographic results of operated limb were compared among groups. Same data's also were compared between operated and uninjured limbs in each group to determine any asymmetry on weight-bearing. Average follow-up period in group A and group B was 36 (12-56) and 30 (12-48) months, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences among groups in terms of age, gender, body mass index, type and side of fracture, follow-up period, leg length discrepancy and postoperative hip scores. When the pedobarographic results of operated limb were compared, group B showed much more plantar force and pressure values than group A, on both static and dynamic evaluations. If the evaluation was taken into consideration to comparison of pedobarographic results between operated and uninjured limbs in each group, we found asymmetry in static load bearing, caused by higher load on uninjured limb in both groups. However, there was no statistically significant asymmetry between operated and uninjured limbs in respect to dynamic pedobarographic parameters for patients in group A. On the contrary, operated limbs in group B exposed much more plantar force and pressure values than uninjured limbs, which indicated asymmetric weight-bearing on dynamic evaluation. Assessment of pedobarographic parameters

  4. Long-term intermittent multiple micronutrient supplementation enhances hemoglobin and micronutrient status more than iron + folic acid supplementation in Bangladeshi rural adolescent girls with nutritional anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Faruk; Khan, Moududur R; Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammad; Karim, Rezaul; Williams, Gail; Torlesse, Harriet; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Dalmiya, Nita; Banu, Cadi P; Nahar, Badrun

    2010-10-01

    Previous short-term supplementation studies showed no additional hematologic benefit of multiple micronutrients (MMN) compared with iron + folic acid (IFA) in adolescent girls. This study examines whether long-term once- or twice-weekly supplementation of MMN can improve hemoglobin (Hb) and micronutrient status more than twice-weekly IFA supplementation in anemic adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Anemic girls (n = 324) aged 11-17 y attending rural schools were given once- or twice-weekly MMN or twice-weekly IFA, containing 60 mg iron/dose in both supplements, for 52 wk in a randomized double-blind trial. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 26 and 52 wk. Intent to treat analysis showed no significant difference in the Hb concentration between treatments at either 26 or 52 wk. However, after excluding girls with hemoglobinopathy and adjustment for baseline Hb, a greater increase in Hb was observed with twice-weekly MMN at 26 wk (P = 0.045). Although all 3 treatments effectively reduced iron deficiency, once-weekly MMN produced significantly lower serum ferritin concentrations than the other treatments at both 26 and 52 wk. Both once- and twice-weekly MMN significantly improved riboflavin, vitamin A, and vitamin C status compared with IFA. Overall, once-weekly MMN was less efficacious than twice-weekly MMN in improving iron, riboflavin, RBC folic acid, and vitamin A levels. Micronutrient supplementation beyond 26 wk was likely important in sustaining improved micronutrient status. These findings highlight the potential usefulness of MMN intervention in this population and have implications for programming.

  5. Role of micronutrients for physical growth and mental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meharban

    2004-01-01

    Due to control of florid and severe cases of protein-energy malnutrition, deficiencies of micronutrients in children have assumed public health importance. According to National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau of India, over 50% of apparently healthy looking children have subclinical or biochemical deficiencies of vitamin A, vitamins B2, B6, folate and vitamin C. Over two-third of children have clinical evidences of iron deficiency while deficiency of trace minerals like iodine and zinc is quite common in certain populations. Children have food preferences and they are quite fussy to take green leafy vegetables and fruits thus compromising their intake of micronutrients from dietary sources. The full genetic potential of the child for physical growth and mental development may be compromised due to subclinical deficiencies of micronutrients which are commonly referred to as "hidden hunger". Micronutrients are required for the integrity and optimal functioning of immune system. Children with subclinical deficiency of micronutrients are more vulnerable to develop frequent and more severe common day-to-day infections thus triggering a vicious cycle of undernutrition and recurrent infections. A number of micronutrients are required for optimal physical growth and neuromotor development. Isolated deficiencies of micronutrients are rare in clinical practice and usually deficiencies of multiple micronutrients co-exist. The first 3 years of life are most crucial and vulnerable to the hazards of undernutrition. All efforts should be made so that preschool children are given a balanced and nutritious home-based diet. However, it has been shown that it is not possible to meet 100% requirements of recommended dietary allowances (RDA's) of micronutrients from dietary sources alone and most preschool children need administration of nutritional supplements to optimize their genetic potential for physical growth and mental development.

  6. Effect of germination time on proximate analysis, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, A Ahmed; Rehab, F M Ali

    2015-01-01

    The lentil plant, Lens culinaris L., is a member of the Leguminoceae family and constitutes one of the most important traditional dietary components. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of sprouting for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days on proximate, bioactive compounds and antioxidative characteristics of lentil (Lens culinaris) sprouts. Lentil seeds were soaked in distilled water (1:10, w/v) for 12 h at room temperature (~25°C), then kept between thick layers of cotton cloth and allowed to germinate in the dark for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days. The nutritional composition, protein solubility, free amino acids, antinutritional factors, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raw and germinated samples were determined using standard official procedures. Sprouting process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, protein solubility, free amino acids, total, reducing and nonreducing sugars. However, oil content, antinutritional factors (tannins and phytic acid) significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased. Results indicated that total essential amino acids of lentil seeds protein formed 38.10% of the total amino acid content. Sulfur-containing amino acids were the first limiting amino acid, while threonine was the second limiting amino acid in raw and germinated lentil seeds. Sprouting process has a positive effect on the essential amino acid contents and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of lentil sprouts. Phenolics content increased from 1341.13 mg/100 g DW in raw lentil seeds to 1411.50, 1463.00, 1630.20 and 1510.10 in those samples germinated for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days, respectively. Sprouted seeds had higher DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities. Based on these results, sprouting process is recommended to increase nutritive value, and antioxidant activity of lentil seeds.

  7. Laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR analysis of proximal tubular epithelial cell signaling in human kidney disease.

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    Ray Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Interstitial fibrosis, a histological process common to many kidney diseases, is the precursor state to end stage kidney disease, a devastating and costly outcome for the patient and the health system. Fibrosis is historically associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD but emerging evidence is now linking many forms of acute kidney disease (AKD with the development of CKD. Indeed, we and others have observed at least some degree of fibrosis in up to 50% of clinically defined cases of AKD. Epithelial cells of the proximal tubule (PTEC are central in the development of kidney interstitial fibrosis. We combine the novel techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR to identify and quantitate "real time" gene transcription profiles of purified PTEC isolated from human kidney biopsies that describe signaling pathways associated with this pathological fibrotic process. Our results: (i confirm previous in-vitro and animal model studies; kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in patients with acute tubular injury, inflammation, neutrophil infiltration and a range of chronic disease diagnoses, (ii provide data to inform treatment; complement component 3 expression correlates with inflammation and acute tubular injury, (iii identify potential new biomarkers; proline 4-hydroxylase transcription is down-regulated and vimentin is up-regulated across kidney diseases, (iv describe previously unrecognized feedback mechanisms within PTEC; Smad-3 is down-regulated in many kidney diseases suggesting a possible negative feedback loop for TGF-β in the disease state, whilst tight junction protein-1 is up-regulated in many kidney diseases, suggesting feedback interactions with vimentin expression. These data demonstrate that the combined techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR have the power to study molecular signaling within single cell populations derived from clinically sourced tissue.

  8. Effects of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food for infants and children: a systematic review

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    Eichler Klaus

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micronutrient deficiency is a common public health problem in developing countries, especially for infants and children in the first two years of life. As this is an important time window for child development, micronutrient fortified complementary feeding after 6 months of age, for example with milk or cereals products, in combination with continued breastfeeding, is recommended. The overall effect of this approach is unclear. Methods We performed a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis to assess the impact of micronutrient fortified milk and cereal food on the health of infants and little children (aged 6 months to 5 years compared to non-fortified food. We reviewed randomized controlled trials using electronic databases (MEDLINE and Cochrane library searches through FEB 2011, reference list screening and hand searches. Three reviewers assessed 1153 studies for eligibility and extracted data. One reviewer assessed risk of bias using predefined forms. Results We included 18 trials in our analysis (n = 5’468 children; range of mean hemoglobin values: 9.0 to 12.6 g/dl. Iron plus multi micronutrient fortification is more effective than single iron fortification for hematologic outcomes. Compared to non-fortified food, iron multi micronutrient fortification increases hemoglobin levels by 0.87 g/dl (95%-CI: 0.57 to 1.16; 8 studies and reduces risk of anemia by 57% (relative risk 0.43; 95%-CI 0.26 to 0.71; absolute risk reduction 22%; number needed to treat 5 [95%-CI: 4 to 6]; 6 Studies. Compared to non-fortified food, fortification increases serum levels of vitamin A but not of zinc. Information about functional health outcomes (e.g. weight gain and morbidity was scarce and evidence is inconclusive. Risk of bias is unclear due to underreporting, but high quality studies lead to similar results in a sensitivity analysis. Conclusions Multi micronutrient fortified milk and cereal products can be an effective option to

  9. Bioavailability of AREDS1 micronutrients from softgel capsules and tablets: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth J; Vishwanathan, Rohini; Rasmussen, Helen M; Lang, John C

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of antioxidant micronutrients in slowing progression to advanced stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was supported by the 4/day tablet form investigated in the Age-related Eye Disease Study 1 (AREDS1) and the 2/day softgel form in the Age-related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2). However, the choices of excipient, dosage form, and ingredient chemistry as well as the patient physiologies and pathologies can influence bioavailability and efficacy. The objective of the study was to explore the influence of dosage form on the bioavailability of the five primary AREDS1 and Tier-2 AREDS2 micronutrients: the metals zinc and copper, β-carotene, and vitamins E and C. The intent was to establish by chemical analysis the relative bioavailabilities of these five micronutrients in plasma, or serum for the metals, as well as to identify any opportunities for improvements. A total of 15 healthy men (5) and women (10) were recruited for a controlled, randomized, three-arm, crossover trial of the AREDS1 micronutrients. The study investigated responses in bioabsorption to a single dose of either four tablets or two softgels at the full dose level, or one softgel at the half-dose level. The bioavailability of each micronutrient was based on the pharmacokinetic profiles established through 15 samplings for each ingredient/dosage form in plasma/serum over the course of one week. Bioavailability was estimated using model-independent and model-dependent procedures. A statistical advantage of the dosage form was observed in only two cases from the exaggerated effects using the half-dose softgel and for the tablet dosage form for β-carotene and vitamin E. An unanticipated complexity was suggested by the bimodal absorption of zinc. For these micronutrients, no disadvantage (though potential advantage) was inferred for the water-soluble components presented in a softgel formulation. Increased fractional absorption was observed for the smaller dose (one capsule versus

  10. The use of a transition rod may prevent proximal junctional kyphosis in the thoracic spine after scoliosis surgery: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Patrick J; Wang, Wenhai; Asghar, Jahangir; Booker, Rashad; Betz, Randal R; Ramsey, Christopher; Baran, George

    2012-05-20

    Finite element analysis. Via finite element analysis: (1) to demonstrate the abnormal forces present at the top of a scoliosis construct, (2) to demonstrate the importance of an intact interspinous and supraspinous ligament (ISL/SSL) complex, and (3) to evaluate a transition rod (a rod that has a short taper to a smaller diameter at one end) as an implant solution to diminish these pathomechanics, regardless of the integrity of the ISL/SSL complex. The pathophysiology of increased nucleus pressure and increased angular displacement may contribute to proximal junctional kyphosis. Furthermore, high implant stress can be demonstrated at the upper end of the construct, possibly leading to the risk of implant failure. A finite element model was constructed to simulate a thoracic spinal fusion. The model was altered to remove the ISL/SSL complex at the level above the construct. Then, the model was altered again by extending the construct one level superior with a transition rod. The angular displacement, the maximum pressure in the nucleus, and stress within the implant were extracted from computational results under 2 conditions: load control and displacement control. The testing was performed with both titanium and stainless steel implants. Pressure in the nucleus and angular displacement are all increased when the ISL/SSL complex is removed immediately above the instrumented levels, whereas the screw pullout force and maximum stress within the screw are decreased. The nucleus pressure increases by more than 50%. The angular displacement increases by 19% to 26%. This absence of the ISL/SSL complex simulates the clinical scenario that occurs when these structures are iatrogenically detached. Abnormal mechanics can be restored to normal level by extending the construct rostral one level with a transition rod. Furthermore, the elevated nucleus pressure and angular displacement noted even when the ISL/SSL complex is intact can be avoided with the use of a transition rod

  11. Computer-aided joint space analysis of the metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint: normative age-related and gender-specific data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeil, Alexander; Boettcher, Joachim; Seidl, Bettina E.; Heyne, Jens-Peter; Petrovitch, Alexander; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); Eidner, Torsten; Wolf, Gunter; Hein, Gert [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Rheumatology and Osteology, Clinic of Internal Medicine III, Jena (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of the study was to provide reference data for computer-aided joint space analysis based on a semi-automated and computer-aided diagnostic system for the measurement of metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint widths; additionally, the determination of sex differences and the investigation of changes in joint width with age were evaluated. Eighty hundred and sixty-nine patients (351 female and 518 male) received radiographs of the hand for trauma and were screened for a host of conditions known to affect the joint spaces. All participants underwent measurements of joint space distances at the metacarpal-phalangeal articulation (JSD-MCP) from the thumb to the small finger and at the proximal-interphalangeal articulation (JSD-PIP) from the index finger to the small finger using computer-aided diagnosis technology with semi-automated edge detection. The study revealed an annual narrowing of the JSD of 0.6% for the JSD-MCP and for the JSD-PIP. Furthermore, the data demonstrated a notable age-related decrease in JSD, including an accentuated age-related joint space narrowing in women for both articulations. Additionally, males showed a significantly wider JSD-MCP (+11.1%) and JSD-PIP (+15.4%) compared with the female cohort in all age groups. Our data presented gender-specific and age-related normative reference values for computer-aided joint space analysis of the JSD-MCP and JSD-PIP that could be used to identify disease-related joint space narrowing, particularly in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis commonly involving the peripheral small hand joints. (orig.)

  12. Nutrition education to improve dietary intake and micronutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition education to improve dietary intake and micronutrient nutriture among ... AJOL jobs ... Objective: To determine whether nutrition education targeting the child-feeding practices of low-income rural caregivers will reduce anaemia

  13. Foliar application of macro- and micronutrients on the yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foliar application of macro- and micronutrients on the yield and quality of Rosa hybrida cvs. Cardinal and Whisky Mac. Adnan Younis, Atif Riaz, Muhammad Sajid, Nouman Mushtaq, Muhammad Ahsan, Mansoor Hameed, Usman Tariq, Muhammad Nadeem ...

  14. Effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on fetal loss and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of trials on maternal multi-micronutrient supplementation (MMS) have found a benefical ... We examined the effect of two different preparations of antenatal MMS on fetal loss and ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  15. Micronutrient deficiency in obese subjects undergoing low calorie diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damms-Machado Antje

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies is higher in obese individuals compared to normal-weight people, probably because of inadequate eating habits but also due to increased demands among overweight persons, which are underestimated by dietary reference intakes (DRI intended for the general population. We therefore evaluated the dietary micronutrient intake in obese individuals compared to a reference population and DRI recommendations. Furthermore, we determined the micronutrient status in obese subjects undergoing a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet to analyze if the DRI meet the micronutrient requirements of obese individuals. Methods In 104 subjects baseline micronutrient intake was determined by dietary record collection. A randomly assigned subgroup of subjects (n = 32 underwent a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet over a period of three months. Pre- and post-interventional intracellular micronutrient status in buccal mucosa cells (BMC was analyzed, as well as additional micronutrient serum concentrations in 14 of the subjects. Results Prior to dietetic intervention, nutrition was calorie-rich and micronutrient-poor. Baseline deficiencies in serum concentrations were observed for 25-hydroxyvitamin-D, vitamin C, selenium, iron, as well as ß-carotene, vitamin C, and lycopene in BMC. After a three-month period of formula diet even more subjects had reduced micronutrient levels of vitamin C (serum, BMC, zinc, and lycopene. There was a significant negative correlation between lipophilic serum vitamin concentrations and body fat, as well as between iron and C-reactive protein. Conclusions The present pilot study shows that micronutrient deficiency occurring in obese individuals is not corrected by protein-rich formula diet containing vitamins and minerals according to DRI. In contrast, micronutrient levels remain low or become even lower, which might be explained by insufficient

  16. ABOVE GROUND BIOMASS MICRONUTRIENTS IN A SEASONAL SUBTROPICAL FOREST

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton Luiz Munari Vogel; Mauro Valdir Schumacher; Peter Trüby

    2015-01-01

    In the above ground biomass of a native forest or plantation are stored large quantities of nutrients, with few studies in the literature, especially concerning micronutrients. The present work aimed to quantify the micronutrients in above ground biomass in a Seasonal Subtropical forest in Itaara-RS, Brazil. For the above ground biomass evaluation, 20 trees of five different diameter classes were felled. The above ground biomass was separated in the following compartments: stem...

  17. The Effect of Micronutrients in Ensuring Efficient Use of Macronutrients

    OpenAIRE

    Malakouti, Mohammad Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is widespread in many Asian countries due to the calcareous nature of soils, high pH, low organic matter, salt stress, continuous drought, high bicarbonate content in irrigation water, and imbalanced application of fertilizers. Some of the adverse effects of micronutrient deficiency-induced stress in plants include low crop yield and quality, imperfect plant morphological structure (such as fewer xylem vessels of small size), widespread infestation of various diseases...

  18. Bioavailability of Micronutrients from Plant Foods: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2016-07-26

    Deficiencies of iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A are widespread in the developing countries, poor bioavailability of these micronutrients from plant-based foods being the major reason for their wide prevalence. Diets predominantly vegetarian are composed of components that enhance as well as inhibit mineral bioavailability, the latter being predominant. However, prudent cooking practices and use of ideal combinations of food components can significantly improve micronutrient bioavailability. Household processing such as heat treatment, sprouting, fermentation and malting have been evidenced to enhance the bioavailability of iron and β-carotene from plant foods. Food acidulants amchur and lime are also shown to enhance the bioavailability of not only iron and zinc, but also of β-carotene. Recently indentified newer enhancers of micronutrient bioaccessibility include sulphur compound-rich Allium spices-onion and garlic, which also possess antioxidant properties, β-carotene-rich vegetables-carrot and amaranth, and pungent spices-pepper (both red and black) as well as ginger. Information on the beneficial effect of these dietary compounds on micronutrient bioaccessibility is novel. These food components evidenced to improve the bioavailability of micronutrients are common ingredients of Indian culinary, and probably of other tropical countries. Fruits such as mango and papaya, when consumed in combination with milk, provide significantly higher amounts of bioavailable β-carotene. Awareness of the beneficial influence of these common dietary ingredients on the bioavailability of micronutrients would help in devising dietary strategies to improve the bioavailability of these vital nutrients.

  19. Micronutrient status and fertilizer use scenario in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anand P

    2005-01-01

    India was dependent on external food supplies in the early 1960s. To meet the growing demand for food, fiber and fuel, high yielding cultivars were introduced. These high yielding crop cultivars were highly responsive to fertilizers. Thus, slowly the soils were exhausted of their nutrients. Application of major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) became common, therefore the crops started responding to micronutrient fertilizers. Concerted efforts have been made through the All India Coordinated Research Project on Micronutrients to delineate the soils of India regarding the deficiency of micronutrients. At present about 48.1% of Indian soils are deficient in diethylene-triaminepentaacetate (DTPA) extractable zinc, 11.2% in iron, 7% in copper and 5.1% in manganese. Apart from the deficiency of these micronutrients, deficiencies of boron and molybdenum have also been reported in some areas. Areas with multi-micronutrient deficiencies are limited, thus simple fertilizers are sufficient to exploit the potential of crops and cropping systems. Based on the extent of deficiency, cultivated area, and crop removal, the micronutrient fertilizer demand in 2025 is projected using sufficiency and maintenance approaches.

  20. Micronutrient fortification of food and its impact on woman and child health: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamins and minerals are essential for growth and metabolism. The World Health Organization estimates that more than 2 billion people are deficient in key vitamins and minerals. Groups most vulnerable to these micronutrient deficiencies are pregnant and lactating women and young children, given their increased demands. Food fortification is one of the strategies that has been used safely and effectively to prevent vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Methods A comprehensive search was done to identify all available evidence for the impact of fortification interventions. Studies were included if food was fortified with a single, dual or multiple micronutrients and impact of fortification was analyzed on the health outcomes and relevant biochemical indicators of women and children. We performed a meta-analysis of outcomes using Review Manager Software version 5.1. Results Our systematic review identified 201 studies that we reviewed for outcomes of relevance. Fortification for children showed significant impacts on increasing serum micronutrient concentrations. Hematologic markers also improved, including hemoglobin concentrations, which showed a significant rise when food was fortified with vitamin A, iron and multiple micronutrients. Fortification with zinc had no significant adverse impact on hemoglobin levels. Multiple micronutrient fortification showed non-significant impacts on height for age, weight for age and weight for height Z-scores, although they showed positive trends. The results for fortification in women showed that calcium and vitamin D fortification had significant impacts in the post-menopausal age group. Iron fortification led to a significant increase in serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels in women of reproductive age and pregnant women. Folate fortification significantly reduced the incidence of congenital abnormalities like neural tube defects without increasing the incidence of twinning. The number of studies pooled for zinc and

  1. Added Sugar, Macro- and Micronutrient Intakes and Anthropometry of Children in a Developing World Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, Eleni M W; Nel, Johanna H; Steyn, Nelia P; Kruger, H Salome; Labadarios, Demetre

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between added sugar and dietary diversity, micronutrient intakes and anthropometric status in a nationally representative study of children, 1-8.9 years of age in South Africa. Secondary analysis of a national survey of children (weighted n = 2,200; non weighted n = 2818) was undertaken. Validated 24-hour recalls of children were collected from mothers/caregivers and stratified into quartiles of percentage energy from added sugar (% EAS). A dietary diversity score (DDS) using 9 food groups, a food variety score (FVS) of individual food items, and a mean adequacy ratio (MAR) based on 11 micronutrients were calculated. The prevalence of stunting and overweight/obesity was also determined. Added sugar intake varied from 7.5-10.3% of energy intake for rural and urban areas, respectively. Mean added sugar intake ranged from 1.0% of energy intake in Quartile 1 (1-3 years) (Q1) to 19.3% in Q4 (4-8 years). Main sources of added sugar were white sugar (60.1%), cool drinks (squash type) (10.4%) and carbonated cool drinks (6.0%). Added sugar intake, correlated positively with most micronutrient intakes, DDS, FVS, and MAR. Significant negative partial correlations, adjusted for energy intake, were found between added sugar intake and intakes of protein, fibre, thiamin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin E, calcium (1-3 years), phosphorus, iron (4-8 years), magnesium and zinc. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in children aged 4-8 years in Q4 of %EAS than in other quartiles [mean (95%CI) % prevalence overweight 23.0 (16.2-29.8)% in Q4 compared to 13.0 (8.7-17.3)% in Q1, p = 0.0063]. Although DDS, FVS, MAR and micronutrient intakes were positively correlated with added sugar intakes, overall negative associations between micronutrients and added sugar intakes, adjusted for dietary energy, indicate micronutrient dilution. Overweight/obesity was increased with higher added sugar intakes in the 4-8 year old

  2. Added Sugar, Macro- and Micronutrient Intakes and Anthropometry of Children in a Developing World Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni M W Maunder

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between added sugar and dietary diversity, micronutrient intakes and anthropometric status in a nationally representative study of children, 1-8.9 years of age in South Africa.Secondary analysis of a national survey of children (weighted n = 2,200; non weighted n = 2818 was undertaken. Validated 24-hour recalls of children were collected from mothers/caregivers and stratified into quartiles of percentage energy from added sugar (% EAS. A dietary diversity score (DDS using 9 food groups, a food variety score (FVS of individual food items, and a mean adequacy ratio (MAR based on 11 micronutrients were calculated. The prevalence of stunting and overweight/obesity was also determined.Added sugar intake varied from 7.5-10.3% of energy intake for rural and urban areas, respectively. Mean added sugar intake ranged from 1.0% of energy intake in Quartile 1 (1-3 years (Q1 to 19.3% in Q4 (4-8 years. Main sources of added sugar were white sugar (60.1%, cool drinks (squash type (10.4% and carbonated cool drinks (6.0%. Added sugar intake, correlated positively with most micronutrient intakes, DDS, FVS, and MAR. Significant negative partial correlations, adjusted for energy intake, were found between added sugar intake and intakes of protein, fibre, thiamin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin E, calcium (1-3 years, phosphorus, iron (4-8 years, magnesium and zinc. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in children aged 4-8 years in Q4 of %EAS than in other quartiles [mean (95%CI % prevalence overweight 23.0 (16.2-29.8% in Q4 compared to 13.0 (8.7-17.3% in Q1, p = 0.0063].Although DDS, FVS, MAR and micronutrient intakes were positively correlated with added sugar intakes, overall negative associations between micronutrients and added sugar intakes, adjusted for dietary energy, indicate micronutrient dilution. Overweight/obesity was increased with higher added sugar intakes in the 4-8 year old

  3. Age-related structural changes in the myenteric nervous plexus ganglion along the anterior wall of the proximal human duodenum: A morphometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Predrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Aging is one of the most complex biological processes which probably affect structure and function of the enteric nerve system. However, there is not much available information on this topic, particularly in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of aging on the structure of the myenteric ganglia in the anterior wall of the human proximal duodenum. Methods. We examined the myenteric ganglia in the proximal duodenal anterior wall specimens obtained from 30 cadaver persons aged from 20 to 84 years. Tissue samples were classified into three age groups: 20-44, 45-64 and 65-84 years. After standard histological preparation, specimens were stained with HE, Cresyl Violet and AgNO3. Morphometric analysis of all the specimens, using a multipurpose test system M42, was performed. The data were subjected to the ttest. Results. The myenteric ganglia of very old humans contains an empty space, i.e. the respective parts of ganglia show a decreased number of neuron as compared to younger population. The average number of neuron per cm2 of the duodenum in the youngest people (20-44 years was 69,370 ± 1,750.00, in the people aged 45-64 years 69,211 ± 1,573.33, and in the oldest persons (65-84 years 57,951 ± 1,291.52. The loss of neurons in the oldest persons was 16.46%. The applied statistic test demonstrated a significant difference between the observed groups (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. Aging does not induce changes in size and surface of neurons in the ganglia, but it decreases the number of neurons. The nerve structures in the elderly are partly emptied of bodies of nerve cells (“empty ganglions”, which indicates the existence of changed myenteric ganglia in the duodenum. These changes could be related to the duodenum motility disorder associated with aging.

