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Sample records for proximal-distal pd patterning

  1. Reliability and Validity of an Observational Measure of Client Decision-Making: The Client Language Assessment - Proximal/Distal (CLA-PD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Molly; R Apodaca, Timothy; Karno, Mitchell; Gaume, Jacques; Durst, Ayla; Walthers, Justin; L Stout, Robert; DiClemente, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    The Client Language Assessment - Proximal/Distal (CLA-PD) is a language rating system for measuring client decision-making in interventions that target a specified behavior change (e.g., alcohol or other drug use). In the CLA-PD, there are five dimensions of change language (Reason, Ability, Commitment, Taking Steps, Other) adapted from the client portion of the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC). For the CLA-PD, language codes are sub-divided to discriminate statements regarding the primary, or target behavior change (distal change) from the intermediate coping activities (proximal change) that are prescribed to facilitate that target behavior change. The goal of the CLA-PD is to allow for higher specificity than existing client language measures, when process studies consider interventions that are multi-session and skill-based (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy). Three raters received 40 hours of training on the use of the CLA-PD. The data were a sample of therapy session audio-files from a completed clinical trial (N=126), which enabled examination of client language across four sessions (i.e., first three and final attended) of three evidence-based alcohol interventions (cognitive behavioral therapy, twelve-step facilitation therapy, motivational enhancement therapy). Inter-rater reliability results for summary scores showed "excellent" reliability for the measure. Specifically, two-way mixed intraclass coefficients ranged from .83 to .95. Internal consistency reliability showed alphas across sessions that ranged from "fair" to "good" (α=.74-.84). In convergent and discriminant validity analyses using data independently measured with MISC-based ratings, the pattern of results was as would be expected. Specifically, convergent correlations, by valence (i.e., change and sustain talk), between CLA-PD Distal and MISC-based language scores were moderate (r=.46-.55, planguage scores were small (r=.22-.24, p<.05). Finally, proportion Change Talk Proximal

  2. Gene expression reveals evidence for EGFR-dependent proximal-distal limb patterning in a myriapod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    Evolution of segmented limbs is one of the key innovations of Arthropoda, allowing development of functionally specific specialized head and trunk appendages, a major factor behind their unmatched evolutionary success. Proximodistal limb patterning is controlled by two regulatory networks in the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, and other insects. The first is represented by the function of the morphogens Wingless (Wg) and Decapentaplegic (Dpp); the second by the EGFR-signaling cascade. While the role of Wg and Dpp has been studied in a wide range of arthropods representing all main branches, that is, Pancrustacea (= Hexapoda + Crustacea), Myriapoda and Chelicerata, investigation of the potential role of EGFR-signaling is restricted to insects (Hexapoda). Gene expression analysis of Egfr, its potential ligands, and putative downstream factors in the pill millipede Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda), reveals that-in at least mandibulate arthropods-EGFR-signaling is likely a conserved regulatory mechanism in proximodistal limb patterning. © 2017 The Authors. Evolution and Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Tuning Ordered Pattern of Pd Species through Controlled Block Copolymer Self-Assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rosa, Claudio; Auriemma, Finizia; Malafronte, Anna; Di Girolamo, Rocco; Lazzari, Massimo; Nieto-Suárez, Marina; Hermida-Merino, Daniel; Hamley, Ian William; Portale, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    We report a method for the preparation of ordered patterns of Pd species on a substrate based on the use of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymer (PS-b-PEO) templates and selective inclusion of palladium (Pd) species in the PEO domains. PS-b-PEO samples of different total molecular masses

  4. Cation-Anion Arrangement Patterns in Self-Assembled Pd2L4 and Pd4L8 Coordination Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clever, Guido H; Punt, Philip

    2017-09-19

    Compounds featuring one-dimensional regular arrangements of stacked metal complexes and alternating [cation-anion]∞ sequences have raised considerable interest owing to their peculiar electronic and optical properties as well as guest inclusion capabilities. While traditional ways to realize these structural motifs rely on crystalline compounds, exclusively existing in the solid state, recent progress in the area of metal-mediated supramolecular self-assembly allows for the rational synthesis of structurally well-defined short stretches of stacked metal complexes and cation-anion arrangements. Therefore, metal cations, counteranions, and suitably designed organic bridges are allowed to self-assemble in solution. While the bridges can be designed as cross-linkers to yield extended two- or three-dimensional networks such as layered materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), or porous coordination polymers (PCPs), they can also be tailored to lead to discrete nanoscopic objects. Supramolecular helicates, grids, and knots belong to this class of compounds, and a particularly interesting subfamily are coordination cages and capsules, which possess nanosized cavities with the ability to encapsulate guest molecules. Here, we focus on coordination cages consisting of two or more square-planar Pd(II) or Pt(II) metal cations, bridged by banana-shaped bis-monodentate pyridyl ligands that encapsulate various guest molecules, usually anions, in their cavities. Monoanions as well as dianions with localized or delocalized charges can be bound with remarkable complementarity between cage and guest in terms of size and shape. We show how dimerization of the prototypical [Pd2L4] cages into their interpenetrated dimers [Pd4L8] leads to an increase in cavity number from one to three while the cavity volume decreases. Usually, all three pockets of these double cages are filled with monoanions such as BF4- or Cl-, thus leading to well-defined linear [Pd-anion]3Pd stacks, as observed

  5. The expression of the proximodistal axis patterning genes Distal-less and dachshund in the appendages of Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda) suggests a special role of these genes in patterning the head appendages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Tautz, Diethard

    2003-08-01

    The genes Distal-less, dachshund, extradenticle, and homothorax have been shown in Drosophila to be among the earliest genes that define positional values along the proximal-distal (PD) axis of the developing legs. In order to study PD axis formation in the appendages of the pill millipede Glomeris marginata, we have isolated homologues of these four genes and have studied their expression patterns. In the trunk legs, there are several differences to Drosophila, but the patterns are nevertheless compatible with a conserved role in defining positional values along the PD axis. However, their role in the head appendages is apparently more complex. Distal-less in the mandible and maxilla is expressed in the forming sensory organs and, thus, does not seem to be involved in PD axis patterning. We could not identify in the mouthparts components that are homologous to the distal parts of the trunk legs and antennnae. Interestingly, there is also a transient premorphogenetic expression of Distal-less in the second antennal and second maxillary segment, although no appendages are eventually formed in these segments. The dachshund gene is apparently involved both in PD patterning as well as in sensory organ development in the antenna, maxilla, and mandible. Strong dachshund expression is specifically correlated with the tooth-like part of the mandible, a feature that is shared with other mandibulate arthropods. homothorax is expressed in the proximal and medial parts of the legs, while extradenticle RNA is only seen in the proximal region. This overlap of expression corresponds to the functional overlap between extradenticle and homothorax in Drosophila.

  6. Pattern of CD14+ follicular dendritic cells and PD1+ T cells independently predicts time to transformation in follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Jacob P; Jones, Jason M; Ziesmer, Steven C; Grote, Deanna M; Xiu, Bing; Ristow, Kay M; Yang, Zhi Zhang; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S; Feldman, Andrew L; Cerhan, James R; Novak, Anne J; Ansell, Stephen M

    2014-06-01

    Transformation of follicular lymphoma is a critical event associated with a poor prognosis. The role of the tumor microenvironment in previous transformation studies has yielded conflicting results. To define cell subtypes associated with transformation, we examined tissue specimens at diagnosis from patients with follicular lymphoma that later transformed and, using immunohistochemistry (IHC), stained for CD68, CD11c, CD21, CXCL13, FOXP3, PD1, and CD14. Cell content and the pattern of expression were evaluated. Those identified as significantly associated with time to transformation (TTT) and overall survival (OS) were further characterized by flow cytometry and multicolor IHC. Of note, 58 patients were analyzed with median TTT of 4.7 years. The pattern of PD1(+) and CD14(+) cells rather than the quantity of cells was predictive of clinical outcomes. On multivariate analysis, including the follicular lymphoma international prognostic index score, CD14(+) cells localized in the follicle were associated with a shorter TTT (HR, 3.0; P = 0.004). PD1(+) cells with diffuse staining were associated with a shorter TTT (HR, 1.9; P = 0.045) and inferior OS (HR, 2.5; P = 0.012). Multicolor IHC and flow cytometry identified CD14(+) cells as follicular dendritic cells (FDC), whereas PD1(+) cells represented two separate populations, TFH and exhausted T cells. These results identify the presence of PD1(+) T cells and CD14(+) FDC as independent predictors of transformation in follicular lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res; 20(11); 2862-72. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Patterns of PD-L1 expression and CD8 T cell infiltration in gastric adenocarcinomas and associated immune stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Elizabeth D; Zahurak, Marianna; Murphy, Adrian; Cornish, Toby; Cuka, Nathan; Abdelfatah, Eihab; Yang, Stephen; Duncan, Mark; Ahuja, Nita; Taube, Janis M; Anders, Robert A; Kelly, Ronan J

    2017-05-01

    Recent data supports a significant role for immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of solid tumours. Here, we evaluate gastric and gastro-oesophageal junction (G/GEJ) adenocarcinomas for their expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), infiltration by CD8+ T cells and the relationship of both factors to patient survival. Thirty-four resections of primary invasive G/GEJ were stained by immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 and CD8 and by DNA in situ hybridisation for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). CD8+ T cell densities both within tumours and at the tumour-stromal interface were analysed using whole slide digital imaging. Patient survival was evaluated according to PD-L1 status and CD8 density. 12% of resections showed tumour cell membranous PD-L1 expression and 44% showed expression within the immune stroma. Two cases (6%) were EBV positive, with one showing membranous PD-L1 positivity. Increasing CD8+ densities both within tumours and immune stroma was associated with increasing percentage of tumour (p=0.027) and stromal (p=0.005) PD-L1 expression. Both tumour and immune stromal PD-L1 expression and high intratumoral or stromal CD8+ T cell density (>500/mm(2)) were associated with worse progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). PD-L1 is expressed on both tumour cells and in the immune stroma across all stages and histologies of G/GEJ. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that increasing CD8 infiltration is correlated with impaired PFS and OS. Patients with higher CD8+ T cell densities also have higher PD-L1 expression, indicating an adaptive immune resistance mechanism may be occurring. Further characterisation of the G/GEJ immune microenvironment may highlight targets for immune-based therapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Cluster pattern analysis of energy deposition sites for the brachytherapy sources 103Pd, 125I, 192Ir, 137Cs, and 60Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Fernanda; Tilly, Nina; Bäckström, Gloria; Ahnesjö, Anders

    2014-09-21

    Analysing the pattern of energy depositions may help elucidate differences in the severity of radiation-induced DNA strand breakage for different radiation qualities. It is often claimed that energy deposition (ED) sites from photon radiation form a uniform random pattern, but there is indication of differences in RBE values among different photon sources used in brachytherapy. The aim of this work is to analyse the spatial patterns of EDs from 103Pd, 125I, 192Ir, 137Cs sources commonly used in brachytherapy and a 60Co source as a reference radiation. The results suggest that there is both a non-uniform and a uniform random component to the frequency distribution of distances to the nearest neighbour ED. The closest neighbouring EDs show high spatial correlation for all investigated radiation qualities, whilst the uniform random component dominates for neighbours with longer distances for the three higher mean photon energy sources (192Ir, 137Cs, and 60Co). The two lower energy photon emitters (103Pd and 125I) present a very small uniform random component. The ratio of frequencies of clusters with respect to 60Co differs up to 15% for the lower energy sources and less than 2% for the higher energy sources when the maximum distance between each pair of EDs is 2 nm. At distances relevant to DNA damage, cluster patterns can be differentiated between the lower and higher energy sources. This may be part of the explanation to the reported difference in RBE values with initial DSB yields as an endpoint for these brachytherapy sources.

  9. PD Lab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilow, Marcel; Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Lichtenberg, Jos; Stoutjesdijk, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    PD Lab explores the applications of building sector related product development. PD lab investigates and tests digital production technologies like CNC milled wood connections. It will also act as a platform in its wider meaning to investigate the effects and influences of file to factory

  10. Gene expression patterns through oral squamous cell carcinoma development: PD-L1 expression in primary tumor and circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Costa, Joao Paulo; de Carvalho, Alex Fiorini; da Silveira, da Giorgia Gobbi; Amaya, Peter; Wu, Yongqi; Park, Kyoung-Joo Jenny; Gigliola, Mabel Pinilla; Lustberg, Maryam; Buim, Marcilei Eliza Cavicchioli; Ferreira, Elisa Napolitano; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Chalmers, Jeffrey J; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Carraro, Dirce Maria; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo

    2015-08-28

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common tumor of the oral cavity and has been associated with poor prognosis. Scarce prognostic markers are available for guiding treatment and/or sub-classifying patients. This study aims to identify biomarkers by searching for genes whose expression is increased or decreased during tumor progression (through T1 to T4 stages). Thirty-six samples from all tumor size stages (from T1 to T4) were analyzed using cDNA microarrays. Selected targets were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and in circulating tumor cells by immunofluorescence and Nanostring. Correlation was shown between PD-L1 and tumor size and lymph node metastasis, HOXB9 and tumor size, BLNK and perineural invasion, and between ZNF813 and perineural invasion. PD-L1 positivity was an independent prognostic factor in this cohort (p = 0.044, HH = 0.426). In CTCs from patients with locally advanced OSCC, we found a strong cytoplasmatic expression of PD-L1. PD-L1 is a ligand of PD-1 and is believed to limit T cell activity in inflammatory responses and limit autoimmune diseases. We demonstrated an important role for PD-L1 in primary tumors according to tumor size, and in disease specific survival. Therefore, we could further determine individuals with PD-L1+ CTCs, and possibly follow treatment using CTCs.

  11. The thermal properties of amorphous Fe40Pd40B20 and Fe60Pd20B20 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Tsung

    2015-07-01

    The thermal stability of FePdB thin films was studied using nonisothermal and isothermal analyses. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that Fe40Pd40B20 and Fe60Pd20B20 films with thicknesses in the range 25-75 Å were amorphous, whereas Fe40Pd40B20 and Fe60Pd20B20 films with thicknesses in the range 100-200 Å exhibited a nanocrystalline FePd (111) structure. The crucial glass forming ability index (γ and γm) was determined using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results of amorphous FePdB films. The Kissinger formula was applied to calculate the activation energy (Q) of crystallization for determining the resistance of the films to crystallization. Thermal analysis showed that the thermal stability and incubation time of Fe40Pd40B20 are more favorable than those of Fe60Pd20B20.

  12. TiOx thin films grown on Pd(100) and Pd(111) by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farstad, M. H.; Ragazzon, D.; Grönbeck, H.; Strømsheim, M. D.; Stavrakas, C.; Gustafson, J.; Sandell, A.; Borg, A.

    2016-07-01

    The growth of ultrathin TiOx (0≤x≤2) films on Pd(100) and Pd(111) surfaces by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), using Titanium(IV)isopropoxide (TTIP) as precursor, has been investigated by high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy. Three different TiOx phases and one Pd-Ti alloy phase have been identified for both surfaces. The Pd-Ti alloy phase is observed at the initial stages of film growth. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations for Pd(100) and Pd(111) suggest that Ti is alloyed into the second layer of the substrate. Increasing the TTIP dose yields a wetting layer comprising Ti2 + species (TiOx, x ∼0.75). On Pd(100), this phase exhibits a mixture of structures with (3 × 5) and (4 × 5) periodicity with respect to the Pd(100) substrate, while an incommensurate structure is formed on Pd(111). Most importantly, on both surfaces this phase consists of a zigzag pattern similar to observations on other reactive metal surfaces. Further increase in coverage results in growth of a fully oxidized (TiO2) phase on top of the partially oxidized layer. Preliminary investigations indicate that the fully oxidized phase on both Pd(100) and Pd(111) may be the TiO2(B) phase.

  13. Association of PD-1, PD-1 ligands, and other features of the tumor immune microenvironment with response to anti-PD-1 therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Janis M; Klein, Alison; Brahmer, Julie R; Xu, Haiying; Pan, Xiaoyu; Kim, Jung H; Chen, Lieping; Pardoll, Drew M; Topalian, Suzanne L; Anders, Robert A

    2014-10-01

    Immunomodulatory drugs differ in mechanism-of-action from directly cytotoxic cancer therapies. Identifying factors predicting clinical response could guide patient selection and therapeutic optimization. Patients (N = 41) with melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), colorectal carcinoma, or castration-resistant prostate cancer were treated on an early-phase trial of anti-PD-1 (nivolumab) at one institution and had evaluable pretreatment tumor specimens. Immunoarchitectural features, including PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 expression, patterns of immune cell infiltration, and lymphocyte subpopulations, were assessed for interrelationships and potential correlations with clinical outcomes. Membranous (cell surface) PD-L1 expression by tumor cells and immune infiltrates varied significantly by tumor type and was most abundant in melanoma, NSCLC, and RCC. In the overall cohort, PD-L1 expression was geographically associated with infiltrating immune cells (P tumor cells and immune infiltrates was significantly associated with expression of PD-1 on lymphocytes. PD-L2, the second ligand for PD-1, was associated with PD-L1 expression. Tumor cell PD-L1 expression correlated with objective response to anti-PD-1 therapy, when analyzing either the specimen obtained closest to therapy or the highest scoring sample among multiple biopsies from individual patients. These correlations were stronger than borderline associations of PD-1 expression or the presence of intratumoral immune cell infiltrates with response. Tumor PD-L1 expression reflects an immune-active microenvironment and, while associated other immunosuppressive molecules, including PD-1 and PD-L2, is the single factor most closely correlated with response to anti-PD-1 blockade. Clin Cancer Res; 20(19); 5064-74. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Atomic Structure of Au−Pd Bimetallic Alloyed Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Yong

    2010-09-08

    Using a two-step seed-mediated growth method, we synthesized bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) having a gold octahedron core and a palladium epitaxial shell with controlled Pd-shell thickness. The mismatch-release mechanism between the Au core and Pd shell of the NPs was systematically investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In the NPs coated with a single atomic layer of Pd, the strain between the surface Pd layer and the Au core is released by Shockley partial dislocations (SPDs) accompanied by the formation of stacking faults. For NPs coated with more Pd (>2 nm), the stacking faults still exist, but no SPDs are found. This may be due to the diffusion of Au atoms into the Pd shell layers to eliminate the SPDs. At the same time, a long-range ordered L11 AuPd alloy phase has been identified in the interface area, supporting the assumption of the diffusion of Au into Pd to release the interface mismatch. With increasing numbers of Pd shell layers, the shape of the Au-Pd NP changes, step by step, from truncated-octahedral to cubic. After the bimetallic NPs were annealed at 523 K for 10 min, the SPDs at the surface of the NPs coated with a single atomic layer of Pd disappeared due to diffusion of the Au atoms into the surface layer, while the stacking faults and the L11 Au-Pd alloyed structure remained. When the annealing temperature was increased to 800 K, electron diffraction patterns and diffraction contrast images revealed that the NPs became a uniform Au-Pd alloy, and most of the stacking faults disappeared as a result of the annealing. Even so, some clues still support the existence of the L11 phase, which suggests that the L11 phase is a stable, long-range ordered structure in Au-Pd bimetallic NPs. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Clinicopathological analysis of PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma: Comparison with tumor-infiltrating T cells and the status of oncogenic drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Young; Koh, Jaemoon; Kim, Sehui; Go, Heounjeong; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Chung, Doo Hyun

    2015-04-01

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) pathway-targeted immunotherapy has beneficial therapeutic effects in pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) patients. However, the expression patterns of PD-1 and PD-1 ligands (PD-Ls) in pulmonary SqCC remain unclear. Moreover, the association between the PD-1/PD-Ls pathway and the status of oncogenic drivers in pulmonary SqCC is unknown. PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in tumor cells and the numbers of PD-1(+) and CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were examined in 331 resected SqCC tumors along with matched lymph node metastases from 77 cases using immunohistochemistry. EGFR and FGFR1 and MET expression and genetic status were also examined. PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression was detected in 26.9% and 23.9% of the pulmonary SqCC samples, respectively. PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression was maintained or increased in the metastatic lymph node tumors in 81.1% and 93.5% of the 77 cases, respectively. The numbers of PD-1(+) and CD8(+) TILs were significantly positively correlated (PL1 expression exhibited consistently high CD8(+) T cell infiltration (PL2 expression and increased PD-1(+) TILs (P=0.001 for both). Increased numbers of CD8(+) or PD-1(+) TILs were significantly associated with prolonged disease-free survival of these patients, whereas PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression had no significant prognostic implications. PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in pulmonary SqCC is associated with an increased number of CD8(+) TILs and increased MET expression, which might provide therapeutic insight into targeting the PD-1/PD-Ls pathway in pulmonary SqCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. G6pd

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Karessa; Kim, Mi-Jung; Ding, Dalian; Han, Chul; Park, Hyo-Jin; Meneses, Zaimary; Tanokura, Masaru; Linser, Paul; Salvi, Richard; Someya, Shinichi

    2017-06-07

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway; it catalyzes the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconate and NADP + to NADPH and is thought to be the principal source of NADPH for the cytosolic glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant defense systems. We investigated the roles of G6PD in the cytosolic antioxidant defense in the cochlea of G6pd hypomorphic mice that were backcrossed onto normal-hearing CBA/CaJ mice. Young G6pd -deficient mice displayed a significant decrease in cytosolic G6PD protein levels and activities in the inner ears. However, G6pd deficiency did not affect the cytosolic NADPH redox state, or glutathione or thioredoxin antioxidant defense in the inner ears. No histological abnormalities or oxidative damage was observed in the cochlea of G6pd hemizygous males or homozygous females. Furthermore, G6pd deficiency did not affect auditory brainstem response hearing thresholds, wave I amplitudes or wave I latencies in young males or females. In contrast, G6pd deficiency resulted in increased activities and protein levels of cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate and NADP + to NADPH, in the inner ear. In a mouse inner ear cell line, knockdown of Idh1 , but not G6pd , decreased cell growth rates, cytosolic NADPH levels, and thioredoxin reductase activities. Therefore, under normal physiological conditions, G6pd deficiency does not affect the cytosolic glutathione or thioredoxin antioxidant defense in mouse cochlea. Under G6pd deficiency conditions, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 likely functions as the principal source of NADPH for cytosolic antioxidant defense in the cochlea. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway; it catalyzes the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconate and NADP + to NADPH and

  17. Acoustic Analysis of PD Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Chenausky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health, approximately 500,000 Americans have Parkinson's disease (PD, with roughly another 50,000 receiving new diagnoses each year. 70%–90% of these people also have the hypokinetic dysarthria associated with PD. Deep brain stimulation (DBS substantially relieves motor symptoms in advanced-stage patients for whom medication produces disabling dyskinesias. This study investigated speech changes as a result of DBS settings chosen to maximize motor performance. The speech of 10 PD patients and 12 normal controls was analyzed for syllable rate and variability, syllable length patterning, vowel fraction, voice-onset time variability, and spirantization. These were normalized by the controls' standard deviation to represent distance from normal and combined into a composite measure. Results show that DBS settings relieving motor symptoms can improve speech, making it up to three standard deviations closer to normal. However, the clinically motivated settings evaluated here show greater capacity to impair, rather than improve, speech. A feedback device developed from these findings could be useful to clinicians adjusting DBS parameters, as a means for ensuring they do not unwittingly choose DBS settings which impair patients' communication.

  18. Plot Description (PD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Plot Description (PD) form is used to describe general characteristics of the FIREMON macroplot to provide ecological context for data analyses. The PD data characterize the topographical setting, geographic reference point, general plant composition and cover, ground cover, fuels, and soils information. This method provides the general ecological data that can be...

  19. G6PD Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a genetic disorder that is most common in males. About 1 in 10 African American males in the United States has it. G6PD deficiency mainly affects red blood cells, which carry oxygen ...

  20. Homologs of wingless and decapentaplegic display a complex and dynamic expression profile during appendage development in the millipede Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Prpic Nikola-Michael

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The Drosophila genes wingless (wg) and decapentaplegic (dpp) comprise the top level of a hierarchical gene cascade involved in proximal-distal (PD) patterning of the legs. It remains unclear, whether this cascade is common to the appendages of all arthropods. Here, wg and dpp are studied in the millipede Glomeris marginata, a representative of the Myriapoda. Results Glomeris wg (Gm-wg) is expressed along the ventral side of the appendages compatible with functioning during...

  1. PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in mouse prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shijie; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; Wang, Alun R; You, Zongbing

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 play critical roles in maintaining an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. The purpose of the present study was to assess expression of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 in mouse prostate tumors. A total of 33 mouse prostate tumors derived from Pten-null mice were examined using immunohistochemical staining for PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2. The animals were either with interleukin-17 receptor c (Il-17rc) wild-type or knockout genotype, or fed with regular diet or high-fat diet to 30 weeks of age. We found that Il-17rc wild-type mouse prostate tumors had significantly higher levels of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 than Il-17rc knockout mouse prostate tumors. High-fat diet-induced obese mice had significantly higher levels of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 in their prostate tumors than lean mice fed with regular diet. Increased expression of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 was associated with increased number of invasive prostate tumors formed in the Il-17rc wild-type and obese mice compared to the Il-17rc knockout and lean mice, respectively. Our findings suggest that expression of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 may enhance development of mouse prostate cancer through creating an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

  2. Methanol steam reforming over Pd/ZnO and Pd/CeO{sub 2} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, Easwar S.; Bej, Shyamal K.; Thompson, Levi T. [University of Michigan, Department of Chemical Engineering, 3026 H.H. Dow Building, 2300 Hayward Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136 (United States)

    2005-08-10

    The goal of work described in this paper was to better understand the methanol steam reforming (MSR) activity and selectivity patterns of ZnO and CeO{sub 2} supported Pd catalysts. This reaction is being used to produce H{sub 2}-rich gas for a number of applications including hydrogen fuel cells. The Pd/ZnO catalysts had lower MSR rates but were more selective for the production of CO{sub 2} than the Pd/CeO{sub 2} catalysts. The CH{sub 3}OH conversion rates were proportional to the H{sub 2} chemisorption uptake suggesting that the rate determining step was catalyzed by Pd. The corresponding turnover frequencies averaged 0.8+/-0.3s{sup -1} and 0.4+/-0.2s{sup -1} at 230{sup o}C for the Pd/ZnO and Pd/CeO{sub 2} catalysts, respectively. The selectivities are explained based on the reaction pathways, and characteristics of the support. The key surface intermediate appeared to be a formate. The ZnO supported catalysts had a higher density of acidic sites and favored pathways where the intermediate was converted to CO{sub 2} while the CeO{sub 2} supported catalysts had a higher density of basic sites and favored the production of CO.

  3. PD2P : PanDA Dynamic Data Placement for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The PanDA Dynamic Data Placement (PD2P) system has been developed to cope with difficulties of data placement for ATLAS. PD2P is an intelligent subsystem of PanDA to distribute data by taking the following factors into account: popularity, locality, the usage pattern of the data, the distribution of CPU and storage resources, ...

  4. Facile preparation of ZIF-8@Pd-CSS sandwich-type microspheres via in situ growth of ZIF-8 shells over Pd-loaded colloidal carbon spheres with aggregation-resistant and leach-proof properties for the Pd nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tong; Lin, Lu [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Zhang, Xiongfu, E-mail: xfzhang@dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Liu, Haiou; Yan, Xinjuan [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Liu, Zhang; Yeung, King Lun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Uniform-sized colloidal carbon spheres were synthesized from low-cost glucose. • Pd nanoparticles were loaded onto the carbon spheres via self-reduction method. • A layer of ZIF-8 shell was in situ grown over the Pd-loaded carbon spheres. • The ZIF-8@Pd-CCS showed leach-proof and aggregation-resistant properties of Pd. - Abstract: Aiming to enhance the stability of noble metal nanoparticles that are anchored on the surface of colloidal carbon spheres (CCSs), we designed and prepared a new kind of sandwich-structured ZIF-8@Pd-CCS microsphere. Typically, uniform CCSs were first synthesized by the aromatization and carbonization of glucose under hydrothermal conditions. Subsequently, noble metal nanoparticles, herein Pd nanoparticles, were attached to the surface of CCSs via self-reduction route, followed by in situ assembly of a thin layer of ZIF-8 over the Pd nanoparticles to form the sandwich-type ZIF-8@Pd-CCS microspheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra confirmed the presence of crystalline ZIF-8, while TEM analysis revealed that the ZIF-8 shells were closely bound to the Pd-loaded CCSs. The shell thickness could be tuned by varying the ZIF-8 assembly cycles. Further, liquid-phase hydrogenation of 1-hexene as the probe reaction was carried out over the ZIF-8@Pd-CCS microspheres and results showed that the prepared microspheres exhibited excellent agglomeration-resistant and leach-proof properties for the Pd nanoparticles, thus leading to the good reusability of the ZIF-8@Pd-CCS microspheres.

  5. Pion production in pd interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiff, J.; Koch, I.; Scobel, W. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik Universtaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Rohdjess, H. [Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Recent experimental data for the reaction pd {yields} pd{pi}{sup 0} in the pion momentum range {eta} = p{sup {pi}}{sub c.m.max}/m{sub {pi}c} {<=} 0.96 is discussed. The excitation function {sigma}{sub pd{pi}}(Tp) roughly follows a {eta}{sup 4} power law for Ss wave interaction; close to threshold it is compatible with that for pd {yields} {sup 3}He{pi}, i.e. a strong spin-doublet interaction. The model of a quasi-free elementary process np {yields} nd{pi}{sup 0} with a spectator proton describes {pi}{sub pd{pi}}(Tp), too, but does not exhaust the observed spectator energy spectra. Comparison to isospin related pd{yields}nd{pi}{sup +} data indicates another reaction mechanism contributing with a strength comparable to that of the quasi-free process. (author) 7 refs, 3 figs

  6. Abnormal metabolic pattern associated with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease : a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meles, Sanne K.; Tang, Chris C.; Teune, Laura K.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Dhawan, Vijay; Mattis, Paul J.; Leenders, Klaus L.; Eidelberg, David

    Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been associated with a specific metabolic covariance pattern. Although the expression of this PD cognition-related pattern (PDCP) correlates with neuropsychological performance, it is not known whether the PDCP topography is reproducible across PD

  7. Phylogenetic diversity (PD and biodiversity conservation: some bioinformatics challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Faith

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation addresses information challenges through estimations encapsulated in measures of diversity. A quantitative measure of phylogenetic diversity, “PD”, has been defined as the minimum total length of all the phylogenetic branches required to span a given set of taxa on the phylogenetic tree (Faith 1992a. While a recent paper incorrectly characterizes PD as not including information about deeper phylogenetic branches, PD applications over the past decade document the proper incorporation of shared deep branches when assessing the total PD of a set of taxa. Current PD applications to macroinvertebrate taxa in streams of New South Wales, Australia illustrate the practical importance of this definition. Phylogenetic lineages, often corresponding to new, “cryptic”, taxa, are restricted to a small number of stream localities. A recent case of human impact causing loss of taxa in one locality implies a higher PD value for another locality, because it now uniquely represents a deeper branch. This molecular-based phylogenetic pattern supports the use of DNA barcoding programs for biodiversity conservation planning. Here, PD assessments side-step the contentious use of barcoding-based “species” designations. Bio-informatics challenges include combining different phylogenetic evidence, optimization problems for conservation planning, and effective integration of phylogenetic information with environmental and socio-economic data.

  8. Pleiotropic patterning response to activation of Shh signaling in the limb apical ectodermal ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Kuang Leo; Tsugane, Mizuyo H; Scranton, Victoria; Kosher, Robert A; Pierro, Louis J; Upholt, William B; Dealy, Caroline N

    2011-05-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in the limb plays a central role in coordination of limb patterning and outgrowth. Shh expression in the limb is limited to the cells of the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), located in posterior limb bud mesoderm. Shh is not expressed by limb ectoderm or apical ectodermal ridge (AER), but recent studies suggest a role for AER-Shh signaling in limb patterning. Here, we have examined the effects of activation of Shh signaling in the AER. We find that targeted expression of Shh in the AER activates constitutive Shh signaling throughout the AER and subjacent limb mesoderm, and causes a range of limb patterning defects with progressive severity from mild polydactyly, to polysyndactyly with proximal defects, to severe oligodactyly with phocomelia and partial limb ventralization. Our studies emphasize the importance of control of the timing, level and location of Shh pathway signaling for limb anterior-posterior, proximal-distal, and dorsal-ventral patterning. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Pattern of joints involvement in Kashin-Beck disease: a local osteochondropathy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Umer; Xiong, Guo; Irshad, Romana; Yaqoob, Shehzad

    2010-01-01

    Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD) is an endemic osteochondropathy. The disease starts in childhood and attacks the growth of joint cartilage, the joints become deformed and painful, and the worst forms result in dwarfism. The most fiequent joints involved are the finger, wrist, ankles, knees and elbows. In this study the pattern of joints involved in KBD was studied. A total of 368 patients aged above 13 from 6 villages in endemic areas of the Shaanxi province, located in the northwest of China, were selected through multistage stratified sampling. The patients were diagnosed based on the clinical criteria for diagnosis of KBD. The patients were administered with a battery of questionnaires along with clinical examination for joint involvement. The patients presented both as oligoarticular as well as polyarticular pattern. Smaller joints were more frequently involved with a proximal-distal pattern. The number of joints involved increased with the severity of the disease. Proximal smaller joints are more frequently involved in the disease. The involvement of bigger joints takes place in later stages of disease, i.e., in the second and third degree. The pattern of joint involvement shows some correlation with Rheumatoid Arthritis which needs further investigation and comparative studies.

  10. Mechanisms of PD-L1/PD-1-mediated CD8 T-cell dysfunction in the context of aging-related immune defects in the Eµ-TCL1 CLL mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Fabienne; Riches, John C; Miller, Shaun; Day, William P; Kotsiou, Eleni; Neuberg, Donna; Croce, Carlo M; Capasso, Melania; Gribben, John G

    2015-07-09

    T-cell defects, immune suppression, and poor antitumor immune responses are hallmarks of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitory signaling has emerged as a major immunosuppressive mechanism. However, the effect of different microenvironments and the confounding influence of aging are poorly understood. The current study uses the Eμ-TCL1 mouse model, which replicates human T-cell defects, as a preclinical platform to longitudinally examine patterns of T-cell dysfunction alongside developing CLL and in different microenvironments, with a focus on PD-1/PD-L1 interactions. The development of CLL was significantly associated with changes in T-cell phenotype across all organs and function. Although partly mirrored in aging wild-type mice, CLL-specific T-cell changes were identified. Murine CLL cells highly expressed PD-L1 and PD-L2 in all organs, with high PD-L1 expression in the spleen. CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells from leukemic and aging healthy mice highly expressed PD-1, identifying aging as a confounder, but adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated CLL-specific PD-1 induction. Direct comparisons of PD-1 expression and function between aging CLL mice and controls identified PD-1(+) T cells in CLL as a heterogeneous population with variable effector function. This is highly relevant for therapeutic targeting of CD8(+) T cells, showing the potential of reprogramming and selective subset expansion to restore antitumor immunity. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the Populus deltoides remorin gene PdREM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaofeng; Su, Xiaohua; Zhang, Bingyu; Huang, Qinjun; Hu, Zanmin; Lu, Mengzhu

    2013-10-01

    Remorins play vital roles in signal transduction, energy transformation, ion flow and transport in plants. Upregulation of remorins correlates with dehiscence and cell maturation; however, no studies have been performed to elucidate the function of remorins in tree species. In this study, a Populus deltoides (Marsh.) plasma membrane-binding protein remorin gene (PdREM) was cloned and characterized by investigating its expression pattern and creating transgenic hybrid poplar (P. davidiana Dode × P. bolleana Lauche) lines expressing sense or antisense PdREM. PdREM was specifically expressed in leaf buds, and immature and mature phloem in P. deltoides. Downregulation of PdREM increased plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, size of the xylem and phloem zones and induced expression of cell wall biosynthesis- and microfibril angle (MFA)-related genes. Overexpression of PdREM retarded vegetative growth. PdREM may negatively regulate vascular growth by inhibiting secondary cell wall expansion in poplar. In addition, antisense PdREM transgenic poplar had a lower MFA, suggesting that PdREM might contribute to sheet strength and wood properties in poplar. This study sheds light on the molecular mechanism of PdREM in P. deltoides growth and development, and lays the foundation for future functional genomics research into wood formation and the genetic engineering of forest trees with improved wood quality traits.

  12. Preparation of TiO₂ supported Au–Pd and Cu–Pd by the combined ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TiO₂ supported Au–Pd and Cu–Pd catalysts were prepared by strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA) of Pd followed by electroless deposition (ED) of a second metal with incremental surface coverages of Au or Cu. High dispersion of small Pd particles on the Pd/TiO2 prepared by SEA led to the high amount of second metal ...

  13. Growth of Pd{sub 4}S, PdS and PdS{sub 2} films by controlled sulfurization of sputtered Pd on native oxide of Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, R., E-mail: rbhatt@barc.gov.in [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai–400 085 (India); Bhattacharya, S.; Basu, R.; Singh, A. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai–400 085 (India); Deshpande, U. [UGC–DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore–452017 (India); Surger, C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Physikalisches Institut and DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, P.O. Box 6980, D–76049 Karlsruhe (Germany); Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Aswal, D.K.; Gupta, S.K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai–400 085 (India)

    2013-07-31

    Thin films of different Pd–S phase, namely Pd{sub 4}S, PdS and PdS{sub 2}, have been reproducibly grown by the sulfurization of Pd films deposited on native oxide of (111) Si substrates by radio frequency sputtering method. In order to achieve controlled sulfurization, a three-stage sulfurization setup consisting of evaporation chamber, activation chamber and sulfurization chamber has been developed. The sulfurization of Pd films (kept at a constant temperature of 500 °C) was carried out using sulfur vapors activated to different temperature between 550 and 700 °C. The results of X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that formation of Pd{sub 4}S, PdS and PdS{sub 2} phases takes place for the activation temperatures of 550, 600 and 700 °C, respectively. The room temperature resistivity of Pd, Pd{sub 4}S, PdS and PdS{sub 2} were found to be respectively 0.1, 15.9, 15,000 and 20,000 μΩ cm. The temperature-dependent electrical resistivity measurements showed metallic conduction for Pd and Pd{sub 4}S films. The Seebeck coefficient measured at 300 K for these Pd–S phases showed their n-type conducting behavior. - Highlights: • Multichamber sulfurization setup designed for preparing thin films of Pd–S. • S vapor activated at 550, 600 and 700 °C results in Pd{sub 4}S, PdS and PdS{sub 2} phases. • The Seebeck coefficient of Pd–S phases shows their n-type conducting behavior. • Transport properties of Pd{sub 4}S phase show that it is a metallic phase. • High resistivity and thermopower of PdS and PdS{sub 2} show semiconducting nature.

  14. The thermal properties of amorphous Fe{sub 40}Pd{sub 40}B{sub 20} and Fe{sub 60}Pd{sub 20}B{sub 20} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuan-Tsung, E-mail: ytchen@yuntech.edu.tw

    2015-07-15

    The thermal stability of FePdB thin films was studied using nonisothermal and isothermal analyses. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that Fe{sub 40}Pd{sub 40}B{sub 20} and Fe{sub 60}Pd{sub 20}B{sub 20} films with thicknesses in the range 25–75 Å were amorphous, whereas Fe{sub 40}Pd{sub 40}B{sub 20} and Fe{sub 60}Pd{sub 20}B{sub 20} films with thicknesses in the range 100–200 Å exhibited a nanocrystalline FePd (111) structure. The crucial glass forming ability index (γ and γ{sub m}) was determined using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results of amorphous FePdB films. The Kissinger formula was applied to calculate the activation energy (Q) of crystallization for determining the resistance of the films to crystallization. Thermal analysis showed that the thermal stability and incubation time of Fe{sub 40}Pd{sub 40}B{sub 20} are more favorable than those of Fe{sub 60}Pd{sub 20}B{sub 20}. - Highlights: • FePdB films were amorphous in the range 25–75 Å. • FePdB films exhibited a FePd (111) structure in the range 100–200 Å. • The crucial glass forming ability index was determined using the DSC. • Kissinger formula was applied to calculate the activation energy of crystallization. • The thermal performance of Fe{sub 40}Pd{sub 40}B{sub 20} is more favorable than Fe{sub 60}Pd{sub 20}B{sub 20}.

  15. PD-L1 Expression in Human Placentas and Gestational Trophoblastic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Emanuela; Kurman, Robert J; Wang, Tian-Li; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2017-03-01

    One of the major immune checkpoints responsible for immune evasion in cancer cells is the interaction between programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1). As human trophoblastic cells display many of the features of malignant cells such as the ability to invade normal tissue including blood vessels and are apparently not eradicated by the host immune system, we undertook the present study to determine whether PD-L1 was upregulated in different types of trophoblastic cells during normal pregnancy and in gestational trophoblastic diseases. Immunohistochemistry using an anti-PD-L1-specific antibody demonstrated that in early and term normal placentas, PD-L1 was highly expressed in syncytiotrophoblast and to a much lower extent in intermediate trophoblastic cells located in the chorion laeve and implantation site. PD-L1 immunoreactivity was undetectable in cytotrophoblastic cells. This staining pattern in normal placenta was recapitulated in various types of gestational trophoblastic disease. PD-L1 was highly expressed by syncytiotrophoblast in complete moles and choriocarcinomas. The intermediate trophoblastic neoplasms, placental site trophoblastic tumors, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumors showed variable PD-L1 immunoreactivity but at a lower intensity than in the neoplastic syncytiotrophoblast in choriocarcinoma. In addition, we observed PD-1-positive lymphocytes located within the implantation site and in trophoblastic tumors. In summary, this study describes a novel mechanism for trophoblastic cells to create a tolerogenic feto-maternal interface by upregulating PD-L1 in syncytiotrophoblast and in intermediate trophoblast. Trophoblastic tumors may also use PD-L1 expression to evade the host immune response thereby promoting their survival.

  16. Basal cell carcinoma: PD-L1/PD-1 checkpoint expression and tumor regression after PD-1 blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Evan J; Lilo, Mohammed T; Ogurtsova, Aleksandra; Esandrio, Jessica; Xu, Haiying; Brothers, Patricia; Schollenberger, Megan; Sharfman, William H; Taube, Janis M

    2017-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies that block immune regulatory proteins such as programmed death-1 (PD-1) have demonstrated remarkable efficacy in controlling the growth of multiple tumor types. Unresectable or metastatic basal cell carcinoma, however, has largely gone untested. Because PD-Ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in other tumor types has been associated with response to anti-PD-1, we investigated the expression of PD-L1 and its association with PD-1 expression in the basal cell carcinoma tumor microenvironment. Among 40 basal cell carcinoma specimens, 9/40 (22%) demonstrated PD-L1 expression on tumor cells, and 33/40 (82%) demonstrated PD-L1 expression on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and associated macrophages. PD-L1 was observed in close geographic association to PD-1+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Additionally, we present, here, the first report of an objective anti-tumor response to pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1) in a patient with metastatic PD-L1 (+) basal cell carcinoma, whose disease had previously progressed through hedgehog pathway-directed therapy. The patient remains in a partial response 14 months after initiation of therapy. Taken together, our findings provide a rationale for testing anti-PD-1 therapy in patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma, either as initial treatment or after acquired resistance to hedgehog pathway inhibition.

  17. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency and Plasmodium falciparum parasites in asymptomatic school children living in southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Linda Eva; Opong, Akua; Ayanful-Torgby, Ruth; Abankwa, Joana; Acquah, Festus K

    2016-07-26

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked genetic disorder that results in impaired enzyme activity. Although G6PD deficiency is globally distributed it is more prevalent in malaria-endemic countries. Several mutations have been identified in the G6PD gene, which alter enzyme activity. The G6PD genotype predominantly found in sub-Saharan Africa is the G6PDB (G6PD376A) with (G6PD376G) and G6PDA- (G6PD376G/202A, G6PD376G/542T, G6PD376G/680T and G6PD376G/968C) occurring at lower frequencies. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum carriage in children living in southern Ghana and determine whether G6PD deficiency influences asymptomatic carriage of P. falciparum parasites. Blood samples were obtained once a month from 170 healthy Ghanaian school children aged between 5 and 12 years from Basic schools in two communities Obom and Abura with similar rainfall patterns and malaria peak seasons. G6PD enzyme activity was assessed using the qualitative G6PD RDT kit (AccessBIO). G6PD genotyping and asymptomatic parasite carriage was determined by PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of DNA extracted from dried blood spots. The only sub-Saharan G6PD A- allele detected was the A376G/G202A found in 12.4 % (21/170), of the children and distributed as 4.1 % (7/170) A-, 1.8 % (3/170) A-/A- homozygous deficient males and females and 6.5 % (11/170) A/A- and B/A- heterozygous deficient females. Phenotypically, 10.6 % (15/142) of the children were G6PD deficient. The asymptomatic carriage of P. falciparum by PCR was 50, 29.4, 38.2 and 38.8 % over the months of February through May 2015, respectively, and 28.8, 22.4, 25.9 and 5.9 % by microscopy during the same periods. G6PD deficiency was significantly associated with a lowered risk of PCR-estimated asymptomatic P. falciparum carriage in children during the off peak malaria season in Southern Ghana.

  18. Can You Have Parkinsonism without Having PD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Can You Have Parkinsonism Without Having PD? Can You Have Parkinsonism Without Having PD? YES . Parkinsonism ... Certain medications, vascular problems, and other neurodegenerative diseases can cause the symptoms similar to Parkinson’s disease. In ...

  19. Pd grating obtained by direct micromolding for use in high resolution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the pattern when used as an optical grating produced a diffraction pattern with a high resolution (>2000); the inten- sities of widely separated ... Keywords. Micromolding technique; Pd grating; Cu electroless deposition; diffraction efficiency; optical diffraction. 1. .... ethanol to remove any uncured polymer. The resulting stamp.

  20. The Absolute Dating Potential of Proximal-Distal Tephra Correlations in an Aegean Marine Stratigraphy (Core LC21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satow, Christopher; Lowe, John; Rohling, Eelco; Blockley, Simon; Menzies, Martin; Grant, Katharine; Smith, Vicki; Tomlinson, Emma

    2010-05-01

    Quaternary marine stratigraphies frequently suffer from poor absolute age control. Radiocarbon dating is intuitively the most appropriate technique for most marine stratigraphies, but its application is limited to the last 50ka or so by the decay rate of carbon. There are also uncertainties related to reservoir effects and the calibration of radiocarbon time to real time. However, precise dating and correlation of marine cores is essential to understand the timing and spatial relationships of the valuable environmental records they preserve. Here we demonstrate the potential of both visible and "invisible" micro-tephra layers to precisely date an important marine environmental record (Core LC21 from the Southern Aegean Sea). This is done by geochemically correlating the distal marine tephra layers to proximal volcanic deposits from Italy, Greece and Turkey. We use both Major Element (EPMA- Oxford Archaeology) and Trace Element (LA-ICP-MS, Royal Holloway Earth Sciences) analyses on individual tephra shards to determine the source of the tephra, and to make the correlations to explosive eruptive events. The most precise date (14C, 39Ar:40Ar or U-Th) from the event's proximal deposit is then imported into the equivalent distal tephra found in the marine core. Many of these distal "micro-tephras" were previously undetected by standard core logging techniques such as visual stratigraphy or scanning XRF. The extent and potential application of these tephras is now being realised. This study will provide the first direct (same core) and independent, absolute chronological markers for sapropels S3, S4 and S5, three major anoxic events found in the Eastern Mediterranean. In addition, the major and trace element geochemistry will be used to robustly correlate three marine cores spanning the Mediterranean. This work forms the Marine Tephrostratigraphy component (Work Package 5) of the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) consortium project "RESET" (Response of Humans to Abrupt Environmental Transitions). In collaboration with a number of European research teams, the programme aims to construct a secure chronological framework for assessing the timing and effects of rapid environmental changes during the late Quaternary. See http://c14.arch.ox.ac.uk/reset/embed.php?File=index.html

  1. Tungsten carbide promoted Pd and Pd-Co electrocatalysts for formic acid electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Min; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Huang, Yunjie; Cleemann, Lars N.; Bjerrum, Niels J.; Xing, Wei

    2012-12-01

    Tungsten carbide (WC) promoted palladium (Pd) and palladium-cobalt (Pd-Co) nanocatalysts are prepared and characterized for formic acid electrooxidation. The WC as the dopant to carbon supports is found to enhance the CO tolerance and promote the activity of the Pd-based catalysts for formic acid oxidation. Alloying of Pd with Co further improves the electrocatalytic activity and stability of the WC supported catalysts, attributable to a synergistic effect of the carbide support and PdCo alloy nanoparticles.

  2. Empowering Patients: PD in Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kensing, Finn; Strand, Dixi Louise; Bansler, Jørgen P.

    2004-01-01

    empowerment as focus of ongoing research in the research program Health Care IT along with three empirical case studies under way. We conclude by highlighting the context-specific challenges development of new IT services in the health care sector poses and relate these challenges to existing PD concepts...

  3. PD-L1-specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Shamaila Munir; Borch, Troels Holz; Hansen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    -specific T cells that recognize both PD-L1-expressing immune cells and malignant cells. Thus, PD-L1-specific T cells have the ability to modulate adaptive immune reactions by reacting to regulatory cells. Thus, utilization of PD-L1-derived T cell epitopes may represent an attractive vaccination strategy...... for targeting the tumor microenvironment and for boosting the clinical effects of additional anticancer immunotherapy. This review summarizes present information about PD-L1 as a T cell antigen, depicts the initial findings about the function of PD-L1-specific T cells in the adjustment of immune responses...

  4. Catalytic-Metal/PdO(sub x)/SiC Schottky-Diode Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Lukco, Dorothy

    2006-01-01

    Miniaturized hydrogen- and hydrocarbon-gas sensors, heretofore often consisting of Schottky diodes based on catalytic metal in contact with SiC, can be improved by incorporating palladium oxide (PdOx, where 0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1) between the catalytic metal and the SiC. In prior such sensors in which the catalytic metal was the alloy PdCr, diffusion and the consequent formation of oxides and silicides of Pd and Cr during operation at high temperature were observed to cause loss of sensitivity. However, it was also observed that any PdOx layers that formed and remained at PdCr/SiC interfaces acted as barriers to diffusion, preventing further deterioration by preventing the subsequent formation of metal silicides. In the present improvement, the lesson learned from these observations is applied by placing PdOx at the catalytic metal/SiC interfaces in a controlled and uniform manner to form stable diffusion barriers that prevent formation of metal silicides. A major advantage of PdOx over other candidate diffusion-barrier materials is that PdOx is a highly stable oxide that can be incorporated into gas sensor structures by use of deposition techniques that are standard in the semiconductor industry. The PdOx layer can be used in a gas sensor structure for improved sensor stability, while maintaining sensitivity. For example, in proof-of-concept experiments, Pt/PdOx/SiC Schottky-diode gas sensors were fabricated and tested. The fabrication process included controlled sputter deposition of PdOx to a thickness of 50 Angstroms on a 400-m-thick SiC substrate, followed by deposition of Pt to a thickness of 450 Angstroms on the PdOx. The SiC substrate (400 microns in thickness) was patterned with photoresist and a Schottky-diode photomask. A lift-off process completed the definition of the Schottky-diode pattern. The sensors were tested by measuring changes in forward currents at a bias potential of 1 V during exposure to H2 in N2 at temperatures

  5. Histopathologic Features of Colitis Due to Immunotherapy With Anti-PD-1 Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jonathan H; Pezhouh, Maryam K; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Masia, Ricard

    2017-05-01

    Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blocking agents are novel immunotherapeutics used for treatment of advanced-stage malignancies. They have shown promise in the treatment of several malignancies, with greater efficacy and better tolerability than cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) blocking agents. However, as with anti-CTLA-4 agents, clinically significant colitis remains an important complication. Although there is growing awareness of the histopathologic features of anti-CTLA-4 therapy, there is little information on the pathologic features of anti-PD-1 colitis. We describe here the histopathologic findings in 8 patients who developed colitis while on anti-PD-1 monotherapy. The most common pattern of injury observed (5/8 cases) was an active colitis with neutrophilic crypt microabscesses and with prominent crypt epithelial cell apoptosis and crypt atrophy/dropout. These latter features are reminiscent of other colitides with prominent apoptosis such as acute graft-versus-host disease or certain drug-induced colitides. The remainder of cases (3/8) showed a lymphocytic colitis-like pattern, characterized by increased intraepithelial lymphocytes and surface epithelial injury. Apoptosis was also often increased in these cases but crypt atrophy/dropout was not present. In patients who experienced recurrence of anti-PD-1 colitis, histologic features were similar to the initial insult but, in addition, features of chronicity developed that mimicked inflammatory bowel disease (basal lymphoplasmacytosis and crypt architectural irregularity, and Paneth cell metaplasia in 1 case). Awareness of the clinical scenario, however, should allow pathologists to suggest anti-PD-1 colitis. Interestingly, recurrent colitis was observed in patients who had been off anti-PD-1 therapy for many months. As anti-PD-1 agents are increasingly used in oncology, we present this series to increase awareness of anti-PD-1 colitis among pathologists, to facilitate its timely diagnosis

  6. Extracting Extensor Digitorum Communis Activation Patterns using High-Density Surface Electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang eHu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The extensor digitorum communis muscle plays an important role in hand dexterity during object manipulations. This multi-tendinous muscle is believed to be controlled through separate motoneuron pools, thereby forming different compartments that control individual digits. However, due to the complex anatomical variations across individuals and the flexibility of neural control strategies, the spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis compartments during individual finger extension have not been fully tracked under different task conditions.The objective of this study was to quantify the global spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis using high-density (7×9 surface electromyogram (EMG recordings. The muscle activation map (based on the root mean square of the EMG was constructed when subjects performed individual four finger extensions at the metacarpophalangeal joint, at different effort levels and under different finger constraints (static and dynamic. Our results revealed distinct activation patterns during individual finger extensions, especially between index and middle finger extensions, although the activation between ring and little finger extensions showed strong covariance. The activation map was relatively consistent at different muscle contraction levels and for different finger constraint conditions. We also found that distinct activation patterns were more discernible in the proximal-distal direction than in the radial-ulnar direction. The global spatial activation map utilizing surface grid EMG of the extensor digitorum communis muscle provides information for localizing individual compartments of the extensor muscle during finger extensions. This is of potential value for identifying more selective control input for assistive devices. Such information can also provide a basis for understanding hand impairment in individuals with neural disorders.

  7. Comparative theoretical study of formaldehyde decomposition on PdZn, Cu, and Pd surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kok Hwa; Chen, Zhao-Xu; Neyman, Konstantin M; Rösch, Notker

    2006-08-03

    Methanol steam reforming, catalyzed by Pd/ZnO (PdZn alloy), is a potential source of hydrogen for on-board fuel cells. CO has been reported to be a minor side product of methanol decomposition that occurs in parallel to methanol steam reforming on PdZn catalysts. However, fuel cells currently used in vehicles are very sensitive to CO poisoning. To contribute to the understanding of pertinent reaction mechanisms, we employed density functional slab model calculations to study the decomposition of formaldehyde, a key intermediate in methanol decomposition and steam reforming reactions, on planar surfaces of Pd, Cu, and PdZn as well as on a stepped surface of PdZn. The calculated activation energies indicate that dehydrogenation of formaldehyde is favorable on Pd(111), but unfavorable on Cu(111) and PdZn(111). On the stepped PdZn(221) surface, the dehydrogenation process was calculated to be more competitive to formaldehyde desorption than on PdZn(111). Thus, we ascribe the experimentally observed small amount of CO, formed during steam reforming of methanol on the Pd/ZnO catalyst, to occur at metallic Pd species of the catalyst or at defect sites of PdZn alloy.

  8. PD-1-PD-L1 immune-checkpoint blockade in B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Aaron; Patel, Sandip P; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2017-04-01

    Cancer cells can escape T-cell-mediated cellular cytotoxicity by exploiting the inhibitory programmed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint. Indeed, therapeutic antibodies that block the PD-1-PD-L1 axis induce durable clinical responses against a growing list of solid tumours. B-cell lymphomas also leverage this checkpoint to escape immune recognition, although the outcomes of PD-1-PD-L1 blockade, and the correlations between PD-L1 expression and treatment responses, are less-well elucidated in these diseases than in solid cancers. Nevertheless, in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, amplification of the gene encoding PD-L1 is commonly associated with increased expression of this protein on Reed-Sternberg cells. Correspondingly, PD-1 blockade with nivolumab has been demonstrated to result in response rates as high as 87% in unselected patients with relapsed and/or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma, leading to the FDA approval of nivolumab for this indication in May 2016. The PD-1/PD-L1 axis is probably also important for immune evasion of B-cell lymphomas with a viral aetiology, including those associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This Review is focused on the role of PD-1-PD-L1 blockade in unleashing host antitumour immune responses against various B-cell lymphomas, and summarizes the clinical studies of this approach performed to date.

  9. Magnetic behavior of Pd nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera-Granja, F. [Instituto de Fisica ' Manuel Sandoval Vallarta' , Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico)]. E-mail: faustino@dec1.ifisica.uaslp.mx; Montejano-Carrizales, J.M. [Instituto de Fisica ' Manuel Sandoval Vallarta' , Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Berlanga-Ramirez, E.O. [Instituto de Fisica ' Manuel Sandoval Vallarta' , Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Vega, A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, Nuclear y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2004-12-31

    We study the magnetic properties of free-standing Pd clusters of some selected sizes with icosahedral structures which are obtained as the most stable ones using the Embedded Atom Method from an uniform relaxation of different geometrical configurations. The spin-polarized electronic structure and related magnetic properties of those optimized geometries were calculated by solving self-consistently a spd tight-binding Hamiltonian. The magnetic moments obtained in our calculations present a step-like dependence as a function of the exchange parameter in the case of small cluster sizes and a more complex dependence for larger cluster sizes is found. We discuss the results in comparison with previous calculations for FCC Pd clusters and with recent experimental findings. We also study the dependence of the magnetic moments distribution within the clusters with some geometrical effects such as hydrostatic deformations and twining.

  10. [Perioperative Management of PD Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, H

    2016-07-01

    Both patients and caregivers but also treating physicians are concerned about complications along with surgical interventions. A major problem is abrupt cessation of anti-Parkinson medication, which leads to manifold disturbances, sometimes even to an akinetic crisis. There are several means to guarantee continuous dopaminergic stimulation even in patients that are not allowed to take medication orally before they undergo surgery. Amongst others rectally applied levodopa, amantadine infusions, and especially the use of a rotigotine patch are good means to overcome oral intake. Perioperative management is important due to the fact that in Germany alone each year more than 10 000 PD patients undergo surgery. Main reasons for this are fractures, but also elective interventions. Further emergency situations that cause treatment as an inpatient are psychosis, motoric disability, but also pneumonia and cardiovascular disturbances. In contrast PD patients suffer less often from cancer. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. G6PD Deficiency in Turkish Cypriots

    OpenAIRE

    SÖZÜÖZ, Ayşe

    2014-01-01

    1108 Turkish Cypriot men and 318 male labourers from mainland Turkey were screened for G6PD deficiency and haemoglobinopathy traits. The results revealed a 6.7% G6PD deficiency rate in the Turkish Cypriot men and a 1.6% prevalance rate in the Turkish men. The mean haemoglobin level of the G6PD deficient males was approximately 1g/dl lower than that of the non-deficient males.

  12. Parkinson's disease spatial covariance pattern: noninvasive quantification with perfusion MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yilong; Huang, Chaorui; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Pan, Hong; Alsop, David; Feigin, Andrew; Eidelberg, David

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with elevated expression of a specific disease-related spatial covariance pattern (PDRP) in radiotracer scans of cerebral blood flow and metabolism. In this study, we scanned nine early-stage patients with PD and nine healthy controls using continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). Parkinson's disease-related metabolic pattern expression in CASL pMRI scans was compared with the corresponding 18F-fluorodeoxygluc...

  13. Phenotypic Characteristics of PD-1 and CTLA-4 Expression in Symptomatic Acute Hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyosun; Kang, Hyojeung; Kim, Chang Wook; Kim, Hee Yeon; Jang, Jeong Won; Yoon, Seung Kew; Lee, Chang Don

    2016-03-01

    The immunoregulatory molecules programmed death 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) are associated with the dysfunction of antiviral effector T-cells, which leads to T-cell exhaustion and persistent viral infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C and chronic hepatitis B. Little is known about the role of PD-1 and CTLA-4 in patients with symptomatic acute hepatitis A (AHA). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from seven patients with AHA and from six patients with nonviral acute toxic hepatitis (ATH) during the symptomatic and convalescent phases of the respective diseases; five healthy subjects acted as controls. The expression of PD-1 and CTLA-4 on T-cells was measured by flow cytometry. PD-1 and CTLA-4 expression during the symptomatic phase was significantly higher in the T-cells of AHA patients than in those of ATH patients or healthy controls (PD-1 18.3% vs 3.7% vs 1.6%, respectively, p<0.05; CTLA-4 23.5% vs 6.1% vs 5.9%, respectively, p<0.05). The levels of both molecules decreased dramatically during the convalescent phase of AHA, whereas a similar pattern was not seen in ATH. Our findings are consistent with a viral-protective effect of PD-1 and CTLA-4 as inhibitory molecules that suppress cytotoxic T-cells and thereby prevent the destruction of virus-infected hepatocytes in AHA.

  14. Hyperprogression during anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy in patients with recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saâda-Bouzid, E; Defaucheux, C; Karabajakian, A; Coloma, V P; Servois, V; Paoletti, X; Even, C; Fayette, J; Guigay, J; Loirat, D; Peyrade, F; Alt, M; Gal, J; Le Tourneau, C

    2017-07-01

    Pembrolizumab and nivolumab are immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting PD-1 that have recently been approved in pretreated recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC) patients. In the clinic, some patients seem not only not to benefit from anti-PD-L1/PD-1 agents but rather to experience an acceleration of tumor growth kinetics (TGK). We retrospectively compared TGK on immunotherapy and TGK on last treatment in patients with R/M HNSCC treated with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in four French centers. The TGK ratio (TGKR, ratio of the slope of tumor growth before treatment and the slope of tumor growth on treatment) was calculated. Hyperprogression was defined as a TGKR ≥ 2. From September 2012 to September 2015, 34 patients were identified. Patterns of recurrence included exclusive loco-regional recurrence in 14 patients, exclusive distant metastases in 11 patients, and both in 9 patients. No pseudo-progression was observed. Hyperprogression was observed in 10 patients (29%), including 9 patients with at least a locoregional recurrence, and only 1 patient with exclusively distant metastases. Hyperprogression significantly correlated with a regional recurrence (TGKR ≥ 2: 90% versus TGKR < 2: 37%, P = 0.008), but not with local or distant recurrence. Hyperprogression was associated with a shorter progression-free survival (PFS) according to RECIST (P = 0.003) and irRECIST (P = 0.02), but not with overall survival (P = 0.77). Hyperprogression was observed in 29% of patients with R/M HNSCC treated with anti-PD-L1/PD-1 agents and correlated with a shorter PFS. It occurred in 39% of patients with at least a locoregional recurrence and 9% of patients with exclusively distant metastases. No pseudo-progressions were reported. Mechanisms and causality of hyperprogression should further be assessed through prospective controlled studies.

  15. Correlation between Pd metal thickness and thermally stable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy features in [Co/Pd]n multilayers at annealing temperatures up to 500 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang Guk An

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We examine highly stable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA features of [Co/Pd]10 multilayers (MLs versus Pd thickness at various ex-situ annealing temperatures. Thermally stable PMA characteristics were observed up to 500 °C, confirming the suitability of these systems for industrial applications at this temperature. Experimental observations suggest that the choice of equivalent Co and Pd layer thicknesses in a ML configuration ensures thermally stable PMA features, even at higher annealing temperatures. X-ray diffraction patterns and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images were obtained to determine thickness, post-annealing PMA behavior, and to explore the structural features that govern these findings.

  16. Fabrication of stable Pd nanowire assisted by hydrogen in solution

    OpenAIRE

    Kiguchi, M.; Murakoshi, K

    2006-01-01

    We have mechanically fabricated a Pd nanowire in solution under electrochemical potential control. A clear feature appeared in the conductance histogram when the electrochemical potential of the Pd wire was kept at the hydrogen evolution potential. Conductance traces showed the Pd wire was stretched 0.4 nm in length just before breaking, suggesting that at least two Pd atoms might contribute to the formation of the Pd wire. The results indicate that a certain atomic configuration of the Pd na...

  17. From the "PD First" policy to the innovation in PD care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treamtrakanpon, Worapot; Katavetin, Pisut; Yimsangyad, Khanittha; Keawsinark, Pasunun; Sanganunttakan, Suthasinee; Pandon, Sukannika; Buddeewong, Darunee; Prakot, Auengpha; Khumsupo, Chanpen; Thamsutee, Noppadon; Yaibuaiam, Ranu; Khumwong, Sawida; Towannang, Piyaporn; Theerasin, Yuwadee; Mahatnan, Nanta; Eiam-Ong, Somchai; Kanjanabuch, Talerngsak

    2011-09-01

    Due to the rapid growth of peritoneal dialysis (PD) program under the "PD First" policy of Thailand, it is necessary to have many voluntary well-training PD staffs and a good education program for PD nurses to serve an excellent PD outcome. In the present study novel devices, which could be practically used in PD patients, were developed by the creative PD trainee idea of to facilitate PD self-care and decrease work load of PD staffs. Young PD nurses in the 3rd generation of PD trainee program from King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were assigned to develop novel tools in order to assisting patient care in real practice. The efficacy of these inventions and patient satisfaction were assessed by comparing with the standard method. The authors presented two interesting innovations in the present study. The first one, "Troubleshooting Wheel", contained six common complaints and the advice for correcting each problem in the platform of rotating wheel. Participants could solve problems more rapidly than using the standard handbook for PD (p < 0.01) and also found the correct responses more frequently than the handbook (p < 0.01). The second one, "Exit Site Abacus", the sliding platform with automatic calculation of the sum of exit site score, was the easier method in evaluating the exit site infection than the conventional exit site scoring using the Prowant's table or their own memory. Reinforcement of the development of PD nursing program not only increases the number of PD staffs but also contributes to the innovations for improving quality of PD care by the young new staffs.

  18. Structural Biology of the Immune Checkpoint Receptor PD-1 and Its Ligands PD-L1/PD-L2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zak, Krzysztof M.; Grudnik, Przemyslaw; Magiera, Katarzyna; Dömling, Alexander; Dubin, Grzegorz; Holak, Tad A.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells can avoid and suppress immune responses through activation of inhibitory immune checkpoint proteins, such as PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4. Blocking the activities of these proteins with monoclonal antibodies, and thus restoring T cell function, has delivered breakthrough therapies against

  19. Response to single agent PD-1 inhibitor after progression on previous PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Dylan J; Lalani, Aly-Khan A; Bossé, Dominick; Steinharter, John A; Harshman, Lauren C; Hodi, F Stephen; Ott, Patrick A; Choueiri, Toni K

    2017-08-15

    Monoclonal antibodies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis have gained increasing attention across many solid tumors and hematologic malignancies due to their efficacy and favorable toxicity profile. With more than 1 agent now FDA-approved in a wide variety of tumor types, and with others in clinical trials, it is becoming more common that patients present to clinic for potential treatment with a second PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor. In this report, we present two patients with renal cell carcinoma and one with melanoma who received PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Upon progression on their first-line PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, these patients received a different PD-1 inhibitor (nivolumab in all cases) and all had progressive disease as their best response to the subsequent PD-1 inhibitor. The reported clinical information focuses on the course of the disease and the responses to all treatment regimens. Clinicians should refrain from using multiple PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors sequentially outside of clinical trials until there is sufficient data to support this practice routinely. Prospective studies that allow prior treatment with PD-1/PD-L1 are needed to validate the efficacy and safety of these drugs in the second line or later setting. Furthermore, ongoing efforts that aim to identify mechanisms of resistance to immunotherapy will be informative and may ultimately assist physicians in select the optimal treatment following progression on PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor.

  20. The metabolic pattern of idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder reflects early-stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meles, Sanne Katherina; Renken, Remco J; Janzen, Annette H O; Vadasz, David; Pagani, Marco; Arnaldi, Dario; Morbelli, Silvia; Nobili, Flavio; Mayer, Geert; Leenders, Klaus L; Oertel, Wolfgang H O

    2018-02-23

    Rationale: Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is considered a prodromal stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other Lewy-body disorders. Spatial covariance analysis of [ 18 F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography ( 18 F-FDG-PET) data has disclosed a specific brain pattern of altered glucose metabolism in PD. In this study, we identify the metabolic pattern underlying iRBD and compare it to the known PD pattern. To understand the relevance of the iRBD pattern to disease progression, we study the expression of the iRBD pattern in de novo PD patients. Methods: The iRBD-related pattern was identified in 18 F-FDG-PET scans of 21 patients with polysomnographically-confirmed iRBD and 19 controls using spatial covariance analysis. Expression of the iRBD-related pattern was subsequently computed in 18 F-FDG-PET scans of 44 controls and 38 de novo, treatment-naïve PD patients. Of these 38 PD patients, 24 had probable RBD according to the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire. Neuropsychological evaluation showed mild cognitive impairment in 20 PD patients (PD-MCI), of whom sixteen also had concomitant RBD and roughly half (11/20) had bilateral motor symptoms. Results: The iRBD-related pattern was characterized by relative hypermetabolism in cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus, sensorimotor cortex, and hippocampus, and by relative hypometabolism in middle cingulate, temporal, occipital and parietal cortices. This topography partially overlapped with the PD-related pattern (PDRP). The iRBD-related pattern was significantly expressed in PD patients compared to controls (Ppattern expression was not significantly different between PD patients with and without probable RBD, or between PD patients with unilateral or bilateral parkinsonism. iRBD-related pattern expression was higher in PD-MCI patients, compared to PD patients with preserved cognition ( P = 0.001). Subject scores on the iRBD-related pattern were highly correlated to subject scores on the PDRP (r=0.94, Ppatterns

  1. Measurement of benzenethiol adsorption to nanostructured Pt, Pd, and PtPd films using Raman spectroelectrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomfret, Michael B; Pietron, Jeremy J; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C

    2010-05-04

    Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical methods were used to study the behavior of the model adsorbate benzenethiol (BT) on nanostructured Pt, Pd, and PtPd electrodes as a function of applied potential. Benzenethiol adsorbs out of ethanolic solutions as the corresponding thiolate, and voltammetric stripping data reveal that BT is oxidatively removed from all of the nanostructured metals upon repeated oxidative and reductive cycling. Oxidative stripping potentials for BT increase in the order Pt < PtPd < Pd, indicating that BT adsorbs most strongly to nanoscale Pd. Yet, BT Raman scattering intensities, measured in situ over time scales of minutes to hours, are most persistent on the film of nanostructured Pt. Raman spectra indicate that adsorbed BT desorbs from nanoscale Pt at oxidizing potentials via cleavage of the Pt-S bond. In contrast, on nanoscale Pd and PtPd, BT is irreversibly lost due to cleavage of BT C-S bonds at oxidizing potentials, which leaves adsorbed sulfur oxides on Pd and PtPd films and effects the desulfurization of BT. While Pd and PtPd films are less sulfur-resistant than Pt films, palladium oxides, which form at higher potentials than Pt oxides, oxidatively desulfurize BT. In situ spectroelectrochemical Raman spectroscopy provides real-time, chemically specific information that complements the cyclic voltammetric data. The combination of these techniques affords a powerful and convenient method for guiding the development of sulfur-tolerant PEMFC catalysts.

  2. CO oxidation on PdO surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirvi, Janne T.; Kinnunen, Toni-Jani J.; Suvanto, Mika

    2010-01-01

    Density functional calculations were performed in order to investigate CO oxidation on two of the most stable bulk PdO surfaces. The most stable PdO(100) surface, with oxygen excess, is inert against CO adsorption, whereas strong adsorption on the stoichiometric PdO(101) surface leads to favorable......, the reaction with the site blocking molecular oxygen is slightly more favorable, enabling also possible formation of carbonate surface species at low temperatures. The extreme activity of strongly bonded surface oxygen atoms is more greatly emphasized on the PdO(100)–O surface. The direct reaction without...... adsorption, following the Eley–Rideal mechanism and taking advantage of the reaction tunnel provided by the adjacent palladium atom, has an activation energy of only 0.24 eV. The reaction mechanism and activation energy for the palladium activated CO oxidation on the most stable PdO(100)–O surface...

  3. Alternative splice variants of the human PD-1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Ohm-Laursen, Line; Barington, Torben

    2005-01-01

    PD-1 is an immunoregulatory receptor expressed on the surface of activated T cells, B cells, and monocytes. We describe four alternatively spliced PD-1 mRNA transcripts (PD-1Deltaex2, PD-1Deltaex3, PD-1Deltaex2,3, and PD-1Deltaex2,3,4) in addition to the full length isoform. PD-1Deltaex2 and PD-1......Deltaex3 are generated by alternative splicing where exon 2 (extracellular IgV-like domain) and exon 3 (transmembrane domain) respectively are spliced out. PD-1Deltaex3 is therefore likely to encode a soluble form of PD-1. PD-1Deltaex2,3 lacks exon 2 and 3. These three variants have unaffected open...

  4. Differential activity patterns of putaminal neurons with inputs from the primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area in behaving monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Sayuki; Hatanaka, Nobuhiko; Takada, Masahiko; Nambu, Atsushi

    2011-09-01

    Activity patterns of projection neurons in the putamen were investigated in behaving monkeys. Stimulating electrodes were implanted chronically into the proximal (MI(proximal)) and distal (MI(distal)) forelimb regions of the primary motor cortex (MI) and the forelimb region of the supplementary motor area (SMA). Cortical inputs to putaminal neurons were identified by excitatory orthodromic responses to stimulation of these motor cortices. Then, neuronal activity was recorded during the performance of a goal-directed reaching task with delay. Putaminal neurons with inputs from the MI and SMA showed different activity patterns, i.e., movement- and delay-related activity, during task performance. MI-recipient neurons increased activity in response to arm-reach movements, whereas SMA-recipient neurons increased activity during delay periods, as well as during movements. The activity pattern of MI + SMA-recipient neurons was of an intermediate type between those of MI- and SMA-recipient neurons. Approximately one-half of MI(proximal)-, SMA-, and MI + SMA-recipient neurons changed activities before the onset of movements, whereas a smaller number of MI(distal)- and MI(proximal + distal)-recipient neurons did. Movement-related activity of MI-recipient neurons was modulated by target directions, whereas SMA- and MI + SMA-recipient neurons had a lower directional selectivity. MI-recipient neurons were located mainly in the ventrolateral part of the caudal aspect of the putamen, whereas SMA-recipient neurons were located in the dorsomedial part. MI + SMA-recipient neurons were found in between. The present results suggest that a subpopulation of putaminal neurons displays specific activity patterns depending on motor cortical inputs. Each subpopulation receives convergent or nonconvergent inputs from the MI and SMA, retains specific motor information, and sends it to the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra through the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia.

  5. Enhancement of PSMA-Directed CAR Adoptive Immunotherapy by PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serganova, Inna; Moroz, Ekaterina; Cohen, Ivan; Moroz, Maxim; Mane, Mayuresh; Zurita, Juan; Shenker, Larissa; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Blasberg, Ronald

    2017-03-17

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in hematologic malignancies has shown remarkable responses, but the same level of success has not been observed in solid tumors. A new prostate cancer model (Myc-CaP:PSMA(+)) and a second-generation anti-hPSMA human CAR T cells expressing a Click Beetle Red luciferase reporter) were used to study hPSMA targeting and assess CAR T cell trafficking and persistence by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). We investigated the antitumor efficacy of human CAR T cells targeting human prostate-specific membrane antigen (hPSMA), in the presence and absence of the target antigen; first alone and then combined with a monoclonal antibody targeting the human programmed death receptor 1 (anti-hPD1 mAb). PDL-1 expression was detected in Myc-CaP murine prostate tumors growing in immune competent FVB/N and immune-deficient SCID mice. Endogenous CD3 + T cells were restricted from the centers of Myc-CaP tumor nodules growing in FVB/N mice. Following anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) treatment, the restriction of CD3 + T cells was reversed, and a tumor-treatment response was observed. Adoptive hPSMA-CAR T cell immunotherapy was enhanced when combined with PD-1 blockade, but the treatment response was of comparatively short duration, suggesting other immune modulation mechanisms exist and restrict CAR T cell targeting, function, and persistence in hPSMA expressing Myc-CaP tumors. Interestingly, an "inverse pattern" of CAR T cell BLI intensity was observed in control and test tumors, which suggests CAR T cells undergo changes leading to a loss of signal and/or number following hPSMA-specific activation. The lower BLI signal intensity in the hPSMA test tumors (compared with controls) is due in part to a decrease in T cell mitochondrial function following T cell activation, which may limit the intensity of the ATP-dependent Luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence signal.

  6. Investigating unexpected magnetism of mesoporous silica-supported Pd and PdO nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min

    2015-01-13

    The synthesis and magnetic behavior of matrix-supported Pd and PdO nanoparticles (NPs) are described. Mesoporous silica with hexagonal columnal packing is selected as a template, and the impregnation method with thermal annealing is used to obtain supported Pd and PdO NPs. The heating rate and the annealing conditions determine the particle size and the phase of the NPs, with a fast heating rate of 30 °C/min producing the largest supported Pd NPs. Unusual magnetic behaviors are observed. (1) Contrary to the general belief that smaller Pd NPs or cluster size particles have higher magnetization, matrix-supported Pd NPs in this study maintain the highest magnetization with room temperature ferromagnetism when the size is the largest. (2) Twin boundaries along with stacking faults are more pronounced in these large Pd NPs and are believed to be the reason for this high magnetization. Similarly, supported PdO NPs were prepared under air conditions with different heating rates. Their phase is tetragonal (P42/mmc) with cell parameters of a = 3.050 Å and c = 5.344 Å, which are slightly larger than in the bulk phase (a = 3.03 Å, c = 5.33 Å). Faster heating rate of 30 °C/min also produces larger particles and larger magnetic hysteresis loop, although magnetization is smaller and few twin boundaries are observed compared to the supported metallic Pd NPs.

  7. PD-1 expression by canine T cells and functional effects of PD-1 blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, J; Caldwell, A; Chow, L; Guth, A; Dow, S

    2017-12-01

    The co-inhibitory checkpoint molecule programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) can trigger T cell functional exhaustion upon binding to its ligand PD-L1 expressed on tumour cells or macrophages. PD-1 blocking antibodies have generated remarkable results in human cancer patients, including inducing durable responses in a number of advanced cancers. Therefore, monoclonal antibodies specific for canine PD-1 were assessed for T cell binding and induction of functional activation. A total of 5-10% of CD4 T cells and 20-25% of CD8 T cells from healthy dogs expressed PD-1, and PD-1 expression was upregulated on T cells from dogs with cancer. Functionally, PD-1 antibodies significantly enhanced T-cell activation, as assessed by proliferation and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production. PD-1 antibodies also reversed T-cell suppression induced by canine soluble PD-L1 and by tumour cells and tumour explant fragments. These findings indicate that PD-1 antibodies have potential for use in cancer immunotherapy in dogs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Anti-PD-1 therapy in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homet Moreno, Blanca; Parisi, Giulia; Robert, Lidia; Ribas, Antoni

    2015-06-01

    Immune-regulatory mechanisms are used by cancer to hide from the immune system. Advances and in-depth understanding of the biology of melanoma and its interaction with the immune system have led to the development of some of antagonistic antibodies to the programmed death 1 pathway (PD-1) and one of its ligands, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), which are demonstrating high clinical benefit rates and tolerability. Blocking the immune-regulatory checkpoints that limit T-cell responses to melanoma upon PD-1/PD-L1 modulation has provided clinically validated targets for cancer immunotherapy. Combinations with other anti-melanoma agents may result in additional benefits. Nivolumab, pembrolizumab (formerly known as MK-3475 and lambrolizumab), and pidilizumab are anti-PD-1 antibodies in clinical development for melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, head and neck cancers, lymphoma, and several other cancers. Long-term survivors already have been reported with these therapies. In this review, we discuss the current state of anti-PD-1 agents, the evidence in the literature to support the combination of anti-PD-1 antibodies with other anti-cancer agents and discuss the future directions for rational design of clinical trials that keep on increasing the number of long-term survivors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. G6PD Deficiency (Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias G6PD Deficiency KidsHealth > For Parents > G6PD Deficiency Print A A ... can lead a healthy and active life. About G6PD Deficiency G6PD is one of many enzymes that help ...

  10. User gains and PD aims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of user gains from their participation in a participatory design (PD) project at Danish primary schools. We explore user experiences and reported gains from the project in relation to the multiple aims of PD, based on a series of interviews with pupils, teachers, administrators...... relationships among people, stretching across organizations and project groups. Moreover, we demonstrate how users' gains related to their acting within these networks. These results suggest a heightened focus on the indirect and distributed channels through which the long-term impact of PD emerges....

  11. Beyond melanoma: inhibiting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentzler, Ryan; Hall, Richard; Kunk, Paul R; Gaughan, Elizabeth; Dillon, Patrick; Slingluff, Craig L; Rahma, Osama E

    2016-05-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been identified as breakthrough treatment in melanoma given its dramatic response to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. This is likely to extend to many other cancers as hundreds of clinical trials are being conducted or proposed using this exciting modality of therapy in a variety of malignancies. While immune checkpoint inhibitors have been extensively studied in melanoma and more recently in lung cancer, little is known regarding immune checkpoint blockade in other cancers. This review will focus on the tumor immune microenvironment, the expression of PD-1/PD-L1 and the effect of immune modulation using PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors in patients with head and neck, prostate, urothelial, renal, breast, gastrointestinal and lung cancers.

  12. PD-1/PD-L blockade in gastrointestinal cancers: lessons learned and the road toward precision immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Junyu; Lin, Jianzhen; Wang, Anqiang; Wu, Liangcai; Zheng, Yongchang; Yang, Xiaobo; Wan, Xueshuai; Xu, Haifeng; Chen, Shuguang; Zhao, Haitao

    2017-08-03

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are the most prevalent tumors worldwide, with increasing incidence and mortality. Although surgical resection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and molecular targeted therapy have led to significant advances in the treatment of GI cancer patients, overall survival is still low. Therefore, alternative strategies must be identified to improve patient outcomes. In the tumor microenvironment, tumor cells can escape the host immune response through the interaction of PD-1 and PD-L, which inhibits the function of T cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes while increasing the function of immunosuppressive T regulatory cells. The use of an anti-PD-1/PD-L blockade enables reprogramming of the immune system to efficiently identify and kill tumor cells. In recent years, the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L blockade has been demonstrated in many tumors, and this treatment is expected to be a pan-immunotherapy for tumors. Here, we review the signaling pathway underlying the dysregulation of PD-1/PD-L in tumors, summarize the current clinical data for PD-1/PD-L inhibitors in GI malignancies, and discuss road toward precision immunotherapy in relation to PD-1/PD-L blockade. The preliminary data for PD-1/PD-L inhibitors are encouraging, and the precision immunotherapy of PD-1/PD-L inhibitors will be a viable and pivotal clinical strategy for GI cancer therapy.

  13. PD-1/PD-L blockade in gastrointestinal cancers: lessons learned and the road toward precision immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyu Long

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gastrointestinal (GI malignancies are the most prevalent tumors worldwide, with increasing incidence and mortality. Although surgical resection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and molecular targeted therapy have led to significant advances in the treatment of GI cancer patients, overall survival is still low. Therefore, alternative strategies must be identified to improve patient outcomes. In the tumor microenvironment, tumor cells can escape the host immune response through the interaction of PD-1 and PD-L, which inhibits the function of T cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes while increasing the function of immunosuppressive T regulatory cells. The use of an anti-PD-1/PD-L blockade enables reprogramming of the immune system to efficiently identify and kill tumor cells. In recent years, the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L blockade has been demonstrated in many tumors, and this treatment is expected to be a pan-immunotherapy for tumors. Here, we review the signaling pathway underlying the dysregulation of PD-1/PD-L in tumors, summarize the current clinical data for PD-1/PD-L inhibitors in GI malignancies, and discuss road toward precision immunotherapy in relation to PD-1/PD-L blockade. The preliminary data for PD-1/PD-L inhibitors are encouraging, and the precision immunotherapy of PD-1/PD-L inhibitors will be a viable and pivotal clinical strategy for GI cancer therapy.

  14. One-pot synthesis of Pd-Pt@Pd core-shell nanocrystals with enhanced electrocatalytic activity for formic acid oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Well-defined Pd-Pt@Pd core-shell nanocrystals with a Pd-Pt alloy core and a conformal Pd shell of ~2-3 nm were directly synthesized through a one-pot, aqueous solution approach without any preformed Pd or Pt seeds. These Pd-Pt@Pd core-shell nanocrystals show an enhanced electrocatalytic activity for formic acid oxidation compared with commercial Pd black. This journal is © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Pd-nanoparticles cause increased toxicity to kiwifruit pollen compared to soluble Pd(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranza, Anna, E-mail: anna.speranza@unibo.i [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Leopold, Kerstin, E-mail: kerstin.leopold@lrz.tu-muenchen.d [Arbeitsgruppe fuer Analytische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Maier, Marina, E-mail: marina.maier@ch.tum.d [Arbeitsgruppe fuer Analytische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Taddei, Anna Rita, E-mail: artaddei@unitus.i [CIME, Universita della Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Scoccianti, Valeria, E-mail: valeria.scoccianti@uniurb.i [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Uomo, dell' Ambiente e della Natura, Universita di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , Urbino (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    In the present study, endpoints including in vitro pollen performance (i.e., germination and tube growth) and lethality were used as assessments of nanotoxicity. Pollen was treated with 5-10 nm-sized Pd particles, similar to those released into the environment by catalytic car exhaust converters. Results showed Pd-nanoparticles altered kiwifruit pollen morphology and entered the grains more rapidly and to a greater extent than soluble Pd(II). At particulate Pd concentrations well below those of soluble Pd(II), pollen grains experienced rapid losses in endogenous calcium and pollen plasma membrane damage was induced. This resulted in severe inhibition and subsequent cessation of pollen tube emergence and elongation at particulate Pd concentrations as low as 0.4 mg L{sup -1}. Particulate Pd emissions related to automobile traffic have been increasing and are accumulating in the environment. This could seriously jeopardize in vivo pollen function, with impacts at an ecosystem level. - Nanoparticulate Pd - which resembles emissions from automobile catalysts - affects pollen to a higher extent than soluble Pd.

  16. ScPd2Al3 - New polymorphic phase in Al-Pd-Sc system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospíšil, Jiří; Haga, Yoshinori; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Ishikawa, Norito; Císařová, Ivana; Tateiwa, Naoyuki; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Yamamura, Tomoo

    2017-12-01

    We have discovered a new compound of the composition ScPd2Al3 crystallizing in unknown structure type. Moreover, ScPd2Al3 reveals polymorphism. We have found an orthorhombic crystal structure at room temperature and a high temperature cubic phase. The polymorphic phases are separated by a reversible first order transition at 1053 °C with a hysteresis of 19 °C. ScPd2Al3 exists as a very stable intermetallic phase just in the vicinity of the icosahedral quasicrystal Tsai-type i-phase Al54Pd30Sc16.

  17. Ternary Pd-Ni-P hybrid electrocatalysts derived from Pd-Ni core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced formic acid oxidation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Juntao; Lu, Siqi; Zhuang, Zhongbin

    2016-09-25

    Ternary Pd-Ni-P hybrid electrocatalysts were synthesized through low temperature phosphidation of Pd-Ni core-shell nanoparticles. They show enhanced formic acid electro-oxidation activity compared to Pd, Pd-Ni and Pd-P nanoparticles, which is ascribed to the synergistic effect of the Ni and P components with Pd.

  18. Novel SEU hardened PD SOI SRAM cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengmin, Xie; Zhongfang, Wang; Xihu, Wang; Longsheng, Wu; Youbao, Liu

    2011-11-01

    A novel SEU hardened 10T PD SOI SRAM cell is proposed. By dividing each pull-up and pull-down transistor in the cross-coupled inverters into two cascaded transistors, this cell suppresses the parasitic BJT and source-drain penetration charge collection effect in PD SOI transistor which causes the SEU in PD SOI SRAM. Mixed-mode simulation shows that this novel cell completely solves the SEU, where the ion affects the single transistor. Through analysis of the upset mechanism of this novel cell, SEU performance is roughly equal to the multiple-cell upset performance of a normal 6T SOI SRAM and it is thought that the SEU performance is 17 times greater than traditional 6T SRAM in 45nm PD SOI technology node based on the tested data of the references. To achieve this, the new cell adds four transistors and has a 43.4% area overhead and performance penalty.

  19. Demixing processes in AgPd superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, J; Sporken, R [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux Electroniques (LPME), Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur, B-5000 (Belgium); Verstraete, M J; Gonze, X [ETSF and Unite de Physico-Chimie et de Physique des Materiaux (PCPM), Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1 Croix du Sud, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Ghijsen, J [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Spectroscopie Electronique (LISE), Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur, B-5000 (Belgium)

    2009-08-05

    The present scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study describes the growth of silver-palladium heterostructures at room temperature, with ab initio simulations of ordered AgPd phases supporting the interpretation of STM images. First, the growth of Pd on an Ag(111) surface proceeds in a multilayer mode, leading to the formation of a columnar structure. Then, upon Ag deposition on this structure, Ag and Pd partially mix and form a two-dimensional AgPd alloy on top of the columns. Finally, an atomically flat Ag(111) surface is restored, and two-dimensional growth continues. An interpretation of this peculiar growth mode including interfacial alloying is proposed based on thermodynamic and kinetic arguments.

  20. Programmed death 1 ligand (PD-L) 1 and PD-L2 limit autoimmune kidney disease: distinct roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Julia; Lucas, Julie A; Zeller, Geraldine C; Keir, Mary E; Huang, Xiao R; Tsuboi, Naotake; Mayadas, Tanya N; Lan, Han Y; Sharpe, Arlene H; Kelley, Vicki R

    2007-12-01

    The programmed death 1/programmed death 1 ligand (PD-L) pathway is instrumental in peripheral tolerance. Blocking this pathway exacerbates experimental autoimmune diseases, but its role in autoimmune kidney disease has not been explored. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the programmed death 1 ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2), provide a protective barrier during T cell- and macrophage (Mphi)-dependent autoimmune kidney disease. For this purpose, we compared nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN) in mice lacking PD-L1 (PD-L1(-/-)), PD-L2 (PD-L2(-/-)), or both (PD-L1/L2(-/-)) to wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. Kidney pathology, loss of renal function, and intrarenal leukocyte infiltrates were increased in each PD-L(-/-) strain as compared with WT mice. Although the magnitude of renal pathology was similar in PD-L1(-/-) and PD-L2(-/-) mice, our findings suggest that kidney disease in each strain is regulated by distinct mechanisms. Specifically, we detected increased CD68(+) cells along with elevated circulating IgG and IgG deposits in glomeruli in PD-L2(-/-) mice, but not PD-L1(-/-) mice. In contrast, we detected a rise in activated CD8(+) T cells in PD-L1(-/-) mice, but not PD-L2(-/-) mice. Furthermore, since PD-L1 is expressed by parenchymal and hemopoietic cells in WT kidneys, we explored the differential impact of PD-L1 expression on these cell types by inducing NSN in bone marrow chimeric mice. Our results indicate that PD-L1 expression on hemopoietic cells, and not parenchymal cells, is primarily responsible for limiting leukocyte infiltration during NSN. Taken together, our findings indicate that PD-L1 and PD-L2 provide distinct negative regulatory checkpoints poised to suppress autoimmune renal disease.

  1. Formation mechanisms and characteristics of transition patterns in oblique detonations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shikun; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Shijie; Cai, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    The transition structures of wedge-induced oblique detonation waves (ODWs) in high-enthalpy supersonic combustible mixtures are studied with two-dimensional reactive Euler simulations based on the open-source program AMROC (Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Object-oriented C++). The formation mechanisms of different transition patterns are investigated through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. Results show that transition patterns of ODWs depend on the pressure ratio Pd/Ps, (Pd, Ps are the pressure behind the ODW and the pressure behind the induced shock, respectively). When Pd/Ps > 1.3, an abrupt transition occurs, while when Pd/Ps 1.02Φ∗ (Φ∗ is the critical velocity ratio calculated with an empirical formula).

  2. Progress of PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhansheng JIANG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pembrolizumab, an inhibitor target programmed death 1 (PD-1, was approved into the first line therapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. It was a milestone that immune checkpoints drugs have played an important role in the treatment system of NSCLC. The results of clinical trials revealed the superiority of PD-1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1 inhibitors compared with chemotherapy in first-line, second-line and multidrug resistance phase therapy. Objective response rate (ORR was up to 80% with pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy, and progression-free survival (PFS with single pembrolizumab in first line was nearly 1 year (10.3 months, the hazard ratio for death fell by 40%. Overall survival (OS was more or less 1 year with single drug pembrolizumab, nivolumab and atezolizumab for second line therapy. PD-L1 expression was a predictor of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. The positive rate of PD-L1 (more than 1% in advanced NSCLC was about 60% with little difference between the tissue types. However, there was no gold standard test of PD-L1 expression.

  3. Synthesis of Pt, Pd, Pt/Ag and Pd/Ag nanoparticles by microwave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Pt, Pd, Pt-Ag and Pd-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized in ethylene glycol and glycerol using the microwave technique in the presence of a stabilizer poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). It has been observed that PVP is capable of complexing and stabilizing nanoparticles. Mixed clusters were formed by ...

  4. Domain structures and magnetization reversal in Co/Pd and CoFeB/Pd multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbiaa, R., E-mail: rachid@squ.edu.om [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, PC 123 (Oman); Ranjbar, M. [Physics Department, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Åkerman, J. [Physics Department, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Materials Physics, School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2015-05-07

    Domain structures and magnetization reversal of (Co/Pd) and (CoFeB/Pd) multilayers with 7 and 14 repeats were investigated. The Co-based multilayers show much larger coercivities, a better squareness, and a sharper magnetization switching than CoFeB-based multilayers. From magnetic force microscopy observations, both structures show strong reduction in domains size as the number of repeats increases but the magnetic domains for Co-based multilayers are more than one order of magnitude larger than for CoFeB-based multilayers. By imaging domains at different times, breaks in the (CoFeB/Pd) multilayer stripes were observed within only few hours, while no change could be seen for (Co/Pd) multilayers. Although CoFeB single layers are suitable for magnetoresistive devices due to their large spin polarization and low damping constants, their lamination with Pd suffers mainly from thermal instability.

  5. Enhancement of soft X-ray reflectivity and interface stability in nitridated Pd/Y multilayer mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dechao; Huang, Qiushi; Wang, Yiwen; Li, Pin; Wen, Mingwu; Jonnard, Philippe; Giglia, Angelo; Kozhevnikov, Igor V; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Zhanshan

    2015-12-28

    Pd/Y multilayer mirrors operating in the soft X-ray region are characterized by a high theoretical reflectance, reaching 65% at normal incidence in the 8-12 nm wavelength range. However, a severe intermixing of neighboring Pd and Y layers results in an almost total disappearance of the interfaces inside the multilayer structures fabricated by direct current magnetron sputtering and thus a dramatic reflectivity decrease. Based on grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the stability of the interfaces in Pd/Y multilayer structures can be essentially improved by adding a small amount of nitrogen (4-8%) to the working gas (Ar). High resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that the interlayer width is only 0.9 nm and 0.6 nm for Y(N)-on-Pd(N) and Pd(N)-on-Y(N) interfaces, respectively. A well-defined crystalline texture of YN (200) is observed on the electron diffraction pattern. As a result, the measured reflectance of the Pd(N)/Y(N) multilayer achieves 30% at λ = 9.3 nm. The peak reflectivity value is limited by the remaining interlayers and the formation of the YN compound inside the yttrium layers, resulting in an increased absorption.

  6. The atomic structure of low-index surfaces of the intermetallic compound InPd

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuirk, G. M.; Ledieu, J.; Gaudry, É.; de Weerd, M.-C.; Hahne, M.; Gille, P.; Ivarsson, D. C. A.; Armbrüster, M.; Ardini, J.; Held, G.; Maccherozzi, F.; Bayer, A.; Lowe, M.; Pussi, K.; Diehl, R. D.; Fournée, V.

    2015-08-01

    The intermetallic compound InPd (CsCl type of crystal structure with a broad compositional range) is considered as a candidate catalyst for the steam reforming of methanol. Single crystals of this phase have been grown to study the structure of its three low-index surfaces under ultra-high vacuum conditions, using low energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). During surface preparation, preferential sputtering leads to a depletion of In within the top few layers for all three surfaces. The near-surface regions remain slightly Pd-rich until annealing to ˜580 K. A transition occurs between 580 and 660 K where In segregates towards the surface and the near-surface regions become slightly In-rich above ˜660 K. This transition is accompanied by a sharpening of LEED patterns and formation of flat step-terrace morphology, as observed by STM. Several superstructures have been identified for the different surfaces associated with this process. Annealing to higher temperatures (≥750 K) leads to faceting via thermal etching as shown for the (110) surface, with a bulk In composition close to the In-rich limit of the existence domain of the cubic phase. The Pd-rich InPd(111) is found to be consistent with a Pd-terminated bulk truncation model as shown by dynamical LEED analysis while, after annealing at higher temperature, the In-rich InPd(111) is consistent with an In-terminated bulk truncation, in agreement with density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the relative surface energies. More complex surface structures are observed for the (100) surface. Additionally, individual grains of a polycrystalline sample are characterized by micro-spot XPS and LEED as well as low-energy electron microscopy. Results from both individual grains and "global" measurements are interpreted based on comparison to our single crystals findings, DFT calculations and previous literature.

  7. The atomic structure of low-index surfaces of the intermetallic compound InPd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuirk, G. M.; Ledieu, J.; Gaudry, É.; Weerd, M.-C.; Fournée, V. de, E-mail: vincent.fournee@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour (UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine), Parc de Saurupt, F-54011 Nancy Cedex (France); Hahne, M.; Gille, P. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Crystallography Section, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstrasse 41, D-80333 München (Germany); Ivarsson, D. C. A.; Armbrüster, M. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Materials for Innovative Energy Concepts, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Ardini, J.; Held, G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AD (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Maccherozzi, F. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Bayer, A. [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstraße 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Lowe, M. [Surface Science Research Centre and Department of Physics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Pussi, K. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FIN-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Diehl, R. D. [Department of Physics, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    The intermetallic compound InPd (CsCl type of crystal structure with a broad compositional range) is considered as a candidate catalyst for the steam reforming of methanol. Single crystals of this phase have been grown to study the structure of its three low-index surfaces under ultra-high vacuum conditions, using low energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). During surface preparation, preferential sputtering leads to a depletion of In within the top few layers for all three surfaces. The near-surface regions remain slightly Pd-rich until annealing to ∼580 K. A transition occurs between 580 and 660 K where In segregates towards the surface and the near-surface regions become slightly In-rich above ∼660 K. This transition is accompanied by a sharpening of LEED patterns and formation of flat step-terrace morphology, as observed by STM. Several superstructures have been identified for the different surfaces associated with this process. Annealing to higher temperatures (≥750 K) leads to faceting via thermal etching as shown for the (110) surface, with a bulk In composition close to the In-rich limit of the existence domain of the cubic phase. The Pd-rich InPd(111) is found to be consistent with a Pd-terminated bulk truncation model as shown by dynamical LEED analysis while, after annealing at higher temperature, the In-rich InPd(111) is consistent with an In-terminated bulk truncation, in agreement with density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the relative surface energies. More complex surface structures are observed for the (100) surface. Additionally, individual grains of a polycrystalline sample are characterized by micro-spot XPS and LEED as well as low-energy electron microscopy. Results from both individual grains and “global” measurements are interpreted based on comparison to our single crystals findings, DFT calculations and previous literature.

  8. Molecular genetics of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) Mediterranean variant and description of a new G6PD mutant, G6PD Andalus1361A.

    OpenAIRE

    Vives-Corrons, J L; Kuhl, W; Pujades, M A; Beutler, E

    1990-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD; E.C.1.1.1.49) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy; more than 300 different biochemical variants of the enzyme have been described. In many parts of the world the Mediterranean type of G6PD deficiency is prevalent. However, G6PD Mediterranean has come to be regarded as a generic term applied to similar G6PD mutations thought, however, to represent a somewhat heterogeneous group. A C----T mutation at nucleotide 563 of G6PD Mediterranean has b...

  9. Pattern of regional cortical thinning associated with cognitive deterioration in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pagonabarraga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dementia is a frequent and devastating complication in Parkinson's disease (PD. There is an intensive search for biomarkers that may predict the progression from normal cognition (PD-NC to dementia (PDD in PD. Mild cognitive impairment in PD (PD-MCI seems to represent a transitional state between PD-NC and PDD. Few studies have explored the structural changes that differentiate PD-NC from PD-MCI and PDD patients. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We aimed to analyze changes in cortical thickness on 3.0T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI across stages of cognitive decline in a prospective sample of PD-NC (n = 26, PD-MCI (n = 26 and PDD (n = 20 patients, compared to a group of healthy subjects (HC (n = 18. Cortical thickness measurements were made using the automatic software Freesurfer. RESULTS: In a sample of 72 PD patients, a pattern of linear and progressive cortical thinning was observed between cognitive groups in cortical areas functionally specialized in declarative memory (entorhinal cortex, anterior temporal pole, semantic knowledge (parahippocampus, fusiform gyrus, and visuoperceptive integration (banks of the superior temporal sulcus, lingual gyrus, cuneus and precuneus. Positive correlation was observed between confrontation naming and thinning in the fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and anterior temporal pole; clock copy with thinning of the precuneus, parahippocampal and lingual gyrus; and delayed memory with thinning of the bilateral anteromedial temporal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of regional decreased cortical thickness that relates to cognitive deterioration is present in PD-MCI patients, involving areas that play a central role in the storage of prior experiences, integration of external perceptions, and semantic processing.

  10. THE EFFECT OF CO ON HYDROGEN PERMEATION THROUGH PD AND INTERNALLY OXIDIZED AND UN-OXIDIZED PD ALLOY MEMBRANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, K.; Flanagan, T.; Wang, D.

    2010-10-20

    The H permeation of internally oxidized Pd alloy membranes such as Pd-Al and Pd-Fe, but not Pd-Y alloys, is shown to be more resistant to inhibition by CO(g) as compared to Pd or un-oxidized Pd alloy membranes. The increased resistance to CO is found to be greater at 423 K than at 473 K or 523 K. In these experiments CO was pre-adsorbed onto the membranes and then CO-free H{sub 2} was introduced to initiate the H permeation.

  11. Understanding Physical Developer (PD): Part II--Is PD targeting eccrine constituents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hunty, Mackenzie; Moret, Sébastien; Chadwick, Scott; Lennard, Chris; Spindler, Xanthe; Roux, Claude

    2015-12-01

    Physical developer (PD) is a fingermark development technique that deposits silver onto fingermark ridges. It is the only technique currently in routine operational use that gives results on porous substrates that have been wet. There is a reasonable understanding of the working solution chemistry, but the chemical constituent(s) contained in fingermark residue that are specifically targeted by PD are largely unknown. A better understanding of the PD technique will permit a more informed selection of alternative or complementary detection methods, and greater usage in operational laboratories. Recent research by our group has shown that PD does not selectively target the lipids present in the residue. This research investigated the hypothesis that PD targets the eccrine constituents in fingermark residue. This was tested by comparison of PD and indanedione-zinc (Ind-Zn) treated natural fingermarks that had been deposited successively, and marks that had been deposited with a ten second interval in between depositions. Such an interval allows for the regeneration of secretions from the pores located on the ridges of the fingers. On fingermark depletions with no time interval between depositions, PD and Ind-Zn treated depletions successively (and comparatively) decreased in development intensity as the amount of residue diminished. Short time intervals in between successive depletions resulted in additional secretions from the pores intermittently occurring, the increased development of which was visualised by treatment with both PD and Ind-Zn. The changes in development intensity were seen with both techniques on the same split depletions in a series, comparably and proportionately. These results indicate that the components targeted by PD are contained in the material excreted by the friction ridge pores through its mirrored development with Ind-Zn. Repetition of the experiments on marks that only contained eccrine material showed good Ind-Zn development but poor

  12. CO oxidation on PdO surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvi, Janne T; Kinnunen, Toni-Jani J; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A; Nørskov, Jens K

    2010-08-28

    Density functional calculations were performed in order to investigate CO oxidation on two of the most stable bulk PdO surfaces. The most stable PdO(100) surface, with oxygen excess, is inert against CO adsorption, whereas strong adsorption on the stoichiometric PdO(101) surface leads to favorable oxidation via the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The reaction with a surface oxygen atom has an activation energy of 0.66 eV, which is comparable to the lowest activation energies observed on metallic surfaces. However, the reaction rate may be limited by the coverage of molecular oxygen. Actually, the reaction with the site blocking molecular oxygen is slightly more favorable, enabling also possible formation of carbonate surface species at low temperatures. The extreme activity of strongly bonded surface oxygen atoms is more greatly emphasized on the PdO(100)-O surface. The direct reaction without adsorption, following the Eley-Rideal mechanism and taking advantage of the reaction tunnel provided by the adjacent palladium atom, has an activation energy of only 0.24 eV. The reaction mechanism and activation energy for the palladium activated CO oxidation on the most stable PdO(100)-O surface are in good agreement with experimental observations.

  13. Tremor revisited: treatment of PD tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Mayté Castro; Vingerhoets, Francois J G

    2012-01-01

    Parkinsonian tremor is among the most emblematic medical signs and is one of the cardinal manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD). Its semiology has been extensively addressed by ancient and contemporary medical literature, but more attention has been dedicated to its medical treatment in the past than nowadays. Among the hundreds of studies performed to determine the value of medical and surgical approaches on motor and non motor signs of PD, only a minority specifically considered effect on tremor as an efficacy outcome. Current available guidelines for PD treatment include attempts to specifically address tremor treatment but stress the low level of evidences available. In these conditions, with its still poorly understood pathophysiological basis and variable clinical expression PD tremor treatment is a clinical challenge. Only surgery (lesion or high frequency stimulation) of discrete deep brain targets consistently provides symptomatic long lasting alleviation. Through revision of contemporary scientific evidence, the purpose of this paper is to offer a systematic pragmatic approach to symptomatic management of tremor as one of the distinctive signs of PD that may generate substantial disability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Patterns of Neuropsychological Profile and Cortical Thinning in Parkinson's Disease with Punding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Soo Yoo

    Full Text Available Punding, one of dopamine replacement treatment related complications, refers to aimless and stereotyped behaviors. To identify possible neural correlates of punding behavior in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, we investigated the patterns of cognitive profiles and cortical thinning.Of the 186 subjects with PD screened during the study period, we prospectively enrolled 10 PD patients with punding and 43 without punding on the basis of a structured interview. We performed comprehensive neuropsychological tests and voxel-based and regions-of-interest (ROIs-based cortical thickness analysis between PD patients with and without punding.The prevalence of punding in patients with PD was 5.4%. Punding behaviors were closely related to previous occupations or hobbies and showed a temporal relationship to changes of levodopa-equivalent dose (LED. Significant predisposing factors were a long duration of PD and intake of medications of PD, high total daily LED, dyskinesia, and impulse control disorder. Punding severity was correlated with LED (p = 0.029. The neurocognitive assessment revealed that PD patients with punding showed more severe cognitive deficits in the color Stroop task than did those without punding (p = 0.022. Voxel-based analysis showed that PD-punders had significant cortical thinning in the dorsolateral prefrontal area relative to controls. Additionally, ROI-based analysis revealed that cortical thinning in PD-punders relative to PD-nonpunders was localized in the prefrontal cortices, extending into orbitofrontal area.We demonstrated that PD patients with punding performed poorly on cognitive tasks in frontal executive functions and showed severe cortical thinning in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal areas. These findings suggest that prefrontal modulation may be an essential component in the development of punding behavior in patients with PD.

  15. Abnormal metabolic pattern associated with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meles, Sanne K; Tang, Chris C; Teune, Laura K; Dierckx, Rudi A; Dhawan, Vijay; Mattis, Paul J; Leenders, Klaus L; Eidelberg, David

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been associated with a specific metabolic covariance pattern. Although the expression of this PD cognition-related pattern (PDCP) correlates with neuropsychological performance, it is not known whether the PDCP topography is reproducible across PD populations. We therefore sought to identify a PDCP topography in a new sample comprised of 19 Dutch PD subjects. Network analysis of metabolic scans from these individuals revealed a significant PDCP that resembled the original network topography. Expression values for the new PDCP correlated (P=0.001) with executive dysfunction on the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). Subject scores for the new PDCP correlated (Ppattern, which also correlated (Ppattern expression and cognitive performance (P<0.05) were observed for both PDCP topographies. These findings suggest that the PDCP is a replicable imaging marker of PD cognitive dysfunction.

  16. Study of Pd-In interaction during Pd deposition on pyrolytically prepared In 2O 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skála, T.; Veltruská, K.; Moroseac, M.; Matolínová, I.; Korotchenkov, G.; Matolín, V.

    2003-01-01

    In 2O 3 belongs to the group of metal oxides used successfully for gas detection, with sensitivity for CO and H 2 comparable with that of SnO 2 and excellent for O 3. The sensing properties of these sensors could be greatly improved by adding small amount of transition metals such as Pd, Pt, Au, etc. In this work, we used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) to study the growth of Pd particles on In 2O 3 substrates prepared by spray pyrolysis method. Surface stoichiometry and its changes during Ar + ion bombardment used for surface cleaning were checked with XPS and ISS. The Pd growth was studied stepwise in situ using the micro-electron beam evaporation source (MEBES) with controlled evaporation rate. XPS and ISS measurements were carried out with special attention to metal-substrate interaction (MSI), which was observed for Pd-In and resulted in the formation of Pd-In alloy with noble metal-like electronic structure. Further, we studied reduction of these samples after oxidation in air. A lower reduction temperature than with bulk PdO was observed. The results are compared with the experiment of Pd deposition performed on a pure In foil.

  17. PD-L1 and PD-L2 have distinct roles in regulating host immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Spencer C; Greenwald, Rebecca J; Latchman, Yvette E; Rosas, Lucia; Satoskar, Abhay; Freeman, Gordon J; Sharpe, Arlene H

    2006-01-01

    To compare the roles of programmed death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2 in regulating immunity to infection, we investigated responses of mice lacking PD-L1 or PD-L2 to infection with Leishmania mexicana. PD-L1(-/-) and PD-L2(-/-) mice exhibited distinct disease outcomes following infection with L. mexicana. In comparison to susceptible WT mice, PD-L1(-/-) mice showed resistance to L. mexicana, as demonstrated by reduced growth of cutaneous lesions and parasite burden. In contrast, PD-L2(-/-) mice developed exacerbated disease with increased parasite burden. Host resistance to L. mexicana is partly associated with the development of a Th1 response and down-regulation of the Th2 response. Both PD-L1(-/-) and PD-L2(-/-) mice produced levels of IFN-gamma similar to WT mice. However, the development of IL-4-producing cells was reduced in PD-L1(-/-) mice, demonstrating a role for PD-L1 in regulating Th cell differentiation. This inadequate Th2 response may explain the increased resistance of PD-L1(-/-) mice. Although no alterations in Th1/Th2 skewing were observed in PD-L2(-/-) mice, PD-L2(-/-) mice exhibited a marked increase in L. mexicana-specific antibody production. Increased Leishmania-specific IgG production may suppress the healing response through FcgammaR ligation on macrophages. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PD-L1 and PD-L2 have distinct roles in regulating the immune response to L. mexicana.

  18. Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in pattern dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, P J; Schultz, D W; Gregory, A M; Schain, M B; Barra, R; Majewski, J; Ott, J; Acott, T; Weleber, R G; Klein, M L

    2005-01-01

    Background: The pattern dystrophies (PD) represent a clinically heterogeneous family of inherited macular diseases frequently caused by mutations in the peripherin/RDS gene. Most previous studies have detailed the clinical findings in single families, making it difficult to derive data from which progression and visual outcome can be generalised. Methods: Families were ascertained and clinically evaluated including angiography and electrophysiology where appropriate. Results: In each of the six families with autosomal dominant PD, a mutation in the peripherin/RDS gene was identified, including a novel Cys250Phe variant. These data suggest that the condition is characterised by the accumulation of yellow to grey subretinal flecks, followed by pigmentary change accompanied by patches of chorioretinal atrophy. Subsequently, 50% (16/32) of individuals with PD developed poor central vision because of chorioretinal geographic atrophy or subretinal neovascularisation. The risk of these complications appears to increase with age. Conclusion: PD should not necessarily be considered a benign condition. Instead, patients should be counselled that there is a significant chance of losing central vision in their later years. Some elderly patients with probands showing PD may be misdiagnosed with age related macular degeneration owing to the phenotypic similarities between these conditions in the advanced state. PMID:16113362

  19. State of Supported Pd during Catalysis in Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, Zizwe; Fulton, John L.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Mei, Donghai; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Pham, Van Thai; Zhao, Chen; Weber, Robert S.; Wang, Yong; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2013-08-29

    In operando X-ray absorption was used to measure the structure and chemical state of supported Pd nanoparticles with 3 -10 nm diameter in contact with H2 saturated water at 298-473 K. The Pd-Pd distances determined were consistent with the presence of subsurface hydrogen, i.e., longer than those measured by others for bare, reduced Pd particles, and within the range of distances for Pd hydrides. During the Pd-catalyzed hydrogenation of phenol, cyclohexanone, cyclohexanol or cyclohexene in the presence of water, the Pd nanoparticles exhibited a lengthening of the Pd-Pd bond that we attribute to a change in the concentration of sorbed H related to the steady state of H at the surface of the Pd particles. This steady state is established by all reactions involving H2, i.e., the sorption/desorption into the bulk, the sorption at the surface, and the reaction with adsorbed unsaturated reactants. Thus, first insight into the chemical state of Pd and the H/Pd ratio during catalysis in water is provided. The Pd particles did not change upon their exposure to water or reactants; nor did the spectra show any effect from the interaction of the Pd particles with various supports. The experimental results are consistent with ab initio molecular dynamic simulations, which indicate that Pd-water interactions are relatively weak for Pd metal and that these interactions become even weaker, when hydrogen is incorporated into the metal particles. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle through Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  20. Microscopic return point memory in Co/Pd multilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seu, K.A.; Su, R.; Roy, S.; Parks, D.; Shipton, E.; Fullerton, E.E.; Kevan, S.D.

    2009-10-01

    We report soft x-ray speckle metrology measurements of microscopic return point and complementary point memory in Co/Pd magnetic films having perpendicular anisotropy. We observe that the domains assemble into a common labyrinth phase with a period that varies by nearly a factor of two between initial reversal and fields near saturation. Unlike previous studies of similar systems, the ability of the film to reproduce its domain structure after magnetic cycling through saturation varies from loop to loop, from position to position on the sample, and with the part of the speckle pattern used in the metrology measurements. We report the distribution of memory as a function of field and discuss these results in terms of the reversal process.

  1. Understanding physical developer (PD): Part I--Is PD targeting lipids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hunty, Mackenzie; Moret, Sébastien; Chadwick, Scott; Lennard, Chris; Spindler, Xanthe; Roux, Claude

    2015-12-01

    Physical developer (PD) is a fingermark development technique that involves the selective reduction of silver onto fingermark residue. PD can develop marks on porous substrates even if they have been wet, leading to the logical, long held belief that the reagent targets the water insoluble constituents in the fingermark residue. The present research has tested this hypothesis as part of a broader study that aims to identify the targets of physical developer. Spot tests of some fatty acids, cholesterol and squalene, treated with PD, showed that only cholesterol produced significant silver deposition. PD is known to be particularly effective on aged marks, however cholesterol degrades over time. These observations indicate that PD reactivity with fingermarks cannot solely be due to the presence of cholesterol. Fingermarks were deposited on paper and washed with various organic solvents before being treated with PD. PD effectiveness was intermittent on both solvent washed and unwashed sides of both natural and groomed marks; however, it was seen to effectively develop groomed samples that had been exposed to common lipid extraction solvents, shown to have removed the lipids by visualisation using the lipid stain Nile red. PD effectiveness was most affected by exposure of samples to solvents that could dissolve water soluble components, showing that the removal of these constituents (by either water, or other solvents) decreases the amount of silver deposited on the fingermark residue by the working solution. Close observation of PD developed samples showed variation in silver deposition uniformity when comparing a developed ridge to a pore site located on that ridge. Some samples showed an absence of silver, and other showed an increase of silver at pore locations. This indicates that the material excreted by the pores on the finger has an effect on silver deposition, suggesting that PD may be specifically targeting eccrine constituents that are present along the

  2. The Sr-poor part of the Sr–{Pd,Pt}–{Si,Ge} systems: Phase equilibria and crystal structure of ternary phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V.V.; Falmbigl, M.; Grytsiv, A.; Rogl, P., E-mail: peter.franz.rogl@univie.ac.at

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Phase diagrams of the Sr-poor part of Sr–{Pd,Pt}–Si (900 °C) and Sr–{Pd,Pt}–Ge (700 °C) systems were constructed. • The crystal structure for three novel compounds SrPd{sub 0.3}Si{sub 1.7}, SrPt{sub 0.3}Si{sub 1.7} and SrPd{sub 5.9}Si{sub 6.1} was refined. • DFT calculations predicted metallic behavior for SrPdSi{sub 3}, SrPtSi{sub 3}, SrPd{sub 0.3}Si{sub 1.7} and SrPd{sub 6}Si{sub 6}. - Abstract: Phase relations have been established by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray powder diffraction (XPD) for the Sr-poor part of four ternary systems: Sr–{Pd,Pt}–Si at 900 °C and Sr–{Pd,Pt}–Ge at 700 °C. In the Sr–Pd–Si system the formation of the silicide SrPdSi{sub 3} (BaNiSn{sub 3}-type) was confirmed and a small homogeneity region was found. Furthermore, two novel compounds were detected and their crystal structure was refined from X-ray powder patterns: SrPd{sub 0.3}Si{sub 1.7} (AlB{sub 2}-type) and SrPd{sub 5.9}Si{sub 6.1} (own-type). In the Sr–Pt–Si ternary system a novel compound with AlB{sub 2}-type was discovered (SrPt{sub 0.3}Si{sub 1.7}), whereas SrPtSi{sub 3} with the BaNiSn{sub 3}-type was confirmed. Two more compounds were detected by EPMA, but their crystal structure remains unknown. In the Sr–{Pd,Pt}–Ge systems no new compounds were observed, but the existence of SrPdGe{sub 3} and SrPtGe{sub 3} (both adopt the BaNiSn{sub 3} structure type), and SrPt{sub 4}Ge{sub 12}, crystallizing in the LaFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} structure type, was corroborated. For selected ternary silicides the electronic structure was evaluated by DFT calculations.

  3. Core/Shell Face-Centered Tetragonal FePd/Pd Nanoparticles as an Efficient Non-Pt Catalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Zhu, Huiyuan; Zhang, Xu; Shen, Bo; Wu, Liheng; Zhang, Sen; Lu, Gang; Wu, Zhongbiao; Sun, Shouheng

    2015-11-24

    We report the synthesis of core/shell face-centered tetragonal (fct)-FePd/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) via reductive annealing of core/shell Pd/Fe3O4 NPs followed by temperature-controlled Fe etching in acetic acid. Among three different kinds of core/shell FePd/Pd NPs studied (FePd core at ∼8 nm and Pd shell at 0.27, 0.65, or 0.81 nm), the fct-FePd/Pd-0.65 NPs are the most efficient catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in 0.1 M HClO4 with Pt-like activity and durability. This enhanced ORR catalysis arises from the desired Pd lattice compression in the 0.65 nm Pd shell induced by the fct-FePd core. Our study offers a general approach to enhance Pd catalysis in acid for ORR.

  4. Interactions between PD-1 and PD-L1 promote tolerance by blocking the TCR-induced stop signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, Brian T; Pauken, Kristen E; Eagar, Todd N; Obu, Takashi; Wu, Jenny; Tang, Qizhi; Azuma, Miyuki; Krummel, Matthew F; Bluestone, Jeffrey A

    2009-11-01

    Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory molecule expressed on activated T cells; however, the biological context in which PD-1 controls T cell tolerance remains unclear. Using two-photon laser-scanning microscopy, we show here that unlike naive or activated islet antigen-specific T cells, tolerized islet antigen-specific T cells moved freely and did not swarm around antigen-bearing dendritic cells (DCs) in pancreatic lymph nodes. Inhibition of T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-driven stop signals depended on continued interactions between PD-1 and its ligand, PD-L1, as antibody blockade of PD-1 or PD-L1 resulted in lower T cell motility, enhanced T cell-DC contacts and caused autoimmune diabetes. Blockade of the immunomodulatory receptor CTLA-4 did not alter T cell motility or abrogate tolerance. Thus, PD-1-PD-L1 interactions maintain peripheral tolerance by mechanisms fundamentally distinct from those of CTLA-4.

  5. Characterization and functionalities of Pd/hydrotalcite catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, Dhachapally; Kumar, Vanama Pavan; Harisekhar, Mitta; Nagaraju, Nekkala; Putrakumar, Balla; Chary, Komandur V. R.

    2014-09-01

    A series of palladium supported on calcined hydrotalcite (CHT) catalysts with varying palladium (Pd) loadings (1.0-8.0 wt%) were prepared by impregnation method. Their catalytic performance was evaluated for the reductive amination of phenol to aniline that showed a tremendous interest in the chemical industry. The catalysts were characterized by BET surface area, XRD, TEM, XPS, TPR of H2, TPD of CO2 and CO chemisorption. BET surface area decreased continuously with increase in Pd content. XRD results confirmed the changes in the crystalline phases with altering Pd content. TEM results showed the formation of fine particles at lower loadings and agglomerates at higher loadings. TPR profiles revealed that the reducibility increases with increase of Pd loading. CO2 TPD results illustrate the catalysts basicity increases with increase of Pd loading up to 4.0 wt% and decreases at higher loadings. Pd dispersion, metal area and crystallite sizes were determined by CO chemisorption method. Pd dispersion and metal area decreases with increase of Pd content and crystallite sizes. The results demonstrated that the Pd dispersion and basic properties are depending on the Pd loading. The catalytic performance clearly showed that the increase Pd loading the conversion of phenol increased up to 2.0 wt% and level off beyond the loading. The catalytic properties are well correlated with the active Pd sites determined by CO chemisorption, dispersion and basicity.

  6. Quaternion Common Spatial Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enshaeifar, S; Took, C Cheong; Park, C; Mandic, D P

    2017-08-01

    A novel quaternion-valued common spatial patterns (QCSP) algorithm is introduced to model co-channel coupling of multi-dimensional processes. To cater for the generality of quaternion-valued non-circular data, we propose a generalized QCSP (G-QCSP) which incorporates the information on power difference between the real and imaginary parts of data channels. As an application, we demonstrate how G-QCSP can be used to provide high classification rates, even at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as low as -10 dB. To illustrate the usefulness of our method in EEG analysis, we employ G-QCSP to extract features for discriminating between imagery left and right hand movements. The classification accuracy using these features is 70%. Furthermore, the proposed method is used to distinguish between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and healthy control subjects, providing an accuracy of 87%.

  7. Tolerogenic IDO+ dendritic cells are induced by PD-1-expressing mast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Pessoa Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells (MC are tissue resident cells, rich in inflammatory mediators, involved in allergic reactions, and with an increasingly recognized role in immunomodulation. Dendritic cells (DCs, on the other hand, are central to the determination of immune response patterns, being highly efficient antigen-presenting cells that respond promptly to changes in their microenvironment. Here, we show that direct cell contact between immature monocyte-derived DCs (iDCs and MC bends DCs towards tolerance induction. DCs that had direct contact with MC (MC-iDC decreased HLA-DR but increased PD-L1 expression and stimulated regulatory T lymphocytes, which expresses FoxP3+, secrete TGF-β and IL-10, and suppress the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated naïve T lymphocytes. Furthermore, MC-iDC expressed higher levels of indoleamine-2,3-deoxigenase (IDO, a phenomenon that was blocked by treatment of MC with anti-PD-1 or by the treatment of DCs with anti-PD-L1 or anti-PD-L2, but not by blocking of H1 and H2 histamine receptors on DCs. Contact with MC also increased phosphorylated STAT-3 levels in iDCs. When a STAT-3 inhibitor, JSI-124, was added to the DCs before contact with MC, the MC-iDC recovered their ability to induce allogeneic T cell proliferation and did not increase their IDO expression.

  8. Electroreduction of oxygen on Vulcan carbon supported Pd nanoparticles and Pd-M nanoalloys in acid and alkaline solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeyeva, N. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Sarapuu, A., E-mail: ave.sarapuu@ut.ee [Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Tammeveski, K. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Vidal-Iglesias, F.J.; Solla-Gullon, J.; Feliu, J.M. [Instituto de Electroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2011-07-30

    Highlights: > Electroreduction of O{sub 2} on carbon-supported Pd, PdCo and PdFe nanoparticles is studied. > Pd-based catalysts were prepared by reduction in the presence of citrate and in microemulsion. > Four-electron reduction of O{sub 2} proceeds in both acid and alkaline media. > Specific activity of PdCo and PdFe nanocatalysts was similar to that of Pd nanoparticles. - Abstract: The kinetics of O{sub 2} reduction on novel electrocatalyst materials deposited on carbon substrates were studied using the rotating disk electrode (RDE) technique. Palladium nanoparticles and Pd-M (PdCo and PdFe) nanoalloys supported on Vulcan XC-72R were prepared using two different synthetic routes. The catalyst samples were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the average size of metal nanoparticles was determined. Electrochemical measurements were performed in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and in 0.1 M NaOH solutions. The influence of different synthetic conditions on the values of specific activity and other kinetic parameters was investigated. These parameters were determined from the Tafel plots taking into account the real electroactive area for each electrode. Pd nanoparticles and Pd-M nanoalloys exhibit significantly high electrocatalytic activity for the four-electron reduction of oxygen to water.

  9. Expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas of the digestive system: a potential target for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jordan A; Gonzalez, Raul S; Das, Satya; Berlin, Jordan; Shi, Chanjuan

    2017-10-13

    Poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the digestive system has a dismal prognosis with limited treatment options. This study aimed to investigate expression of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in these tumors. Thirty-seven patients with a poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the digestive system were identified. Their electronic medical records, pathology reports and pathology slides were reviewed for demographics, clinical history and pathologic features. Tumor sections were immunohistochemically labeled for PD-1 and PD-L1 and expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on tumor and tumor-associated immune cells was analyzed and compared between small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. The mean age of patients was 61years old with 18 males and 19 females. The colorectum (n=20) was the most common primary site, other primary sites included the pancreaticobiliary system, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and ampulla. Expression of PD-1 was detected on tumor cells (n=6, 16%) as well as on tumor-associated immune cells (n=23, 63%). The 6 cases with PD-1 expression on tumor cells also had the expression on immune cells. Expression of PD-L1 was visualized on tumor cells in 5 cases (14%), and on tumor-associated immune cells in 10 cases (27%). There was no difference in PD-1 and PD-L1 expression between small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. In conclusion, PD-1/PD-L1 expression is a frequent occurrence in poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas of the digestive system. Checkpoint blockade targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may have a potential role in treating patients with this disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Preparation of supported Au–Pd and Cu–Pd by the combined strong ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BOONTIDA PONGTHAWORNSAKUN

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... as described in the catalyst characterization. The Pd disper- sion for 1.29 wt% ... The 1.29 wt%. Pd/TiO2 catalyst was impregnated with the precursor solu- tion of second metal, dried at 110. ◦. C overnight, and calcined in air at 350. ◦. C for the ...... Meeting, 8th November (Salt Lake City, UT). 22. Kim S K, Lee ...

  11. Fabrication of Pd/Pd-Alloy Films by Surfactant Induced Electroless Plating for Hydrogen Separation from Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilias, Shamsuddin; Kumar, Dhananjay

    2012-07-31

    Dense Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag composite membranes on microporous stainless steel substrate (MPSS) were fabricated by a novel electroless plating (EP) process. In the conventional Pd-EP process, the oxidation-reduction reactions between Pd-complex and hydrazine result in an evolution of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} gas bubbles. When adhered to the substrate surface and in the pores, these gas bubbles hinder uniform Pd-film deposition which results in dendrite growth leading to poor film formation. This problem was addressed by introducing cationic surfactant in the electroless plating process known as surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP). The unique features of this innovation provide control of Pd-deposition rate, and Pd-grain size distribution. The surfactant molecules play an important role in the EP process by tailoring grain size and the process of agglomeration by removing tiny gas bubbles through adsorption at the gas-liquid interface. As a result surfactant can tailor a nanocrystalline Pd, Cu and Ag deposition in the film resulting in reduced membrane film thickness. Also, it produces a uniform, agglomerated film structure. The Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes on MPSS support were fabricated by sequential deposition using SIEP method. The pre- and post-annealing characterizations of these membranes (Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag on MPSS substrate) were carried out by SEM, EDX, XRD, and AFM studies. The SEM images show significant improvement of the membrane surface morphology, in terms of metal grain structures and grain agglomeration compared to the membranes fabricated by conventional EP process. The SEM images and helium gas-tightness studies indicate that dense and thinner films of Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes can be produced with shorter deposition time using surfactant. H{sub 2} Flux through the membranes fabricated by SIEP shows large improvement compared to those by CEP with comparable permselectivity. Pd-MPSS composite membrane was subjected to test for long term

  12. On the twinning in ZnPd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Dennis C A; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Heggen, Marc; Ormeci, Alim; Armbrüster, Marc

    2017-02-22

    The intermetallic compound ZnPd has demonstrated excellent catalytic properties in methanol steam reforming. While it is known that defects and microstructures influence the catalytic properties, little is known about the defects occurring in ZnPd. Due to recent advances in synthetic methods, coarse-grained ZnPd samples are accessible. This enables the detection and investigation of twinning in ZnPd by studying the twinned regions from the macroscopic scale by polarised light and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) down to the atomic scale by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Twinning occurs in {101} and is coupled with a change in the c/a ratio in the vicinity of the twin boundary. Quantum chemical calculations result in only very small energy differences between the ideal and the twinned structure, explaining the experimentally observed thermal stability of the latter. The chemical bonding was investigated by the electron localizability indicator (ELI) and compared to the one in the ideal structure. The results confirm twinning along the {101} plane and demonstrate the high stability of the twin boundaries after formation.

  13. PD-1 Checkpoint Inhibitor Associated Autoimmune Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schneider

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report first-hand narrative experience of autoimmune encephalitis and to briefly review currently available evidence of autoimmune encephalitis in cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Setting: A case study is presented on the management of a patient who developed autoimmune encephalitis during nivolumab monotherapy occurring after 28 weeks on anti-PD-1 monotherapy (nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks for non-small cell lung cancer. Results: No substantial improvement was observed by antiepileptic treatment. After administration of 80 mg methylprednisolone, neurologic symptoms disappeared within 24 h and the patient fully recovered. Conclusions: Immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment can lead to autoimmune encephalitis. Clinical trial data indicate a frequency of autoimmune encephalitis of ≥0.1 to <1% with a higher probability during combined or sequential anti-CTLA-4/anti-PD-1 therapy than during anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 monotherapy. Further collection of evidence and translational research is warranted.

  14. Development of membranes for hydrogen separation: Pd-coated V-10Pd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paglieri, Stephen N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wermer, Joseph R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buxbaum, Robert E [REB RESEARCH AND CONSULTING; Ciocco, Michael V [NETL; Howard, Bret H [NETL; Morreale, Bryan D [NETL

    2009-01-01

    Numerous Group IVB and VB alloys were prepared and tested as potential membrane materials but most of these materials were brittle or exhibited cracking during hydrogen exposure. One of the more ductile alloys, V-10Pd (at. %), was fabricated into a thin (107-{micro}m thick) composite membrane coated with 100 nm of Pd on each side. The material was tested for hydrogen permeability, resistance to hydrogen embrittlement, and long term hydrogen flux stability. The hydrogen permeability, {phi}, of the V-10Pd membrane was 3.86 x 10{sup -8} mol H{sub 2} m{sup -1} s{sup -1} Pa{sup -0.5} (avg. of three different samples) at 400 C, which is slightly higher than the permeability of Pd-23Ag at that temperature. A 1400 h hydrogen flux test at 400 C demonstrated that the rate of metallic interdiffusion was slow between the V-10Pd foil and the 100-nm-thick Pd coating on the surface. However, at the end of testing the membrane cracked at 118 C because of hydrogen embrittlement.