  4. Determination of soil micronutrients (Fe, Cu, Mn, B) extracted by Mehlich 3 using MP-AES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebstein, Kadri; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rodima, Ako; Kõlli, Raimo; Künnapas, Allan; Rebane, Jaanus; Penu, Priit; Vennik, Kersti; Soobik, Liina

    2015-04-01

    The total concentration of micronutrients in soils is not a good predictor of its bioavailability and solubility. Therefore, during the decades several methods for the determination of plant availability and extractable fraction of micro- and macronutrients in soil were developed. Among several methods Mehlich 3 is the most appropriate due to its suitability for extracting soil micro- and macronutrients simultaneously. The AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopic) and ICP (inductively coupled plasma) methods are widely used for the analysis of microelements today. In 2011 the third method was added to this list with the appearance of the microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometer (MP-AES). This multielemental analytical equipment has a high potential in the soil analysis. Up to now there have been made some experiments for the use of MP-AES in soil and geological material analysis. But there is no information about the analysis of soil micronutrients extracted according to Mehlich 3 method and determined with the MP-AES. Due to the differences in atomization conditions the different emission and absorption lines are used in different instrumental methods. Therefore it is very important to choose the most suitable emission lines and the best atomization conditions. From the analytical viewpoint it is important to get coincidental results with other instrumental methods and from the agronomical point of view it is important to know the difference between AAS and ICP methods. For the experiment 51 soil samples were used. The samples were collected from A horizons of agricultural lands. The pH range was from 4.7 to 7.5 and organic matter content from 1.4 to 7.8%. The content of Mehlich 3 extractable micronutrients was determined using ICP and MP instrumental methods. The micronutrient contents ranged as follows: Fe - from 170 to 470 mg kg-1, Mn - from 5 to 190 mg kg-1, Cu - from 0.3 to 4.5 mg kg-1, B - from 0.2 to 2.1 mg kg-1. The optimal instrumental settings for iron

  5. Hazardous Materials Routing Study Phase II: Analysis of Hazardous Materials Truck Routes in Proximity to the Dallas Central Business District

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes the findings from the second phase of a two-part analysis of hazardous materials truck routes in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. Phase II of this study analyzes the risk of transporting hazardous materials on freeways and arterial ...

  6. Report: Comprehensive nutrients analysis of rhizomes of Polygonatum verticillatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haroon; Saeed, Muhammad; Muhammad, Naveed; Khan, Faridullah; Ibrar, Muhammad; Hassan, Sohail; Shah, Waheed Ali

    2012-10-01

    The current study was undertaken to estimate the concentration of micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, Co, Sb and Mn), macronutrients (Na, Ca and K) and essential life nutrients (proteins, fats, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid) along with ash, fiber and moisture contents. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for the analysis of micronutrients while flame photometry for macronutrients. For proximate analysis (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, ash, fibers and moisture), Association of Official Analytical Chemists methods (AOAC) were used and titration method for ascorbic acid determination. It is evident from the results that the crude extract and its fractions accumulate significant concentrations of both micro and macro nutrients. The significant quantities of essential life nutrients like proteins, fats, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid along with ash, fiber and moisture contents were also found in extracts. It is concluded that the extracts of rhizomes accumulated significant quantities of life indispensible nutrients and validated the ethnobotanical uses of the plant as tonic and energizer.

  7. Modos de aplicação de calcário e de micronutrientes em pomar de laranjeira 'Natal' e análise comparativa de custos Effect of ways of lime application and micronutrients and make a comparative analysis of treatments costs in a orange orchard var. 'Natal'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemerson Fernandes Calgaro

    2007-01-01

    dos micronutrientes para produção e massa média dos frutos da laranjeira 'Natal', e a receita líquida foi positiva em todos os tratamentos, sendo que o tratamento 5 [¹/3 da necessidade total de calcário (NC no 1º ano + ¹/3 da NC no 2º ano, + ¹/3 da NC no 3º ano] apresentou o melhor valor acumulado (U$ 3.721,85 ha-1.In agreement with the Institute Fnp (2005, the production Brazilian of citrus is of 17,7 million tons year-1 occupying 1 million of ha approximately in the Brazilian territory and of this total one, 810 thousand ha are located in the State of São Paulo. Most of the Brazilian soils, besides those where the citric orchards were installed, it presents acid reaction. This is, without a doubt, the main unfavorable condition of the soils and one of the factors that harm the production in tropical soils. The present work had the objective to study the effect of different ways of lime application, micronutrients and make a comparative analysis of treatments costs in a orange. The experiment was develop at Morumbi Farm, town country of Estrela D'Oeste, in a Ultisol. The variety of orange used was the 'Natal' incorporated at lemon, with six years old and spaced at 5 x 8 m. The outline was in a subdivided plot, with 3 repetitions, with 5 main treatments [without lime application, lime total need (LT incorporated; LT without incorporation; ¹/2 LT in the first year + ¹/2 LT in the second year; ¹/3 LT in the first year + ¹/3 LT in the second year + ¹/3 LT in the third year] and 2 secondary treatments [micronutrients in the soil (FTE-BR 12: 11,5% de ZnO e B2O3; 1% CuO; 5,4% de Fe2O3; 5,5% de MnO2; 0,2% de MoO3; micronutrients in the leaves (sulfate of zinc to 0,5% and boric acid a 0,08%], distributed in randomblocks. There is no significant effect in the ways of application of lime and micronutrients in the evaluated parameters (production, total solid soluble (TSS, total acidy, chemical analysis of the soil; to medium mass of the fruit had a

  8. Capacitive proximity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  9. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  10. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1962-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  11. Dietary micronutrient intake and atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourdudoss, C; Elkan, A-C; Hafström, I; Jogestrand, T; Gustafsson, T; van Vollenhoven, R; Frostegård, J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dietary micronutrient intake in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study included 111 SLE patients and 118 age and gender-matched controls. Data on diet (food frequency questionnaires) were linked with data on Systemic Lupus Activity Measure, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and carotid atherosclerotic/echolucent plaque (B-mode ultrasound). Dietary micronutrient intake were compared between SLE patients and controls and in relation to lupus activity and atherosclerosis in SLE. Associations between micronutrient intake and plaque were analyzed through logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Micronutrient intake did not differ between patients and controls, and between lower and higher lupus activity, apart from the fact that phosphorus was associated with SLEDAI > 6. In SLE patients, some micronutrients were associated with atherosclerotic plaque, left side. Lower intake of riboflavin and phosphorus was associated with atherosclerotic plaque, left side (odds ratio (OR) 3.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-8.40 and OR 4.36, 95% CI 1.53-12.39, respectively). Higher intake of selenium and thiamin was inversely associated with atherosclerotic plaque, left side (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09-0.89 and OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.08-0.80, respectively). In addition, higher intake of thiamin was inversely associated with echolucent plaque, left side (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06-0.84). Lower intake of folate was inversely associated with bilateral echolucent plaque (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.13-0.99). SLE patients did not have different dietary micronutrient intake compared to controls. Phosphorus was associated with lupus activity. Riboflavin, phosphorus, selenium and thiamin were inversely associated with atherosclerotic plaque, left side in SLE patients, but not in controls. Dietary micronutrients may play a role in atherosclerosis in SLE. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Micronutrient status in Jordan: 2002 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdula, M K; Nichols, E K; Aburto, N J; Masa'd, H; Obaid, B; Wirth, J; Tarawneh, M; Barham, R; Hijawi, B; Sullivan, K M

    2014-10-01

    Two national surveys were conducted in Jordan in 2002 and 2010 to investigate the micronutrient status in women and children. To determine the prevalence of anemia, iron and folate deficiency among women and children in 2010 and compare with the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency in 2002. A nationally representative survey was conducted in 2002 (1023 women, 15-49 years of age; 1059 children, 12-59 months of age) and a second survey in 2010 (2035 women; 940 children). Venous blood samples were used to measure hemoglobin, ferritin and red blood cell folate (the latter on a subsample of 393 women). Among women in 2010, the prevalence of folate deficiency and insufficiency was 13.6% and 82.9%, respectively. Geometric mean serum ferritin was higher in 2010 compared with 2002 (21.3 ng/ml vs 18.3, P=0.01); there was no significant change in the prevalence of iron deficiency (35.1% vs 38.7%, P=0.17), iron deficiency anemia (19.1% vs 20.0%, P=0.61) or anemia (29.2% vs 29.3%, P=0.96). Among children, a significantly lower prevalence was observed in 2010 compared with 2002 for iron deficiency (13.7% vs 26.2% P<0.001) and iron deficiency anemia (4.8% vs 10.1%, P<0.001); a nonsignificant lower prevalence was observed for anemia (16.6% vs 20.2%, P=0.09). In 2010, approximately one of seven women was folate deficient and six out of seven were folate insufficient for the prevention of neural tube defects. Between 2002 and 2010, significant improvement was observed in the prevalence of iron deficiency in children, but not in women.

  13. Antioxidant micronutrients and the risk of renal cell carcinoma in the Women's Health Initiative cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Won Jin; Simon, Michael S; Yildiz, Vedat O; Shikany, James M; Kato, Ikuko; Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer L; Cetnar, Jeremy P; Bock, Cathryn H

    2015-02-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the eighth leading cancer among women in incidence and commonly is diagnosed at a more advanced stage. Oxidative stress has been considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of RCC. Various dietary micronutrients have antioxidant properties, including carotenoids and vitamins C and E; thus, diets rich in these nutrients have been evaluated in relation to RCC prevention. The objective of this study was to explore the correlation between antioxidant micronutrients and the risk of RCC. In total, 96,196 postmenopausal women who enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) between 1993 and 1998 and were followed through July 2013 were included in this analysis. Dietary micronutrient intake was estimated from the baseline WHI food frequency questionnaire, and data on supplement use were collected using an interview-based inventory procedure. RCC cases were ascertained from follow-up surveys and were centrally adjudicated. The risks for RCC associated with intake of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein plus zeaxanthin, lycopene, vitamin C, and vitamin E were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for confounders. Two hundred forty women with RCC were identified during follow-up. Lycopene intake was inversely associated with RCC risk (P = .015); compared with the lowest quartile of lycopene intake, the highest quartile of intake was associated with a 39% lower risk of RCC (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.97). No other micronutrient was significantly associated with RCC risk. The current results suggest that further investigation into the correlation between lycopene intake and the risk of RCC is warranted. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  14. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Zotti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus. The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. In the blue crab, protein content was significantly lower than in the other two species, while its carbon content resulted lower than that characterizing only the warty crab. Among micro-elements, Ba, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, and Pb showed extremely low concentrations and negligible among-species differences. Significant inter-specific differences were observed for Na, Sr, V, Ba, Cd and Zn; in particular, cadmium and zinc were characterized in the blue crab by concentrations significantly lower than in the other two species. The analysis of the available literature on the three species indicated a general lack of comparable information on their elemental composition. The need to implement extended elemental fingerprinting techniques for shellfish quality assessment is discussed, in view of other complementary profiling methods such as NMR-based metabolomics.

  15. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Maurizio; Coco, Laura Del; Pascali, Sandra Angelica De; Migoni, Danilo; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-02-01

    The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus). The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. In the blue crab, protein content was significantly lower than in the other two species, while its carbon content resulted lower than that characterizing only the warty crab. Among micro-elements, Ba, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, and Pb showed extremely low concentrations and negligible among-species differences. Significant inter-specific differences were observed for Na, Sr, V, Ba, Cd and Zn; in particular, cadmium and zinc were characterized in the blue crab by concentrations significantly lower than in the other two species. The analysis of the available literature on the three species indicated a general lack of comparable information on their elemental composition. The need to implement extended elemental fingerprinting techniques for shellfish quality assessment is discussed, in view of other complementary profiling methods such as NMR-based metabolomics.

  16. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was investigated using standard procedures. Proximate analysis included in g% dry weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a moisture content of 70.04 ...

  17. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR) if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement. PMID:28212284

  18. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Wardenaar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub- elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement.

  19. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-02-15

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR) if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement.

  20. Cooking process evaluation on micronutrient and total mercury content in fish species in Manaus, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Vaconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: lufarias2@yahoo.com.br; Pessoa, Artemiza F.; Aguiar, Jaime; Yuyama, Lucia K. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia INPA, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Lab. de Alimentos e Nutricao]. E-mail: yuyama@inpa.gov.br; Santos, Jose Osman do [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Sergipe, Aracaju, SE (Brazil)]. E-mail: josantos@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated different cooking processes (roasted, cooked and fried) on micronutrient (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) and total Hg content in fish species most consumed by Manaus residents and surrounding communities. Twelve different fresh water fish species were purchased at the central receiving market (CEASA) in Manaus and prepared at the INPA Food and Nutrition Laboratory. In total 64 fish samples were analysed. Analytical determinations were performed by Neutron Activation Analysis Technique (NAA) for micronutrients and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV AAS) for total Hg. All analytical methods were developed and validated for precision and accuracy by means of reference material analyses with certified values for the elements determined. The concentration variation of the analyzed elements was: Hg (2392 to 19 {mu} kg{sup -1}); K (19187 to 1185 mg kg{sup -1}); Ca (14590 to 994 mg kg{sup -1}); Na (18386 to 12850 mg kg{sup -1}); Fe (5580 to 4 mg kg{sup -1}); Se (5249 to 129 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) and Zn (684 to 15 mg kg{sup -1}). The effect of the different cooking processes on the variation of micronutrient composition was quite significant. On the other hand Hg composition variation seems to be more related to fish species rather than the cooking process itself. As was expected, predatory species presented higher Hg and Se levels. (author)

  1. Cooperation of Doxycycline with Phytochemicals and Micronutrients Against Active and Persistent Forms of Borrelia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goc, Anna; Niedzwiecki, Alexandra; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals and micronutrients represent a growing theme in antimicrobial defense; however, little is known about their anti-borreliae effects of reciprocal cooperation with antibiotics. A better understanding of this aspect could advance our knowledge and help improve the efficacy of current approaches towards Borrelia sp. In this study, phytochemicals and micronutrients such as baicalein, luteolin, 10-HAD, iodine, rosmarinic acid, and monolaurin, as well as, vitamins D3 and C were tested in a combinations with doxycycline for their in vitro effectiveness against vegetative (spirochetes) and latent (rounded bodies, biofilm) forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii. Anti-borreliae effects were evaluated according to checkerboard assays and supported by statistical analysis. The results showed that combination of doxycycline with flavones such as baicalein and luteolin exhibited additive effects against all morphological forms of studied Borrelia sp. Doxycycline combined with iodine demonstrated additive effects against spirochetes and biofilm, whereas with fatty acids such as monolaurin and 10-HAD it produced FICIs of indifference. Additive anti-spirochetal effects were also observed when doxycycline was used with rosmarinic acid and both vitamins D3 and C. Antagonism was not observed in any of the cases. This data revealed the intrinsic anti-borreliae activity of doxycycline with tested phytochemicals and micronutrients indicating that their addition may enhance efficacy of this antibiotic in combating Borrelia sp. Especially the addition of flavones balcalein and luteolin to a doxycycline regimen could be explored further in defining more effective treatments against these bacteria.

  2. Micronutrients evaluation in Bidens pilosa L., a plant applied in diabetes treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: rdmrg89@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease that has increasingly affected individuals over the last years. World Health Organization estimates that the worldwide number of diabetes cases will rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. Besides the therapy with pharmaceutical drugs, many diabetic patients use medicinal plants to control the glycemic levels. This herb has anti-diabetic action due to the presence of organic compounds and micronutrients. Among the plants applied in diabetes treatment, Bidens pilosa L., popularly known in Brazil as picao preto, belongs to the family of Asteraceaes, grows fast and is globally distributed. The aim of this study was evaluate the concentration of Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, V and Zn in aerial parts of Bidens pilosa samples, as well as its growth substrate by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples were separated into two groups named control and treatment. During the plant development, micronutrient solution, containing Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, V and Zn, was added to the treatment group. It was observed that micronutrient solution added to the Biden pilosa samples may had contributed to the preferentially absorption of Fe, Mg and V, as well as to decrease Zn absorption. (author)

  3. Micronutrients attenuate progression of prostate cancer by elevating the endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, Platelet Factor-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleshner Neil E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longstanding evidence implicates an inadequate diet as a key factor in the onset and progression of prostate cancer. The purpose herein was to discover, validate and characterize functional biomarkers of dietary supplementation capable of suppressing the course of prostate cancer in vivo. Methods The Lady transgenic mouse model that spontaneously develops prostate cancer received a diet supplemented with a micronutrient cocktail of vitamin E, selenium and lycopene ad libitum. A proteomic analysis was conducted to screen for serum biomarkers of this dietary supplementation. Candidate peptides were validated and identified by sequencing and analyzed for their presence within the prostates of all mice by immunohistochemistry. Results Dietary supplementation with the combined micronutrients significantly induced the expression of the megakaryocyte-specific inhibitor of angiogenesis, platelet factor-4 (P = 0.0025. This observation was made predominantly in mice lacking tumors and any manifestations associated with progressive disease beyond 37 weeks of life, at which time no survivors remained in the control group (P Conclusion We present unprecedented data whereby these combined micronutrients effectively promotes tumor dormancy in early prostate cancer, following initiation mutations that may drive the angiogenesis-dependent response of the tumor, by inducing platelet factor-4 expression and concentrating it at the tumor endothelium through enhanced platelet binding.

  4. GAMBARAN KONSUMSI MAKANAN DAN STATUS ANEMIA IBU HAMIL SAMPEL PENELITIAN SUMMIT (THE SUPPLEMENTATION WITH MULTIPLE MICRONUTRIENTS INTERVENTION TRIAL DI LOMBOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Prihatini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available FOOD CONSUMPTION AND ANAEMIA STATUS ON PREGNANT WOMEN SAMPLE STUDY SUMMIT  (THE SUPPLEMENTATION WITH MULTIPLE MICRONUTRIENTS INTERVENTION TRIAL IN LOMBOK.Background: Information on consumption pattern is key to the analysis of trial results suchas the SUMMIT (supplementation multiple micronutrients intervention trial as consumption modifies the outcome of intervention. It is therefore important to prove that nutrient consumption is comparable between the two groups (iron folate vs. multiple micronutrient in the SUMMIT trial.Objectives: to analyse food consumption and anemia status of pregnant women at enrolment to both groups in the SUMMIT trial.Methods: This paper analysed consumption data of 16,111 pregnant women in the SUMMIT cohort that was collected prior to supplementation. As many as 7722 of the samples belong to the iron folate (IFO group and 8389 belong to women who received multiple micronutrients. Data was collected by trained field data collector using the 1x24 hr recall method. Around the same time of the recall, data of haemoglobin level were taken with Hemocue. Nutrient consumption status was assessed using the 2004 Indonesian recommended daily allowance (RDA. Calculation of the nutrient composition was done with Nutrisoft software. The difference and relation between consumption and anemia status between the two groups were determined using Chi-square and T-test.Results: The average consumption of macronutrient and micronutrient in the samples were only around 50% of RDA. Around 80% of the samples were energy deficient and around 75% were protein deficient (<70% RDA. Hemoglobin level of those enrolled in the first trimester was 11.7 (g/dl, which was higher compared to those enrolled in the second (10.9 g/dl and third trimester (10.5g/dl. The proportion of anemic women enrolled in the first trimester was lower compared to those enrolled in the second and third trimester.Conclusions: Pregnant women in Lombok consumed macro and

  5. Objective quantification of the food proximity effect on grapes, chocolate and cracker consumption in a Swedish high school. A temporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlet, Billy; Fagerberg, Petter; Glossner, Andrew; Ioakimidis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Close food proximity leads to increased short-term energy intake, potentially contributing to the long-term development of obesity. However, its precise effects on eating behaviour are still unclear, especially with food available for extended periods of time. This study involved two similar high school student groups (15-17 years old), which had ad libitum access to grapes, chocolates and crackers during an hour-long experimental session. In the distal condition the foods were placed 6 meters away from the students (n = 24), in contrast to the proximal condition (n = 17) were the food was placed near the students. The identification of the type and the quantification of the amount of each food selected, for each individual serving, was facilitated through use of food scales and video recording. In the proximal condition individuals served themselves grapes and crackers more often and consumed more chocolate than in the distal condition. In total, participants in the proximal condition ingested significantly more energy (726 kcal vs. 504 kcal; p = 0.029), without reporting higher fullness. Food proximity also affected the temporal distribution of servings, with the first five minutes of the sessions corresponding to 53.1% and 45.6% of the total energy intake for the distal and proximal conditions, respectively. After the first five minutes, the servings in the distal condition were strongly clustered in time, with many students getting food together. In the proximal condition however, students displayed an unstructured pattern of servings over time. In conclusion, this study strengthens past evidence regarding the important role of food proximity on individual energy intake and, for the first time, it associates continuous food proximity to the emergence of unstructured eating over time. These conclusions, expanded upon by future studies, could support the creation of meaningful intervention strategies based on spatially and temporally controlled food availability.

  6. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N

    1992-01-01

    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  7. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  8. Micronutrients in pregnancy in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Mkparu, Uzonna C

    2015-03-10

    Pregnancy is one of the more important periods in life when increased micronutrients, and macronutrients are most needed by the body; both for the health and well-being of the mother and for the growing foetus and newborn child. This brief review aims to identify the micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) likely to be deficient in women of reproductive age in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC), especially during pregnancy, and the impact of such deficiencies. A global prevalence of some two billion people at risk of micronutrient deficiencies, and multiple micronutrient deficiencies of many pregnant women in LMIC underline the urgency to establishing the optimal recommendations, including for delivery. It has long been recognized that adequate iron is important for best reproductive outcomes, including gestational cognitive development. Similarly, iodine and calcium have been recognized for their roles in development of the foetus/neonate. Less clear effects of deficiencies of zinc, copper, magnesium and selenium have been reported. Folate sufficiency periconceptionally is recognized both by the practice of providing folic acid in antenatal iron/folic acid supplementation and by increasing numbers of countries fortifying flours with folic acid. Other vitamins likely to be important include vitamins B12, D and A with the water-soluble vitamins generally less likely to be a problem. Epigenetic influences and the likely influence of micronutrient deficiencies on foetal origins of adult chronic diseases are currently being clarified. Micronutrients may have other more subtle, unrecognized effects. The necessity for improved diets and health and sanitation are consistently recommended, although these are not always available to many of the world's pregnant women. Consequently, supplementation programmes, fortification of staples and condiments, and nutrition and health support need to be scaled-up, supported by social and cultural measures. Because of the life

  9. Micronutrients in Pregnancy in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Darnton-Hill

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is one of the more important periods in life when increased micronutrients, and macronutrients are most needed by the body; both for the health and well-being of the mother and for the growing foetus and newborn child. This brief review aims to identify the micronutrients (vitamins and minerals likely to be deficient in women of reproductive age in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC, especially during pregnancy, and the impact of such deficiencies. A global prevalence of some two billion people at risk of micronutrient deficiencies, and multiple micronutrient deficiencies of many pregnant women in LMIC underline the urgency to establishing the optimal recommendations, including for delivery. It has long been recognized that adequate iron is important for best reproductive outcomes, including gestational cognitive development. Similarly, iodine and calcium have been recognized for their roles in development of the foetus/neonate. Less clear effects of deficiencies of zinc, copper, magnesium and selenium have been reported. Folate sufficiency periconceptionally is recognized both by the practice of providing folic acid in antenatal iron/folic acid supplementation and by increasing numbers of countries fortifying flours with folic acid. Other vitamins likely to be important include vitamins B12, D and A with the water-soluble vitamins generally less likely to be a problem. Epigenetic influences and the likely influence of micronutrient deficiencies on foetal origins of adult chronic diseases are currently being clarified. Micronutrients may have other more subtle, unrecognized effects. The necessity for improved diets and health and sanitation are consistently recommended, although these are not always available to many of the world’s pregnant women. Consequently, supplementation programmes, fortification of staples and condiments, and nutrition and health support need to be scaled-up, supported by social and cultural measures

  10. [Micronutrients supplementation in women with hypertensive states in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa Parra, José Antonio; Garduño-Alanís, Adriana; Meneses-Calderón, José; Rueda-Villalpando, José Pablo; Salinas-Ramírez, Vicente; Herrera Villalobos, Javier Edmundo

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy presents a large number of metabolic adaptations and requirements of micro and macronutrients could be increased, which are not always covered by the diet making necessary to supplement some of them. The micronutrients are an important part of metabolic reactions and both; their deficiency as their excess could participate in damage to organs and tissues of the mother and the fetus. Actually the hypertension pregnant states (HPS) participate in the leading causes of death during pregnancy, making necessary the search for interventions to prevent or reduce the consequences.The oxidative stress levels are linked with the risk to develop HPS, which has created assumptions about the use of micronutrients with antioxidant power and its possible role as protectors in these pathologies, however, the information is still uncertain and the metabolic action of the use of micronutrients supplementation is not precisely known because some micronutrients have shown a protective effect on the development of HPS. It is necessary to evaluate the nutritional status before and during pregnancy, as well to realize more studies about it and strengthen public policies about the use of micronutrients during the pregnancy.