  15. Parkinson's disease-related perfusion and glucose metabolic brain patterns identified with PCASL-MRI and FDG-PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teune, Laura K; Renken, Remco J; de Jong, Bauke M; Willemsen, Antoon T; van Osch, Matthias J; Roerdink, Jos B T M; Dierckx, Rudi A; Leenders, Klaus L

    2014-01-01

    Under normal conditions, the spatial distribution of resting cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose are closely related. A relatively new magnetic resonance (MR) technique, pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL), can be used to measure regional brain perfusion. We identified a Parkinson's disease (PD)-related perfusion and metabolic covariance pattern in the same patients using PCASL and FDG-PET imaging and assessed (dis)similarities in the disease-related pattern between perfusion and metabolism in PD patients. Nineteen PD patients and seventeen healthy controls underwent [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging. Of 14 PD patients and all healthy controls PCASL-MRI could be obtained. Data were analyzed using scaled subprofile model/principal component analysis (SSM/PCA). Unique Parkinson's disease-related perfusion and metabolic covariance patterns were identified using PCASL and FDG-PET in the same patients. The PD-related metabolic covariance brain pattern is in high accordance with previously reports. Also our disease-related perfusion pattern is comparable to the earlier described perfusion pattern. The most marked difference between our perfusion and metabolic patterns is the larger perfusion decrease in cortical regions including the insula. We identified PD-related perfusion and metabolic brain patterns using PCASL and FDG-PET in the same patients which were comparable with results of existing research. In this respect, PCASL appears to be a promising addition in the early diagnosis of individual parkinsonian patients.

  16. Ultra-fine structures of Pd-Ag-HAp nanoparticle deposition on protruded TiO2 barrier layer for dental implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Myung; Kim, Seung-Dai; Park, Tae-Eon; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2018-02-01

    The biocompatibility structure of an implant surface is of great importance to the formation of new bone tissue around the dental implant and also has a significant chemical reaction in the osseointegration process. Thus, ultra-fine Pd-Ag-HAp nanoparticles have been electrodeposited on protruded TiO2 barrier layer in mixed electrolyte solutions. Unusual protrusions patterns, which are assigned to Pd-Ag-HAp nanoparticles, can be clearly differentiated from a TiO2 nanotube oxide layer formed by an anodizing process. In the chemical bonding state, the surface characteristics of Pd/Ag/HAp compounds have been investigated by FE-SEM, EDS mapping analysis, and XPS analysis. The mapping dots of the elements including Ti, Ca, Pd, Ag, and P showed a homogeneous distribution throughout the entire surface when deposited onto the protruded TiO2 barrier layer. The XPS spectra of Ti-2p, O-1S, Pd-3d, and Ag-3d have been investigated, with the major XPS peak indicating Pd-3d. The Ag-3d level was clearly observed with further scanning of the Ca-2p region. Based on the results of the chemical states, the structural properties of the protrusion patterns were also examined after being deposited onto the barrier oxide film, resulting in the representative protrusion patterns being mainly composed of Pd-Ag-HAp compounds. The results of the soaking evaluation showed that the protrusion patterns and the protruded TiO2 barrier layer were all effective in regards to biocompatibility.

  17. Segregation at the surfaces of CuxPd1-x alloys in the presence of adsorbed S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James B.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Gellman, Andrew J.

    2012-10-01

    The influence of adsorbed S on surface segregation in Cu{sub x}Pd{sub 1 - x} alloys (S/Cu{sub x}Pd{sub 1 - x)} was characterized over a wide range of bulk alloy compositions (x = 0.05 to 0.95) using high-throughput Composition Spread Alloy Film (CSAF) sample libraries. Top-surface and near-surface compositions of the CSAFs were measured as functions of bulk Cu composition, x, and temperature using spatially resolved low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEISS) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Preferential segregation of Cu to the top-surface of the S/Cu{sub x}Pd{sub 1 - x} CSAF was observed at all bulk compositions, x, but the extent of Cu segregation to the S/Cu{sub x}Pd{sub 1 - x} surface was lower than the Cu segregation to the surface of a clean Cu{sub x}Pd{sub 1 - x} CSAF, clear evidence of an S-induced “segregation reversal.” The Langmuir–McLean formulation of the Gibbs isotherm was used to estimate the enthalpy and entropy of Cu segregation to the top-surface, ΔH{sub seg}(x) and ΔS{sub seg}(x), at saturation sulfur coverages. While Cu segregation to the top-surface of the clean Cu{sub x}Pd{sub 1 - x} is exothermic (ΔH{sub seg} < 0) for all bulk Cu compositions, it is endothermic (ΔH{sub seg} > 0) for S/Cu{sub x}Pd{sub 1 - x}. Segregation to the S/Cu{sub x}Pd{sub 1 - x} surface is driven by entropy. Changes in segregation patterns that occur upon adsorption of S onto Cu{sub x}Pd{sub 1 - x} appear to be related to formation of energetically favored Pd{single bond}S bonds at the surface, which counterbalance the enthalpic driving forces for Cu segregation to the clean surface.

  18. X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and autosomal 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) polymorphisms in baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VandeBerg, J.L.; Aivaliotis, M.J.; Samollow, P.B. (Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, TX (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Electrophoretic polymorphisms of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) were examined in captive colonies of five subspecies of baboons (Papio hamadryas). Phenotype frequencies and family data verified the X-linked inheritance of the G6PD polymorphism. Insufficient family data were available to confirm autosomal inheritance of the 6PGD polymorphism, but the electrophoretic patterns of variant types (putative heterozygotes) suggested the codominant expression of alleles at an autosomal locus. Implications of the G6PD polymorphism are discussed with regard to its utility as a marker system for research on X-chromosome inactivation during baboon development and for studies of clonal cell proliferation and/or cell selection during the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the baboon model. 61 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Immune-Related Gene Expression Profiling After PD-1 Blockade in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma, Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Aleix; Navarro, Alejandro; Paré, Laia; Reguart, Noemí; Galván, Patricia; Pascual, Tomás; Martínez, Alex; Nuciforo, Paolo; Comerma, Laura; Alos, Llucia; Pardo, Nuria; Cedrés, Susana; Fan, Cheng; Parker, Joel S; Gaba, Lydia; Victoria, Iván; Viñolas, Nuria; Vivancos, Ana; Arance, Ana; Felip, Enriqueta

    2017-07-01

    Antibody targeting of the immune checkpoint receptor PD1 produces therapeutic activity in a variety of solid tumors, but most patients exhibit partial or complete resistance to treatment for reasons that are unclear. In this study, we evaluated tumor specimens from 65 patients with melanoma, lung nonsquamous, squamous cell lung or head and neck cancers who were treated with the approved PD1-targeting antibodies pembrolizumab or nivolumab. Tumor RNA before anti-PD1 therapy was analyzed on the nCounter system using the PanCancer 730-Immune Panel, and we identified 23 immune-related genes or signatures linked to response and progression-free survival (PFS). In addition, we evaluated intra- and interbiopsy variability of PD1, PD-L1, CD8A, and CD4 mRNAs and their relationship with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and PD-L1 IHC expression. Among the biomarkers examined, PD1 gene expression along with 12 signatures tracking CD8 and CD4 T-cell activation, natural killer cells, and IFN activation associated significantly with nonprogressive disease and PFS. These associations were independent of sample timing, drug used, or cancer type. TIL correlated moderately (∼0.50) with PD1 and CD8A mRNA levels and weakly (∼0.35) with CD4 and PD-L1. IHC expression of PD-L1 correlated strongly with PD-L1 (0.90), moderately with CD4 and CD8A, and weakly with PD1. Reproducibility of gene expression in intra- and interbiopsy specimens was very high (total SD <3%). Overall, our results support the hypothesis that identification of a preexisting and stable adaptive immune response as defined by mRNA expression pattern is reproducible and sufficient to predict clinical outcome, regardless of the type of cancer or the PD1 therapeutic antibody administered to patients. Cancer Res; 77(13); 3540-50. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Hydrogen absorption of Pd/ZrO2 composites prepared from Zr65Pd35 and Zr60Pd35Pt5 amorphous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Masakuni; Katsuragawa, Naoya; Hattori, Masatomo; Yogo, Toshinobu; Yamamura, Shin-ichi

    2018-01-01

    Metal-dispersed composites were derived from amorphous Zr65Pd35 and Zr65Pd30Pt5 alloys and their hydrogen absorption behavior was studied. X-ray diffractograms and scanning electron micrographs indicated that mixtures containing ZrO2, the metallic phase of Pd, and PdO were formed for both amorphous alloys heat-treated in air. In the composites, micron-sized Pd-based metal precipitates were embedded in a ZrO2 matrix after heat treatment at 800 °C in air. The hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction was applied to study the reactivity of hydrogen gas with the oxidized Zr65Pd35 and Zr65Pd30Pt5 materials. Rapid hydrogen absorption and release were observed on the composite derived from the amorphous alloy below 100 °C. The hydrogen pressure–concentration isotherm showed that the absorbed amount of hydrogen in materials depended on the formation of the Pd or Pt-doped Pd phase and its large interface area to the matrix in the nanocomposites. The results indicate the importance of the composite structure for the fabrication of a new type of hydrogen storage material prepared from amorphous alloys.

  1. High-temperature stability of Au/Pd/Cu and Au/Pd(P)/Cu surface finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. E.; Hsieh, W. Z.; Lee, P. T.; Huang, Y. H.; Kuo, T. T.

    2018-03-01

    Thermal reliability of Au/Pd/Cu and Au/Pd(4-6 wt.% P)/Cu trilayers in the isothermal annealing at 180 °C were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The pure Pd film possessed a nanocrystalline structure with numerous grain boundaries, thereby facilitating the interdiffusion between Au and Cu. Out-diffusion of Cu through Pd and Au grain boundaries yielded a significant amount of Cu oxides (CuO and Cu2O) over the Au surface and gave rise to void formation in the Cu film. By contrast, the Pd(P) film was amorphous and served as a good diffusion barrier against Cu diffusion. The results of this study indicated that amorphous Pd(P) possessed better oxidation resistance and thermal reliability than crystalline Pd.

  2. Metal-Organic Framework Templated Catalysts: Dual Sensitization of PdO-ZnO Composite on Hollow SnO2 Nanotubes for Selective Acetone Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Won-Tae; Jang, Ji-Soo; Choi, Seon-Jin; Cho, Hee-Jin; Kim, Il-Doo

    2017-05-31

    Metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived synergistic catalysts were easily functionalized on hollow SnO2 nanotubes (NTs) via electrospinning and subsequent calcination. Nanoscale Pd NPs (∼2 nm) loaded Zn-based zeolite imidazole framework (Pd@ZIF-8, ∼80 nm) was used as a new catalyst-loading platform for the effective functionalization of a PdO@ZnO complex catalyst onto the thin wall of one-dimensional metal oxide NTs. The well-dispersed nanoscale PdO catalysts (3-4 nm) and multiheterojunctions (PdO/ZnO and ZnO/SnO2) on hollow structures are essential for the development of high-performance gas sensors. As a result, the PdO@ZnO dual catalysts-loaded hollow SnO2 NTs (PdO@ZnO-SnO2 NTs) exhibited high acetone response (Rair/Rgas = 5.06 at 400 °C @ 1 ppm), superior acetone selectivity against other interfering gases, and fast response (20 s) and recovery (64 s) time under highly humid atmosphere (95% RH). In this work, the advantages of hollow SnO2 NT structures with high surface area and open porosity were clearly demonstrated by the comparison to SnO2 nanofibers (NFs). Moreover, the sensor arrays composed of SnO2 NFs, SnO2 NTs, PdO@ZnO-SnO2 NFs, and PdO@ZnO-SnO2 NTs successfully identified the patterns of the exhaled breath of normal people and simulated diabetics by using a principal component analysis.

  3. The range and nature of sleep dysfunction in untreated Parkinson's disease (PD). A comparative controlled clinical study using the Parkinson's disease sleep scale and selective polysomnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, V; Dhoat, S; Williams, A J; Dimarco, A; Pal, S; Forbes, A; Tobías, A; Martinez-Martin, P; Chaudhuri, K Ray

    2006-10-25

    In this study we have explored the nature and range of sleep dysfunction that occurs in untreated Parkinson's disease (PD) comparing data obtained from the use of the Parkinson's disease sleep scale (PDSS) in an untreated PD patient group compared to advanced PD and healthy controls. 25 untreated (drug-naive, DNPD) PD patients (mean age 66.9 years, range 53-80, 18 males) completed the validated Parkinson's disease sleep scale (PDSS), mean duration of PD was 2.1 years (1-10, up to 4 years in all except one patient with tremulous PD reporting tremor duration of 10 years) and mean Hoehn and Yahr score 1.9 (1-3). Data were compared to 34 advanced PD (mean age 70.2 years, range 51-88, 23 male), mean duration of PD 11 years (range 4-22), mean Hoehn and Yahr score 3.4 (3-5) and PDSS data obtained from 131 healthy controls (mean age 66.6 years, range 50-93, 56 males). Total PDSS scores and PDSS sub-items, except PDSS item 2, were highly significantly different (pHoehn and Yahr score 2.5, range=1-3) with high Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) scores (mean 14.5), low item 15 PDSS score (mean 4.7) and complaints of severe daytime sleepiness, underwent detailed overnight polysomnography (PSG) studies, all showing abnormal sleep patterns. We conclude that nocturia, nighttime cramps, dystonia, tremor and daytime somnolence seem to be the important nocturnal disabilities in DNPD and some of these symptoms may be reminiscent of "off" period related symptoms even though patients are untreated. Furthermore, polysomnography in "sleepy" PD patients may help diagnose unrecognised conditions such as periodic limb movement of sleep (PLMS), obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder.

  4. THE CHALLENGE OF PD PATIENTS: GLUCOSE AND GLUCOSE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS IN PD SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Lim Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main osmotic agent found in the peritoneal dialysis (PD solution is glucose. It has been of a wide use for great crystalloid osmotic power at a low concentration, simple metabolism, and excellent safety. On the other hand, anywhere between 60 to 80% of the glucose in the PD solution is absorbed - a 100 to 300 mg of daily glucose absorption. Once into the systemic circulation, glucose can be a cause for metabolic complications including obesity. Indeed, the diabetiform change observed in the peritoneal membrane in the long-term PD patients is believed attributable to the high-concentration glucose in the PD solution. The glucose absorbed from peritoneal cavity raises the risk of ‘glucose toxicity’, leading to insulin resistance and beta cell failure. Clinical similarity can be found in postprandial hyperglycemia, which is known to be associated with oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, NF-κb, and inflammation, affecting myocardial blood flow. Moreover, it is a proven independent risk factor of coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes, particularly of female gender. Though speculative yet, glucose toxicity might explain a higher mortality of PD patients after the first year compared with those on hemodialysis (more so in female, advanced-age patients with diabetes. Also included in the picture are glucose degradation products (GDPs generated along the course of heat sterilization or storage of the PD solution. They have been shown to induce apoptosis of peritoneal mesothelial cells, renal tubular epithelial cells, and endothelial cells, while spurring production of TGF-β and VEGF and facilitating epithelial mesenchymal transition. GDPs provide a stronger reactivity than glucose in the formation of AGEs, a known cause for microvascular complications and arteriosclerosis. Unfortunately, clinical studies using a low-GDP PD solution have provided mixed results on the residual renal function, peritonitis, peritoneal

  5. Hydrodeoxygenation of phenol over Pd catalysts by in-situ generated hydrogen from aqueous reforming of formic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Ying; Wang, Ze; Lin, Weigang

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation of phenol, as model compound of bio-oil, was investigated over Pd catalysts, using formic acid as a hydrogen donor. The order of activity for deoxygenation of phenol with Pd catalysts was found to be: Pd/SiO2 > Pd/MCM-41 > Pd/CA > Pd/Al2O3 > Pd/HY approximate to Pd/ZrO2 ≈ Pd...

  6. PD-1 pathway and its clinical application: A 20year journey after discovery of the complete human PD-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Kristin Nicole; Pu, Jeffrey Jiayu

    2018-01-05

    Anti-PD-1 therapy is a novel immune-checkpoint inhibition therapy with tremendous potential in treating refractory/relapsed cancers. The 20year journey of human PD-1 research went through 3 phases: 1) discovering PD-1 gene structure and genomic organization, 2) understanding the mechanism of PD-1 mediated immune-checkpoint regulatory effects in coordination with its ligands (PD-L1 and L2), 3) and translating our knowledge of PD-1 gene into a robust clinical anticancer approach by targeting the PD-1 immune-checkpoint pathway. The success of human PD-1 gene study reflects the advancement and trends of modern biomedical research from the laboratory to the bedside. However, our journey of understanding the PD-1 gene is not yet complete. Clinical investigation data show a high variety of response rates among different types of cancers to PD-1 immune-checkpoint inhibition therapy, with a range of 18% to 87%. There is no reliable biomarker to predict an individual patient's response to PD-1 inhibitory immunotherapy. Patients can present with primary, adaptive, or even acquired resistance to PD-1 immune-checkpoint inhibition therapy. Furthermore, the emerging data demonstrates that certain patients experience hyperprogressive disease status after receiving PD-1 immune-checkpoint inhibition therapy. In conclusion, PD-1 immune-checkpoint inhibition therapy has opened up a new venue of advanced cancer immunotherapy. Meanwhile, further efforts are still warranted in both basic scientific mechanism studies and clinical investigation using the principles of personalized and precision medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantifying gait patterns in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Mónica; Atehortúa, Angélica; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is constituted by a set of motor symptoms, namely tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia, which are usually described but not quantified. This work proposes an objective characterization of PD gait patterns by approximating the single stance phase a single grounded pendulum. This model estimates the force generated by the gait during the single support from gait data. This force describes the motion pattern for different stages of the disease. The model was validated using recorded videos of 8 young control subjects, 10 old control subjects and 10 subjects with Parkinson's disease in different stages. The estimated force showed differences among stages of Parkinson disease, observing a decrease of the estimated force for the advanced stages of this illness.

  8. Marangoni patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagu, N. Nirmal; Strombom, Evelyn; Palumbo, Daniel; Caicedo, Carlos; Shinbrot, Troy

    2010-11-01

    We study Marangoni patterns that emerge when common food dye is dropped into a dish of shallow water. These patterns consist of tendrils and spots that sharpen over time before eventually fading. We demonstrate that the patterns can be modeled using coupled reaction-diffusion equations, where the "reaction" terms appear due to a nonlinear dependence of surface tension on dye concentration. We show using a spatio-temporal metric that these patterns are distinct from previously described Turing patterns.

  9. The Cladistic Basis for the Phylogenetic Diversity (PD Measure Links Evolutionary Features to Environmental Gradients and Supports Broad Applications of Microbial Ecology’s “Phylogenetic Beta Diversity” Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Knight

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The PD measure of phylogenetic diversity interprets branch lengths cladistically to make inferences about feature diversity. PD calculations extend conventional specieslevel ecological indices to the features level. The “phylogenetic beta diversity” framework developed by microbial ecologists calculates PD-dissimilarities between community localities. Interpretation of these PD-dissimilarities at the feature level explains the framework’s success in producing ordinations revealing environmental gradients. An example gradients space using PD-dissimilarities illustrates how evolutionary features form unimodal response patterns to gradients. This features model supports new application of existing species-level methods that are robust to unimodal responses, plus novel applications relating to climate change, commercial products discovery, and community assembly.

  10. The expression of the proximodistal axis patterning genes Distal-less and dachshund in the appendages of Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda) suggests a special role of these genes in patterning the head appendages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Tautz, Diethard

    2003-01-01

    ...) axis of the developing legs. In order to study PD axis formation in the appendages of the pill millipede Glomeris marginata, we have isolated homologues of these four genes and have studied their expression patterns...

  11. Cancer Treatment with Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Agents: Is PD-L1 Expression a Biomarker for Patient Selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festino, Lucia; Botti, Gerardo; Lorigan, Paul; Masucci, Giuseppe V; Hipp, Jason D; Horak, Christine E; Melero, Ignacio; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2016-06-01

    Strategies to help improve the efficacy of the immune system against cancer represent an important innovation, with recent attention having focused on anti-programmed death (PD)-1/PD-ligand 1 (L1) monoclonal antibodies. Clinical trials have shown objective clinical activity of these agents (e.g., nivolumab, pembrolizumab) in several malignancies, including melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, bladder cancer, squamous head and neck cancer, renal cell cancer, ovarian cancer, microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancer, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Expression of PD-L1 in the tumor microenvironment appears to be crucial for therapeutic activity, and initial trials suggested positive PD-L1 tumor expression was associated with higher response rates. However, subsequent observations have questioned the prospect of using PD-L1 expression as a biomarker for selecting patients for therapy, especially since many patients considered PD-L1-negative experience a benefit from treatment. Importantly, there is not yet a definitive test for determination of PD-L1 and a cut-off reference for PD-L1-positive status has not been established. Immunohistochemistry with different antibodies and different thresholds has been used to define PD-L1 positivity (1-50 %), with no clear superiority of one threshold over another for identifying which patients respond. Moreover, the type of cells on which PD-L1 expression is most relevant is not yet clear, with immune infiltrate cells and tumor cells both being used. In conclusion, while PD-L1 expression is often a predictive factor for treatment response, it must be complemented by other biomarkers or histopathologic features, such as the composition and amount of inflammatory cells in the tumor microenvironment and their functional status. Multi-parameter quantitative or semi-quantitative algorithms may become useful and reliable tools to guide patient selection.

  12. Hydrogenation of chalcones using hydrogen permeating through a Pd and palladized Pd electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, M., E-mail: mcgutier@unse.edu.a [INQUINOA - CONICET, Instituto de Ciencias Quimicas, Facultad de Agronomia Agroindustrias, Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero, Avda, Belgrano (S) 1912, 4200, Santiago del Estero (Argentina); Nazareno, M.A. [INQUINOA - CONICET, Instituto de Ciencias Quimicas, Facultad de Agronomia Agroindustrias, Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero, Avda, Belgrano (S) 1912, 4200, Santiago del Estero (Argentina); Sosa, V. [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Agencia postal 4, Casilla 61, 5000, Cordoba (Argentina); Lopez de Mishima, B.A., E-mail: bmishima@unse.edu.a [INQUINOA - CONICET, Instituto de Ciencias Quimicas, Facultad de Agronomia Agroindustrias, Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero, Avda, Belgrano (S) 1912, 4200, Santiago del Estero (Argentina); Mishima, H.T. [INQUINOA - CONICET, Instituto de Ciencias Quimicas, Facultad de Agronomia Agroindustrias, Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero, Avda, Belgrano (S) 1912, 4200, Santiago del Estero (Argentina)

    2010-08-01

    The hydrogenation of benzalacetone and benzalacetophenone was carried out using atomic hydrogen permeating through a palladium membrane. A two-compartment cell separated by a Pd sheet or a palladized Pd (Pd/Pd black) sheet electrode was employed. The reduction products were identified by (GC) gas chromatography, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy. The carbon-carbon double bond was hydrogenated and the benzylacetone and benzylacetophenone were obtained as products using palladium catalyst. The current efficiency for hydrogenation reaction increases when the current density for water electrolysis decreases and depends on the initial chalcone concentration. It is over 90% at the concentration of 10 mmol L{sup -1}. The hydrogen absorption and diffusion into and through a palladium membrane electrode has been studied by using an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method. The impedance results would indicate that the hydrogen permeated through the membrane is consumed by the chalcone during the hydrogenation process keeping as the permeable boundary condition in the outer side of the Pd membrane the hydrogen activity almost zero. The hydrogen entering the metal through an adsorbed state and the rate of hydrogen absorption is diffusion-controlled.

  13. Carbon-Supported Pd and PdFe Alloy Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Cathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Rivera Gavidia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs are electrochemical devices that efficiently produce electricity and are characterized by a large flexibility for portable applications and high energy density. Methanol crossover is one of the main obstacles for DMFC commercialization, forcing the search for highly electro-active and methanol tolerant cathodes. In the present work, carbon-supported Pd and PdFe catalysts were synthesized using a sodium borohydride reduction method and physico-chemically characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray techniques such as photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX. The catalysts were investigated as DMFC cathodes operating at different methanol concentrations (up to 10 M and temperatures (60 °C and 90 °C. The cell based on PdFe/C cathode presented the best performance, achieving a maximum power density of 37.5 mW·cm−2 at 90 °C with 10 M methanol, higher than supported Pd and Pt commercial catalysts, demonstrating that Fe addition yields structural changes to Pd crystal lattice that reduce the crossover effects in DMFC operation.

  14. Carbon-Supported Pd and PdFe Alloy Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Gavidia, Luis M; Sebastián, David; Pastor, Elena; Aricò, Antonino S; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2017-05-25

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are electrochemical devices that efficiently produce electricity and are characterized by a large flexibility for portable applications and high energy density. Methanol crossover is one of the main obstacles for DMFC commercialization, forcing the search for highly electro-active and methanol tolerant cathodes. In the present work, carbon-supported Pd and PdFe catalysts were synthesized using a sodium borohydride reduction method and physico-chemically characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray techniques such as photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The catalysts were investigated as DMFC cathodes operating at different methanol concentrations (up to 10 M) and temperatures (60 °C and 90 °C). The cell based on PdFe/C cathode presented the best performance, achieving a maximum power density of 37.5 mW·cm-2 at 90 °C with 10 M methanol, higher than supported Pd and Pt commercial catalysts, demonstrating that Fe addition yields structural changes to Pd crystal lattice that reduce the crossover effects in DMFC operation.

  15. H-H interactions in Pd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, O. B.; Ditlevsen, Peter; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of the H-H interactions in a metal is given. Based on self-consistent total-energy calculations within the local-density approximation for H2 in a homogeneous electron gas, we show that metallic electrons make the H-H interaction more repulsive than in vacuum. Using effective......-medium theory to calculate total energies we show the same tendency for the short-range part of the H-H interaction when two H atoms are squeezed into a single site in Pd or PdH. At longer range (of the order a lattice constant) there is an attractive, lattice-mediated H-H interaction. On the basis...

  16. Systemic PD149163, a neurotensin receptor 1 agonist, decreases methamphetamine self-administration in DBA/2J mice without causing excessive sedation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Sharpe

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a psychostimulant that exhibits significant abuse potential. Although METH addiction is a major health and societal concern, no drug is currently approved for its therapeutic management. METH activates the central dopaminergic "reward" circuitry, and with repeated use increases levels of the neuromodulatory peptide neurotensin in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. Previous studies in rats suggest that neurotensin agonism decreases METH self-administration, but these studies did not examine the effect of neurotensin agonism on the pattern of self-administration or open field locomotion. In our studies, we established intravenous METH self-administration in male, DBA/2J mice (fixed ratio 3, 2 hr sessions and examined the effect of pretreatment with the NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 on METH self-administration behavior. Locomotion following PD149163 was also measured up to 2 hours after injection on a rotarod and in an open field. Pretreatment with PD149163 (0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg, s.c. significantly decreased METH self-administration. The pattern of responding suggested that PD149163 decreased motivation to self-administer METH initially in the session with more normal intake in the second hour of access. Voluntary movement in the open-field was significantly decreased by both 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg (s.c. PD149163 from 10-120 minutes after injection, but rotarod performance suggested that PD149163 did not cause frank sedation. These results suggest that a systemically delivered NTS1 receptor agonist decreases METH self-administration in mice. The pattern of self-administration suggests that PD149163 may acutely decrease motivation to self-administer METH before the drug is experienced, but cannot rule out that depression of voluntary movement plays a role in the decreased self-administration.

  17. Patterns of personality disorders in women with chronic eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, J O; Hellzén, M

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe patterns of personality disorders (PDs) in women with chronic eating disorders (EDs). An index group of nineteen women who have had EDs for an average of 8.5 years was compared with a control group of same-aged women from the general population. At the time of the study the index group received treatment at a tertiary treatment center in Stockholm. The PDs were assessed using the DSM-IV part of the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire (DIP-Q). In the index group, eighteen of nineteen fulfilled the criteria for one or more PD. The number of PD diagnoses for each women ranged from zero (n = 1) to eight (n = 2) with a median of three. Among the controls, only one woman fulfilled the criteria for one or more PD. The most prevalent disorders in the index group were Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive-Compulsive. The index group had significantly higher DIP-Q dimensional scores than the controls in the Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal, Borderline, Histrionic, Avoidant, and Dependent scales. Although the assessment of PD symptoms was limited to self-reports, the high prevalence of PD diagnoses and PD symptoms most probably reflects the severe psychiatric impairments in patients suffering from chronic ED.

  18. Orientations to Professional Development Design and Implementation: Understanding Their Relationship to PD Outcomes across Multiple Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Rose M.; Arbaugh, Fran; Lannin, John; Abell, Sandra; Ehlert, Mark; Smith, Rena; Merle-Johnson, Dominike; Rogers, Meredith Park

    2011-01-01

    Given the large investment in teacher professional development (PD), further understanding of the factors that impact PD success is needed. In a previous study, the authors established a framework for categorizing PD projects using the notion of orientations. A PD orientation is comprised of project characteristics that drive the PD design and…

  19. PD-L1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer : Correlations with genetic alterations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheel, Andreas H.; Ansen, Sascha; Schultheis, Anne M.; Scheffler, Matthias; Fischer, Rieke N.; Michels, Sebastian; Hellmich, Martin; George, Julie; Zander, Thomas; Brockmann, Michael; Stoelben, Erich; Groen, Harry; Timens, Wim; Perner, Sven; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael; Buettner, Reinhard; Wolf, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may induce anticancer immune responses in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Two PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays have been approved as companion diagnostic tests for therapeutic anti-PD-1 antibodies. However, many aspects of PD-L1 prevalence and

  20. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2015-10-27

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical tiling patterns on the plane must take on various shapes in order to faithfully and feasibly approximate curved surfaces. We define and analyze the deformations these tiles must undertake to account for curvature, and discover the symmetries that remain invariant under such deformations. We propose a novel method to regularize polyhedral patterns while maintaining these symmetries into a plethora of aesthetic and feasible patterns.

  1. Elucidation of structure and nature of the PdO-Pd transformation using in situ PDF and XAS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Jonathan; Sankar, Gopinathan; Hyde, Timothy I; Kohara, Shinji; Ohara, Koji

    2013-06-14

    The PdO-Pd phase transformation in a 4 wt% Pd/Al2O3 catalyst has been investigated using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and in situ X-ray total scattering (also known as high-energy X-ray diffraction) techniques. Both the partial and total pair distribution functions (PDF) from these respective techniques have been analysed in depth. New information from PDF analysis of total scattering data has been garnered using the differential PDF (d-PDF) approach where only correlations orginating from PdO and metallic Pd are extracted. This method circumvents problems encountered in characerising the catalytically active components due to the diffuse scattering from the disordered γ-Al2O3 support phase. Quantitative analysis of the palladium components within the catalyst allowed for the phase composition to be established at various temperatures. Above 850 °C it was found that PdO had converted to metallic Pd, however, the extent of reduction was of the order ca. 70% Pd metal and 30% PdO. Complementary in situ XANES and EXAFS were performed, with heating to high temperature and subsequent cooling in air, and the results of the analyses support the observations, that residual PdO is detected at elevated temperatures. Hysteresis in the transformation upon cooling is confirmed from XAS studies where reoxidation occurs below 680 °C.

  2. Crystal clear: visualizing the intervention mechanism of the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction by two cancer therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuguang; Chen, Danqing; Liu, Kefang; He, Mengnan; Song, Hao; Shi, Yi; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Catherine W-H; Qi, Jianxun; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, Shan; Gao, George F

    2016-12-01

    Antibody-based PD-1/PD-L1 blockade therapies have taken center stage in immunotherapies for cancer, with multiple clinical successes. PD-1 signaling plays pivotal roles in tumor-driven T-cell dysfunction. In contrast to prior approaches to generate or boost tumor-specific T-cell responses, antibody-based PD-1/PD-L1 blockade targets tumor-induced T-cell defects and restores pre-existing T-cell function to modulate antitumor immunity. In this review, the fundamental knowledge on the expression regulations and inhibitory functions of PD-1 and the present understanding of antibody-based PD-1/PD-L1 blockade therapies are briefly summarized. We then focus on the recent breakthrough work concerning the structural basis of the PD-1/PD-Ls interaction and how therapeutic antibodies, pembrolizumab targeting PD-1 and avelumab targeting PD-L1, compete with the binding of PD-1/PD-L1 to interrupt the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction. We believe that this structural information will benefit the design and improvement of therapeutic antibodies targeting PD-1 signaling.

  3. Crystal clear: visualizing the intervention mechanism of the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction by two cancer therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuguang Tan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Antibody-based PD-1/PD-L1 blockade therapies have taken center stage in immunotherapies for cancer, with multiple clinical successes. PD-1 signaling plays pivotal roles in tumor-driven T-cell dysfunction. In contrast to prior approaches to generate or boost tumor-specific T-cell responses, antibody-based PD-1/PD-L1 blockade targets tumor-induced T-cell defects and restores pre-existing T-cell function to modulate antitumor immunity. In this review, the fundamental knowledge on the expression regulations and inhibitory functions of PD-1 and the present understanding of antibody-based PD-1/PD-L1 blockade therapies are briefly summarized. We then focus on the recent breakthrough work concerning the structural basis of the PD-1/PD-Ls interaction and how therapeutic antibodies, pembrolizumab targeting PD-1 and avelumab targeting PD-L1, compete with the binding of PD-1/PD-L1 to interrupt the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction. We believe that this structural information will benefit the design and improvement of therapeutic antibodies targeting PD-1 signaling.

  4. Influence of Pd-precursor on the acetoxylation activity of Pd-Sb/TiO{sub 2} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-homeid, A. [Benghazi Univ. (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Chemistry Dept.; Kalevaru, V.N.; Radnik, J.; Luecke, B.; Martin, A. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Katalyse e.V. an der Universitaet Rostock (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    The impact of palladium precursors (e.g. chloride-PdCl{sub 2}; acetate-Pd(OAc){sub 2}; nitrate-Pd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) on the catalytic properties of Pd-Sb/TiO{sub 2} catalysts used for acetoxylation of toluene has been investigated. The catalysts were characterized by different techniques such as N{sub 2}-adsorption (BET-surface area and pore volume), XRD, TEM, CO-Chemisorption and XPS for better understanding of the catalytic properties of the catalysts. The acetate and nitrate-type precursors exhibited higher surface areas, pore volumes and higher dispersion of Pd, but displayed poor performance compared to chloride precursor. TEM analysis indicated that the size of Pd particles depended upon the nature of Pd-precursor. Among the three, chloride precursor exhibited bigger Pd particles. XPS results revealed that all the fresh catalysts irrespective of Pd-precursor contained Pd in oxidized state (i.e. Pd{sup +2}), while in the spent catalysts such oxidized Pd species were reduced. The catalytic performance was found to depend strongly on the nature of precursor used. Among the three, the catalysts prepared from chloride-type precursor showed much higher overall catalytic activity (68%) than those of nitrate and/or acetate type precursors. Moreover, these two precursors (acetate and nitrate) gave higher total oxidation products due to oxidative decomposition of mainly acetic acid. Furthermore, the catalyst prepared from Cl-precursor revealed easy deactivation due to coke deposition and also due to loss of Pd in the near-surface-region. (orig.)

  5. Differential spectral quantitative electroencephalography patterns between control and Parkinson's disease cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, J N; Utianski, R L; Hentz, J G; Beach, T G; Dugger, B N; Shill, H A; Driver-Dunckley, E D; Sabbagh, M N; Mehta, S; Adler, C H

    2016-02-01

    It is believed that progressive Lewy-type synucleinopathy (LTS) is primarily responsible for the worsening of motor and non-motor Parkinson's disease (PD) signs and symptoms. Characterization of quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) abnormalities across the spectrum of LTS to PD dementia (PD-D) may provide insight into the pathophysiology of PD cortical dysfunction. Here our enlarged EEG database was leveraged to characterize spectral QEEG abnormalities in asymptomatic autopsy-defined groups of control participants and incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD) and three clinically defined groups of participants with PD (cognitively normal PD, mild cognitive impairment PD, and PD-D). The PD cohort was studied as part of the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders (AZSAND). AZSAND utilizes its Brain and Body Donation Program to perform prospective, standardized, regular longitudinal pre-mortem assessments until death. Resting EEG from subjects was analyzed for spectral domain QEEG measures of background rhythm frequency and global relative power in delta, theta, alpha and beta bands. The various spectral QEEG measures showed differential changes specific to the groups compared. Important findings were background rhythm frequency showing the most pairwise differences across the groups, and this also was the only significant difference between control and ILBD. An increase in delta bandpower was characteristic of worsening cognitive deficits. Different patterns of change amongst QEEG measures across LTS and PD cognitive states suggest that they correlate with heterogeneous pathophysiologies of cortical dysfunction within the PD clinical spectrum. In addition, the biomarker application of a specific spectral QEEG measure needs to be selectively suited to its study purpose. © 2015 EAN.

  6. Hydrogen adsorption on bimetallic PdAu(111) surface alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takehiro, Naoki; Liu, Ping; Bergbreiter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of hydrogen on structurally well defined PdAu-Pd(111) monolayer surface alloys was investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical study, aiming at a quantitative understanding of the adsorption and desorption properties of individual PdAu nanostructures. Combining the stru...... into the physical effects underlying the observed adsorption behavior. Consequences of these findings for the understanding of hydrogen adsorption on bimetallic surfaces in general are discussed.......The adsorption of hydrogen on structurally well defined PdAu-Pd(111) monolayer surface alloys was investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical study, aiming at a quantitative understanding of the adsorption and desorption properties of individual PdAu nanostructures. Combining...... and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) provides conclusions on the minimum ensemble size for dissociative adsorption of hydrogen and on the adsorption energies on different sites active for adsorption. Density functional theory (DFT) based calculations give detailed insight...

  7. Strong paramagnon scattering in single atom Pd contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, V.; Barreteau, C.; Brandbyge, M.; Borca, B.; Pentegov, I.; Schlickum, U.; Ternes, M.; Wahl, P.; Kern, K.

    2017-07-01

    Among all transition metals, palladium (Pd) has the highest density of states at the Fermi energy at low temperatures yet does not fulfill the Stoner criterion for ferromagnetism. However, close proximity to magnetism renders it a nearly ferromagnetic metal, which hosts paramagnons, strongly damped spin fluctuations. Here we compare the total and the differential conductance of monoatomic contacts consisting of single Pd and cobalt (Co) atoms between Pd electrodes. Transport measurements reveal a conductance for Co of 1 G0 , while for Pd we obtain 2 G0 . The differential conductance of monoatomic Pd contacts shows a reduction with increasing bias, which gives rise to a peculiar Λ -shaped spectrum. Supported by theoretical calculations, we correlate this finding with the lifetime of hot quasiparticles in Pd, which is strongly influenced by paramagnon scattering. In contrast to this, Co adatoms locally induce magnetic order, and transport through single cobalt atoms remains unaffected by paramagnon scattering, consistent with theory.

  8. Theoretical Study of Ripening Mechanisms of Pd Clusters on Ceria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ya-Qiong; Liu, Jin-Xun; Filot, Ivo A W; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2017-11-14

    We carried out density functional theory calculations to investigate the ripening of Pd clusters on CeO2(111). Starting from stable Pd n clusters (n = 1-21), we compared how these clusters can grow through Ostwald ripening and coalescence. As Pd atoms have mobility higher than that of Pd n clusters on the CeO2(111) surface, Ostwald ripening is predicted to be the dominant sintering mechanism. Particle coalescence is possible only for clusters with less than 5 Pd atoms. These ripening mechanisms are facilitated by adsorbed CO through lowering barriers for the cluster diffusion, detachment of a Pd atom from clusters, and transformation of initial planar clusters.

  9. Diffusion of Pd clusters on Pd(111) surfaces: a molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, E. Z.; Antonelli, A.

    2000-05-01

    Diffusion of a small two-dimensional symmetrical cluster Pd 7 on Pd(111) surface has been studied using canonical ensemble molecular dynamics (NVT-MD) with a many-body potential derived from first-principles calculations in bulk Pd. The results of the simulations performed at 800 K show several cluster diffusion events. Such events occur, mostly preserving the symmetrical shape. Nevertheless, our simulations indicate that distortion events do occur in a short time interval. During this time interval, more frequent diffusion events occur, with subsequent recomposition of the original shape of the cluster. These intermediate distorted states are short-lived and, therefore, would probably not be seen in the experiments. The migration mechanism is mainly row gliding for the compact symmetrical cluster, while for the distorted form the dominant process is a combination of single atom moves and edge gliding.

  10. Strong paramagnon scattering in single atom Pd contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schendel, V.; Barreteau, Cyrille; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-01-01

    spin fluctuations. Here we compare the total and the differential conductance of monoatomic contacts consisting of single Pd and cobalt (Co) atoms between Pd electrodes. Transport measurements reveal a conductance for Co of 1G(0), while for Pd we obtain 2G(0). The differential conductance of monoatomic...... adatoms locally induce magnetic order, and transport through single cobalt atoms remains unaffected by paramagnon scattering, consistent with theory....

  11. Do subjects with minimal motor features have prodromal PD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yaping; Buchman, Aron S; Olanow, C W; Kordower, Jeffrey H

    2018-02-08

    Understanding the pathological changes underlying mild motor features of the eldery and defining a patient population with prodromal Parkinson's disease (PD) are of great clinical importance. It remains unclear, however, how to accurately and specifically diagnose prodromal PD. We examined whether older adults with minimal parkinsonian motor features have nigrostriatal degeneration and α-synuclein pathology consistent with prodromal PD. Brain sections were obtained from older adults with a clinical diagnosis of PD (N=21) and without a clinical diagnosis of PD (N=27) who underwent motor examination proximate to death. Cases without PD were further dichotomized into no motor deficit (n=9) or minimal motor features (n-18) groups using a modified Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. We performed quantitative unbiased stereological analyses of dopaminergic neurons/terminals and α-synuclein accumulation in the nigrostriatal system. In all subjects with minimal motor features, there were significant reductions in dopaminergic neurons and terminals in the substantia nigra and putamen that was intermediate between subjects with no motor deficit and PD. Phosphorylated α-synuclein inclusions were observed in the substantia nigra that were of similar density to what was seen in PD. Furthermore, there was greater Lewy neuritic pathology in the putamen relative to PD patients. Lastly, neurons with α-synuclein inclusions displayed reductions in tyrosine hydroxylase expression that was comparable in subjects with both minimal motor features and PD. Minimal motor features in older adults may represent prodromal PD and identify at risk individuals for testing putative neuroprotective interventions that could slow or prevent PD progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Neurological Association.

  12. Bulk metallic glass formation in the Pd-Ni-P and Pd-Cu-P alloy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, R.B.; He, Y. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for Materials Science

    1996-12-11

    Bulk metallic glasses were prepared in the Pd-Ni-P and Pd-Cu-P systems using a fluxing technique. The formation of bulk amorphous Pd-Cu-P alloys was reported here for the first time. For both alloy systems, bulk glass formation requires maintaining the phosphorus content near 20 at.%. In the Pd-Ni-P system, 10-mm diameter amorphous Pd{sub x}Ni{sub 80{minus}x}P{sub 20} rods can be formed for 25 {le} x {le} 60. In the Pd-Cu-P system, 7-mm diameter amorphous Pd{sub x}Cu{sub 80{minus}x}P{sub 20} rods can be produced for 40 {le} x {le} 60. From all the ternary alloys studied, Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} has the highest glass formability, and 25-mm diameter amorphous cylinders, 50 mm in length, can be easily fabricated. The glass stability of the Pd-Ni-P system is wider than that of the Pd-Cu-P system. For most bulk Pd-Ni-P glasses, {Delta}T > 90 K. The {Delta}T values of bulk amorphous Pd-Cu-P alloys are considerably smaller, ranging from 27 to 73 K. The elastic constants of bulk amorphous Pd-Ni-P and Pd-Cu-P alloys were determined using a resonant ultrasound spectroscopy technique. The Pd-Ni-P glasses are slightly stiffer than the Pd-Cu-P glasses. Within each alloy system, the Young`s modulus and the bulk modulus show little change with alloy composition. Of all the bulk glass forming systems so far investigated, the ternary Pd-Ni-P system has the best glass formability. This alloy was one of the first bulk glasses discovered, yet it still remains the best in terms of glass formability. Upon replacing part of Ni by Cu, the critical cooling rates are expected to be further reduced.

  13. Properties of Pd nanograins in C-Pd composite films obtained by PVD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozłowski M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Properties of palladium nanograins obtained by sedimentation of a soluted C-Pd film prepared by PVD method are presented. These properties were studied using SEM and TEM methods. Dissolved films were prepared by PVD method and after dissolving, they were fractionated to obtain different parts classified with palladium nanograins diameters. Several classes of diameters were determined: below 20 nm, between 20 and 100 nm and above 100 nm. The defects and triple junction were observed. Multishell carbonaceous structures were found in the big and medium size Pd nanograins.

  14. Reproducibility of regional metabolic covariance patterns : Comparison of four populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeller, [No Value; Nakamura, T; Mentis, MJ; Dhawan, [No Value; Spetsieres, P; Antonini, A; Missimer, J; Leenders, KL; Eidelberg, D

    In a previous [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET study we analyzed regional metabolic data from a combined group of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and healthy volunteers (N), using network analysis. By this method, we identified a unique pattern of regional metabolic covariation with an

  15. Synthesis and Catalytic Properties of Au Pd Nanoflowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jianguang [Department of Chemistry, Duke University; Wilson, Adria [Duke University; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Wiley, Benjamin J [Duke University

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of Pd ions by hydroquinone in the presence of gold nanoparticles and polyvinylpyrrolidone resulted in the formation of nanoflowers with a Au core and Pd petals. Addition of HCl to the synthesis halted the reduction by hydroquinone and enabled the acquisition of snapshots of the nanoflowers at different stages of growth. TEM images of the reaction after 10 s show that the nanoflower morphology resulted from the homogeneous nucleation of Pd clusters in solution and their subsequent attachment to gold seeds coated with a thin (0.8 0.1 nm) shell of Pd. UV visible spectra also indicate Pd clusters formed in the early stages of the reaction and disappeared as the nanoflowers grew. The speed at which this reaction can be halted is useful not only for producing a variety of bimetallic nanostructures with precisely controlled dimensions and morphologies but also for understanding the growth mechanism of these structures. The ability of the AuPd core shell structure to catalyze the Suzuki coupling reaction of iodobenzene to phenylboronic acid was probed and compared against the activity of Pd nanocubes and thin-shelled AuPd core shell nanoparticles. The results of this study suggest that Suzuki coupling was not affected by the surface structure or subsurface composition of the nanoparticles, but instead was primarily catalyzed by molecular Pd species that leached from the nanostructures.

  16. Synthesis of Au-Pd Nanoflowers Through Nanocluster Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jianguang [Duke University; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Wilson, Adria [Duke University; Rathmall, Aaron [Duke University; Wiley, Benjamin J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of Pd ions by hydroquinone in the presence of gold nanoparticles and polyvinylpyrrolidone resulted in the formation of nanoflowers with a Au core and Pd petals. Addition of HCl to the synthesis halted the reduction by hydroquinone and enabled the acquisition of snapshots of the nanoflowers at different stages of growth. TEM images of the reaction after 10 s show that the nanoflower morphology resulted from the homogeneous nucleation of Pd clusters in solution and their subsequent attachment to gold seeds coated with a thin (0.8 {+-} 0.1 nm) shell of Pd. UV-visible spectra also indicate Pd clusters formed in the early stages of the reaction and disappeared as the nanoflowers grew. The speed at which this reaction can be halted is useful not only for producing a variety of bimetallic nanostructures with precisely controlled dimensions and morphologies but also for understanding the growth mechanism of these structures. The ability of the AuPd core-shell structure to catalyze the Suzuki coupling reaction of iodobenzene to phenylboronic acid was probed and compared against the activity of Pd nanocubes and thin-shelled AuPd core-shell nanoparticles. The results of this study suggest that Suzuki coupling was not affected by the surface structure or subsurface composition of the nanoparticles, but instead was primarily catalyzed by molecular Pd species that leached from the nanostructures.

  17. Valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohani, H. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, P. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Goyal, R.; Awana, V.P.S. [National Physical Laboratory(CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sekhar, B.R., E-mail: sekhar@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • VB Photoemission study and DFT calculations on Pd based ternary superconductors are presented. • Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} shows a temperature dependent pseudogap. • VB spectral features of ternary superconductors are correlated to their structural geometry. - Abstract: We present a comparative study of the valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5}, Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}Te{sub 6} using experimental photoemission spectroscopy and density functional based theoretical calculations. We observe a qualitatively similarity between valence band (VB) spectra of Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6}. Further, we find a pseudogap feature in Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} at low temperature, unlike other two compounds. We have correlated the structural geometry with the differences in VB spectra of these compounds. The different atomic packing in these compounds could vary the strength of inter-orbital hybridization among various atoms which leads to difference in their electronic structure as clearly observed in our DOS calculations.

  18. Kinetic Monte Carlo study of vinyl acetate synthesis from ethylene acetoxylation on Pd(100) and Pd/Au(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanping; Dong, Xiuqin; Yu, Yingzhe; Zhang, Minhua

    2017-11-01

    On the basis of the activation barriers and reaction energies from DFT calculations, kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations of vinyl acetate (VA) synthesis from ethylene acetoxylation on Pd(100) and Pd/Au(100) were carried out. Through kMC simulation, it was found that VA synthesis from ethylene acetoxylation proceeds via Moiseev mechanism on both Pd(100) and Pd/Au(100). The addition of Au into Pd can suppress ethylene dehydrogenation while it can promote acetic acid dehydrogenation, which can eventually facilitate VA synthesis as a whole. The addition of Au into Pd can further improve the conversion and selectivity of VA synthesis from ethylene acetoxylation. When the reaction network is analyzed, besides the energetics of each elementary reaction, the surface coverage of each species and the occupancy of the surface sites on the catalyst should also be taken into consideration.

  19. Significant association of increased PD-L1 and PD-1 expression with nodal metastasis and a poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruse, Y; Kawano, S; Jinno, T; Matsubara, R; Goto, Y; Kaneko, N; Sakamoto, T; Hashiguchi, Y; Moriyama, M; Toyoshima, T; Kitamura, R; Tanaka, H; Oobu, K; Kiyoshima, T; Nakamura, S

    2018-01-26

    Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and its receptor PD-1 are immune checkpoint molecules that attenuate the immune response. Blockade of PD-L1 enhances the immune response in a variety of tumours and thus serves as an effective anti-cancer treatment. However, the biological and prognostic roles of PD-L1/PD-1 signalling in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation of PD-L1/PD-1 signalling with the prognosis of OSCC patients to assess its potential therapeutic relevance. The expression of PD-L1 and of PD-1 was determined immunohistochemically in 97 patients with OSCC and the association of this expression with clinicopathological characteristics was examined. Increased expression of PD-L1 was found in 64.9% of OSCC cases and increased expression of PD-1 was found in 61.9%. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that increased expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 positively correlated with cervical lymph node metastasis. The expression of CD25, an activated T-cell marker, was negatively correlated with the labelling index of PD-L1 and PD-1. Moreover, the patient group with PD-L1-positive and PD-1-positive expression showed a more unfavourable prognosis than the group with PD-L1-negative and PD-1-negative expression. These data suggest that increased PD-L1 and PD-1 expression is predictive of nodal metastasis and a poor prognosis and is possibly involved in cancer progression via attenuating the immune response. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of Hierarchical Polymer@Pd Nanowire‐Network: Synthesis and Application as Highly Active Recyclable Catalyst and Printable Conductive Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Sajjad Husain

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A facile one‐pot approach for preparing hierarchical nanowire‐networks of hollow polymer@Pd nanospheres is reported. First, polymer@Pd hollow nanospheres were produced through metal‐complexation‐induced phase separation with functionalized graft copolymers and subsequent self‐assembly of PdNPs. The nanospheres hierarchically assembled into the nanowire‐network upon drying. The Pd nanowire‐network served as an active catalyst for Mizoroki–Heck and Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reactions. As low as 500 μmol % Pd was sufficient for quantitative reactions, and the origin of the high activity is ascribed to the highly active sites originating from high‐index facets, kinks, and coalesced structures. The catalyst can be recycled via simple filtration and washing, maintaining its high activity owing to the micrometer‐sized hierarchical structure of the nanomaterial. The polymer@Pd nanosphere also served as a printable conductive ink for a translucent grid pattern with excellent horizontal conductivity (7.5×105 S m−1). PMID:27551657

  1. Development of Hierarchical Polymer@Pd Nanowire-Network: Synthesis and Application as Highly Active Recyclable Catalyst and Printable Conductive Ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Sajjad Husain; Ochiai, Bungo

    2016-06-01

    A facile one-pot approach for preparing hierarchical nanowire-networks of hollow polymer@Pd nanospheres is reported. First, polymer@Pd hollow nanospheres were produced through metal-complexation-induced phase separation with functionalized graft copolymers and subsequent self-assembly of PdNPs. The nanospheres hierarchically assembled into the nanowire-network upon drying. The Pd nanowire-network served as an active catalyst for Mizoroki-Heck and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions. As low as 500 μmol % Pd was sufficient for quantitative reactions, and the origin of the high activity is ascribed to the highly active sites originating from high-index facets, kinks, and coalesced structures. The catalyst can be recycled via simple filtration and washing, maintaining its high activity owing to the micrometer-sized hierarchical structure of the nanomaterial. The polymer@Pd nanosphere also served as a printable conductive ink for a translucent grid pattern with excellent horizontal conductivity (7.5×10(5) S m(-1)).

  2. Expression of PD-L1 on canine tumor cells and enhancement of IFN-γ production from tumor-infiltrating cells by PD-L1 blockade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Maekawa

    Full Text Available Programmed death 1 (PD-1, an immunoinhibitory receptor, and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1, its ligand, together induce the "exhausted" status in antigen-specific lymphocytes and are thus involved in the immune evasion of tumor cells. In this study, canine PD-1 and PD-L1 were molecularly characterized, and their potential as therapeutic targets for canine tumors was discussed. The canine PD-1 and PD-L1 genes were conserved among canine breeds. Based on the sequence information obtained, the recombinant canine PD-1 and PD-L1 proteins were constructed; they were confirmed to bind each other. Antibovine PD-L1 monoclonal antibody effectively blocked the binding of recombinant PD-1 with PD-L1-expressing cells in a dose-dependent manner. Canine melanoma, mastocytoma, renal cell carcinoma, and other types of tumors examined expressed PD-L1, whereas some did not. Interestingly, anti-PD-L1 antibody treatment enhanced IFN-γ production from tumor-infiltrating cells. These results showed that the canine PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is also associated with T-cell exhaustion in canine tumors and that its blockade with antibody could be a new therapeutic strategy for canine tumors. Further investigations are needed to confirm the ability of anti-PD-L1 antibody to reactivate canine antitumor immunity in vivo, and its therapeutic potential has to be further discussed.

  3. An efficient photochemical route to Pd nanoparticles; application to the one-step synthesis of Pd@polymer nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Séverine; Vidal, Loïc; Becht, Jean-Michel; Michelin, Laure; Balan, Lavinia

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a facile, efficient, low cost and ‘green’ photochemical approach to preparing surfactant-free Pd nanoparticles and Pd-immobilized@acrylate photo-polymer films at room temperature, under air and without any additional treatment. The reaction system only includes a photo-initiator used as a generator of free radicals and a Pd(II) salt. In ethanol solution, the photochemical reduction of Pd(II) to Pd(0) generates very small metal particles with a narrow size distribution (2-4 nm). Furthermore, we have shown that the formation of Pd nanoparticles from a Pd(II) salt can be reversible thus allowing easy handling and safe storage with the possibility of generating the nanoparticles just before use. In the presence of an acrylate bifunctional monomer, Pd@polymer film was obtained through a ‘one-pot, one-step’ process resulting from a simultaneous photo-reduction of Pd(II) and photo-polymerization of acrylate units. The simultaneous generation of a 3D polymer network and of metal particles leads to a homogeneous distribution of Pd nanoparticles in the photo-polymer matrix with an average diameter of approximately 3.7 ± 1.1 nm. Such as-prepared Pd@polymer films were found to efficiently catalyze the Mizoroki-Heck reaction in the presence of only 0.9 mequiv. of supported palladium. The major interest of this arrangement is its recoverability and reusability, which makes it very attractive both from a practical and economical viewpoint. Finally, it is worth noting that this innovation offers a great advantage over concurrent methods in that it is simply generated within minutes, it is highly stable, and there is sharp monodispersity in the size of the Pd nanoparticles that can be stored for months without alteration of their physico-chemical properties and catalytic activity.

  4. PD-1/PD-L1 blockade together with vaccine therapy facilitates effector T-cell infiltration into pancreatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Kevin C; Rucki, Agnieszka A; Wu, Annie A; Olino, Kelly; Xiao, Qian; Chai, Yi; Wamwea, Anthony; Bigelow, Elaine; Lutz, Eric; Liu, Linda; Yao, Sheng; Anders, Robert A; Laheru, Daniel; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Edil, Barish H; Schulick, Richard D; Jaffee, Elizabeth M; Zheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) has a poor prognosis due to late detection and resistance to conventional therapies. Published studies show that the PDA tumor microenvironment is predominantly infiltrated with immune suppressive cells and signals that if altered, would allow effective immunotherapy. However, single-agent checkpoint inhibitors including agents that alter immune suppressive signals in other human cancers such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed death 1 (PD-1), and its ligand PD-L1, have failed to demonstrate objective responses when given as single agents to PDA patients. We recently reported that inhibition of the CTLA-4 pathway when given together with a T cell inducing vaccine gives objective responses in metastatic PDA patients. In this study, we evaluated blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. We found that PD-L1 is weakly expressed at a low frequency in untreated human and murine PDAs but treatment with a granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor secreting PDA vaccine (GVAX) significantly upregulates PD-L1 membranous expression after treatment of tumor-bearing mice. In addition, combination therapy with vaccine and PD-1 antibody blockade improved murine survival compared with PD-1 antibody monotherapy or GVAX therapy alone. Furthermore, PD-1 blockade increased effector CD8 T lymphocytes and tumor-specific interferon-γ production of CD8 T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Immunosuppressive pathways, including regulatory T cells and CTLA-4 expression on T cells were overcome by the addition of vaccine and low-dose cyclophosphamide to PD-1 blockade. Collectively, our study supports combining PD-1 or PD-L1 antibody therapy with a T cell inducing agent for PDA treatment.

  5. Au@PdOx with a PdOx-rich shell and Au-rich core embedded in Co3O4 nanorods for catalytic combustion of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nating; Liu, Jingwei; Sun, Yuhan; Zhu, Yan

    2017-02-09

    Au@PdOx with a PdOx-rich shell and Au-rich core nested in Co3O4 nanorods exhibited enhanced catalytic performance in the reaction of methane catalytic combustion, compared to monometallic Pd or Au/Co3O4 nanorods as well as conventional PdAu/Co3O4 nanorods. The superior catalysis of Au@PdOx/Co3O4 nanorods is mainly due to the architectural style of the PdOx-rich shell and Au-rich core, which shows strong interaction of Pd, Au, and Co3O4.

  6. Mechanism of CO 2 Hydrogenation on Pd/Al 2 O 3 Catalysts: Kinetics and Transient DRIFTS-MS Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang; Shi, Hui; Kwak, Ja Hun; Szanyi, János

    2015-09-17

    The hydrogenation of CO2 was investigated over a wide range of reaction conditions, using two Pd/γ-Al2O3 catalysts with different Pd loadings (5% and 0.5%) and dispersions (~11% and ~100%, respectively). Turnover rates for CO and CH4 formation were both higher over 5% Pd/Al2O3 with a larger average Pd particle size than those over 0.5% Pd/Al2O3 with a smaller average particle size. The selectivity to methane (22-40%) on 5% Pd/Al2O3 was higher by a factor of 2-3 than that on 0.5% Pd/Al2O3. The drastically different rate expressions and apparent energies of activation for CO and CH4 formation lead us to conclude that reverse water gas shift and CO2 methanation do not share the same rate-limiting step on Pd, and that the two pathways are probably catalyzed at different surface sites. Measured reaction orders in CO2 and H2 pressures were similar over the two catalysts, suggesting that the reaction mechanism for each pathway does not change with particle size. In accordance, the DRIFTS results reveal that the prevalent surface species and their evolution patterns are comparable on the two catalysts during transient and steady-state experiments, switching feed gases among CO2, H2 and CO2+H2. The DRIFTS and MS results also demonstrate that no direct dissociation of CO2 takes place over the two catalysts, and that CO2 has to first react with surface hydroxyls on the oxide support. The thus-formed bicarbonates react with dissociatively adsorbed hydrogen on Pd particles to produce adsorbed formate species (bifunctional catalyst: CO2 activation on the oxide support, and H2 dissociation on the metal particles). Formates near the Pd particles (most likely at the metal/oxide interface) can react rapidly with adsorbed H

  7. Cognitive performance of GBA mutation carriers with early-onset PD: the CORE-PD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalay, R N; Caccappolo, E; Mejia-Santana, H; Tang, M -X; Rosado, L; Orbe Reilly, M; Ruiz, D; Ross, B; Verbitsky, M; Kisselev, S; Louis, E; Comella, C; Colcher, A; Jennings, D; Nance, M; Bressman, S; Scott, W K; Tanner, C; Mickel, S; Andrews, H; Waters, C; Fahn, S; Cote, L; Frucht, S; Ford, B; Rezak, M; Novak, K; Friedman, J H; Pfeiffer, R; Marsh, L; Hiner, B; Siderowf, A; Payami, H; Molho, E; Factor, S; Ottman, R; Clark, L N; Marder, K

    2012-05-01

    To assess the cognitive phenotype of glucocerebrosidase (GBA) mutation carriers with early-onset Parkinson disease (PD). We administered a neuropsychological battery and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) to participants in the CORE-PD study who were tested for mutations in PARKIN, LRRK2, and GBA. Participants included 33 GBA mutation carriers and 60 noncarriers of any genetic mutation. Primary analyses were performed on 26 GBA heterozygous mutation carriers without additional mutations and 39 age- and PD duration-matched noncarriers. Five cognitive domains, psychomotor speed, attention, memory, visuospatial function, and executive function, were created from transformed z scores of individual neuropsychological tests. Clinical diagnoses (normal, mild cognitive impairment [MCI], dementia) were assigned blind to genotype based on neuropsychological performance and functional impairment as assessed by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score. The association between GBA mutation status and neuropsychological performance, CDR, and clinical diagnoses was assessed. Demographics, UPSIT, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III performance did not differ between GBA carriers and noncarriers. GBA mutation carriers performed more poorly than noncarriers on the Mini-Mental State Examination (p = 0.035), and on the memory (p = 0.017) and visuospatial (p = 0.028) domains. The most prominent differences were observed in nonverbal memory performance (p dementia (p = 0.004). GBA mutation status may be an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment in patients with PD.

  8. Middle School Mathematics PD Study: Description of the PD Intervention. Paper #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kirk; Garet, Michael; Leinwand, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the PD program that was delivered during the first year of the study. The main goal of the intervention was to increase teachers' capability to teach positive rational number topics effectively. The program included a 3-day summer institute (18 hours per teacher), five 1-day seminars held during the school year (30 hours per…

  9. Corrosion resistance of amorphous and crystalline Pd40Ni40P20 alloys in aqueous solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Y.F.; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Chu, J.

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion behaviors of amorphous and crystalline Pd40Ni40P20 alloys in various aqueous solutions are reported in this paper. The corrosion resistance of crystalline (annealed) Pd40Ni40P20 is better than that of amorphous Pd40Ni40P20 in various corrosive solutions, due to crystalline Pd40Ni40P20...... and mainly consists of inert Pd5P2, NI3P, Ni2Pd2P and noble Pd phases. These inert and noble properties result in a higher corrosion resistance in crystalline Pd40Ni40P20....

  10. Alloying Au surface with Pd reduces the intrinsic activity in catalyzing CO oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Kun

    2016-03-30

    © 2016. Various Au-Pd/SiO2 catalysts with a fixed Au loading but different Au:Pd molar ratios were prepared via deposition-precipitation method followed by H2 reduction. The structures were characterized and the catalytic activities in CO oxidation were evaluated. The formation of Au-Pd alloy particles was identified. The Au-Pd alloy particles exhibit enhanced dispersions on SiO2 than Au particles. Charge transfer from Pd to Au within Au-Pd alloy particles. Isolated Pd atoms dominate the surface of Au-Pd alloy particles with large Au:Pd molar ratios while contiguous Pd atoms dominate the surface of Au-Pd alloy particles with small Au:Pd molar ratios. Few synergetic effect of Au-Pd alloy occurs on catalyzing CO oxidation under employed reaction conditions. Alloying Au with Pd reduces the intrinsic activity in catalyzing CO oxidation, and contiguous Pd atoms on the Au-Pd alloy particles are capable of catalyzing CO oxidation while isolated Pd atoms are not. These results advance the fundamental understandings of Au-Pd alloy surfaces in catalyzing CO oxidation.

  11. Movements in Parties: OccupyPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella della Porta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When the United States activists called for people to Occupy#everywhere, it is unlikely they were thinking of the headquarters of the Italian centre-left party. Parties and movements are often considered to be worlds apart. In reality, parties have been relevant players in movement politics, and movements have influenced parties, often through the double militancy of many of their members. OccupyPD testifies to a continuous fluidity at the movement-party border, but also to a blockage in the party’s interactions with society that started long before the economic crisis but drastically accelerated with it. In this paper we present the OccupyPD Movement as a case of interaction between party politics and social movement politics, and in particular between the base membership of a centre-left party and the broader anti-austerity movement that diffused from the US to Europe adopting similar forms of actions and claims. Second, by locating it within the context of the economic and democratic crisis that erupted in 2007, we understand its emergence as a reaction towards politics in times of crisis of responsibility, by which we mean a drastic drop in the capacity of the government to respond to citizens’ requests. To fulfil this double aim, we bridge social movement studies with research on party change, institutional trust and democratic theory, looking at some political effects of the economic crisis in terms of a specific form of legitimacy crisis, as well as citizens’ responses to it, with a particular focus on the political meaning of recent anti-austerity protests. In this analysis, we refer to both quantitative and qualitative data from secondary liter-ature and original in-depth interviews carried out with a sample of OccupyPD activists.