  11. Global burden of maternal and child undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hossain, Muttaquina; Sanin, Kazi Istiaque

    2012-01-01

    Maternal and child undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies affect approximately half of the world's population. These conditions include intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), low birth weight, protein-energy malnutrition, chronic energy deficit of women, and micronutrient deficiencies. Although the rates of stunting or chronic protein-energy malnutrition are increasing in Africa, the absolute numbers of stunted children are much higher in Asia. The four common micronutrient deficiencies include those of iron, iodine, vitamin A, and zinc. All these conditions are responsible directly or indirectly for more than 50% of all under-5 deaths globally. According to more recent estimates, IUGR, stunting and severe wasting are responsible for one third of under-5 mortality. About 12% of deaths among under-5 children are attributed to the deficiency of the four common micronutrients. Despite tremendous progress in different disciplines and unprecedented improvement with many health indicators, persistently high undernutrition rates are a shame to the society. Human development is not possible without taking care to control undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Poverty, food insecurity, ignorance, lack of appropriate infant and young child feeding practices, heavy burden of infectious illnesses, and poor hygiene and sanitation are factors responsible for the high levels of maternal and child undernutrition in developing countries. These factors can be controlled or removed by scaling up direct nutrition interventions and eliminating the root conditions including female illiteracy, lack of livelihoods, lack of women's empowerment, and poor hygiene and sanitation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; Hansen, Tue H; Allin, Kristine H; Hoppe, Camilla; Fagt, Sisse; Lausten, Mia S; Gøbel, Rikke J; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2015-10-30

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients was assessed and subsequently compared to an age-range-matched group of 1,257 omnivorous individuals from the general Danish population. Moreover, the vegan dietary and supplementary intake was compared to the 2012 Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Dietary intake differed significantly between vegans and the general Danish population in all measured macro- and micronutrients (p vegans the intake of macro- and micronutrients (including supplements) did not reach the NNR for protein, vitamin D, iodine and selenium. Among vegan women vitamin A intake also failed to reach the recommendations. With reference to the NNR, the dietary content of added sugar, sodium and fatty acids, including the ratio of PUFA to SFA, was more favorable among vegans. At the macronutrient level, the diet of Danish vegans is in better accordance with the NNR than the diet of the general Danish population. At the micronutrient level, considering both diet and supplements, the vegan diet falls short in certain nutrients, suggesting a need for greater attention toward ensuring recommended daily intake of specific vitamins and minerals.

  13. Сomparison of the quality micronutrient compound of recommended daily intakes and the second type diabetes patients’ diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kozonova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of the micronutrient diet compositions of the patients with type II diabetes and healthy people were held. It was found that in a diet it is necessary to enrich the following micronutrients: B vitamins, biotin, vitamin A, E, D, C, minerals magnesium, zinc, calcium, selenium, manganese, chromium, sulfur. At the same time, it is necessary to reduce the content of sodium, iron and fluoride. You can find the recommendations for the creation of software for the development of individual diets for the prevention and treatment of diabetes type II. In addition to these selected criteria (Micronutrient it is recommended to enter the following: the total number of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, as well as the minimum content of omega-3 fatty acids, and the maximum content of simple carbohydrates and starch. The analysis of the chia seeds chemical composition on the content of diabet essential micronutrients were held. It is shown that the use of chia seeds in products for the prevention and treatment of diabetes is extremely important.

  14. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  15. Transformations through Proximity Flying: A Phenomenological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmbom, Maria; Brymer, Eric; Schweitzer, Robert D.

    2017-01-01

    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants’ perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity. PMID:29104552

  16. Micronutrients - a global perspective on intake, health benefits and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Birgit; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2012-10-01

    The link between a sufficient intake of vitamins and long term health, cognition, healthy development and aging is increasingly supported by experimental animal, human and epidemiology studies. In low income countries billions of people still suffer from the burden of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. However, inadequate micronutrient status might also be an issue in industrialized countries. Recent results from nutritional surveys in countries like the United States, Germany, and Great Britain indicate that the recommended intake of micronutrients is not reached. This notably concerns certain vulnerable population groups, such as pregnant women, young children and the elderly, but also greatly influences the general healthcare costs. An overview is provided on the gap that exists between current vitamin intakes and requirements, even in countries where diverse foods are plentiful. Folic acid and vitamin D intake and status are evaluated in more detail, providing insight on health and potential impact on health care systems.

  17. Role of micronutrients in skin health and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyungho

    2015-05-01

    Skin is the first line of defense for protecting our bodies against external perturbations, including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, mechanical/chemical stress, and bacterial infection. Nutrition is one of many factors required for the maintenance of overall skin health. An impaired nutritional status alters the structural integrity and biological function of skin, resulting in an abnormal skin barrier. In particular, the importance of micronutrients (such as certain vitamins and minerals) for skin health has been highlighted in cell culture, animal, and clinical studies. These micronutrients are employed not only as active compounds in therapeutic agents for treating certain skin diseases, but also as ingredients in cosmetic products. Here, the author describes the barrier function of the skin and the general nutritional requirements for skin health. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential roles and current knowledge of selected micronutrients in skin health and function.

  18. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  19. Proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  20. Antioxidant Activities, Metabolic Profiling, Proximate Analysis, Mineral Nutrient Composition of Salvadora persica Fruit Unravel a Potential Functional Food and a Natural Source of Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Asha; Parida, Asish K; Rangani, Jaykumar; Panda, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Salvadora persica is a medicinally important plant mainly used in oral hygiene. However, little attention has been given towards the nutritional prominence of this plant. This study encloses the proximate and mineral nutrient contents, amino acid composition, metabolite profiling and antioxidant potential of S. persica fruit. The ripen fruit contained substantial amount of sugars, mineral nutrients, carotenoids, polyphenols and flavonoids. The metabolic profiling of the fruit extract by GC-MS revealed a total of 22 metabolites comprising of sugars, sugar alcohols, organic acids, organic base, and aromatic silica compound. The identified metabolites have been previously reported to have potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-hyperglycemic, and antitumor properties. The GC-MS analysis indicated high glucose and glucopyranose (247.62 and 42.90 mg g(-1) FW respectively) contents in fruit of S. persica. The fruit extract demonstrated a significantly higher antioxidant and ROS scavenging properties along with high contents of mineral nutrients and essential amino acids. HPLC analysis revealed presence of essential and non-essential amino acid required for healthy body metabolism. The cysteine was found to be in highest amount (733.69 mg 100 g(-1) DW) among all amino acids quantified. Specifically, compared to similar medicinal plants, previously reported as a source of non-conventional food and with some of the commercially important fruits, S. persica fruit appears to be a potential source of essential mineral nutrients, amino acids, vitamins (ascorbic acid and carotenoid) and pharmaceutically important metabolites contributing towards fulfilling the recommended daily requirement of these for a healthy human being. This is the first report establishing importance of S. persica fruit as nutraceuticals. The data presented here proposed that fruit of S. persica may be used as functional food or reinvigorating ingredient for processed food to reduce deficiency of

  1. Upper Thoracic versus Lower Thoracic as Site of Upper Instrumented Vertebrae for Long Fusion Surgery in Adult Spinal Deformity: A Meta-Analysis of Proximal Junctional Kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Pu; Wang, Wengang; Shen, Mingkui; Xu, Genzhong; Xia, Lei

    2017-06-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to compare incidence rates of radiographic and surgical proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) between upper thoracic (UT) and lower thoracic (LT) vertebrae as site of upper instrumented vertebrae (UIV) endpoints for long fusion surgery in adult spinal deformity (ASD). MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for English-language articles that addressed UT versus LT fixation strategies. The division of the UT and LT groups was based on UIV. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data on incidence rates of radiographic and surgical PJK were extracted from the included studies. RevMan 5.3 was used for data pooling and analysis. Ten retrospective studies comprising 1230 patients were included. Pooled data on radiographic PJK were available in 9 studies comprising 1032 patients, and total radiographic PJK rate was 32.2%. Pooled data on surgical PJK were available in 6 studies comprising 732 patients, and total surgical PJK rate was 6.7%. Decreased radiographic PJK (95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.85; P = 0.002; I2 = 48%) and surgical PJK (95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.76; P = 0.007; I2 = 22%) were found in the UT group. Radiographic PJK is a very common complication of long fusion surgery in adult spinal deformity with an incidence rate of 32.2%. Surgical PJK has an incidence rate of 6.7% and should be seriously considered. The pooled results indicate that choosing UT vertebrae as the site of UIV could decrease the incidence rates of radiographic and surgical PJK. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multidimensional single-cell analysis of BCR signaling reveals proximal activation defect as a hallmark of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lia Palomba

    Full Text Available Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL is defined by a perturbed B-cell receptor-mediated signaling machinery. We aimed to model differential signaling behavior between B cells from CLL and healthy individuals to pinpoint modes of dysregulation.We developed an experimental methodology combining immunophenotyping, multiplexed phosphospecific flow cytometry, and multifactorial statistical modeling. Utilizing patterns of signaling network covariance, we modeled BCR signaling in 67 CLL patients using Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR. Results from multidimensional modeling were validated using an independent test cohort of 38 patients.We identified a dynamic and variable imbalance between proximal (pSYK, pBTK and distal (pPLCγ2, pBLNK, ppERK phosphoresponses. PLSR identified the relationship between upstream tyrosine kinase SYK and its target, PLCγ2, as maximally predictive and sufficient to distinguish CLL from healthy samples, pointing to this juncture in the signaling pathway as a hallmark of CLL B cells. Specific BCR pathway signaling signatures that correlate with the disease and its degree of aggressiveness were identified. Heterogeneity in the PLSR response variable within the B cell population is both a characteristic mark of healthy samples and predictive of disease aggressiveness.Single-cell multidimensional analysis of BCR signaling permitted focused analysis of the variability and heterogeneity of signaling behavior from patient-to-patient, and from cell-to-cell. Disruption of the pSYK/pPLCγ2 relationship is uncovered as a robust hallmark of CLL B cell signaling behavior. Together, these observations implicate novel elements of the BCR signal transduction as potential therapeutic targets.

  3. Micronutrient concentrations in respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus in Yemeni children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Sonboli, N.; Al-Aghbari, N.; Al-Aryani, A.; Atef, Z.; Brabin, B.; Shenkin, A.; Roberts, E.; Harper, G.; Hart, C. A.; Cuevas, L. E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) cause significant childhood mortality. Nutritional homeostasis, particularly micronutrient levels, is important in modulating response to infection. More information is required regarding micronutrient levels in ARI viral infections, especially newly

  4. Evaluation of dietary diversity scores for assessment of micronutrient intake and food security in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition and food insecurity are widespread global public health problems. Micronutrient deficiencies affect one-third of the global population. Household food insecurity, often results in monotonous diets, a contributing factor to malnutrition. Consuming a varied diet comprised of

  5. Micronutrient status and global DNA methylation in school-age children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perng, Wei; Rozek, Laura S; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Duchin, Ofra; Marin, Constanza; Forero, Yibby; Baylin, Ana; Villamor, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    .... Micronutrients including methyl-donors and retinoids are involved in DNA methylation pathways. We investigated associations of micronutrient status and LINE-1 methylation in a cross-sectional study of school-age children from Bogotá, Colombia...

  6. EURRECA: development of tools to improve the alignment of micronutrient recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthys, C.; Bucchini, L.; Busstra, M.C.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Eleftheriou, P.; Garcia-Alvarez, A.; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Gurinovic, M.; Ommen, van B.; Contor, L.

    2010-01-01

    Approaches through which reference values for micronutrients are derived, as well as the reference values themselves, vary considerably across countries. Harmonisation is needed to improve nutrition policy and public health strategies. The EURRECA (EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned,

  7. Bioavailability of micronutrients: stable isotope techniques to develop effective food-based strategies to combat micronutrient deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Lena; Haskell, Marjorie

    2011-03-01

    The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies, in particular those of iron, vitamin A, iodine, and zinc, is unacceptably high, especially among infants, children, and women of childbearing age in developing countries. Effective food-based strategies to combat these public health problems are therefore urgently needed. As only a fraction of dietary iron, zinc, and provitamin A carotenoids is absorbed and utilized, i.e., bioavailable, access to information on micronutrient bioavailability is crucial in the development of food fortification strategies and interventions based on dietary diversification. Review of literature. This overview highlights the usefulness of stable isotope techniques to assess the bioavailability of nonheme iron and provitamin A carotenoids and the importance of generating data on micronutrient bioavailability to move the agenda forward.

  8. High dose multiple micronutrient supplementation improves villous morphology in environmental enteropathy without HIV enteropathy: results from a double-blind randomised placebo controlled trial in Zambian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis-Auguste, John; Greenwald, Stephen; Simuyandi, Michelo; Soko, Rose; Banda, Rose; Kelly, Paul

    2014-01-15

    Environmental enteropathy (EE) is an asymptomatic abnormality of small bowel structure and function, which may underlie vaccine inefficacy in the developing world. HIV infection co-exists in many of these populations. There is currently no effective treatment. We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial of high dose multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation on small bowel architecture in EE in participants with or without HIV infection. In a double-blind parallel-group trial of the effect of MM on innate immune responses to oral vaccines, consenting Zambian adults were randomised to receive 6 weeks of 24 micronutrients as a daily capsule or placebo. HIV status was established after randomisation. Proximal jejunal biopsies were obtained after the supplementation period. Villous height, crypt depth, villous width, villous perimeter per 100 μm muscularis mucosa (a measure of epithelial surface area), and villous cross sectional area per 100 μm muscularis mucosa (a measure of villous compartment volume) were measured in orientated biopsy sections using semi-automated image analysis. Analysis was by intention to treat. 18 patients received MM and 20 placebo. 6/18 MM and 9/20 placebo patients had HIV. In HIV negative patients given MM compared to placebo, mean villous height was 24.0% greater (293.3 v. 236.6 μm; 95% CI of difference 17.7-95.9 μm; P = 0.006), mean villous area was 27.6% greater (27623 v. 21650 μm2/100 μm; 95% CI of difference 818-11130 μm2/100 μm; P = 0.03), and median villous perimeter was 29.7% greater (355.0 v. 273.7 μm/100 μm; 95% CI of difference 16.3-146.2 μm/100 μm; P = 0.003). There was no significant effect on crypt depth or villous width. No effect was observed in HIV positive patients. There were no adverse events attributable to MM. MM improved small bowel villous height and absorptive area, but not crypt depth, in adults with EE without HIV. Nutritional intervention may therefore selectively influence

  9. Species-specific associations between soil-transmitted helminths and micronutrients in Vietnamese schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Nga, Tran Thuy; Winichagoon, Pattanee

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and micronutrient deficiencies are closely related and often coexist among low-income populations. We studied the association between infections with specific STH species and micronutrient status in rural Vietnamese schoolchildren. Children (N = 510) age...... and micronutrient status in children. The different life cycles of STH species might have specific effects on the absorption or loss of specific micronutrients. Tailor-made combinations of deworming and nutritional interventions may be needed to improve child health and nutrition....

  10. URINARY LOSS OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS ATTENDING A TERTIARY HOSPITAL SERVICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Santos, Andressa Feijó; Souza Santos, Roberta Deh; Foss-Freitas, Maria Cristina; Carvalho da Cunha, Selma Freire; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio; Marques Miguel Suen, Vivian

    2015-08-01

    micronutrient deficiency may contribute to a poorer control of diabetes. Thus, the objective of the present study was to assess the urinary excretion of micronutrients in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. patients with diabetes and controls were assessed regarding food intake, anthropometry, urinary loss of micronutrients and compared by the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test (p micronutrient excretion in urine when compared to controls. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid and sensitive screening of some acidic micronutrients in infant foods by HPLC with fluorescent detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Kong, Weiheng; Fan, Guangsen; Wang, Wenli; Hu, Na; Chen, Guang; Zhao, Xianen; You, Jinmao

    2016-06-01

    Currently, commercially prepared complementary foods have become an important part of the diet of many infants and toddlers. But the method for simultaneous analysis of different types of micronutrient remains poorly investigated, which hinders the rapid and comprehensive quality control of infant foods. In the presented study, we first tried to employ the fluorescence labeling strategy combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection for simultaneous determination of some acidic micronutrients including biotin, nicotinic acid, linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid and linoleic acid in infant foods. 2-(5-Benzoacridine) ethyl-p-toluenesulfonate was used as the fluorescence labeling reagent for simultaneous labeling of the seven components. The labeling conditions were optimized systematically by response surface methodology. The correlation coefficients for the calibration curves of the tested compounds ranged from 0.9991 to 0.9998. Limits of detection were in the range of 1.99-3.05 nmol L(-1) . Relative standard deviation values of retention time and peak area of seven compounds were less than 0.05% and 0.75%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was in the range of 1.81-3.80% and 3.21-4.30%, respectively. When applied to analysis of several infant foods it showed good applicability. The developed method has been proven to be simple, inexpensive, selective, sensitive, accurate and reliable for analysis of some acidic micronutrients in infant foodstuffs. Furthermore, this developed method also has powerful potential in the analysis of many other complementary foodstuffs. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Combating Human Micronutrient Deficiencies through Soil Management Practices that Enhance Bioavailability of Nutrients to Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition affects the health and well being of 3 billion people globally. Identifying means to improve the micronutrient density in the edible portions of crops is an important way to combat nutrient deficiencies. By studying how plants obtain micronutrients from the soil, we can develop methods to enhance uptake. Although more…

  13. Modifiers of the effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on stillbirth, birth outcomes, and infant mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Emily R; Shankar, Anuraj H; Wu, Lee S-F

    2017-01-01

    . Multiple micronutrient supplements also had a greater effect on preterm births among underweight pregnant women (BMI ... to multiple micronutrient supplements also provided greater overall benefits. Studies should now aim to elucidate the mechanisms accounting for differences in the effect of antenatal multiple micronutrient supplements on infant health by maternal nutrition status and sex. FUNDING: None....

  14. Evaluation of energy expenditure in adult spring Chinook salmon migrating upstream in the Columbia River Basin: an assessment based on sequential proximate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, M.G.; Magie, C.D.

    2006-01-01

    The upstream migration of adult anadromous salmonids in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) has been dramatically altered and fish may be experiencing energetically costly delays at dams. To explore this notion, we estimated the energetic costs of migration and reproduction of Yakima River-bound spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha using a sequential analysis of their proximate composition (i.e., percent water, fat, protein, and ash). Tissues (muscle, viscera, and gonad) were sampled from fish near the start of their migration (Bonneville Dam), at a mid point (Roza Dam, 510 km upstream from Bonneville Dam) and from fresh carcasses on the spawning grounds (about 100 km above Roza Dam). At Bonneville Dam, the energy reserves of these fish were remarkably high, primarily due to the high percentage of fat in the muscle (18-20%; energy content over 11 kJ g-1). The median travel time for fish from Bonneville to Roza Dam was 27 d and ranged from 18 to 42 d. Fish lost from 6 to 17% of their energy density in muscle, depending on travel time. On average, fish taking a relatively long time for migration between dams used from 5 to 8% more energy from the muscle than faster fish. From the time they passed Bonneville Dam to death, these fish, depending on gender, used 95-99% of their muscle and 73-86% of their viscera lipid stores. Also, both sexes used about 32% of their muscular and very little of their visceral protein stores. However, we were unable to relate energy use and reproductive success to migration history. Our results suggest a possible influence of the CRB hydroelectric system on adult salmonid energetics.

  15. What Is the Association Between Sports Participation and the Development of Proximal Femoral Cam Deformity? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepple, Jeffrey J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Clohisy, John C

    2015-11-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is recognized as a common cause of hip pain and intra-articular disorders in athletes. Studies have suggested a link between participation in athletics during adolescence and the development of cam-type deformities of the proximal femoral head-neck junction. To investigate the association of sporting activity participation during adolescence and the development of cam deformity. Systematic review. The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched to identify potential studies. Abstracts and manuscripts (when applicable) were independently reviewed by 2 reviewers. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, including 8 studies that compared the prevalence of cam deformity in athletes with that in controls and 3 studies that compared the prevalence of cam deformity before and after physeal closure (2 with both). A meta-analysis was performed with pooling of data and random-effects modeling to compare rates of cam deformity between athletes and controls. High-level male athletes are 1.9 to 8.0 times more likely to develop a cam deformity than are male controls. The pooled prevalence rate (by hip) of cam deformity in male athletes was 41%, compared with 17% for male controls. The pooled mean alpha angle among male athletes was 61°, compared with 51° for male controls. Males participating in specific high-level impact sports (hockey, basketball, and possibly soccer) are at an increased risk of physeal abnormalities of the anterosuperior head-neck junction that result in a cam deformity at skeletal maturity. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Extractable Micronutrients Status and Their Relationship with Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in some inland valley soils of Delta State, Nigeria. The aim was to evaluate the status of extractable plant micronutrients of Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), and Copper (Cu), and their relationship with some soil properties using 0.1 N dilute HCl and. DTPA solutions. Four mapping units ...

  17. Measuring micronutrient intakes at different levels of sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring micronutrient intakes at different levels of sugar consumption in a population in transition: the Transition and Health during Urbanisation in South Africa (THUSA) ... Respondents who consumed the most added sugar had significantly lower mean intakes of alcohol, but higher intakes of energy, macronutrients

  18. The role of some micronutrients (eldervit) in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONTEXT: Anaemia continues to be a leading contributor to adverse reproductive outcomes in the developing countries. Although, the commonest cause of anaemia in pregnancy is iron deficiency, the enormous contributions of other micronutrients have been underestimated. As a result, the need to identify relevant ...

  19. Evaluation and delivery of disease-resistant and micronutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Evaluation and delivery of disease-resistant and micronutrient- dense sweetpotato varieties to farmers in Uganda. G. Ssemakula1, C. Niringiye1, M. Otema1, G. Kyalo2, J. Namakula1 and R.O.M. Mwanga2. 1National Crops Resources Research Institute, P. O. Box 7084, Kampala, Uganda. 2International Potato Center (CIP), ...

  20. Effect of fruiting on micronutrients, antinutrients and toxic substances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    of T. occidentalis at vegetative phase (market maturity) reduces the levels of most of the plant toxins and still retain most of the ... Key words: Telfairia occidentalis, anti-nutrients, toxic substances, micronutrients, market maturity and fruiting, soil nitrogen levels. ..... nitrate in baby food: Collaborative study. J. AOAC Int., 77(2): ...

  1. Awareness of healthcare professionals on micronutrients use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The understanding of healthcare professionals (HCP) of these benefits appears limited. This study therefore examined Healthcare professionals in Ibadan to ascertain their awareness of the use micronutrients in disease prevention and physical activity. A descriptive survey design was used for the study; 130 randomly ...

  2. The gastric sleeve: losing weight as fast as micronutrients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.O.; Janssen, I.M.; Berends, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become popular as a single-stage procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity and its co-morbidities. However, the incidence of micronutrient deficiencies after LSG have hardly been researched. METHODS: From January 2005 to October

  3. Micronutrient Profile Of Children And Women In Rural Bangladesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women whose husbands had a lower status of job were less likely to receive vitamin A dose and iron supplements. The other main contributing factors likely to affect micronutrients intake among women were mass media, mother's age at last birth, mother's and husband's education and husband occupation. Conclusions: ...

  4. Changes of micronutrients, dry weight and plant development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of salt stress on the growth, dry weights and micronutrient contents of canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars grown in greenhouse conditions. 12 canola cultivars (Marinca, Kosa, Spok, Semu DNK207 NA, Tower, Liraspa, Star, Tobin, Helios, Semu 209/81, Regent and Lirawell) ...

  5. Micronutrients, Essential Fatty Acids and Bone Health in Phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirdas, Serwet; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Hollak, Carla E. M.; van der Lee, Hanneke J. H.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Vaz, Fred M; ter Horst, Nienke M.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela; Bosch, Annet M.

    Introduction: In phenylketonuria (PKU), a natural protein-restricted dietary treatment prevents severe cognitive impairment. Nutrient deficiencies may occur due to strict diet. This study is aimed at evaluating the dietary intake and blood concentrations of micronutrients and essential fatty acids

  6. ABOVE GROUND BIOMASS MICRONUTRIENTS IN A SEASONAL SUBTROPICAL FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Luiz Munari Vogel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the above ground biomass of a native forest or plantation are stored large quantities of nutrients, with few studies in the literature, especially concerning micronutrients. The present work aimed to quantify the micronutrients in above ground biomass in a Seasonal Subtropical forest in Itaara-RS, Brazil. For the above ground biomass evaluation, 20 trees of five different diameter classes were felled. The above ground biomass was separated in the following compartments: stem wood, stem bark, branches and leaves. The contents of B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in the biomass samples were determined. The stock of micronutrients in the biomass for each component was obtained based on the estimated dry biomass, multiplied by the nutrient content. The total production of above ground biomass was estimated at 210.0 Mg.ha-1. The branches, stem wood, stem bark and leaves corresponded to 48.8, 43.3, 5.4 and 2.4% of the above ground biomass. The lower levels of B, Cu, Fe and Mn are in stem wood, except for Zn; in the branches and trunk wood are the largest stocks of B, Cu, Fe and Mn. In the branches, leaves and trunk bark are stored most micronutrients, pointing to the importance of these to remain on the soil.

  7. Potential role of street foods as micronutrients source among low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although more than 40% of Nairobi's lower-income groups consume street foods, there is paucity of information available for urban policy makers and programmers on the potential contribution of street foods to micronutrient intake. A cross-sectional survey and a non-repetitive 24-hour dietary recall were employed to ...

  8. Variability of micronutrient content in enriched dairy and fruit products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de N.; Adam, S.G.N.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Graaf, de C.

    2000-01-01

    Accurate measures of micronutrient levels in newly developed enriched foods are indispensable for valid labelling, for determination of ultimate levels for possible claimed health effects and for safety. To date, only a limited amount of public literature is available on the reproducibility of

  9. Nutrition education to improve dietary intake and micronutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition education to improve dietary intake and micronutrient nutriture among children in less-resourced areas: a randomised controlled intervention in Kabarole district, western ... Results: Caregivers in the intervention group reported improved child snacking patterns, food-selection practices, meal adequacy, and food

  10. Micronutrient availability from steel slag amendment in peatmoss substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to determine the suitability of a steel slag product for supplying micronutrients to container-grown floriculture crops. Geranium (Pelargonium xhortorum 'Maverick Red') and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon 'Megabite') were grown in 11.4 cm containers with a substrate ...

  11. Status of micronutrient nutrition in Zimbabwe: A review | Gadaga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    malnutrition including vitamin and mineral malnutrition. This paper constitutes a review of the micronutrient malnutrition status of the Zimbabwean population, focusing on the period from 1980 to 2006, using data from nutrition surveys, the demographic health surveys, sentinel surveillance and monitoring programmes. Data

  12. Do multiple micronutrient interventions improve child health, growth, and development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Goldenberg, Tamar; Allen, Lindsay H

    2011-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are common and often co-occur in many developing countries. Several studies have examined the benefits of providing multiple micronutrient (MMN) interventions during pregnancy and childhood, but the implications for programs remain unclear. The key objective of this review is to summarize what is known about the efficacy of MMN interventions during early childhood on functional outcomes, namely, child health, survival, growth, and development, to guide policy and identify gaps for future research. We identified review articles including meta-analyses and intervention studies that evaluated the benefits of MMN interventions (3 or more micronutrients) in children (child morbidity, anemia, and growth. Two studies found no effects on child mortality. The findings for respiratory illness and diarrhea are mixed, although suggestive of benefit when provided as fortified foods. There is evidence from several controlled trials (>25) and 2 meta-analyses that MMN interventions improve hemoglobin concentrations and reduce anemia, but the effects were small compared to providing only iron or iron with folic acid. Two recent meta-analyses and several intervention trials also indicated that MMN interventions improve linear growth compared to providing a placebo or single nutrients. Much less is known about the effects on MMN interventions during early childhood on motor and mental development. In summary, MMN interventions may result in improved outcomes for children in settings where micronutrient deficiencies are widespread.

  13. Influence of mango mesocarp flour supplement to micronutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mango mesocarp flour was incorporated into wheat flour at 15, 20 and 30% levels to evaluate its micronutrients contribution and effect on the physical and organoleptic attributes of wheat-based bread. A control (100% wheat flour) was used for comparison. Proteins in wheat, mango and composite flours were found to be ...

  14. Adequacy of micronutrient content of south eastern Nigerian meals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequacy of micronutrient content of south eastern Nigerian meals in meeting the nutritional needs of vulnerable groups. ... Portion sizes of meals consumed by these vulnerable groups were obtained during an interview and validated using data obtained from food consumption surveys. The amount of Zn and Fe in such ...

  15. MICRONUTRIENTS AND BIOMASS IN Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden STAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasiele Dick

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The expansion of silviculture in Brazil, and the consequent intensive practices for soil preparation with high demand for fertilizers require sustainable nutrient management of forest sites. The objective of this study was to quantify the biomass and the micronutrient stocks of a 60-month-old Eucalyptus dunnii stand established in Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul. The stand was established in a Rhodic Paleudult soil with low fertility and texture varying between sandy loam and sandy-clay loam. For the sampling of stand biomass, twelve trees were harvested, sectioned at ground level, and subsequently fractionated into the components roots, leaves, branches, stembark and stemwood to determine the dry mass and micronutrient content. The total biomass of the stand was 67.49 Mg ha-1, with mass allocation in descending order from: stem wood > root > bark > branches > leaves. Total micronutrient stocks for boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn were 562.57, 401.46, 9913.28, 31877.82, and 766.96 g ha-1, respectively. In addition, we found greater accumulation of Zn in the wood, high Mn accumulation especially in the bark, and high Fe content in the roots. Therefore, based on these micronutrient levels and their allocation between biomass fractions, we emphasize that the practice of retaining forest residues on-site after harvest is essential for forest nutrition through nutrient cycling and for soil conservation and fertility.

  16. Socioeconomic differences in micronutrient intake and status in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, R.N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate micronutrient intake and status of socioeconomic disadvantaged populations, such as from Central and Eastern European (CEE) as compared to other European populations, and low socioeconomic status (SES) groups as compared to high SES groups within European

  17. Micronutrients as therapeutic tools in the management of sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Global use of micronutrients in health care delivery has taken center stage due to the realization of their importance in disease management. Sickle cell disease, malaria and diabetes are among the diseases plaguing a good population of the developing world and the cost implication for their management is very high.

  18. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Micronutrients, Antinutrients and Toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pot experiments were conducted to study the effect of soil nitrogen levels on the antinutrient (oxalate), toxic substances (cyanide and nitrate) and some micronutrients (vitamin C, â-carotene) and mineral elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe,and Cu) in Vernonia amygdalina. Leaves of the vegetable were harvested at market ...

  19. Changes in micronutrients, dry weight and plant growth of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micronutrient contents (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) of leaves, stems and roots were also analyzed. Salinity stress negatively affected soybean cultivars and the extent of effects varied depending on the salt tolerance of the cultivars. Generally, salinity reduced the plant growth and dry weights. Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations were ...

  20. Nutritional, immune, micronutrient and health status of HIV-infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight per cent of children had features of TB, while 19% had a lower respiratory tract infection. The median viral load of the group ... Conclusion: A high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies occurred among HIV-infected children residing in care centres. The study highlights the need to ...

  1. Mineral micronutrient density in local cereals sampled from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cereals constitute a food staple in the African bread (Ugali) form. Overdependence on maize as a predominant staple is partly blamed on the constricting indigenous cereal phyto-diversity. Strategies rekindling interest in their restoration remain few and disconnected. Thus, the objectives were to: (1) search for micronutrient ...

  2. A network biology model of micronutrient related health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Freidig, A.; Kardinaal, A.; Scalbert, A.; Wopereis, S.

    2008-01-01

    Micronutrients are involved in specific biochemical pathways and have dedicated functions in the body, but they are also interconnected in complex metabolic networks, such as oxidative-reductive and inflammatory pathways and hormonal regulation, in which the overarching function is to optimise

  3. Levels of micronutrients and heavy metals in cord blood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The basis of the impact of HAP on maternal and fetal health was assessed by determining the levels of teratogenic heavy metals [Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg)] and micronutrients associated with DNA methylation [Zinc (Zn), Iodine (I), vitamins B6 and B12, folic acid and homocysteine] in cord blood of babies and maternal blood ...

  4. Changes in micronutrients, dry weight and plant growth of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... ions and by disturbing the uptake of essential nutrients. (Laüchli and Epstein ... plants. It was declared that the micronutrients are gene- rally less affected by salt stress compared with macronutrients (El Fouly and Salama, 1999; Hu and. Schmidhalter ..... mycorrhizal fungi, J. Plant Physiol. 164: 1144-1151.

  5. Changes of micronutrients, dry weight and plant development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... This study was carried out to determine the effects of salt stress on the growth, dry weights and micronutrient contents of canola ... cultivars. Generally, salinity reduced the plant growth and dry weights. Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn ..... salinity had no effect on Mn content of the root and aerial part of strawberry (Turhan.

  6. Parental Health Beliefs, Socio-demographics, and Healthcare Recommendations Influence Micronutrient Supplementation in Youth with Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michelle R; Alzaben, Abeer S; Enns, Simone E; Marcon, Margaret A; Turner, Justine; Mager, Diana R

    2016-03-01

    To identify parental influences affecting micronutrient supplementation in children and adolescents (2-18 years of age) with Celiac Disease (CD), a multi-method (survey, focus groups) study was conducted. A 35-item questionnaire consisting of open- and closed-ended questions was launched nationally via Canadian Celiac Association internet sites. Five focus groups were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. The survey and semi-structured interview guide content was vetted for face and content validity. Thematic analyses were conducted on the focus group content and open-ended survey questions, and χ(2) and Fischer's exact analysis were performed on closed-ended survey data. Survey respondents were predominantly mothers (97%) of female children (80 F, 49 M) between the ages of 9-12 (31%) with CD, residing in western provinces (55%) with a combined family income ≥$100 000/year (63%). Seventy-seven percent of parental respondent's children or adolescents consumed micronutrient supplements, for 1-5 years (52%), 7 days a week (65%), as both multi-vitamin and single vitamin preparations (40%). Parental influences on child micronutrient use included health beliefs and knowledge, parental supplement use, supplement characteristics, age of child (above or below 13 years), household routines, and provincial residential status (P < 0.05). Parents relied on health professional recommendation (69%; MD, RD) and the internet (21%) as sources of information regarding child micronutrient supplementation. Parental health beliefs and knowledge, socio-demographic factors, and practitioner recommendation influence micronutrient supplement use in children and adolescents with CD.

  7. Effect of a mixture of micronutrients, but not of bovine colostrum concentrate, on immune function parameters in healthy volunteers: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wielen Reggy PJ

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supplementation of nutritional deficiencies helps to improve immune function and resistance to infections in malnourished subjects. However, the suggested benefits of dietary supplementation for immune function in healthy well nourished subjects is less clear. Among the food constituents frequently associated with beneficial effects on immune function are micronutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene and zinc, and colostrum. This study was designed to investigate the effects these ingredients on immune function markers in healthy volunteers. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, parallel, 2*2, placebo-controlled intervention study one hundred thirty-eight healthy volunteers aged 40–80 y (average 57 ± 10 y received one of the following treatments: (1 bovine colostrum concentrate 1.2 g/d (equivalent to ~500 mg/d immunoglobulins, (2 micronutrient mix of 288 mg vitamin E, 375 mg vitamin C, 12 mg β-carotene and 15 mg zinc/day, (3 combination of colostrum and micronutrient mix, or (4 placebo. Several immune function parameters were assessed after 6 and 10 weeks. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Groups were combined to test micronutrient treatment versus no micronutrient treatment, and colostrum treatment versus no colostrum treatment. Results Overall, consumption of the micronutrient mix significantly enhanced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH responses (p Conclusion Consumption of bovine colostrum had no effect on any of the immune parameters assessed. The micronutrient mix enhanced cellular immunity as measured by DTH, with an increased effect by incremental age, but did not affect any of the other immune parameters measured. Although correlations between decreased DTH and enhanced risk of certain infection have been reported, it remains unclear whether and enhanced DTH response actually improves immune defense. The present data suggests that improvement of immune parameters in a population with a

  8. Comparison of transverse island flap onlay and tubularized incised-plate urethroplasties for primary proximal hypospadias: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Xiao

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This meta-analysis was conducted to compare postoperative outcomes between transverse island flap (TVIF onlay and tubularized incised-plate (TIP urethroplasties for primary proximal hypospadias. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature search updated to 21st May 2014 was carried out for relevant studies. After literature identification and data extraction, odds ratio (OR with 95% confidential interval (CI was calculated to compare postoperative complication rate between TVIF onlay and TIP. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were applied to find potential affective factors. RESULTS: A total of 6 studies including 309 patients receiving TVIF onlay and 262 individuals subjected to TIP met inclusion criteria. The synthetic data suggested that TVIF onlay and TIP were comparable in terms of total complication rate (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.56-1.30, p = 0.461, fistula (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.38-1.21, p = 0.194, recurrent curvature (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.43-3.12, p = 0.766, dehiscence (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.33-2.74, p = 0.920, diverticulum (OR 1.90, 95% CI 0.53-6.78, p = 0.321, meatal stenosis (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.20-2.77, p = 0.651 and urethral stricture (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.41-5.50, p = 0.545, without significant heterogeneity for each comparison group. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses revealed no significant findings. One-way sensitivity analysis indicated that the results were stable. No publication bias was detected using both funnel plot and Egger's test. Also, there were no obvious differences observed in cosmetic and functional outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that TVIF onlay and TIP urethroplasties are clinically equivalent. Given the inherent limitations of included studies, this conclusion should be interpreted with caution and wait to be confirmed by more well-designed randomized controlled trials with high quality in the future.

  9. Complications in proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2017-09-20

    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  11. Forests, Trees, and Micronutrient-Rich Food Consumption in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Ickowitz

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiency remains a serious problem in Indonesia with approximately 100 million people, or 40% of the population, suffering from one or more micronutrient deficiencies. In rural areas with poor market access, forests and trees may provide an essential source of nutritious food. This is especially important to understand at a time when forests and other tree-based systems in Indonesia are being lost at unprecedented rates. We use food consumption data from the 2003 Indonesia Demographic Health Survey for children between the ages of one and five years and data on vegetation cover from the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry to examine whether there is a relationship between different tree-dominated land classes and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods across the archipelago. We run our models on the aggregate sample which includes over 3000 observations from 25 provinces across Indonesia as well as on sub-samples from different provinces chosen to represent the different land classes. The results show that different tree-dominated land classes were associated with the dietary quality of people living within them in the provinces where they were dominant. Areas of swidden/agroforestry, natural forest, timber and agricultural tree crop plantations were all associated with more frequent consumption of food groups rich in micronutrients in the areas where these were important land classes. The swidden/agroforestry land class was the landscape associated with more frequent consumption of the largest number of micronutrient rich food groups. Further research needs to be done to establish what the mechanisms are that underlie these associations. Swidden cultivation in is often viewed as a backward practice that is an impediment to food security in Indonesia and destructive of the environment. If further research corroborates that swidden farming actually results in better nutrition than the practices that replace it, Indonesian policy

  12. Evaluation of micronutrient in soil treated with organic fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Antonio Pasqualini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of organic fertilizer for use in agriculture, may have beneficial effects for supplying organic matter and nutrients to the soil. The tested organic fertilizer is produced in a system of thermophilic composting of sewage sludge, the process by which it is mixed with chopped pruning urban, the crushed sugar cane and eucalyptus bark, and the mixture is subjected to aeration process revolving mechanical and oxidation promoted by an intense activity of microorganisms. The same is also additived with gypsum (Ca2SO4 in order to reduce the losses of ammonia from the process, helping to prevent odors and also attraction of vectors, besides enriching the material with calcium and sulfur, two macronutrients in plants. On the other hand the application of such compounds should be carefully monitored in order to prevent environmental risks from its use. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of rates of organic fertilizer (OF, in the Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ, in a Typic Acrudox soil, pHCaCl2= 4.9, cultivated with Aries grass (Panicum maximum, Jacq., without liming and focused in soil micronutrients contents. Treatments involved four rates of OF application: 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 t ha-1, mixed with soil before sowing the grass. The experimental design was a randomized blocks, with five replications, in pots (3.34 dm3. Soil samples were collected prior to the experiment (original soil and after cultivation of the Aries grass. Were air dried and passed through sieves with mesh size of 2 mm and analyzed chemically. The micronutrients (B, Cu, Fe and Zn – mg dm-3 were determined by atomic absorption, after extraction with a solution of DTPA, pH 7.3 (RAIJ et al., 2001. Data were analyzed by the mixed procedure of SAS V. 9.2; average qualitative treatments were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The degrees of freedom related to N rates (quantitative treatment were decomposed into orthogonal polynomials; to obtain the best equation fits

  13. Chemical characterization of diets consumed in the COSEAS restaurant, by neutron activation analysis; Caracterizacao quimica de dietas consumidas no restaurante do COSEAS/USP-SP, por ativacao neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favaro, Deborah I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br; Chioccola, Gabriella S.; Bortoli, Maritsa C.; Cozzolino, Silvia M.F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Lab. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental]. E-mail: gabich@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    This study presents the results of chemical characterization of meals (lunch) offered by COSEAS/USP-SP restaurant, during 5 non consecutive days. These meals were collected in triplicate, in the same way they are offered to the users, being freeze-dried and prepared for chemical analysis. In the total, 15 samples were collected. The proximate composition was determined by using the standard methodologies according to AOAC (1995). The contents of some micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The methodology validation was performed by certified reference materials analyses: Oyster Tissue (NIST SRM 1566{sup b}), Orchard Leaves (NIST SRM 1541) and Peach Leaves (NIST SRM 1547). >From concentration results the daily intake of each micronutrient was calculated considering this meal as 40% of the total daily intake and the values were compared to the new dietary recommendations of micronutrients (Dietary Reference Intakes-DRIs, Institute of Medicine, USA), for the women in the life stage from 19 to 30 years. Comparing the average values found with the recommended values, it was verified that macronutrients and Fe, Se and Zn micronutrients reached the values set by new DRIs. For Ca and K the daily intake was inadequate and Na, exceeded the recommended value. (author)

  14. INCREASE OF BODY WEIGHT IN CHILDREN AS A RESULT OF ADMINISTRATION OF MICRONUTRIENTS CONTAINING VITAMIN A: THE RESULTS OF PLACEBO-CONTROLLED STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Saygitov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of trials studying influence of uncombined vitamin a and complex micronutrients containing retinol on children's body weight are analyzed in this article. Uncombined vitamin a doesn't influence on this rate. Micronutrients containing vitamin a administrated during 6 months (median cause moderate but significant increase of body weight in children. This effect very largely concerned with increase of vitamin a concentration in blood plasma per 1,18 (0,12; 0,23  mol/l or almost 20% from reference level. The study of results of meta-analysis showed that this result can be achieved with administration of 450 g of vitamin a daily (333–526 g daily in complex with other micronutrients.Key words: children, body weight, vitamin a, meta analysis.

  15. A Micronutrient Fortified Beverage Given at Different Dosing Frequencies Had Limited Impact on Anemia and Micronutrient Status in Filipino Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Magsadia, Clarita R.; Aaron, Grant J.; Lloyd, Beate B.; Hilmers, David C.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a multi-micronutrient fortified juice drink given in different frequencies of consumption on hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of schoolchildren. Hb was measured in 2423 schoolchildren aged 6- to 9-years-old at baseline. All anemic children (n = 246) were randomly allocated into groups: Daily dose (HD: high dose), 5X/week (MD: Moderate Dose), 3X/week (LD: Low Dose) and unfortified (Control). Pre- and post-study measurements of micronutrients were collected from 228 children. At the endpoint, significant Hb increases were observed in all groups, but there was no significant difference between groups. There was a significant reduction in anemia prevalence in all groups from 100% to 36% (Control), 30% (LD), 23% (MD) and 26% (HD). No dose-response effect was observed in Hb in this population. Most likely, this resulted from better than expected micronutrient status and lower than expected severity of anemia and micronutrient deficiencies in this cohort. It is unlikely that the addition of a fortified beverage to school feeding programs in this population would have a positive impact. Whether such an intervention would be cost-effective as a preventative approach needs to be assessed. This study demonstrates the importance of targeting such interventions to appropriate populations. PMID:28895887

  16. A Population-Based Analysis of Three Treatment Modalities for Malignant Obstruction of the Proximal Colon: Acute Resection Versus Stent or Stoma as a Bridge to Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, F. J.; Consten, E. C. J.; Siersema, P. D.; Tanis, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant obstruction of the proximal colon (MOPC) traditionally has been treated with acute resection. However, morbidity and mortality rates following these emergency surgeries are high. Initial bowel decompression by stent placement or stoma construction has been used for distal obstructions as

  17. The role of micronutrients in the diet of HIV-1-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnari, Giuseppe; Coco, Christian; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Pavone, Piero; Berretta, Massimiliano; Di Rosa, Michelino; Schnell, Matthias; Calabrese, Giorgio; Cacopardo, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Vitamins, zinc and selenium are important micronutrients that play crucial functions at the cellular and molecular level. Immune response of several different cell types can be modulated by these micronutrients. Deficiency in micronutrients has been extensively reported in HIV-1-infected individuals and further correlated with CD4+ T-cell count, HIV-1 plasma viral load, disease progression and mortality. Supplementation by micronutrients has had controversial effects. Thorough future investigations and trials are certainly needed to strategically plan evidence-based interventions. Here, we review the available data on use of micronutrients during the course of HIV-1 infection.

  18. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a little crude fibre content of 0.92 %. The results indicated that ginger rhizome is an excellent natural remedy for a wide range of ailments. Keywords: Zingiber officinale, spice, rhizome, phytochemistry, proximate analysis, Zingiberaceae, zingerone, methanolic extraction. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, Vol.

  19. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins analysis of two varieties of honey (dark amber and light amber) were carried out using standard methods. The values for moisture, ash, crude lipid, crude protein and crude carbohydrate contents of the two honeys, (light amber and dark amber) are 9.39 ...

  20. Effect of a mixture of micronutrients, but not of bovine colostrum concentrate, on immune function parameters in healthy volunteers: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolvers, Danielle AW; van Herpen-Broekmans, Wendy MR; Logman, Margot HGM; van der Wielen, Reggy PJ; Albers, Ruud

    2006-01-01

    Background Supplementation of nutritional deficiencies helps to improve immune function and resistance to infections in malnourished subjects. However, the suggested benefits of dietary supplementation for immune function in healthy well nourished subjects is less clear. Among the food constituents frequently associated with beneficial effects on immune function are micronutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene and zinc, and colostrum. This study was designed to investigate the effects these ingredients on immune function markers in healthy volunteers. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, parallel, 2*2, placebo-controlled intervention study one hundred thirty-eight healthy volunteers aged 40–80 y (average 57 ± 10 y) received one of the following treatments: (1) bovine colostrum concentrate 1.2 g/d (equivalent to ~500 mg/d immunoglobulins), (2) micronutrient mix of 288 mg vitamin E, 375 mg vitamin C, 12 mg β-carotene and 15 mg zinc/day, (3) combination of colostrum and micronutrient mix, or (4) placebo. Several immune function parameters were assessed after 6 and 10 weeks. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Groups were combined to test micronutrient treatment versus no micronutrient treatment, and colostrum treatment versus no colostrum treatment. Results Overall, consumption of the micronutrient mix significantly enhanced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses (p micronutrient consumption. The other immune function parameters including responses to systemic tetanus and oral typhoid vaccination, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, lymphocyte proliferation and lymphocyte subset distribution were neither affected by the consumption of micronutrients nor by the consumption of bovine colostrum concentrate. Conclusion Consumption of bovine colostrum had no effect on any of the immune parameters assessed. The micronutrient mix enhanced cellular immunity as measured by DTH, with an increased effect by incremental age, but did not affect any of

  1. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  2. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  3. Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoob Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives/background Given the widespread prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries, supplementation with multiple micronutrients rather than iron-folate alone, could be of potential benefit to the mother and the fetus. These benefits could relate to prevention of maternal complications and reduction in other adverse pregnancy outcomes such as small-for-gestational age (SGA births, low birth weight, stillbirths, perinatal and neonatal mortality. This review evaluates the evidence of the impact of multiple micronutrient supplements during pregnancy, in comparison with standard iron-folate supplements, on specific maternal and pregnancy outcomes of relevance to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Data sources/review methods A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Search engines used were PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the WHO regional databases and hand search of bibliographies. A standardized data abstraction and Child Health Epidemiology Reference (CHERG adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE technique were used for data abstraction and overall quality of evidence. Meta-analyses were performed to calculate summary estimates of utility to the LiST model for the specified outcome of incidence of SGA births. We also evaluated the potential impact of multiple micronutrients on neonatal mortality according to the proportion of deliveries occurring in facilities (using a threshold of 60% to indicate functionality of health systems for skilled births. Results We included 17 studies for detailed data abstraction. There was no significant benefit of multiple micronutrients as compared to iron folate on maternal anemia in third trimester [Relative risk (RR = 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.87 – 1.22 (random model]. Our analysis, however, showed a significant reduction in SGA by 9% [RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86 – 0.96 (fixed model]. In the fixed model

  4. The stability of the hip after the use of a proximal femoral endoprosthesis for oncological indications: analysis of variables relating to the patient and the surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, E R; Keeney, B J; Pala, E; Funovics, P T; Eward, W C; Groundland, J S; Ehrlichman, L K; Puchner, S S E; Brigman, B E; Ready, J E; Temple, H T; Ruggieri, P; Windhager, R; Letson, G D; Hornicek, F J

    2017-04-01

    Instability of the hip is the most common mode of failure after reconstruction with a proximal femoral arthroplasty (PFA) using an endoprosthesis after excision of a tumour. Small studies report improved stability with capsular repair of the hip and other techniques, but these have not been investigated in a large series of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate variables associated with the patient and the operation that affect post-operative stability. We hypothesised an association between capsular repair and stability. In a retrospective cohort study, we identified 527 adult patients who were treated with a PFA for tumours. Our data included demographics, the pathological diagnosis, the amount of resection of the abductor muscles, the techniques of reconstruction and the characteristics of the implant. We used regression analysis to compare patients with and without post-operative instability. A total of 20 patients out of 527 (4%) had instability which presented at a mean of 35 days (3 to 131) post-operatively. Capsular repair was not associated with a reduced rate of instability. Bivariate analysis showed that a posterolateral surgical approach (odds ratio (OR) 0.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02 to 0.86) and the type of implant (p = 0.046) had a significant association with reduced instability; age > 60 years predicted instability (OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.00 to 9.98). Multivariate analysis showed age > 60 years (OR 5.09, 95% CI 1.23 to 21.07), female gender (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.89), a malignant primary bone tumour (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.95), and benign condition (OR 5.56, 95% CI 1.35 to 22.90), but not metastatic disease or soft-tissue tumours, predicted instability, while a posterolateral approach (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.53) was protective against instability. No instability occurred when a synthetic graft was used in 70 patients. Stability of the hip after PFA is influenced by variables associated with the patient, the pathology, the

  5. Chemical Analysis of Different Parts of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Using Ultimate, Proximate and Thermo-Gravimetric Techniques for Energy Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan A. Nasser; Mohamed Z. M. Salem; Salim Hiziroglu; Hamad A. Al-Mefarrej; Ahmed S. Mohareb; Manawwer Alam; Aref, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze chemical structure of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by employing ultimate, proximate and thermo-gravimetric techniques. Samples from different anatomical parts of date palm, namely trunk, frond base, frond midrib, leaflets, coir, fruit stem, date stone, and fruit empty bunches were considered for the experiments. Based on the findings in this work palm leaflet samples gave the highest amount of extractives content (32.9%), followed by date palm s...