  12. Atypical responses in patients with advanced melanoma, lung cancer, renal-cell carcinoma and other solid tumors treated with anti-PD-1 drugs: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirolo, Paola; Spagnolo, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Anti-programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) drugs nivolumab and pembrolizumab were recently approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma and other solid tumors. Atypical patterns of response (i.e. tumor shrinkage or stabilization after initial progression) were observed in about 10% of metastatic melanoma patients treated with anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) drug ipilimumab and were associated with improved survival; however, the rate of atypical response patterns to anti-PD-1 therapy is not clear. An electronic search was performed to identify clinical trials evaluating response to anti-PD-1 therapy with nivolumab and pembrolizumab in patients with advanced solid tumors. Thirty-eight studies were included in our analysis for a total of 7069 patients with advanced cancer treated with anti-PD-1 therapy. Responses were evaluated by unconventional response criteria in 19 trials and were observed for all cancer types but tumors with mismatch-repair deficiency and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Overall, 151 atypical responses were observed in 2400 patients (6%) evaluated by unconventional response criteria. The results of our systematic review highlight the clinical relevance of unconventional responses to anti-PD-1 therapy and support further investigation into the development of tools that may assist evaluation of the antitumor activity of immunotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metallic behavior of Pd atomic clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera-Granja, F [Instituto de Fisica ' Manuel Sandoval Vallarta' , Universidad Autonoma de San Luis PotosI, SLP 78000 (Mexico); Vega, A [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Rogan, J [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile); GarcIa, G [Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Pontificia Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago, 7820436 (Chile)

    2007-09-12

    We report a study of the nonmetal-metal transition of free-standing Pd{sub N} clusters (2{<=}N{<=}21) carried out through two different theoretical approaches that are extensively employed in electronic structure calculations: a semi-empirical tight-binding (TB) model and an ab initio DFT pseudopotential model. The calculated critical size for the metallic transition decreases rapidly with the temperature and an oscillatory dependence with the cluster size is obtained, particularly in the DFT approach. The TB model describes the metallic behavior for cluster sizes beyond N{approx}12 well. Our obtained critical size at room temperature is of the order of the experimental estimation.

  14. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  15. The characteristic profiles of PD-1 and PD-L1 expressions and dynamic changes during treatment in active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Shi, Hong; Gao, Yan; Ou, Qinfang; Liu, Qianqian; Liu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Wenhong; Fan, Lin; Shao, Lingyun

    2016-12-01

    PD-1 is a cell surface receptor of activated T and B lymphocytes and it's role in tuberculosis is controversial because of lack of congruence between clinical study and animal model. To investigate the immunological pathogenesis mechanisms of tuberculosis and to develop the immune therapy target essential for controlling tuberculosis, here we explored the expression characteristics and dynamic changes of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in different CD4+T cell subsets. We enrolled 24 human subjects including 15 active tuberculosis (ATB) patients and 9 healthy donors (HD). The expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 on CD4+T cells increased significantly in ATB patients than HD. ATB patients had a higher proportion of regulatory T cells (Treg, CD4+CD25 + Foxp3+) than HD. The expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 increased remarkably on CD4+T cell subsets, including Treg cells, Tresp (CD4+CD25-) cells and Teff (CD4+CD25 + Foxp3-) cells. Finally, clinical improvement following effective anti-TB therapy is correlated with significantly decreased expression of PD-1 in Tresp and Teff cells, but not in Treg cells. Thus, expression profiles of PD-1 in T cell subpopulations may be used as a candidate to predict the clinical efficacy of anti-tuberculosis therapy. Modulation of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in CD4 subsets may offer an immunotherapy target for the control of tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a study of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase(G6PD) deficiency in sickle cell anaemia patients attending the haematology clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos- Nigeria. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency among the 130 sickle cell anaemia patients studied was found to be 18.5%. G6PD ...

  17. Biosupported Bimetallic Pd Au Nanocatalysts for Dechlorination of Environmental Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Corte, S.; Fitts, J.; Hennebel, T.; Sabbe, T.; Bliznuk, V.; Verschuere, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Verstraete, W.; Boon, N.

    2011-08-30

    Biologically produced monometallic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd) have been shown to catalyze the dehalogenation of environmental contaminants, but fail to efficiently catalyze the degradation of other important recalcitrant halogenated compounds. This study represents the first report of biologically produced bimetallic Pd/Au nanoparticle catalysts. The obtained catalysts were tested for the dechlorination of diclofenac and trichloroethylene. When aqueous bivalent Pd(II) and trivalent Au(III) ions were both added to concentrations of 50 mg L{sup -1} and reduced simultaneously by Shewanella oneidensis in the presence of H{sub 2}, the resulting cell-associated bimetallic nanoparticles (bio-Pd/Au) were able to dehalogenate 78% of the initially added diclofenac after 24 h; in comparison, no dehalogenation was observed using monometallic bio-Pd or bio-Au. Other catalyst-synthesis strategies did not show improved dehalogenation of TCE and diclofenac compared with bio-Pd. Synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction, (scanning) transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the simultaneous reduction of Pd and Au supported on cells of S. oneidensis resulted in the formation of a unique bimetallic crystalline structure. This study demonstrates that the catalytic activity and functionality of possibly environmentally more benign biosupported Pd-catalysts can be improved by coprecipitation with Au.

  18. Coordination Chemistry of SCS PdII Pincer Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, H.J.; Nakashima, Kazuaki; Nakashima, K.; Shinkai, Seiji; Kooijman, Huub; Spek, Anthony L.; van Veggel, F.C.J.M.; Reinhoudt, David

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the coordination of substituted pyridines, and phosphorus- and sulfur-containing ligands to an SCS PdII pincer system. These ligands coordinate to PdII (trans to the cyclopalladated aryl group) by quantitative substitution of the labile acetonitrile ligand in complex 1. Competition

  19. Weight changes associated with unilateral STN DBS and advanced PD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Harrison C; Lyerly, Michael; Cutter, Gary; Hagood, Johnson; Stover, Natividad P; Guthrie, Stephanie L; Guthrie, Barton L; Watts, Ray L

    2009-11-01

    Weight gain following bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) has been characterized previously, but little is known about changes in weight following unilateral STN DBS. Weight gain of approximately 10 kg at one year after bilateral STN DBS for PD has been noted in previous studies, and PD in the absence of DBS has been associated with weight loss. A case-control comparison evaluated the change in weight following unilateral STN DBS in PD. In 39 patients who underwent unilateral STN DBS for PD, we measured the weight change over 1 year versus both preoperative weight change and the weight change in 40 age- and disease severity-matched PD controls without DBS. Regression analyses incorporating age, gender, baseline weight in case or control were conducted to assess weight changes. At 12 months following surgery, the mean weight of unilateral STN DBS patients increased by 4.3+/-7.2 kg versus the preoperative baseline weight (pweight gain occurred in 41% of the preoperative unilateral STN DBS patients and 45% of the PD controls, while 85% of the unilateral STN DBS patients had gained weight at 12 months after surgery (pweight gain, which offsets weight loss associated with advanced PD.

  20. Glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd) activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of red blood cell Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in one hundred and twenty six healthy male individuals who are Nigerians residing in Jos was evaluated. The enzyme activity was determined quantitatively by spectrophotometer assay method. The activity of red cell G6PD enzyme was subnormal ...

  1. Amorphous Pt@PdCu/CNT Catalyst for Methanol Electrooxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multi-walled carbon nanotube-supported, Pt decorated nano-sized amorphous PdCu alloy cores (denoted as Pt@PdCu/CNT) catalyst with lower Pt loading is synthesized via a galvanic displacement reaction. The structure is examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  2. Pd immobilized on modified magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Chem. Sci. Vol. 128, No. 7, July 2016, pp. 1157–1162. c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12039-016-1098-9. Pd immobilized on modified magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles: Magnetically recoverable and reusable Pd nanocatalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions and Ullmann-type N-arylation of indoles.

  3. Incidence of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A community based study of the incidence of G-6-PD deficiency in apparently healthy individuals in Jos South (Plateau State) and Jaba (Kaduna State) Local Government Areas (LGAs) of North Central Nigeria was carried-out. The screening of G-6-PD deficiency was performed on 270 subjects which comprised 120 ...

  4. Catalytic characterization of bi-functional catalysts derived from Pd ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pd + Mg)/Al ≈ 3 and Mg/Pd ≈ 750 to 35, were prepared by coprecipitation of metal nitrates at constant pH. Characterization of samples as synthesized and their calcined products by elemental analyses, powder XRD, TG–DTA, FT–IR ...

  5. PD-L1 blockade: rejuvenating T cells in CLL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kater, Arnon P.; van der Windt, Gerritje J. W.

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, there are 2 articles by McClanahan et al describing T-cell defects in murine chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in the context of aging which show that therapeutic targeting of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) signaling prevents immune

  6. PD-1 marks dysfunctional regulatory T cells in malignant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, Daniel E; Goods, Brittany A; Lucca, Liliana E; Lerner, Benjamin A; Raddassi, Khadir; van Dijk, David; Hernandez, Amanda L; Duan, Xiangguo; Gunel, Murat; Coric, Vlad; Krishnaswamy, Smita; Love, J Christopher; Hafler, David A

    2016-04-21

    Immunotherapies targeting the immune checkpoint receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) have shown remarkable efficacy in treating cancer. CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+ Tregs are critical regulators of immune responses in autoimmunity and malignancies, but the functional status of human Tregs expressing PD-1 remains unclear. We examined functional and molecular features of PD-1hi Tregs in healthy subjects and patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), combining functional assays, RNA sequencing, and cytometry by time of flight (CyTOF). In both patients with GBM and healthy subjects, circulating PD-1hi Tregs displayed reduced suppression of CD4+ effector T cells, production of IFN-γ, and molecular signatures of exhaustion. Transcriptional profiling of tumor-resident Tregs revealed that several genes coexpressed with PD-1 and associated with IFN-γ production and exhaustion as well as enrichment in exhaustion signatures compared with circulating PD-1hi Tregs. CyTOF analysis of circulating and tumor-infiltrating Tregs from patients with GBM treated with PD-1-blocking antibodies revealed that treatment shifts the profile of circulating Tregs toward a more exhausted phenotype reminiscent of that of tumor-infiltrating Tregs, further increasing IFN-γ production. Thus, high PD-1 expression on human Tregs identifies dysfunctional, exhausted Tregs secreting IFN-γ that exist in healthy individuals and are enriched in tumor infiltrates, possibly losing function as they attempt to modulate the antitumoral immune responses.

  7. Total Ionizing Dose Influence on the Single-Event Upset Sensitivity of 130-nm PD SOI SRAMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiwen; Cui, Jiangwei; Liu, Mengxin; Zhou, Hang; Liu, Mohan; Wei, Ying; Su, Dandan; Ma, Teng; Lu, Wu; Yu, Xuefeng; Guo, Qi; He, Chengfa

    2017-07-01

    Effect of total ionizing dose (TID) on single-event upset (SEU) hardness of 130 nm partially depleted (PD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) is investigated in this paper. The measurable synergistic effect of TID on SEU sensitivity of 130-nm PD SOI SRAM was observed in our experiment, even though that is far less than micrometer and submicrometer devices. Moreover, SEU cross section after TID irradiation has no dependence on the data pattern that was applied during TID exposure: SEU cross sections are characterized by TID data pattern and its complement data pattern are decreased consistently rather than a preferred state and a nonpreferred state as micrometer and sub-micrometer SRAMs. The memory cell test structure allowing direct measurement of static noise margin (SNM) under standby operation was designed using identical memory cell layout of SRAM. Direct measurement of the memory cell SNM shows that both data sides' SNM is decreased by TID, indicating that SEU cross section of 130-nm PD SOI SRAM will be increased by TID. And, the decreased SNM is caused by threshold shift in memory cell transistors induced by “radiation-induced narrow channel effect”.

  8. Hydrogen evolution on Au(111) covered with submonolayers of Pd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björketun, Mårten; Karlberg, Gustav; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    . The energetics of adsorption and desorption of hydrogen on/from different types of sites on the Pd-Au(111) surface are assessed by means of density functional theory calculations combined with thermodynamic modeling. Based on the density functional and Monte Carlo data, the hydrogen evolution activity......A theoretical investigation of electrochemical hydrogen evolution on Au(111) covered with submonolayers of Pd is presented. The size and shape of monoatomically high Pd islands formed on the Au(111) surface are determined using Monte Carlo simulations, for Pd coverages varying from 0.02 to 0.95 ML...... line defects for Pd island formation and hydrogen evolution are discussed. It is argued, with support from theoretical data, that this kind of defects is likely to be responsible for a dramatic increase in activity observed experimentally [ChemPhysChem 7, 985 (2006); Electrochim. Acta 52, 5548 (2007...

  9. Hydrogen Storage Performance in Pd/Graphene Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunyu; Szpunar, Jerzy A

    2016-10-05

    We have developed a Pd-graphene nanocomposite for hydrogen storage. The spherically shaped Pd nanoparticles of 5-45 nm in size are homogeneously distributed over the graphene matrix. This new hydrogen storage system has favorable features like desirable hydrogen storage capacity, ambient conditions of hydrogen uptake, and low temperature of hydrogen release. At a hydrogen charging pressure of 50 bar, the material could yield a gravimetric density of 6.7 wt % in the 1% Pd/graphene nanocomposite. As we increased the applied pressure to 60 bar, the hydrogen uptake capacity reached 8.67 wt % in the 1% Pd/graphene nanocomposite and 7.16 wt % in the 5% Pd/graphene nanocomposite. This system allows storage of hydrogen in amounts that exceed the capacity of the gravimetric target announced by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  10. Carbon supported Pd-Ni and Pd-Ru-Ni nanocatalysts for the alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathe, MK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon supported Pd-Ni and Pd-Ru-Ni nanocatalysts were prepared by the chemical reduction method, using sodium borohydride and ethylene glycol mixture as the reducing agent. The catalytic activity towards ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium...

  11. Development of Pd and Pd-Co catalysts supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for formic acid oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Acosta, D.; Godinez, Luis A.; Rodriguez, H.G.; Arriaga, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, C.P. 76703 Queretaro (Mexico); Ledesma-Garcia, J. [Division de Investigacion y Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Cerro de las Campanas S/N, C.P. 76010, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Alvarez-Contreras, L. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S. C., Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    Pd-Co and Pd catalysts were prepared by the impregnation synthesis method at low temperature on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The nanotubes were synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique. Both catalysts were obtained with high homogeneous distribution and particle size around 4 nm. The morphology, composition and electrocatalytic properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical measurements, respectively. The electrocatalytic activity of Pd and PdCo/MWCNTs catalysts was investigated in terms of formic acid electrooxidation at low concentration in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution. The results obtained from voltamperometric studies showed that the current density achieved with the PdCo/MWCNTs catalyst is 3 times higher than that reached with the Pd/MWCNTs catalyst. The onset potential for formic acid electrooxidation on PdCo/MWCNTs electrocatalyst showed a negative shift ca. 50 mV compared with Pd/MWCNTs. (author)

  12. Structure of the Complex of Human Programmed Death 1, PD-1, and Its Ligand PD-L1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zak, Krzysztof M.; Kitel, Radoslaw; Przetocka, Sara; Golik, Przemyslaw; Guzik, Katarzyna; Musielak, Bogdan; Dömling, Alexander; Dubin, Grzegorz; Holak, Tad A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 immunologic checkpoint with monoclonal antibodies has recently provided breakthrough progress in the treatment of melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Small-molecule drugs interfering with this pathway are highly awaited, but their

  13. Carbon supported Pd-Sn and Pd-Ru-Sn nanocatalysts for ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, RM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon supported Pd-Sn and Pd-Ru-Sn nanocatalysts were prepared by the chemical reduction method, using sodium borohydride and ethylene glycol mixture as the reducing agent. The catalytic activity towards ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium...

  14. Methane catalytic combustion on Pd9/gamma-Al2O3 with different degrees of Pd oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekaj, Izabela; Kacprzak, Katarzyna A; Mantzaras, John

    2013-01-01

    This research is focused on the analysis of adsorbed CH4 intermediates at oxidized Pd9 nanoparticles supported on gamma-alumina. From first-principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations, several configurations, charge transfer and electronic density of states have been analyzed in order to determine feasible paths for the oxidation process. Furthermore methane oxidation cycles have been investigated on Pd nanoparticles with different degrees of oxidation. In case of low oxidized Pd nanoparticles, activation of methane is observed, whereby hydrogen from methane is adsorbed at one oxygen atom. This reaction is exothermic. In a subsequent step, two water molecules desorb. Additionally, a very interesting structural effect becomes evident; Pd-carbide formation, which is also an exothermic reaction. Furthermore, oxidation of such carbidized Pd-nanoparticles leads to CO2 formation, which is an endothermic reaction. One important result is that the support is involved in the CO2 formation. A different mechanism of methane oxidation was discovered for highly oxidized Pd nanoparticles. When the Pd nanoparticle is more strongly exposed to oxidative conditions, adsorption of methane is also possible, but it leads to carbonic acid production at the interface between the Pd nanoparticles and support. This process is endothermic.

  15. Promotion of Phenol Photodecomposition over TiO2 Using Au, Pd, and AuPd Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ren; Tiruvalam, Ramchandra; He, Qian

    2012-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles (Au, Pd, AuPd alloys) with a narrow size distribution supported on nanocrystalline TiO2 (M/TiO2) have been synthesized via a sol-immobilization route. The effect of metal identity and size on the photocatalytic performance of M/TiO2 has been systematically investigated u...

  16. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-07-26

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  17. Foam patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  18. Targeting PD-1/PD-L1 in lung cancer: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Cao M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available María González-Cao,1 Niki Karachaliou,1 Santiago Viteri,1 Daniela Morales-Espinosa,1 Cristina Teixidó,2 Jesús Sánchez Ruiz,3 Miquel Ángel Molina-Vila,2 Mariacarmela Santarpia,4 Rafael Rosell1,2,5,61Translational Cancer Research Unit, Instituto Oncológico Dr Rosell, Quirón Dexeus University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; 2Pangaea Biotech SL, Barcelona, Spain; 3Centro Nacional de Investigación Oncología (CNIO, Madrid, Spain; 4Medical Oncology Unit, Human Pathology Department, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; 5Cancer Biology and Precision Medicine Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Germans Trias i Pujol Health Sciences Institute and Hospital, Campus Can Ruti, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain; 6Fundación Molecular Oncology Research, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Increased understanding of tumor immunology has led to the development of effective immunotherapy treatments. One of the most important advances in this field has been due to pharmacological design of antibodies against immune checkpoint inhibitors. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies are currently in advanced phases of clinical development for several tumors, including lung cancer. Results from Phase I–III trials with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in non-small-cell lung cancer have demonstrated response rates of around 20% (range, 16%–50%. More importantly, responses are long-lasting (median duration of response, 18 months and fast (50% of responses are detected at time of first tumor evaluation with very low grade 3–4 toxicity (less than 5%. Recently, the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA breakthrough therapy designation for treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer, supported by data from a Phase Ib trial. Another anti-PD-1 antibody, nivolumab, has also been approved for lung cancer based on survival advantage demonstrated in recently released data from a Phase III trial in squamous cell lung cancer.Keywords: immunotherapy, immunoncology

  19. Structure and Mobility of Metal Clusters in MOFs: Au, Pd, and AuPd Clusters in MOF-74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Lasse; Walton, Krista S.; Sholl, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the adsorption and mobility of metal–organic framework (MOF)-supported metal nanoclusters is critical to the development of these catalytic materials. We present the first theoretical investigation of Au-, Pd-, and AuPd-supported clusters in a MOF, namely MOF-74. We combine density...... functional theory (DFT) calculations with a genetic algorithm (GA) to reliably predict the structure of the adsorbed clusters. This approach allows comparison of hundreds of adsorbed configurations for each cluster. From the investigation of Au8, Pd8, and Au4Pd4 we find that the organic part of the MOF......’s adsorption energy and diffusion barrier is established, confirming that Au clusters are highly mobile in the MOF-74 framework and Pd clusters are less mobile....

  20. PD-L1 Status in Refractory Lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semir Vranic

    Full Text Available Targeted immunotherapy based on PD-1/PD-L1 suppression has revolutionized the treatment of various solid tumors. A remarkable improvement has also been observed in the treatment of patients with refractory/relapsing classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL. We investigated PD-L1 status in a variety of treatment resistant lymphomas. Tumor samples from 78 patients with therapy resistant lymphomas were immunohistochemically (IHC investigated for the expression of PD-L1 using two antibody clones (SP142 and SP263, Ventana. Thirteen PD-L1+ cases were further analyzed for gene copy number variations (CNV by NGS and for PD-L1/JAK2/PD-L2 co-amplification using fluorescent in-situ hybridization assay (FISH. PD-L1 positivity (≥5% positive cancer cells, IHC was present in 32/77 (42% and 33/71 cases (46% using SP142 and SP263 antibodies, respectively. Concordance between the two anti-PD-L1 clones was high with only three (4% discrepant cases. The strongest and consistent (10/11 cases expression was observed in cHL and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphomas (3/3. Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL were frequently positive (13/26 irrespective of subtype. Follicular (1/8, peripheral T-cell (3/11 and mantle cell (1/8 lymphomas were rarely positive, while small lymphocytic lymphoma/CLL and marginal zone lymphomas were consistently negative (3/3. Co-amplification/CNVs of PD-L1/JAK2/PD-L2 were observed in 3 cases of DLBCL and cHL, respectively. Of note, all three cHL-amplified cases were positive by FISH, but not by NGS. Since only a fraction of the IHC positive lymphoma cases were positive by FISH and NGS assays, other mechanisms are involved in PD-L1 upregulation, especially in DLBCL. FISH assay may be more suitable than NGS assay for determination of PD-L1 alterations in cHL.

  1. CD274/PD-L1 gene amplification and PD-L1 protein expression are common events in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Melanie; Drecoll, Enken; Pfarr, Nicole; Weichert, Wilko; Langer, Rupert; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Götz, Carolin; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kolk, Andreas; Specht, Katja

    2016-03-15

    Immunomodulatory therapies, targeting the immune checkpoint receptor-ligand complex PD-1/PD-L1 have shown promising results in early phase clinical trials in solid malignancies, including carcinomas of the head and neck. In this context, PD-L1 protein expression has been proposed as a potentially valuable predictive marker. In the present study, expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 80 patients with predominantly HPV-negative oral squamous cell carcinomas and associated nodal metastasis. In addition, CD274/PD-L1 gene copy number status was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. PD-L1 expression was detected in 36/80 (45%) cases and concordance of PD-L1 expression in primary tumor and corresponding nodal metastasis was present in only 20/28 (72%) cases. PD-1 expression was found in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) but not in tumor cells. CD274/PD-L1 gene amplification was detected in 19% of cases, with high level PD-L1 amplification present in 12/80 (15%), and low level amplification in 3/80 (4%). Interestingly, CD274/PD-L1 gene amplification was associated with positive PD-L1 immunostaining in only 73% of cases. PD-L1 copy number status was concordant in primary tumor and associated metastases. Clinically, PD-L1 tumor immunopositivity was associated with a higher risk for nodal metastasis at diagnosis, overall tumor related death und recurrence. Based on our findings we propose to include PD-L1 copy number status in addition to protein status in screening programs for future clinical trials with immunotherapeutic strategies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis.

  2. Search Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Morville, Peter

    2010-01-01

    What people are saying about Search Patterns "Search Patterns is a delight to read -- very thoughtful and thought provoking. It's the most comprehensive survey of designing effective search experiences I've seen." --Irene Au, Director of User Experience, Google "I love this book! Thanks to Peter and Jeffery, I now know that search (yes, boring old yucky who cares search) is one of the coolest ways around of looking at the world." --Dan Roam, author, The Back of the Napkin (Portfolio Hardcover) "Search Patterns is a playful guide to the practical concerns of search interface design. It cont

  3. Improving gold catalysis of nitroarene reduction with surface Pd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretzer, Lori A.; Heck, Kimberly N.; Kim, Sean S.; Fang, Yu-Lun; Zhao, Zhun; Guo, Neng; Wu, Tianpin; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Wong, Michael S.

    2016-04-01

    Nitroarene reduction reactions are commercialized catalytic processes that play a key role in the synthesisof many products including medicines, rubbers, dyes, and herbicides. Whereas bimetallic compositionshave been studied, a better understanding of the bimetallic structure effects may lead to improved indus-trial catalysts. In this work, the influence of surface palladium atoms supported on 3-nm Au nanoparticles(Pd-on-Au NPs) on catalytic activity for 4-nitrophenol reduction is explored. Batch reactor studies indi-cate Pd-on-Au NPs exhibit maximum catalytic activity at a Pd surface coverage of 150 sc%, with aninitial turnover frequency of ~3.7 mol-nitrophenol/mol-metalsurface/s, which was ~5.5× and ~13× moreactive than pure Au NPs and Pd NPs, respectively. Pd NPs, Au NPs, and Pd-on-Au NPs below 175 sc%show compensation behavior. Three-dimensional Pd surface ensembles (with ~4–5 atoms) previouslyidentified through X-ray adsorption spectroscopy provide the active sites responsible for the catalyticmaximum. These results demonstrate the ability to adjust systematically a structural feature (i.e., Pdsurface coverage) to yield a more active material.

  4. Formation of Cu/Pd bimetallic crystals by electrochemical deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.E. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Avda. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Salinas, D.R., E-mail: dsalinas@uns.edu.a [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Avda. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2010-04-15

    The early stages of the palladium electrodeposition process onto a vitreous carbon (VC) substrate as well as the deposition of Cu on such Pd/VC modified surface were investigated using classical electrochemical techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Within the potential range considered the kinetics of the Pd electrodeposition from a PdCl{sub 2} acid solution can be described by a model involving progressive nucleation on active sites and diffusion-controlled 3D growth. The nucleation rate constant, A{sub 0}, and the number of active sites of the substrate, N{sub 0}, were determined from the analysis of potentiostatic current transients on the basis of an existing theoretical model. The AFM images corroborated the progressive nucleation mechanism showing irregular palladium crystals randomly distributed over the VC surface, with different sizes and 3D morphological characteristics. The electrodeposition of Cu was carried out onto the characterized Pd/VC modified surface from a Cu{sup 2+} containing solution using a well defined polarization routine. The SEM/EDX images confirmed the formation of Cu/Pd bimetallic crystals uniformly distributed on the VC surface and the in situ AFM images obtained during this process corroborated that Cu formed a core-shell structure with the Pd crystals. Nevertheless, the subsequent anodic stripping produced only a partial dissolution of the Cu deposits, and therefore, the formation of a Cu/Pd alloy could be inferred.

  5. PD-1 and PD-L1 as emerging therapeutic targets in gastric cancer: current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran PN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phu N Tran,1* Sarmen Sarkissian,1* Joseph Chao,2 Samuel J Klempner3,4 1Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of California Irvine, Orange, 2Department of Medical Oncology and Developmental Therapeutics, City of Hope, Duarte, 3Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 4The Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Gastric adenocarcinoma is a leading cause of global cancer-related morbidity and mortality, and new therapeutic approaches are needed. Despite the improved outcomes with monoclonal antibodies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, durable responses are uncommon. Targeting immune checkpoints including PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA-4 have led to improved survival across several tumor types, frequently characterized by prolonged benefit in responding patients. Tumoral and lymphocyte-derived immunohistochemical staining for PD-1, PD-L1, and tumor mutational burden have shown potential as predictive response biomarkers in several tumor types. Optimal incorporation of immune-mediated therapies into gastric cancer (GC is an area of intense ongoing investigation and benefit has been demonstrated in smaller studies of advanced patients. Important questions of biomarker selection, roles for molecular characterization, optimal combinatorial approaches, and therapeutic sequencing remain. In this study, current data are reviewed for immune checkpoint inhibitors in GC, and putative biomarkers, ongoing trials, and future considerations are discussed. Keywords: immunotherapy, stomach cancer, checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, tumor mutational burden

  6. Nitrite reduction over Pd supported CNFs: Metal particle size effect on selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinthaginjala, J.K.; Villa, A.; Su, D.S.; Mojet, Barbara; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2012-01-01

    Pd catalysts supported on carbon-nano-fibers (CNFs) were synthesized via Pd colloids stabilized with polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA). Pd catalysts with narrow particle size distributions and mean Pd sizes between 2.6 and 30 nm were immobilized on CNFs. Characterization with CO-chemisorption and transmission

  7. Design of Pd-Based Bimetallic Catalysts for ORR: A DFT Calculation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Ou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing Pd-lean catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR is the key for large-scale application of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs. In the present paper, we have proposed a multiple-descriptor strategy for designing efficient and durable ORR Pd-based alloy catalysts. We demonstrated that an ideal Pd-based bimetallic alloy catalyst for ORR should possess simultaneously negative alloy formation energy, negative surface segregation energy of Pd, and a lower oxygen binding ability than pure Pt. By performing detailed DFT calculations on the thermodynamics, surface chemistry and electronic properties of Pd-M alloys, Pd-V, Pd-Fe, Pd-Zn, Pd-Nb, and Pd-Ta, are identified theoretically to have stable Pd segregated surface and improved ORR activity. Factors affecting these properties are analyzed. The alloy formation energy of Pd with transition metals M can be mainly determined by their electron interaction. This may be the origin of the negative alloy formation energy for Pd-M alloys. The surface segregation energy of Pd is primarily determined by the surface energy and the atomic radius of M. The metals M which have smaller atomic radius and higher surface energy would tend to favor the surface segregation of Pd in corresponding Pd-M alloys.

  8. Highly Active, Carbon-supported, PdSn Nano-core, Partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon-supported, Pt partially covered, PdSn alloy nanoparticles (Pt-PdSn/C) were synthesized via a metathetical reaction of PdSn alloy nanoparticles, and a platinum precursor. The electrochemical activity was evaluated by methanol oxidation. The Pt-PdSn/C catalysts were characterized by transmission electron ...

  9. Common mutations in G6PD of Vietnamese-Kinh deficient patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to identify the common mutations occurring within the G6PD gene in the G6PD - Vietnamese deficient patients, which may be the main causative mutations of the G6PD deficiency in Vietnamese-kinh. Sequencing was performed to detect mutations in the coding region of G6PD gene for 30 ...

  10. Manipulating the optical properties of symmetrically branched Au/Pd nanocrystals through interior design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Christopher J; Skrabalak, Sara E

    2014-05-25

    Au/Pd octopods with hollow, cubic interiors and Oh symmetry were synthesized for the first time by etching core@shell Pd@Au/Pd octopods to selectively remove their Pd interiors. Integration of multiple architectural features - in this case branching symmetry, composition, and interior design - into one nanostructure provides design strategies to new plasmonic colloids.

  11. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...

  12. Markers of cognitive decline in PD: The case for heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchi, Oury; Hanganu, Alexandru; Bellec, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent and has a severe negative effect on health related and perceived quality of life in Parkinson's disease (PD). It is now established that 20-40% of persons with PD will develop cognitive deficits early in the disease. Moreover, the risk of developing dementia is six times higher in PD patients than in age-matched controls and it is estimated that 80% of patients will develop dementia after 20 years of the disease. In order to address these symptoms properly it is crucial to identify very early in the disease the patients who are most likely to develop dementia rapidly. Persons who meet criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) exhibit measurable cognitive deficits but those deficits are not severe enough to interfere significantly with daily life. While the presence of MCI in PD increases the chance of developing dementia, various studies suggest that PD-MCI might consist of distinct subtypes with different pathophysiologies and prognoses. In this paper we comment on various biomarkers associated with cognitive decline in PD, specifically clinical, neuropathological, genetic and neuroimaging ones. We also discuss disrupted functional connectivity in PD-MCI and reveal preliminary results from our own group. We propose that the current studies looking at different types of biomarkers provide support for different causes being associated with cognitive decline in PD. Large-scale multi-disciplinary and multi-modal longitudinal studies are required to identify more specifically the different phenotypes associated with different cognitive profiles and evolution in PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pd thin films on flexible substrate for hydrogen sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Öztürk, Sadullah [Fatih Sultan Mehmet Vakıf University, Engineering Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Kılınç, Necmettin, E-mail: nkilinc@nigde.edu.tr [Nigde University, Mechatronics Engineering Department, 51245 Nigde (Turkey); Nigde University, Nanotechnology Application and Research Center, 51245 Nigde (Turkey)

    2016-07-25

    In this work, palladium (Pd) thin films were prepared via RF sputtering method with various thicknesses (6 nm, 20 nm and 60 nm) on both a flexible substrate and a hard substrate. Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) sensing properties of Pd films on flexible substrate have been investigated depending on temperatures (25–100 °C) and H{sub 2} concentrations (600 ppm – 10%). The effect of H{sub 2} on structural properties of the films was also studied. The films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. It is found that whole Pd films on hard substrate show permanent structural deformation after exposed to 10% H{sub 2} for 30 min. But, this H{sub 2} exposure does not causes any structural deformation for 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate and 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate shows reversible sensor response up to 10% H{sub 2} concentration without any structural deformation. On the other hand, Pd film sensors that have the thicknesses 20 nm and 60 nm on flexible substrate are irreversible for higher H{sub 2} concentration (>2%) with film deformation. The sensor response of 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate increased with increasing H{sub 2} concentration up 4% and then saturated. The sensitivity of the film decreased with increasing operation temperature. - Highlights: • Pd thin films fabricated by RF sputtering on both flexible and hard substrates. • Structural deformation observed for films on hard substrate after exposing 10% H{sub 2}. • 6 nm Pd film on flexible substrate shows reversible sensor response up to 10% H{sub 2}. • H{sub 2} sensing properties of film on flexible substrate investigated depending on temperature and concentration. • The sensitivity of the film decreased with increasing operation temperature.

  14. Solvent-Mediated Eco-Friendly Synthesis and Characterization of Monodispersed Bimetallic Ag/Pd Nanocomposites for Sensing and Raman Scattering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sathiyadevi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvent-mediated eco-friendly monodispersed Ag/Pd bimetallic nanocomposites (BNCs having thick core and thin shell have been prepared through novel green chemical solvent reduction method. Reducing solvent, dimethyl formamide (DMF is employed for the controlled green synthesis. Characterization of the synthesized Ag/Pd BNCs has been done by x-ray diffraction (XRD studies, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM with selected area electron diffraction (SAED pattern. The nature of the interaction of L-cysteine with Ag/Pd BNCs has been studied by using surface plasmon spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, cyclic voltammetry (CV, and theoretical methods.

  15. Improved Method for PD-Quantification in Power Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Villefrance, Rasmus; Henriksen, Mogens

    1999-01-01

    n this paper, a method is described for improved quantification of partial discharges(PD) in power cables. The method is suitable for PD-detection and location systems in the MHz-range, where pulse attenuation and distortion along the cable cannot be neglected. The system transfer function...... was calculated and measured in order to form basis for magnitude calculation after each measurements. --- Limitations and capabilities of the method will be discussed and related to relevant field applications of high frequent PD-measurements. --- Methods for increased signal/noise ratio are easily implemented...

  16. PD-1 Blockade Expands Intratumoral Memory T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribas, Antoni; Shin, Daniel Sanghoon; Zaretsky, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Tumor responses to programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blockade therapy are mediated by T cells, which we characterized in 102 tumor biopsies obtained from 53 patients treated with pembrolizumab, an antibody to PD-1. Biopsies were dissociated, and single-cell infiltrates were analyzed by multi...... with regressing melanoma. In conclusion, PD-1 blockade increases the frequency of T cells, B cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in tumors, with the CD8+ effector memory T-cell subset being the major T-cell phenotype expanded in patients with a response to therapy....

  17. Preparation of well-defined samples of AlPdMn quasicrystals for surface studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, C. J.; Delaney, D. W.; Bloomer, T. E.; Chang, S.-L.; Lograsso, T. A.; Shen, Z.; Zhang, C.-M.; Thiel, P. A.

    1996-12-01

    We have developed a method for preparing single-grain, quasicrystalline AlPdMn samples for surface studies in ultrahigh vacuum. The main issues of concern are phase purity, the quality of the surface structure, and the surface, and the surface composition. Phase purity is enhanced by annealing the sample in ultra-pure Ar in a sealed quartz ampoule for several days before polishing. Polishing with colloidal silica allows secondary phases to be detected readily with an optical microscope. As a final precaution, phase purity can be checked sensitively with scanning Auger microscopy. After this stage, the sample can be cleaned in ultrahigh vacuum with ion bombardment. Annealing is required after bombardment to restore surface structure and to obtain a low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern of an oriented sample. However, both ion bombardment and heating to temperatures above 870 K in vacuum, produce Pd-rich surfaces. As a final step, for the five-fold surface, we recommend heating briefly to 1050-1100 K and then annealing at 870 K for several hours. This produces both an excellent LEED pattern, and a surface composition close to that of the bulk.

  18. The phase system Cu-Pd-S at 900, 725, 550 and 400 degree C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, Emil

    1999-01-01

    The condensed Cu-Pd-S system was studied by means of dry syntheses from elements in evacuated silica glass tubes at 900 degrees, 725 degrees, 550 degrees and 400 degrees C. At 900 degrees C the system contains Cu2-xS (with up to 0.7 at.% Pd), PdS, a broad sulfide melt field and continuous Cu-Pd a......S and Pd2.2S (UP to 15-16.5 at.% S, respectively), PdS (less than or equal to 1at.% Cu, highest at 550 degrees C) and PdS2. With exception of PdS2 these phases are known as minerals. Solubility of Cu in Pd2.2S and Pd4S is an important temperature indicator....

  19. Study of Pd-In interaction during Pd deposition on pyrolytically prepared In{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skala, T.; Veltruska, K.; Moroseac, M.; Matolinova, I.; Korotchenkov, G.; Matolin, V

    2002-01-31

    In{sub 2}O{sub 3} belongs to the group of metal oxides used successfully for gas detection, with sensitivity for CO and H{sub 2} comparable with that of SnO{sub 2} and excellent for O{sub 3}. The sensing properties of these sensors could be greatly improved by adding small amount of transition metals such as Pd, Pt, Au, etc. In this work, we used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) to study the growth of Pd particles on In{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates prepared by spray pyrolysis method. Surface stoichiometry and its changes during Ar{sup +} ion bombardment used for surface cleaning were checked with XPS and ISS. The Pd growth was studied stepwise in situ using the micro-electron beam evaporation source (MEBES) with controlled evaporation rate. XPS and ISS measurements were carried out with special attention to metal-substrate interaction (MSI), which was observed for Pd-In and resulted in the formation of Pd-In alloy with noble metal-like electronic structure. Further, we studied reduction of these samples after oxidation in air. A lower reduction temperature than with bulk PdO was observed. The results are compared with the experiment of Pd deposition performed on a pure In foil.

  20. Magnetic characteristics of CoPd and FePd antidot arrays on nanoperforated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maximenko, A., E-mail: Alexey.Maximenko@ifj.edu.pl [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego Str. 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Research Institute for Nuclear Problems of Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Fedotova, J. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems of Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya Str. 11, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Marszałek, M.; Zarzycki, A.; Zabila, Y. [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego Str. 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    Hard magnetic antidot arrays show promising results in context of designing of percolated perpendicular media. In this work the technology of magnetic FePd and CoPd antidot arrays fabrication is presented and correlation between surface morphology, structure and magnetic properties is discussed. CoPd and FePd antidot arrays were fabricated by deposition of Co/Pd and Fe/Pd multilayers (MLs) on porous anodic aluminum oxide templates with bowl-shape cell structure with inclined intercellular regions. FePd ordered L1{sub 0} structure was obtained by successive vacuum annealing at elevated temperatures (530 °C) and confirmed by XRD analysis. Systematic analysis of magnetization curves evidenced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of CoPd antidot arrays, while FePd antidot arrays revealed isotropic magnetic anisotropy with increased out-of-plane magnetic contribution. MFM images of antidots showed more complicated contrast, with alternating magnetic dots oriented parallel and antiparallel to tip magnetization moment. - Highlights: • CoPd and FePd antidots were fabricated on porous anodic aluminum oxide templates. • CoPd antidot arrays have perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. • FePd antidot arrays revealed isotropic magnetic behavior. • The complex morphology of nanoporous template resulted in a complex magnetic domains image.

  1. Study of hyperfine interactions in intermetallic compounds Gd(Ni,Pd,Cu)In, Tb(Ni,Pd)In, Dy(Ni,Pd)In and Ho(Ni,Pd)In; Estudo de interacoes hiperfinas em compostos intermetalicos Gd(Ni,Pd,Cu)In, Tb(Ni,Pd)In, Dy(Ni,Pd)In e Ho(Ni,Pd)In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapolli, Andre Luis

    2006-07-01

    Systematic behavior of magnetic hyperfine field (B{sub hf}) in the intermetallic compounds Gd(Ni,Pd,Cu)In Tb(Ni,Pd)In, Dy(Ni,Pd)In and Ho(Ni,Pd)In was studied by Perturbed Gamma-Gamma Angular Correlation spectroscopy. The measurements of B{sub hf} were carried out at the rare earth atom and in sites using the nuclear probes {sup 140}Ce and {sup 11}'1Cd respectively. The variation of hyperfine field with temperature, in most cases, follows the Brillouin function predicted from the molecular field theory. The hyperfine field values at rare earth atom sites obtained from {sup 140}Ce probe as well as at in sites obtained from {sup 111}Cd probe for each series of compounds were extrapolated to zero Kelvin B{sub hf}(T=0) from these curves. These values were compared with the values of the literature for other compounds containing the same rare earth element and all of them show a linear relationship with the ordering temperature. This indicates that the main contribution to B{sub hf} comes from the conduction electron polarization (CEP) through Fermi contact interaction and the principal mechanism of magnetic interaction in these compounds can be described by the RKKY type interaction. The values of B{sub hf}(T=0) for each family of intermetallic compounds RNiIn and RPdIn when plotted as a function of 4f spin projection of rare earth element also shows a linear relationship. Exceptions are the results for the compounds RNiIn obtained with {sup 111}Cd probe where a small deviation from linearity is observed. The results of the measurements carried out with the {sup 111}Cd probe were also analyzed to obtain the hyperfine parameters of the quadrupole interaction as a function of temperature for RPdln and GdNiIn compounds. The results show that for the compound GdPdIn there might be some Gd-In disorder at high temperature. (author)

  2. Realm of PD-(D/EXK nuclease superfamily revisited: detection of novel families with modified transitive meta profile searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knizewski Lukasz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PD-(D/EXK nucleases constitute a large and highly diverse superfamily of enzymes that display little sequence similarity despite retaining a common core fold and a few critical active site residues. This makes identification of new PD-(D/EXK nuclease families a challenging task as they usually escape detection with standard sequence-based methods. We developed a modified transitive meta profile search approach and to consider the structural diversity of PD-(D/EXK nuclease fold more thoroughly we analyzed also lower than threshold Meta-BASIC hits to select potentially correct predictions placed among unreliable or incorrect ones. Results Application of a modified transitive Meta-BASIC searches on updated PFAM families and PDB structures resulted in detection of five new PD-(D/EXK nuclease families encompassing hundreds of so far uncharacterized and poorly annotated proteins. These include four families catalogued in PFAM database as domains of unknown function (DUF506, DUF524, DUF1626 and DUF1703 and YhgA-like family of putative transposases. Three of these families represent extremely distant homologs (DUF506, DUF524, and YhgA-like, while two are newly defined in updated database (DUF1626 and DUF1703. In addition, we also confidently identified an extended AAA-ATPase domain in the N-terminal region of DUF1703 family proteins. Conclusion Obtained results suggest that detailed analysis of below threshold Meta-BASIC hits may push limits further for distant homology detection in the 'midnight zone' of homology. All identified families conserve the core evolutionary fold, secondary structure and hydrophobic patterns common to existing PD-(D/EXK nucleases and maintain critical active site motifs that contribute to nucleic acid cleavage. Further experimental investigations should address the predicted activity and clarify potential substrates providing further insight into detailed biological role of these newly detected nucleases.

  3. STANDARDIZED OUTCOMES IN NEPHROLOGY-PERITONEAL DIALYSIS (SONG-PD): STUDY PROTOCOL FOR ESTABLISHING A CORE OUTCOME SET IN PD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, Karine E; Tong, Allison; Craig, Jonathan C; Brown, Edwina A; Brunier, Gillian; Dong, Jie; Dunning, Tony; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Naicker, Sarala; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Perl, Jeffrey; Wang, Angela Y; Wilkie, Martin; Howell, Martin; Sautenet, Benedicte; Evangelidis, Nicole; Shen, Jenny I; Johnson, David W

    2017-08-01

    Worldwide, approximately 11% of patients on dialysis receive peritoneal dialysis (PD). Whilst PD may offer more autonomy to patients compared with hemodialysis, patient and caregiver burnout, technique failure, and peritonitis remain major challenges to the success of PD. Improvements in care and outcomes are likely to be mediated by randomized trials of innovative therapies, but will be limited if the outcomes measured and reported are not important for patients and clinicians. The aim of the Standardised Outcomes in Nephrology-Peritoneal Dialysis (SONG-PD) study is to establish a set of core outcomes for trials in patients on PD based on the shared priorities of all stakeholders, so that outcomes of most relevance for decision-making can be evaluated, and that interventions can be compared reliably. The 5 phases in the SONG-PD project are: a systematic review to identify outcomes and outcome measures that have been reported in randomized trials involving patients on PD; focus groups using nominal group technique with patients and caregivers to identify, rank, and describe reasons for their choice of outcomes; semi-structured key informant interviews with health professionals; a 3-round international Delphi survey involving a multi-stakeholder panel; and a consensus workshop to review and endorse the proposed set of core outcome domains for PD trials. The establishment of 3 to 5 high-priority core outcomes, to be measured and reported consistently in all trials in PD, will enable patients and clinicians to make informed decisions about the relative effectiveness of interventions, based upon outcomes of common importance.

  4. G6PD testing in support of treatment and elimination of malaria: recommendations for evaluation of G6PD tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Malaria elimination will be possible only with serious attempts to address asymptomatic infection and chronic infection by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Currently available drugs that can completely clear a human of P. vivax (known as “radical cure”), and that can reduce transmission of malaria parasites, are those in the 8-aminoquinoline drug family, such as primaquine. Unfortunately, people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency risk having severe adverse reactions if exposed to these drugs at certain doses. G6PD deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect, affecting approximately 400 million people worldwide. Scaling up radical cure regimens will require testing for G6PD deficiency, at two levels: 1) the individual level to ensure safe case management, and 2) the population level to understand the risk in the local population to guide Plasmodium vivax treatment policy. Several technical and operational knowledge gaps must be addressed to expand access to G6PD deficiency testing and to ensure that a patient’s G6PD status is known before deciding to administer an 8-aminoquinoline-based drug. In this report from a stakeholder meeting held in Thailand on October 4 and 5, 2012, G6PD testing in support of radical cure is discussed in detail. The focus is on challenges to the development and evaluation of G6PD diagnostic tests, and on challenges related to the operational aspects of implementing G6PD testing in support of radical cure. The report also describes recommendations for evaluation of diagnostic tests for G6PD deficiency in support of radical cure. PMID:24188096

  5. Liquid phase catalytic hydrodebromination of tetrabromobisphenol A on supported Pd catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ke [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Vehicle Emissions Control, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zheng, Mengjia [Kuang Yaming Honors School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Han, Yuxiang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Vehicle Emissions Control, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Xu, Zhaoyi, E-mail: zhaoyixu@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Vehicle Emissions Control, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zheng, Shourong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Vehicle Emissions Control, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Pd catalysts supported on TiO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} were prepared. • Deposition-precipitation method resulted in positively charged smaller Pd particle. • Complete debromination of tetrabromobisphenol A could be achieved on Pd/TiO{sub 2}. • Pd/TiO{sub 2} prepared by the deposition-precipitation method was more active. - Abstract: Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a widely used brominated flame retardant and reductive debromination is an effective method for the abatement of TBBPA pollution. In this study, Pd catalysts supported on TiO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} were prepared by the impregnation (the resulting catalyst denoted as im-Pd/support), deposition-precipitation (the resulting catalyst denoted as dp-Pd/support), and photo-deposition (the resulting catalyst denoted as pd-Pd/support) methods. The catalysts were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherm, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, measurement of zeta potential, CO chemisorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that at an identical Pd loading amount (2.0 wt.%) Pd particle size in dp-Pd/TiO{sub 2} was much smaller than those in im-Pd/TiO{sub 2} and pd-Pd/TiO{sub 2}. Pd particle size of the dp-Pd/TiO{sub 2} catalyst increased with Pd loading amount. Additionally, Pd particles in the dp-Pd/TiO{sub 2} catalysts were positively charged due to the strong metal-support interaction, whereas the cationization effect was gradually attenuated with the increase of Pd loading amount. For the liquid phase catalytic hydrodebromination (HDB) of TBBPA, tri-bromobisphenol A (tri-BBPA), di-bromobisphenol A (di-BBPA), and mono-bromobisphenol A (mono-BBPA) were identified as the intermediate products, indicative of a stepwise debromination process. The catalytic HDB of TBBPA followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, reflecting an adsorption enhanced catalysis mechanism. At an identical Pd

  6. Hybrid NiCoOx adjacent to Pd nanoparticles as a synergistic electrocatalyst for ethanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yanqin; Zhang, Zhe; Dong, Wenkui; Lei, Ziqiang

    2015-01-01

    To improve the electrocatalytic activity of Pd for ethanol oxidation, hybrid NiCoOx adjacent to Pd catalyst (Pd-NiCoOx/C) is successfully synthesized. Physical characterization shows NiCoOx is closely adjacent to Pd nanoparticles in Pd-NiCoOx/C catalyst, which leads to Strong Metal-Support Interactions (SMSI) between the NiCoOx and Pd nanoparticles, in favor of the electrocatalytic properties. The Pd-NiCoOx/C catalyst is estimated to own larger electrochemically active surface area than Pd/C and Pd-NiO/C catalysts. Moreover, compared to Pd/C catalyst, the onset potential of Pd-NiCoOx/C catalyst is negative 40 mV for ethanol oxidation. Noticeably, the current density of Pd-NiCoOx/C catalyst is 2.05 and 1.43 times higher contrasted to Pd/C and Pd-NiO/C catalysts accordingly. Importantly, the Pd-NiCoOx/C catalyst exhibits better stability during ethanol oxidation, which is a promising electrocatalyst for application in direct alkaline alcohol fuel cells.

  7. Reorienting the immune system in the treatment of cancer by using anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Troels H; Donia, Marco; Andersen, Mads H; Svane, Inge M

    2015-09-01

    Physiologically, the programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathway is involved in limiting the killing of bystander cells during an infection and controlling autoimmunity. However, cancers exploit this system to avoid immune killing, and PD-1 ligand 1 and 2 (PD-L1 and PD-L2) expression on tumor cells, as well as PD-1 expression on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, have shown to be negative prognostic factors. Promising clinical results have been obtained by PD-1 pathway blockade in a range of cancers while still maintaining a manageable toxicity profile, and two anti-PD-1 antibodies are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. As already shown with nivolumab and ipilimumab, the combination of PD-1 pathway blockade with other anticancer agents holds promise in the form of additive synergistic anticancer effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Band-Structure Effects in the High-Field Magnetization of Pd and Dilute Pd-Rh and Pd-Ag Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O. Krogh

    1970-01-01

    From Stoner theory we show that the magnetic field-vs-spin magnetization has the form B(sigma)=sigma/chi(0)+DeltaB(sigma). The low-field susceptibility chi(0) is exchange-enhanced but, if the effective exchange potential does not depend on magnetization, the deviation from linearity DeltaB may...... be derived solely from the band density of states N(E). The previously reported Pd band-structure calculations, which were in excellent agreement with the de Haas-van Alphen data, have been extended to yield DeltaB(sigma) for Pd and, using the rigid band model, also for dilute Pd[Single Bond]Rh and Pd......[Single Bond]Ag alloys. A van Hove singularity near the Fermi level of the 7% Rh[Single Bond]Pd alloy has a profound effect on DeltaB. Our results are consistent with the measurements of Foner and McNiff, but detailed comparison is difficult since DeltaB is of the same order as the experimental uncertainty...

  9. CoTaZr/Pd multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chang Lau

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel perpendicularly magnetized thin film [Co91.5Ta4.5Zr4/Pd]5 multilayer, which exhibits strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy when grown on 5 nm of Pd and Ru seed layers. The Pd-seeded multilayer annealed at 300 °C shows an effective uniaxial anisotropy constant, Keff = 1.1 MJ m−3, with an anisotropy field as high as 1.6 T. The perpendicular anisotropy is sustained on annealing at 400 °C for 1 h. X-ray diffraction on multilayers with 30 repeats suggests that the use of amorphous CoTaZr reduces the stress of the stack, compared to [Co/Pd] multilayer.

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of granular CoPd multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivas, L.G.; Figueroa, A.I.; Bartolomé, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Dept. de Física de la Materia Condensada, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Rubín, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); García, L.M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Dept. de Física de la Materia Condensada, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Deranlot, C.; Petroff, F. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales, F-91767 Palaiseau Cedex, France and Université Paris-Sud, F-191405 Orsay Cedex (France); Ruiz, L.; González-Calbet, J.M [Dept. de Química Inorgánica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Brookes, N.B.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), CS40220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Bartolomé, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Dept. de Física de la Materia Condensada, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Multilayers of bimetallic CoPd alloyed and assembled nanoparticles, prepared by room temperature sequential sputtering deposition on amorphous alumina, were studied by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, SQUID-based magnetometry and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Alloying between Co and Pd in these nanoparticles gives rise to a high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Their magnetic properties are temperature dependent: at low temperature, the multilayers are ferromagnetic with a high coercive field; at intermediate temperature the behavior is of a soft-ferromagnet, and at higher temperature, the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the nanoparticles disappears. The magnetic orbital moment to spin moment ratio is enhanced compared with Co bare nanoparticles and Co fcc bulk. - Highlights: • CoPd granular nanolayers show perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. • Three magnetic phases are detected: hard-ferro, soft-ferro and superparamagnetism. • The nanoparticles have Co-core and CoPd alloy shell morphology.

  11. Methanol oxidation on Pd/Pt(poly) in alkaline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksic, A.; Rakocevic, Z.; Smiljanic, M.; Nenadovic, M.; Strbac, S.

    2015-01-01

    Bimetallic electrodes prepared by Pd nanoislands spontaneously deposited on polycrystalline platinum, Pt(poly), at submonolayer coverage were explored for methanol oxidation in alkaline media. Characterization of obtained Pd/Pt(poly) nanostructures was performed ex situ by AFM imaging, spectroscopic ellipsometry and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In situ characterization of the obtained electrodes and subsequent methanol oxidation measurements were performed by cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 M KOH. Platinum surface with 35% Pd coverage exhibited the highest catalytic activity for methanol oxidation in alkaline media, exceeding those of bare Pt and Pd. Both synergistic and electronic effects are responsible for such enhanced catalysis. The origin of the synergistic effect and possible reaction pathways for methanol oxidation were discussed taking into account the activity of obtained bimetallic electrodes for the oxidation of CO and formaldehyde, as the most probable reaction intermediates.

  12. Magnetic properties of bimetallic Co-Pd nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Javier [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad de San Martin, Alem 3901, 1563 San Martin (Argentina); U.A. Fisica, C.A.C., Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avda Gral Paz 1499, 1560 San Martin (Argentina); Llois, Ana Maria [U.A. Fisica, C.A.C., Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avda Gral Paz 1499, 1560 San Martin (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, FCEN-UBA, Cdad Universitaria, Cdad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aguilera-Granja, Faustino; Montejano-Carrizales, Juan Martin [Instituto de Fisica, ' ' Manuel Sandoval Vallarta' ' , Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, 78000 SLP (Mexico)

    2005-08-01

    We study the dependence of the magnetic properties of Co-Pd nanoclusters (Co cores coated by Pd atoms) on size and relative composition. We consider Co-Pd clusters having closed shell cubo-octahedral structure with an increasing Co core size. The electronic and magnetic properties are calculated with a parametrized Hubbard Hamiltonian within the unrestricted Hartree-Fock approximation. We show that, depending on the relative composition, the Pd coating can give rise to an enhancement of the average magnetic moment of the Co core. We compare with results from slabs by using an ab initio calculation method. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Multiple deuterium occupancy of vacancies in Pd and related metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordlander, P.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Besenbacher, F.

    1989-01-01

    The binding energies of up to six deuterium atoms into monovacancies of Pd, Ni, Fe, Cu, Nb, and Mo have been calculated using the effective-medium theory. For all metals it is found that at least six D atoms can be accommodated in the vacancy. Of the systems studied the deuterium-deuterium intera......The binding energies of up to six deuterium atoms into monovacancies of Pd, Ni, Fe, Cu, Nb, and Mo have been calculated using the effective-medium theory. For all metals it is found that at least six D atoms can be accommodated in the vacancy. Of the systems studied the deuterium......-deuterium interaction is found to be least repulsive for Pd. This multiple occupancy of the vacancy defect can have potentially significant implications for the recently proposed fusion of D atoms in Pd....

  14. Substitution reactions of [Pd (bipy)(malonate)] explored with a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    functional Pd(II) complex with different biomolecules, under varying experimental conditions. The kinetic studies showed that the malonate ring departs from the coordination zone of palladium centre via two-step mechanism. The first step depends on ...

  15. Global patterns of amphibian phylogenetic diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz, Susanne; Rahbek, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Aim  Phylogenetic diversity can provide insight into how evolutionary processes may have shaped contemporary patterns of species richness. Here, we aim to test for the influence of phylogenetic history on global patterns of amphibian species richness, and to identify areas where macroevolutionary...... processes such as diversification and dispersal have left strong signatures on contemporary species richness. Location  Global; equal-area grid cells of approximately 10,000 km2. Methods  We generated an amphibian global supertree (6111 species) and repeated analyses with the largest available molecular...... phylogeny (2792 species). We combined each tree with global species distributions to map four indices of phylogenetic diversity. To investigate congruence between global spatial patterns of amphibian species richness and phylogenetic diversity, we selected Faith’s phylogenetic diversity (PD) index...

  16. Global patterns of amphibian phylogenetic diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz, Susanne; Rahbek, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    phylogeny (2792 species). We combined each tree with global species distributions to map four indices of phylogenetic diversity. To investigate congruence between global spatial patterns of amphibian species richness and phylogenetic diversity, we selected Faith’s phylogenetic diversity (PD) index......Aim  Phylogenetic diversity can provide insight into how evolutionary processes may have shaped contemporary patterns of species richness. Here, we aim to test for the influence of phylogenetic history on global patterns of amphibian species richness, and to identify areas where macroevolutionary...... and the total taxonomic distinctness (TTD) index, because we found that the variance of the other two indices we examined (average taxonomic distinctness and mean root distance) strongly depended on species richness. We then identified regions with unusually high or low phylogenetic diversity given...

  17. Polygon Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-511, 12 October 2003This August 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows polygon patterns, enhanced by frost in the cracks that outline the polygon forms, in the south polar region of Mars. On Earth, patterns such as this usually indicate the presence of ice in the subsurface. The same might be true for Mars. This picture is located near 70.6oS, 309.5oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  18. Incommensurate magnetic ordering of PrPdAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, L. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Doenni, A. [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Lab.; Fauth, F. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-09-01

    The intermetallic rare earth compound PrPdAl with ZrNiAl-type structure was investigated by means of powder neutron diffraction. PrPdAl orders below T{sub N} {approx_equal}4.2 K with an incommensurate antiferromagnetic propagation vector k = [1/2,0,{tau}], {tau}=0.398. The best fit was obtained with a sinusoidal modulation of the magnetic moments along the c-axis. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  19. Pd-catalysts for DFAFC prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieloshapka, I.; Jiricek, P.; Vorokhta, M.; Tomsik, E.; Rednyk, A.; Perekrestov, R.; Jurek, K.; Ukraintsev, E.; Hruska, K.; Romanyuk, O.; Lesiak, B.

    2017-10-01

    Samples of a palladium catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) applications were prepared on the Elat® carbon cloth by magnetron sputtering. The quantity of Pd was equal to 3.6, 120 and 720 μg/cm2. The samples were tested in a fuel cell for electro-oxidation of formic acid, and were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS measurements revealed a high contribution of PdCx phase formed at the Pd/Elat® surface interface, with carbon concentration in PdCx from x = 9.9-14.6 at.%, resulting from the C substrate and CO residual gases. Oxygen groups, e.g. hydroxyl (-OH), carbonyl (Cdbnd O) and carboxyl (COOH), resulted from the synthesis conditions due to the presence of residual gases, electro-oxidation during the reaction and oxidation in the atmosphere. Because of the formation of CO and CO2 on the catalysts during the reaction, or because of poisoning by impurities containing the -CH3 group, together with the risk of Pd losses due to dissolution in formic acid, there was a negative effect of catalyst degradation on the active area surface. The effect of different loadings of Pd layers led to increasing catalyst efficiency. Current-voltage curves showed that different amounts of catalyst did not increase the DFAFC power to a great extent. One reason for this was the catalyst structure formed on the carbon cloth. AFM and SEM measurements showed a layer-by-layer growth with no significant variations in morphology. The results for electric power recalculated for the Pd loading per 1 mg of catalyst layers in comparison to carbon substrates decorated by Pd nanoparticles showed that there is potential for applying anodes for formic acid fuel cells prepared by magnetron sputtering.

  20. Structural and magnetic characterization of Pd nanoparticles encapsulated in apoferritin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, Natividad; Valero, Elsa; DomInguez-Vera, Jose M [Departamento Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071, Granada (Spain); Masciocchi, Norberto [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Ambientali and CNISM, Universita dell' Insubria, via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como (Italy); Guagliardi, Antonietta [Istituto di Cristallografia del CNR, via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari (Italy); Clemente-Leon, Miguel; Coronado, Eugenio, E-mail: ngalvez@ugr.es, E-mail: eugenio.coronado@uv.es [ICMol Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universidad de Valencia, calle catedratico Jose Beltran 2, 46980, Paterna (Spain)

    2010-07-09

    Pd nanoparticles exhibiting permanent magnetism at room temperature have been prepared within the apoferritin cavity. Pd nanoparticles in air and under an inert atmosphere were synthesized to study the influence of the aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the final magnetic properties. The surface of nanoparticles as well as the type of crystalline phase could determine the magnetic properties. X-ray powder diffraction, including Debye-function analysis, transmission electronic microscopy, and magnetization measurements have been used for characterizing the nanoparticles.

  1. Performance testing of a prototype Pd-Ag diffuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, G. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hodge, B. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-21

    The fusion fuel cycle has gained significant attention over the last decade as interest in fusion programs has increased. One of the critical components of the fusion process is the tritium fuel cycle. The tritium fuel cycle is designed to supply and recycle process tritium at a specific throughput rate. One of the most important processes within the tritium fuel cycle is the clean-up of the of the process tritium. This step will initially separate the hydrogen isotopes (H2, D2, and T2) from the rest of the process gas using Pd-Ag diffusers or permeators. The Pd-Ag diffuser is an integral component for any tritium purification system; whether part of the United States’ defense mission or fusion programs. Domestic manufacturers of Pd-Ag diffusers are extremely limited and only a few manufacturers exist. Johnson-Matthey (JM) Pd-Ag diffusers (permeators) have previously been evaluated for the separation of hydrogen isotopes from non-hydrogen gas species in the process. JM is no longer manufacturing Pd-Ag diffusers and a replacement vendor needs to be identified to support future needs. A prototype Pd-Ag diffuser has been manufactured by Power and Energy, and is considered a potential replacement for the JM diffuser for tritium service. New diffuser designs for a tritium facility for any fusion energy applications must be characterized by evaluating their operating envelope prior to installation in a tritium processing facility. The prototype Pd-Ag diffuser was characterized to determine the overall performance as a function of the permeation of hydrogen through the membrane. The tests described in this report consider the effects of feed gas compositions, feed flow rates, pump configuration and internal tube pressure on the permeation of H2 through the Pd-Ag tubes.

  2. Evidence for Anti-Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd Activity of Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Ghosh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS in bats, caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd, is a cutaneous infection that has devastated North American bat populations since 2007. At present, there is no effective method for controlling this disease. Here, we evaluated the effect of propolis against Pd in vitro. Using Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA medium, approximately 1.7 × 107 conidia spores of the Pd strain M3906-2/mL were spread on each plate and grown to form a consistent lawn. A Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion assay was employed using different concentrations of propolis (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, in plates incubated at 8 °C and 15 °C. At 8 °C and 15 °C, as the concentration of propolis increased, there was an increasing zone of inhibition (ZOI, reaching the highest degree at 10% and 25% concentrations, respectively. A germule suppression assay showed a similar effect on Pd conidia germination. A MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of propolis revealed multiple constituents with a potential anti-Pd activity, including cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, and dihydrochalcones, which could be further tested for their individual effects. Our study suggests that propolis or its individual constituents might be suitable products against Pd.

  3. Tools for predicting the PK/PD of therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Lei; Meibohm, Bernd

    2015-07-01

    Assessments of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) characteristics are an integral part in the development of novel therapeutic agents. Compared with traditional small molecule drugs, therapeutic proteins possess many distinct PK/PD features that necessitate the application of modified or separate approaches for assessing their PK/PD relationships. In this review, the authors discuss tools that are utilized to describe and predict the PK/PD features of therapeutic proteins and that are valuable additions in the armamentarium of drug development approaches to facilitate and accelerate their successful preclinical and clinical development. A variety of state-of-the-art PK/PD tools is currently being applied and has been adjusted to support the development of proteins as therapeutics, including allometric scaling approaches, target-mediated disposition models, first-in-man dose calculations, physiologically based PK models and empirical and semi-mechanistic PK/PD modeling. With the advent of the next generation of biologics including bioengineered antibody constructs being developed, these tools will need to be further refined and adapted to ensure their applicability and successful facilitation of the drug development process for these novel scaffolds.