  6. Analysis of the Pointing Accuracy of a 6U CubeSat Mission for Proximity Operations and Resident Space Object Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    together with the Novatel OEMV-1 GPS receiver and patch antenna , complete the guidance navigation and control suite. During proximity operations, the...are produced by the upper atmospheric particles colliding with the CubeSat. The worst case scenario of solar max activity is modeled for the cal...atmosphere at the nominal altitude of 500km gives a composition of 94% Oxygen and 6% Nitrogen. The number and mass densities are n=3.769×1014m−3 and ρ

  7. First report on distribution of heavy metals and proximate analysis in marine edible puffer fishes collected from Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanidhi, Kaleshkumar; Rajendran, Rajaram; Pandurangan, Dhinesh; Arumugam, Ganeshkumar

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the heavy metal concentration in different organs (skin, tissue, liver, kidney, gill, intestine, and ovary) and muscle proximate composition were studied in marine edible puffer fishes Takifugu oblongus, Lagocephalus guentheri, Arothron hispidus, Chelonodon patoca and Arothron immaculatus collected from Mandapam fish landing centre, South east coast of India. Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb & Zn) were analyzed in different organs for the above mentioned species. The heavy metals concentration ranges in fish organs of all the five species were Cu (0.42 -6.31 mg/kg), Cd (0.01-0.79 mg/kg), Pb (5.80-19.87 mg/kg), and Zn (6.75-65.08 mg/kg). Zn was detected higher in all the samples followed by Pb, Cu and Cd. The proximate composition was determined in edible muscle tissues of all the five species. The highest and lowest protein contents were observed in T. oblongus (20.6 ± 0.6%) and C. patoca (17.9 ± 0.3%). In the present study, heavy metal concentrations were found very high in all the internal organs when compared to muscle tissues. Further, this is the first report on distribution of heavy metals and proximate compositions of commercialized important edible puffer fishes from Mandapam coast of Gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of India.

  8. Cereal phytases and their importance in improvement of micronutrients bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashishth, Amit; Ram, Sewa; Beniwal, Vikas

    2017-05-01

    Phytic acid is a main reservoir of phosphorous (P) in plants and contributes to about 80% of the total P in cereal seeds. However, it is well known to possess anti-nutritional behavior. Because it has strong affinity to chelate divalent ions e.g. calcium, magnesium, and especially with iron and zinc. Therefore, it is extremely poor as a dietary source of P. To enhance bio-availability of micronutrients, an enzyme namely phytase is known to hydrolyze phytic acid. Unfortunately, phytase is not produced in the stomach of monogastric animals and humans. Thus, the presence of phytic acid in cereal foods has become major concern about the deficiency of essential micronutrients in developing countries. To address this problem, various types of phytase have been isolated, purified and characterized from different varieties of cereal till date. Therefore, the present article discusses about catalytic properties, gene regulation of such cereal phytases and their importance in ensuring food safety.

  9. the role of industry in micronutrient intervention programmes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    food industry, the media, consumer groups, and donor c· agencies, all of which must display commitment, ... highlighting the role of industry as an important component in the elimination of micronutrient deficiencies .... the USA (6.4 mg/kg vitamin B1, 4.0 mg/kg vitamin B2, 52.9 mg/kg niacin, 44.1 mg/kg iron) and assuming ...

  10. Role of Micronutrients in Skin Health and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kyungho

    2015-01-01

    Skin is the first line of defense for protecting our bodies against external perturbations, including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, mechanical/chemical stress, and bacterial infection. Nutrition is one of many factors required for the maintenance of overall skin health. An impaired nutritional status alters the structural integrity and biological function of skin, resulting in an abnormal skin barrier. In particular, the importance of micronutrients (such as certain vitamins and minerals) for...

  11. The importance of antioxidant micronutrients and vitamins in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, Hiten D; Williams, Paula J.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy places increased demands on the mother to provide not only adequate nutrition to support her own health but also to enable the growth and development of the conceptus. A key role of a number of micronutrients and vitamins is their function as essential cofactors for or themselves acting as antioxidants. Oxidative stress is generated during normal placental development however expression of antioxidant enzymes within the placenta provides protection from undue damage. However, when s...

  12. Fertilization with filter cake and micronutrients in plant cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Cristiane Adorna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of sugarcane to application of micronutrients is still not very well known. In view of the need for this information, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the micronutrients Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo to plant cane in three soils, with and without application of filter cake. This study consisted of three experiments performed in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, (in Igaraçu do Tiete, on an Oxisol; in Santa Maria da Serra, on an Entisol, both in the 2008/2009 growing season; and in Mirassol, on an Ultisol, in the 2009/2010 growing season in a randomized block design with four replications with a 8 x 2 factorial combination of micronutrients (1 - no application/control, 2 - addition of Zn, 3 - addition of Cu, 4 - addition of Mn 5 - addition of Fe, 6 - addition of B, 7 - addition of Mo, 8 - Addition of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo and filter cake (0 and 30 t ha-1 of filter cake in the furrow at planting. The application of filter cake was more efficient than of Borax in raising leaf B concentration to sufficiency levels for sugarcane in the Entisol, and it increased mean stalk yield in the Oxisol. In areas without filter cake application, leaf concentrations were not affected by the application of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo in the furrow at planting; however, Zn and B induced an increase in stalk and sugar yield in micronutrient-poor sandy soil.

  13. Fractures and fracture-dislocations of the proximal humerus: A retrospective analysis of 82 cases treated with the Philos(®) locking plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmo, Rocco; Guerra, Giovanni; Guerra, Luigi

    2014-12-01

    To present the experience in a single institution of the management of 82 consecutive fractures and fracture-dislocations of the proximal humerus treated with the Proximal Humeral Internal Locking System (Philos(®)) plate. A total of 81 patients with 82 proximal humerus fractures (one patient had bilateral fracture) were treated at our institution with open reduction and internal fixation with Philos(®) plate from January 2008 to December 2012 and the clinico-radiological outcome was analysed. Twelve of these patients also had a dislocation of the proximal humerus. According to the Neer classification, there were seven two-part fractures, 40 three-part fractures and 35 four-part fractures. All patients received a similar physical therapy programme following internal fixation. Mean final follow-up was 32 months. Functional outcome was evaluated for each patient using the Constant-Murley score; radiographic evaluation was also conducted and complications were recorded. At the end of the follow-up period, the mean Constant-Murley score for the injured side was 75 points (range 42-92); results were graded as excellent for eight patients, good for 52, moderate for 17 and poor for five. Twenty-three patients (28%) had complications during the follow-up period. Reoperation was required in 12 patients. Complications included avascular necrosis of the humeral head in 10 patients (12%), varus positioning of the head in four patients (4.8%), impingement syndrome in three patients (3.6%), secondary screw perforation in three patients (3.6%), non-union of the fracture in two patients (2.4%) and infection in one patient (1.2%). Open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures with the Philos(®) plate was associated with good clinical outcomes provided the correct surgical technique was used. To better evaluate the real incidence of complications, it is important to follow patients for more than one year after surgery as some complications may arise after

  14. The Queuine Micronutrient: Charting a Course from Microbe to Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Fergus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients from the diet and gut microbiota are essential to human health and wellbeing. Arguably, among the most intriguing and enigmatic of these micronutrients is queuine, an elaborate 7-deazaguanine derivative made exclusively by eubacteria and salvaged by animal, plant and fungal species. In eubacteria and eukaryotes, queuine is found as the sugar nucleotide queuosine within the anticodon loop of transfer RNA isoacceptors for the amino acids tyrosine, asparagine, aspartic acid and histidine. The physiological requirement for the ancient queuine molecule and queuosine modified transfer RNA has been the subject of varied scientific interrogations for over four decades, establishing relationships to development, proliferation, metabolism, cancer, and tyrosine biosynthesis in eukaryotes and to invasion and proliferation in pathogenic bacteria, in addition to ribosomal frameshifting in viruses. These varied effects may be rationalized by an important, if ill-defined, contribution to protein translation or may manifest from other presently unidentified mechanisms. This article will examine the current understanding of queuine uptake, tRNA incorporation and salvage by eukaryotic organisms and consider some of the physiological consequence arising from deficiency in this elusive and lesser-recognized micronutrient.

  15. Siderophore production by mycorrhizal sorghum roots under micronutrient deficient condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aliasgharzad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available It has widely been accepted that mycorrhizal symbiosis improves micronutrients uptake by most of the plants. In this study, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. plants were grown in sterile perlite and were inoculated with either Glomus etunicatum (GE or G.intraradices (GI, while the control set was left un-inoculated. Rorison's nutrient solution with three levels of 0, half and full strength (C0, C0.5 and C1, respectively of Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn was applied to the pots during 85 days of growth period. Chrome azurol-S assay was used for determination of siderophores in root leachates on 45, 65 and 85 days after sowing (DAS. Siderophore production per unit volume of root was higher in mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal plants. Both GE and GI were efficient fungi in this respect. Siderophore production was significantly induced at C0 level of the micronutrients. Amount of siderophores produced on 45 and 85 DAS was more than 65 DAS. Mycorrhizal root colonization by GE or GI was not significantly affected by micronutrient levels.

  16. Micronutrients, their potential effect on patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ya-Nan; Yan, Jun-Wei; Peng, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Jun-Qing; Xiao, Chang-Chun; Wang, Bing-Xiang; Wang, Jing

    2014-09-01

    Over the past years, several evidences have supported an important role of specific micronutrients, including vitamin A, vitamin D and vitamin E in immune dysfunction, vascular involvement and fibrotic changes involved in systemic sclerosis (SSc) development. In PubMed, eight clinical trials about the therapy of micronutrients on SSc patients were searched out using medical subject headings terms (SSc: "scleroderma, localized", "scleroderma, systemic", "scleroderma, diffuse" and "scleroderma, limited"; vitamins "vitamin A", "thiamin", "riboflavin", "niacin", "pantothenic acid", "vitamin B 6", "biotin", "folic acid", "vitamin B 12", "inositol", "choline", "ascorbic acid", "vitamin D", "vitamin E", "tocopherols", "vitamin K" and "vitamin P"; and minerals: "calcium", "magnesium", "potassium", "sodium", "phosphorus", "sulfur", "chlorine", "iron", "copper", "iodine", "zinc", "selenium", "manganese", "molybdenum", "cobalt", "chromium", "tin", "vanadium", "silicon", "nickel" and "fluorine"). This brief review will summarize current understanding on that for the further prospect of future studies. Though the clinical trials for the treatment of SSc with micronutrients are still in their infancy, more researches are needed to substantiate the current results and accelerate the knowledge in this field.

  17. Micronutrients and Leptospirosis: A Review of the Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Heather S; Mehta, Saurabh; Cárdenas, Washington B; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Finkelstein, Julia L

    2016-07-01

    Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses and represents a major threat to human health. Due to the high burden of disease, limitations in diagnostics, and limited coverage and availability of effective human and veterinary vaccines, leptospirosis remains an important neglected zoonotic disease. Improved surveillance and identification of modifiable risk factors for leptospirosis are urgently needed to inform preventive interventions and reduce the risk and severity of Leptospira infection. This review was conducted to examine the evidence that links micronutrient status and Leptospira infection. A total of 56 studies were included in this review: 28 in vitro, 17 animal, and 11 observational human studies. Findings indicated that Leptospira infection is associated with higher iron and calcium concentrations and hypomagnesemia. Few prospective studies and no randomized trials have been conducted to date to examine the potential role of micronutrients in Leptospira infection. The limited literature in this area constrains our ability to make specific recommendations; however, the roles of iron, calcium, and magnesium in leptospirosis represent important areas for future research. The role of micronutrients in leptospirosis risk and severity needs to be elucidated in larger prospective human studies to inform public health interventions.

  18. Megapixel imaging of (micro)nutrients in mature barley grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombi, Enzo; Smith, Euan; Hansen, Thomas H; Paterson, David; de Jonge, Martin D; Howard, Daryl L; Persson, Daniel P; Husted, Søren; Ryan, Chris; Schjoerring, Jan K

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the accumulation and distribution of essential nutrients in cereals is of primary importance for improving the nutritional quality of this staple food. While recent studies have improved the understanding of micronutrient loading into the barley grain, a detailed characterization of the distribution of micronutrients within the grain is still lacking. High-definition synchrotron X-ray fluorescence was used to investigate the distribution and association of essential elements in barley grain at the micro scale. Micronutrient distribution within the scutellum and the embryo was shown to be highly variable between elements in relation to various morphological features. In the rest of the grain, the distribution of some elements such as Cu and Zn was not limited to the aleurone layer but extended into the endosperm. This pattern of distribution was less marked in the case of Fe and, in particular, Mn. A significant difference in element distribution was also found between the ventral and dorsal part of the grains. The correlation between the elements was not consistent between and within tissues, indicating that the transport and storage of elements is highly regulated. The complexity of the spatial distribution and associations has important implications for improving the nutritional content of cereal crops such as barley.

  19. Nutrition in oncology: the case of micronutrients (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Zänker, Kurt; Hahn, Andreas

    2010-10-01

    In the course of cancer disease, many oncological patients develop tumor-associated malnutrition characterized by an insufficient supply of macro- and micronutrients. The inadequate nutritional status and the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome related to it are clinically relevant, as the response to antineoplastic measures, such as radiation and chemotherapy, is diminished, their side effects aggravated and the patient's quality of life and prognosis negatively affected. Therefore, the supportive nutrition care of oncological patients is of central importance. In this context, vitamins, minerals and long-chain omega -3 fatty acids are becoming more and more relevant in oncology although the benefit of such supplements is discussed controversially. Starting from a description of the etiopathogenesis and the pathophysiological consequences of cancer-associated malnutrition, the present study provides an overview of the importance of micronutrients for oncological patients. In the case of reduced food intake and/or inappropriate food choice the use of a multi-vitamin-multimineral supplement administered in physiological doses, i.e. nutrient quantities approximately corresponding to the recommended daily allowances, can be generally recommended. However, to enhance postoperative wound healing, it seems that cancer patients require higher amounts of micronutrients than healthy individuals. Because vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in oncological patients, improvement of vitamin D status is of special interest.

  20. Micronutrient deficiencies in the pre-bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Karla Vanessa Gomes; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho; Gonçalves, Maria da Conceição Rodrigues; Sousa, Bruno Soares

    2013-01-01

    Data already demonstrated the increased prevalence of obesity in various segments of the population. In this context, bariatric surgery is accepted nowadays as the most effective tool in the treatment and control of morbid obesity. Several studies have evaluated the nutritional status after bariatric surgery, especially mixed by detecting a reduction in food intake of protein, vitamins and minerals. However, other studies have investigated the presence of nutritional deficiencies prior to surgery, which may be aggravated by the surgical procedure, resulting in serious postoperative complications. To analyze the literature in relationship to micronutrient deficiencies in obese patients before bariatric surgery. Was carried out a systematic review in several electronic databases, such as PubMed/ Medline, Scielo, Lilacs and Bireme. The following keywords were used alone or in combination: bariatric surgery, obesity, preoperative, gastric bypass, vitamin deficiencies, deficiencies and mineral nutrient absorption. Were included 40 review and original articles published between 2005 to 2012. There were consensus on the combination of preoperative nutritional deficiencies, restrictions and malabsorption, possibly induced by bariatric surgery that can lead patients to experience significant nutritional deficits during the late postoperative period, especially of micronutrients, resulting in serious complications. The high occurrence of micronutrient deficiencies preoperatively detected in morbidly obese candidates for bariatric surgery, plus a malabsorptive procedure, may involve worse prognosis during the late postoperative period. Preoperative evaluation of nutritional parameters and food intake is recommended in conjunction with surgical interventions.

  1. Laparoscopic Gastric Sleeve and Micronutrients Supplementation: Our Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Capoccia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Laparoscopic gastric sleeve (LGS has been recently introduced as a stand-alone, restrictive bariatric surgery. Theoretically, LGS attenuates micronutrients deficiencies and associated complications that were typically observed following malabsorptive procedures. The aim of this study was to assess some micronutrients and mineral deficiencies in patients undergoing LGS. Methods. In the period between July 2008 and April 2010, 138 obese patients (110 females and 28 males with mean BMI 44.4 kg/m2 ± 6.5, mean age 43.9±10.9 years were enrolled and underwent LGS. Patients were followed up with routine laboratory tests and anthropometric measurements and assessed for nutritional status, as regards vitamin B12, folic acid, iron, hemoglobin, calcium, and vitamin D, every three months throughout 12 months. Results. 12 months after sleeve, patients did not show iron deficiency and/or anemia; plasma calcium levels were in the normal range without supplementation from the sixth month after the operation. Vitamin B12 and folic acid were adequately supplemented for all the follow-up period. Vitamin D was in suboptimal levels, despite daily multivitamin supplementation. Conclusion. In this study, we showed that LGS is an effective surgery for the management of morbid obesity. An adequate supplementation is important to avoid micronutrients deficiencies and greater weight loss does not require higher dosage of multivitamins.

  2. Encapsulation of Iron and Other Micronutrients for Food Fortification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michael B.; Windhab, Erich J.

    Iodine, vitamin A and iron deficiencies are important global public health problems, particularly for preschool children and pregnant women in low-income countries (World Health Organization 2000). These deficiencies are mainly due to monotonous, poor-quality diets that do not meet nutrient requirements. In countries where existing food supplies and/or limited access fail to provide adequate levels of these nutrients in the diet, food fortification is a promising approach. Co-fortification of foods with iron, iodine and vitamin A may be advantageous due to beneficial interactions of these micronutrients in metabolism. Studies in animals and humans have shown that iron deficiency anemia (IDA) impairs thyroid metabolism (Zimmermann et al. 2000a, 2000b; Hess et al. 2002a, 2002b). Vitamin A deficiency may exacerbate anemia through impairment of iron metabolism (Semba and Bloem 2002). Vitamin A, together with iodine, may reduce thyroid hyperstimulation and risk for goiter (Zimmermann et al. 2007). These micronutrient interactions strongly argue for multiple micronutrient fortification. However, food fortification with iron is not straightforward.

  3. Determination of Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of the seed of 30 Nigerian sesame genotypes were determined based on the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the Sequential Multi- sample amino acid Analyzer (TSM). Proximate analysis showed that sesame seed contained ...

  4. Impact of Multi-Micronutrient-Fortified Rice on Micronutrient Status, Health, and Cognitive Performance in Schoolchildren in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khov, Kuong

    ferritin concentrations iron stores (serum ferritin concentrations iron deficiency. Food fortification...... and cognitive performance of Cambodian schoolchildren. This PhD thesis is part of the FORISCA study. Methods This PhD thesis includes three papers. In paper I, the stability over time of three main micronutrients: iron, zinc and vitamin A in fortified rice was determined, following different production methods...... millions of children from reaching their full potential in growth and cognitive development. In Cambodia, micronutrient deficiencies among pre-school children are highly prevalent, with 68% and 20% of them being classified as deficient in zinc and folate, respectively. While the prevalence of iron deficiency (serum...

  5. A large scale investigation into changes in coal quality caused by dolerite dykes in Secunda, South Africa-implications for the use of proximate analysis on a working mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussio, John P.; Roberts, James R.

    2016-05-01

    The coalfields of South Africa contain numerous dolerite intrusions, which affected the quality of the surrounding coal through thermal processes, commonly believed to be controlled by the size of the magmatic body. Data gathered from a working coalfield in Secunda, South Africa, suggest that the relationship between intrusive sills and coal is complex and factors other than intrusion width must be considered in relation to the contact metamorphic effect. The study area contains multiple dolerite intrusions of Karoo age, of which three intrusions occur as sills intruded close to the main coal seam of the. A large database (>8000 boreholes) of coal quality data was used to investigate the presence or absence of a change in coal quality relative to dolerite proximity. Reduction in coal quality was defined using three proximate analysis values, namely the ash, volatile content and dry ash free volatile (DAFV) as defined in the coal industry. The resultant investigation showed no correlation between the position and thickness of the dolerites, and changes in coal quality as measured by proximate analysis. In the absence of a linear relationship between coal quality and dolerite proximity, two processes are proposed to explain the absence of the contact metamorphic effects expected from previous studies. Firstly dolerite emplacement dynamics may influence the size of the metamorphic aureole produced by an intrusion, invalidating intrusion size as a measure of thermal output. Secondly, hydrothermal fluids mobilised by the dolerite intrusions, either from the country rock or the intrusion itself may percolate through the coal and act as the metamorphic agent responsible for changing coal quality, by dissolving the volatile and semi-volatile components of the coal and transporting them to other locations. These two processes are sufficient to explain the lack of a clear "metamorphic effect" related to the dolerite intrusions. However, the perceived lack of a clear

  6. Numerical Optimization of the Position in Femoral Head of Proximal Locking Screws of Proximal Femoral Nail System; Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konya, Mehmet Nuri; Verim, Özgür

    2017-09-29

    Proximal femoral fracture rates are increasing due to osteoporosis and traffic accidents. Proximal femoral nails are routinely used in the treatment of these fractures in the proximal femur. To compare various combinations and to determine the ideal proximal lag screw position in pertrochanteric fractures (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen classification 31-A1) of the femur by using optimized finite element analysis. Biomechanical study. Computed tomography images of patients' right femurs were processed with Mimics. Afterwards a solid femur model was created with SolidWorks 2015 and transferred to ANSYS Workbench 16.0 for response surface optimization analysis which was carried out according to anterior-posterior (-10°0) and posterior-anterior directions of the femur neck significantly increased these stresses. The most suitable position of the proximal lag screw was confirmed as the middle of the femoral neck by using optimized finite element analysis.

  7. A spatial analysis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases in the United States and their proximity to multidisciplinary ALS clinics, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, D Kevin; Graham, Shannon; Punjani, Reshma; Wilt, Grete; Kaye, Wendy; Maginnis, Kimberly; Webb, Lauren; Richman, Judy; Bedlack, Richard; Tessaro, Edward; Mehta, Paul

    2017-12-20

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease that typically results in death within 2-5 years of initial symptom onset. Multidisciplinary ALS clinics (MDCs) have been established to provide specialty care to people living with the disease. To estimate the proximity of ALS prevalence cases to the nearest MDC in the US to help evaluate one aspect of access to care. Using 2013 prevalence data from the National ALS Registry, cases were geocoded by city using geographic information system (GIS) software, along with the locations of all MDCs in operation during 2013. Case-to-MDC proximity was calculated and analyzed by sex, race, and age group. During 2013, there were 72 MDCs in operation in 30 different states. A total of 15,633 ALS cases were geocoded and were distributed throughout all 50 states. Of these, 62.6% were male, 77.9% were white, and 76.2% were 50-79 years old. For overall case-to-MDC proximity, nearly half (44.9%) of all geocoded cases in the US lived >50 miles from an MDC, including approximately a quarter who lived >100 miles from an MDC. There was a statistically significant difference between distance to MDC by race and age group. The high percentage of those living more than 50 miles from the nearest specialized clinic underscores one of the many challenges of ALS. Having better access to care, whether at MDCs or through other modalities, is likely key to increasing survivability and obtaining appropriate end-of-life treatment and support for people with ALS.

  8. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcomes in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodha, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Aparna; Singh, Varinder

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Micronutrients play an important role in immune function. To our knowledge, there have been no comprehensive studies on the role of micronutrient supplementation in children with tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of micronutrient supplementation in children treated...... with antituberculosis therapy (ATT). DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that used a 2 × 2 factorial design was undertaken at 2 teaching hospitals in Delhi. Children with newly diagnosed intrathoracic tuberculosis were enrolled, and they received ATT together with daily supplementation for 6 mo....... However, children who received micronutrients had a faster gain in height over 6 mo than did those who did not receive micronutrients (height-for-age z score Δ = 0.08; P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Micronutrient supplementation did not modify the weight gain or clearance of lesions on CXR in children...

  9. Seasonality of honey bee (Apis mellifera) micronutrient supplementation and environmental limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoan, Rachael E; O'Connor, Luke D; Starks, Philip T

    2018-02-09

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) obtain micronutrients from floral resources and "dirty", or turbid, water. Past research suggests that honey bees drink dirty water to supplement the micronutrients in their floral diet, however, there is no research that directly investigates how floral micronutrient content varies with water preferences, or how micronutrients in honey bees themselves vary seasonally. In this study, we used chemical analyses (ICP-OES) to investigate seasonal variation of micronutrients in honey bee workers and floral resources in the field. We found that honey bees likely use mineralized water to supplement their floral diet and may be limited by availability of calcium and potassium. Our results also suggest that honey bees may seasonally seek specific micronutrients, perhaps in preparation for overwintering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enrichment of tropical peat with micronutrients for agricultural applications: evaluation of adsorption and desorption processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Camila de A.; Oliveira, Lilian K. de; Fraceto, Leonardo F.; Rosa, Andre H., E-mail: ahrosa@sorocaba.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Ambiental; Goveia, Danielle [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2014-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the adsorption and desorption of micronutrients in tropical peats, from the perspective of potential agricultural applications. Adsorption experiments were performed at different pH values, using solutions containing individual and multiple metal ions. Maximum adsorption capacity occurred at pH 6.0, and the order of affinity was Cu > Fe > Co > Ni > Zn = Mn. Release of the micronutrients was evaluated at different pH values, using an aqueous medium as well as soil and plants. Release of the micronutrients was most efficient at pH 6.0, and followed the order: Fe > Zn > Mn > Co = Ni > Cu. Micronutrient release to the soil was accompanied by uptake by the plant. The use of tropical peat enriched with micronutrients could contribute to improved agricultural productivity, since the release profile of the micronutrients can effectively stimulate plant growth. (author)

  11. Micronutrients Deficiency, a Hidden Hunger in Nepal: Prevalence, Causes, Consequences, and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Shiva; Banjara, Megha Raj

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a global challenge to health as in Nepal. In Nepal, the targeted beneficiaries are less aware about importance of micronutrients (MNs), which has resulted in low intake of foods rich in MNs. Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) have huge impact on health of vulnerable population like women and children and have jeopardized the national economy and prosperity of developing countries including Nepal. However, less attention has been paid towards MNDs, which can be preve...