  4. Aromatization of n-octane over Pd/C catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Mengchen

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase aromatization of n-octane was investigated using Pd/C catalyst. The objectives were to: (1) determine the effects of temperature (400-600 °C), weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) (0.8-∞), and hydrogen to hydrocarbon molar ratio (MR) (0-6) on conversion, selectivity, and yield (2) compare the activity of Pd/C with Pt/C and Pt/KL catalysts and (3) test the suitability of Pd/C for aromatization of different alkanes including n-hexane, n-heptane, and n-octane. Pd/C exhibited the best aromatization performance, including 54.4% conversion and 31.5% aromatics yield at 500 °C, WHSV = 2 h-1, and a MR of 2. The Pd/C catalyst had higher selectivity towards the preferred aromatics including ethylbenzene and xylenes, whereas Pt/KL had higher selectivity towards benzene and toluene. The results were somewhat consistent with adsorbed n-octane cyclization proceeding mainly through the six-membered ring closure mechanism. In addition, Pd/C was also capable of catalyzing aromatization of n-hexane and n-heptane. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Granular patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Aranson, Igor S

    2009-01-01

    This title presents a review of experiments and novel theoretical concepts needed to understand the mechanisms of pattern formation in granular materials. An effort is made to connect concepts and ideas developed in granular physics with new emergent fields, especially in biology, such as cytoskeleton dynamics.

  6. Glycerol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium using Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts prepared by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Silva, Dionisio Fortunato da; Pino, Eddy Segura; Spinace, Estevan Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Linardi, Marcelo, E-mail: drinager@ig.com.br, E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Mauro Coelhos dos [Universidade Federal do ABC (LEMN/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Carbon-supported metal nanoparticles were prepared for fuel cell applications by radiation-induced reduction of metal ions precursors. Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts (Pd:Sn atomic ratio 90:10), prepared by using electron beam irradiation, were tested for glycerol electro-oxidation in single alkaline direct glycerol fuel cell (ADGFC). EDX analysis showed that the Pd:Sn atomic ratio is very similar to the nominal one. X-ray diffractograms of PdSn/C electrocatalyst showed the presence of Pd (fcc) phase. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) indicated that Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts have good activity for glycerol electro-oxidation, at room temperature. Experiments with single ADGFC were carried out from 60 to 90 deg C, using Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts and glycerol 2.0 mol.L{sup -1}, as fuel. The best performance was obtained at 85 deg C, for both electrocatalysts. The Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts showed similar performance (34 mW cm{sup -2}), at 85 deg C. (author)

  7. Restoration of HCV-specific T cell functions by PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in HCV infection: effect of viremia levels and antiviral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, Simona; Amadei, Barbara; Tola, Daniela; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Sacchelli, Luca; Cavallo, Maria Cristina; Orlandini, Alessandra; Missale, Gabriele; Ferrari, Carlo

    2008-04-01

    HCV-specific T cells in acute hepatitis C with subsequent chronic evolution are dysfunctional and most of them express PD-1. The aim of the study was to investigate to what extent the antiviral T cell function can be restored by reversing T cell exhaustion by PD-1/PD-L1 blockade and to assess whether this restoration is favored by IFN-alpha treatment. PD-1 and PD-L1 expression was studied on T cells and dendritic cells, respectively, of 14 patients with acute hepatitis C and different evolutions of infection. The effect of anti-PD-L1 was analyzed on proliferation, cytokine production and cytolytic activity of CD4 and CD8 T cells. While PD-1 expression dropped concurrently with spontaneous or IFN-alpha induced HCV-RNA decline, PD-L1 levels on dendritic cells increased during IFN-alpha treatment. Anti-PD-L1 antibodies improved expansion and cytokine production but not the cytolytic activity of HCV-specific T cells. This restoration tended to be greater at lower levels of viremia and PD-1 expression and during PEG-IFNalpha treatment. PD-1/PD-L1 blockade has an immunoregulatory activity which may synergize with the antiviral effect of IFN-alpha therapy and should be thus explored further in long-lasting chronic HCV infections in the perspective of improving the efficacy of available antiviral treatments.

  8. Stability of {111}Pd/{0002}ZnO polar interface formed by internal oxidation of Pd-Zn alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kei; Kunisada, Yuji; Sakaguchi, Norihito

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the stability of Pd/ZnO polar interfaces formed by internal oxidation of Pd-Zn alloys by using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy and convergent-beam electron diffraction. At 1273 K, a [Formula: see text] polar interface defaceted and transformed into a curved interface, while another (111)Pd/(0002)ZnO polar interface retained its flatness. The [Formula: see text] polar interface lost some stability over non-polar interfaces at 1273 K, while the (111)Pd/(0002)ZnO polar interface remained stable. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Composite Pd and Pd Alloy Porous Stainless Steel Membranes for Hydrogen Production and Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Hua Ma; Nikolaos Kazantzis; Ivan Mardilovich; Federico Guazzone; Alexander Augustine; Reyyan Koc

    2011-11-06

    The synthesis of composite Pd membranes has been modified by the addition of a Al(OH){sub 3} graded layer and sequential annealing at high temperatures to obtain membranes with high permeance and outstanding selectivity stability for over 4000 hours at 450°C. Most of the membranes achieved in this work showed H{sub 2} flux well above 2010 DOE targets and in some case, also above 2015 DOE targets. Similar composite membranes were tested in water gas shift reaction atmospheres and showed to be stable with high CO conversion and high hydrogen recovery for over 1000 hours. The H{sub 2} permeance of composite Pd-Au membranes was studied as well as its resistance in H{sub 2}S containing atmospheres. H{sub 2}S poisoning of Pd-based membranes was reduced by the addition of Au and the loss undergone by membranes was found to be almost totally recoverable with 10-30 wt%Au. PSA technique was studied to test the possibility of H{sub 2}S and COS removal from feed stream with limited success since the removal of H{sub 2}S also led to the removal of a large fraction of the CO{sub 2}. The economics of a WGS bundle reactor, using the information of the membranes fabricated under this project and integrated into an IGCC plant were studied based on a 2D reactor modeling. The calculations showed that without a government incentive to impose a CO{sub 2} tax, application of WGS membrane reactors in IGCC would be not as economically attractive as regular pulverized coal plants.

  10. Enhancement in anomalous Hall resistivity of Co/Pd multilayer and CoPd alloy by Ga+ ion irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Zaibing

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we report the effect of Ga+ ion irradiation on anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and longitudinal resistivity (ρxx) in [Co(3 Å)/Pd(5 Å)]80 multilayer and Co 42Pd58 alloy. 4- and 2-fold increases in anomalous Hall resistivity (ρAH) in the Co/Pd multilayer and CoPd alloy have been observed after irradiations at doses of 2.4 × 1015 and 3.3×10 15 ions/cm2, respectively. Skew scattering and side jump contributions to AHE have been analyzed based on the scaling relationship ρAH = aρxx + bρ2xx. For the Co/Pd multilayer, AHE is mainly affected by ion irradiation-induced interface diffusion and defects. For the CoPd alloy, the increase in doses above 1.5 × 1015 ions/cm2 induces a sign change in skew scattering, followed by the skew scattering contribution to AHE overwhelming the side jump contribution, this phenomenon should be attributed to irradiation-induced defects and modifications in chemical ordering. © Copyright EPLA, 2014.

  11. PdO/TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 heterostructured nanobelts with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weijia; Guan, Yu; Wang, Dongzhou; Zhang, Xinhai; Liu, Duo; Jiang, Huaidong; Wang, Jiyang; Liu, Xiaogang; Liu, Hong; Chen, Shaowei

    2014-06-01

    Heterostructures play an important role not only in the manufacture of semiconductor devices, but also in the field of catalysis. Herein, we report the synthesis of PdO/TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 heterostructured nanobelts by means of a simple co-precipitation method, followed by a reduction process using surface-modified TiO2 nanobelts as templates. The as-obtained heterostructures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. PdO and Pd nanoparticles with a size of about 1.3 and 1.6 nm were assembled uniformly on the surface of TiO2 nanobelts, respectively. Compared with TiO2 nanobelts, PdO/TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 hybrid nanobelts exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity upon UV and visible-light irradiation. Photoelectrochemical technology was used to study the heterostructure effect on enhanced photocatalytic activity. Our mechanistic investigation revealed that energy-band matching is the major factor in the observed enhancement of photocatalytic activity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. PD-1, PD-L1 (B7-H1) and Tumor-Site Immune Modulation Therapy: The Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yuan, Ruirong; Song, Wenru; Sun, Jingwei; Liu, Delong; Li, Zihai

    2017-01-25

    The current success of targeted inhibition against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and Programmed Death 1/Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1, herein collectively referred to as PD) pathways is hailed as a cancer immunotherapy breakthrough. PD-L1, known also as B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1), was initially discovered by Dr. Lieping Chen in 1999. To recognize the seminal contributions by Chen to the development of PD-directed therapy against cancer, the Chinese American Hematologist and Oncologist Network (CAHON) decided to honor him with its inaugural Lifetime Achievement Award in Hematology and Oncology at the CAHON's 2015 annual meeting. This essay chronicles the important discoveries made by Chen in the exciting field of immuno-oncology, which goes beyond his original fateful finding. It also argues that PD-directed therapy should be appropriately considered as Tumor-Site Immune Modulation Therapy to distinguish it from CTLA-4-based immune checkpoint blocking agents.

  13. Acetylene structure and dynamics on Pd(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunphy, J.C.; Rose, M.; Behler, S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Sciences Division, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Sautet, P. [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique, ENS, 69364Lyon (France)]|[Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, CNRS, 69626Villeurbanne (France)

    1998-05-01

    Acetylene molecules adsorbed onto a Pd(111) crystal surface were imaged by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) below 70 K. Single C{sub 2}H{sub 2} molecules appeared as a combination of a protrusion and a depression 3.5 {Angstrom} apart. This peculiar shape is due to the molecular {pi} orbital, which is oriented at a shallow angle out of the surface. Six orientations of the molecule with respect to the substrate were observed, indicating two different threefold hollow binding sites each with three possible rotational states. At 44 K, thermally activated rotation of the molecules between the three equivalent states on the same threefold hollow site occurs on the time scale of seconds. Diffusion of molecules between adjacent threefold sites began at {approximately}70K. The findings agree with the structure of the adsorption site determined by total-energy calculations and with the STM image calculated using the electron scattering quantum chemistry method. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Immunohistochemical Analysis of PD-L1 Expression in Canine Malignant Cancers and PD-1 Expression on Lymphocytes in Canine Oral Melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Maekawa

    Full Text Available Spontaneous cancers are common diseases in dogs. Among these, some malignant cancers such as oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and mast cell tumor are often recognized as clinical problems because, despite their high frequencies, current treatments for these cancers may not always achieve satisfying outcomes. The absence of effective systemic therapies against these cancers leads researchers to investigate novel therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy. Programmed death 1 (PD-1 is a costimulatory receptor with immunosuppressive function. When it binds its ligands, PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1 or PD-L2, PD-1 on T cells negatively regulates activating signals from the T cell receptor, resulting in the inhibition of the effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Aberrant PD-L1 expression has been reported in many human cancers and is considered an immune escape mechanism for cancers. In clinical trials, anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies induced tumor regression for several malignancies, including advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma. In this study, to assess the potential of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis as a novel therapeutic target for canine cancer immunotherapy, immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1 expression in various malignant cancers of dogs was performed. Here, we show that dog oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, mammary adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma expressed PD-L1, whereas some other types of cancer did not. In addition, PD-1 was highly expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes obtained from oral melanoma, showing that lymphocytes in this cancer type might have been functionally exhausted. These results strongly encourage the clinical application of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as novel therapeutic agents against these cancers in dogs.

  15. [Cloning and expression of human sPD-1-Fc in Cos-7 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Liu, Chao-qi; Wang, Jian-zhi; Shi, Ji-jing; Lv, Bai-rui; Qin, Xiao-lin

    2011-06-01

    To investigate human soluble PD-1 (sPD-1) biological activity sPD-1 gene be cloned and expressed in eucaryote cells. sPD-1 gene was amplified from human PBMC mRNA by RT-PCR and cloned into eucaryotic expression vector pSG5-Fc. And the positive recombinant plasmid pSG5-Fc -sPD-1 was screened by enzyme digestion and sequencing.The correct sequencing of the recombinant plasmid pSG5-Fc-sPD-1 was transfected into COS-7 cells. The expressed recombinant protein in the supernatant was concentrated with protein A-agarose and analyzed by Western blot. The binding activity to PD-L1 which was expressed with prokaryotic cells was detected with Co-IP. The human sPD-1 fragment was obtained through RT-PCR. The plasmid pSG5-Fc-sPD-1 was constructed by double enzyme digestion and ligation of vector pSG5-Fc and fragment sPD-1. Sequenced sPD-1 gene was coincident with the theoretical sequence. sPD-1-Fc fusion protein in the supernatant was expressed in COS-7 cells and identified by Western blot. The activity of recombinant fusion protein sPD-1-Fc bound to PD-L1 had been detected with Co-IP. The human sPD-1 has been cloned and expressed in eucaryote cells successfully. The sPD-1-Fc fusion protein can be effective in binding to PD-L1, which can be used for further research in the function and clinical application of sPD-1.

  16. Proof patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This innovative textbook introduces a new pattern-based approach to learning proof methods in the mathematical sciences. Readers will discover techniques that will enable them to learn new proofs across different areas of pure mathematics with ease. The patterns in proofs from diverse fields such as algebra, analysis, topology and number theory are explored. Specific topics examined include game theory, combinatorics, and Euclidean geometry, enabling a broad familiarity. The author, an experienced lecturer and researcher renowned for his innovative view and intuitive style, illuminates a wide range of techniques and examples from duplicating the cube to triangulating polygons to the infinitude of primes to the fundamental theorem of algebra. Intended as a companion for undergraduate students, this text is an essential addition to every aspiring mathematician’s toolkit.

  17. Pattern classification

    CERN Document Server

    Duda, Richard O; Stork, David G

    2001-01-01

    The first edition, published in 1973, has become a classic reference in the field. Now with the second edition, readers will find information on key new topics such as neural networks and statistical pattern recognition, the theory of machine learning, and the theory of invariances. Also included are worked examples, comparisons between different methods, extensive graphics, expanded exercises and computer project topics. An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.

  18. Homologs of wingless and decapentaplegic display a complex and dynamic expression profile during appendage development in the millipede Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prpic Nikola-Michael

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Drosophila genes wingless (wg and decapentaplegic (dpp comprise the top level of a hierarchical gene cascade involved in proximal-distal (PD patterning of the legs. It remains unclear, whether this cascade is common to the appendages of all arthropods. Here, wg and dpp are studied in the millipede Glomeris marginata, a representative of the Myriapoda. Results Glomeris wg (Gm-wg is expressed along the ventral side of the appendages compatible with functioning during the patterning of both the PD and dorsal-ventral (DV axes. Gm-wg may also be involved in sensory organ formation in the gnathal appendages by inducing the expression of Distal-less (Dll and H15 in the organ primordia. Expression of Glomeris dpp (Gm-dpp is found at the tip of the trunk legs as well as weakly along the dorsal side of the legs in early stages. Taking data from other arthropods into account, these results may be interpreted in favor of a conserved mode of WG/DPP signaling. Apart from the main PD axis, many arthropod appendages have additional branches (e.g. endites. It is debated whether these extra branches develop their PD axis via the same mechanism as the main PD axis, or whether branch-specific mechanisms exist. Gene expression in possible endite homologs in Glomeris argues for the latter alternative. Conclusion All available data argue in favor of a conserved role of WG/DPP morphogen gradients in guiding the development of the main PD axis. Additional branches in multibranched (multiramous appendage types apparently do not utilize the WG/DPP signaling system for their PD development. This further supports recent work on crustaceans and insects, that lead to similar conclusions.

  19. Homologs of wingless and decapentaplegic display a complex and dynamic expression profile during appendage development in the millipede Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prpic, Nikola-Michael

    2004-11-24

    BACKGROUND: The Drosophila genes wingless (wg) and decapentaplegic (dpp) comprise the top level of a hierarchical gene cascade involved in proximal-distal (PD) patterning of the legs. It remains unclear, whether this cascade is common to the appendages of all arthropods. Here, wg and dpp are studied in the millipede Glomeris marginata, a representative of the Myriapoda. RESULTS: Glomeris wg (Gm-wg) is expressed along the ventral side of the appendages compatible with functioning during the patterning of both the PD and dorsal-ventral (DV) axes. Gm-wg may also be involved in sensory organ formation in the gnathal appendages by inducing the expression of Distal-less (Dll) and H15 in the organ primordia. Expression of Glomeris dpp (Gm-dpp) is found at the tip of the trunk legs as well as weakly along the dorsal side of the legs in early stages. Taking data from other arthropods into account, these results may be interpreted in favor of a conserved mode of WG/DPP signaling. Apart from the main PD axis, many arthropod appendages have additional branches (e.g. endites). It is debated whether these extra branches develop their PD axis via the same mechanism as the main PD axis, or whether branch-specific mechanisms exist. Gene expression in possible endite homologs in Glomeris argues for the latter alternative. CONCLUSION: All available data argue in favor of a conserved role of WG/DPP morphogen gradients in guiding the development of the main PD axis. Additional branches in multibranched (multiramous) appendage types apparently do not utilize the WG/DPP signaling system for their PD development. This further supports recent work on crustaceans and insects, that lead to similar conclusions.

  20. Reorienting the immune system in the treatment of cancer by using anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Troels H; Donia, Marco; Andersen, Mads H

    2015-01-01

    Physiologically, the programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathway is involved in limiting the killing of bystander cells during an infection and controlling autoimmunity. However, cancers exploit this system to avoid immune killing, and PD-1 ligand 1 and 2 (PD-L1 and PD-L2) expression on tumor cells, as well...... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. As already shown with nivolumab and ipilimumab, the combination of PD-1 pathway blockade with other anticancer agents holds promise in the form of additive synergistic anticancer effects....

  1. PD-1 Regulates Neural Damage in Oligodendroglia-Induced Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Antje; Schwab, Nicholas; Ip, Chi Wang; Leder, Christoph; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Mäurer, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the impact of immune regulatory mechanisms involved in the modulation of the recently presented, CD8+ lymphocyte mediated immune response in a mouse model of oligodendropathy-induced inflammation (PLPtg-mutants). The focus was on the role of the co-inhibitory molecule PD-1, a CD28-related receptor expressed on activated T- and B-lymphocytes associated with immune homeostasis and autoimmunity. PLPtg/PD-1-deficient double mutants and the corresponding bone marrow chimeras were generated and analysed using immunohistochemistry, light- and electron microscopy, with particular emphasis on immune-cell number and neural damage. In addition, the immune cells in both the CNS and the peripheral immune system were investigated by IFN-gamma elispot assays and spectratype analysis. We found that mice with combined pathology exhibited significantly increased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the CNS. Lack of PD-1 substantially aggravated the pathological phenotype of the PLPtg mutants compared to genuine PLPtg mutants, whereas the PD-1 deletion alone did not cause alterations in the CNS. CNS T-lymphocytes in PLPtg/PD-1-/- double mutants exhibited massive clonal expansions. Furthermore, PD-1 deficiency was associated with a significantly higher propensity of CNS but not peripheral CD8+ T-cells to secrete proinflammatory cytokines. PD-1 could be identified as a crucial player of tissue homeostasis and immune-mediated damage in a model of oligodendropathy-induced inflammation. Alterations of this regulatory pathway lead to overt neuroinflammation of high pathogenetic impact. Our finding may have implications for understanding the mechanisms leading to the high clinical variability of polygenic or even monogenic disorders of the nervous system. PMID:19197390

  2. PD-1 regulates neural damage in oligodendroglia-induced inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Kroner

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of immune regulatory mechanisms involved in the modulation of the recently presented, CD8+ lymphocyte mediated immune response in a mouse model of oligodendropathy-induced inflammation (PLPtg-mutants. The focus was on the role of the co-inhibitory molecule PD-1, a CD28-related receptor expressed on activated T- and B-lymphocytes associated with immune homeostasis and autoimmunity. PLPtg/PD-1-deficient double mutants and the corresponding bone marrow chimeras were generated and analysed using immunohistochemistry, light- and electron microscopy, with particular emphasis on immune-cell number and neural damage. In addition, the immune cells in both the CNS and the peripheral immune system were investigated by IFN-gamma elispot assays and spectratype analysis. We found that mice with combined pathology exhibited significantly increased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the CNS. Lack of PD-1 substantially aggravated the pathological phenotype of the PLPtg mutants compared to genuine PLPtg mutants, whereas the PD-1 deletion alone did not cause alterations in the CNS. CNS T-lymphocytes in PLPtg/PD-1-/- double mutants exhibited massive clonal expansions. Furthermore, PD-1 deficiency was associated with a significantly higher propensity of CNS but not peripheral CD8+ T-cells to secrete proinflammatory cytokines. PD-1 could be identified as a crucial player of tissue homeostasis and immune-mediated damage in a model of oligodendropathy-induced inflammation. Alterations of this regulatory pathway lead to overt neuroinflammation of high pathogenetic impact. Our finding may have implications for understanding the mechanisms leading to the high clinical variability of polygenic or even monogenic disorders of the nervous system.

  3. Haemolysis in G6PD Heterozygous Females Treated with Primaquine for Plasmodium vivax Malaria: A Nested Cohort in a Trial of Radical Curative Regimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy S Chu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria with 8-aminoquinolines (primaquine or tafenoquine is complicated by haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency. G6PD heterozygous females, because of individual variation in the pattern of X-chromosome inactivation (Lyonisation in erythroid cells, may have low G6PD activity in the majority of their erythrocytes, yet are usually reported as G6PD "normal" by current phenotypic screening tests. Their haemolytic risk when treated with 8-aminoquinolines has not been well characterized.In a cohort study nested within a randomised clinical trial that compared different treatment regimens for P. vivax malaria, patients with a normal standard NADPH fluorescent spot test result (≳30%-40% of normal G6PD activity were randomised to receive 3 d of chloroquine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in combination with primaquine, either the standard high dose of 0.5 mg base/kg/day for 14 d or a higher dose of 1 mg base/kg/d for 7 d. Patterns of haemolysis were compared between G6PD wild-type and G6PD heterozygous female participants. Between 21 February 2012 and 04 July 2014, 241 female participants were enrolled, of whom 34 were heterozygous for the G6PD Mahidol variant. Haemolysis was substantially greater and a larger proportion of participants reached the threshold of clinically significant haemolysis (fractional haematocrit reduction >25% in G6PD heterozygotes taking the higher (7 d primaquine dose (9/17 [53%] compared with G6PD heterozygotes taking the standard high (14 d dose (2/16 [13%]; p = 0.022. In heterozygotes, the mean fractional haematocrit reductions were correspondingly greater with the higher primaquine dose (7-d regimen: -20.4% (95% CI -26.0% to -14.8% (nadir on day 5 compared with the standard high (14 d dose: -13.1% (95% CI -17.6% to -8.6% (nadir day 6. Two heterozygotes taking the higher (7 d primaquine dose required blood transfusion. In wild-type participants

  4. Ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium using Pd/c and PdRh/C electrocatalysts prepared by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da; Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Pino, Eddy Segura; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Linardi, Marcelo, E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: drinager@ig.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, carbon-supported Pd (Pd/C) and bimetallic PdRh (Pd:Rh 90:10 atomic ratio) (PdRh/C) electrocatalysts were prepared using electron beam irradiation. The morphology and composition of the obtained materials were characterized by Cyclic voltammetry (VC), Chronoamperometry (CA), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The catalytic activities of the electrocatalysts toward the ethanol electro-oxidation were evaluated in alkaline medium in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC), in a range temperature of 50 to 85 deg C. The best performances were obtained at 85 deg C (25 mW.cm{sup -2}) and 75 deg C (38 mW.cm{sup -2}) for Pd/C and PdRh/C electrocatalysts, respectively. The XRD of the PdRh/C electrocatalyst showed the presence of Pd-rich (fcc) phase. CV and CA experiments showed that PdRh/C electrocatalyst demonstrated superior activity toward ethanol electro-oxidation at room temperature, compared to Pd/C electrocatalyst. (author)

  5. Dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations of the molecular binding of n-alkanes on Pd(111) and PdO(101).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Abbin; Hakanoglu, Can; Asthagiri, Aravind; Weaver, Jason F

    2012-02-07

    We investigated the molecular binding of n-alkanes on Pd(111) and PdO(101) using conventional density functional theory (DFT) and the dispersion-corrected DFT-D3 method. In agreement with experimental findings, DFT-D3 predicts that the n-alkane desorption energies scale linearly with the molecule chain length on both surfaces, and that n-alkanes bind more strongly on PdO(101) than on Pd(111). The desorption energies computed using DFT-D3 are slightly higher than the measured values for n-alkanes on Pd(111), though the agreement between computation and experiment is a significant improvement over conventional DFT. The measured desorption energies of n-alkanes on PdO(101) and the energies computed using DFT-D3 agree to within better than 2.5 kJ/mol (PdO(101), and that dative bonding between the alkanes and coordinatively unsaturated Pd atoms is primarily responsible for the enhanced binding of n-alkanes on PdO(101). From analysis of the DFT-D3 results, we estimate that the strength of an alkane η(2)(H, H) interaction on PdO(101) is ~16 kJ/mol, while a single η(1) H-Pd dative bond is worth about 10 kJ/mol.

  6. Design of Pd/PANI/Pd sandwich-structured nanotube array catalysts with special shape effects and synergistic effects for ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Liang; Xu, Han; Feng, Jin-Xian; Ding, Liang-Xin; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren

    2013-07-24

    Low cost, high activity, and long-term durability are the main requirements for commercializing fuel cell electrocatalysts. Despite tremendous efforts, developing non-Pt anode electrocatalysts with high activity and long-term durability at low cost remains a significant technical challenge. Here we report a new type of hybrid Pd/PANI/Pd sandwich-structured nanotube array (SNTA) to exploit shape effects and synergistic effects of Pd-PANI composites for the oxidation of small organic molecules for direct alcohol fuel cells. These synthesized Pd/PANI/Pd SNTAs exhibit significantly improved electrocatalytic activity and durability compared with Pd NTAs and commercial Pd/C catalysts. The unique SNTAs provide fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species and high utilization rate of catalysts. Besides the merits of nanotube arrays, the improved electrocatalytic activity and durability are especially attributed to the special Pd/PANI/Pd sandwich-like nanostructures, which results in electron delocalization between Pd d orbitals and PANI π-conjugated ligands and in electron transfer from Pd to PANI.

  7. Monitoring PD-L1 positive circulating tumor cells in non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with the PD-1 inhibitor Nivolumab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolazzo, Chiara; Raimondi, Cristina; Mancini, MariaLaura; Caponnetto, Salvatore; Gradilone, Angela; Gandini, Orietta; Mastromartino, Maria; del Bene, Gabriella; Prete, Alessandra; Longo, Flavia; Cortesi, Enrico; Gazzaniga, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Controversial results on the predictive value of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) status in lung tumor tissue for response to immune checkpoint inhibitors do not allow for any conclusive consideration. Liquid biopsy might allow real-time sampling of patients for PD-L1 through the course of the disease. Twenty-four stage IV NSCLC patients included in the Expanded Access Program with Nivolumab were enrolled. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were analyzed by CellSearch with anti-human B7-H1/PD-L1 PE-conjugated antibody. PD-L1 expressing CTCs were assessed at baseline, at 3 and 6 months after starting therapy, and correlated with outcome. At baseline and at 3 months of treatment, the presence of CTCs and the expression of PD-L1 on their surface were found associated to poor patients outcome. Nevertheless, the high frequency of PD-L1 expressing CTCs hampered to discriminate the role of PD-L1 in defining prognosis. Conversely although CTCs were found in all patients 6 months after treatment, at this time patients could be dichotomized into two groups based PD-L1 expression on CTCs. Patients with PD-L1 negative CTCs all obtained a clinical benefit, while patients with PD-L1 (+) CTCs all experienced progressive disease. This suggests that the persistence of PD-L1(+) CTCs might mirror a mechanism of therapy escape. PMID:27553175

  8. Insulin-induced remission in new-onset NOD mice is maintained by the PD-1-PD-L1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, Brian T; Guleria, Indira; Gubbels Bupp, Melanie; Eagar, Todd N; Tang, Qizhi; Bour-Jordan, Helene; Yagita, Hideo; Azuma, Miyuki; Sayegh, Mohamed H; Bluestone, Jeffrey A

    2006-11-27

    The past decade has seen a significant increase in the number of potentially tolerogenic therapies for treatment of new-onset diabetes. However, most treatments are antigen nonspecific, and the mechanism for the maintenance of long-term tolerance remains unclear. In this study, we developed an antigen-specific therapy, insulin-coupled antigen-presenting cells, to treat diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice after disease onset. Using this approach, we demonstrate disease remission, inhibition of pathogenic T cell proliferation, decreased cytokine production, and induction of anergy. Moreover, we show that robust long-term tolerance depends on the programmed death 1 (PD-1)-programmed death ligand (PD-L)1 pathway, not the distinct cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 pathway. Anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1, but not anti-PD-L2, reversed tolerance weeks after tolerogenic therapy by promoting antigen-specific T cell proliferation and inflammatory cytokine production directly in infiltrated tissues. PD-1-PD-L1 blockade did not limit T regulatory cell activity, suggesting direct effects on pathogenic T cells. Finally, we describe a critical role for PD-1-PD-L1 in another powerful immunotherapy model using anti-CD3, suggesting that PD-1-PD-L1 interactions form part of a common pathway to selectively maintain tolerance within the target tissues.

  9. Insulin-induced remission in new-onset NOD mice is maintained by the PD-1–PD-L1 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, Brian T.; Guleria, Indira; Gubbels Bupp, Melanie; Eagar, Todd N.; Tang, Qizhi; Bour-Jordan, Helene; Yagita, Hideo; Azuma, Miyuki; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    The past decade has seen a significant increase in the number of potentially tolerogenic therapies for treatment of new-onset diabetes. However, most treatments are antigen nonspecific, and the mechanism for the maintenance of long-term tolerance remains unclear. In this study, we developed an antigen-specific therapy, insulin-coupled antigen-presenting cells, to treat diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice after disease onset. Using this approach, we demonstrate disease remission, inhibition of pathogenic T cell proliferation, decreased cytokine production, and induction of anergy. Moreover, we show that robust long-term tolerance depends on the programmed death 1 (PD-1)–programmed death ligand (PD-L)1 pathway, not the distinct cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 pathway. Anti–PD-1 and anti–PD-L1, but not anti–PD-L2, reversed tolerance weeks after tolerogenic therapy by promoting antigen-specific T cell proliferation and inflammatory cytokine production directly in infiltrated tissues. PD-1–PD-L1 blockade did not limit T regulatory cell activity, suggesting direct effects on pathogenic T cells. Finally, we describe a critical role for PD-1–PD-L1 in another powerful immunotherapy model using anti-CD3, suggesting that PD-1–PD-L1 interactions form part of a common pathway to selectively maintain tolerance within the target tissues. PMID:17116737

  10. Comparative study on the catalytic electrooxidative abilities of RuO(x)-PdO-TiO(2)/Ti and RuO(x)-PdO/Ti anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lin; Wang, Yu; Dai, Shijun; Pei, Juan; Qin, Song; Hu, Changwei

    2011-01-30

    Comparative study of the catalytic electrooxidative abilities of RuO(x)-PdO/Ti and RuO(x)-PdO-TiO(2)/Ti were conducted using Active Orange 5R solution as simulated wastewater. RuO(x)-PdO-TiO(2)/Ti anode possesses higher catalytic oxidation ability, as compared to RuO(x)-PdO/Ti, in both direct oxidation and indirect oxidation processes. RuO(x)-PdO-TiO(2)/Ti could provide a discoloration rate of 98.14% within 30 min, while the COD removal could reach 51.43% in 120 min. It was indicated that higher electrooxidation ability could be achieved at RuO(x)-PdO-TiO(2)/Ti anode, which exhibited lower chlorine evolution potential and higher oxygen evolution potential probably resulted from the higher oxidation states of Ru and Pd. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanoporous PdNi/C electrocatalyst prepared by dealloying high-Ni-content PdNi alloy for formic acid oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Rongfang [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials, Ministry of Education of China, Key Laboratory of Gansu Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Ji, Shan [South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa)

    2012-12-15

    To improve the electrochemical performance of Pd-based catalysts for formic acid oxidation, a carbon supported nanoporous PdNi catalyst is prepared by dealloying high-Ni-content PdNi alloy nanoparticles in acid solution. The structure of nanoporous PdNi/C catalyst is characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic results show that the activity of the nanoporous PdNi/C catalyst is higher than that of nonporous Pd/C catalyst. The results demonstrate that the carbon-supported nanoporous PdNi catalyst has a potential for application in direct formic acid fuel cells. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. PD-1 expression on peripheral CD8+ TEM/TEMRA subsets closely correlated with HCV viral load in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weidong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tight correlation between host circulating CD8+ T cell-mediated immune response and control of viral replication is classical characteristic of long-term HCV infection. CD8+ T cell maturation/activation markers are expected to be associated with viral replication and disease progression in chronic HCV infection. The aim of the present study was to explore novel markers on CD8+ T cells with ability to evaluate HCV viral replication and disease progression. Methods PBMCs were isolated from 37 chronic HCV-infected patients and 17 healthy controls. Distributed pattern of CD8+ T cells subsets and expression of PD-1, CD38, HLA-DR and CD127 were analyzed by flow cytometry. The correlation between expression of surface markers and HCV viral load or ALT was studied. Results Declined naïve and increased TEMRA CD8+ T subsets were found in HCV-infected individuals compared with healthy controls. Percentage and MFI of PD-1, CD38 and HLA-DR on all CD8+ T cell subsets were higher in HCV-infected patients than healthy controls. In contrast, CD127 expression on CD8+ TCM showed an opposite trend as PD-1, CD38 and HLA-DR did. In chronic HCV infection, MFI of PD-1 on CD8+ TEM (p Conclusion PD-1 level on peripheral CD8+ TEM/TEMRA was highly correlated with HCV viral load in chronic HCV-infected patients, which made PD-1 a novel indicator to evaluate HCV replication and disease progression in chronic hepatitis C patients.

  13. Variant G6PD levels promote tumor cell proliferation or apoptosis via the STAT3/5 pathway in the human melanoma xenograft mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Tao; Zhang, Chunhua; Tang, Qiongling; Su, Yanan; Li, Bo; Chen, Long; Zhang, Zheng; Cai, Tianchi; Zhu, Yuechun

    2013-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), elevated in tumor cells, catalyzes the first reaction in the pentose-phosphate pathway. The regulation mechanism of G6PD and pathological change in human melanoma growth remains unknown. Methods HEM (human epidermal melanocyte) cells and human melanoma cells with the wild-type G6PD gene (A375-WT), G6PD deficiency (A375-G6PD?), G6PD cDNA overexpression (A375-G6PD?-G6PD-WT), and mutant G6PD cDNA (A375-G6PD?-G6PD-G487A) were subcutaneously inj...

  14. Bim-mediated apoptosis and PD-1/PD-L1 pathway impair reactivity of PD1(+)/CD127(-) HCV-specific CD8(+) cells targeting the virus in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrubia, Juan R; Benito-Martínez, Selma; Miquel, Joaquín; Calvino, Miryam; Sanz-de-Villalobos, Eduardo; González-Praetorius, Alejandro; Albertos, Sonia; García-Garzón, Silvia; Lokhande, Megha; Parra-Cid, Trinidad

    2011-01-01

    PD-1 molecule promotes anergy and IL-7 receptor (CD127) induces an anti-apoptotic effect on T cells. Correlation between PD-1/CD127 phenotype and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8(+) cell reactivity in resolved infection (RI) after treatment and persistent HCV-infection (PI) was analysed. Directly ex vivo, PD-1 and CD127 expression on HCV-specific CD8(+) cells displayed a positive and negative correlation, respectively with viraemia. Proliferation after stimulation on PD-1(-)/CD127(+) cells from RI cases was preserved, while it was impaired on PD-1(+)/CD127(-) cells from PI patients. PD1(+)/CD127(+) population was observed in PI, and these maintained expansion ability but they did not target the virus. Frequency of PI cases with HCV-specific CD8(+) cell proliferation increased after anti-PD-L1 and anti-apoptotic treatment. Bim expression on HCV-specific CD8(+) cells from PI patients was enhanced. In conclusion, during chronic HCV infection non-reactive HCV-specific CD8(+) cells targeting the virus are PD-1(+)/CD127(-)/Bim(+) and, blocking apoptosis and PD-1/PD-L1 pathway on them enhances in vitro reactivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. DRUM-PD: The use of a drum circle to improve the symptoms and signs of Parkinson's disease (PD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelyat, Alexander; Syres, Candace; Reichwein, Suzanne; Willis, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical therapy can improve motor function in patients with PD. Music performance may be used to improve motor skills by rhythmic entrainment. Drumming has long been a part of traditional healing rituals worldwide, and is increasingly being utilized as a therapeutic strategy. Methods This pilot controlled prospective cohort trial assessed feasibility and effects of twice-weekly group West African drum circle classes for 6 weeks on PD patients’ quality of life, symptoms, motor findings, cognition, and mood. Ten patients with PD were recruited into the drum circle group. Ten patients with PD were matched pairwise to each of the drum circle participants, and enrolled in a no-intervention control group. Both groups completed the PD-specific Parkinson Disease Questionnaire (PDQ)-39 quality of life assessment and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and underwent motor and cognitive assessments by a rater blinded to group at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. Results Drummers had significantly improved PDQ-39 scores from baseline to 6 weeks (−5.8, p=0.042), whereas the control group's scores were unchanged. Walking performance was significantly faster at baseline for controls; after 6 weeks of drumming this difference was no longer significant, and remained non-significant at 12 weeks. The drummers trended (p=0.069) toward improvement in walking from baseline to 12 weeks. Other outcomes did not significantly change from baseline to 6 or 12 weeks. Conclusions Drum circle classes significantly and reversibly improved quality of life in patients with PD. This pilot trial's findings merit larger controlled investigations comparing drumming classes to established interventions in PD, such as physical therapy. PMID:27340683

  16. DRUM-PD: The use of a drum circle to improve the symptoms and signs of Parkinson's disease (PD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelyat, Alexander; Syres, Candace; Reichwein, Suzanne; Willis, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Physical therapy can improve motor function in patients with PD. Music performance may be used to improve motor skills by rhythmic entrainment. Drumming has long been a part of traditional healing rituals worldwide, and is increasingly being utilized as a therapeutic strategy. This pilot controlled prospective cohort trial assessed feasibility and effects of twice-weekly group West African drum circle classes for 6 weeks on PD patients' quality of life, symptoms, motor findings, cognition, and mood. Ten patients with PD were recruited into the drum circle group. Ten patients with PD were matched pairwise to each of the drum circle participants, and enrolled in a no-intervention control group. Both groups completed the PD-specific Parkinson Disease Questionnaire (PDQ)-39 quality of life assessment and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and underwent motor and cognitive assessments by a rater blinded to group at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. Drummers had significantly improved PDQ-39 scores from baseline to 6 weeks (-5.8, p=0.042), whereas the control group's scores were unchanged. Walking performance was significantly faster at baseline for controls; after 6 weeks of drumming this difference was no longer significant, and remained non-significant at 12 weeks. The drummers trended (p=0.069) toward improvement in walking from baseline to 12 weeks. Other outcomes did not significantly change from baseline to 6 or 12 weeks. Drum circle classes significantly and reversibly improved quality of life in patients with PD. This pilot trial's findings merit larger controlled investigations comparing drumming classes to established interventions in PD, such as physical therapy.

  17. Simple Preparation of Pd Core Nanoparticles for Pd Core/Pt Shell Catalyst and Evaluation of Activity and Durability for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Inoue

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pd core nanoparticles less than 5 nm in mean size were prepared on carbon black (CB without any stabilizer by using palladium acetate as a precursor and CO as a reducing agent, and then used for preparing Pd core/Pt shell nanoparticles-loaded CB (Pt/Pd/CB. The mean size of Pd nanoparticles could be controlled by the concentration of palladium acetate and the CO bubbling time. The cyclic voltammograms of two Pd nanoparticles-loaded CB (Pd4.2/CB, Pd3.3/CB electrodes whose mean size was 4.2 and 3.3 nm, respectively, had characteristics similar to a Pt electrode after the formation of a Pt monolayer shell, suggesting that the Pd core nanoparticles were almost covered with the Pt monolayer shell. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR on both Pt/Pd/CB proceeded in 4-electron reduction mechanism. Both Pt/Pd/CB electrodes was ca. 1.5 times higher in ORR activity per electrochemical surface area of Pt (specific activity, SA than the commercial Pt nanoparticles-loaded CB (Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo, Pt/CB-TKK electrode, and the Pt/Pd3.3/CB electrode had higher SA than the Pt/Pd4.2/CB electrode. The ORR activity per unit mass of Pt for both Pt/Pd/CB electrodes was 5.0 and 5.5 times as high as that for the Pt/CB-TKK electrode, respectively. The durability of both Pt/Pd/CB electrodes was comparable to that of Pt/CB-TKK.

  18. Recombinant human G6PD for quality control and quality assurance of novel point-of-care diagnostics for G6PD deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Maria; LaRue, Nicole; Zhu, Changcheng; Pal, Sampa; Mo, Jack S; Barrett, Lynn K; Hewitt, Steve N; Dumais, Mitchell; Hemmington, Sandra; Walker, Adrian; Joynson, Jeff; Leader, Brandon T; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Domingo, Gonzalo J

    2017-01-01

    A large gap for the support of point-of-care testing is the availability of reagents to support quality control (QC) of diagnostic assays along the supply chain from the manufacturer to the end user. While reagents and systems exist to support QC of laboratory screening tests for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, they are not configured appropriately to support point-of-care testing. The feasibility of using lyophilized recombinant human G6PD as a QC reagent in novel point-of-care tests for G6PD deficiency is demonstrated. Human recombinant G6PD (r-G6PD) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Aliquots were stored at -80°C. Prior to lyophilization, aliquots were thawed, and three concentrations of r-G6PD (representing normal, intermediate, and deficient clinical G6PD levels) were prepared and mixed with a protective formulation, which protects the enzyme activity against degradation from denaturation during the lyophilization process. Following lyophilization, individual single-use tubes of lyophilized r-G6PD were placed in individual packs with desiccants and stored at five temperatures for one year. An enzyme assay for G6PD activity was used to ascertain the stability of r-G6PD activity while stored at different temperatures. Lyophilized r-G6PD is stable and can be used as a control indicator. Results presented here show that G6PD activity is stable for at least 365 days when stored at -80°C, 4°C, 30°C, and 45°C. When stored at 55°C, enzyme activity was found to be stable only through day 28. Lyophilized r-G6PD enzyme is stable and can be used as a control for point-of-care tests for G6PD deficiency.

  19. Recombinant human G6PD for quality control and quality assurance of novel point-of-care diagnostics for G6PD deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kahn

    Full Text Available A large gap for the support of point-of-care testing is the availability of reagents to support quality control (QC of diagnostic assays along the supply chain from the manufacturer to the end user. While reagents and systems exist to support QC of laboratory screening tests for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency, they are not configured appropriately to support point-of-care testing. The feasibility of using lyophilized recombinant human G6PD as a QC reagent in novel point-of-care tests for G6PD deficiency is demonstrated.Human recombinant G6PD (r-G6PD was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Aliquots were stored at -80°C. Prior to lyophilization, aliquots were thawed, and three concentrations of r-G6PD (representing normal, intermediate, and deficient clinical G6PD levels were prepared and mixed with a protective formulation, which protects the enzyme activity against degradation from denaturation during the lyophilization process. Following lyophilization, individual single-use tubes of lyophilized r-G6PD were placed in individual packs with desiccants and stored at five temperatures for one year. An enzyme assay for G6PD activity was used to ascertain the stability of r-G6PD activity while stored at different temperatures.Lyophilized r-G6PD is stable and can be used as a control indicator. Results presented here show that G6PD activity is stable for at least 365 days when stored at -80°C, 4°C, 30°C, and 45°C. When stored at 55°C, enzyme activity was found to be stable only through day 28.Lyophilized r-G6PD enzyme is stable and can be used as a control for point-of-care tests for G6PD deficiency.

  20. Biomarkers for the Clinical Use of PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacher, Adrian G; Gandhi, Leena

    2016-09-01

    The development of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors has changed the landscape of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapy, with 2 approvals from the US Food and Drug Administration of PD-1 inhibitors for second-line therapy. However, the rational use of these agents has been limited by the lack of a definitive predictive biomarker. Tumor PD-L1 expression is associated with an increased likelihood of NSCLC response to these agents, although responses can still occur at a low rate in PD-L1-negative tumors. The use of PD-L1 as a predictive biomarker for use of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors is limited by the multitude of PD-L1 antibodies, assays, scoring systems, and thresholds for positivity currently used. Alternative biomarkers such as tumor neoantigens identified through whole-exome sequencing and clinical parameters (eg, smoking or oncogene driver status) may also have predictive value. Biomarkers that can direct the rational use of PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors are crucial given the risk of life-threatening immune-related complications associated with these therapies and the reality that most patients still do not benefit from their use. The refinement of existing biomarkers and identification of novel predictive biomarkers will be key to ensuring the effective and safe use of these agents. Since most patients still do not benefit from these agents, it is critical to continue to work to define the select patient population who will derive durable benefit from PD-1/PD-L1 inhibition and identify markers that could have predictive value for combination therapies that could expand the population who benefit.

  1. Influences of Traction Load Shock on Artificial Partial Discharge Faults within Traction Transformer—Experimental Test for Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibing Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge (PD measurement and its pattern recognition are vital to fault diagnosis of transformers, especially to those traction substation transformers undergoing repetitive traction load shocks. This paper presents the primary factors induced by traction load shocks including high total harmonics distortion (THD, transient voltage impulse and high-temperature rise, and their effects on the feature parameters of PD. Experimental tests are conducted on six artificial PD models with these factors introduced one by one. Results reveal that the maximum PD quantity and the PD repetitive rate are favorable to be enlarged when the oil temperature exceeds 80 °C or the THD is higher than 16% with certain orders of harmonic. The decline in PD inception voltage can mainly be attributed to the transient voltage impulse. The variation in central frequency of the fast Fourier transformation (FFT spectra transformed from ultra-high frequency signals can mainly be attributed to high THD, especially when it exceeds 20%. The temperature rise has no significant influence on the FFT spectra; the transient voltage impulse, however, can result in a central frequency shift of the floating particle discharge. With the rapid development of high-speed railways, the study presented in this paper will be helpful for field PD detection and recognition of traction substation transformers in the future.

  2. PD-1 gene polymorphism in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskin, Ibrahim Etem; Calık, Mustafa; Abuhandan, Mahmut; Kolsal, Ebru; Celik, Sevim Karakas; Iscan, Akın

    2013-08-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive inflammatory and degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Several factors influence the risk of chronic brain infection with the mutant measles virus. However, to date, no pathogenic mechanism that may predispose to SSPE has been determined. Studies have indicated that specific polymorphisms in certain host genes are probably involved in impairing the ability of host immune cells to eradicate the measles virus in SSPE patients. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), a member of the CD28 family, is a negative regulator of the immune system. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether PD-1 gene polymorphisms affect susceptibility to the development of SSPE in Turkish children. In total, 109 subjects (54 SSPE patients and 55 healthy controls) were genotyped for the PD-1.9 C/T (rs2227982) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The distributions of T alleles in the PD-1.9 polymorphism in SSPE patients and healthy controls were 2.8 and 10.9%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups; the 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.06 to 0.85 and the odds ratio (OR) was 0.23 (χ(2) test). Thus, we identified an association between SSPE and the PD-1 rs2227982 gene polymorphism; the frequency of T alleles was higher in controls than in SSPE patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) vs. pleurectomy decortication (P/D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batirel, Hasan Fevzi

    2017-06-01

    Surgical techniques for treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) have improved over the decades. The main surgical principle was accepted as macroscopic complete resection. This principle was achieved with extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and extended pleurectomy/decortication (P/D). Mortality and morbidity are higher following EPP with supraventricular arrhythmias, pulmonary embolism, bronchopleural fistula and pulmonary failure being the most common, while prolonged air leak is frequent following P/D. Completion of multimodality treatment was also shown to be a prognostic factor. Many different neoadjuvant and adjuvant protocols were applied with limited effect on prognosis. While locoregional recurrence is more common following P/D, EPP patients typically recur in contralateral hemithorax and abdomen. Hemithoracic radiation following EPP was the only effective technique shown to decrease locoregional recurrence. However, neither surgical technique (EPP vs. P/D), nor types of multimodality treatment protocols were found to be prognostic in MPM. Epithelioid histology, metastasis to extrapleural lymph nodes and completion of multimodality treatment were prognostic in most of the series. In conclusion, based on the current evidence, the choice of a less morbid and mortal procedure (P/D) seems to be the logical choice in the treatment of MPM.

  4. PD detection caused by surge voltages in stator winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroshima, S.; Hirose, T.; Maeda, T. [Toshiba Corp., Mie (Japan); Tsuda, T.; Wakimoto, Y.; Yoshimitsu, T. [Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    Surge voltages can cause partial discharges (PDs) within coils, leading to the degradation of electrical insulation materials. This study investigated the influence of propagation on PD signals in a stator coil under surge voltages. The aim of the study was to test the ability of a PD alert system to detect PD signals propagating through a motor. The stator winding of a 3-phase random wound motor was used in the experimental set-up. A unipolar impulse voltage was applied to the U-phase coils. The applied impulse voltage contained a high frequency component to test non-uniform impressions of the voltage in each coil. A twisted pairs cable was connected to the motor winding in parallel in order to simulate the PD that occurred between turns inside the motor. A surge voltage was applied to the motor terminal. Results of the study showed that PD signals propagating through the motor can be detected by the PDA system. The signals were detected when PDs were generated in the first and second coils. PDs were also measured in a coil that simulated a winding flaw by providing a contact point between the coil jumper wires. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  5. Green Synthesis of Ag and Pd Nanospheres, Nanowires, and Nanorods Using Vitamin B2: Catalytic Polymerisation of Aniline and Pyrrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjuna N. Nadagouda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, we report green chemistry approach using vitamin B2 in the synthesis of silver (Ag and palladium (Pd, nanospheres, nanowires, and nanorods at room temperature without using any harmful reducing agents, such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4 or hydroxylamine hydrochloride and any special capping or dispersing agent. Vitamin B2 was used as reducing agent as well as capping agent due to its high-water solubility, biodegradability, and low-toxicity compared with other reducing agents. The average particle size of nanoprticle was found to be Ag (average size 6.1±0.1 nm and Pd (average size 4.1±0.1 nm nanoparticles in ethylene glycol and Ag (average size 5.9±0.1 nm, and average size 6.1±0.1 nanoparticles in acetic acid and NMP, respectively. The formation of noble multiple shape nanostructures and their self assembly were dependent on the solvent employed for the preparation. When water was used as solvent media, Ag and Pd nanoparticles started to self-assemble into rod-like structures and in isopropanol Ag and Pd nanoparticles yielded wire-like structures with a thickness in the range of 10 to 20 nm and several hundred microns in length. In acetone and acetonitrile medium, the Ag and Pd nanoparticles are self-assembled into a regular pattern making nanorod structures with thicknesses ranging from 100 to 200 nm and lengths of a few microns. The so-synthesized nanostructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis, and UV spectroscopy. The ensuing Ag and Pd nanoparticles catalyzed the reactions of aniline and pyrrole to generate polyaniline and polypyrrole nanofibers and may find various technological and biological applications. This single-step greener approach is general and can be extended to other noble metals and transition metal oxides.

  6. Critical current of Nb-(Nb/Pd{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.05})-Nb Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavra, O.; Meindl, W.; Strunk, C.

    2008-07-01

    The antagonism of superconductivity and magnetism is investigated by fabricating Nb based Josephson Junction with lateral weak links consisting of Nb-Pd{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.05} bi-layers with lengths between 200 and 500 nm. The critical current (I{sub C}) of the Nb-Pd{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.05} bi-layer is found to be significantly reduced by the weak ferromagnetism in the Pd{sub 0.95}eFe{sub 0.05} alloy. We have studied the temperature and magnetic field (B) dependencies of the critical current. In magnetic field an irregular supercurrent interference pattern I{sub C}(B) is observed. The shape of the I{sub C}(B) oscillations is similar to that observed for grain boundary junctions between cuprate superconductors. We also investigate the dependence of I{sub C}(B) oscillations on the orientation of the magnetic field.

  7. Transcriptional patterns in peritoneal tissue of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis, a complication of chronic peritoneal dialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian R Reimold

    Full Text Available Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS is a devastating complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD, characterized by marked inflammation and severe fibrosis of the peritoneum, and associated with high morbidity and mortality. EPS can occur years after termination of PD and, in severe cases, leads to intestinal obstruction and ileus requiring surgical intervention. Despite ongoing research, the pathogenesis of EPS remains unclear. We performed a global transcriptome analysis of peritoneal tissue specimens from EPS patients, PD patients without EPS, and uremic patients without history of PD or EPS (Uremic. Unsupervised and supervised bioinformatics analysis revealed distinct transcriptional patterns that discriminated these three clinical groups. The analysis identified a signature of 219 genes expressed differentially in EPS as compared to PD and Uremic groups. Canonical pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes showed enrichment in several pathways, including antigen presentation, dendritic cell maturation, B cell development, chemokine signaling and humoral and cellular immunity (P value<0.05. Further interactive network analysis depicted effects of EPS-associated genes on networks linked to inflammation, immunological response, and cell proliferation. Gene expression changes were confirmed by qRT-PCR for a subset of the differentially expressed genes. EPS patient tissues exhibited elevated expression of genes encoding sulfatase1, thrombospondin 1, fibronectin 1 and alpha smooth muscle actin, among many others, while in EPS and PD tissues mRNAs encoding leptin and retinol-binding protein 4 were markedly down-regulated, compared to Uremic group patients. Immunolocalization of Collagen 1 alpha 1 revealed that Col1a1 protein was predominantly expressed in the submesothelial compact zone of EPS patient peritoneal samples, whereas PD patient peritoneal samples exhibited homogenous Col1a1 staining throughout the tissue samples. The results are

  8. Enhancement of PSMA-Directed CAR Adoptive Immunotherapy by PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Serganova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cell therapy in hematologic malignancies has shown remarkable responses, but the same level of success has not been observed in solid tumors. A new prostate cancer model (Myc-CaP:PSMA(+ and a second-generation anti-hPSMA human CAR T cells expressing a Click Beetle Red luciferase reporter were used to study hPSMA targeting and assess CAR T cell trafficking and persistence by bioluminescence imaging (BLI. We investigated the antitumor efficacy of human CAR T cells targeting human prostate-specific membrane antigen (hPSMA, in the presence and absence of the target antigen; first alone and then combined with a monoclonal antibody targeting the human programmed death receptor 1 (anti-hPD1 mAb. PDL-1 expression was detected in Myc-CaP murine prostate tumors growing in immune competent FVB/N and immune-deficient SCID mice. Endogenous CD3+ T cells were restricted from the centers of Myc-CaP tumor nodules growing in FVB/N mice. Following anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1 treatment, the restriction of CD3+ T cells was reversed, and a tumor-treatment response was observed. Adoptive hPSMA-CAR T cell immunotherapy was enhanced when combined with PD-1 blockade, but the treatment response was of comparatively short duration, suggesting other immune modulation mechanisms exist and restrict CAR T cell targeting, function, and persistence in hPSMA expressing Myc-CaP tumors. Interestingly, an “inverse pattern” of CAR T cell BLI intensity was observed in control and test tumors, which suggests CAR T cells undergo changes leading to a loss of signal and/or number following hPSMA-specific activation. The lower BLI signal intensity in the hPSMA test tumors (compared with controls is due in part to a decrease in T cell mitochondrial function following T cell activation, which may limit the intensity of the ATP-dependent Luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence signal.

  9. Pd Nanoparticles Coupled to WO2.72 Nanorods for Enhanced Electrochemical Oxidation of Formic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zheng; Erdosy, Daniel P; Mendoza-Garcia, Adriana; Duchesne, Paul N; Li, Junrui; Muzzio, Michelle; Li, Qing; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Shouheng

    2017-04-12

    We synthesize a new type of hybrid Pd/WO2.72 structure with 5 nm Pd nanoparticles (NPs) anchored on 50 × 5 nm WO2.72 nanorods. The strong Pd/WO2.72 coupling results in the lattice expansion of Pd from 0.23 to 0.27 nm and the decrease of Pd surface electron density. As a result, the Pd/WO2.72 shows much enhanced catalysis toward electrochemical oxidation of formic acid in 0.1 M HClO4; it has a mass activity of ∼1600 mA/mgPd in a broad potential range of 0.4-0.85 V (vs RHE) and shows no obvious activity loss after a 12 h chronoamperometry test at 0.4 V. Our work demonstrates an important strategy to enhance Pd NP catalyst efficiency for energy conversion reactions.

  10. Trapping of Mobile Pt Species by PdO Nanoparticles under Oxidizing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Cristihan; Johns, Tyne R; Xiong, Haifeng; DeLaRiva, Andrew; Challa, Sivakumar R; Goeke, Ronald S; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Li, Wei; Kim, Chang H; Datye, Abhaya K

    2014-06-19

    Pt is an active catalyst for diesel exhaust catalysis but is known to sinter and form large particles under oxidizing conditions. Pd is added to improve the performance of the Pt catalysts. To investigate the role of Pd, we introduced metallic Pt nanoparticles via physical vapor deposition to a sample containing PdO nanoparticles. When the catalyst was aged in air, the Pt particles disappeared, and the Pt was captured by the PdO, forming bimetallic Pt-Pd nanoparticles. The formation of metallic Pt-Pd alloys under oxidizing conditions is indeed remarkable but is consistent with bulk thermodynamics. The results show that mobile Pt species are effectively trapped by PdO, representing a novel mechanism by which Ostwald ripening is slowed down. The results have implications for the development of sinter-resistant catalysts and help explain the improved performance and durability of Pt-Pd in automotive exhaust catalytic converters.

  11. Performance increase of microfluidic formic acid fuel cell using Pd/MWCNTs as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Acosta, D.; Rodriguez G., H.; Godinez, Luis A.; Arriaga, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S.C. Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila, P.O. Box 064, Pedro Escobedo, 76703 Queretaro (Mexico)

    2010-04-02

    This paper shows that the combination of an O{sub 2} saturated acidic fluid setup (O{sub 2}-setup) and a composite of Pd nanoparticles supported on multiwalled-carbon nanotubes (Pd/MWCNTs) as anode catalyst material, results in the improvement of microfluidic fuel cell performance. Microfluidic fuel cells were constructed and evaluated at low HCOOH concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 M) using Pd/V XC-72 and Pd/MWCNTs as anode and Pt/V XC-72 as cathode electrode materials, respectively. The results show a higher power density (2.9 mW cm{sup -2}) for this cell when compared to the value reported in the literature that considers a commercial Pd/V XC-72 and 3.3 mW cm{sup -2} using a Pd/MWCNTs with a 50% less Pd loading than that commercial Pd/V XC-72. (author)

  12. PD-L1 expression by neurons nearby tumors indicates better prognosis in glioblastoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawei; Carlsson, Robert; Ambjørn, Malene

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive form of brain tumor. In general, tumor growth requires disruption of the tissue microenvironment, yet how this affects glioma progression is unknown. We studied program death-ligand (PD-L)1 in neurons and gliomas in tumors from GBM patients...... and associated the findings with clinical outcome. Remarkably, we found that upregulation of PD-L1 by neurons in tumor-adjacent brain tissue (TABT) associated positively with GBM patient survival, whereas lack of neuronal PD-L1 expression was associated with high PD-L1 in tumors and unfavorable prognosis...... in GBM patients, better survival in wild-type mice was associated with high neuronal PD-L1 in TABT and downregulation of PD-L1 in tumors, which was defective in Ifnb-/- mice. Our data indicated that neuronal PD-L1 signaling in brain cells was important for GBM patient survival. Reciprocal PD-L1...

  13. TPO characterization of ethanol reduced Pd nanoparticles supported on SiO$_{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Horváth, A; Sarkany, A; Guczi, L

    2002-01-01

    Silica-supported Pd catalysts were prepared at 298-353 K from Pd(II) chloride or Pd(II) acetate in suspension of SiO/sub 2/ and ethanol- water or ethanol-toluene mixtures, respectively. Reduction of Pd ions diffusing from liquid phase was ensured in an ethanol-rich adsorption layer covering the SiO/sub 2/ particles. Temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) measurements were performed to characterize the organic impurities retained by solid phase. Vapour phase reduction /adsorption experiments with ethanol confirmed that under the reported reduction conditions, the Pd nanoparticles decompose ethanol and the CO formed remains chemisorbed on the Pd sites. Upon contacting the samples with air during the drying process to eliminate the solvent, the CO molecules are immediately removed from Pd sites by O/sub 2/, and thereby, a significant fraction (22-34%) of Pd sites becomes accessible for catalytic reactions. (33 refs).

  14. Catalytic behavior and reaction routes of MEK oxidation over Pd/ZSM-5 and Pd-Ce/ZSM-5 catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lin; He, Chi; Zhang, Xinyan; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Hailin; Hao, Zhengping

    2013-01-15

    Catalytic oxidation is a widely used pollution control technology for removing volatile organic compounds. Pd-Ce/ZSM-5 catalysts with different Ce contents were prepared by a co-impregnation method, and their catalytic performance was investigated for the oxidation of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). The by-products of the reaction were monitored using gas chromatography and collected in thermal desorption tubes, which were further analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The PdCe(9.6)/ZSM-5 catalyst displayed the highest catalytic efficiency, as a consequence of a higher amount of strong acid sites and a superior PdO-Pd redox cycle in the presence of a CeO(2) additive. The introduction of CeO(2) enriched the by-product species. The formation mechanisms and oxidation routes of typical by-products, such as methyl acetate, 1-penten-3-one and 3-buten-2-one, 3-methyl, during MEK oxidation over Pd-Ce/ZSM-5 catalysts was also analyzed. CH(3)* species that formed on the catalyst were identified as reaction intermediaries. Trace amounts of acetic acid and methyl vinyl ketone were also detected and were further oxidized to methyl acetate, 1-penten-3-one and 3-buten-2-one, 3-methyl. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and properties of bulk metallic glasses in Pd-Ni-P and Pd-Cu-P alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.; Schwarz, R.B.

    1996-11-01

    Bulk amorphous Pd-Ni-P and Pd-Cu-P alloy rods with diameters 7-25 mm were synthesized over a wide composition range using a fluxing technique. For most bulk amorphous Pd-Ni-P alloys, the difference {Delta}T=T{sub x}-T{sub g} between the crystallization temperature T{sub x} and the glass transition temperature T{sub g} is larger than 90 K, while for bulk amorphous Pd-Cu-P alloys, {Delta}T varies from 27 to 73 K. Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} has the highest glass formability, and 300-g bulk amorphous cylinders, 25mm dia and 50mm long, can be easily produced. This size is not an upper limit. The paper presents the glass formation ranges for both ternary alloy systems and data on the thermal stability of the amorphous alloys, as well as their specific heat, density, and elastic properties.

  16. Nanoscale patterning of complex magnetic nanostructures by reduction with low-energy protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghoon; Lee, Soogil; Ko, Jungho; Son, Jangyup; Kim, Minseok; Kang, Shinill; Hong, Jongill

    2012-09-01

    Techniques that can produce patterns with nanoscale details on surfaces have a central role in the development of new electronic, optical and magnetic devices and systems. High-energy ion irradiation can produce nanoscale patterns on ferromagnetic films by destroying the structure of layers or interfaces, but this approach can damage the film and introduce unwanted defects. Moreover, ferromagnetic nanostructures that have been patterned by ion irradiation often interfere with unpatterned regions through exchange interactions, which results in a loss of control over magnetization switching. Here, we demonstrate that low-energy proton irradiation can pattern an array of 100-nm-wide single ferromagnetic domains by reducing [Co(3)O(4)/Pd](10) (a paramagnetic oxide) to produce [Co/Pd](10) (a ferromagnetic metal). Moreover, there are no exchange interactions in the final superlattice, and the ions have a minimal impact on the overall structure, so the interfaces between alternate layers of cobalt (which are 0.6 nm thick) and palladium (1.0 nm) remain intact. This allows the reduced [Co/Pd](10) superlattice to produce a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy that is stronger than that observed in the metallic [Co/Pd](10) superlattices we prepared for reference. We also demonstrate that our non-destructive approach can reduce CoFe(2)O(4) to metallic CoFe.

  17. Differential Effects of Sexual Composition and Interactional Context on Interaction Patterns in Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, B. Aubrey

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the impact of sexual composition and competitive/cooperative orientation on interaction patterns in same-sex and mixed-sex dyads. Found that the competitive or cooperative orientation of the interactants exerts a far greater impact on the communication behavior of dyads than does their sexual composition. (PD)

  18. Patterns of Lung Volume Use during an Extemporaneous Speech Task in Persons with Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunton, K.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined patterns of lung volume use in speakers with Parkinson disease (PD) during an extemporaneous speaking task. The performance of a control group was also examined. Behaviors described are based on acoustic, kinematic and linguistic measures. Group differences were found in breath group duration, lung volume initiation, and lung…

  19. Analysis of Insulating Material of XLPE Cables considering Innovative Patterns of Partial Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Figueroa Godoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the quality of insulation in high voltage underground cables XLPE using a prototype which classifies the following usual types of patterns of partial discharge (PD: (1 internal PD, (2 superficial PD, (3 corona discharge in air, and (4 corona discharge in oil, in addition to considering two new PD patterns: (1 false contact and (2 floating ground. The tests and measurements to obtain the patterns and study cases of partial discharges were performed at the Testing Laboratory Equipment and Materials (LEPEM of the Federal Electricity Commission of Mexico (CFE using a measuring equipment LDIC and norm IEC60270. To classify the six patterns of partial discharges mentioned above a Probabilistic Neural Network Bayesian Modified (PNNBM method having the feature of using a large amount of data will be used and it is not saturated. In addition, PNN converges, always finding a solution in a short period of time with low computational cost. The insulation of two high voltage cables with different characteristics was analyzed. The test results allow us to conclude which wire has better insulation.