  12. Knowledge Attitude and Practice Regarding Micronutrient in Secondary School Student of Tribal Area in Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Modi Bhavesh, Patel Prakash, Sutariya Shailesh, Dave Paresh

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Iodine, vitamin A and iron are most important micronutrients in global public health terms; their lack represents a major threat to the health and development of populations the world over, particularly children in low-income countries. To combat the deficiency of micronutrients, awareness of their importance and their source plays vital role. Objective: to assess knowledge regarding important micronutrients in tribal students. Methodology: It is a cross sectional study conducte...

  13. Micronutrient deficiencies in the elderly ? could ready meals be part of the solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies contribute to many age-related disorders. One group at particular risk of micronutrient deficiencies is the elderly. Many elderly, such as the frail and those living in institutions, rely on ready meals of variable, often poor, nutritional quality for a significant part of their daily nutritional needs. New policies are needed to ensure that micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) and phytochemicals of known nutritional value are retained during the manufacture of re...

  14. Referral patterns and proximity to palliative care inpatient services by level of socio-economic disadvantage. A national study using spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currow David C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A range of health outcomes at a population level are related to differences in levels of social disadvantage. Understanding the impact of any such differences in palliative care is important. The aim of this study was to assess, by level of socio-economic disadvantage, referral patterns to specialist palliative care and proximity to inpatient services. Methods All inpatient and community palliative care services nationally were geocoded (using postcode to one nationally standardised measure of socio-economic deprivation – Socio-Economic Index for Areas (SEIFA; 2006 census data. Referral to palliative care services and characteristics of referrals were described through data collected routinely at clinical encounters. Inpatient location was measured from each person’s home postcode, and stratified by socio-economic disadvantage. Results This study covered July – December 2009 with data from 10,064 patients. People from the highest SEIFA group (least disadvantaged were significantly less likely to be referred to a specialist palliative care service, likely to be referred closer to death and to have more episodes of inpatient care for longer time. Physical proximity of a person’s home to inpatient care showed a gradient with increasing distance by decreasing levels of socio-economic advantage. Conclusion These data suggest that a simple relationship of low socioeconomic status and poor access to a referral-based specialty such as palliative care does not exist. Different patterns of referral and hence different patterns of care emerge.

  15. Referral patterns and proximity to palliative care inpatient services by level of socio-economic disadvantage. A national study using spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currow, David C; Allingham, Samuel; Bird, Sonia; Yates, Patsy; Lewis, Joanne; Dawber, James; Eagar, Kathy

    2012-11-23

    A range of health outcomes at a population level are related to differences in levels of social disadvantage. Understanding the impact of any such differences in palliative care is important. The aim of this study was to assess, by level of socio-economic disadvantage, referral patterns to specialist palliative care and proximity to inpatient services. All inpatient and community palliative care services nationally were geocoded (using postcode) to one nationally standardised measure of socio-economic deprivation - Socio-Economic Index for Areas (SEIFA; 2006 census data). Referral to palliative care services and characteristics of referrals were described through data collected routinely at clinical encounters. Inpatient location was measured from each person's home postcode, and stratified by socio-economic disadvantage. This study covered July - December 2009 with data from 10,064 patients. People from the highest SEIFA group (least disadvantaged) were significantly less likely to be referred to a specialist palliative care service, likely to be referred closer to death and to have more episodes of inpatient care for longer time. Physical proximity of a person's home to inpatient care showed a gradient with increasing distance by decreasing levels of socio-economic advantage. These data suggest that a simple relationship of low socioeconomic status and poor access to a referral-based specialty such as palliative care does not exist. Different patterns of referral and hence different patterns of care emerge.

  16. [Efficacy analysis of two-stage reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for treating postoperative deep infection after surgeries for proximal humeral fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F L; Jiang, C Y; Lu, Y; Zhu, Y M; Li, X

    2016-04-18

    To evaluate the clinical results of two-stage reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for treating postoperative deep infection after surgeries for proximal humeral fractures. From January 2013 to December 2014, 8 consecutive patients with postoperative deep infection after surgeries for proximal humeral fractures who were treated with two-stage reverse total shoulder arthroplasty were retrospectively reviewed after the final follow-up. There were 1 man and 7 women with a mean age of (58.5±6.4) years, of whom 3 left shoulders and 5 right shoulders were involved. There were 2 patients with periprosthetic infection after hemiarthroplasty for proximal humeral fractures, and 6 patients with humeral head necrosis as well as implant-associated infection after open reduction internal fixation for proximal humeral fractures with the locking plate. The diagnosis of postoperative deep infection was confirmed by either the preoperative cultures or the intraoperative biopsies during the first-stage surgery. At the first-stage surgery, all the patients underwent a thorough debridement, and then an antibiotic-impregnated bone cement spacer was placed after the removal of prosthesis or locking plate. During the second-stage surgery, the cement spacer was removed, and then a revision shoulder arthroplasty with the reverse shoulder prosthesis was performed in all the patients who were routinely followed up after the second-stage surgery. The visual analogue score (VAS), Constant score and University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) score were employed to evaluate the postoperative shoulder function. The mean follow-up time was (19.9±8.0) months (range 12 to 35 months). At the end of the follow-up, the median forward elevation [100° (60°, 140°) vs. 25° (0°, 90°), P=0.011], the median external rotation [15° (0°, 50°) vs. 5° (0°, 20°), P=0.048], and the median internal rotation [L4 (buttock, T12) vs. buttock (buttock, L3), P=0.041] were all significantly improved

  17. Antioxidant Micronutrients and the Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma in the Women’s Health Initiative Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Won Jin; Simon, Michael S.; Yildiz, Vedat O.; Shikany, James M.; Kato, Ikuko; Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer L.; Cetnar, Jeremy P.; Bock, Cathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the eighth leading cancer among women in incidence and commonly is diagnosed at a more advanced stage. Oxidative stress has been considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of RCC. Various dietary micronutrients have antioxidant properties, including carotenoids and vitamins C and E; thus, diets rich in these nutrients have been evaluated in relation to RCC prevention. The objective of this study was to explore the correlation between antioxidant micronutrients and the risk of RCC. METHODS In total, 96,196 postmenopausal women who enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) between 1993 and 1998 and were followed through July 2013 were included in this analysis. Dietary micronutrient intake was estimated from the baseline WHI food frequency questionnaire, and data on supplement use were collected using an interview-based inventory procedure. RCC cases were ascertained from follow-up surveys and were centrally adjudicated. The risks for RCC associated with intake of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein plus zeaxanthin, lycopene, vitamin C, and vitamin E were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for confounders. RESULTS Two hundred forty women with RCC were identified during follow-up. Lycopene intake was inversely associated with RCC risk (P = .015); compared with the lowest quartile of lycopene intake, the highest quartile of intake was associated with a 39% lower risk of RCC (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.39–0.97). No other micronutrient was significantly associated with RCC risk. CONCLUSIONS The current results suggest that further investigation into the correlation between lycopene intake and the risk of RCC is warranted. PMID:25302685

  18. Preliminary Studies to Characterize the Temporal Variation of Micronutrient Composition of the Above Ground Organs of Maize and Correlated Uptake Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Karla Vilaça; Dourado-Neto, Durval; Reichardt, Klaus; de Jong van Lier, Quirijn; Favarin, José Laércio; Sartori, Felipe Fadel; Felisberto, Guilherme; Mello, Simone da Costa

    2017-01-01

    The improvement of agronomic practices and the use of high technology in field crops contributes for significant increases in maize productivity, and may have altered the dynamics of nutrient uptake and partition by the plant. Official recommendations for fertilizer applications to the maize crop in Brazil and in many countries are based on critical soil nutrient contents and are relatively outdated. Since the factors that interact in an agricultural production system are dynamic, mathematical modeling of the growth process turns out to be an appropriate tool for these studies. Agricultural modeling can expand our knowledge about the interactions prevailing in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. The objective of this study is to propose a methodology for characterizing the micronutrient composition of different organs and their extraction, and export during maize crop development, based on modeling nutrient uptake, crop potential evapotranspiration and micronutrient partitioning in the plant, considering the production environment. This preliminary characterization study (experimental growth analysis) considers the temporal variation of the micronutrient uptake rate in the aboveground organs, which defines crop needs and the critical nutrient content of the soil solution. The methodology allowed verifying that, initially, the highest fraction of dry matter, among aboveground organs, was assigned to the leaves. After the R1 growth stage, the largest part of dry matter was partitioned to the stalk, which in this growth stage is the main storage organ of the maize plant. During the reproductive phase, the highest fraction of dry matter was conferred to the reproductive organs, due to the high demand for carbohydrates for grain filling. The micronutrient (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) content follows a power model, with higher values for the initial growth stages of development and leveling off to minimum values at the R6 growth stage. The proposed model allows to verify that

  19. Improving the production of barley genotypes by foliar application of micronutrients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anjum; Bashir Ahmad; Muhammad Islam; Muhammad Ibrar; Zahid Hussain; Wajid Ali Shah

    2017-01-01

    A field experiment on "improving the production of barley genotypes by foliar application of micronutrients" was carried out at Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Khyber...

  20. Micronutrients in HIV/AIDS: is there evidence to change the WHO 2003 recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Janet E; Sztam, Kevin A

    2011-12-01

    To establish whether there is new evidence to inform changes to WHO 2003 recommendations for micronutrient intake in persons with HIV/AIDS, we conducted a narrative review of the literature published from 2003 to 2010. Although the review focused on new randomized controlled trials of multiple micronutrients in HIV-infected adults, including pregnant and lactating women, we also considered randomized trials of single micronutrients. The review found that there are few published randomized controlled trials of micronutrients in HIV-infected persons and that most trials used high-dose multiple micronutrient supplementation. The trials were heterogeneous with respect to the composition and dose of micronutrients used and the target population studied. Despite this heterogeneity, 5 of 6 trials that used high-dose multiple micronutrients showed benefits in terms of either improved CD4 cell counts or survival. However, many of these trials were small and of short duration, and therefore the long-term risks and benefits of high-dose multiple micronutrients are not established. The current WHO recommendation for an intake of micronutrients at Recommended Dietary Allowance amounts continues to be a reasonable target for persons with clinically stable HIV infection. In light of new data that show adverse effects of high-dose vitamin A, the current recommendation for a single high dose of vitamin A in HIV-infected women within 6 wk of delivery should be reviewed.

  1. Micronutrients in HIV/AIDS: is there evidence to change the WHO 2003 recommendations?1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Janet E; Sztam, Kevin A

    2011-01-01

    To establish whether there is new evidence to inform changes to WHO 2003 recommendations for micronutrient intake in persons with HIV/AIDS, we conducted a narrative review of the literature published from 2003 to 2010. Although the review focused on new randomized controlled trials of multiple micronutrients in HIV-infected adults, including pregnant and lactating women, we also considered randomized trials of single micronutrients. The review found that there are few published randomized controlled trials of micronutrients in HIV-infected persons and that most trials used high-dose multiple micronutrient supplementation. The trials were heterogeneous with respect to the composition and dose of micronutrients used and the target population studied. Despite this heterogeneity, 5 of 6 trials that used high-dose multiple micronutrients showed benefits in terms of either improved CD4 cell counts or survival. However, many of these trials were small and of short duration, and therefore the long-term risks and benefits of high-dose multiple micronutrients are not established. The current WHO recommendation for an intake of micronutrients at Recommended Dietary Allowance amounts continues to be a reasonable target for persons with clinically stable HIV infection. In light of new data that show adverse effects of high-dose vitamin A, the current recommendation for a single high dose of vitamin A in HIV-infected women within 6 wk of delivery should be reviewed. PMID:22089440

  2. Prioritizing micronutrients for the purpose of reviewing their requirements: a protocol developed by EURRECA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavelaars, A E J M; Doets, E L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R A M; Hermoso, M; Fairweather-Tait, S J; Koletzko, B; Gurinović, M; Moreno, L A; Cetin, I; Matthys, C; van 't Veer, P; Ashwell, M; de Groot, C P G M

    2010-06-01

    The EURRECA (EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned) Network of Excellence (http://www.eurreca.org) is working towards the development of aligned recommendations. A protocol was required to assign resources to those micronutrients for which recommendations are most in need of alignment. Three important 'a priori' criteria were the basis for ranking micronutrients: (A) the amount of new scientific evidence, particularly from randomized controlled trials; (B) the public health relevance of micronutrients; (C) variations in current micronutrient recommendations. A total of 28 micronutrients were included in the protocol, which was initially undertaken centrally by one person for each of the different population groups defined in EURRECA: infants, children and adolescents, adults, elderly, pregnant and lactating women, and low income and immigrant populations. The results were then reviewed and refined by EURRECA's population group experts. The rankings of the different population groups were combined to give an overall average ranking of micronutrients. The 10 highest ranked micronutrients were vitamin D, iron, folate, vitamin B12, zinc, calcium, vitamin C, selenium, iodine and copper. Micronutrient recommendations should be regularly updated to reflect new scientific nutrition and public health evidence. The strategy of priority setting described in this paper will be a helpful procedure for policy makers and scientific advisory bodies.

  3. Importance and management of micronutrient deficiencies in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cardoso, Bárbara Rita; Cominetti, Cristiane; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato

    2013-01-01

    .... Because epidemiological studies generally report the potential neuronal protective effects of various micronutrients, the aim of this study was to perform a literature review on the major nutrients...

  4. Physiological performance of wheat seeds treated with micronutrients and protection products during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Freiberg, Joice Aline; Ludwig, Marcos Paulo; Avelar, Suemar Alexandre Gonçalves; Girotto, Eduardo; Eickstedt, Darlan de Maria; Rotta, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Seeds with high quality are one of the important factors to consider in the crops establishment on field. Therefore, the physical and physiological quality of wheat seeds treated with mixes of micronutrients including zinc and protective products were aimed. The wheat seeds were analyzed in a factorial scheme 5x3x4, with five storage time: 0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 days; three micronutrients: micronutrients 1 (1% Mn; 0.1% Mo; 10% Zn); micronutrients 2 (0.3% B; 0.3% Co; 3% Zn) and no m...

  5. Micronutrient Synergy in the Fight against Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roomi, M. Waheed; Roomi, Nusrath W.; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra, E-mail: a.niedz@drrath.com; Rath, Matthias [Dr. Rath Research Institute, 1260 Memorex Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95050 (United States)

    2012-03-23

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), once thought to be a rare tumor in North America, has rapidly increased in recent years in the United States. Current treatment modalities to halt the progression of this disease are only marginally effective. The mainstay treatment is liver transplantation, which is often confronted with donor shortage. Invasion, metastasis and recurrence contribute to the high mortality rate of this disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been associated with the progression, invasion and metastasis of the disease. We have developed strategies to strengthen the ECM collagen and inhibit MMPs through micronutrients such as lysine, proline and ascorbic acid. Addition of epigallocatechin gallate or green tea extract to these micronutrients synergistically enhanced anti-carcinogenic activity in HepG2 cells. Addition of certain other micronutrients, such as N-acetylcysteine, selenium, copper and zinc (NM) synergistically enhanced the anticancer activity of the mixture in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma using HepG2 cells. In vitro studies using HepG2 demonstrated that NM was very effective in inhibiting cell proliferation (by MTT assay), MMPs secretion (by gelatinase zymography), cell invasion (through Matrigel) and induction of apoptosis (by live green caspase). In addition, NM was shown to down-regulate urokinase plasminogen activator (by fibrin zymography) and up-regulate tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (by reverse zymography) in another HCC cell line, SK-Hep-1. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were further modulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induction and inhibited by NM. In previous studies, NM inhibited Sk-Hep-1 xenografts in nude mice and also inhibited hepatic metastasis of B16FO melanoma cells. Our results suggest that NM is an excellent candidate for therapeutic use in the treatment HCC by inhibiting critical parameters in cancer development and progression

  6. Maternal micronutrients and brain global methylation patterns in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, Pratiksha; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-01-01

    Studies have established the association of maternal nutrition and increased risk for non-communicable diseases. It has been suggested that this involves epigenetic modifications in the genome. However, the role of maternal micronutrients in the one-carbon cycle in influencing brain development of the offspring through methylation is unexplored. It is also unclear whether epigenomic marks established during early development can be reversed by a postnatal diet. The present study reports the effect of maternal micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids on global DNA methylation patterns in the brain of the Wistar rat offspring at three timepoints (at birth, postnatal day 21, and 3 months of age). Pregnant rats were divided into control (n = 8) and five treatment groups (n = 16 dams in each group) at two levels of folic acid (normal and excess folate) in the presence and absence of vitamin B12 (NFBD, EFB, and EFBD). Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was given to vitamin B12 deficient groups (NFBDO and EFBDO). Following delivery, eight dams from each group were shifted to control diet and remaining continued on the same treatment diet. Our results demonstrate that maternal micronutrient imbalance results in global hypomethylation in the offspring brain at birth. At adult age the cortex of the offspring displayed hypermethylation as compared with control, in spite of a postnatal control diet. In contrast, prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was able to normalize methylation at 3 months of age. Our findings provide clues for the role of omega-3 fatty acids in reversing methylation patterns thereby highlighting its contribution in neuroprotection and cognition.

  7. Micronutrient Synergy in the Fight against Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Niedzwiecki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, once thought to be a rare tumor in North America, has rapidly increased in recent years in the United States. Current treatment modalities to halt the progression of this disease are only marginally effective. The mainstay treatment is liver transplantation, which is often confronted with donor shortage. Invasion, metastasis and recurrence contribute to the high mortality rate of this disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM have been associated with the progression, invasion and metastasis of the disease. We have developed strategies to strengthen the ECM collagen and inhibit MMPs through micronutrients such as lysine, proline and ascorbic acid. Addition of epigallocatechin gallate or green tea extract to these micronutrients synergistically enhanced anti-carcinogenic activity in HepG2 cells. Addition of certain other micronutrients, such as N-acetylcysteine, selenium, copper and zinc (NM synergistically enhanced the anticancer activity of the mixture in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma using HepG2 cells. In vitro studies using HepG2 demonstrated that NM was very effective in inhibiting cell proliferation (by MTT assay, MMPs secretion (by gelatinase zymography, cell invasion (through Matrigel and induction of apoptosis (by live green caspase. In addition, NM was shown to down-regulate urokinase plasminogen activator (by fibrin zymography and up-regulate tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (by reverse zymography in another HCC cell line, SK-Hep-1. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were further modulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA induction and inhibited by NM. In previous studies, NM inhibited Sk-Hep-1 xenografts in nude mice and also inhibited hepatic metastasis of B16FO melanoma cells. Our results suggest that NM is an excellent candidate for therapeutic use in the treatment HCC by inhibiting critical parameters in cancer development and

  8. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  9. ECONOMICAL BASIS TO ADDRESS MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES IN DEVELOPING WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition has been called by economists at the World Bank as the “non-human face” of poverty,1 Adults who were malnourished as children earn at least 20% less on average than those who weren’t , 2.Malnutrition is often caused by underlying economics, i.e. the lack of money. Economics is very important in regards to malnutrition; it allows an individual to purchase nutrients. In many places around the world, a lack of money prevents the purchase of a variety of foods. The lack in variety usually leads to micronutrient malnutrition. Economics also decides the production of food in all countries around the world and the ability of a country to overcome difficult times. Thus economics affects ALL people at ALL levels of society, 3.Micronutrient deficiencies also known as ‘hidden hunger’ are determining and aggravating factors for health status and quality of life. It is estimated half of anaemia cases are due to iron deficiency , 4.  Almost half of children in low- and middle-income countries – 47% of under-fives are affected by anaemia, impairing cognitive and physical development,5. Iodine deficiency is the greatest single cause of mental retardation and brain damage. Coincidently,  the number of countries in which iodine-deficiency disorders were considered a public health concern reduced by 43% between 1993 and 2007,6.  Zinc deficiency affects children’s health and physical growth; it is also essential for mothers during pregnancy. It is estimated to cause 4% of deaths in pre-school aged children in lower-income countries. 7 . The Global Burden of Disease estimates showed that among the 26 major risk factors of the global burden of disease,8 iron deficiency ranks ninth overall, zinc deficiency is eleventh, and vitamin A deficiency, is thirteenth. Annually each developing country of the world are losing over millions or billions US $ in Gross Domestic Product (GDP to vitamins and minerals deficiencies. But scaling up core

  10. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2015-01-01

    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  11. THE PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN BUSH MANGO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    The proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, mineral ash and total carbohydrates) in the kernels and flour of African Bush Mango (. ) were investigated. The results revealed that the kernels contained moisture (2.5 g/100 g), crude protein (8.9 g/100 g), crude fat (68.4 g/100 g), mineral ash (2.3 g/100 g) and total ...

  12. Global trends in dietary micronutrient supplies and estimated prevalence of inadequate intakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ty Beal

    Full Text Available Understanding dietary patterns is vital to reducing the number of people experiencing hunger (about 795 million, micronutrient deficiencies (2 billion, and overweight or obesity (2.1 billion. We characterize global trends in dietary quality by estimating micronutrient density of the food supply, prevalence of inadequate intake of 14 micronutrients, and average prevalence of inadequate intake of these micronutrients for all countries between 1961 and 2011. Over this 50-year period, the estimated prevalence of inadequate intakes of micronutrients has declined in all regions due to increased total production of food and/or micronutrient density. This decline has been particularly strong in East and Southeast Asia and weaker in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa is the only region where dietary micronutrient density has declined over this 50-year period. At the global level, micronutrients with the lowest levels of adequate estimated intake are calcium, iron, vitamin A, and zinc, but there are strong differences between countries and regions. Fortification has reduced the estimated prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes in all low-income regions, except South Asia. The food supply in many countries is still far below energy requirements, which suggests a need to increase the availability and accessibility of nutritious foods. Countries where the food energy supply is adequate show a very large variation in dietary quality, and in many of these countries people would benefit from more diverse diets with a greater proportion of micronutrient-dense foods. Dietary quality can be improved through fortification, biofortification, and agricultural diversification, as well as efforts to improve access to and use of micronutrient-dense foods and nutritional knowledge. Reducing poverty and increasing education, especially of women, are integral to sustainably addressing malnutrition.

  13. The Effect of Nitroxin Biofertilizer and Foliar Applicatin of Micronutrients Time Consumption on Yield and Yield Components of New Wheat Cultivars under Khorramabad Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vaez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In order to study the effects of Nitroxin biofertilizer and foliar application of micronutrients time consumption on yield and yield components of new wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum & T. durum under Khorramabad climatic conditions, an experiment was conducted as factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the research farm khorramabad during growing season of 2012-2013. Considering the positive effect of inoculation with bio-fertilizer and foliar Nitroxin micronutrients and reaction of cultivars to this type of fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizers and the importance of wheat as one of the main crops, this study aims to determine the most appropriate time for foliar and Nitroxin application of micronutrients at the different stages of plant growth and bio-fertilizer application on yield and yield components. Materials and Methods The first factor was considered in six levels: N0: The lack of the seed insemination with nitroxin biofertilizer and without the foliar application of micronutrients (control, N1: the seed inoculation with the nitroxin biofertilizer, N2: the foliar application of micronutrients at the jointing stage, N3: the foliar application of micronutrients at the heading stage, N4: the seed insemination with nitroxin biofertilizer and foliar application of micronutrients at the jointing stage, N5: the seed insemination with nitroxin biofertilizer and foliar application of micronutrients at the heading stage. The second factor was considered at two levels, consisting: V1: Parsi cultivar and V2: Dena cultivar. MSTATC Software was used for data analysis and means were compared by Duncan's multiple range test at the 5% level. Results and Discussion In this experiment the grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, 1000- grain weight, spike number per m-2, grain number per spike and spikelet number per spike of wheat were studied. The results of the data variance analysis has

  14. Micronutrient Supplement Use and Diet Quality in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Wiltgren

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many national and international public health organisations recommend achieving nutrient adequacy through consumption of a wide variety of nutritious foods. Despite this, dietary supplement sales continue to increase. Understanding the characteristics of micronutrient supplement users and the relationship with diet quality can help develop effective public health interventions to reduce unnecessary consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements. Participants (n = 1306 were a convenience sample of students studying first year food and nutrition. Data was collected via a Food and Diet Questionnaire (FDQ and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Supplement users were defined as participants who indicated consuming any listed supplement as frequently as once a month or more. Diet quality was assessed using a Dietary Guideline Index (DGI score. Prevalence of supplement use was high in this study population with 56% of participants reporting supplement use; the most popular supplements consumed were multivitamins (28% and vitamin C (28%. A higher DGI score was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of supplement use (mean: 105 ± 18 vs. 109 ± 17, p = 0.001. Micronutrient supplement use was associated with a higher DGI score, suggesting that supplements are more likely to be used by those who are less likely to require them.

  15. Deficiency of macro- and micronutrients induced by Lentinula edodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Grotto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom Lentinula edodes has been widely studied therapeutically. However, there is no data regarding its daily intake level safety. Since L. edodes has many active compounds known to bind to metals, we evaluated macro and micronutrients in liver and kidney of healthy rats after subchronic exposure to L. edodes. Rats were divided into four groups, receiving water and L. edodes at 100, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day. The treatment lasted 30 days. Essential elements (Zn, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Se, Co, Mo, and Li were analyzed in an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Our results demonstrated a significant decrease in Cu, Fe, Mn and Co levels in liver of rats receiving L. edodes at the highest doses. In kidney, Mn, Mo and Li concentrations significantly dropped in the groups exposed to the highest doses. In this way, an important point is revealed concerning the food safety from L. edodes, once its chronic and high consumption could contribute to macro and micronutrients deficiency. Additionally, we speculate that the daily use of L. edodes could be unsuccessful for patients in mineral therapy besides being able to be unsafe for individuals with some propensity to mineral deficiency.

  16. Micronutrients in Italian ham: a survey of traditional products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Massimo; Saccani, Giovanna; D'Evoli, Laura; Tufi, Sara; Aguzzi, Altero; Gabrielli, Paolo; Marletta, Luisa; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra

    2013-10-15

    The study provides original analytical data on the micronutrient profile of some traditional Italian hams, representative of the major ham categories produced in Italy: 4 dry-cured hams (Modena, Nazionale, Parma, San Daniele), 3 cooked hams (Cotto, Scelto, Alta Qualità), 1 smoked ham (Speck). Data on macronutrients (protein, lipid, moisture), energy, trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Se), B vitamins (B1, B2, PP, B6, B12) and vitamin E level in the 80 Italian hams sampled are reported. Smoked and dry-cured ham were the richest sources of Fe, Zn and Se and, among vitamins, dry-cured ham had the highest level of B2, PP, B6 and B12; cooked ham provided the lowest energy intake. The contribution of ham to micronutrients recommended dietary allowances was estimated: a ham portion (50g) was a good source especially of Zn and Se providing over 12% of RDA of both; among B vitamins, dry-cured ham greatly contributed to B1 and B6 vitamins RDA (both over 30%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutrition meets the microbiome: micronutrients and the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesalski, Hans K

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that food is an important factor that influences and shapes the composition and configuration of the gut microbiota. Most studies have focused on macronutrients (fat, carbohydrate, protein) in particular and their effects on the gut microbiota. Although the microbiota can synthesize different water-soluble vitamins, the effects of vitamins synthesized within the microbiota on systemic vitamin status are unclear. Few studies exist on the shuttling of vitamins between the microbiota and intestine and the impact of luminal vitamins on the microbiota. Studying the interactions between vitamins and the microbiota may help to understand the effects of vitamins on the barrier function and immune system of the intestinal tract. Furthermore, understanding the impact of malnutrition, particularly low micronutrient supply, on microbiota development, composition, and metabolism may help in implementing new strategies to overcome the deleterious effects of malnutrition on child development. This article reviews data on the synthesis of different micronutrients and their effects on the human microbiota, and further discusses the consequences of malnutrition on microbiota composition. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Micronutrient status and neurodevelopment in internationally adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestad, Anita J; Kroupina, Maria G; Johnson, Dana E; Georgieff, Michael K

    2016-02-01

    To assess the status of nutrients relevant for brain development in internationally adoptees from disparate global regions and determine whether identified deficiencies are associated with neurodevelopment. Participants included children adopted from Post-Soviet States (n = 15), Ethiopia (n = 26) or China (n = 17), ages 8-18 months. A comprehensive nutritional battery and a neurodevelopmental assessment were completed at baseline (within one month of arrival) and follow-up (six months later). At baseline, 35% were stunted, and 68% had at least one abnormal nutritional biochemical marker. The most common were low retinol-binding protein (33%), zinc deficiency (29%), vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (21%), and iron deficiency (15%). There was significant catch-up growth in height and weight at follow-up, but little improvement in micronutrient deficiencies. Iron deficiency was associated with lower cognitive scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III, p = 0.027, and slower speed of processing, p = 0.012. Zinc deficiency was associated with compromised memory functioning, p = 0.001. Nutrient deficiencies were common during the early adoption period in internationally adoptees from three global regions, and iron and zinc deficiencies were associated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes. Results emphasise the importance of monitoring micronutrient status at arrival and during the early adoption period, irrespective of country of origin. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Micronutrient Accumulation in Conilon Coffee Berries with Different Maturation Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Braida Marré

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The number of days between anthesis and maturation of conilon coffee berries varies according to the genotype. Thus, it is believed that periods of greater nutrient demand for fruit formation also vary according to the genotype, directly influencing fertilizer management. The goal of this study was to establish accumulation curves for the micronutrients boron, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc in conilon coffee trees with different maturation cycles. The experiment was conducted in Nova Venécia, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, during the reproductive cycle of the 2010/2011 crop year. Four coffee genotypes with different maturation cycles (early, intermediate, late, and super-late were studied. A completely randomized experimental design was used with five replications. The treatments correspond to the accumulation of B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the berries every 28 days in the period from flowering to harvest. The early, intermediate, and late genotypes accumulated Fe, Cu, and Mn in a similar manner, with sigmoid curves, whereas the super-late genotype accumulated these nutrients exponentially. Zn was accumulated by all four genotypes following a sigmoid curve. The early, intermediate, and late genotypes accumulated B linearly, whereas the super-late genotype accumulated B following a sigmoid curve. The maturation cycle of the genotype must be taken into account to apply the correct rate of micronutrient fertilization in coffee plantations.

  20. Micro-nutrient supplementation and the intelligence of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D

    2001-06-01

    A growing number of double-blind placebo-controlled studies have considered the influence of micro-nutrient supplementation on the intelligence of children. Earlier studies prevented the drawing of conclusions as they did not systematically approach the topic. However, over the last 10 years, a series of studies have compared the impact of supplementation on either verbal or non-verbal measures of intelligence. In 10 out of 13 studies a positive response has been reported, always with non-verbal measures, in at least a sub-section of the experimental sample. A selective response to non-verbal tests was predicted as they reflect basic biologically functioning that could be expected to be influenced by diet. The evidence is that not all children respond to supplementation, rather there is a minority who benefit, whose diet offers low amounts of micro-nutrients. Such observations are consistent with dietary surveys that typically report a sub-set of children with a low intake. The topic is at a very early stage and needs the clarification gained from a series of large-scale studies that consider children of a wide range of ages, dietary styles and social backgrounds.

  1. Micronutrients deficiency and associated sociodemographic factors in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Ai, Yue-Xian; Hanlon, Alexandra; Shi, Zumin; Dickerman, Barbra; Compher, Charlene

    2011-08-01

    Although the prevalence of malnutrition has decreased, micronutrient deficiency still exists among children. While iron level has been studied, limited information on serum levels of zinc in Chinese children is available. This study aims to describe the status of micronutrients and its association with sociodemographic factors, and to assess associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study was performed on 1375 Chinese preschool children. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for zinc and iron by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Sociodemographic information was obtained from self-administered questionnaires given to the parents. The high prevalence of low serum zinc (38.2%) and iron (24.3%) was found. Children from rural preschools had the lowest zinc levels, whereas those from urban preschools had the lowest iron levels. Children living in small houses had the highest prevalence of low serum zinc (47.1%), and children from small families (≤3 persons) had a higher prevalence of low serum zinc than those from large families (41.8% vs. 34.1%). Our findings in the recent socioeconomic development of China suggest the need for continuous monitoring of nutritional factors and highlight the importance of public health implication in preschool children even in developed regions.

  2. A retrospective analysis of the InterTan nail and proximal femoral nail anti-rotation-Asia in the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric femur fractures in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiguang; Zhang, Xinchao; Zhu, Xingfei; Hu, Jun; Liu, Yunjiang

    2016-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of elderly patients undergoing surgery for treatment of unstable trochanteric fractures receiving either proximal femoral nails anti-rotation-Asia (PFNA-IIs) or InterTan nails (ITs). Between January 1, 2012, and June 31, 2015, 168 elderly patients with unstable intertrochanteric femur fractures enrolled in this study. The only intervention was ITs or PFNA-IIs of the unstable trochanteric femur fractures. Follow-up was at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively and yearly thereafter. Intraoperative variables and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Eight patients died, six were too infirmed for follow-up, and seven were lost during follow-up, leaving 147 patients meeting the criteria were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 20 months (range 16-26 months). Significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding local complications (IT, n = 10 vs. PFNA-II, n = 20), varus collapse of the head/neck or femoral shaft fractures at the tip of the nail (IT, n = 1 vs. PFNA-II, n = 8), femoral neck shortening (IT, 4.4 ± 1.1 mm vs. PFNA-II, 7.4 ± 2.4 mm), fracture healing time (IT, 14.7 ± 2.1 weeks vs. PFNA-II, 15.7 ± 2.4 weeks), femoral shaft fractures (IT, n = 0 vs. PFNA-II, n = 4), rotational loss of reduction (IT, n = 0 vs. PFNA-II, n = 9), lateral cortex fractures of the proximal femur or lateral greater trochanter fractures (IT, n = 8 vs. PFNA-II, n = 1), operative time (IT, 71.9 ± 6.8 min vs. PFNA-II, 52.3 ± 4.0 min), intraoperative blood loss (IT, 190.6 ± 6.0 mL vs. PFNA-II, 180.9 ± 10.8 mL), fluoroscopy time (IT, 5.0 ± 0.48 min vs. PFNA-II, 2.8 ± 0.33 min), hospital stay (IT, 9.65 ± 0.95 days vs. PFNA-II, 8.58 ± 0.93 days), cut-out (IT, n = 0 vs. PFNA-II, n = 6), and tip-apex distance (IT, 26.7 ± 0.91 mm vs. PFNA-II, 23.2 ± 1.22 mm). No significant differences existed for the other observation indexes (p > 0.05). The IT nail may have more advantage for

  3. Cost of compliance with daily recommended values of micronutrients among a cohort of Spanish university graduates: the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Celeste N; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Alonso, Alvaro; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; de la Fuente, Carmen; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that highly nutritious diets are more costly, but to date there has been no evaluation of the costs associated with failing to meet micronutrient recommendations in a Spanish population. We examined whether daily food consumption costs (classified in quintiles) were associated with failing to meet at least three daily nutritional recommendations out of twenty (including fibre and nineteen micronutrients) in a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a cohort of 17,197 Spanish university graduates. Micronutrients and fibre intake were assessed with a validated 136-item FFQ. Average cost of food was calculated from official Spanish government data. As participants presented higher dietary energy cost from their diet, their intake of micronutrients increased significantly. Low dietary energy cost was associated with a higher likelihood of failing to meet three or more recommendations (P for trend <0.001 across quintiles of dietary cost), the association being stronger among female than male participants (P for interaction between sex and quintile of dietary energy cost <0.001).

  4. The road to micronutrient biofortification of rice:Progress and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram eBashir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofortification (Increasing the contents of vitamins and minerals through plant breeding or biotechnology of food crops with micronutrient elements has the potential to combat widespread micronutrient deficiencies in humans. Rice (Oryza sativa L. feeds more than half of the world’s population and is used as a staple food in many parts of Asia. As in other plants, micronutrient transport in rice is controlled at several stages, including uptake from soil, transport from root to shoot, careful control of subcellular micronutrient transport, and finally, and most importantly, transport to seeds. To enhance micronutrient accumulation in rice seeds, we need to understand and carefully regulate all of these processes. During the last decade, numerous attempts such as increasing the contents/expression of genes encoding metal chelators (mostly phytosiderophores and metal transporters; overexpressing Fe storage protein ferritin and phytase were successfully undertaken to significantly increase the micronutrient content of rice. However, despite the rapid progress in biofortification of rice, the commercialization of biofortified crops has not yet been achieved. Here, we briefly review the progress in biofortification of rice with micronutrient elements (Fe, Zn and Mn and discuss future prospects to mitigate widespread micronutrient deficiencies in humans.

  5. Micronutrient status in anemic and non-anemic Chinese women in the third trimester of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, A.G.; Schouten, E.G.; Wang, Y.; Xu, R.X.; Zheng, M.C.; Li, Y.; Wang, Q.Z.; Sun, Y.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a major nutrition related problem in China. In addition to iron deficiency this may be due to deficiencies of other micronutrients. Objective: To describe the micronutrient status of anemic and non-anemic pregnant women in China. Subjects and Methods: 734 clinically normal

  6. Micronutrient intake of HIV-infected women in Mangaung, Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Older HIV-infected women had significantly lower intakes of haem iron (p = 0.03), non-haem iron (p = 0.04) and selenium (p = 0.04) than their HIV-uninfected counterparts. Conclusions. Insufficient micronutrient intakes are common in both HIV-infected and uninfected women. A well-balanced diet and micronutrient ...

  7. The role of micronutrients in child health: A review of the literature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such as frequent consumption of nutrient-poor foods (as unhealthy snacks), and the “refusal” to take green leafy vegetables and fruits compromise their intake of micronutrients (such as zinc, iodine, vitamin A, iron, folate and selenium) from dietary sources. This paper reviews the role of micronutrients in child health and the ...

  8. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, A Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G.K. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical

  9. Micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics and prebiotics, a review of effectiveness in reducing HIV progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical

  10. Micronutrient intake and status in Central and Eastern Europe compared with other European countries, results from the EURRECA network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, R.N.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Bekkering, G.E.; Roman-Vinas, B.; Ngo, J.; Gurinovic, M.; Glibetic, M.; Golesorkhi, M.; Warthon-Medina, M.; Satalic, Z.; Geelen, A.; Serra Majem, L.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare micronutrient intakes and status in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) with those in other European countries and with reference values. Design: Review of the micronutrient intake/status data from open access and grey literature source

  11. A framework to explore micronutrient deficiency in maternal and child health in Malawi, Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Natalie; Gulliver, John; MacPherson, Gordon; Atkinson, John; Rankin, Jean; Cummings, Maria; Nisbet, Zoe; Hursthouse, Andrew; Taylor, Avril; Robertson, Chris; Burghardt, Wolfgang

    2009-12-21

    Global food insecurity is associated with micronutrient deficiencies and it has been suggested that 4.5 billion people world-wide are affected by deficiencies in iron, vitamin A and iodine. Zinc has also been identified to be of increasing concern. The most vulnerable are young children and women of childbearing age. A pilot study has been carried out in Southern Malawi, to attempt to link the geochemical and agricultural basis of micronutrient supply through spatial variability to maternal health and associated cultural and social aspects of nutrition. The aim is to establish the opportunity for concerted action to deliver step change improvements in the nutrition of developing countries. Field work undertaken in August 2007 and July/August 2008 involved the collection of blood, soil and crop samples, and questionnaires from ~100 pregnant women. Complex permissions and authorisation protocols were identified and found to be as much part of the cultural and social context of the work as the complexity of the interdisciplinary project. These issues are catalogued and discussed. A preliminary spatial evaluation is presented linking soil quality and food production to nutritional health. It also considers behavioural and cultural attitudes of women and children in two regions of southern Malawi, (the Shire Valley and Shire Highlands plateau). Differences in agricultural practice and widely varying soil quality (e.g. pH organic matter, C/N and metal content) were observed for both regions and full chemical analysis of soil and food is underway. Early assessment of blood data suggests major differences in health and nutritional status between the two regions. Differences in food availability and type and observations of life style are being evaluated through questionnaire analysis. The particular emphasis of the study is on the interdisciplinary opportunities and the barriers to progress in development support in subsistence communities. Engaging at the community level

  12. Micronutrient deficiencies as predisposing factors for hypertension in lacto-vegetarian Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Agte, Vaishali V; Tarwadi, Kirtan V; Paknikar, Kishor M; Diwate, Uma P

    2004-06-01

    With the increasing knowledge about the antioxidant potential of many micronutrients such as zinc and vitamin C, their roles in oxidative stress related health disorders have been postulated. This study therefore investigated low micronutrient status as a predisposing factor for hypertension in a traditionally lacto-vegetarian population like Indians. Micronutrient profile was assessed in 109 hypertensives with age-gender-socio-economic status matched 115 healthy normotensives (30-58 years of age). Food intakes were estimated through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Nutrient intakes were then evaluated by previous estimates of cooked foods from our laboratory. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), age, weight, height, waist and hip circumference, occupation, physical activity, smoking habits were recorded. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, serum level of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, ceruloplasmin, plasma level of ascorbic acid, folic acid, retinol, erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRAC) and erythrocyte membrane zinc. There were no significant differences between protein, fat intakes of normal and hypertensive individuals, though intakes of men were higher than those of women (p 0.2) in these subjects. Conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that intakes of vitamin C, folic acid and zinc were associated with 18% (OR = 1.18, 95% CI:1.08, 1.26), 51% (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 0.94, 2.1) higher odds for hypertension, and 3% lower odds for hypertension (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.92, 1.01), respectively. Mean plasma vitamin C and folic acid were significantly higher (p < 0.01), and serum ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte membrane zinc were marginally higher (p = 0.07) in normal than hypertensive subjects. In multivariate linear regression analyses, plasma vitamin C, serum ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte membrane zinc were negatively associated with SBP (p = 0.00001) and plasma vitamin C was

  13. Efficacy of a multi micronutrient-fortified drink in improving iron and micronutrient status among schoolchildren with low iron stores in India: A randomised, double-masked placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multiple micronutrient-fortified drink could be an effective strategy to combating micronutrient deficiencies in school-going children. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of a multiple micronutrient-fortified drink in reducing iron deficiency (ID), ID anemia (IDA), anemia and improving micro...

  14. Sensitivity and specificity of in situ proximity ligation for protein interaction analysis in a model of steatohepatitis with Mallory-Denk bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Zatloukal

    Full Text Available The in situ proximity ligation assay (isPLA is an increasingly used technology for in situ detection of protein interactions, post-translational modifications, and spatial relationships of antigens in cells and tissues, in general. In order to test its performance we compared isPLA with immunofluorescence microscopy by analyzing protein interactions in cytoplasmic protein aggregates, so-called Mallory Denk bodies (MDBs. These structures represent protein inclusions in hepatocytes typically found in human steatohepatitis and they can be generated in mice by feeding of 3,5-diethoxy-carbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC. We investigated the colocalization of all three key MDB components, namely keratin 8 (K8, keratin 18 (K18, and p62 (sequestosome 1 by isPLA and immunofluorescence microscopy. Sensitivity and specificity of isPLA was assessed by using Krt8-/- and Krt18-/- mice as biological controls, along with a series of technical controls. isPLA signal visualization is a robust technology with excellent sensitivity and specificity. The biological relevance of signals generated critically depends on the performance of antibodies used, which requires careful testing of antibodies like in immunofluorescence microscopy. There is a clear advantage of isPLA in visualizing protein co-localization, particularly when antigens are present at markedly different concentrations. Furthermore, isPLA is superior to confocal microscopy with respect to spatial resolution of colocalizing antigens. Disadvantages compared to immunofluorescence are increased costs and longer duration of the laboratory protocol.

  15. Breeding for micronutrients in staple food crops from a human nutrition perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Ross M; Graham, Robin D

    2004-02-01

    Over three billion people are currently micronutrient (i.e. micronutrient elements and vitamins) malnourished, resulting in egregious societal costs including learning disabilities among children, increased morbidity and mortality rates, lower worker productivity, and high healthcare costs, all factors diminishing human potential, felicity, and national economic development. Nutritional deficiencies (e.g. iron, zinc, vitamin A) account for almost two-thirds of the childhood death worldwide. Most of those afflicted are dependent on staple crops for their sustenance. Importantly, these crops can be enriched (i.e. 'biofortified') with micronutrients using plant breeding and/or transgenic strategies, because micronutrient enrichment traits exist within their genomes that can to used for substantially increasing micronutrient levels in these foods without negatively impacting crop productivity. Furthermore, 'proof of concept' studies have been published using transgenic approaches to biofortify staple crops (e.g. high beta-carotene 'golden rice' grain, high ferritin-Fe rice grain, etc). In addition, micronutrient element enrichment of seeds can increase crop yields when sowed to micronutrient-poor soils, assuring their adoption by farmers. Bioavailability issues must be addressed when employing plant breeding and/or transgenic approaches to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. Enhancing substances (e.g. ascorbic acid, S-containing amino acids, etc) that promote micronutrient bioavailability or decreasing antinutrient substances (e.g. phytate, polyphenolics, etc) that inhibit micronutrient bioavailability, are both options that could be pursued, but the latter approach should be used with caution. The world's agricultural community should adopt plant breeding and other genetic technologies to improve human health, and the world's nutrition and health communities should support these efforts. Sustainable solutions to this enormous global problem of 'hidden hunger' will not

  16. Proximal caries detection: Sirona Sidexis versus Kodak Ektaspeed Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Ludlow, John B; Caplan, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of intraoral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD) receptor for proximal caries detection. Four observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a five-point confidence scale. The actual status of each surface was determined from ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under ROC curves (Az) were assessed through a paired t-test. The performance of the CCD-based intraoral sensor was not different statistically from Ektaspeed Plus film in detecting proximal caries.

  17. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  18. Micronutrients and urban life-style: lessons from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, N W

    1997-06-01

    Guatemala is a nation of 10 million persons, at the northern point of the chain of five Republics derived from Spanish colonies on the Isthmus of Central America. The country is diverse in its ethnicities, its climate and terrain, and its agricultural pursuits. The majority of its population is poor, illiterate, and under-employed. It has had a unique and turbulent political history, and only recently has emerged. The traditional basis of the diet, dating to Mayan times, is maize and beans. Guatemala City, with its population in excess of 2 million inhabitants, having doubled since the Earthquake of 1976, is the only major metropolis. The pattern of dietary selection and the format of eating meals is changing in relationship to the size, congestion, economic evolution, and modernization of the capital city. A wider selection of foods is consumed in the city, but preparation follows the traditions of the rural cuisine. Street vendors play an ever larger role in the feeding of the urban poor. Quantitative data are only available for vitamin A and zinc, and only in certain subsegments of the population. The vitamin A in fortified foods, notably table sugar which is fortified with retinyl palmitate by legal mandate, makes up over one-third of the intake. The maize tortilla is an important sources of calcium, iron, zinc and copper. Average zinc intakes are appropriate, but the biological availability of the metal is low. The intake of iodine is totally dependent upon table salt which is inconsistently fortified. Data on micronutrient status exists for vitamin A, iron, iodine, riboflavin and zinc. With respect to rural areas, no major advantages or disadvantages in the adequacy of micronutrient nutriture can be claimed for the urban population. It is possible that, in the metropolitan area, vitamin A nutriture is slightly better and riboflavin status somewhat poorer than in the countryside. The prospects for future directions in urban lifestyle, in micronutrient status

  19. A comparison of conventional maximum intensity projection with a new depth-specific topographic mapping technique in the CT analysis of proximal tibial subchondral bone density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, James D. [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); University of British Columbia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kontulainen, Saija A. [University of Saskatchewan, College of Kinesiology, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Masri, Bassam A.; Wilson, David R. [University of British Columbia, Department of Orthopaedics, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    The objective was to identify subchondral bone density differences between normal and osteoarthritic (OA) proximal tibiae using computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry (CT-OAM) and computed tomography topographic mapping of subchondral density (CT-TOMASD). Sixteen intact cadaver knees from ten donors (8 male:2 female; mean age:77.8, SD:7.4 years) were categorized as normal (n = 10) or OA (n = 6) based upon CT reconstructions. CT-OAM assessed maximum subchondral bone mineral density (BMD). CT-TOMASD assessed average subchondral BMD across three layers (0-2.5, 2.5-5 and 5-10 mm) measured in relation to depth from the subchondral surface. Regional analyses of CT-OAM and CT-TOMASD included: medial BMD, lateral BMD, and average BMD of a 10-mm diameter area that searched each medial and lateral plateau for the highest ''focal'' density present within each knee. Compared with normal knees, both CT-OAM and CT-TOMASD demonstrated an average of 17% greater whole medial compartment density in OA knees (p < 0.016). CT-OAM did not distinguish focal density differences between OA and normal knees (p > 0.05). CT-TOMASD focal region analyses revealed an average of 24% greater density in the 0- to 2.5-mm layer (p = 0.003) and 36% greater density in the 2.5- to 5-mm layer (p = 0.034) in OA knees. Both CT-OAM and TOMASD identified higher medial compartment density in OA tibiae compared with normal tibiae. In addition, CT-TOMASD indicated greater focal density differences between normal and OA knees with increased depth from the subchondral surface. Depth-specific density analyses may help identify and quantify small changes in subchondral BMD associated with OA disease onset and progression. (orig.)