  20. Crystallization in Pd40Ni40P20 glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Saksl, K.; Nishiyama, N.

    2002-01-01

    Phase segregation and the effect of pressure on crystallization of bulk and ribbon Pd40Ni40P20 glasses have been studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffraction. The DSC measurements show only one glass transition event in the samples annealed at different...... temperatures in the supercooled liquid region. Phase analyses reveal at least five crystalline phases crystallized from the glass: monoclinic; body-centered tetragonal; orthorhombic; Ni2Pd2P and fcc-(Ni,Pd) solid solution phases. In the pressure range from 0 to 4.2 GPa, the crystallization temperature...... increases with pressure having a slope of 11 K/GPa. The eutectic crystallization reaction mode and crystalline phases formed are unchanged in the pressure range used. The enhancement of the crystallization temperature with increasing pressure in the glass can be explained by the suppression of atomic...

  1. Highly efficient catalytic systems based on Pd-coated microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Hyun; Cho, Ahyoung; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Bumkyo; Kang, Dong Woo; Koo, Chong Min; Yu, Taekyung; Park, Bum Jun

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of two prototype catalysis systems using palladium (Pd)-coated microparticles was investigated with regard to the recovery and recyclability of the catalytic particles. One such system was the interface-adsorption method, in which polymer particles coated with Pd nanoparticles strongly and irreversibly attach to the oil-water interface. Due to the irreversible adsorption of the catalytic particles to the interface, particle loss was completely prevented while mixing the aqueous solution and while collecting the products. The other system was based on the magnetic field-associated particle recovery method. The use of polymeric microparticles containing Pd nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles accelerated the sedimentation of the particles in the aqueous phase by applying a strong magnetic field, consequently suppressing drainage of the particles from the reactor along the product stream. Upon multiple runs of the catalytic reactions, it was found that conversion does not change significantly, demonstrating the excellent recyclability and performance efficiency in the catalytic processes.

  2. Development of Pd-based membranes as hydrogen diffusion anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Rosa; Oliveira, M. Cristina F. [Centro de Quimica de Vila Real, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, Vila Real (Portugal); Esparbe, Isaac; Cabot, Pere L. [Laboartori de Ciencia i Tecnologia Electroquimica de Materials, Department de Quimica-Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-04-15

    Pd-based membranes have been prepared by Pd electroless deposition on porous stainless steel substrate and their structure, composition, morphology and thickness were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), EDS and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The performance of these membranes as hydrogen diffusion electrodes was evaluated in a three-electrode cell in alkaline medium. The activity towards hydrogen oxidation was high at the beginning of the experiment, but it significantly decreased with time. The major cause of this phenomenon has been attributed to the slow entry of hydrogen at the H{sub 2}/Pd interface. Even so, the technical feasibility of using these membranes as gas diffusion electrodes (GDE) has been proven. (author)

  3. Performance of the PdNi and PdNiSe as cathodes in PEM fuel cells; Desempeno de PdNi y PdNiSe como catodos en celdas de combustible tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, A.; Ramos-Sanchez, G.; Vazquez, G.; Solorza-Feria, O. [Centro de Investigaciones y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: gramos@cinvestav.mx

    2009-09-15

    The search for new materials capable of catalyzing oxygen reactions in low temperature fuel cells continues to be one of the key issues in the development of a hydrogen economy. Electrochemical and physical characterization studies have demonstrated that the PdNi and PdNiSe catalysts have adequate properties for use as cathodes in fuel cells. Nevertheless, the performance of the materials in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells depends not only on the catalytic properties but also on the adequate preparation of the electrocatalyst membrane interface (EMI). This work presents the results of the search for optimal conditions to prepare the EMIs with PdNi and PdNiSe cathodes. There are many variables for handling the preparation of the interfaces, nevertheless our search focuses on two: catalyst ratio/Vulcan Carbon® and the catalyst amount. Interfaces were prepared with an active area of 5 cm{sup 2} with PdNi and PdNiSe cathodes and carbon fabric anode with Pt E-tek®. These interfaces were tested with an ElectroChem model under different gas pressure and temperature conditions. The optimization method was carried out using a simplex method with the variables mentioned above and power density per unit mass and catalyst area as response variables. [Spanish] La busqueda de nuevos materiales capaces de catalizar la Reaccion de Oxigeno (RRO) en celdas de combustible de baja temperatura, sigue siendo uno de los temas clave para el desarrollo de una Economia del Hidrogeno. Estudios electroquimicos y de caracterizacion fisica han demostrado que los catalizadores PdNi y PdNiSe, tienen las propiedades adecuadas para poder ser utilizados como catodos en celdas de combustible; sin embargo el desempeno de los materiales en celdas de combustible de membrana de intercambio protonico (PEM), no solo depende de las propiedades del catalizador, sino tambien de la preparacion adecuada del Ensamble Membrana Electrocatalizador (EME). En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la

  4. Characteristic patterns of cerebral blood perfusion and cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinsons disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. J.; Park, M. J.; Cha, J. G.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, J. W.; Kang, D. Y. [Dong-A University College of medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Parkinsons disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that represents cognitive impairment as well as motor symptoms. Even in the early stages of PD, cognitive alterations can be demonstrated by careful neuropsychological test. The purposes of this study are to investigate the pattern of cognitive impairment and the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in patients with PD. One hundred and twenty two patients with PD and 35 control subjects participated in this study. Patients with PD who had dementia clinically or K-MMSE score below 25 points or with severe motor dysfunction to interfere with the tests were also excluded. They were all matched for age (61{+-}10 vs 61{+-}8), education periods (8.8{+-}4.9 vs 8.8{+-}4.5), and K-MMSE score (27{+-}1.6 vs 27{+-}1.5). All subjects were evaluated using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) and Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT with SPM software to measure rCBF. Patients with PD performed worse in digit span backward, Rey Complex Figure Test, visual memory, semantic fluency, stroop test, and alternating hand movement test(p<0.05) compared with control group. On SNSB test, 100 patients (82.0%) showed some abnormalities. Eighty-six patients (70.5%) showed frontal dysfunction, 47 (38.5%) memory impairment, 33 (27.0%) language dysfunction, 25 (20.5%) attention deficit and 22 (18.3%) visuospatial dysfunction in the order of frequency. Eight patients with PD showed single memory domain MCI and 28 single non-memory domain MCI (20 frontal dysfunction). Multiple domain MCI was found in 64 patients with PD. SPM analysis of the SPECT image revealed multiple perfusion deficit in the both frontal, temporal, both limbic lobes, Lt. parietal and Lt. Putamen. It is concluded that abnormalities of cognitive function be detected very commonly in patients with PD. MCI in PD patients is most frequently involved in the item of frontal lobe function. SPECT image might be helpful to explain cognitive impairment in some

  5. [Neonatal screening of G6PD deficiency in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guellouz, N; Ben Mansour, I; Ouederni, M; Jabnoun, S; Kacem, S; Mokrani, Ch; Kastally, R; Chahed, M K; Khrouf, N

    2010-01-01

    The Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PI) deficiency is the most common enzymopathy worldwide. WHO had classified Tunisia among countries that are moderately affected by this affection. However, no mass-screening reflecting the real incidence was realized. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of this enzymopathy and its molecular basis in Tunisia. A total of 1102 neonates, born in CMNT center of Maternity and of Neonatology of Tunis during the going periods from April, 2005 till May, 2005 and from June, 2006 till September, 2006, have been enclosed in the study. The samplings included 953peripheral venous blood and 149 blood cordon. Among 1102 samplings, only 976 were of use to the screening. In our mass-screening, we consider all newborns that were born in the CMNT during the period of study and were included in the screening. A dosage of the enzymatic activity was realized using spectrophotometric method. G6PD electrophoresis and molecular study by PCR/RFLP were realized for the overdrawn newborn children. Among 976 screening neonates, 43 individuals (4.4%) were found to be G6PD deficient by quantitative enzyme assay. Newborn affected were distributed in 23 boys and 20 girls (sex ratio of 1.15). The electrophoretic mobility and the molecular biology were realized for the affected newborn. Molecular characterization of 30 G6PD deficient neonates revealed that the G6PD A- was the most common and was detected in 20 of 43 individuals (66.7%), followed by G6PD Mediterranean that was detected in 6 (13.3%). At least, 4 other unknown mutations were not able to be determined by PCR/RFLP (n=4). In conclusion G6PD deficiency is frequent in our country, justifying a systematic neonatal screening, to avoid the arisen of grave consequences of this affection. The African variant is the most frequent in our country followed by the Mediterranean one.

  6. PD-L1 expression in human cancers and its association with clinical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Xin Wang,1,2,* Feifei Teng,2,3,* Li Kong,2 Jinming Yu2 1School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan – Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, 3School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: PD-L1 is an immunoinhibitory molecule that suppresses the activation of T cells, leading to the progression of tumors. Overexpression of PD-L1 in cancers such as gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, and bladder cancer is associated with poor clinical outcomes. In contrast, PD-L1 expression correlates with better clinical outcomes in breast cancer and merkel cell carcinoma. The prognostic value of PD-L1 expression in lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and melanoma is controversial. Blocking antibodies that target PD-1 and PD-L1 have achieved remarkable response rates in cancer patients who have PD-L1-overexpressing tumors. However, using PD-L1 as an exclusive predictive biomarker for cancer immunotherapy is questionable due to the low accuracy of PD-L1 immunohistochemistry staining. Factors that affect the accuracy of PD-L1 immunohistochemistry staining are as follows. First, antibodies used in different studies have different sensitivity. Second, in different studies, the cut-off value of PD-L1 staining positivity is different. Third, PD-L1 expression in tumors is not uniform, and sampling time and location may affect the results of PD-L1 staining. Therefore, better understanding of tumor microenvironment and use of other biomarkers such as gene marker and combined index are necessary to better identify patients who will benefit from PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint blockade therapy. Keywords: PD-L1, prognostic value, checkpoint blockade, immunotherapy, clinical outcome 

  7. Determination of Core-Shell Structures in Pd-Hg Nanoparticles by STEM-EDX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deiana, Davide; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Malacrida, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The structural and elemental configuration of a high-performing Pd-Hg electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction to hydrogen peroxide has been studied by means of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Pd-Hg nanoparticles are shown to have a crystalline core-shell structure, with a Pd...... core and a Pd-Hg ordered alloy shell. The ordered shell is responsible for the high oxygen reduction selectivity to H2O2....

  8. PD-1/PD-L1 blockade enhances the efficacy of SA-GM-CSF surface-modified tumor vaccine in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xinji; Li, Jinlong; Zhao, Hongfan; Mo, Lijun; Shi, Xianghua; Hu, Zhiming; Gao, Jimin; Tan, Wanlong

    2017-10-10

    Program death receptor-1 (PD-1)/program death ligand 1 (PD-L1) signaling plays an important role in tumor adaptive immune resistance. The streptavidin-granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (SA-GM-CSF) surface-modified tumor cells vaccine developed through our novel protein-anchor technology could significantly promote the activation of dendritic cells. Although GM-CSF vaccine could significantly increase the number of tumor-specific CD8+T-cells, the majority of these CD8+T-cells expressed PD-1. Moreover, GM-CSF vaccine up-regulated the PD-L1 expression of tumor cells, resulting in immune resistance. Adding PD-1/PD-L1 blockade to GM-CSF vaccine therapy could significantly increase the population of CD4+ T, CD8+ T and CD8+ IFN-γ+ T but not CD4+ Foxp3+ T-cells and induced the highest production of IFN-γ. PD-1/PD-L1 blockade could effectively rescue the tumor-specific T lymphocytes generated by the GM-CSF vaccine, resulting in consistent tumor rejection. Taken together, PD-1/PD-L1 blockade combined with SA-GM-CSF-modified vaccine could effectively induce a strong specific antitumor immune response against prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Photoelectrochemical properties of palladium sulfide (PdS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macia, M.D.; Diaz-Chao, P.; Clamagirand, J.; Ares, J.R.; Ferrer, I.J.; Sanchez, C. [UAM, Madrid (Spain). Laboratoria de Materiales de Interes en Energias Renovables

    2010-07-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of PdS films has been studied in 1M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3} solution. Photoelectrochemical characterization of polycrystalline PdS thin films have been carried out in the potential range -200mV

  10. Pd/C Catalysis under Microwave Dielectric Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted organic synthesis (MAOS provides a novel and efficient means of achieving heat organic reactions. Nevertheless, the potential arcing phenomena via microwave (MW interaction with solid metal catalysts has limited its use by organic chemists. As arcing phenomena are now better understood, new applications of Pd/C-catalyzed reactions under MW dielectric heating are now possible. In this review, the state of the art, benefits, and challenges of coupling MW heating with heterogeneous Pd/C catalysis are discussed to inform organic chemists about their use with one of the most popular heterogeneous catalysts.

  11. Surface, segregation profile for Ni50Pd50(100)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    A recent dynamical LEED study [G.N. Derry, C.B. McVey, P.J. Rous, Surf. Sci. 326 (1995) 59] reported an oscillatory surface segregation profile in the Ni50Pd50(100) system with the surface layer enriched by Pd. We have performed ab-initio total-energy calculations for the surface of this alloy...... system using the coherent potential approximation and obtain an oscillatory segregation profile, in agreement with experiments. We discuss the energetic origin of the oscillatory segregation profile in terms of effective cluster interactions. We include relaxation effects by means of the semi...

  12. Predictive Maintenance (PdM) Centralization for Significant Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Dale

    2010-09-15

    Cost effective predictive maintenance (PdM) technologies and basic energy calculations can mine energy savings form processes or maintenance activities. Centralizing and packaging this information correctly empowers facility maintenance and reliability professionals to build financial justification and support for strategies and personnel to weather global economic downturns and competition. Attendees will learn how to: Systematically build a 'pilot project' for applying PdM and tracking systems; Break down a typical electrical bill to calculate energy savings; Use return on investment (ROI) calculations to identify the best and highest value options, strategies and tips for substantiating your energy reduction maintenance strategies.

  13. In situ spectroscopy of complex surface reactions on supported Pd-Zn, Pd-Ga, and Pd(Pt)-Cu nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föttinger, Karin; Rupprechter, Günther

    2014-10-21

    It is well accepted that catalytically active surfaces frequently adapt to the reaction environment (gas composition, temperature) and that relevant "active phases" may only be created and observed during the ongoing reaction. Clearly, this requires the application of in situ spectroscopy to monitor catalysts at work. While changes in structure and composition may already occur for monometallic single crystal surfaces, such changes are typically more severe for oxide supported nanoparticles, in particular when they are composed of two metals. The metals may form ordered intermetallic compounds (e.g. PdZn on ZnO, Pd2Ga on Ga2O3) or disordered substitutional alloys (e.g. PdCu, PtCu on hydrotalcite). We discuss the formation and stability of bimetallic nanoparticles, focusing on the effect of atomic and electronic structure on catalytic selectivity for methanol steam reforming (MSR) and hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene. Emphasis is placed on the in situ characterization of functioning catalysts, mainly by (polarization modulated) infrared spectroscopy, ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure, and X-ray diffraction. In the present contribution, we pursue a two-fold, fundamental and applied, approach investigating technologically applied catalysts as well as model catalysts, which provides comprehensive and complementary information of the relevant surface processes at the atomic or molecular level. Comparison to results of theoretical simulations yields further insight. Several key aspects were identified that control the nanoparticle functionality: (i) alloying (IMC formation) leads to site isolation of specific (e.g. Pd) atoms but also yields very specific electronic structure due to the (e.g. Zn or Ga or Cu) neighboring atoms; (i) for intermetallic PdZn, the thickness of the surface alloy, and its resulting valence band structure and corrugation, turned out to be critical for MSR selectivity; (ii) the limited

  14. PD-L1-Expressing Dendritic Cells Contribute to Viral Resistance during Acute HSV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M. Bryant-Hudson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory receptor, Programmed Death 1 (PD-1, and its ligands (PD-L1/PD-L2 are thought to play a role in immune surveillance during chronic viral infection. The contribution of the receptor/ligand pair during an acute infection is less understood. To determine the role of PD-L1 and PD-L2 during acute ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection, HSV-1-infected mice administered neutralizing antibody to PD-L1 or PD-L2 were assessed for viral burden and host cellular immune responses. Virus titers were elevated in cornea and trigeminal ganglia (TG of anti-PD-L1-treated mice which corresponded with a reduced number of CD80-expressing dendritic cells, PD-L1+ dendritic cells, and HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cells within the draining (mandibular lymph node (MLN. In contrast, anti-PD-L2 treatment had no effect on viral replication or changes in the MLN population. Notably, analysis of CD11c-enriched MLN cells from anti-PD-L1-treated mice revealed impaired functional capabilities. These studies indicate PD-L1-expressing dendritic cells are important for antiviral defense during acute HSV-1 infection.

  15. Spontaneous dispersion of PdO onto acid sites of zeolites studied by in situ DXAFS

    CERN Document Server

    Okumura, K; Niwa, M; Yokota, S; Kato, K; Tanida, H; Uruga, T

    2003-01-01

    The generation of highly dispersed PdO over zeolite supports was studied using in situ energy-dispersive XAFS (DXAFS) technique. From the comparison with the Na-ZSM-5, it was found that the oxidation as well as the spontaneous dispersion of Pd was promoted through the interaction between PdO and acid sites of H-form zeolites. (author)

  16. Common mutations in G6PD of Vietnamese-Kinh deficient patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DANG THI LAN ANH

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... This study was conducted to identify the common mutations occurring within the G6PD gene in the G6PD -. Vietnamese deficient patients, which may be the main causative mutations of the G6PD deficiency in. Vietnamese-kinh. Sequencing was performed to detect mutations in the coding region of G6PD ...

  17. Pd nanoclusters in C-C coupling reaction: proof of leaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thathagar, Mehul B.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2006-01-01

    A simple experiment based on exclusion of Pd nanoclusters was used to identify the true catalytic species in cluster-catalyzed Heck cross-couplings. A special reactor was used in which two compartments are separated by a nanoporous membrane that allows the passage of Pd atoms and ions but not of Pd

  18. Molecular epidemiology and activity of erythrocyte G6PD variants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: G6PD deficiency was 23.9% and 4.6% in males and females respectively. The gene frequencies of the different G6PD variants (Gd) were in accordance with expected Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium. Only GdA-1 type was found in subjects with deficient variants. G6PD activity decreased significantly with age among ...

  19. Viral acute lower respiratory infections impair CD8+ T cells through PD-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, John J; Gilchuk, Pavlo; Hastings, Andrew K; Tollefson, Sharon J; Johnson, Monika; Downing, Melissa B; Boyd, Kelli L; Johnson, Joyce E; Kim, Annette S; Joyce, Sebastian; Williams, John V

    2012-08-01

    Viruses are leading causes of severe acute lower respiratory infections (LRIs). These infections evoke incomplete immunity, as individuals can be repeatedly reinfected throughout life. We report that acute viral LRI causes rapid pulmonary CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (TCD8) functional impairment via programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) signaling, a pathway previously associated with prolonged antigenic stimulation during chronic infections and cancer. PD-1-mediated TCD8 impairment occurred acutely in mice following infection with human metapneumovirus or influenza virus. Viral antigen was sufficient for PD-1 upregulation, but induction of PD-L1 was required for impairment. During secondary viral infection or epitope-only challenge, memory TCD8 rapidly reexpressed PD-1 and exhibited severe functional impairment. Inhibition of PD-1 signaling using monoclonal antibody blockade prevented TCD8 impairment, reduced viral titers during primary infection, and enhanced protection of immunized mice against challenge infection. Additionally, PD-1 and PD-L1 were upregulated in the lungs of patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, or parainfluenza virus infection. These results indicate that PD-1 mediates TCD8 functional impairment during acute viral infection and may contribute to recurrent viral LRIs. Therefore, the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may represent a therapeutic target in the treatment of respiratory viruses.

  20. [Expression of Hydrodynamic Injection-mediated PD-L1 in Myeloablative Conditioning Mouse Model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Fan; Li, Nai-Nong; Yang, Feng-E; Chen, Yuan-Zhong

    2015-10-01

    To establish the mouse model for the expression of PD-L1 by hydrodynamic injection and to study the effects of myeloablative conditioning on hydrodynamic injection-mediated PD-L1 expression. Plasmid amplification, hydrodynamic injection, collagenase perfusion, real time PCR, ELISA and flow cytometry were applied to test the expression and function of PD-L1. Also, animal models were set up to test the effects of chemical or radiactive myeloablative conditioning on hydrodynamic injection-mediated PD-L1 expression. The expression of PD-L1 mRNA and protein could be detected as early as 8 h after hyrodynamic injection and reached peak expression by 24 h, and returned to baseline level by 7 d after injection. Serum PD-L1 level reached to 100 µg/ml as early as 24 h after injection and plateaued at 7 d after injection. Serum PD-L1 persisted for 3 weeks and declined to baseline after 1 month of hydrodynamic injection. The PD-L1 function induced by hydrodynamic injection was consistent with literature reports. At each time point, the PD-L1 expression was not different significantly between the myeloablative conditioning group and control group; the mice transfected with PD-L1 showed a higher survival rate than that in control group. Myeloablative conditioning does not affect hydrodynamic injection-mediated PD-L1 expression, indicating that the PD-L1 can be used in HSCT mouse model.

  1. Patterns of disability, care needs, and quality of life of people with Parkinson's disease in a general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terriff, D L; Williams, J V A; Patten, S B; Lavorato, D H; Bulloch, A G M

    2012-08-01

    To quantify patterns of disability, care needs, and quality of life in a national community-dwelling sample of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) in Canada. Data from Statistics Canada's Participation and Activity Limitations Survey was used in the analysis. This survey is a post-censual survey that collected data from 28,630 household residents with reported activity limitations in the 2006 Canadian census. Frequencies of specific impairments and care needs as well as mean quality of life ratings were estimated. These estimates were adjusted for age and sex using linear regression modeling. Sampling weights were used to adjust for design effects, ensuring that the estimates were representative of the national population. The estimated prevalence of PD was 0.1% (100 per 100,000 people), consistent with previous estimates. People with PD reported a significantly elevated prevalence of mobility (88.5%), communication (47.9%), pain (68.6%), memory (26.2%) and seeing (47.7%) limitations relative to those with disabilities of other origins. Significantly more people with PD required help with instrumental activities of daily living and activities of daily living. Health related quality of life, measured by the health utility index, was significantly lower in people with PD (mean value 0.46) compared to disabled people without PD (mean value 0.70). People living in the community with PD have a significant burden of disability. Health related quality of life is also quite poor in people with PD compared to other disabled populations. This study helps to quantify the significant care needs of people with PD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacterial colonization patterns in daily chlorhexidine care at the exit site in peritoneal dialysis patients—A prospective, randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hsi-Hao; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Chang, Min-Yu; Lee, Yi-Che; Lin, Hsiu-Fang; Lin, Tsun-Mei; Yang, Su-Pen; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Yang, Su-Ching; Wang, Jiun-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial colonization patterns in daily chlorhexidine care at the exit site in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients were not known. We performed a prospective, randomized controlled trial enrolling 89 PD patients. After stratification by initial Staphylococcus aureus (SA) carrier status, patients were randomly assigned to receive daily 4% chlorhexidine care (intervention group) or normal saline (control group) at the exit site. Monthly, we cultured bacteria from the exit site and nasal swabs fo...

  3. Effect of nanoparticle (Pd, Pd/Pt, Ni deposition on high temperature hydrogenation of Ti-V alloys in gaseous flow containing CO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suwarno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogenation properties of Ti-V hydrides coated with nanoparticles have been studied in gaseous mixtures of argon and hydrogen with and without additions of 1% CO. Nanoparticles of Pd, Ni, and co-deposited Pd/Pt with particle sizes of ~30–60 nm were formed by electroless deposition on the hydride surfaces. The alloy resistance to CO could be significantly improved by particle deposition. Large amounts of hydrogen were absorbed in a CO-containing gas when Ni and Pd/Pt deposition had been applied, while pure Pd deposition had no positive effect. Ni was found to have a stronger effect than those of Pd/Pt and Pd, possibly because of the size effect of Ni nanoparticles.

  4. Displacement preparation-induced effects on structure of Ag–Pd nanobrushes for catalyzing oxygen reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chin-Wei; Hsieh, Yu-Sheng; Syu, Chia-Chieh; Chen, Ho-Rei [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chien-Liang, E-mail: cl_lee@url.com.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: ► Displacement-induced effects on structure of Ag–Pd nanobrushes are studied. ► The structures of these nanobrushes are dependent on the displacement time. ► Ag–Pd nanobrushes with Ag-rich content and a Pd shell are prepared. ► Ag–Pd nanobrushes with a Pd shell are highly active for oxygen reduction. -- Abstract: Ag–Pd nanobrushes containing Ag-rich material, a thick Pd shell, or a thin Pd shell were successfully prepared using galvanic displacement. After 10 min of displacement, Ag-rich nanobrushes were formed. With an increase in displacement time to 30 min or 50 min, nanobrushes covered with a Pd thick-film or Pd thin-film were prepared, respectively. In an application using an oxygen reduction reaction catalyst in a 1 M NaOH electrolyte, the electron numbers involved (at −0.15 V vs. Ag/AgCl) for the nanobrushes containing Ag-rich Ag–Pd, Pd thick-shell, and Pd thin-shell were 1.65, 2.37, and 3.76, respectively. Faster kinetics of the nanobrushes with a Pd thin-shell was observed. In the activation-control region, the mass activity (at −0.05 V) of these nanobrushes was 0.13 mA mg{sup −1}, which was higher than 0.07 mA mg{sup −1}, the mass activity of Pd nanoparticles.

  5. Chemical and structural properties of Pd nanoparticle-decorated graphene-Electron spectroscopic methods and QUASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, B.; Jiricek, P.; Bieloshapka, I.

    2017-05-01

    Graphite (Gr) and carbon nanomaterials such as graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and those decorated with Pd nanoparticles were investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) aided with Quantitative Analysis of Surfaces by Electron Spectroscopy (QUASES) and reflected electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS). Oxidation of Gr decreased the C/O ratio from 10 (Gr) to 2.2 (GO), whereas reduction of GO by N2H4 increased this ratio to 6.6 (RGO) due to decreasing number of oxygen groups (hydroxyl, epoxy, carbonyl and hydroxyl). Graphene materials and those after Pd decoration had 6-11 average number of layers in stacked nanostructures. Pd decoration using NaBH4-reducing agents formed nanoparticles of size 6.9 nm (Pd/Gr) > 5.3 nm (Pd/RGO) > 4.25 nm (Pd/GO), with PdOx overlayer thickness of 2.20 nm (Pd/GO) > 1.42 nm (Pd/Gr) > 1.20 nm (Pd/RGO), decreased number of oxygen groups and average number of layers. Smaller Pd nanoparticles of larger PdOx overlayer thickness were observed on highly hydrophilic substrates (functional oxygen groups content). Decoration accompanied by reduction using NaBH4 led to the removal of water attached by hydrogen bonding to graphene interplanes and the formation of PdOx overlayer from oxygen functional groups. Nanoparticle size obtained from QUASES was confirmed by Pd 3d5/2 spectra binding energy and full-width at half maximum. Various chemistry and mechanisms of graphene reduction using N2H4 and NaBH4 were observed, where NaBH4 was more efficient to remove water bonded by hydrogen bonding to oxygen groups and thus further graphene exfoliation. A substantial influence of substrate, functional group content on nanoparticle coverage, size and Pd oxide overlayer thickness was observed.

  6. Patterns in professional growth of science teachers involved in a team-based PD project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    and learning and subsequent discussion of this material. Repeated interviews were analyzed using an adapted version of the interconnected model of teachers’ professional growth. The results show various ways of experimenting with new approaches to be important for three of the teachers while a novice teacher......The outcomes experienced by four science teachers from a local science team are used to illustrate and discuss change sequences connected to their professional growth. The teachers participated in a year-long school-based experimental project, which involved collecting data about students’ thinking...... mainly refer to getting ideas from colleagues’ practice. Collegial interactions is mentioned by all teachers, but it cannot based on this study be seen as a growth factor in it-self, it is collegial interactions about experimenting in classrooms and/or about shared artifacts from practice...

  7. Patterns in professional growth of science teachers involved in a team-based PD project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2011-01-01

    and learning and subsequent discussion of this material. Repeated interviews were analyzed using an adapted version of the interconnected model of teachers’ professional growth. The results show various ways of experimenting with new approaches to be important for three of the teachers while a novice teacher......The outcomes experienced by four science teachers from a local science team are used to illustrate and discuss change sequences connected to their professional growth. The teachers participated in a year-long school-based experimental project, which involved collecting data about students’ thinking...... mainly refer to getting ideas from colleagues’ practice. Collegial interactions is mentioned by all teachers, but it cannot based on this study be seen as a growth factor in it-self, it is collegial interactions about experimenting in classrooms and/or about shared artifacts from practice...

  8. Prokaryotic expression of the extracellular domain of porcine programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 and identification of the binding with peripheral blood mononuclear cellsin vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan-Ping; Yue, Feng; He, Yong; Li, Peng; Yang, Yuan; Han, Yu-Ting; Zhang, Yan-Fang; Sun, Guo-Peng; Guo, Dong-Guang; Yin, Mei; Wang, Xuan-Nian

    2017-04-01

    Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), a costimulatory molecule of the CD28 family, has 2 ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. Our previous studies showed that the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 is up-regulated during viral infection in pigs. Extensive studies have shown that blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathways by anti-PD-L1 antibody or soluble PD-1 restores exhausted T-cells in humans and mice. In the present study the extracellular domains of PD-1 and PD-L1 were used to evaluate the binding of PD-1 and PD-L1 with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We amplified the cDNA encoding the extracellular domains of PD-1 and PD-L1 to construct recombinant expression plasmids and obtain soluble recombinant proteins, which were then labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The His- Ex PD-1 and His- Ex PD-L1 recombinant proteins were expressed in the form of inclusion bodies with a relative molecular weight of 33.0 and 45.0 kDa, respectively. We then prepared polyclonal antibodies against the proteins with a multi-antiserum titer of 1:102 400. Binding of the proteins with PBMCs was evaluated by flow cytometry. The fluorescence signals of His- Ex PD-1-FITC and His- Ex PD-L1-FITC were greater than those for the FITC control. These results suggest that the soluble recombinant proteins may be used to prepare monoclonal antibodies to block the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway.

  9. Parkinson's disease (PD is the most common neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Andoskin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic impairment of alpha-synuclein protein is considered to be the central event in PDpathogenesis. Recent studies explored usage of alpha-synuclein in peripheral fluids as a biomarker of PD, however alpha-synuclein level in the CSF and plasma is considered to be affected by hemolysis. In order to avoid contamination of a lymphocyte fraction by erythrocytes, we have proposed an algorithm based on measurements of alpha-synuclein levels in the homogeneous CD45+ cell blood fraction. For this study we formed a group of PD patients (N=14 and a control group without the neurological disorders (N=17. We found an increase in the level of the total alpha-synuclein in CD45+ cells of PD patients compared to controls (p = 0,04, and revealed a direct correlation between the level of dopamine in plasma and level of total alpha-synuclein in CD45+ cells in the control group (r=0,71, p = 0,007.The level of alpha-synuclein in CD45+ cells could be suggested as possible PD biomarker.

  10. PD-pulse characteristics in rotating machine insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens; Jensen, A

    1994-01-01

    In this paper results are presented from investigations on partial discharges (PD) in insulation systems, resembling the stator insulation in high voltage rotating machines. A model, simulating a stator winding in a slot, has been developed, consisting of simple rotating machine insulation test...

  11. CO2 hydrogenation over Pd-modified methanol synthesis catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melián-Cabrera, I.; López Granados, M.; Terreros, P.; Fierro, J.L.G.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of palladium incorporation on the performance of Cu-ZnO(Al2O3) during the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide has been assessed. Temperature-programmed reduction profiles and X-ray photoelectron spectra of copper revealed that Pd enhances copper oxide reduction. Carbon dioxide conversion and

  12. The 2010 Chemistry Nobel Prize: Pd (0)-Catalyzed Organic Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 2. The 2010 Chemistry Nobel Prize: Pd(O)-Catalyzed Organic Synthesis. Gopalpur Nagendrappa Y C Sunil Kumar. General Article Volume 16 Issue 2 February 2011 pp 152-164 ...

  13. Negotiation of values as driver in community-based PD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronvall, Erik; Malmborg, Lone; Messeter, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    and design things; and different accounts of values in design. Inspired by the concept of design things, and as a consequence of the need for continuous negotiation of values observed in all three cases, we suggest the concept of thinging as fruitful for creating productive agonistic spaces with a stronger...... attention towards the process of negotiating values in community-based PD....

  14. [Genetic factors associated with dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Gutiérrez, Diego; Yescas, Petra; López-López, Marisol; Boll, Marie-Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. Dementia is a frequent complication of idiopathic Parkinsonism or PD, usually occurring later in the protracted course of the illness. Some risk factors to develop dementia in PD are aging, severe Parkinson´s symptoms, rigid-akinetic form, hallucinations, and mild cognitive impairment documented at the first examinations. It is not yet clear if some genetic factors are either risk or protector for progression to dementia. In a review of the literature, we found that mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene are the most responsible for developing dementia, either from PARK1 or 4 mutations. GBA (glucocerebrosidase) is another accountable factor. However, the vast majority of patients suffer from non-Mendelian or complex forms of PD, which are likely caused by the combined effects of genetic and environmental factors. There is not until now a clear relation between some polymorphisms in candidate genes and cognitive deterioration, as many studies have not clearly identified this phenotype.

  15. SCATTERING OF CARBON-DIOXIDE MOLECULES FROM PD(111) SURFACES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHLATHOLTER, T; HEILAND, W; Schlathölter, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Carbon dioxide positive ions and neutral molecules are subject to different charge exchange processes when scattered off clean or potassium-covered Pd(111) surfaces under grazing incidence. The time-of-flight method is a suitable tool to investigate these processes with respect to dissociation and

  16. Catalytic characterization of bi-functional catalysts derived from Pd ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (MIBK) from the reaction of acetone and hydrogen, which requires acid-base (for condensation) and metallic. (for hydrogenation) functions. It may be noted that several catalytic systems containing Pd, supported on various acid- base supports (Yang and Wu 2000; Das et al 2001) have also been tested for this reaction, ...

  17. Precipitation hardening of biodegradable Fe-Mn-Pd alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszner, F. [Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Sologubenko, A.S. [Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Schinhammer, M. [Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Lerchbacher, C. [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Early Stages of Precipitation, University of Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Haenzi, A.C. [Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Leitner, H. [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Early Stages of Precipitation, University of Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Uggowitzer, P.J. [Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Loeffler, J.F., E-mail: joerg.loeffler@mat.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-02-15

    This work presents a phenomenological description of the precipitation controlled hardening of a new biodegradable Fe-based alloy developed to fulfill the requirements of temporary implant applications. Pronounced strengthening of the solution-treated martensitic Fe-10Mn-1Pd (in wt.%) alloy upon isothermal aging at temperatures within the ferrite-austenite phase field is observed and attributed to the thermally activated formation of coherent plate-like Pd-rich precipitates on {l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} planes of the matrix. The onset and the early stages of alloy decomposition were studied using two complementary techniques: transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional atom probe analysis. Three distinct regions of the hardening kinetics are recognized and closely correlated to the evolution of the alloy microstructure. Upon aging, clustering of Pd atoms within the Fe-Mn solid solution occurs. The very small clusters grow, coarsen and adopt a plate-like shape, rearranging mutually to reduce the overall elastic strain energy. The elastic interaction of the dislocation substructure with Pd-rich precipitates of evolving morphology affects the dislocation mobility and is responsible for the hardness evolution of the alloy. A study of the hardening kinetics shows that the process exhibits all the features characteristic of maraging steels.

  18. Durable pd-based alloy and hydrogen generation membrane thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Raymond C.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Vanderspurt, Thomas Henry

    2010-02-02

    A durable Pd-based alloy is used for a H.sub.2-selective membrane in a hydrogen generator, as in the fuel processor of a fuel cell plant. The Pd-based alloy includes Cu as a binary element, and further includes "X", where "X" comprises at least one metal from group "M" that is BCC and acts to stabilize the .beta. BCC phase for stability during operating temperatures. The metal from group "M" is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Cr, Nb, Ta, V, Mo, and W, with Nb and Ta being most preferred. "X" may further comprise at least one metal from a group "N" that is non-BCC, preferably FCC, that enhances other properties of the membrane, such as ductility. The metal from group "N" is selected from the group consisting of Ag, Au, Re, Ru, Rh, Y, Ce, Ni, Ir, Pt, Co, La and In. The at. % of Pd in the binary Pd--Cu alloy ranges from about 35 at. % to about 55 at. %, and the at. % of "X" in the higher order alloy, based on said binary alloy, is in the range of about 1 at. % to about 15 at. %. The metals are selected according to a novel process.

  19. Sythesis, characterization and Pd(II) ions coordination equilibrium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The longer chain H2Pc behaved differently by disallowing Pd(II) ion coordination in its cavity. There was also a direct correlation between the carbon chain length and equilibrium constants, with the longer chain showing a lower equilibrium constant of 1.1 x 109 dm3 mol-1. Keywords: Equilibrium Constant, Phthalocyanines, ...

  20. Phosphorimager and PD densitometer imaging system network. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This document discusses the research projects undertaken as a result of the availability of the PhosphorImager and PD Densitometer Imaging System Network, at the University of Georgia`s Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. The benefit gained from the equipment is described for each project.

  1. Electric-field control of magnetic moment in Pd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obinata, Aya; Hibino, Yuki; Hayakawa, Daichi; Koyama, Tomohiro; Miwa, Kazumoto; Ono, Shimpei; Chiba, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    Several magnetic properties have recently become tunable with an applied electric field. Particularly, electrically controlled magnetic phase transitions and/or magnetic moments have attracted attention because they are the most fundamental parameters in ferromagnetic materials. In this study, we showed that an electric field can be used to control the magnetic moment in films made of Pd, usually a non-magnetic element. Pd ultra-thin films were deposited on ferromagnetic Pt/Co layers. In the Pd layer, a ferromagnetically ordered magnetic moment was induced by the ferromagnetic proximity effect. By applying an electric field to the ferromagnetic surface of this Pd layer, a clear change was observed in the magnetic moment, which was measured directly using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. The results indicate that magnetic moments extrinsically induced in non-magnetic elements by the proximity effect, as well as an intrinsically induced magnetic moments in ferromagnetic elements, as reported previously, are electrically tunable. The results of this study suggest a new avenue for answering the fundamental question of “can an electric field make naturally non-magnetic materials ferromagnetic?” PMID:26391306

  2. Compositional changes of Pd-Au bimetallic nanoclusters upon hydrogenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Vece, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/248753355; Bals, S.; Verbeeck, J.; Lievens, P.; Van Tendeloo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the size distribution and composition of bimetallic Pd-Au nanoclusters have been observed after hydrogen exposure. This effect is caused by hydrogen-induced Ostwald ripening whereby the hydrogen reduces the binding energy of the cluster atoms leading to their detachment from the cluster.

  3. Amorphous Pt@PdCu/CNT Catalyst for Methanol Electrooxidation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Amorphous, decorated structured, Pt@PdCu/CNT, electrocatalyst, methanol oxidation. 1. Introduction. Direct methanol fuel cells, which can directly convert chemical energy to electricity, are in high demand for portable ..... Guangdong Key Lab for Fuel Cell Technology and the South. African NRF (SUR 2008060900021) for ...

  4. Postural inflexibility in PD: does it affect compensatory stepping?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, K.; Esselink, R.A.J.; Swart, B.J.M. de; Geurts, A.C.H.; Bloem, B.R.; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) impairs the ability to shape postural responses to contextual factors. It is unknown whether such inflexibility pertains to compensatory steps to overcome balance perturbations. Participants were instructed to recover balance in response to a platform translation. A step was

  5. Analisis Pengaruh Gaya Kepemimpinan terhadap Kinerja SPG PD. Sumber Jaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Sriwidadi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available PD Sumber Jaya is a company engaged in the leather goods and accessories retailer that sells Braun Buffel brand which has several stores in Jakarta, Surabaya, and also a number of outlets throughout Indonesia. In each outlet is guarded by several Sales Promotion Girls (SPG. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of leadership style on the performance of SPG PD. Sumber Jaya. The method of analysis used in this study is Test Validity, Test Reliability, Mean, Pearson Correlation, and Regression . Data obtained from SPG assessment of managers by filling out the questionnaire that has been provided by using a Likert scale. The results achieved in this research is the leadership style which is run by managers PD. Sumber Jaya is a type of democratic and individual leadership styles have a strong influence of (0.195 or 19.50% and the direction (+ on the performance of SPG PD. Sumber Jaya.Leadership style has a fairly strong relationship (ryx1 = 0.442 on the performance of SPG. 

  6. Adsorbate Reorganization at Steps: NO on Pd(211)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of nitric oxide, NO, with the stepped Pd(211) surface is studied using density functional theory slab calculations. Calculated chemisorption energies and geometries reveal that surface sites are not populated in a sequential manner as the NO coverage is increased. This comes about...

  7. Recent Development of Pd-Based Electrocatalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Meng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This review selectively summarizes the latest developments in the Pd-based cataysts for low temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells, especially in the application of formic acid oxidation, alcohol oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction. The advantages and shortcomings of the Pd-based catalysts for electrocatalysis are analyzed. The influence of the structure and morphology of the Pd materials on the performance of the Pd-based catalysts were described. Finally, the perspectives of future trends on Pd-based catalysts for different applications were considered.

  8. Performance of PtPd electrocatalysts in direct methanol fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Tae; Choi, Mahnsoo; An, Jung-Chul; Lee, Hong-Ki; Shim, Joongpyo

    2010-05-01

    PtPd nanoparticles on carbon black were prepared to investigate the role of Pd in the anode and cathode of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The PtPd catalysts in the anode showed a significantly lower performance than the PtRu catalyst. However, the cell performances of these catalysts in the cathode were comparable to that of the Pt catalyst. From cyclic voltammetry, it was observed that the Pd with the Pt catalyst lowered the peak potential and increased the coulombic charge for oxide reduction on the surface of the catalyst. Also, the Pd catalyst without Pt showed relatively high activity for oxygen reduction reaction.

  9. Linear polystyrene-stabilized PdO nanoparticle-catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck reactions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtaka, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Teratani, Takuto; Shimomura, Osamu; Nomura, Ryôki

    2011-10-27

    Linear polystyrene-stabilized PdO nanoparticles (PS-PdONPs) were prepared by thermal decomposition of Pd(OAc)(2) in the presence of polystyrene. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated the production of PdO nanoparticles. The loading of palladium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). PS-PdONPs exhibited high catalytic activity for Mizoroki-Heck reactions under air in water and could be recycled without loss of activity.

  10. Electrical quadruple hysteresis in Pd-doped vanadium pentoxide nanowires due to water adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Hoon Kim, Soon-Young Oh, Han Young Yu, Won G Hong, Yong Ju Yun, Yark Yeon Kim and Hae Jin Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Humidity-dependent current–voltage (I–V characteristics of Pd-doped vanadium pentoxide nanowires (Pd-VONs were investigated. Electrical quadruple hysteresis (QH was observed and attributed to the large amount of water molecules adsorbed on the nanowires. Using QH in Pd-VONs, the reaction of water with PdO was interpreted as the water molecules are desorbed and then dissociated with increasing bias voltage. Owing to the dissociated H+ and OH− ions, PdO is reduced and oxidized. As a result, water molecules recombine as the bias voltage is decreased.

  11. Linear Polystyrene-Stabilized PdO Nanoparticle-Catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck Reactions in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuto Teratani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Linear polystyrene-stabilized PdO nanoparticles (PS-PdONPs were prepared by thermal decomposition of Pd(OAc2 in the presence of polystyrene. X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM indicated the production of PdO nanoparticles. The loading of palladium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. PS-PdONPs exhibited high catalytic activity for Mizoroki-Heck reactions under air in water and could be recycled without loss of activity.

  12. Oleylamine-mediated synthesis of Pd nanoparticles for catalytic formic acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Vismadeb; Sun, Shouheng

    2009-04-08

    We report a facile synthesis of monodisperse Pd nanoparticles by the reduction of Pd(acac)(2) with oleylamine and borane tributylamine complex. The oleylamine-coated Pd nanoparticles are readily "cleaned" with a 99% acetic acid wash, and the Pd particles supported on Ketjen carbon are catalytically active for formic acid oxidation in HClO(4) solution. The catalyst shows no obvious activity degradation after 1500 cyclic voltammetry cycles under ambient conditions. These Pd particles hold promise as a highly active non-Pt catalyst for fuel cell applications.

  13. Hemolytic Potential of Tafenoquine in Female Volunteers Heterozygous for Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency (G6PD MahidolVariant) versus G6PD-Normal Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueangweerayut, Ronnatrai; Bancone, Germana; Harrell, Emma J; Beelen, Andrew P; Kongpatanakul, Supornchai; Möhrle, Jörg J; Rousell, Vicki; Mohamed, Khadeeja; Qureshi, Ammar; Narayan, Sushma; Yubon, Nushara; Miller, Ann; Nosten, François H; Luzzatto, Lucio; Duparc, Stephan; Kleim, Jörg-Peter; Green, Justin A

    2017-09-01

    Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline under investigation for the prevention of relapse in Plasmodium vivax malaria. This open-label, dose-escalation study assessed quantitatively the hemolytic risk with tafenoquine in female healthy volunteers heterozygous for the Mahidol 487A glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient variant versus G6PD-normal females, and with reference to primaquine. Six G6PD-heterozygous subjects (G6PD enzyme activity 40-60% of normal) and six G6PD-normal subjects per treatment group received single-dose tafenoquine (100, 200, or 300 mg) or primaquine (15 mg × 14 days). All participants had pretreatment hemoglobin levels ≥ 12.0 g/dL. Tafenoquine dose escalation stopped when hemoglobin decreased by ≥ 2.5 g/dL (or hematocrit decline ≥ 7.5%) versus pretreatment values in ≥ 3/6 subjects. A dose-response was evident in G6PD-heterozygous subjects ( N = 15) receiving tafenoquine for the maximum decrease in hemoglobin versus pretreatment values. Hemoglobin declines were similar for tafenoquine 300 mg (-2.65 to -2.95 g/dL [ N = 3]) and primaquine (-1.25 to -3.0 g/dL [ N = 5]). Two further cohorts of G6PD-heterozygous subjects with G6PD enzyme levels 61-80% ( N = 2) and > 80% ( N = 5) of the site median normal received tafenoquine 200 mg; hemolysis was less pronounced at higher G6PD enzyme activities. Tafenoquine hemolytic potential was dose dependent, and hemolysis was greater in G6PD-heterozygous females with lower G6PD enzyme activity levels. Single-dose tafenoquine 300 mg did not appear to increase the severity of hemolysis versus primaquine 15 mg × 14 days.

  14. Pattern destabilization and emotional processing in cognitive therapy for personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele M. Hayes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials of treatments for personality disorders can provide a medium for studying the process of therapeutic change with particularly entrenched and self-perpetuating systems and might reveal important principles of system transition. We examined the extent to which maladaptive personality patterns were destabilized in a trial of cognitive therapy personality disorders (CT-PD and how destabilization was associated with emotional processing and treatment outcomes. Dynamic systems theory was used as a theoretical framework for studying change. Method: Participants were 27 patients diagnosed with Avoidant or Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder, who completed an open trial of CT-PD. Raters coded treatment sessions using a coding system that operationalizes emotional processing, as well as cognitive, affective, behavioral, and somatic components of pathological (negative and more adaptive (positive patterns of functioning. Pattern destabilization (dispersion scores during the early phase of treatment (phase 1: session 1-10 and the schema-focused phase (phase 2: session 11-34 were calculated using a program called GridWare. Results: More pattern destabilization and emotional processing in the schema-focused phase of CT-PD predicted more improvement in personality disorder symptoms and positive pattern strength at the end of treatment, whereas these variables in phase 1 did not predict outcome. Conclusions: In addition to illustrating a quantitative method for studying destabilization and change of patterns of psychopathology, we present findings that are consistent with recent updates of emotional processing theory and with principles from dynamic systems theory.

  15. Pattern destabilization and emotional processing in cognitive therapy for personality disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Adele M.; Yasinski, Carly

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials of treatments for personality disorders can provide a medium for studying the process of therapeutic change with particularly entrenched and self-perpetuating systems and might reveal important principles of system transition. We examined the extent to which maladaptive personality patterns were destabilized in a trial of cognitive therapy personality disorders (CT-PD) and how destabilization was associated with emotional processing and treatment outcomes. Dynamic systems theory was used as a theoretical framework for studying change. Method: Participants were 27 patients diagnosed with Avoidant or Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (AVPD or OCPD), who completed an open trial of CT-PD. Raters coded treatment sessions using a coding system that operationalizes emotional processing, as well as cognitive, affective, behavioral, and somatic components of pathological (negative) and more adaptive (positive) patterns of functioning. Pattern destabilization (dispersion) scores during the early phase of treatment (phase 1: session 1–10) and the schema-focused phase (phase 2: session 11–34) were calculated using a program called GridWare. Results: More pattern destabilization and emotional processing in the schema-focused phase of CT-PD predicted more improvement in personality disorder symptoms and positive pattern strength at the end of treatment, whereas these variables in phase 1 did not predict outcome. Conclusion: In addition to illustrating a quantitative method for studying destabilization and change of patterns of psychopathology, we present findings that are consistent with recent updates of emotional processing theory and with principles from dynamic systems theory. PMID:25755647

  16. RuPd, RuCo, PdCo and RuPdCo materials as candidates for cathode catalyzers in PEM fuel cells; Materiales RuPd, RuCo, PdCo y RuPdCo como candidatos a catalizadores catodicos en celdas de combustible tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyva Noyola, Fatima; Solorza Feria, Omar [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Superiores del IPN, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: fleyva@cinvestav.mx

    2009-09-15

    This work reports on the catalytic activity of RuPd, RuCo, PdCo and RuPdCo material for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). These materials were synthesized using chemical reduction with NaBH{sub 4} as a reducing agent in THF, in ambient temperature and pressure conditions. The evaluation of the catalytic activity was done using cyclic voltamperometry (CV) and rotary disc electrode (RDE) in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5 M. The kinetic results showed that the electrochemical reaction involves 4 electrons and the transfer of the first electron is the determinant stage. The values of {alpha}, i0 and the Tafel slope were very similar for the four materials studied, around 0.4, 5x10{sup -6} mA cm{sup -2} and 60 mV dec-1, respectively. Although these values are less than those reported for nanostructured platinum, they are better than those reported for other materials such as pure Pd, which enables them to be considered as cathode catalysts for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. [Spanish] En este trabajo se reporta la actividad catalitica de los materiales RuPd, RuCo, PdCo y RuPdCo para la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno (RRO). Estos materiales fueron sintetizados por el metodo de reduccion quimica, usando NaBH{sub 4} como agente reductor en THF, en condiciones de temperatura y presion ambiental. La evaluacion de la actividad catalitica fue realizada usando Voltamperometria Ciclica (VC) y Electrodo Disco Rotatorio (EDR) en H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5 M. Los resultados cineticos mostraron que la reaccion electroquimica procede por la via de 4 electrones y la etapa determinante es la transferencia del primer electron. Los valores de {alpha}, i0 y pendiente de Tafel fueron muy similares para los 4 materiales estudiados, siendo estos de alrededor de 0.4, 5x10{sup -6} mA cm{sup -2} y 60 mV dec{sup -1}, respectivamente. Sin embargo, aun cuando estos valores son menores que los reportados para platino nanoestructurado, son mejores que los reportados para otros materiales como el Pd puro

  17. Longitudinal fluctuations in PD1 and PD-L1 expression in association with changes in anti-viral immune response in chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjin Zhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controversy exists regarding the role of PD1 and its ligand PD-L1 in chronic hepatitis B infection. In some studies, persistent HBV infection has been attributed to high levels of PD-1 and PD-L1 expression on HBV-specific T-cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs respectively. Other studies revealed that the up-regulation of PD-1 and PD-L1 during an acute inflammation phase is required to offset increasing positive co-stimulatory signals to avoid severe damage by an over-vigorous immune response. Methods Fifteen chronic hepatitis B patients, with inflammatory flare episode, were recruited prospectively. Based on serum HBV-DNA, HBsAg load, and ALT values, inflammatory flare episode were divided into initial, climax, decline and regression phase. Blood sample and liver biopsy tissues from each individual were taken in these 4 phases respectively. Circulating and intra-hepatic PD1 and PD-L1 expression levels were monitored throughout the inflammatory flare episode by flow cytometry and immunostaining and these expression levels were related to the HBV-specific T-cell changes, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, HBV-DNA replication and HBV antigen load. Results ]The levels of PD-1 and PD-L1 expressions were significantly up-regulated in the inflammation ascending phase, initial and climax period and in parallel with HBV-specific colon expansion. It showed increasing the level of serum ALT and decreasing the HBV-DNA loads. As the level of inflammation reduced, the circulating and intra-hepatic PD1 and circulating PD-L1 decreased progressively in concordance with serum ALT, HBV-DNA and HBsAg loads decreased except intra-hepatic PD-1 expression. Intra-hepatic PD-L1 expression did not decrease significantly during the regression phase of inflammation compared to that in prior period. The intra-hepatic PD-L1 expression remained relatively on higher level when serum HBV-DNA load and ALT decreased to approximately normal range

  18. Isomers in 128Pd and 126Pd: evidence for a robust shell closure at the neutron magic number 82 in exotic palladium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, H; Lorusso, G; Nishimura, S; Xu, Z Y; Sumikama, T; Söderström, P-A; Doornenbal, P; Browne, F; Gey, G; Jung, H S; Taprogge, J; Vajta, Zs; Wu, J; Yagi, A; Baba, H; Benzoni, G; Chae, K Y; Crespi, F C L; Fukuda, N; Gernhäuser, R; Inabe, N; Isobe, T; Jungclaus, A; Kameda, D; Kim, G D; Kim, Y K; Kojouharov, I; Kondev, F G; Kubo, T; Kurz, N; Kwon, Y K; Lane, G J; Li, Z; Moon, C-B; Montaner-Pizá, A; Moschner, K; Naqvi, F; Niikura, M; Nishibata, H; Nishimura, D; Odahara, A; Orlandi, R; Patel, Z; Podolyák, Zs; Sakurai, H; Schaffner, H; Simpson, G S; Steiger, K; Suzuki, H; Takeda, H; Wendt, A; Yoshinaga, K

    2013-10-11

    The level structures of the very neutron-rich nuclei 128Pd and 126Pd have been investigated for the first time. In the r-process waiting-point nucleus 128Pd, a new isomer with a half-life of 5.8(8) μs is proposed to have a spin and parity of 8(+) and is associated with a maximally aligned configuration arising from the g(9/2) proton subshell with seniority υ=2. For 126Pd, two new isomers have been identified with half-lives of 0.33(4) and 0.44(3) μs. The yrast 2(+) energy is much higher in 128Pd than in 126Pd, while the level sequence below the 8(+) isomer in 128Pd is similar to that in the N=82 isotone 130Cd. The electric quadrupole transition that depopulates the 8(+) isomer in 128Pd is more hindered than the corresponding transition in 130Cd, as expected in the seniority scheme for a semimagic, spherical nucleus. These experimental findings indicate that the shell closure at the neutron number N=82 is fairly robust in the neutron-rich Pd isotopes.

  19. On formation mechanism of Pd-Ir bimetallic nanoparticles through thermal decomposition of [Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}][IrCl{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asanova, Tatyana I., E-mail: nti@niic.nsc.ru; Asanov, Igor P. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS (Russian Federation); Kim, Min-Gyu [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Beamline Research Division (Korea, Republic of); Gerasimov, Evgeny Yu. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS (Russian Federation); Zadesenets, Andrey V.; Plyusnin, Pavel E.; Korenev, Sergey V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    The formation mechanism of Pd-Ir nanoparticles during thermal decomposition of double complex salt [Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}][IrCl{sub 6}] has been studied by in situ X-ray absorption (XAFS) and photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. The changes in the structure of the Pd and Ir closest to the surroundings and chemical states of Pd, Ir, Cl, and N atoms were traced in the range from room temperature to 420 Degree-Sign C in inert atmosphere. It was established that the thermal decomposition process is carried out in 5 steps. The Pd-Ir nanoparticles are formed in pyramidal/rounded Pd-rich (10-200 nm) and dendrite Ir-rich (10-50 nm) solid solutions. A d charge depletion at Ir site and a gain at Pd, as well as the intra-atomic charge redistribution between the outer d and s and p electrons of both Ir and Pd in Pd-Ir nanoparticles, were found to occur.Graphical Abstract.

  20. Pd and PdCo alloy nanoparticles supported on polypropylenimine dendrimer-grafted graphene: A highly efficient anodic catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hadi; Mahyari, Mojtaba; Bagheri, Akbar; Shaabani, Ahmad

    2014-02-01

    For the first time, Pd and PdCo alloy nanoparticles supported on polypropylenimine dendrimer-grafted graphene (Pd and PdCo/PPI-g-G) are prepared and characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrocatalytic activity of Pd and PdCo/PPI-g-G are investigated in terms of formic acid electrooxidation in H2SO4 aqueous solution. The PdCo/PPI-g-G shows much higher formic acid oxidation activities in comparison with Pd/PPI-g-G, and it is more resistant to the surface poisoning. This improved electrocatalytic performance may be due to the fine dispersion of PdCo alloy nanoparticles and bi-functional effect. The kinetic parameters such as charge transfer coefficient and the diffusion coefficient of formic acid are estimated under the quasi steady-state conditions.

  1. Expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Patients Treated With Multimodal Therapy: Results From a Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintakuntlawar, Ashish V; Rumilla, Kandelaria M; Smith, Carin Y; Jenkins, Sarah M; Foote, Robert L; Kasperbauer, Jan L; Morris, John C; Ryder, Mabel; Alsidawi, Samer; Hilger, Crystal; Bible, Keith C

    2017-06-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is rare and a highly fatal malignancy. The role of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) as prognostic and/or predictive markers in ATC is unknown. Multimodal therapy offers the best chance at tumor control. The objective of this study was to detect potential associations of PD-1/PD-L1 axis variables with outcome data in ATC. Retrospective study of a uniformly treated cohort. Single institution retrospective cohort study. Sixteen patients who received intensity-modulated radiation therapy (15 had preceding surgery) were studied. Patients treated with multimodal therapy were followed and assessed for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). All samples demonstrated PD-1 expression in inflammatory cells whereas tumor cells were primarily negative. PD-L1 was expressed on ATC tumor cells in most samples and showed mainly membranous staining. High PD-1 expression (>40% staining) in inflammatory cells was associated with worse overall survival (OS; hazard ratio, 3.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 12.96; P 33% staining) trended toward worse PFS and OS. PD-1/PD-L1 pathway proteins are highly expressed in ATC tumor samples and appear to represent predictive markers of PFS and OS in multimodality-treated ATC patients.

  2. Sulfur Tolerant Pd/Cu and Pd/Au Alloy Membranes for H2 Separation with High Pressure CO2 for Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Hua Ma; Natalie Pomerantz; Chao-Huang Chen

    2008-09-30

    The effect of H{sub 2}S poisoning on Pd, Pd/Cu, and Pd/Au alloy composite membranes prepared by the electroless deposition method on porous Inconel supports was investigated to provide a fundamental understanding of the durability and preparation of sulfur tolerant membranes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies showed that the exposure of pure Pd to 50 ppm H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} mixtures caused bulk sulfide formation at lower temperatures and surface sulfide formation at higher temperatures. Lower temperatures, longer exposure times, and higher H{sub 2}S concentrations resulted in a higher degree of sulfidation. In a Pd membrane, the bulk sulfide formation caused a drastic irrecoverable H{sub 2} permeance decline and an irreparable loss in selectivity. Pd/Cu and Pd/Au alloy membranes exhibited permeance declines due to surface sulfide formation upon exposure to 50 ppm H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} gas mixtures. However in contrast to the pure Pd membrane, the permeances of the Pd/Cu and Pd/Au alloy membranes were mostly recovered in pure H{sub 2} and the selectivity of the Pd alloy layers remained essentially intact throughout the characterization in H{sub 2}, He and H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} mixtures which lasted several thousand hours. The amount of irreversible sulfur poisoning decreased with increasing temperature due to the exothermicity of H{sub 2}S adsorption. Longer exposure times increased the amount of irreversible poisoning of the Pd/Cu membrane but not the Pd/Au membrane. Pd/Au coupon studies of the galvanic displacement method showed that higher Au{sup 3+} concentrations, lower pH values, higher bath temperatures and stirring the bath at a rate of 200 rpm yielded faster displacement rates, more uniform depositions, and a higher Au content within the layers. While 400 C was found to be sufficient to form a Pd/Au alloy on the surface, high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) studies showed that even after annealing between 500-600 C, the Pd/Cu alloys could have

  3. Synthesis of Pd/C composites from PdCl{sub 2} and β-CD as a catalyst in methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fei-Bao, E-mail: feibaozhang@126.com; Jiang, Jian-Xiong; Ni, Yong, E-mail: 20020806@hznu.edu.cn

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • PdCl{sub 2} and β-cyclodextrin (CD) were used as starting materials to form Pd nanoparticles and carbon support simultaneously. • The β-CD in this reaction is used as complex reagent as well as carbon source. • The resulting catalyst materials (Pd/C) are used for methanol oxidation. - Abstract: Pd nanoparticles and carbon support were synthesized simultaneously and the resulting catalyst materials were applied for methanol oxidation. PdCl{sub 2} and β-cyclodextrin (CD) were used as starting materials. The β-CD in this reaction was used as complexing reagent and carbon source. When Pd{sup 2+} was reduced to Pd by hydrogen reduction treatment, the complex effect of β-CD would affect the aggregation of Pd nanoparticles. The electro-oxidation of methanol in alkaline medium was studied. The catalyst treated at 673 K showed better electrocatalytic activity and stability for methanol oxidation than that of 773 and 1073 K and commercial Pt/C electrocatalysts, which might be attributed to the high dispersion of Pd nanoparticles and special frame and properties of complexes.

  4. Effect of pancreas disease (PD) on quality attributes of raw and smoked fillets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerfall, Jørgen; Larsson, Thomas; Birkeland, Sveinung

    2012-01-01

    The impact of pancreas disease (PD) on fillet quality of raw and cold-smoked Atlantic salmon was investigated. Commercially reared fish were sorted into six groups: (1) Control (healthy fish), (2) SAV (infection with salmonid alphavirus, without PD outbreak), (3) PD0 (PD diagnosis at slaughter), (4...

  5. Amantadine improves gait in PD patients with STN stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hiu-Fai; Kukkle, Prashanth L; Merello, Marcelo; Lim, Shen-Yang; Poon, Yu-Yan; Moro, Elena

    2013-03-01

    In advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), axial symptoms such as speech, gait, and balance impairment often become levodopa-unresponsive and they are difficult to manage, even in patients with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS). We anecdotally observed that oral administration of amantadine was very effective in treating both residual and stimulation-induced axial symptoms after bilateral STN-DBS in one PD patient. Therefore, we conducted a prospective multicenter observational study to evaluate the effects of amantadine on speech, gait and balance in PD patients with STN-DBS and incomplete axial benefit. Primary outcomes were changes in speech (UPDRS III, item 18), gait (item 29) and postural stability (item 30) with amantadine treatment compared to baseline. Secondary outcome was the patients' subjective scoring of axial symptoms with amantadine compared to baseline. Forty-six PD patients with STN-DBS were enrolled in the study and followed for 10.35 ± 8.21 months (median: 9.00; range: 1-31). The mean daily dose of amantadine was 273.44 ± 47.49 mg. Gait scores significantly improved (from 1.51 ± 0.89 to 1.11 ± 0.92, P = 0.015) with amantadine treatment, whereas postural stability and speech scores were similar before and after treatment. Thirty-five (76.1%) patients reported subjective improvement in speech, gait or balance with amantadine, whereas thirty (65.2%) patients reported improvement in gait and balance. In conclusion, our data suggest that amantadine may have new beneficial effects on axial symptoms in PD patients with STN-DBS. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. PD-1 blockade in advanced NSCLC: A focus on pembrolizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Solange; Kerr, Keith M; Stahel, Rolf

    2017-10-23

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most prevalent cancers and is responsible for a large proportion of all cancer-related deaths. Current treatment options are inadequate, reflecting a substantial unmet clinical need. Increasing knowledge regarding the mechanisms and genetic aberrations underlying tumor development and growth has heralded a new era of therapy in oncology, moving away from indiscriminate cytotoxic chemotherapy toward more finely focused, targeted medicine. The development of small-molecule drugs and monoclonal antibodies directed toward specific components of dysfunctional molecular or immune pathways, and mutated genes specific to particular cancer types, is leading the field to more personalized and less toxic treatment options, many of which have demonstrated greater efficacy and survival benefits than their chemotherapeutic counterparts. Particularly successful examples are agents that interfere with the programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathway, which many tumors can hijack to avoid immune surveillance and editing. Pembrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed at PD-1 that blocks the engagement between PD-1 and its ligands, has been explored as a treatment for solid tumors, and demonstrated survival benefits in several studies. The use of PD-1 inhibitors such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab in advanced cancers is widespread, and pembrolizumab is available in more than 60 countries for at least one of the following: advanced melanoma, PD-L1-expressing NSCLC, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and adult and pediatric patients with refractory classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. This work provides a brief overview of the role of pembrolizumab in the treatment of advanced (recurrent/metastatic) NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Low temperature homogenization in nanocrystalline PdCu thin film system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Molnár, G.; Katona, G. L.; Langer, G. A.; Csík, A.; Chen, Y. C.; Beke, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    Diffusion and solid state reactions were investigated in Pd-Cu nanocrystalline films by means of secondary neutral mass spectrometry depth profiling technique. The heat treatments were made at low temperatures (where the volume diffusion was frozen in) for long enough annealing times to reach saturation. In the early stage there is a grain boundary interdiffusion. At longer times first a Pd plateau developed inside the Cu layer. Later on the Cu penetration was also more and more extended in the Pd, even the average composition of Cu in Pd became higher than the average Pd composition in Cu. Depending on the ratio of the initial thicknesses, the system (for thickness ratios corresponding to 50/50 Cu/Pd or to 75/25 Cu/Pd) arrived either at the mixture of pure Pd and β-CuPd phase or to the mixture of α‧-Cu3Pd and β-CuPd phases, respectively, as dictated by the phase diagram. The process is interpreted as grain boundary diffusion induced solid state reaction.