  20. Proximal Neuromuscular Control Protects Against Hamstring Injuries in Male Soccer Players: A Prospective Study With Electromyography Time-Series Analysis During Maximal Sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuermans, Joke; Danneels, Lieven; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Palmans, Tanneke; Witvrouw, Erik

    2017-05-01

    With their unremittingly high incidence rate and detrimental functional repercussions, hamstring injuries remain a substantial problem in male soccer. Proximal neuromuscular control ("core stability") is considered to be of key importance in primary and secondary hamstring injury prevention, although scientific evidence and insights on the exact nature of the core-hamstring association are nonexistent at present. The muscle activation pattern throughout the running cycle would not differ between participants based on injury occurrence during follow-up. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Sixty amateur soccer players participated in a multimuscle surface electromyography (sEMG) assessment during maximal acceleration to full-speed sprinting. Subsequently, hamstring injury occurrence was registered during a 1.5-season follow-up period. Hamstring, gluteal, and trunk muscle activity time series during the airborne and stance phases of acceleration were evaluated and statistically explored for a possible causal association with injury occurrence and absence from sport during follow-up. Players who did not experience a hamstring injury during follow-up had significantly higher amounts of gluteal muscle activity during the front swing phase ( P = .027) and higher amounts of trunk muscle activity during the backswing phase of sprinting ( P = .042). In particular, the risk of sustaining a hamstring injury during follow-up lowered by 20% and 6%, with a 10% increment in normalized muscle activity of the gluteus maximus during the front swing and the trunk muscles during the backswing, respectively ( P < .024). Muscle activity of the core unit during explosive running appeared to be associated with hamstring injury occurrence in male soccer players. Higher amounts of gluteal and trunk muscle activity during the airborne phases of sprinting were associated with a lower risk of hamstring injuries during follow-up. Hence, the present results provide a basis for improved

  1. Patient adherence in following a prescribed diet and micronutrient supplements after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: our experience during 1 year of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, L; Scalera, G; Pilone, V; De Sena, G; Ciorra, F R; Barbarisi, A

    2017-02-01

    One of the most effective surgeries for sustainable weight loss in morbidly obese patients is laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). The present study aimed to assess the adherence of LSG patients with respect to following post-operative dietary requirements and micronutrient supplementation, as well as to investigate their perceived barriers in achieving optimal adherence. Retrospective data analysis was performed (3, 6, 9 and 12 months after LSG) using the medical records of 96 morbidly obese patients who had undergone LSG at our institution during 2011-2013. Data collected from patient records were: adherence to prescribed diet; adherence to prescribed consumption of fruit, vegetables, legumes and cereals; use of prescribed micronutrient supplements; and barriers to diet and micronutrient therapy adherence. Data were analysed using spss, version 14.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). At 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-LSG, the rates of patient non-adherence to a prescribed diet were 39%, 45%, 51% and 74%, respectively. In particular, there was a low consumption of fruit, vegetables, legumes and cereals compared to the post-surgery prescription. In addition, the rates of patient non-adherence to prescribed micronutrient supplements at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-LSG were 43%, 51%, 59% and 67%, respectively. The main reasons for patient non-adherence to diet were poor self-discipline (72%) and poor family support (11%) whereas difficulty swallowing pills or capsules (61%) and cost (20%) were reported as the main barriers to post-LSG adherence. Morbidly obese patients who have undergone LSG do not follow exactly the post-operative dietary guidelines, including micronutrient therapy. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. Missing Lunch is Associated with Lower Intakes of Micronutrients from Foods and Beverages among Children and Adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Kevin C; Jacquier, Emma; Eldridge, Alison L

    2016-04-01

    In the United States, the lunch meal contributes more than 20% of the daily intakes of most micronutrients for children and adolescents consuming lunch. Seven percent to 20% of children and adolescents in the United States do not eat lunch on a given day. To identify differences in total micro- and macronutrient intakes of children consuming and missing lunch on a given day. Cross-sectional secondary analysis of the combined National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2009-2010 and 2011-2012. Dietary intake was assessed using the first day 24-hour recall of each respondent. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sample represents the total noninstitutionalized civilian population residing in the United States. The sample used in this study included 4,755 children aged 4 to 18 years with complete data for all analyses. Total day, lunch, and nonlunch micronutrients, macronutrients, solid fats, and added sugar intakes were examined. Linear regression models controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, household poverty status, and weekend were used to compare dietary intakes of lunch consumers and nonconsumers. Intakes from nonlunch sources were examined to determine the extent to which differences between lunch consumers and nonconsumers could be attributed to the lunch meal. Missing lunch was associated with lower micronutrient intakes, with the lunch meal primarily responsible for the higher micronutrient intakes of lunch consumers compared with nonconsumers. Missing lunch was also associated with lower energy, fiber, and sodium intakes. Added sugar and solid fat intakes of lunch consumers and nonconsumers were not significantly different. This study identifies potential concerns for children missing lunch with respect to micronutrient intakes and shows that the lunches consumed by children in the United States are an important source of essential nutrients, but also less healthful dietary components. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and

  3. Trace Mineral Micronutrients and Chronic Periodontitis-a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Sumit; Agnihotri, Rupali

    2017-04-01

    Trace mineral micronutrients are imperative for optimum host response. Populations worldwide are prone to their insufficiency owing to lifestyle changes or poor nutritional intake. Balanced levels of trace minerals like iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and copper (Cu) are essential to prevent progression of chronic conditions like periodontitis. Their excess as well as deficiency is detrimental to periodontal health. This is specifically true in relation to Fe. Furthermore, some trace elements, e.g. Se, Zn and Cu are integral components of antioxidant enzymes and prevent reactive oxygen species induced destruction of tissues. Their deficiency can worsen periodontitis associated with systemic conditions like diabetes mellitus. With this background, the present review first focusses on the role of four trace minerals, namely, Fe, Zn, Se and Cu in periodontal health followed by an appraisal of the data from case control studies related to their association with chronic periodontitis.

  4. Creatinine, Diet, Micronutrients, and Arsenic Methylation in West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arin; Mitra, Soma; Chung, Joyce; Guha Mazumder, D.N.; Ghosh, Nilima; Kalman, David; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S.; Steinmaus, Craig; Liaw, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ingested inorganic arsenic (InAs) is methylated to monomethylated (MMA) and dimethylated metabolites (DMA). Methylation may have an important role in arsenic toxicity, because the monomethylated trivalent metabolite [MMA(III)] is highly toxic. Objectives: We assessed the relationship of creatinine and nutrition—using dietary intake and blood concentrations of micronutrients—with arsenic metabolism, as reflected in the proportions of InAS, MMA, and DMA in urine, in the first study that incorporated both dietary and micronutrient data. Methods: We studied methylation patterns and nutritional factors in 405 persons who were selected from a cross-sectional survey of 7,638 people in an arsenic-exposed population in West Bengal, India. We assessed associations of urine creatinine and nutritional factors (19 dietary intake variables and 16 blood micronutrients) with arsenic metabolites in urine. Results: Urinary creatinine had the strongest relationship with overall arsenic methylation to DMA. Those with the highest urinary creatinine concentrations had 7.2% more arsenic as DMA compared with those with low creatinine (p < 0.001). Animal fat intake had the strongest relationship with MMA% (highest tertile animal fat intake had 2.3% more arsenic as MMA, p < 0.001). Low serum selenium and low folate were also associated with increased MMA%. Conclusions: Urine creatinine concentration was the strongest biological marker of arsenic methylation efficiency, and therefore should not be used to adjust for urine concentration in arsenic studies. The new finding that animal fat intake has a positive relationship with MMA% warrants further assessment in other studies. Increased MMA% was also associated, to a lesser extent, with low serum selenium and folate. PMID:21652291

  5. Food prices and poverty negatively affect micronutrient intakes in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L; Robles, Miguel; Pachón, Helena; Chiarella, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Limited empirical evidence exists for how economic conditions affect micronutrient nutrition. We hypothesized that increasing poverty and rising food prices would reduce consumption of high-quality "luxury" foods, leading to an increased probability of inadequacy for several nutrients. The 2006 Guatemala National Living Conditions Survey was analyzed. First, energy and nutrient intakes and adequacy levels were calculated. Second, the income-nutrient relationships were investigated by assessing disparities in intakes, determining income-nutrient elasticities, and modeling nutrient intakes by reductions in income. Third, the food price-nutrient relationships were explored through determination of price-nutrient elasticities and modeling 2 price scenarios: an increase in food prices similar in magnitude to the food price crisis of 2007-2008 and a standardized 10% increase across all food groups. Disparities in nutrient intakes were greatest for vitamin B-12 (0.38 concentration index) and vitamin A (0.30 concentration index); these nutrients were highly and positively correlated with income (r = 0.22-0.54; P < 0.05). Although the baseline probability of inadequacy was highest for vitamin B-12 (83%), zinc showed the greatest increase in probability of inadequacy as income was reduced, followed by folate and vitamin A. With rising food prices, zinc intake was most acutely affected under both scenarios (P < 0.05) and folate intake in the poorest quintile (+7 percentage points) under the 10% scenario. Price-nutrient elasticities were highest for vitamin B-12 and the meat, poultry, and fish group (-0.503) and for folate and the legumes group (-0.343). The economic factors of food prices and income differentially influenced micronutrient intakes in Guatemala, notably zinc and folate intakes.

  6. Micronutrient influence in Nannochloropsis sp. growth and biochemical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Rosado Correia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are a heterogeneous group, which includes various and distinct taxa. However, few genera are actively used in aquaculture, due to the lack of specific requirements, like adequate size, shape and non-toxic. Nannochloropsis sp. is one of the main microalgae used in aquaculture, due to its nutritional profile and for being a fast-growing microalgae. Despite its characteristics, large-scale culture of Nannochloropsis sp. is in constant improvement, in order to accomplish the best productivity, combined with an adequate biochemical profile. In an attempt to achieve this, an experimental set-up was tested with microalgae grown in four different culture media: (1 NutriBloom [NB] (commercial medium used at Necton’s facilities, (2 NutriBloom without cobalt [NB w/Co], (3 Simplex [S] (no addition of iron or any micronutrient and (4 Sea Mineral Solution [SMS]. Nannochloropsis’s contents of protein, carbohydrates, total lipid and PUFA’s were controlled at logarithmic and stationary phases of growth, using classical techniques, as mentioned in Lowry (1951, Dubois (1956, Bligh and Dyer (1959 and Lepage & Roy (1986. Higher productivity, dry weight and number of cells were achieved when cultured in NB and NB w/Co. In the logarithmic phase, NB w/Co presented the higher protein content, SMS showed the higher percentage of lipid and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS. In the stationary phase, S medium showed higher lipid percentage; nevertheless, NB medium presented the higher content of protein and PUFAs. In both phases, NB medium had the higher sugar content. Differences between micronutrient concentrations explain the verified variations in the microalgae’s biochemical profile, particularly iron, copper, cobalt and molybdenium variations.

  7. Blood micronutrients in Algeria, relationships with sex and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachili, B; Faure, H; Arnaud, J; Richard, M J; Benlatreche, C; Favier, A; Roussel, A M

    2001-03-01

    Despite trace elements and vitamins are major public health problems in some African countries, there are few studies reporting micronutrient status in North Africa. Therefore, it could be interesting to evaluate plasma concentrations of vitamin A, E and beta-cartene, along with zinc, copper, selenium erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in Algeria. Volunteers were randomly recruited in Constantine, Batna and Mila. Vitamins, trace elements and enzymes were measured in the University Hospital of Grenoble. 455 persons were included in the study. Subjects were divided in 3 groups: group I: 15 girls and 12 boys who were 6 to 12.9 years old, group II: 190 women and 192 men 13 to 49.9 years old, group III: 24 women and 24 men 50 to 65 years old. Plasma concentrations of micronutrients and enzymes are close to those commonly observed in Europe, except for vitamin A concentrations. Indeed, retinol levels are 30-35% lower than those reported in European countries, moreover almost 8% of the population showed retinol concentrations less than 1.05 mumol/l. beta-Carotene levels were also lower than in the French average population. Ten per cent of the population had plasma zinc levels lower than 10.6 mumol/l. Vitamin E, copper and selenium status seems satisfactory in Algeria. Vitamin A is not a public health problem, however a significant percentage of residents exhibits impaired vitamin A levels and may benefit from retinol supplementation. Larger studies are needed, and particularly in children, to detect possible higher prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in poor socio-economical classes and in inner geographic areas.

  8. SHORT COMMUNICATION PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  9. Efficacy and safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum in the treatment of proximal interphalangeal joints in dupuytren contracture: combined analysis of 4 phase 3 clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalamente, Marie A; Hurst, Lawrence C; Benhaim, Prosper; Cohen, Brian M

    2015-05-01

    To examine the results of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contractures from 4 phase 3 clinical trials of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection for Dupuytren contracture. Patients enrolled in Collagenase Option for Reduction of Dupuytren I/II and JOINT I/II with one or more PIP joint contractures (20° to 80°) received CCH 0.58 mg/0.20 mL or placebo (Collagenase Option for Reduction of Dupuytren I/II only) injected directly into a palpable cord. The percentage of PIP joints achieving clinical success (0° to 5° of full extension), clinical improvement (50% or more reduction in baseline contracture), and range of motion improvement at 30 days after the first and last CCH injections was assessed. The PIP joint contractures were classified into low (40° or less) and high (more than 40°) baseline severity. Adverse events were recorded. A total of 506 adults (mean age, 63 ± 10 y; 80% male) received 1,165 CCH injections in 644 PIP joint cords (mean, 1.6 injections/cord). Most patients (60%) received 1 injection, with 24%, 16%, and 1% receiving 2, 3, and 4 injections, respectively. Clinical success and clinical improvement occurred in 27% and 49% of PIP joints after one injection and in 34% and 58% after the last injection. Patients with lower baseline severity showed greater improvement and response was comparable between fingers, as were improvements in range of motion. Adverse events occurring in more than 10% of patients were peripheral edema (58%), contusion (38%), injection site hemorrhage (23%), injection site pain (21%), injection site swelling (16%), and tenderness (13%). This incidence was consistent with data reported in phase 3 trials. Two tendon ruptures occurred. No further ruptures occurred after a modified injection technique was adopted. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum was effective and well tolerated in the short term in patients with Dupuytren PIP joint contractures. Therapeutic II. Copyright © 2015 American Society for

  10. Synergistic improvement of crop physiological status by combination of cadmium immobilization and micronutrient fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingtao; Dumat, Camille; Lu, Huanping; Li, Yingwen; Li, Hanqing; Xiao, Yanhui; Zhuang, Ping; Li, Zhian

    2016-04-01

    Wollastonite application in cadmium-contaminated soils can reduce cadmium concentrations in plant, while the side effect is the synchronous immobilization of micronutrients, which reduces micronutrient uptake in plant, inducing micronutrient deficient symptoms. Accordingly, we investigated whether the supplement of Zn and Mn fertilizers after the wollastonite addition could promote the growth and photosynthesis in amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.). In this study, plants were cultivated in cadmium-contaminated soil under micronutrient fertilization alone, wollastonite addition, and combination of wollastonite and micronutrient fertilization treatments. Then, plant biomass; photosynthesis parameters; and total Cd, Zn, and Mn concentrations were investigated. Moreover, chemical extractions were performed on soil samples. The results show that application of wollastonite decreased Cd, Zn, and Mn concentrations in plant and availability in soil and it increased the gas exchange ability of plants. But, it reduced the chlorophyll content in leaves and had no positive influence on plant biomass. In comparison, Zn and Mn fertilization after wollastonite application greatly increased plant biomass and photosynthetic ability. It also reduced Cd phytoavailability more efficiently. Therefore, synergistic improvement of physiological status of farmland crop by sequential treatment with first wollastonite for cadmium immobilization, and then micronutrient fertilization to avoid micronutrient deficiency, was demonstrated.

  11. The Termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Rhinotermitidae: Isoptera) Can Acquire Micronutrients from Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzow, Micah P; Judd, Timothy M

    2015-06-01

    Micronutrients are important for metabolic processes and structures in insects. How termites obtain micronutrients from the environment is not fully understood. It has been suggested that lower subterranean termites of Rhinotermitidae only gain their nutrients from their food sources. However, for subterranean termites, soil offers a potential source of micronutrients. This study tested the hypothesis that subterranean termites acquire micronutrients from the soil. Laboratory colonies of Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar were reared in arenas in which the levels of micronutrients, food, and soil were varied. The results showed that the micronutrients Ca (Calcium), Fe (Iron), Mg (Magnesium), and Mn (Manganese) were obtained from the soil, Cu (copper) was obtained by the food source, and K (Potassium) and Zn (Zinc) showed no differences between treatments. The results of this experiment suggest that subterranean termites can acquire micronutrients from the soil as well as other food sources. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Micronutrient levels and supplement intake in pregnancy after bariatric surgery: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Devlieger

    Full Text Available Studies report frequent micronutrient deficiencies after bariatric surgery, but less is known about micronutrient levels of pregnant women after bariatric surgery.To prospectively evaluate micronutrient levels and supplement intake in pregnancy following bariatric surgery.A multicenter prospective cohort study including women with restrictive or malabsorptive types of bariatric surgery. Nutritional deficiencies, together with supplement intake, were screened during pregnancy.The total population included 18 women in the restrictive and 31 in the malabsorptive group. Most micronutrients were depleted and declined significantly during pregnancy. The proportion of women with low vitamin A and B-1 levels increased to respectively 58 and 17% at delivery (P = 0.005 and 0.002. The proportion of women with vitamin D deficiency decreased from 14% at trimester 1 to 6% at delivery (P = 0.030. Mild anemia was found in respectively 22 and 40% of the women at trimester 1 and delivery. In the first trimester, most women took a multivitamin (57.1%. In the second and third trimester, the majority took additional supplements (69.4 and 73.5%. No associations were found between supplement intake and micronutrient deficiencies.Pregnant women with bariatric surgery show frequent low micronutrient levels. Supplementation partially normalizes low levels of micronutrients.

  13. Micronutrient levels and supplement intake in pregnancy after bariatric surgery: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlieger, Roland; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Jans, Goele; Voets, Willy; Vanholsbeke, Caroline; Vansant, Greet

    2014-01-01

    Studies report frequent micronutrient deficiencies after bariatric surgery, but less is known about micronutrient levels of pregnant women after bariatric surgery. To prospectively evaluate micronutrient levels and supplement intake in pregnancy following bariatric surgery. A multicenter prospective cohort study including women with restrictive or malabsorptive types of bariatric surgery. Nutritional deficiencies, together with supplement intake, were screened during pregnancy. The total population included 18 women in the restrictive and 31 in the malabsorptive group. Most micronutrients were depleted and declined significantly during pregnancy. The proportion of women with low vitamin A and B-1 levels increased to respectively 58 and 17% at delivery (P = 0.005 and 0.002). The proportion of women with vitamin D deficiency decreased from 14% at trimester 1 to 6% at delivery (P = 0.030). Mild anemia was found in respectively 22 and 40% of the women at trimester 1 and delivery. In the first trimester, most women took a multivitamin (57.1%). In the second and third trimester, the majority took additional supplements (69.4 and 73.5%). No associations were found between supplement intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Pregnant women with bariatric surgery show frequent low micronutrient levels. Supplementation partially normalizes low levels of micronutrients.

  14. Determination of Micronutrient Accumulation in Greenhouse Cucumber Crop Using a Modeling Approach

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    Lino J. Ramírez-Pérez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The control of micronutrient application in cucumber cultivation has great importance as they participate in many functions of metabolism. In addition, micronutrient application efficiency is fundamental to avoid periods of overconsumption or deficits in the crop. To determine micronutrient accumulation using a dynamic model, two cycles of Vitaly and Luxell cucumber crops were grown. During the development of the crop, micronutrient content (Fe, B, Mn, Cu, and Zn in the different organs of the cucumber plant was quantified. The model dynamically simulated the accumulation of biomass and micronutrients using climatic variables recorded inside the greenhouse as inputs. It was found that a decrease in photosynthetically active radiation and temperature significantly diminished the accumulation of biomass by the cucumber plants. On the other hand, the results demonstrated that the model efficiently simulated both the accumulation of biomass and micronutrients in a cucumber crop. The efficiency evaluation showed values higher than R2 > 0.95. This dynamic model can be useful to define adequate strategies for the management of cucumber cultivation in greenhouses as well as the application of micronutrients.

  15. Changes in micronutrient supply to the surface Southern Ocean (Atlantic sector) across the glacial termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Katharine R.; Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.; Allen, Claire S.

    2011-09-01

    Major deepwater masses upwell and reach the surface in the Southern Ocean, forming an important conduit supplying nutrients and micronutrients to the surface and playing a key role in the regulation of global climate through ocean-atmosphere gas exchange. Here, we reconstruct changes in micronutrient distribution in this region in response to past changes in upwelling, oceanic mixing, and sea-ice seasonality. We present two downcore (Zn/Si)opal records from the Scotia Sea and Drake Passage region, which we interpret in the context of micronutrient distribution in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean over the last glacial termination. Previous work shows that micronutrient availability in the surface waters in the South Atlantic appear to be controlled dominantly by upwelling and mixing of micronutrient rich deepwaters, which are additionally fuelled by the terrestrial sediment sources of the Scotia Arc and South Georgia. This is supported by our reconstructions, which show micronutrient availability to the west of the Scotia Arc and South Georgia are consistently lower than to the east over the last glacial termination due to downstream transport and mixing into surface waters of continentally derived material in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Micronutrient availability in this region was at a minimum from 20 to 25 ky BP, coinciding with maximum sea-ice coverage, and increased due to an expansion of the seasonal sea-ice zone and increased mixing of subsurface waters. Our findings are consistent with largely diminished upwelling of micronutrients during the maximum glacial extent, and reduced mixing due to the presence of persistent sea-ice. During the deglacial there was an increase in micronutrient availability, as well as other nutrients and inorganic carbon, within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current as a result of an increase in deep oceanic upwelling, mixing and strengthened zonal transport.

  16. A SUBLOCUS OF THE MULTICOPY MICROSATELLITE MARKER CMS1 MAPS PROXIMAL TO SPINAL MUSCULAR-ATROPHY (SMA) AS SHOWN BY RECOMBINANT ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERSTEEGE, G; COBBEN, JM; OSINGA, J; SCHEFFER, H; VANOMMEN, GJB; BUYS, CHCM

    1995-01-01

    The critical region containing the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) gene is flanked by the 5q11-q13 markers, D5S435 and D5S557, as determined by linkage analysis. Here we present the results of an analysis of a Dutch SMA family with the multicopy microsatellite marker CMS1. A crossover is revealed in

  17. Calibrating animal-borne proximity loggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Christian; Morrissey, Michael B; Burns, Zackory T; Burt, John; Otis, Brian; St Clair, James J H; James, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Growing interest in the structure and dynamics of animal social networks has stimulated efforts to develop automated tracking technologies that can reliably record encounters in free-ranging subjects. A particularly promising approach is the use of animal-attached 'proximity loggers', which collect data on the incidence, duration and proximity of spatial associations through inter-logger radio communication. While proximity logging is based on a straightforward physical principle - the attenuation of propagating radio waves with distance - calibrating systems for field deployment is challenging, since most study species roam across complex, heterogeneous environments.In this study, we calibrated a recently developed digital proximity-logging system ('Encounternet') for deployment on a wild population of New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides. Our principal objective was to establish a quantitative model that enables robust post hoc estimation of logger-to-logger (and, hence, crow-to-crow) distances from logger-recorded signal-strength values. To achieve an accurate description of the radio communication between crow-borne loggers, we conducted a calibration exercise that combines theoretical analyses, field experiments, statistical modelling, behavioural observations, and computer simulations.We show that, using signal-strength information only, it is possible to assign crow encounters reliably to predefined distance classes, enabling powerful analyses of social dynamics. For example, raw data sets from field-deployed loggers can be filtered at the analysis stage to include predominantly encounters where crows would have come to within a few metres of each other, and could therefore have socially learned new behaviours through direct observation. One of the main challenges for improving data classification further is the fact that crows - like most other study species - associate across a wide variety of habitats and behavioural contexts, with different signal

  18. Increased Hyaluronan Acid Binding Ability of Spermatozoa Indicating a Better Maturity, Morphology, and Higher DNA Integrity After Micronutrient Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lipovac

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the hyaluronan-binding ability of spermatozoa is useful in predicting the ability of spermatozoa to fertilise oocytes during in vitro fertilisation (IVF. Recent publications discuss an influence of micronutrients on sperm quality. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of a non-prescription nutraceutical containing eight micronutrients on sperm-hyaluronan binding assay (SHBA values among males with idiopathic sub-/infertility, using an open comparative pilot study. The study took place at the Outpatient Fertility Centre IMI, Vienna, Austria, and involved 67 sub-/infertile males. Sub-/infertile males were invited to participate and take two daily capsules of the active compound for a 3-month period between the first and the follow-up semen analysis. Each capsule contained L-carnitine, L-arginine, zinc, vitamin E, glutathione, selenium, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, and folic acid (Profertil®. 40 sub-/infertile men receiving no active treatment served as controls; this was measured by change in SHBA after 3 months. It was found that SHBA values significantly increased after 3 months of treatment with the active compound, from a median baseline value of 56.0% to 74% (p<0.05. This represented a 19.7% increase compared to baseline, which was significantly higher than the 2.1% decrease observed in the control group. The rate of subjects displaying an increase in SHBA values after 3 months was significantly higher in the active group (74.6% versus 30.0%, p=0.0001, which showed that sub-/infertile men treated with the active micronutrient compound displayed increased SHBA ability. However, more research is necessary to get detailed information on this specific subject.

  19. Photoactivated In Vivo Proximity Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David B; Bonasio, Roberto

    2017-06-19

    Identification of molecular interactions is paramount to understanding how cells function. Most available technologies rely on co-purification of a protein of interest and its binding partners. Therefore, they are limited in their ability to detect low-affinity interactions and cannot be applied to proteins that localize to difficult-to-solubilize cellular compartments. In vivo proximity labeling (IPL) overcomes these obstacles by covalently tagging proteins and RNAs based on their proximity in vivo to a protein of interest. In IPL, a heterobifunctional probe comprising a photoactivatable moiety and biotin is recruited by a monomeric streptavidin tag fused to a protein of interest. Following UV irradiation, candidate interacting proteins and RNAs are covalently biotinylated with tight spatial and temporal control and subsequently recovered using biotin as an affinity handle. Here, we describe experimental protocols to discover novel protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions using IPL. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. A mutational analysis of the cytosolic domain of the tomato Cf-9 disease-resistance protein shows that membrane-proximal residues are important for Avr9-dependent necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Apratim; Velusamy, Thilaga; Tee, Choon Yang; Jones, David A

    2016-05-01

    The tomato Cf-9 gene encodes a membrane-anchored glycoprotein that imparts race-specific resistance against the tomato leaf mould fungus Cladosporium fulvum in response to the avirulence protein Avr9. Although the N-terminal half of the extracellular leucine-rich repeat (eLRR) domain of the Cf-9 protein determines its specificity for Avr9, the C-terminal half, including its small cytosolic domain, is postulated to be involved in signalling. The cytosolic domain of Cf-9 carries several residues that are potential sites for ubiquitinylation or phosphorylation, or signals for endocytic uptake. A targeted mutagenesis approach was employed to investigate the roles of these residues and cellular processes in Avr9-dependent necrosis triggered by Cf-9. Our results indicate that the membrane-proximal region of the cytosolic domain of Cf-9 plays an important role in Cf-9-mediated necrosis, and two amino acids within this region, a threonine (T835) and a proline (P838), are particularly important for Cf-9 function. An alanine mutation of T835 had no effect on Cf-9 function, but an aspartic acid mutation, which mimics phosphorylation, reduced Cf-9 function. We therefore postulate that phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation of T835 could act as a molecular switch to determine whether Cf-9 is in a primed or inactive state. Yeast two-hybrid analysis was used to show that the cytosolic domain of Cf-9 interacts with the cytosolic domain of tomato VAP27. This interaction could be disrupted by an alanine mutation of P838, whereas interaction with CITRX remained unaffected. We therefore postulate that a proline-induced kink in the membrane-proximal region of the cytosolic domain of Cf-9 may be important for interaction with VAP27, which may, in turn, be important for Cf-9 function. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.