  8. Microbial synthesis of bimetallic PdPt nanoparticles for catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Ya; Liu, Guangfei; Dong, Bin; Yu, Huali; Zhou, Jiti; Wang, Jing; Jin, Ruofei

    2017-02-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles are generally believed to have improved catalytic activity and stability due to geometric and electronic changes. In this work, biogenic-Pd (bio-Pd), biogenic-Pt (bio-Pt), and biogenic-PdPt (bio-PdPt) nanoparticles were synthesized by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in the absence or presence of quinone. Compared with direct microbial reduction process, the addition of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) could promote the reduction efficiency of Pd(II) or/and Pt(IV) and result in decrease of particles size. All kinds of nanoparticles could catalyze 4-nitrophenol reduction by NaBH4 and their catalytic activities took the following order: bio-PdPt (AQDS) ∼ bio-PdPt > bio-Pd (AQDS) > bio-Pd > bio-Pt (AQDS) ∼ bio-Pt. Moreover, the bio-PdPt (AQDS) nanoparticles could be reused for 6 cycles. We believe that this simple and efficient biosynthesis approach for synthesizing bimetallic bio-PdPt nanocatalysts is important for preparing active and stable catalysts.

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD mutations and haemoglobinuria syndrome in the Vietnamese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Nick

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Vietnam the blackwater fever syndrome (BWF has been associated with malaria infection, quinine ingestion and G6PD deficiency. The G6PD variants within the Vietnamese Kinh contributing to the disease risk in this population, and more generally to haemoglobinuria, are currently unknown. Method Eighty-two haemoglobinuria patients and 524 healthy controls were screened for G6PD deficiency using either the methylene blue reduction test, the G-6-PDH kit or the micro-methaemoglobin reduction test. The G6PD gene variants were screened using SSCP combined with DNA sequencing in 82 patients with haemoglobinuria, and in 59 healthy controls found to be G6PD deficient. Results This study confirmed that G6PD deficiency is strongly associated with haemoglobinuria (OR = 15, 95% CI [7.7 to 28.9], P G6PD variants were identified in the Vietnamese population, of which two are novel (Vietnam1 [Glu3Lys] and Vietnam2 [Phe66Cys]. G6PD Viangchan [Val291Met], common throughout south-east Asia, accounted for 77% of the variants detected and was significantly associated with haemoglobinuria within G6PD-deficient ethnic Kinh Vietnamese (OR = 5.8 95% CI [114-55.4], P = 0.022. Conclusion The primary frequency of several G6PD mutations, including novel mutations, in the Vietnamese Kinh population are reported and the contribution of G6PD mutations to the development of haemoglobinuria are investigated.

  10. [Relationship between G6PD deficiency and hand-foot-mouth disease induced by enterovirus 71].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jun-Bin; Zhang, Cui-Mei; Fu, Si-Mao; Huang, Xiang; Huang, Lian-Hong

    2013-09-01

    To study the influence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency on hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) induced by enterovirus 71 (EV71) , and possible mechanisms. A total of 220 boys with HFMD induced by EV71 were classified into two groups based on disease severity: mild/moderate (n=145) and severe HFMD groups (n=75), and 132 healthy boys were selected as the control group. The activity of G6PD and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA) in blood were measured using the automatic biochemical analyzer. The percentage of G6PD deficiency cases in the severe HFMD group was significantly higher than in the control group (PG6PD deficiency than in those with normal G6PD activity (PG6PD activity and significantly higher MDA levels compared with those in the control group (PG6PD deficiency had significantly lower GSH levels and significantly higher MDA levels compared with those with normal G6PD activity (PG6PD activity (r=0.61, PG6PD activity (r=-0.29, PG6PD deficiency is probably a predisposing factor for HFMD induced by EV71 and may aggravate the patient's condition. Its mechanism might be related to oxidative stress.

  11. T cell Bim levels reflect responses to anti-PD-1 cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronca, Roxana S; Liu, Xin; Harrington, Susan M; Chen, Lingling; Cao, Siyu; Kottschade, Lisa A; McWilliams, Robert R; Block, Matthew S; Nevala, Wendy K; Thompson, Michael A; Mansfield, Aaron S; Park, Sean S; Markovic, Svetomir N; Dong, Haidong

    2016-05-05

    Immune checkpoint therapy with PD-1 blockade has emerged as an effective therapy for many advanced cancers; however, only a small fraction of patients achieve durable responses. To date, there is no validated blood-based means of predicting the response to PD-1 blockade. We report that Bim is a downstream signaling molecule of the PD-1 pathway, and its detection in T cells is significantly associated with expression of PD-1 and effector T cell markers. High levels of Bim in circulating tumor-reactive (PD-1+CD11ahiCD8+) T cells were prognostic of poor survival in patients with metastatic melanoma who did not receive anti-PD-1 therapy and were also predictive of clinical benefit in patients with metastatic melanoma who were treated with anti-PD-1 therapy. Moreover, this circulating tumor-reactive T cell population significantly decreased after successful anti-PD-1 therapy. Our study supports a crucial role of Bim in both T cell activation and apoptosis as regulated by PD-1 and PD-L1 interactions in effector CD8+ T cells. Measurement of Bim levels in circulating T cells of patients with cancer may provide a less invasive strategy to predict and monitor responses to anti-PD-1 therapy, although future prospective analyses are needed to validate its utility.

  12. T cell Bim levels reflect responses to anti–PD-1 cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronca, Roxana S.; Liu, Xin; Harrington, Susan M.; Chen, Lingling; Cao, Siyu; Kottschade, Lisa A.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Block, Matthew S.; Nevala, Wendy K.; Thompson, Michael A.; Mansfield, Aaron S.; Park, Sean S.; Markovic, Svetomir N.

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint therapy with PD-1 blockade has emerged as an effective therapy for many advanced cancers; however, only a small fraction of patients achieve durable responses. To date, there is no validated blood-based means of predicting the response to PD-1 blockade. We report that Bim is a downstream signaling molecule of the PD-1 pathway, and its detection in T cells is significantly associated with expression of PD-1 and effector T cell markers. High levels of Bim in circulating tumor-reactive (PD-1+CD11ahiCD8+) T cells were prognostic of poor survival in patients with metastatic melanoma who did not receive anti–PD-1 therapy and were also predictive of clinical benefit in patients with metastatic melanoma who were treated with anti–PD-1 therapy. Moreover, this circulating tumor-reactive T cell population significantly decreased after successful anti–PD-1 therapy. Our study supports a crucial role of Bim in both T cell activation and apoptosis as regulated by PD-1 and PD-L1 interactions in effector CD8+ T cells. Measurement of Bim levels in circulating T cells of patients with cancer may provide a less invasive strategy to predict and monitor responses to anti–PD-1 therapy, although future prospective analyses are needed to validate its utility. PMID:27182556

  13. The magnetic properties of Ce/Pd surface alloys investigated using DFT

    KAUST Repository

    Shuttleworth, I.G.

    2014-06-01

    The surface alloys that form between Ce and Pd(1 1 1), Pd(1 0 0) and both unreconstructed and missing-row type Pd(1 1 0) at low Ce coverage ( θCe=19ML) have shown permanent magnetism that is mediated in part by an RKKY-like delocalized Ce 6s-Pd 5s interaction. The Pd 4d states are significantly affected by alloying and their behavior cannot be explained by a purely spin-dependent Hamiltonian. Experimental observations of changes to the Pd 4d states are explained and the implications of Ce/Pd magnetism in reforming catalysis are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sonochemical synthesis of PdO@silica as a nanocatalyst for selective aerobic alcohol oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Seunghwan; Hussain, Muhammad Asif; Park, Kyun Joo; Kim, Jung Won; Kim, Do Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A sonochemical method has been employed for the synthesis of palladium oxide (PdO) nanoparticles deposited on silica nanoparticle. By sonochemical process, the PdO nanoparticles were doped on the surface of silica at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with short reaction time. Silica nanoparticles were used as a supporting material to suppress aggregation and thereby to increase surface area of PdO nanoparticles. Fabricated PdO-doped silica nanoparticle (PdO@SNP) was applied as a nanocatalyst for selective alcohol oxidation reaction in the presence of molecular oxygen. The PdO@SNP composite showed higher catalytic activity and selectivity than unsupported PdO nanoparticle for aerobic alcohol oxidation reaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon nanofiber supported bimetallic PdAu nanoparticles for formic acid electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuan-Hang; Jiang, Yue; Niu, Dong-Fang; Zhang, Xin-Sheng; Zhou, Xing-Gui; Niu, Li; Yuan, Wei-Kang

    2012-10-01

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF) supported PdAu nanoparticles are synthesized with sodium citrate as the stabilizing agent and sodium borohydride as the reducing agent. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterization indicates that the synthesized PdAu particles are well dispersed on the CNF surface and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization indicates that the alloying degree of the synthesized PdAu nanoparticles can be improved by adding tetrahydrofuran to the synthesis solution. The results of electrochemical characterization indicate that the addition of Au can promote the electrocatalytic activity of Pd/C catalyst for formic acid oxidation and the CNF supported high-alloying PdAu catalyst possesses better electrocatalytic activity and stability for formic acid oxidation than either the CNF supported low-alloying PdAu catalyst or the CNF supported Pd catalyst.

  16. Java enterprise design patterns patterns in Java

    CERN Document Server

    Grand, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A how-to guide for Java programmers who want to use design patterns when developing real-world enterprise applicationsThis practical book explores the subject of design patterns, or patterns that occur in the design phase of a project''s life cycle. With an emphasis on Java for the enterprise, Mark Grand guides Java programmers on how to apply traditional and new patterns when designing a large enterprise application. The author clearly explains how existing patterns work with the new enterprise design patterns and demonstrates through case studies how to use design patterns in the real world.

  17. Composite of Au-Pd nanoalloys/reduced graphene oxide toward catalytic selective organic transformation to fine chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhui; Gao, Fei; Fu, Ming-Lai

    2018-01-01

    A facile, stabilizing-molecules-free strategy has been utilized for anchoring Au-Pd alloy nanoparticles onto the flat surface of two-dimensional (2D) reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets. Formation of Au-Pd nanoalloys and loading onto the RGO are accomplished simultaneously. The Au-Pd/reduced graphene oxide (Au-Pd/RGO) exhibits higher catalytic activity than both Au/RGO and Pd/RGO, prepared by the same approach toward selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol and selective reduction of nitroaromatics, the catalytic activity order can be in good agreement with the noble metal particles size distribution of the Au, Pd and Au-Pd/RGO.

  18. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Programmed Cell Death-1/Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) Interaction via Transiently Induced Protein States and Dimerization of PD-L1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzik, Katarzyna; Zak, Krzysztof M.; Grudnik, Przemyslaw; Magiera, Katarzyna; Musielak, Bogdan; Törner, Ricarda; Skalniak, Lukasz; Dömling, Alexander; Dubin, Grzegorz; Holak, Tad A.

    2017-01-01

    Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint pathway with monoclonal antibodies has provided significant advances in cancer treatment. The antibody-based immunotherapies carry a number of disadvantages such as the high cost of the antibodies, their limited half-life, and immunogenicity. Development

  19. What has passed is prolog: new cellular and physiological roles of G6PD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hung-Chi; Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Liu, Hui-Ya; Stern, Arnold; Chiu, Daniel Tsun-Yee

    2016-10-01

    G6PD deficiency has been the most pervasive inherited disorder in the world since having been discovered. G6PD has an antioxidant role by functioning as a major nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) provider to reduce excessive oxidative stress. NADPH can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) mediated by NADPH oxidase (NOX) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), respectively. Hence, G6PD also has a pro-oxidant role. Research in the past has focused on the enhanced susceptibility of G6PD-deficient cells or individuals to oxidative challenge. The cytoregulatory role of G6PD has largely been overlooked. By using a metabolomic approach, it is noted that upon oxidant challenge, G6PD-deficient cells will reprogram the GSH metabolism from regeneration to synthesis with exhaustive energy consumption. Recently, new cellular/physiologic roles of G6PD have been discovered. By using a proteomic approach, it has been found that G6PD plays a regulatory role in xenobiotic metabolism possibly via NOX and the redox-sensitive Nrf2-signaling pathway to modulate the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Since G6PD is a key regulator responsible for intracellular redox homeostasis, G6PD deficiency can alter redox balance leading to many abnormal cellular effects such as the cellular inflammatory and immune response against viral infection. G6PD may play an important role in embryogenesis as G6PD-knockdown mouse cannot produce offspring and G6PD-deficient C. elegans with defective egg production and hatching. This array of findings indicates that the cellular and physiologic roles of G6PD, other than the classical role as an antioxidant enzyme, deserve further attention.

  20. PD-1 blockade in chronically HIV-1-infected humanized mice suppresses viral loads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Seung

    Full Text Available An estimated 34 million people are living with HIV worldwide (UNAIDS, 2012, with the number of infected persons rising every year. Increases in HIV prevalence have resulted not only from new infections, but also from increases in the survival of HIV-infected persons produced by effective anti-retroviral therapies. Augmentation of anti-viral immune responses may be able to further increase the survival of HIV-infected persons. One strategy to augment these responses is to reinvigorate exhausted anti-HIV immune cells present in chronically infected persons. The PD-1-PD-L1 pathway has been implicated in the exhaustion of virus-specific T cells during chronic HIV infection. Inhibition of PD-1 signaling using blocking anti-PD-1 antibodies has been shown to reduce simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV loads in monkeys. We now show that PD-1 blockade can improve control of HIV replication in vivo in an animal model. BLT (Bone marrow-Liver-Thymus humanized mice chronically infected with HIV-1 were treated with an anti-PD-1 antibody over a 10-day period. The PD-1 blockade resulted in a very significant 45-fold reduction in HIV viral loads in humanized mice with high CD8(+ T cell expression of PD-1, compared to controls at 4 weeks post-treatment. The anti-PD-1 antibody treatment also resulted in a significant increase in CD8(+ T cells. PD-1 blockade did not affect T cell expression of other inhibitory receptors co-expressed with PD-1, including CD244, CD160 and LAG-3, and did not appear to affect virus-specific humoral immune responses. These data demonstrate that inhibiting PD-1 signaling can reduce HIV viral loads in vivo in the humanized BLT mouse model, suggesting that blockade of the PD-1-PD-L1 pathway may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of patients already infected with the AIDS virus.

  1. In-situ observation of the temperature and orientation dependence of the surface concentration of Ni adatoms deposited on Pd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnik, Samantha; Dickmann, Marcel; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2017-10-01

    We report the direct observation of the in-situ temperature-dependent migration of Ni adatoms in Pd using Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES). For this study, a single atomic layer of Ni was grown on Pd with the crystallographic orientations Pd(111), Pd(110) and Pd(100). The sample temperature was increased from room temperature to 350 °C and the intensity of the Ni and Pd signal was evaluated from the recorded PAES spectra. Due to the outstanding surface sensitivity of PAES a clear tendency for Pd segregation at the surface was observed for all samples. Moreover the activation temperature T0 for surface segregation was found to depend strongly on the surface orientation: We determined T0 to 172± 4 °C, 261± 12 °C and 326± 11 °C for Pd(111), Pd(100) and Pd(110), respectively.

  2. Chemical and structural properties of Pd nanoparticle-decorated graphene—Electron spectroscopic methods and QUASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesiak, B., E-mail: blesiak-orlowska@ichf.edu.pl [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Jiricek, P.; Bieloshapka, I. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 6, 162-53 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Pd-decorated graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (RGO), graphite (Gr). • Electron spectroscopy (XPS) aided with QUASES and REELS structural analysis. • Pd nanoparticle size decreases with surface hydrophilicity (oxygen group content). • PdO{sub x} overlayer thickness increases with surface hydrophilicity. • GO reduction, Pd decoration by reduction lead to exfoliated graphene structures. - Abstract: Graphite (Gr) and carbon nanomaterials such as graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and those decorated with Pd nanoparticles were investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) aided with Quantitative Analysis of Surfaces by Electron Spectroscopy (QUASES) and reflected electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS). Oxidation of Gr decreased the C/O ratio from 10 (Gr) to 2.2 (GO), whereas reduction of GO by N{sub 2}H{sub 4} increased this ratio to 6.6 (RGO) due to decreasing number of oxygen groups (hydroxyl, epoxy, carbonyl and hydroxyl). Graphene materials and those after Pd decoration had 6–11 average number of layers in stacked nanostructures. Pd decoration using NaBH{sub 4}-reducing agents formed nanoparticles of size 6.9 nm (Pd/Gr) > 5.3 nm (Pd/RGO) > 4.25 nm (Pd/GO), with PdO{sub x} overlayer thickness of 2.20 nm (Pd/GO) > 1.42 nm (Pd/Gr) > 1.20 nm (Pd/RGO), decreased number of oxygen groups and average number of layers. Smaller Pd nanoparticles of larger PdO{sub x} overlayer thickness were observed on highly hydrophilic substrates (functional oxygen groups content). Decoration accompanied by reduction using NaBH{sub 4} led to the removal of water attached by hydrogen bonding to graphene interplanes and the formation of PdO{sub x} overlayer from oxygen functional groups. Nanoparticle size obtained from QUASES was confirmed by Pd 3d{sub 5/2} spectra binding energy and full-width at half maximum. Various chemistry and mechanisms of graphene reduction using N{sub 2}H{sub 4} and NaBH{sub 4} were observed, where Na

  3. Theoretical study of NH{sub 3} decomposition on Pd-Cu (1 1 1) and Cu-Pd (1 1 1) surfaces: A comparison with clean Pd (1 1 1) and Cu (1 1 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zhao; Qin, Pei; Fang, Tao, E-mail: taofang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Dehydrogenation mechanisms of NH{sub 3} on Pd-Cu (1 1 1) and Cu-Pd (1 1 1) were investigated using periodic DFT calculations. • The optimized structures and adsorption energies of intermediates were obtained. • The minimum energy path for the dissociation of NH{sub 3} into adsorbed N and H was identified on different surfaces. • The effect of surface structure composition of the catalysts and the role of the doped-metal were analyzed. - Abstract: The adsorption and successive dehydrogenation mechanisms of NH{sub 3} on Pd-Cu (1 1 1) and Cu-Pd (1 1 1) surfaces (the Pd atoms substitution of the first and second layers of Cu (1 1 1) surfaces) have been systematically investigated by density functional theory (DFT) method with a periodic slab model. All possible adsorption configurations of relevant intermediates on Pd-Cu (1 1 1) and Cu-Pd (1 1 1) surfaces are identified. It is revealed that the adsorption configurations and corresponding adsorption energies of adsorbates are slightly changed on Pd-Cu (1 1 1) and Cu-Pd (1 1 1) surfaces. The adsorption energies of NH{sub x}(x = 0–3) species exhibit the following trend: NH{sub 3} < NH{sub 2} < NH < N. Then, the minimum energy path for the complete dehydrogenation of NH{sub 3} into adsorbed N and H is identified to explore the dehydrogenation mechanisms on different surfaces. The highest energy barrier and reaction energy on Pd-Cu (1 1 1) surface are greatly reduced to 1.56 and 0.99 eV, implying that the complete dehydrogenation of NH{sub 3} on Pd-Cu (1 1 1) surface is favorable both kinetically and thermodynamically, namely, the doped-Pd atoms in the first layer are the reaction active center. Compared to that on clean Pd (1 1 1) and Cu (1 1 1) surfaces, it is found that the synergistic effect exits in different layers of catalyst surfaces. The calculated results show that the layer-substituted Pd atoms on the surface of Cu catalysts exhibit a better catalytic activity for NH{sub 3} dehydrogenation

  4. Feto-maternal immune regulation by TIM-3/galectin-9 pathway and PD-1 molecule in mice at day 14.5 of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggyes, Matyas; Lajko, Adrienn; Palkovics, Tamas; Totsimon, Anett; Illes, Zsolt; Szereday, Laszlo; Miko, Eva

    2015-10-01

    Immunoregulation implies the activation of negative pathways leading to the modulation of specific immune responses. Co-inhibitory receptors (such as PD-1 and TIM-3) represent possible tools for this purpose. PD-1 and TIM-3 have been demonstrated to be present on immune cells suggesting general involvement in immunosuppression such as fetomaternal tolerance. The aim of our study was to investigate the expression pattern of PD-1, TIM-3, and its ligand Gal-9 on different immune cell subsets in the peripheral blood and at the fetomaternal interface in pregnant mice. TIM-3 and PD-1 expression by peripheral and decidual immune cells from pregnant BALB-c mice in 2 weeks of gestational age were measures by flow cytometry. Placental galectin-9 expression was determined by immunohistochemically and RT-PCR. Gal-9 was found to be present in the spongiotrophoblast layer of the haemochorial placenta. Decidual NK, NKT and γ/δ T cells showed increased PD-1 expression and reduced cytotoxic potential when compared to the periphery. TIM-3 expression by NK cells and γ/δ T cells is similar both in the periphery and in the decidua, notably, their relative TIM-3 expression is increased locally which is associated with reduced lytic activity. Decidual NKT cells exhibit a reduced TIM-3 expression with increased relative receptor expression and a slightly increased cytotoxicity when compared to the periphery. Our data reveals a particularly complex, tissue and cell type specific immunoregulatory mechanism by the investigated co-inhibitory receptors at the fetomaternal interface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monometallic Pd and Pt and Bimetallic Pd-Pt/Al2O3-TiO2 for the HDS of DBT: Effect of the Pd and Pt Incorporation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Martínez Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the preparation method of monometallic Pd and Pt and bimetallic Pd-Pt/Al2O3-TiO2 catalysts on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS of dibenzothiophene (DBT was investigated in this study. The synthesis was accomplished using three methods: (A impregnation, (B metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD, and (C impregnation-MOCVD. The bimetallic Pd-Pt catalyst prepared by the impregnation-MOCVD method was most active for the HDS of DBT compared to those prepared by the single impregnation or MOCVD method due to the synergetic effect between both noble metals. The greater selectivity toward biphenyl indicated that this bimetallic Pd-Pt catalyst preferentially removes sulfur via the direct desulfurization mechanism. However, the bimetallic Pd-Pt catalyst prepared using the single MOCVD method did not produce any cyclohexylbenzene, which is most likely associated with the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation sites.

  6. The effect of Pd ensemble structure on the O2 dissociation and CO oxidation mechanisms on Au-Pd(100) surface alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğuz, Ismail-Can; Mineva, Tzonka; Guesmi, Hazar

    2018-01-14

    The reactivity of various Pd ensembles on the Au-Pd(100) alloy catalyst toward CO oxidation was investigated by using density functional theory (DFT). This study was prompted by the search for efficient catalysts operating at low temperature for the CO oxidation reaction that is of primary environmental importance. To this aim, we considered Pd modified Au(100) surfaces including Pd monomers, Pd dimers, second neighboring Pd atoms, and Pd chains in a comparative study of the minimum energy reaction pathways. The effect of dispersion interactions was included in the calculations of the O2 dissociation reaction pathway by using the DFT-D3 scheme. The addition of the dispersion interaction strongly improves the adsorption ability of O2 on the Au-Pd surface but does not affect the activation energy barriers of the Transitions States (TSs). As for O2 to dissociate, it is imperative that the TS has lower activation energy than the O2 desorption energy. DFT-D3 is found to favor, in some cases, O2 dissociation on configurations being identified from uncorrected DFT calculations as inactive. This is the case of the second neighboring Pd configuration for which uncorrected DFT predicts positive Gibbs free energy (ΔG) of the O2 adsorption, therefore an endergonic reaction. With the addition of D3 correction, ΔG becomes negative that reveals a spontaneous O2 adsorption. Among the investigated Au-Pd (100) ensembles, the Pd chain dissociates most easily O2 and highly stabilizes the dissociated O atoms; however, it has an inferior reactivity toward CO oxidation and CO2 formation. Indeed, CO strongly adsorbs on the palladium bridge sites and therefore poisoning the surface Pd chain. By contrast, the second neighboring Pd configuration that shows somewhat lower ability to dissociate O2 turns out to be more reactive in the CO2 formation step. These results evidence the complex effect of Pd ensembles on the CO oxidation reaction. Associative CO oxidation proceeds with high energy

  7. Stabilizing CuPd Nanoparticles via CuPd Coupling to WO2.72 Nanorods in Electrochemical Oxidation of Formic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zheng; Li, Junrui; Su, Dong; Muzzio, Michelle; Yu, Chao; Li, Qing; Sun, Shouheng

    2017-10-25

    Stabilizing a 3d-transition metal component M from an MPd alloy structure in an acidic environment is key to the enhancement of MPd catalysis for various reactions. Here we demonstrate a strategy to stabilize Cu in 5 nm CuPd nanoparticles (NPs) by coupling the CuPd NPs with perovskite-type WO2.72 nanorods (NRs). The CuPd NPs are prepared by controlled diffusion of Cu into Pd NPs, and the coupled CuPd/WO2.72 are synthesized by growing WO2.72 NRs in the presence of CuPd NPs. The CuPd/WO2.72 can stabilize Cu in 0.1 M HClO4 solution and, as a result, they show Cu, Pd composition dependent activity for the electrochemical oxidation of formic acid in 0.1 M HClO4 + 0.1 M HCOOH. Among three different CuPd/WO2.72 studied, the Cu48Pd52/WO2.72 is the most efficient catalyst, with its mass activity reaching 2086 mA/mgPd in a broad potential range of 0.40 to 0.80 V (vs RHE) and staying at this value after the 12 h chronoamperometry test at 0.40 V. The synthesis can be extended to obtain other MPd/WO2.72 (M = Fe, Co, Ni), making it possible to study MPd-WO2.72 interactions and MPd stabilization on enhancing MPd catalysis for various chemical reactions.

  8. Practical approach for characterization of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in countries with population ethnically heterogeneous: description of seven new G6PD mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradkhani, Kamran; Mekki, Chadia; Bahuau, Michel; Te, Valerie Li Thiao; Holder, Muriel; Pissard, Serge; Préhu, Claude; Rose, Christian; Wajcman, Henri; Galactéros, Frédéric

    2012-02-01

    We present a rapid strategy based on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to characterize the more frequent glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants observed in a population with high gene flow. During a study involving more than 600 patients, we observed mainly G6PD A(-) (c.202G>A, c.376A>G; p.Val68Met, p.Asn126Asp), G6PD Mediterranean (Med) (c.563C>T, p.Ser188Phe), and G6PD Betica (c.376A>G, 542A>T; p.126Asn>Asp, 181Asp>Val) with addition of a few rare ones. A number of 10 abnormalities amounted to 92% of all the molecular defects. In addition, seven new mutations were found: three presented with acute hemolytic anemia following oxidative stress [G6PD Nice (c.1380G>C, p.Glu460Asp), G6PD Roubaix (c.811G>C, p.Val271Leu), and G6PD Toledo (c.496C>T, p.Arg166Cys)], three with different degrees of chronic hemolytic anemia [G6PD Lille (c.821A>T, p.Glu274Val), G6PD Villeurbanne (c.1000_1002delACC, p.Thr334del), and G6PD Amiens (c.1367A>T, p.Asp456Val)] and one found fortuitously G6PD Montpellier (c.1132G>A, p.Gly378Ser).

  9. A highly active Pd-P nanoparticle electrocatalyst for enhanced formic acid oxidation synthesized via stepwise electroless deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kee Chun; Khezri, Bahareh; Li, Yao; Webster, Richard D; Su, Haibin; Sato, Hirotaka

    2016-02-28

    A highly active Pd-P nanoparticle electrocatalyst for formic acid oxidation was synthesized using NaH2PO2 as the reducing agent. The Pd-P nanoparticles were amorphous and exhibited higher specific and mass activity values compared to commercial Pd/C electrocatalyts and reported literature values. Furthermore, the Pd-P nanoparticles were found to be more durable than Pd/C electrocatalyts.

  10. Ethnic Differences in Personality Disorder Patterns among Women Veterans Diagnosed with PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet C'de Baca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Personality Disorders (PDs impair the ability to function socially and occupationally. PD prevalence rates among veterans who have also been diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD range from 45%–79%. This study examined ethnic differences in PDs assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III in 260 non-Hispanic white (64%, Hispanic (27%, and African American (9%, mostly single, women veterans in treatment for PTSD. After adjusting for covariates including number and sexual-nature of trauma, findings revealed the adjusted odds ratio of having a cluster A PD was almost three times higher for African Americans (p = 0.046 then the other two ethnic groups, which may be driven by the paranoid PD scale and potentially reflects an adaptive response to racial discrimination. In cluster designation analysis, the odds were twice as high of having a cluster B PD with childhood trauma (p = 0.046, and a cluster C PD with sexual trauma (p = 0.004, demonstrating the significance of childhood and sexual trauma on long-term chronic personality patterns in women veterans. These results highlight the importance of using instruments with demonstrated diagnostic validity for minority populations.

  11. Interference removals on Pd, Ru and Au with ICP-QQQ-MS in PGE RM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem Hussain Bokhari, Syed; Meisel, Thomas; Walkner, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Gold and platinum group elements (PGE) are essential industrial precious metals with high world demand due to their unique properties. Struggle for natural exploration of PGE is on great pace and recycling from industrial wastes, electronics and catalytic convertor is on the rise for PGE supply chain. Along with these developments it is becoming more challenging for analytical chemists to determine gold and PGE out of complex matrix which causes severe interferences. The current state of art is online analysis coupled with chromatographic separation of interferences. The ICP-QQQ-MS Agilent 8800 has the capability of using multi tunes and mass shifts. We aim to remove interferences on Pd+ (for direct and isotope dilution analysis) Au+ and Ru+ in lieu of chemical separations. YO+, SrOH+, ZnAr+, NiAr+, ZrO+, CuAr+, MoO+ , Ru+and Cd+ are expected interferences on Pd+ while Au+ is interfered by TaO+, HfOH+, GdAr+ and 102Ru+ ,104Ru+ by 102Pd+ ,104Pd+ etc. Initial test were performed on pure solutions of 1mg/l (interfering elements): 1 ng/l (Pd, Ru & Au) respectively. The outcomes of initial tests were applied on PGE reference material (RM) WMG-1 and SARM-7 (digested with Na2O2 sintering). The results obtained show that YO+, SrOH+ interfere (104Pd,105Pd), 104 Ru+ on (104Pd), ZnAr+ has slight interference on (104Pd and106Pd), ZrO+, NiAr+, CuAr+ interferences are negligible, MoO+ has severe interference on (108Pd, 110Pd) and that Cd+ has severe isobaric interference on (106Pd,108Pd, 110Pd). These interference have been removed by formation of Pd(NH3)3+complex. The TaO+, HfOH+ and GdAr+ interferences on Au+ are best removed by formation of Au(NH3)+ and Au(NH3)2+ complexes. 102Pd+,104Pd+interference on 102Ru+ ,104Ru+ can be removed by formation of Ru(NH3)4+ and RuO+ compounds. The results obtained comply with certified values of RM. The developed method is being tested on low concentration PGE reference materials. References: Sugiyama, N. " Removal of complex spectral

  12. An Efficient Pd-Sn Catalyst Supported on MWNTs for Hydrogenation of High Concentrated Acetylene Feedstocks: The Potential Role of Isolated Adsorption Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Esmaeili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, tin-promoted Pd/MWNTs nanocatalystwas synthesized via polyol technique for application in hydrogenation of high-concentrated acetylene feedstocks. TEM images showed a restricted distribution of nanoparticles in the range of 3-5 nm. The results indicated that nanoparticles sizes were resistant to further catalyst deactivation. XRD patterns signified alloying between Pd and Sn which contained a high percentage of ordered intermetallic structures (70.8%, as confirmed by XPS. According to the results, pore blocking and/or fouling was known as the main reasons of the catalyst deactivation. Here, we supposed a novel deactivation mechanism based on which dehydrogenation susceptibility of carbonaceous species (green oil played a significant role in the formation of the isolated adsorption sites and then, catalyst deactivation.

  13. A density functional theory study on the acetylene cyclotrimerization on Pd-modified Au(111) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bohua; Dong, Xiuqin; Yu, Yingzhe; Zhang, Minhua

    2017-10-01

    Calculations based on the first-principle density functional theory were carried out to study the possible acetylene cyclotrimerization reactions on Pd-Au(111) surface and to investigate the effect of Au atom alloying with Pd. The adsorption of C2H2, C4H4, C6H6 and the PDOS of 4d orbitals of surface Pd and Au atoms were studied. The comparison of d-band center of Pd and Au atom before and after C2H2 or C4H4 adsorption suggests that these molecules affect the activity of Pd-Au(111) surface to some degree due to the high binding energy of the adsorption. In our study, the second neighboring Pd ensembles on Pd-Au(111) surface can adsorb two acetylene molecules on parallel-bridge site of two Au atoms and one Pd atom, respectively. Csbnd C bonds are parallel to each other and two acetylenes are adsorbed face to face to produce four-membered ring C4H4 firstly. The geometric effect and electronic effect of Pd-Au(111) surface with the second neighboring Pd ensembles both help to reduce this activation barrier.

  14. Comparison of bacterial cells and amine-functionalized abiotic surfaces as support for Pd nanoparticle synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Corte, Simon; Bechstein, Stefanie; Lokanathan, Arcot R.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing demand for catalytic Pd nanoparticles has motivated the search for sustainable production methods. An innovative approach uses bacterial cells as support material for synthesizing Pd nanoparticles by reduction of Pd(II) with e.g. hydrogen or formate. Nevertheless, drawbacks of micro......An increasing demand for catalytic Pd nanoparticles has motivated the search for sustainable production methods. An innovative approach uses bacterial cells as support material for synthesizing Pd nanoparticles by reduction of Pd(II) with e.g. hydrogen or formate. Nevertheless, drawbacks...... of microbially supported Pd catalysts are the low catalytic activity compared to conventional Pd nanocatalysts and the possible poisoning of the catalyst surface by sulfur originating from bacterial proteins. A recent study showed that amine groups were a key component in surface-supported synthesis of Pd...... materials were visualized by transmission electron microscopy, and their activity was evaluated by catalysis of p-nitrophenol reduction. Surfaces functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and chitosan were interesting alternatives to bacterial cells, as the catalytic activity of Pd particles formed...

  15. Characterization of sonochemically synthesized Au-Pd nanoparticles by using slow positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, F.; Taguchi, N.; Iwase, A. [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kojima, T. [Radiation Research Center, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Tanaka, S.; Akita, T. [Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices, AIST, 1-8-31, Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Iwai, T.; Onitsuka, T. [Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Binary AuPd nanoparticles were prepared by sonochemical reduction of solutions containing Au{sup 3+}, Pd{sup 2+} ions and surfactant (SDS: sodium dodecyl sulfate and PEG-MS: polyethylene glycol monostearate). When using SDS as an additive, AuPd nanoparticles became a core-shell structure of Au core and Pd shell. AuPd nanoparticle with core-shell structure has catalytic activity superior to alloyed particle or Pd nanoparticles. In order to study the electronic states of AuPd nanoparticles, positron annihilation Doppler broadening measurements by using slow positron beam (energy range of 0.1 to 10 keV) have been performed for AuPd nanoparticles. The size and shape of the nanoparticles are also examined by using transmission electron microscope (TEM). The differences of Doppler broadening parameters between core-shell, alloyed AuPd, pure Au and Pd particles were found. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium using Pd/MWCNT and PdAuSn/MWCNT electrocatalysts prepared by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleao; Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da; Andrade e Silva, Leonardo Gondin de; Spinace, Estevam Vitorio; Oliveira Neto, Almir, E-mail: drinager@ig.com.br, E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Mauro Coelho dos [Universidade Federal do ABC (LEMN/CCNH/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Environmental problems and the world growing demand for energy has mobilized the scientific community in finding of clean and renewable energy sources. In this context, fuel cells appear as appropriate technology for generating electricity through alcohols electro-oxidation. Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT)-supported Pd and trimetallic PdAuSn (Pd:Au:Sn 50:10:40 atomic ratio) electrocatalysts were prepared using electron beam irradiation. The obtained materials were characterized by VC, Chronoamperometry, EDX, TEM and XRD. The catalytic activities of electrocatalysts toward ethanol electro-oxidation were evaluated in alkaline medium in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC) in a range temperature 60 to 90 deg C. The best performances were obtained at 85 deg C: 33 mW.cm{sup -2} and 31 mW.cm{sup -2} for Pd/ MWCNT and PdAuSn/MWCNT electrocatalysts, respectively. X-ray diffractograms of electrocatalysts showed the presence of Pd-rich (fcc) and Au-rich (fcc) phases. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry experiments showed that PdAuSn/MWCNT electrocatalyst demonstrated similar activity toward ethanol electro-oxidation at room temperature, compared to electrocatalyst Pd/MWCNT. (author)

  17. The interaction of small molecules with Pd and K covered Pd surfaces at energies from 200 keV to 6 keV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, H; Vicanek, M; Heiland, W; Schlathölter, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    In the energy range of 200 eV to a few keV small molecules are scattered al grazing incidence from Pd(110) and Pd(110) covered with a monolayer of K. The experimental setup provides ions and neutrals as primary particles and the time-of-flight analysis of the scattered particles includes both ions

  18. The PD-1/PD-L1 (B7-H1 Pathway in Chronic Infection-Induced Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Hofmeyer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes (CTLs play a pivotal role in the control of infection. Activated CTLs, however, often lose effector function during chronic infection. PD-1 receptor and its ligand PD-L1 of the B7/CD28 family function as a T cell coinhibitory pathway and are emerging as major regulators converting effector CTLs into exhausted CTLs during chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and other pathogens capable of establishing chronic infections. Importantly, blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is able to restore functional capabilities to exhausted CTLs and early clinical trials have shown promise. Further research will reveal how chronic infection induces upregulation of PD-1 on CTLs and PD-L1 on antigen-presenting cells and other tissue cells and how the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction promotes CTLs exhaustion, which is crucial for developing effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination against chronic infections.

  19. Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1)-targeted TRAIL combines PD-L1-mediated checkpoint inhibition with TRAIL-mediated apoptosis induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Djoke; He, Yuan; Koopmans, Iris; Wiersma, Valerie R.; van Ginkel, Robert J.; Samplonius, Douwe F.; Helfrich, Wijnand; Bremer, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies that block PD-L1/PD-1 immune checkpoints restore the activity of functionally-impaired antitumor T cells. These antibodies show unprecedented clinical benefit in various advanced cancers, particularly in melanoma. However, only a subset of cancer patients responds to current

  20. Electronic properties of thin Zn layers on Pd(1 1 1) during growth and alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Andreas; Flechtner, Ken; Denecke, Reinhard; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Neyman, Konstantin M.; Rösch, Notker

    2006-01-01

    The growth and alloying of thin Zn layers on Pd(1 1 1) was investigated using X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy as well as low energy electron diffraction and correlated with density functional calculations. At 105 K, the formation of a pseudomorphic Zn monolayer is observed. Upon heating this layer to 550 K or upon deposition of 1 ML at 550 K, an ordered p(2 × 1) PdZn surface alloy with a Pd:Zn ratio of ˜1:1 is formed, with a characteristic Pd 3d 5/2 peak at a binding energy of ˜335.6 eV. For deposition of 3 ML Zn at 550 K or by heating 3 ML, deposited at low temperature, to 500 or 600 K, a PdZn alloy with a Pd:Zn ratio of again ˜1:1 is found in the surface region, with a Pd 3d 5/2 peak at ˜335.9 eV; the direct preparation at 550 K leads to a more homogeneous and better ordered alloy. The valence band spectrum of this alloy with a low density of states at the Fermi level and pronounced maxima due to the "Pd 4d" band at ˜2.4 and 3.9 eV closely resembles the spectrum of Cu(1 1 1), in good agreement with the calculated density of states for a PdZn alloy of 1:1 stoichiometry. The shift of the "Pd 4d" band to higher binding energies as compared to Pd(1 1 1) indicates a charge transfer from Zn to the Pd 4d levels. Overall, the similarity between the ultraviolet photoelectron spectra for the PdZn alloy and for Cu(1 1 1) is taken as explanation for the similar chemical activity of both systems in methanol steam reforming.

  1. Will caloric restriction and folate protect against AD and PD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Mark P

    2003-02-25

    Recent epidemiologic studies of different sample populations have suggested that the risk of AD and PD may be increased in individuals with high-calorie diets and in those with increased homocysteine levels. Dietary restriction and supplementation with folic acid can reduce neuronal damage and improve behavioral outcome in mouse models of AD and PD. Animal studies have shown that the beneficial effects of dietary restriction result, in part, from increased production of neurotrophic factors and cytoprotective protein chaperones in neurons. By keeping homocysteine levels low, folic acid can protect cerebral vessels and can prevent the accumulation of DNA damage in neurons caused by oxidative stress and facilitated by homocysteine. Although further studies are required in humans, the emerging data suggest that high-calorie diets and elevated homocysteine levels may render the brain vulnerable to neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. Spin-Orbit Torques in Co/Pd Multilayer Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Jamali, Mahdi

    2013-12-09

    Current induced spin-orbit torques have been studied in ferromagnetic nanowires made of 20 nm thick Co/Pd multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Using Hall voltage and lock-in measurements, it is found that upon injection of an electric current both in-plane (Slonczewski-like) and perpendicular (fieldlike) torques build up in the nanowire. The torque efficiencies are found to be as large as 1.17 and 5 kOe at 108  A/cm2 for the in-plane and perpendicular components, respectively, which is surprisingly comparable to previous studies in ultrathin (∼1  nm) magnetic bilayers. We show that this result cannot be explained solely by spin Hall effect induced torque at the outer interfaces, indicating a probable contribution of the bulk of the Co/Pd multilayer.

  3. Voigt Size-Strain Broadening Of Pd Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zucha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pd thin films were deposited onto Si (100 and glass/Pd/etching substrates by means of r.f. reactive sputtering under the same sputtering condition in order to appreciate the influence of substrate structure. The aim of this study was to appreciate the main X-ray diffraction line profile characteristic by the approximation method. As an approximation function was used the Voigt profile which was calculated by convolution of Gaussian and Cauchy profiles. As an instrumental standart was used ceramic Al2O3 from Nist. Results of size-strain analysis was obtained according to Langford method for one diffraction line and method suggested by Balzar and Ledbetter for two orders of the same diffraction line.

  4. Single crystal growth of the intermetallic compound InPd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, Michael; Gille, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Quite recently intermetallic compounds have been investigated as catalysts for heterogeneous catalysis as they can be highly active regarding a specific reaction and often show advantages in selectivity and long-term stability. The intermetallic phase InPd (CsCl structure type) is considered to be a possible catalyst for methanol steam reforming. Single crystals are needed to study the basic processes of catalysis. Using the Czochralski technique, InPd single crystals were grown from In-rich solutions as to reduce the vapor pressure of In. The crystals show some unusual rough surface morphology and gradients concerning the main components composition. By adjusting the growth parameters like growth temperature and growth rate we succeeded to get inclusion-free single crystals.

  5. WastePD, an innovative center on materials degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankel, Gerald S.; Vienna, John; Lian, Jie

    2017-07-25

    The US Department of Energy recently awarded funds to create the Center for Performance and Design of Nuclear Waste Forms and Containers (WastePD) as part of the Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) program. EFRCs are multi-investigator collaborations of universities, national labs and companies that “conduct fundamental research focusing on one or more “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community.” The major performance parameter of nuclear waste forms is their ability to isolate the radionuclides by withstanding degradation in a repository environment over very long periods of time. So WastePD is at heart a center focused on materials degradation.

  6. Fabrication of Pd Doped WO3 Nanofiber as Hydrogen Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Nikfarjam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pd doped WO3 fibers were synthesized by electro-spinning. The sol gel method was employed to prepare peroxopolytungstic acid (P-PTA. Palladium chloride and Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP was dissolved in the sol Pd:WO3 = 10% molar ratio. The prepared sol was loaded into a syringe connected to a high voltage of 18.3 kV and electrospun fibers were collected on the alumina substrates. Scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS techniques were used to analyze the crystal structure and chemical composition of the fibers after heat treatment at 500 °C. Resistance-sensing measurements exhibited a sensitivity of about 30 at 500 ppm hydrogen in air, and the response and recovery times were about 20 and 30 s, respectively, at 300 °C. Hydrogen gas sensing mechanism of the sensor was also studied.

  7. Third-order optical nonlinearities of PVP/Pd nanohybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannouli, I.; Potamianos, D.; Krasia-Christoforou, T.; Couris, S.

    2017-10-01

    Pd nanoparticles stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone were synthesized following mild reduction of palladium ion complexes. Their morphology and optical properties were characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy to confirm the existence of monodispersed, low-dimensional single nanoparticles. Furthermore, their third-order nonlinear optical properties were investigated by means of the Z-scan technique, using 35 ps and 4 ns laser pulses, both in the visible (532 nm) and in the infrared (1064 nm). These results denote that the surface plasmon resonance is not significantly contributing to the nonlinear optical response of Pd nanoparticles. In contrast, a two photon absorption process was found to contribute to the observed response. The present results are discussed and compared with previous literature findings.

  8. An effective method to probe local magnetostatic properties in a nanometric FePd antidot array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beron, F; Pirota, K R; Knobel, M [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Rua Sergio Buarque de Holanda, 777, Cidade Universitaria ' Zeferino Vaz' , Campinas 13083-859, SP (Brazil); Vega, V; Prida, V M; Fernandez, A; Hernando, B, E-mail: fberon@ifi.unicamp.br [Depto. Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    A simple method to quantitatively characterize the local magnetic behaviour of a patterned nanostructure, like a ferromagnetic thin film of antidot arrays, is proposed. The first-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis, coupled with simulations using physically meaningful hysterons, allows us to obtain a quantitative and physically related description of the interaction field and each magnetization reversal process. The hysterons system is built from previously known hypotheses on the magnetic behaviour of the sample. This method was successfully applied to a highly hexagonal ordered FePd antidot array with nanometric dimensions. We achieved a complete characterization of the two different magnetization reversal mechanisms in function of the in-plane applied field angle. For a narrow range of high fields, the magnetization initiates rotating reversibly around the pores, while at lower fields, domain walls are nucleated and propagated. This in-plane magnetization reversal mechanism, partly reversible and partly irreversible, is the only angularly dependent one. While going away from the easy axis, its reversible proportion increases, as well as its switching field distribution. Finally, the results indicate that the high surface roughness between adjacent holes of the antidot thin film induces a parallel interaction field. The proposed method demonstrates its ability also to be applied to characterizing patterned nanostructures with rather complex magnetization reversal processes.

  9. Oxidation of a Cyclometalated Pd(II) Dimer with “CF3+”: Formation and Reactivity of a Catalytically Competent Monomeric Pd(IV) Aquo Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Yingda; Ball, Nicholas D.; Kampf, Jeff W.; Sanford, Melanie S.

    2010-01-01

    The reaction of [(bzq)Pd(OAc)]2 (bzq = benzo[h]quinoline) with “CF3+” reagents to afford the monomeric PdIV aquo complex (bzq)Pd(CF3)(OAc)2(OH2) is demonstrated. Heating this PdIV adduct at 60 °C for 12 h leads to highly chemoselective Aryl–CF3 bond-forming reductive elimination. The rate and yield of this transformation are both significantly enhanced by the addition of Brønsted and Lewis acidic additives. The mechanism of C–CF3 bond-formation from (bzq)Pd(CF3)(OAc)2(OH2) has been studied, a...

  10. High proportions of PD-1and PD-L1leukocytes in classical Hodgkin lymphoma microenvironment are associated with inferior outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollander, Peter; Kamper, Peter; Smedby, Karin Ekstrom

    2017-01-01

    . Our aim was to investigate the prognostic impact of PD-1, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and PD-L2 in the tumor microenvironment in diagnostic biopsies of patients with cHL. Patients from Denmark and Sweden, diagnosed between 1990 and 2007 and ages 15 to 86 years, were included. Tissue microarray...... proportions of both PD-1+(hazard ratio [HR], 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.86) and PD-L1+(HR = 1.89; 95% CI, 1.08-3.30) leukocytes in the microenvironment were associated with inferior EFS in a multivariate analysis (adjusted for white blood cell count >15 × 109/L, hemoglobin ... associated with inferior OS in a multivariate analysis (HR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1...

  11. Synthesis of PdO/MCM-41 nanocomposites using trans-[PdCl{sub 2}(PEt{sub 3}){sub 2}] as the source of metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Pineda, Jessica [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rio, Jose Manuel del [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Carreto, Enrique [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Terres, Eduardo; Montoya, J. Asencion [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Zuniga-Gonzalez, Maria de Jesus [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Morgado, Jorge [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: morgadomoreno@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-07-29

    Three PdO/MCM-41 nanocomposites containing PdO species that are dispersed on an MCM-41 support have been prepared using trans-[PdCl{sub 2}(PEt{sub 3}){sub 2}] as the source of metal. Thermal gravimetric analysis of the decomposition of this complex in air reveals a remarkable mass loss of all nonmetallic elements centered at 300 deg. C. The materials were characterized with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), nitrogen sorption and TEM, which showed that the PdO nanoparticles were present inside the pores of MCM-41. XRPD analysis confirms formation of PdO (palladinite) nanocrystals, as the sole crystalline phase present in the nanocomposites.

  12. More examples of the 15-crown-5...H2O-M-OH2...15-crown-5 motif, M = Al3+, Cr3+ and Pd2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Maxime A; Prewitt, Jacob H; Kelley, Steven P; Parkin, Sean; Selegue, John P; Brock, Carolyn Pratt

    2010-04-01

    Five structures of co-crystals grown from aqueous solutions equimolar in 15-crown-5 (or 15C5) and [M(H(2)O)(6)](NO(3))(n), M = Al(3+), Cr(3+) and Pd(2+), are reported. The hydrogen-bonding patterns in all are similar: metal complexes including the fragment trans-H(2)O-M-OH(2) alternate with 15C5 molecules, to which they are hydrogen bonded, to form stacks. A literature survey shows that this hydrogen-bonding pattern is very common. In each of the two polymorphs of the compound [Al(H(2)O)(6)](NO(3))(3).15C5.4H(2)O there are two independent cations; one forms hydrogen bonds directly to the 15C5 molecules adjacent in the stack, while the other cation is hydrogen-bonded to two water molecules that act as spacers in the stack. These stacks are then crosslinked by hydrogen bonds formed by the three nitrate counterions and the three lattice water molecules. The hydrogen-bonded stacks in [Cr(H(2)O)(5)(NO(3))](NO(3))(2).1.5(15C5).H(2)O are discrete rather than infinite; each unit contains two Cr(3+) complex cations and three 15C5 molecules. These units are again crosslinked by the uncoordinated nitrate ions and a lattice water molecule. In [Pd(H(2)O)(2)(NO(3))(2)].15C5 the infinite stacks are electrically neutral and are not crosslinked. In [Pd(H(2)O)(2)(NO(3))(2)].2(15C5).2H(2)O.2HNO(3) a discrete, uncharged unit containing one Pd complex and two 15C5 molecules is ;capped off' at either end by a lattice water molecule and an included nitric acid molecule. In all five structures the infinite stacks or discrete units form an array that is at least approximately hexagonal.

  13. Magnetic properties of electrodeposited FePd alloy thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararaj, A.; Mohanty, J.

    2017-05-01

    We studied the effect of various deposition potential on the growth of FePd alloy thin films by pulsed electrodeposition. GIXRD results confirm all the deposits are grains and crystallites with slight change in orientation, which results due to variation in alloy composition. MOKE studies reveal in-plane easy axis and variation in coercivity for different deposition potentials. AFM/MFM images show in-plane magnetized domains with low film roughness.

  14. Expanding the Reach of Anti-PD-1 Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Results from three studies, including KEYNOTE-012 and CheckMate 057, indicate that anti-PD-1 drugs look promising in cancers other than melanoma. Pembrolizumab was twice as effective as cetuximab for advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; nivolumab induced durable antitumor activity in advanced liver cancer; and nivolumab extended the median overall survival of patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Chlorhexidine for routine PD catheter exit-site care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olga, Balafa; Fotis, Zarzoulas; Margarita, Ikonomou; Sofia, Xiromeriti; Konstantinos, Siamopoulos

    2016-09-01

    Although guidelines suggest the routine use of mupirocin or gentamicin at the exit site of PD catheter, our PD unit has been using chlorhexidine gluconate 0.5 % as exit-site care protocol. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether mupirocin application is superior to the traditionally applied chlorhexidine-regarding prevention of exit-site infections and peritonitis in our unit. Stable incident and prevalent patients of our unit were randomized to apply mupirocin or chlorhexidine at exit site. The study started on July 1, 2010, and continued till December 2014. End point was the first episode of exit-site infection or peritonitis. Sixty-two patients (mean age 58.5 ± 14.6 years) were randomized. At the end of follow-up, there were 33 patients on mupirocin treatment and 29 on chlorhexidine. The two groups had no differences in age, sex, PD vintage or PD mode. The only difference between the two groups was the percentage of patients with diabetes, 28 % in chlorhexidine group versus 10 % in mupirocin group. Mean time of follow-up was 28.46 ± 16.37 months. Twenty-four episodes of infections (peritonitis and exit site) were recorded. Time to first infection episode was 32 months in mupirocin group (95 % CI 21.4-42.5) versus 29 months (95 % CI 8.6-49.4) in chlorhexidine group. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed no difference in the infections between the two protocols (log-rank test, p = 0.477). Mupirocin is not superior in preventing infections comparing with chlorhexidine in this cohort of patients.

  16. Pd-catalysts for DFAFC prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bieloshapka, Igor; Jiříček, Petr; Vorokhta, M.; Tomšík, Elena; Rednyk, A.; Perekrestov, R.; Jurek, Karel; Ukraintsev, Egor; Hruška, Karel; Romanyuk, Olexandr; Lesiak, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 419, Oct (2017), s. 838-846 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015088 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Pd catalyst * formic acid fuel cell * magnetron sputtering * DFAFC * surface morphology Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  17. Gyromagnetic factors in the even Ru and Pd chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannatiempo, A. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    Recent g -factor measurements in even Ru and Pd isotopes have significantly improved the accuracy of the g(2{sup +}{sub 1}) factors in the lighter nuclei of both isotopic chains and enhanced the systematics, thus enabling a detailed test of current nuclear models. It has been performed paying particular attention to the IBA-2 model and to the dependence of the calculated g factors on the parameters of the M1 operator. (orig.)

  18. Parkinson's disease-related perfusion and glucose metabolic brain patterns identified with PCASL-MRI and FDG-PET imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K. Teune, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: We identified PD-related perfusion and metabolic brain patterns using PCASL and FDG-PET in the same patients which were comparable with results of existing research. In this respect, PCASL appears to be a promising addition in the early diagnosis of individual parkinsonian patients.

  19. Decitibine improve the efficiency of anti-PD-1 therapy via activating the response to IFN/PD-L1 signal of lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Qi; Wang, Haiyong; Li, Angui; Xu, Yinhui; Tang, Liang; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Chunfang; Gao, Yang; Song, Jianfei; Du, Zhenzong

    2018-02-09

    IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 expression represents the existence of tumor-specific T cells, which predicts high-response rate to anti-PD-1/L1 therapy, but loss-of-function of IFN signals (e.g., JAK mutation) induces adaptive immune resistance in patients with low-response rate. Interferon regulatory factors (IRF) are frequently epigenetic silenced in carcinogenesis, while the role of methylation in anti-PD-1/L1 therapy remains unclear. We here investigated the methylation status of IFN-γ related genes IRF1/8 and IFN-α/β-related genes IRF3/7 in lung cancer tissues and found that only highly methylated IRF1 and 7 negatively correlated to cd274 (coding PD-L1) expression, similar to JAK mutation. Interestingly, decitibine (DAC) as methylation inhibitor could hypomethylate IRF1/7 to restore PD-L1 level. Meanwhile, IRF7 enhanced constitutive PD-L1 expression, which was independent of IFN-γ though directly promote transcription of PD-L1, leading to abrogating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generation which could be restored by anti-PD-L1 antibody, or siRNA-IRF7. The supplement of DAC to anti-PD-1 therapy in vivo improve the efficiency of anti-tumor with less methylated IRF1/7, more interferon-related genes expression (e.g., CXCL9) and IFN-γ/CD8+ T-cells infiltrations, suggesting that additional treatment of DAC could rescue the ability to response to IFN in lung cancer patients with anti-PD-1/L1 therapy resistance.

  20. Privacy transparency patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee B.I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two privacy patterns for creating privacy transparency: the Personal Data Table pattern and the Privacy Policy Icons pattern, as well as a full overview of privacy transparency patterns. It is a first step in creating a full set of privacy design patterns, which will aid

  1. Single neutron pick-up on {sup 104}Pd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Andre, J.P.A.M. de; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J.L.M.; Rodrigues, C.L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Ukita, G.M. [Universidade de Santo Amaro, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Psicologia

    2006-12-15

    Low-lying levels of {sup 103}Pd have been investigated through the (d,t) reaction on {sup 104}Pd, at an incident deuteron energy of 15.0 MeV. Outgoing particles were momentum analyzed by an Enge magnetic spectrograph and detected in nuclear emulsion plates, with an energy resolution of 8 keV. Previous (d,t) work suffered from a much worse resolution than that here achieved. A partial analysis of the data obtained is reported, referring to six out of the fourteen scattering angles for which data were obtained. Angular distributions associated with eight of the thirteen levels seen up to 1.1 MeV of excitation have been compared to DWBA one-neutron pick-up predictions. Both, the attributed excitation energy values and the transferred angular momenta are in excellent agreement with the results of other kind of experiments, as tabulated by the Nuclear Data Sheets. Some peculiar structure characteristics, associated with the yrast 5/2{sup +}, 3/2{sup +} and 7/2{sup +} states found in the Ru chain could be recognized also in {sup 103}Pd, pointing to the possibility of a more global understanding of this transitional mass region. (author)

  2. Nivolumab: targeting PD-1 to bolster antitumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmer, Julie R; Hammers, Hans; Lipson, Evan J

    2015-01-01

    Nivolumab, a fully human IgG4 PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, blocks PD-1 and can restore anticancer immune responses by abrogating PD-1 pathway-mediated T-cell inhibition. Nivolumab is approved in Japan and the USA for the treatment of patients with advanced melanoma. A Phase I trial reported overall objective response rates of 17, 32 and 29% in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, respectively, which included many heavily pretreated patients. 1-/2-year overall survival rates were 42%/24%, 63%/48% and 70%/50% for non-small-cell lung cancer, melanoma and renal cell carcinoma, respectively. Nivolumab significantly improved survival versus dacarbazine in previously untreated patients with metastatic melanoma in a Phase III trial. Nivolumab is associated with a manageable adverse event profile. Numerous clinical trials are investigating nivolumab alone or in combination with other therapies in multiple cancer settings. This article summarizes the development of nivolumab as of November 2014.

  3. Magnetic studies in evaporated Ni/Pd multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chafai, K. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Micro-electronique, Automatique et Thermique (LPMMAT), Faculte des Sciences Ain Chock, Universite Hassan II, B.P. 5366 Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Salhi, H. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Micro-electronique, Automatique et Thermique (LPMMAT), Faculte des Sciences Ain Chock, Universite Hassan II, B.P. 5366 Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Laboratoire de Mecanique, Productique et Genie industriel (LMPG), Ecole superieure de technologie, Universite Hassan II, B.P. 5366 Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Lassri, H., E-mail: lassrih@hotmail.co [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Micro-electronique, Automatique et Thermique (LPMMAT), Faculte des Sciences Ain Chock, Universite Hassan II, B.P. 5366 Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Yamkane, Z.; Lassri, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Micro-electronique, Automatique et Thermique (LPMMAT), Faculte des Sciences Ain Chock, Universite Hassan II, B.P. 5366 Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Abid, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Fondamentale et Appliquee (LPFA), Faculte des Sciences Ain Chock, Universite Hassan II, B.P. 5366 Maarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Neel, CNRS-Universite J. Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Krishnan, R. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme et d' Optique, URA 1531, 45 Avenue des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France)

    2011-03-15

    The magnetic properties of Ni/Pd multilayers, prepared by sequential evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum, have been studied. The Ni thickness dependence of the magnetization and magnetic anisotropy is discussed. The temperature dependence of the spontaneous magnetization is well described by a T{sup 3/2} law in all multilayers. A spin-wave theory has been used to explain the temperature dependence of the spontaneous magnetization, and the approximate values for the exchange interactions for various Ni layer thicknesses have been obtained. - Research highlights: The magnetic properties of Ni/Pd multilayers, prepared by sequential evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum, have been studied. The temperature dependence of the spontaneous magnetization is well described by a T{sup 3/2} law in Ni/Pd multilayers. The spin-wave constant B was observed to depend on t{sub Ni} nonmonotonically. A spin-wave theory has been used to explain the temperature dependence of the spontaneous magnetization. The approximate values for the exchange interactions for various Ni layer thicknesses have been obtained.

  4. Electrodeposition of NiPd alloy from aqueous chloride electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mech, K., E-mail: kmech@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Wróbel, M [AGH, University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow (Poland); Wojnicki, M [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, Department of Physical Chemistry and Metallurgy of Non-Ferrous Metals, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Mech-Piskorz, J. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Żabiński, P.; Kowalik, R. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, Department of Physical Chemistry and Metallurgy of Non-Ferrous Metals, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Mechanism of electrode reactions resulting in NiPd alloys was described. • Electrolysis conditions enabling alloys synthesis were determined. • Alloys were characterized towards composition, structure and surface properties. - Abstract: Presented results describing properties of alloys deposited at potentiostatic conditions in Ni{sup 2+} – Pd{sup 2+} – Cl{sup −} – H{sub 2}O system. Electrolysis parameters were defined based on results of thermodynamic analysis as well as voltammetry coupled with electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM). Influence of electrode potential and electrolyte components concentration on alloy composition, morphology and its structure was investigated. Alloys were deposited at different Ni(II) and Pd(II) complexes concentrations. Results indicated possibilities of electrochemical synthesis of alloys of wide composition range. Deposits structure as well as crystallites size were discussed based on results of XRD measurements. Alloys composition was determined with the use of energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Morphology of alloys was characterized with the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  5. Membranous and Cytoplasmic Expression of PD-L1 in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Xia Qu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1 on tumor cells represents a powerful immune evasion pathway, but the role of intracellular or cytoplasmic PD-L1 has not been investigated in ovarian cancer cells. Methods: Flow cytometry (FCM, Real-time PCR (qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC and western blot were used to determine the expression of PD-L1 in ovarian cancer cells. The cytokines detected in the tumor or tumor associated macrophage (TAM were used to treat cancer cells. PD-L1 blockade and silencing were used to elucidate the functional significance of cancer-related PD-L1 expression. Results: Based on the results presented, PD-L1 was found variably expressed in the cytoplasm and the cell surface of both HO8910 and SKOV3 cells. TAM or IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6 released from TAM stimulated the expression of PD-L1 at the surface of the cancer cells. The IHC results were consistent with the data in vitro showing infiltration of TAM correlated with membranous PD-L1. The increases of PD-L1 at the surface were not due to a shift in the proportion of surface versus intracellular protein, but the contribution of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K pathway activation. As a consequence, inducible membranous PD-L1 expression on SKOV3 inhibited CD8+ T cell function, and cytoplasmic PD-L1 promoted cancer cell growth. Additionally, in mouse models, both PD-L1 and PD-1 mAb resulted in tumor growth inhibition and demonstrated a potential to decrease the number of PD-1+CD8+T cells. Conclusion: We conclude that TAM induced PD-L1 on the cancer cells represents an immune evasion mechanism. The observations confirm the therapeutic potential of PD-L1/PD-1 mAb to reactivate anti-tumor immunity in ovarian cancer.

  6. Membranous and Cytoplasmic Expression of PD-L1 in Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qiu-Xia; Xie, Fang; Huang, Qin; Zhang, Xue-Guang

    2017-10-20

    Expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) on tumor cells represents a powerful immune evasion pathway, but the role of intracellular or cytoplasmic PD-L1 has not been investigated in ovarian cancer cells. Flow cytometry (FCM), Real-time PCR (qPCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot were used to determine the expression of PD-L1 in ovarian cancer cells. The cytokines detected in the tumor or tumor associated macrophage (TAM) were used to treat cancer cells. PD-L1 blockade and silencing were used to elucidate the functional significance of cancer-related PD-L1 expression. Based on the results presented, PD-L1 was found variably expressed in the cytoplasm and the cell surface of both HO8910 and SKOV3 cells. TAM or IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6 released from TAM stimulated the expression of PD-L1 at the surface of the cancer cells. The IHC results were consistent with the data in vitro showing infiltration of TAM correlated with membranous PD-L1. The increases of PD-L1 at the surface were not due to a shift in the proportion of surface versus intracellular protein, but the contribution of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activation. As a consequence, inducible membranous PD-L1 expression on SKOV3 inhibited CD8+ T cell function, and cytoplasmic PD-L1 promoted cancer cell growth. Additionally, in mouse models, both PD-L1 and PD-1 mAb resulted in tumor growth inhibition and demonstrated a potential to decrease the number of PD-1+CD8+T cells. We conclude that TAM induced PD-L1 on the cancer cells represents an immune evasion mechanism. The observations confirm the therapeutic potential of PD-L1/PD-1 mAb to reactivate anti-tumor immunity in ovarian cancer. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Anti-PD-1 Antibodies as a Therapeutic Strategy in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Michael D; Kuruvilla, John

    2017-08-17

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is defined by malignant Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells that recruit non-malignant immune cells into a supportive tumour microenvironment. In cHL, this is driven, in part, by genomic alterations of the 9p24.1 locus encoding the immune checkpoint ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2. Therapeutic anti-PD-1 antibodies have been developed that competitively inhibit the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands. Clinical trials of anti-PD-1 antibodies in cHL demonstrate high overall response rates but relapses still occur and new clinical challenges exist for toxicity management and response assessment. This review discusses the biological and clinical features of anti-PD-1 antibody therapy in cHL.

  8. Antibacterial activity of Pd(II) complexes with salicylaldehyde-amino acids Schiff bases ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rîmbu, Cristina; Danac, Ramona; Pui, Aurel

    2014-01-01

    Palladium(II) complexes with Schiff bases ligands derived from salicylaldehyde and amino acids (Ala, Gly, Met, Ser, Val) have been synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform (FT)-IR, UV-Vis and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) spectrometry confirms the formation of palladium(II) complexes in 1/2 (M/L) molar ratio. All the Pd(II) complexes 1, [Pd(SalAla)2]Cl2; 2, [Pd(SalGly)2]Cl2; 3, [Pd(SalMet)2]Cl2; 4, [Pd(SalSer)2]Cl2; 5, [Pd(SalVal)2]Cl2; have shown antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli.

  9. One-step facile synthesis of Pd nanoclusters supported on carbon and their electrochemical property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Shi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Well-crystallized Pd nanoclusters supported on Ketjen Black (KB were successfully fabricated when Pd wires were served as an electrode pair by a solution plasma technique at atmospheric pressure. The synthesis of Pd nanoclusters was almost simultaneous with their dispersion on KB. Pd nanoclusters with the average diameter of about 2 nm were equably distributed on KB, and showed good electrochemical property corresponding to their obvious characteristic peaks. Multi-scan cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry clarified that as-prepared Pd nanoclusters have better electrochemical stability in alkaline solution than that of in acidic solution. Thus as-obtained Pd nanoclusters would become a promising electrocatalyst for fuel cells or Li-air batteries.

  10. Sandwich structure of Pd doped nanostructure TiO2 film as O2 sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hairong; Sun, Quantao; Chen, Lei; Zhao, Yulong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigated the sensing properties of sandwich structure of TiO2/Pd/TiO2 thin films at various operating temperatures and oxygen partial pressures. The nanostructure TiO2 thin films were prepared by the sol-gel method. Various thickness of Pd buried layer was deposited by magnetron sputtering of a pure Pd target. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM. It was found that TiO2/Pd/TiO2 thin films have the p-type behavior while the pure TiO2 thin film is n-type semiconductor materials. We found that the structure of TiO2/Pd/TiO2 thin films with 10 s sputtering Pd layer has a better stability at 240 °C.

  11. Oxygen-induced Y surface segregation in a CuPdY ternary alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafen, D N.; Miller, J B.; Dogan, O N.; Baltrus, J P.; Kondratyuk, P

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of the segregation behavior of the ternary alloy CuPdY in vacuum (i.e., the clean surface) and in the presence of oxygen. Theoretical prediction shows that for clean surface, yttrium will substitute first for Cu and then for Pd at the subsurface lattice site before segregating to the surface where it substitutes for Cu. XRD characterization of the surface of CuPdY indicates the presence of two major phases, B2 CuPd and Pd{sub 3}Y. In the presence of adsorbed oxygen, theory predicts that Y preferentially occupies surface sites due to its stronger oxygen affinity compared to Cu and Pd. XPS experiments confirm the computational results in the adsorbed oxygen case, showing that surface segregation of yttrium is induced by the formation of Y-oxides at the top-surface of the alloy.

  12. Geographical Pattern and Environmental Correlates of Regional-Scale General Flowering in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Shinya; Yasuda, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Ryo O.; Hosaka, Tetsuro; Noor, Nur Supardi Md.; Fletcher, Christine D.; Hashim, Mazlan

    2013-01-01

    In South-East Asian dipterocarp forests, many trees synchronize their reproduction at the community level, but irregularly, in a phenomenon known as general flowering (GF). Several proximate cues have been proposed as triggers for the synchronization of Southeast Asian GF, but the debate continues, as many studies have not considered geographical variation in climate and flora. We hypothesized that the spatial pattern of GF forests is explained by previously proposed climatic cues if there are common cues for GF among regions. During the study, GF episodes occurred every year, but the spatial occurrence varied considerably from just a few forests to the whole of Peninsular Malaysia. In 2001, 2002 and 2005, minor and major GF occurred widely throughout Peninsular Malaysia (GF2001, GF2002, and GF2005), and the geographical patterns of GF varied between the episodes. In the three regional-scale GF episodes, most major events occurred in regions where prolonged drought (PD) had been recorded prior, and significant associations between GF scores and PD were found in GF2001 and GF2002. However, the frequency of PD was higher than that of GF throughout the peninsula. In contrast, low temperature (LT) was observed during the study period only before GF2002 and GF2005, but there was no clear spatial relationship between GF and LT in the regional-scale episodes. There was also no evidence that last GF condition influenced the magnitude of GF. Thus, our results suggest that PD would be essential to trigger regional-scale GF in the peninsula, but also that PD does not fully explain the spatial and temporal patterns of GF. The coarse relationships between GF and the proposed climatic cues may be due to the geographical variation in proximate cues for GF, and the climatic and floristic geographical variations should be considered to understand the proximate factors of GF. PMID:24260159

  13. Program death 1 (PD1) haplotyping in patients with breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenas, Mohammad Reza; Naeimi, Sirous; Talei, Abdolrasoul; Ghaderi, Abbas; Erfani, Nasrollah

    2011-08-01

    Located on chromosome 2q37.3, the programmed death 1 (PD1) gene encodes for PD-1 (also known as CD279), a negative co-stimulator in the immune system. PD-1 renders potent inhibitory effects on T and B lymphocytes as well as monocyte responses. Expression of PD-1 ligands by tumor cells has been reported to contribute in immune system evasion. We aimed, in current study, to investigate the association of two single nucleotide polymorphisms in PD1 gene, +7146 G to A (PD-1.3) and +7785 C to T (PD-1.5 or +872), with susceptibility and/or progression of breast carcinoma. Four hundred forty-three women with breast cancer and 328 age-sex match healthy donors were recruited in present study. Genotyping was performed using Nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Arlequin software package was used to check for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibration and to determine the haplotypes. Results revealed no significant differences in the frequencies of genotypes and alleles at PD-1.3 (P=0.252 and 0.279 for genotypes and alleles, respectively) and PD-1.5 positions (P=0.522 and 0.278 for genotypes and alleles, respectively). Four haplotypes were observed among populations with no differences in the frequency between patients and controls. Our results also revealed no association between PD1 genotypes and tumor stage, tumor size, tumor grade, lymph node involvement, vascular invasion, distant metastasis, and Nottingham prognostic index. Present data do not confirm association of PD-1.3 (+7146) G/A and PD-1.5 (+7785 or +872) C/T genetic markers with susceptibility of Iranians to breast cancer.

  14. One-step green synthesis of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles used to degrade Orange II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang, E-mail: zuliang.chen@newcastle.edu.au; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2016-02-13

    Highlights: • Green synthesis of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs was firstly reported using the one-step method. • 98.0% of Orange II was removed by Fe/Pd NPs, but only 16.0% by Fe NPs. • Fe/Pd NPs with a diameter ranging from 10 to 100 nm were observed. • Removing Orange II using Fe/Pd NPs involved both adsorption and catalytic degradation. - Abstract: To reduce cost and enhance reactivity, bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were firstly synthesized using grape leaf aqueous extract to remove Orange II. Green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs (98.0%) demonstrated a far higher ability to remove Orange II in 12 h compared to Fe NPs (16.0%). Meanwhile, all precursors, e.g., grape leaf extract, Fe{sup 2+} and Pd{sup 2+}, had no obvious effect on removing Orange II since less than 2.0% was removed. Kinetics study revealed that the removal rate fitted well to the pseudo-first-order reduction and pseudo-second-order adsorption model, meaning that removing Orange II via Fe/Pd NPs involved both adsorption and catalytic reduction. The remarkable stability of Fe/Pd NPs showed the potential application for removing azo dyes. Furthermore, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the changes in Fe/Pd NPs before and after reaction with Orange II. High Performance Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrum (HPLC–MS) identified the degraded products in the removal of Orange II, and finally a removal mechanism was proposed. This one-step strategy using grape leaf aqueous extract to synthesize Fe/Pd NPs is simple, cost-effective and environmentally benign, making possible the large-scale production of Fe/Pd NPs for field remediation.

  15. A comparative study of Pt and Pt-Pd core-shell nanocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Nguyen Viet, E-mail: nguyenviet_long@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Posts and Telecommunications Institute of Technology, km 10 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Ha Dong, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh, Linh Trung, Thu Duc, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ohtaki, Michitaka [Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Hien, Tong Duy [Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh, Linh Trung, Thu Duc, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Randy, Jalem [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Nogami, Masayuki, E-mail: nogami@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: > The syntheses of Pt (4-8 nm) and Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles (15-25 nm) are showed. > Pt-Pd core-shell catalysts possess catalytic property much better than Pt catalysts. > Pt-Pd core-shell catalysts exhibit fast and highly stable catalytic activity. > Fascinatingly, size effect is not as really important as nanostructuring effect. > Fast, stable, sensitive hydrogen adsorption is very crucial for fuel cells. - Abstract: This comparative study characterizes two types of metallic and core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles prepared with our modified polyol method. These nanoparticles consist of Pt and Pt-Pd core-shell nanocatalysts exhibiting polyhedral morphologies. The controlled syntheses of Pt metallic nanoparticles in the 10-nm regime (4-8 nm) and Pt-Pd bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles in the 30-nm regime (15-25 nm) are presented. To realize our ultimate research goals for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), we thoroughly investigate the dependence of the electrocatalytic properties of the nanoparticles on the structure, size and morphology. Significant differences in the electrocatalysis are also explained in experimental evidences of both Pt and Pt-Pd nanocatalysts. We suggested that the core-shell controlled morphologies and nanostructures of the Pd nanoshell as the Pd atomic monolayers will not only play an important role in producing inexpensive, novel Pt- and Pd-based nanocatalysts but also in designing more efficient Pt- and Pd-based nanocatalysts for practical use in DMFC technology. Our comparative results show that Pt-Pd nanocatalysts with Pd nanoshells exhibited much better electrocatalytic activity and stabilization compared to Pt nanocatalysts. Interestingly, we found that the size effect is not as strong as the nanostructuring effect on the catalytic properties of the researched nanoparticles. A nanostructure effect of the core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles was identified.

  16. Tuning PD and PID Controllers for Double Integrating Plus Time Delay Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ruscio, David Luigi Di; Dalen, Christer

    2017-01-01

    An existing method for tuning a PI controller for an integrating plus time delay plant are extended to be used for the design of a PD controller for a double integrating plus time delay plant. The PD controller is extended with integral action and an ideal PID controller is suggested in order to achieve optimality of the closed loop responses. Furthermore, some analytical results concerning the proposed PD and PID controller algorithm regarding the relative time-delay margin are worked out an...

  17. Effective-medium calculations for hydrogen in Ni, Pd, and Pt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole Bøssing; Stoltze, Per; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1990-01-01

    structure for PdHθ by calculating the total energy and lattice expansion of different configurations. Vibrational frequencies and diffusion barriers of H in Pd are also treated. A simple and transparent physical picture of the hydrogen-metal interaction is developed. From the calculated energetics we make...... a model calculation of the phase diagram of hydrogen in palladium in qualitative agreement with experiment. On this basis we propose a new explanation of the peculiarities of the Pd-H system....

  18. Semiconductor Gas Sensors Based on Pd/SnO2 Nanomaterials for Methane Detection in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, George; Oleksenko, Ludmila; Maksymovych, Nelly; Skolyar, Galina; Ripko, Oleksandr

    2017-05-01

    Semiconductor sensors based on nanosized Pd-containing tin dioxide have been obtained by a sol-gel technique. Semiconductor gas-sensitive materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Influence of Pd additives on sensitivity of the sensors to methane has been studied. Temperature dependences of electrical resistance in air and sensor response to methane on palladium content for the sensors based on nanosized materials Pd/SnO2 have been investigated.

  19. Risk factors for early psychosis in PD:insights from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    ffytche, Dominic H.; Pereira, Joana B.; Ballard, Clive; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Weintraub, Daniel; Aarsland, Dag

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease (PD) psychosis refers to the spectrum of illusions, formed hallucinations and delusions that occur in PD. Visual hallucinations and illusions are thought to be caused by specific cognitive and higher visual function deficits and patients who develop such symptoms early in the disease course have greater rates of cognitive decline and progression to dementia. To date, no studies have investigated whether such deficits are found prior to the onset of PD psychosis...

  20. La2O3 Promoted Pd/rGO Electro-catalysts for Formic Acid Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hassan; Kanodarwala, Fehmida K; Majeed, Imran; Stride, John Arron; Nadeem, Muhammad Arif

    2016-11-30

    High activity, a low rate of CO poisoning, and long-term stability of Pd electro-catalysts are necessary for practical use as an anode material in direct formic acid fuel cells. Achieving a high degree of Pd nanoparticle dispersion on a carbon support, without agglomeration, while maintaining a facile electron transfer through the catalyst surface are two challenging tasks to be overcome in fulfilling this aim. Herein, we report the effect of addition of La/La-oxides on the efficiency of Pd nanoparticles supported on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for formic acid electro-oxidation reaction. A series of electro-catalysts with different Pd-La molar ratios were successfully synthesized and characterized using a range of techniques including PXRD, XPS, TEM, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy and then tested as anode materials for direct formic acid fuel cells. We explore that the lanthanum species (La/La-oxide) significantly promote the activity and stability of Pd catalyst toward electrocatalytic oxidation of formic acid. The metallic ratio is found to be critical, and the activity order of various catalysts is observed as follows; Pd30La70/rGO > Pd80La20/rGO > Pd70La30 rGO. The obtained mass specific activity for Pd30La70/rGO (986.42 A/g) is 2.18 times higher than that for Pd/rGO (451 A/g) and 16 times higher than that for Pd/C (61.5 A/g) at given onset peak potentials. The high activity and stability of the electro-catalysts are attributed to the uniform dispersion of Pd nanoparticles over the rGO support, as evidenced from TEM images. It is believed that the role of La species in promoting the catalyst activity is to disperse the catalyst particles during synthesis and to facilitate the electron transfer via providing a suitable pathway during electrochemical testing.

  1. Molecular Characterization of G6PD Deficient Variants in Nineveh Province, Northwestern Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Kashmoola, Muna A.; Eissa, Adil A.; Al-Takay, Dahlia T.; Al-Allawi, Nasir A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency considered to be the commonest inherited enzymopathies disorders worldwide including Iraq. Studies have addressed its prevalence and molecular characterization in several parts of the country, but no data were available from Nineveh province, northwestern-Iraq regarding molecular basis of this inherited enzymopathy. To determine the molecular basis of G6PD deficient variants in Nineveh province. A total of 61 G6PD deficient male individuals ...

  2. Association between G6PD deficiency and hyperbilirubinemia in neonates: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huajun; Liu, Wenbin; Tang, Xueqing; Wang, Taisen

    2015-03-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is prevalent in newborns and multiple factors are responsible for the occurrence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. G6PD (Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase) deficiency is recognized as one of the risk factors. However, many pediatricians did not take into account the probable effect of G6PD-deficiency when severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia occurred. The aim of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis to investigate whether G6PD-deficiency increases the risk of hyperbilirubinemia and phototherapy in newborn. We searched PubMed and Embase databases for eligible articles according to explicit study inclusion and exclusion criteria. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were selected as the evaluation indexes. Cochrane Q and I(2) test were utilized to assess the heterogeneity among studies. A total of five cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis. There were 21,585 participants enrolled in these studies including 877 newborns with hyperbilirubinemia and 261 newborns receiving phototherapy. Comparison of the incidence of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns with G6PD-deficiency to the ones with normal G6PD in each study yielded a pooled RR of 3.92 (95% CI, 2.13-7.20; P G6PD-deficiency neonates is 3.01 (95% CI, 2.20-4.12; P G6PD normal neonates. This study revealed a significant correlation between G6PD-deficiency and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, as well as G6PD-deficiency and phototherapy. G6PD-deficient newborns have higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia and phototherapy than the ones with normal G6PD. Monitoring the level of G6PD in newborns is important for predicting the occurrence of hyperbilirubinemia.

  3. THE EFFECT OF WEEKLY STANDARD DOSES OF PRIMAQUINE AND CHLOROQUINE IN G6PD DEFICIENT CAUCASIANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    chloroquine on G6PD deficient Caucasians was studied. Seven sensitive Caucasians had significant hemolysis after a single weekly dose of the drugs measured by...the change in the 51Cr tagged red cell survival and in the hematocrit levels. G6PD deficient 51Cr tagged red cells belonging to some of these subjects...transfused into normals, receiving thereafter weekly doses of primaquine, were rapidly destroyed. Three G6PD deficient Sardinians did not show any

  4. Patterns of leaf conductance and water potential of five Himalayan tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, K; Jha, P K; Zobel, D B; Thapa, C B

    2004-06-01

    We studied variations in water relations and drought response in five Himalayan tree species (Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth. (chilaune) and Castanopsis indica (Roxb.) Miq. (dhale katus) at an elevation of 1400 m, Quercus lanata Smith (banjh) and Rhododendron arboreum Smith (lali gurans) at 2020 m, and Quercus semecarpifolia Smith (khasru) at 2130 m) at Phulchowki Hill, Kathmandu, Nepal. Soil water potential at 15 (Psi(s15)) and 30 cm (Psi(s30)) depths, tree water potential at predawn (Psi(pd)) and midday (Psi(md)), and leaf conductance during the morning (g(wAM)) and afternoon (g(wPM)) were observed from December 1998 to April 2001, except during the monsoon months. There was significant variation among sites, species and months in Psi(pd), Psi(md), g(wAM) and g(wPM), and among months for all species for Psi(s15). Mean Psi(pd) and Psi(md) were lowest in Q. semecarpifolia (-0.40 and -1.18 MPa, respectively) and highest in S. wallichii (-0.20 and -0.63 MPa, respectively). The minimum Psi value for all species (-0.70 to -1.79 MPa) was observed in March 1999, after 4 months of unusually low rainfall. Some patterns of Psi(pd) were related to phenology and leaf damage. During leafing, Psi(pd) often increased. Mean g(wAM) and g(wPM) were highest in Q. semecarpifolia (172 and 190 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) and lowest in C. indica (78 and 74 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively). Soil water potential (Psi) at 15 cm depth correlated with plant Psi in all species, but rarely with g(wAM) and not with g(wPM). Plant Psi declined with increasing elevation, whereas g(w) increased. As Psi(pd) declined, so did maximal g(w), but overall, g(w) was correlated with Psi(pd) only for R. arboreum. Schima wallichii maintained high Psi, with low stomatal conductance, as did Castanopsis indica, except that C. indica had low Psi during dry months. Rhododendron arboreum maintained high Psi(pd) and g(w), despite low soil Psi. Quercus lanata had low g(w) and low Psi(pd) in some months, but showed

  5. Femtosecond laser processing of NiPd single and 5x(Ni/Pd) multilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, S.; Gaković, B.; Zamfirescu, M.; Radu, C.; Peruško, D.; Radak, B.; Ristoscu, C.; Zdravković, S.; Luculescu, C. L.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2017-09-01

    Modification of single and complex nickel-palladium samples by laser processing in the femtosecond time domain was studied. The samples were processed by focused Ti:Sapphire laser beam (Clark CPA-2101) with 775 nm laser wavelength, 2 kHz repetition rate, 200 fs pulse duration. The laser-induced morphological modifications have shown dependence on the applied fluences and number of laser pulses. The formed surface nanostructures on the single NiPd/Si and multilayer 5x(Ni/Pd)/Si systems are compared with individual Ni and Pd thin films. The results show an increase in surface roughness, formation of parallel periodic surface structures, appearance of hydrodynamic features and ablation of surface material. At low number of pulses (less than 10 pulses) and low pulse energies range (not over 1.7 μJ), the two types of laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) can be observed: low and high spatial frequency LIPSS (HSFL and LSFL). For all samples, the measured LSFL periods were 720 nm for the ripples created solely on thin film surfaces during the single pulse action. In the case of the multi-pulse irradiation, the periodicities of created LSFLs on the all investigated thin films have shown tendency to reduction with increasing of pulse energies.

  6. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Solidification of Pd-Ni Clusters with Different Nickel Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulation has been performed for investigating the glass transition of Pd-Ni alloy nanoparticles in the solidification process. The results showed that the Pd-Ni nanoparticles with composition far from pure metal should form amorphous structure more easily, which is in accordance with the results of the thermodynamic calculation. There are some regular and distorted fivefold symmetry in the amorphous Pd-Ni alloy nanoparticles. The nanoclusters with bigger difference value between formation enthalpies of solutions and glasses will transform to glass more easily than the other Pd-Ni alloy nanoclusters.

  7. Development of Pd-Cu/hematite catalyst for selective nitrate reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungyoon; Bae, Sungjun; Lee, Woojin

    2014-08-19

    A new hematite-supported Pd-Cu bimetallic catalyst (Pd-Cu/hematite) was developed in order to actively and selectively reduce nitrate (NO3(-)) to nitrogen gas (N2). Four different iron-bearing soil minerals (hematite (H), goethite (G), maghemite (M), and lepidocrocite (L)) were transformed to hematite by calcination and used for synthesis of different Pd-Cu/hematite-H, G, M, and L catalysts. Their characteristics were identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD), specific surface area (BET), temperature programed reduction (TPR), transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray (TEM-EDX), H2 pulse chemisorption, zeta-potential, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Pd-Cu/hematite-H exhibited the highest NO3(-) removal (96.4%) after 90 min, while a lower removal (90.9, 51.1, and 30.5%) was observed in Pd-Cu/hematite-G, M, and L, respectively. The results of TEM-EDX, and TPR analysis revealed that Pd-Cu/hematite-H possessed the closest contact distance between the Cu and Pd sites on the hematite surface among the different Pd-Cu/hematite catalysts. The high removal can be also attributed to the highly active metallic sites on its positively charged surface. The XPS analysis demonstrated that the amount of hydrogen molecules can have a pivotal function on NO3(-) removal and a ratio of nitrogen to hydrogen molecule (N:H) on the Pd sites can critically determine N2 selectivity.

  8. PD2/Paf1 depletion in pancreatic acinar cells promotes acinar-to-ductal metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Parama; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Vaz, Arokia P; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P; Batra, Surinder K

    2014-06-30

    Pancreatic differentiation 2 (PD2), a PAF (RNA Polymerase II Associated Factor) complex subunit, is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells and has demonstrated potential oncogenic property. Here, we report that PD2/Paf1 expression was restricted to acinar cells in the normal murine pancreas, but its expression increased in the ductal cells of KrasG12D/Pdx1Cre (KC) mouse model of pancreatic cancer with increasing age, showing highest expression in neoplastic ductal cells of 50 weeks old mice. PD2/Paf1 was specifically expressed in amylase and CK19 double positive metaplastic ducts, representing intermediate structures during pancreatic acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM). Similar PD2/Paf1 expression was observed in murine pancreas that exhibited ADM-like histology upon cerulein challenge. In normal mice, cerulein-mediated inflammation induced a decrease in PD2/Paf1 expression, which was later restored upon recovery of the pancreatic parenchyma. In KC mice, however, PD2/Paf1 mRNA level continued to decrease with progressive dysplasia and subsequent neoplastic transformation. Additionally, knockdown of PD2/Paf1 in pancreatic acinar cells resulted in the abrogation of Amylase, Elastase and Lipase (acinar marker) mRNA levels with simultaneous increase in CK19 and CAII (ductal marker) transcripts. In conclusion, our studies indicate loss of PD2/Paf1 expression during acinar transdifferentiation in pancreatic cancer initiation and PD2/Paf1 mediated regulation of lineage specific markers.

  9. Growth of layered superconductor β-PdBi{sub 2} films using molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, N.V., E-mail: denisov@iacp.dvo.ru [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Matetskiy, A.V.; Tupkalo, A.V. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zotov, A.V. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Department of Electronics, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, 690600 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Saranin, A.A. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Bulk β-PdBi{sub 2} is layered material with advanced properties of topological superconductor. • We present a method for growing β-PdBi{sub 2} films of a desired thickness. • Method utilizes MBE growth of β-PdBi{sub 2}, using Bi(111) film on Si(111) as a template. • Electronic and superconducting properties of the films are similar to those of bulk β-PdBi{sub 2}. - Abstract: Bulk β-PdBi{sub 2} layered material exhibits advanced properties and is supposed to be probable topological superconductor. We present a method based on molecular beam epitaxy that allows us to grow β-PdBi{sub 2} films from a single β-PdBi{sub 2} triple layer up to the dozens of triple layers, using Bi(111) film on Si(111) as a template. The grown films demonstrate structural, electronic and superconducting properties similar to those of bulk β-PdBi{sub 2} crystals. Ability to grow the β-PdBi{sub 2} films of desired thickness opens the promising possibilities to explore fascinating properties of this advanced material.

  10. Enhanced Activity and Selectivity of Carbon Nanofiber Supported Pd Catalysts for Nitrite Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Shuai, Danmeng

    2012-03-06

    Pd-based catalyst treatment represents an emerging technology that shows promise to remove nitrate and nitrite from drinking water. In this work we use vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports in order to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). Results show that nitrite reduction activity increases by 3.1-fold and selectivity decreases by 8.0-fold, with decreasing Pd nanoparticle size from 1.4 to 9.6 nm. Both activity and selectivity are not significantly influenced by Pd interior versus exterior CNF loading. Consequently, turnover frequencies (TOFs) among all CNF catalysts are similar, suggesting nitrite reduction is not sensitive to Pd location on CNFs nor Pd structure. CNF-based catalysts compare favorably to conventional Pd catalysts (i.e., Pd on activated carbon or alumina) with respect to nitrite reduction activity and selectivity, and they maintain activity over multiple reduction cycles. Hence, our results suggest new insights that an optimum Pd nanoparticle size on CNFs balances faster kinetics with lower ammonia production, that catalysts can be tailored at the nanoscale to improve catalytic performance for nitrite, and that CNFs hold promise as highly effective catalyst supports in drinking water treatment. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Annealing, lattice disorder and non-Fermi liquid behavior in UCu4Pd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, C.H.; Scheidt, E.-W.; Killer, U.; Weber, A.; Kehrein, S.

    2002-07-30

    The magnetic and electronic properties of non-Fermi liquid UCu{sub 4Pd} depend on annealing conditions. Local structural changes due to this annealing are reported from UL{sub III}- and Pd K-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure measurements. In particular, annealing decreases the fraction of Pd atoms on nominally Cu 16e sites and the U-Cu pair-distance distribution width. This study provides quantitative information on the amount of disorder in UCu{sub 4Pd} and allows an assessment of its possible importance to the observed non-Fermi liquid behavior.

  12. Synergetic effects in CO adsorption on Cu-Pd(111) alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Nuria; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2001-01-01

    We present density functional calculations for the interaction of CO on different Cu-Pd(111) bulk and surface alloys. The modification of the adsorption properties with respect to hose of the adsorption on pure Cu(111) and Pd(111) is described in terms of changes in the adsorption sites and the c......We present density functional calculations for the interaction of CO on different Cu-Pd(111) bulk and surface alloys. The modification of the adsorption properties with respect to hose of the adsorption on pure Cu(111) and Pd(111) is described in terms of changes in the adsorption sites...

  13. Enhanced formic acid electro-oxidation reaction on ternary Pd-Ir-Cu/C catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinwei; Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Yiwu; Yang, Liu; Zhong, Jing; Wang, Gang; Wang, Ruilin

    2015-12-01

    Aim to further reduce the cost of Pd-Ir for formic acid electro-oxidation (FAEO), the Cu was used to construct a ternary metallic alloy catalyst. The prepared catalysts are characterized using XRD, TGA, EDX, TEM, XPS, CO-stripping, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. It is found that the Pd18Ir1Cu6 nanoparticles with a mean size of 3.3 nm are highly dispersed on carbon support. Componential distributions on catalyst are consistent with initial contents. Electrochemical measurements show that the PdIrCu/C catalyst exhibits the highest activity for FAEO. The mass activity of Pd in Pd18Ir1Cu6/C at 0.16 V (vs. SCE) is about 1.47, 1.62 and 2.08 times as high as that of Pd18Cu6/C, Pd18Ir1/C and Pd/C, respectively. The activity enhancement of PdIrCu/C should be attributed to the weakened CO adsorption strength and the removal of adsorbed intermediates at lower potential with the addition of Cu and Ir.

  14. CO sensing properties and mechanism of Pd doped SnO2 thick-films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanping; Qin, Hongwei; Hu, Jifan

    2018-01-01

    Pd doped SnO2 nano-particles were synthesized using co-precipitation method. The resistances of the samples first decrease and then increase, which maybe influenced by the Pd doping and temperature effect. The CO response of SnO2 was improved by doping with Pd. At low temperature range, the response decreases with increasing of operating temperature, which was caused by the physical adsorption. At higher operating temperature (160-400 °C), the response of Pd doped SnO2 for CO increases at first, undergoes a maximum at 260 °C, and finally drops. The 1.5 wt.% PdO doping SnO2 was verified to be significantly sensitive. The largest gas sensitive response of 6.59 was found at 260 °C in 400 ppm CO atmosphere. For 200 ppm CO, the response and recovery time were about 43 s and 10 s, respectively. The possible CO sensing mechanisms for Pd doped SnO2 sensors were investigated with first principles calculations. The calculation results showed that CO molecule can grab O from the pre-adsorbed oxygen on Pd4 cluster or the PdO cluster on the SnO2 (110) surface forming CO2. These processes may play important role in CO sensing for Pd doped SnO2. The calculated result is a good explanation of the experimental observation.

  15. alpha-Thalassaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia in G-6-PD-deficient newborns.

    OpenAIRE

    Meloni, T; Corti, R; Costa, S; Mele, G; Franca, V

    1980-01-01

    53 newborn infants with both G-6-PD deficiency (29 male hemizygotes and 24 female heterozygotes) and alpha-thalassaemia, and 120 newborn infants with only the enzymatic defect (60 male hemizygotes and 60 female heterozygotes) were studied. 12 of those with both G-6-PD deficiency and alpha=thalassaemia, and 32 of those with only G-6-PD deficiency showed hyperbilirubinaemia. alpha-Thalassaemia does not seem to be implicated in the development of hyperbilirubinaemia in G-6-PD-deficient newborns.

  16. A multiplex method for detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Yang, Y; Liu, R; Li, Q; Yang, F; Ma, L; Liu, H; Chen, X; Yang, Z; Cui, L; He, Y

    2015-12-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect caused by G6PD gene mutations. This study aimed to develop a cost-effective, multiplex, genotyping method for detecting common mutations in the G6PD gene. We used a SNaPshot approach to genotype multiple G6PD mutations that are common to human populations in South-East Asia. This assay is based on multiplex PCR coupled with primer extension reactions. Different G6PD gene mutations were determined by peak retention time and colors of the primer extension products. We designed PCR primers for multiplex amplification of the G6PD gene fragments and for primer extension reactions to genotype 11 G6PD mutations. DNA samples from a total of 120 unrelated G6PD-deficient individuals from the China-Myanmar border area were used to establish and validate this method. Direct sequencing of the PCR products demonstrated 100% concordance between the SNaPshot and the sequencing results. The SNaPshot method offers a specific and sensitive alternative for simultaneously interrogating multiple G6PD mutations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Glucose 6 phosphatase dehydrogenase (G6PD and neurodegenerative disorders: Mapping diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Tiwari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is a key and rate limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP. The physiological significance of enzyme is providing reduced energy to specific cells like erythrocyte by maintaining co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH. There are preponderance research findings that demonstrate the enzyme (G6PD role in the energy balance, and it is associated with blood-related diseases and disorders, primarily the anemia resulted from G6PD deficiency. The X-linked genetic deficiency of G6PD and associated non-immune hemolytic anemia have been studied widely across the globe. Recent advancement in biology, more precisely neuroscience has revealed that G6PD is centrally involved in many neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. The neuroprotective role of the enzyme (G6PD has also been established, as well as the potential of G6PD in oxidative damage and the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS produced in cerebral ischemia. Though G6PD deficiency remains a global health issue, however, a paradigm shift in research focusing the potential of the enzyme in neurological and neurodegenerative disorders will surely open a new avenue in diagnostics and enzyme therapeutics. Here, in this study, more emphasis was made on exploring the role of G6PD in neurological and inflammatory disorders as well as non-immune hemolytic anemia, thus providing diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.

  18. Catalytic dechlorination kinetics of p-dichlorobenzene over Pd/Fe catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinhua; Zhou, Hongyi; He, Ping; Wang, Dahui

    2005-02-01

    p-Dichlorobenzene (p-DCB) was dechlorinated using Pd/Fe bimetallic catalytic reductants synthesized by chemical deposition. Batch experiments demonstrated that the Pd/Fe bimetallic particles could effectively dechlorinate p-DCB, p-DCB and its intermediate chlorobenzene were removed completely at a Pd loading of 0.02% (weight ratio of Pd to Fe) and Pd/Fe power to solution ratio about 4g 75 ml-1 in 90 min. Dechlorination was affected by various factors such as the reaction temperature, pH, Pd loading percentage over Fe and the introduction of Pd/Fe catalysts et al. Chlorobenzene represents partially stable dechlorinated intermediates in the generation of benzene and part of p-DCB was dechlorinated to benzene indirectly on the surface of Pd/Fe. The dechlorination of p-DCB took place on the surface of the Pd/Fe bimetallic particles in a pseudo-first-order reaction, the activation energy of the dechlorination reaction was determined to be 80.0 kJ mol-1 at the temperature range of 287-313 K.

  19. Highly selective and reversible chemosensor for Pd(2+) detected by fluorescence, colorimetry, and test paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Liu, Xiaomei; Lu, Huizhe; Wang, Hongmei; Qin, Zhaohai

    2015-01-21

    A "turn-on" fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensor (RBS) for Pd(2+) has been designed and synthesized through introduction of sulfur as a ligand atom to Rhodamine B. RBS exhibits high selectivity (freedom from the interference of Hg(2+ )in particular) and sensitivity toward Pd(2+) with a detection limit as low as 2.4 nM. RBS is also a reversible sensor, and it can be made into test paper to detect Pd(2+) in pure water. Compared to the chemosensors that introduced phosphorus to Rhodamine to detect Pd(2+), RBS can be synthesized more simply and economically.

  20. Oxidation of a Cyclometalated Pd(II) Dimer with “CF3+”: Formation and Reactivity of a Catalytically Competent Monomeric Pd(IV) Aquo Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yingda; Ball, Nicholas D.; Kampf, Jeff W.; Sanford, Melanie S.

    2010-01-01

    The reaction of [(bzq)Pd(OAc)]2 (bzq = benzo[h]quinoline) with “CF3+” reagents to afford the monomeric PdIV aquo complex (bzq)Pd(CF3)(OAc)2(OH2) is demonstrated. Heating this PdIV adduct at 60 °C for 12 h leads to highly chemoselective Aryl–CF3 bond-forming reductive elimination. The rate and yield of this transformation are both significantly enhanced by the addition of Brønsted and Lewis acidic additives. The mechanism of C–CF3 bond-formation from (bzq)Pd(CF3)(OAc)2(OH2) has been studied, and the major pathway is proposed to involve pre-equilibrium acetate dissociation followed by C–CF3 coupling. Finally, this monomeric PdIV complex is shown to be a kinetically competent intermediate for C–H trifluoromethylation with “CF3+” reagents. Collectively, these studies provide valuable insights about the speciation, nuclearity, and reactivity of Pd intermediates in catalytic C–H trifluoromethylation reactions. PMID:20866077

  1. Oxidation of a cyclometalated Pd(II) dimer with "CF3+": formation and reactivity of a catalytically competent monomeric Pd(IV) aquo complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yingda; Ball, Nicholas D; Kampf, Jeff W; Sanford, Melanie S

    2010-10-20

    The reaction of [(bzq)Pd(OAc)](2) (bzq = benzo[h]quinoline) with "CF(3)(+)" reagents to afford the monomeric Pd(IV) aquo complex (bzq)Pd(CF(3))(OAc)(2)(OH(2)) is demonstrated. Heating this Pd(IV) adduct at 60 °C for 12 h leads to highly chemoselective aryl-CF(3) bond-forming reductive elimination. The rate and yield of this transformation are both significantly enhanced by the addition of Brønsted and Lewis acidic additives. The mechanism of C-CF(3) bond formation from (bzq)Pd(CF(3))(OAc)(2)(OH(2)) has been studied, and the major pathway is proposed to involve pre-equilibrium acetate dissociation followed by C-CF(3) coupling. Finally, this monomeric Pd(IV) complex is shown to be a kinetically competent intermediate for C-H trifluoromethylation with "CF(3)(+)" reagents. Collectively, these studies provide valuable insights about the speciation, nuclearity, and reactivity of Pd intermediates in catalytic C-H trifluoromethylation reactions.

  2. Exchange-coupled fct-FePd/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets converted from Pd/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Dong, Yunhe; Yang, Wenlong; Yu, Jing; Xu, Zhichuan; Hou, Yanglong

    2014-11-10

    We report the controlled synthesis of exchange-coupled face-centered tetragonal (fct) FePd/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets with variable Fe concentration. The composite was converted from Pd/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles through a high-temperature annealing process in a reducing atmosphere. The shell thickness of core/shell Pd/Fe3O4 nanoparticles could be readily tuned, and subsequently the concentration of Fe in nanocomposite magnets was controlled. Upon annealing reduction, the hard magnetic fct-FePd phase was formed by the interdiffusion between reduced α-Fe and face-centered cubic (fcc) Pd, whereas the excessive α-Fe remained around the fct-FePd grains, realizing exchange coupling between the soft magnetic α-Fe and hard magnetic fct-FePd phases. Magnetic measurements showed variation in the magnetic properties of the nanocomposite magnets with different compositions, indicating distinct exchange coupling at the interfaces. The coercivity of the exchange-coupled nanocomposites could be tuned from 0.7 to 2.8 kOe and the saturation magnetization could be controlled from 93 to 160 emu g(-1). This work provides a bottom-up approach using exchange-coupled nanocomposites for engineering advanced permanent magnets with controllable magnetic properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Identification of candidate responders for anti-PD-L1/PD-1 immunotherapy, Rova-T therapy, or EZH2 inhibitory therapy in small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Motonobu; Saito, Katsuharu; Shiraishi, Kouya; Maeda, Daichi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Kono, Koji; Kohno, Takashi; Goto, Akiteru

    2018-02-01

    A useful candidate for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) therapy is immune checkpoint blockade therapy targeting programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1. Furthermore, rovalpituzumab tesirine (Rova-T), a delta-like protein 3 (DLL3)-targeted antibody-drug conjugate, and enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) inhibitor are expected to be the first targeted therapy for SCLC. The aim of the present study was to evaluate PD-L1, DLL3 and EZH2 expression in SCLCs to find a candidate responder to those therapies. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for PD-L1, DLL3 and EZH2 was performed in 20 patients with SCLC and the clinicopathological characteristics and IHC staining intensity were compared. It was demonstrated that 1/20 patients (5.0%) exhibited positive PD-L1 expression in the metastatic lesions, as well as in the primary lung tumor. DLL3 was highly expressed in 14/20 patients (70%) and EZH2 was positive in 17/20 patients (85%). None of these cases exhibited any correlation with age, sex, smoking, stage or treatment, whereas IHC staining was able to identify candidate responders to anti-PD-L1/PD-1 immunotherapy, Rova-T therapy, or EZH2 inhibitor therapy.

  4. Performance and Long-Term Stability of Pd/PSS and Pd/Al2O3 Membranes for Hydrogen Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Simona; Iulianelli, Adolfo; Dalena, Francesco; Pinacci, Pietro; Drago, Francesca; Broglia, Maria; Huang, Yan; Basile, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The present work is focused on the investigation of the performance and long-term stability of two composite palladium membranes under different operating conditions. One membrane (Pd/porous stainless steel (PSS)) is characterized by a ~10 µm-thick palladium layer on a porous stainless steel substrate, which is pretreated by means of surface modification and oxidation; the other membrane (Pd/Al2O3) is constituted by a ~7 µm-thick palladium layer on an asymmetric microporous Al2O3 substrate. The operating temperature and pressure ranges, used for studying the performance of these two kinds of membranes, are 350–450 °C and 200–800 kPa, respectively. The H2 permeances and the H2/N2 selectivities of both membranes were investigated and compared with literature data. At 400 °C and 200 kPa as pressure difference, Pd/PSS and Pd/Al2O3 membranes exhibited an H2/N2 ideal selectivity equal to 11700 and 6200, respectively, showing stability for 600 h. Thereafter, H2/N2 selectivity of both membranes progressively decreased and after around 2000 h, dropped dramatically to 55 and 310 for the Pd/PSS and Pd/Al2O3 membranes, respectively. As evidenced by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analyses, the pinholes appear on the whole surface of the Pd/PSS membrane and this is probably due to release of sulphur from the graphite seal rings. PMID:24957126

  5. Certification of Pd and Pt single spikes and application to the quantification of Pt and Pd in automotive exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Jochen; Meyer, Christian; Noordmann, Janine; Rienitz, Olaf; Geilert, Sonja

    2014-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies show the effect of increased ambient pollution. Therefore measurement networks for air quality have been installed worldwide and legislation requires the monitoring of air pollution. Besides monitoring it is also important to be able to identify, to quantify and finally to regulate the emission of distinct sources in order to improve the quality of life. Automotive vehicles are a major source of environmental pollution especially through contaminants such as CO, NOX, SOX and hydrocarbons which derive from petrol combustion, while for example Platinum Group Elements (PGE) can be present from catalytic converters. The release of PGE into the environment, however, may be damaging in terms of public health, ecological and economic interests. In order to reliably assess the risks from PGEs, traceable and thus comparable data on the release rates of PGE from automotive catalysers are needed. As no Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are available for such samples the development of analytical procedures enabling SI-traceable results will be challenging. Therefore reference procedures for Pd and Pt in automotive exhaust emissions based on isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) have been developed and applied to specifically sampled automotive exhaust emissions. Due to the commonly known advantages, IDMS often is applied for quantification PGEs, as is the case within this work. The main reasons here are the required accuracy and the low PGE mass fractions in the sample. In order to perform IDMS analysis the analyte element must be available in an isotopically enriched form as so-called spike material or solution thereof, which is mixed with the sample. Unfortunately, no certified PGE spike solutions are available yet. To fill this gap two single PGE spikes, one 106Pd and one 194Pt spike, have been produced and characterized. The selection of the isotopes, the production of the solutions and the ampoulation will be described in this

  6. The Disposition of Pt, Pd, Ir, Os, and Ru in Marine Sediments and the K/T Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cin-Ty; Wasserburg, Gerald; Kyte, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The marine record of platinum group elements (PGEs) and Os isotopic compositions provides information on different inputs of PGEs into the oceans. Some studies based on a smaller subset of the PGEs suggest that the PGEs may suffer post-depositional mobility during diagenesis. In some K/T boundary clays, Kyte and others showed that the relative abundances of Pt, Pd, Ir, and Os can differ significantly from chondritic, which is the signature expected from fallout of the meteorite impact. In some K/T boundary sections, elevated Ir concentrations are observed as far as 1 meter from the cm-thick boundary clay containing the meteoritic ejecta. The purpose of this study was to characterize Pt, Pd, Ir, Os, and Ru abundances in zones including the K/T boundary. We determined PGE abundances of boundary clays at two hemipelagic sites (Stevns Klint, Denmark and Caravaca, Spain) in which previous studies by Kyte and others showed that the Ir anomaly is confined to within a few cm. We also analyzed two pelagic Pacific sites: a boundary clay from the north Pacific (Hole 465A) characterized by a 0.5 m thick Ir anomaly and a transect across the K/T boundary from the south Pacific (Hole 596) where the Ir anomaly spans 2 m. The Stevns Klint, Caravaca, and north Pacific sites are characterized by abundant marls and limestones in the section, whereas the south Pacific site is dominated by clays. Samples were spiked with isotopic tracers, mixed with a flux, S and Ni, and equilibrated by fusion. PGEs were extracted from the Ni and analyzed on a Finnigan Element ICP-MS. We find that the narrow Caravaca and Stevns Klint boundary clays have relative PGE abundance patterns indistinguishable from chondritic values. The two Pacific sites were found to have nearly identical PGE patterns but have ratios at the peak, which differ from chondritic values as found earlier by Evans et al. The Pacific sites were found to have nearly identical PGE patterns but are extremely depleted in OS (Os/Ir = 0

  7. Intra-crystalline protein diagenesis (IcPD) in Patella vulgata. Part I: Isolation and testing of the closed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarchi, B; Rogers, K; Fa, D A; Finlayson, C J; Milner, N; Penkman, K E H

    2013-04-01

    This study successfully isolates a fraction of intra-crystalline proteins from shells of the marine gastropod Patella vulgata and assesses the suitability of these proteins for IcPD (Intra-crystalline Protein Diagenesis) geochronology. We discuss the mineralogical composition of this gastropod, investigated for the first time by X-ray diffraction mapping, and use the results to inform our sampling strategy. The potential of the calcitic rim and of a bulk sample (containing both apex and rim) of the shell to act as stable repositories for the intra-crystalline proteins during diagenesis is examined. The composition and the diagenetic behaviour of the intra-crystalline proteins isolated from different locations within the shell are compared, highlighting the necessity of targeting consistent sampling positions. We induced artificial diagenesis of both intra-crystalline and whole-shell proteins by conducting high-temperature experiments in hydrous environment; this allowed us to quantify the loss of amino acids by leaching and therefore evaluate the open- or closed-system behaviour of the different fractions of proteins. The results obtained provide further confirmation that patterns of diagenesis vary according to the protein sequence, structure, and location within or outside the intra-crystalline fraction. As Patella is frequently found in the fossil record, both in archaeological and geological contexts, the application of IcPD geochronology to this biomineral opens up the possibility to obtain reliable age information from a range of sites in different areas of the world.

  8. Chitosan supported bimetallic Pd/Co nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst for the reduction of nitroaromatics to amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Keshipour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new bimetallic nanocomposite of chitosan was prepared. Pd and Co nanoparticles were deposited on chitosan to produce a new heterogeneous recyclable catalyst for use in the bimetallic catalytic reduction reaction. The catalyst was characterized with common analysis methods for nanocomposites including Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction pattern, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and applied in the reduction reaction of nitroaromatics using NaBH4 at room temperature. The bimetallic system gave good results compared to each of the applied metals. Various aromatic amines and diamines were used in the reduction reaction. The aromatic amines were obtained as the sole product of the reduction reaction with 15 mol% Pd and 12 mol% Co during 2h. This reaction had some advantages such as mild reaction conditions, high yield, green solvent, and a recyclable catalyst. Also, the recovered catalyst was applicable in the reduction reaction without a significant decrease in the activity for up to six times.

  9. UK Renal Registry 16th annual report: chapter 14 2012 multisite dialysis access audit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales and 2011 PD one year follow-up: national and centre-specific analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Victoria; Pitcher, David; Shaw, Catriona; Fluck, Richard; Wilkie, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Dialysis access should be timely, minimise complications and maintain functionality. Good functional access is required for renal replacement therapy (RRT) to be successful. The aim of the combined vascular and peritoneal dialysis access audit was to examine practice patterns with respect to dialysis access and highlight variations in practice between renal centres. The UK Renal Registry collected centre-specific information on vascular and peritoneal access outcome measures including patient demographics, dialysis access type (at start of dialysis and three months after start of dialysis), surgical assessment and access functionality. The combined access audit covered incident haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients in 2012 from England, Northern Ireland and Wales. Centres who had reported data on incident PD patients for the previous audit in 2011 were additionally asked to provide one year follow up data for this group. Fifty-one centres in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (representing 82% of all centres) returned data on first access from 3,720 incident HD patients and 1,018 incident PD patients. A strong relationship was seen between surgical assessment and the likelihood of starting HD with an arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Type of first access was related to the length of time known to renal services with higher numbers of AVFs and PD catheters used in patients known to renal services for at least one year. Three month and one year outcomes of HD and PD access were poorly reported. This audit provides information on important patient related outcome measures with the potential to lead to an improvement in access provision. This represents an important advance, however data collection remains suboptimal. There is wide practice variation across the England, Wales and Northern Ireland in provision of both HD and PD access which requires further exploration. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Changed distribution pattern of the constitutive rather than the inducible HSP70 chaperone in neuromelanin-containing neurones of the Parkinsonian midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, G; Bol, J G J M; Wang, X; Boekel, A; Bennett, M C; Chase, T N; Drukarch, B

    2006-04-01

    Aberrant protein aggregation has been recognized as an important factor in the degeneration of melanized dopaminergic neurones in Parkinson's disease (PD). The constitutive (HSP73) and (heat)-inducible (HSP72) proteins of the heat shock 70 family form a major defence system against pathological protein aggregation. However, the distribution patterns of these chaperones in nigral neuromelanin-laden neurones are largely unknown. The present study determined the distribution of HSP72 and HSP73 in control and Parkinsonian substantia nigra, using immunohistochemistry. In the neuromelanin-laden neurones of controls, HSP72 was nondetectable, whereas HSP73 was weakly expressed in both the cytosol and the nucleus. Surprisingly, in PD subjects, marked nuclear HSP73, but not HSP72 immunoreactivity was observed, while cytosolic immunoreactivity of the two chaperones resembled the labelling pattern observed in controls. Furthermore, HSP73 immunoreactivity was observed in a subset of the Lewy bodies (LBs) detected in the substantia nigra of PD subjects, whereas only few of these LBs were labelled with HSP72. Interestingly, HSP72 and to a lesser extent HSP73 immunoreactivity was much stronger in nonmelanized neurones as compared with melanized neurones in this area. Thus, we conclude that the distribution pattern of HSP73 rather than HSP72 is changed in the nigral neuromelanin-laden neurones of PD subjects as compared with control subjects. The impaired ability of aged, dopaminergic neurones to express high levels of chaperones, may contribute to the preferential vulnerability of the latter cells in PD.

  11. Controlled decoration of Pd on Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition for high ethanol oxidation activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yiwu; Chen, Jinwei; Zhang, Jie; Zeng, Yaping; Wang, Yichun; Zhou, Feilong; Kiani, Maryam; Wang, Ruilin

    2017-10-01

    A new catalysts electrode was prepared by in situ controllable deposition of Pd shell layer on the gas diffusion layer (GDL) supported Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. High resolution transmission electron microscope confirmed that the Ni(OH)2 core was coated by several atomic layers of Pd. The core-shell Ni(OH)2@Pd catalysts with different thickness of Pd shell are easily prepared by controlling ALD cycle. Electrochemical tests showed that the 100-Ni(OH)2@Pd/GDL catalyst prepared via 100 ALD cycles presented the highest catalytic activity for ethanol electro-oxidation reaction (EOR). The peaking current density of Ni(OH)2@Pd/GDL was 1439 mA mgPd-1, which was about 2.75 times as high as that of Pd/GDL (522 mA mgPd-1). The shift in binding energy of the XPS peak of Pd in Ni(OH)2@Pd catalyst confirmed the strong interaction between the Pd shell and the Ni(OH)2 core. We suggested that the high catalytic activity of Ni(OH)2@Pd/GDL catalyst layer may be due to following factors: high Pd dispersion arising from the core-shell structure, high Pd utilization because of the in situ deposition of Pd on catalyst layer and the interaction between the Pd shell and the Ni(OH)2 core. Herein, the ALD technology exhibits a promising application prospect for preparing core-shell structure and precisely controlling shell thickness of nano-composite as an electro-catalyst toward EOR.

  12. First-principles study of the Pd–Si system and Pd(001)/SiC(001) hetero-structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, P.E.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ivashchenko, V.I. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU), Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-11-01

    First-principles molecular dynamics simulations of the Pd(001)/3C–SiC(001) nano-layered structure were carried out at different temperatures ranging from 300 to 2100 K. Various PdSi (Pnma, Fm3m, P6m2, Pm3m), Pd2Si (P6⁻2m, P63/mmc, P3m1, P3⁻1m) and Pd3Si (Pnma, P6322, Pm3m, I4/mmm) structures under pressure were studied to identify the structure of the Pd/Si and Pd/C interfaces in the Pd/SiC systems at high temperatures. It was found that a large atomic mixing at the Pd/Si interface occurred at 1500–1800 K, whereas the Pd/C interface remained sharp even at the highest temperature of 2100 K. At the Pd/C interface, voids and a graphite-like clustering were detected. Palladium and silicon atoms interact at the Pd/Si interface to mostly form C22-Pd2Si and D011-Pd3Si fragments, in agreement with experiment.

  13. Amorphous Pd-assisted H 2 detection of ZnO nanorod gas sensor with enhanced sensitivity and stability

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyeonghun

    2018-02-05

    For monitoring H2 concentrations in air, diverse resistive gas sensors have been demonstrated. In particular, Pd-decorated metal oxides have shown remarkable selectivity and sensing response for H2 detection. In this work, H2 sensing behavior of amorphous Pd layer covering ZnO nanorods (am-Pd/ZnO NRs) is investigated. This is the first report on the enhanced gas sensing performance attained by using an amorphous metal layer. The amorphous Pd layer is generated by reduction reaction with a strong reducing agent (NaBH4), and it covers the ZnO nanorods completely with a thickness of 2 ∼ 5 nm. For comparison, crystalline Pd nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanorods (c-Pd/ZnO NRs) are produced using a milder reducing agent like hydrazine. Comparing the c-Pd/ZnO NRs sensor and other previously reported hydrogen sensors based on the crystalline Pd and metal oxides, the am-Pd/ZnO NRs sensor exhibits a remarkable sensing response (12,400% at 2% H2). The enhancement is attributed to complete cover of the amorphous Pd layer on the ZnO NRs, inducing larger interfaces between the Pd and ZnO. In addition, the amorphous Pd layer prevents surface contamination of the ZnO NRs. Therefore, the am-Pd/ZnO NRs sensor maintains initial sensing performance even after 5 months.

  14. Influence of layer thickness on the structure and the magnetic properties of Co/Pd epitaxial multilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobari, Kousuke, E-mail: tobari@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nagano, Katsumasa; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Co/Pd epitaxial multilayer films were prepared on Pd(111){sub fcc} underlayers hetero-epitaxially grown on MgO(111){sub B1} single-crystal substrates at room temperature by ultra-high vacuum RF magnetron sputtering. In-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction shows that the in-plane lattice spacing of Co on Pd layer gradually decreases with increasing the Co layer thickness, whereas that of Pd on Co layer remains unchanged during the Pd layer formation. The CoPd alloy phase formation is observed around the Co/Pd interface. The atomic mixing is enhanced for thinner Co and Pd layers in multilayer structure. With decreasing the Co and the Pd layer thicknesses and increasing the repetition number of Co/Pd multilayer film, stronger perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is observed. The relationships between the film structure and the magnetic properties are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Epitaxial Co/Pd multilayer films are prepared on Pd(111){sub fcc} underlayers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lattice strain in Co layer and CoPd-alloy formation are noted around the interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic property dependence on layer thickness is reported.

  15. Favored serum albumin level and ICF volume after use of 1.1% aminoacid based peritoneal dialysis(PD solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-woo Yoon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aminoacid based PD solution (AAD has been shown to induce positive nitrogen balance and improve nutritional markers of malnourished patients. But its effcets on body fluid composition and various nutritional markers are contradictory. Nutritional markers may influenced by patient's ECF volume status. So we evaluate effects of AAD on nutritional markers and body composition by analysis using multi-frequency bioimpedance analyzer. 35 PD patients(>6months duration of CAPD were prospectively randomized to 17 AAD(Nutrineal, one time use/day and 18 GD group(keep their glucose based PD solution. After 3 months follow up, AAD group showed marginally increased body weight and fat mass, decreased ECF volume(12.45±0.54L vs 12.10±0.57L, p=0.06, no changed ICF volume(22.2±0.9L vs 22.3±0.9L, p>0.05 and marginally increased drainage volume(8.77±0.76L vs 9.12±0.83L, p=0.09. AAD group also showed favored several markers include nPCR(1.59±0.07 vs 1.98±0.08, p=0.00, BUN and albumin level (3.54±0.11 vs 3.74±0.11, p=0.02. Although serum albumin level was increased, correction with ECF volume(albumin level X ECF volume makes it no difference (43.45±2.13 vs 44.80±2.28, p=0.14. Furthermore △albumin vs △ECF showed negative correlation pattern(r=-0.46, p=0.07 that means serum albumin change was influenced by ECF volume change. In conclusion, AAD treatment improved markers of better nutritional status. However the change in serum albumin level was influenced by patient's ECF volume status, which can partially explain contradictory effect of aminoacid based PD solution on serum albumin level.

  16. Patterns for agility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Lankhorst, M.M.; Schrier, A.; Lankhorst, M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of patterns is an important practice in the agile software development community. There are many sources for patterns. In this chapter, we will examine several pattern collections and explore their potential contribution to system agility. We illustrate our pattern approach by a detailed

  17. Prevalence and hematological indicators of G6PD deficiency in malaria-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotepui, Manas; Uthaisar, Kwuntida; PhunPhuech, Bhukdee; Phiwklam, Nuoil

    2016-04-25

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and alteration of hematological parameters in malaria patients with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, in the western region of Thailand, an endemic region for malaria. Data about patients with malaria hospitalized between 2013 and 2015 were collected. Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics such as age and gender, diagnosis on admission, and parasitological results were mined from medical records of the laboratory unit of the Phop Phra Hospital in Tak Province, Thailand. Venous blood samples were collected at the time of admission to hospital to determine G6PD deficiency by fluorescence spot test and detect malaria parasites by thick and thin film examination. Other data such as complete blood count and parasite density were also collected and analyzed. Among the 245 malaria cases, 28 (11.4 %) were diagnosed as Plasmodium falciparum infections and 217 cases (88.6 %) were diagnosed as P. vivax infections. Seventeen (6.9 %) patients had a G6PD deficiency and 228 (93.1 %) patients did not have a G6PD deficiency. Prevalence of male patients with G6PD deficiency was higher than that of female patients (P G6PD deficiency, two (11.8 %) were infected with P. falciparum, while the remaining were infected with P. vivax. Malaria patients with a G6PD deficiency have higher monocyte counts (0.6 × 10(3)/μL) than those without a G6PD deficiency (0.33 × 10(3)/μL) (P G6PD deficiency have high monocyte counts. The association between G6PD status and monocyte counts was independent of age, gender, nationality, Plasmodium species, and parasite density (P G6PD deficiency in a malaria-endemic area. This study also supported the assertion that patients with G6PD-deficient red blood cells had no protection against the P. falciparum infection. In addition, malaria patients with a G6PD deficiency had higher monocyte counts than those without a G6PD deficiency. These findings will help to recognize and

  18. Differential Effects of Tango Versus Dance for PD in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Marie E.; Mai, Marina M.; Duncan, Ryan P.; Earhart, Gammon M.

    2015-01-01

    Over half of the general population does not achieve recommended daily levels of physical activity, and activity levels in people with Parkinson disease (PD) are lower than in healthy older adults. Dance can serve as an adjunct to traditional treatments to improve gait, balance, and quality of life in people with PD. This study directly compares a tango dance intervention and a dance intervention based on the Dance for PD model, which integrates multiple dance styles. Eleven people with PD participated in a community-based mixed styles dance intervention called Dance for Parkinson’s (D4PD). Participants in the D4PD group were matched to participants in an ongoing community-based exercise study who participated in tango dance. The groups received 12 weeks of intervention, attending 1-h group classes twice a week. Participants were evaluated off anti-PD medication before and after intervention. Measures of balance, repeated sit-to-stand performance and endurance (mini-balance evaluation systems test, four square step test, five times sit to stand, 6-min walk time) improved from pre to post similarly in both groups. Motor sign severity (movement disorders society unified Parkinson disease rating scale motor subsection) and functional mobility (timed up and go) improved in the tango group and worsened in the D4PD group. Gait velocity was not affected by either intervention. Direct comparisons of different interventions are ­critical for developing optimal exercise interventions designed to specifically target motor impairments in PD. Tango dance interventions may preferentially improve mobility and motor signs in people with PD, compared to D4PD. PMID:26733865

  19. Reductive dechlorination of tetrachlorobisphenol A by Pd/Fe bimetallic catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Liu, Wen [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Peng, Ping’an [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Huang, Weilin, E-mail: whuang@envsci.rutgers.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • TCBPA can be rapidly and completely dechlorinated by Pd/Fe bimetallic catalysts. • The observed rate constants are functions of dosages, initial concentration, Pd coverage and solution pH. • Pd dosage is the major factor in the observed rates of the reaction. • This is the first report investigating the dechlorination of TCBPA by Pd/Fe catalysts. -- Abstract: The Pd/Fe bimetallic catalysts of micron sizes were synthesized and the rates of tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA) degradation were measured under various conditions using a batch reactor system. The results showed that TCBPA was rapidly dechlorinated to tri-, di- and mono-chlorobisphenol A and to bisphenol A (BPA). The observed rate constants (k{sub obs}) were found to increase as functions of the Pd coverage on the Fe particles and the dosages of the catalysts within the reactors. The k{sub obs} value decreased as the initial TCBPA concentration increased, suggesting that the TCBPA dechlorination may follow a surface-site limiting Langmuir–Hinshelwood rate model. The weakly acidic solution, especially at or near pH 6.0, also favored the dechlorination of TCBPA. At pH 6.0, Pd coverage of 0.044 wt% and catalyst dosage of 5 g L{sup −1}, TCBPA with an initial concentration of 20 μM was completely transformed within 60 min, and BPA was detected as the major product through the reaction time. Meanwhile, the k{sub obs} values measured at constant solution pH correlated linearly with the mass of particle-bound Pd introduced to the reactors, regardless of Pd/Fe catalyst dosage or Pd surface coverage. This study suggested that Pd/Fe catalysts could be potentially employed to rapidly degrade TCBPA in the contaminated environment.

  20. Differential Effects of Tango Versus Dance for PD in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Marie E; Mai, Marina M; Duncan, Ryan P; Earhart, Gammon M

    2015-01-01

    Over half of the general population does not achieve recommended daily levels of physical activity, and activity levels in people with Parkinson disease (PD) are lower than in healthy older adults. Dance can serve as an adjunct to traditional treatments to improve gait, balance, and quality of life in people with PD. This study directly compares a tango dance intervention and a dance intervention based on the Dance for PD model, which integrates multiple dance styles. Eleven people with PD participated in a community-based mixed styles dance intervention called Dance for Parkinson's (D4PD). Participants in the D4PD group were matched to participants in an ongoing community-based exercise study who participated in tango dance. The groups received 12 weeks of intervention, attending 1-h group classes twice a week. Participants were evaluated off anti-PD medication before and after intervention. Measures of balance, repeated sit-to-stand performance and endurance (mini-balance evaluation systems test, four square step test, five times sit to stand, 6-min walk time) improved from pre to post similarly in both groups. Motor sign severity (movement disorders society unified Parkinson disease rating scale motor subsection) and functional mobility (timed up and go) improved in the tango group and worsened in the D4PD group. Gait velocity was not affected by either intervention. Direct comparisons of different interventions are -critical for developing optimal exercise interventions designed to specifically target motor impairments in PD. Tango dance interventions may preferentially improve mobility and motor signs in people with PD, compared to D4PD.

  1. Differential effects of tango versus Dance for PD in Parkinson disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E McNeely

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over half of the general population does not achieve recommended daily levels of physical activity, and activity levels in people with Parkinson disease (PD are lower than in healthy older adults. Dance can serve as an adjunct to traditional treatments to improve gait, balance, and quality of life in people with PD. This study directly compares a tango dance intervention and a dance intervention based on the Dance for PD model which integrates multiple dance styles. Eleven people with PD participated in a community-based mixed styles dance intervention called Dance for Parkinson’s (D4PD. Participants in the D4PD group were matched to participants in an ongoing community-based exercise study who participated in tango dance. The groups received 12 weeks of intervention, attending one-hour group classes twice a week. Participants were evaluated off anti-PD medication before and after intervention. Measures of balance, repeated sit-to-stand performance and endurance (Mini-BESTest, four square step test, five times sit to stand, six minute walk time improved from pre to post similarly in both groups. Motor sign severity (MDS-UPDRS-III and functional mobility (TUG improved in the tango group and worsened in the D4PD group. Gait velocity was not affected by either intervention. Direct comparisons of different interventions are critical for developing optimal exercise interventions designed to specifically target motor impairments in PD. Tango dance interventions may preferentially improve mobility and motor signs in people with PD, compared to D4PD.

  2. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, Jose A; Villarreal-Williams, Erick; Giordano, Thomas P

    2010-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect. Screening for this condition in HIV-infected patients from susceptible ethnic groups is recommended based on expert opinion. Here we determined the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and the occurrence of G6PD-related hemolytic events in a large cohort of patients. We identified all HIV-infected adults who presented as new patients at a single urban HIV clinic between 02/01/2007 and 01/31/2009. Demographic and laboratory data including G6PD results were collected. In addition, outpatient and inpatient medical records of G6PD deficient patients were reviewed for episodes of hemolytic anemia. A total of 1172 patients were identified and G6PD testing was performed in 1110 (94.7%). Overall, 75 (6.8%) subjects had G6PD deficiency. Rates were higher among African Americans (68/699; 9.7%) and Hispanics (5/253; 2.0%). Only one non-Hispanic White subject had G6PD deficiency (1/153; 0.7%). At baseline, hemoglobin concentrations were similar among subjects with or without G6PD deficiency. Among patients with G6PD deficiency, 40 (53.3%) were prescribed trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or dapsone. During follow-up, five (6.7%) of these patients developed acute hemolytic anemia. These results provide strong clinical evidence for recommending G6PD testing in HIV-infected subjects from susceptible ethnic backgrounds. Copyright © 2010 The British Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Theoretical study on the encapsulation of Pd3-based transition metal clusters inside boron nitride nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Liu, Yue-jie; Zhao, Jing-xiang

    2013-03-01

    Chemical functionalization of the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) allows a wider flexibility in engineering its electronic and magnetic properties as well as chemical reactivity, thus making it have potential applications in many fields. In the present work, the encapsulation of 13 different Pd(3)M (M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pd, Pt, and Au) clusters inside the (10, 0) BNNT has been studied by performing comprehensive density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Particular attention is paid to searching for the stable configurations, calculating the corresponding binding energies, and evaluating the effects of the encapsulation of Pd(3)M cluster on the electronic and magnetic properties of BNNT. The results indicate that all the studied Pd(3)M clusters can be stably encapsulated inside the (10, 0) BNNT, with binding energies ranging from -0.96 (for Pd(3)Sc) to -5.31 eV (for Pd(3)V). Moreover, due to a certain amount of charge transfer from Pd(3)M clusters to BNNT, certain impurity states are induced within the band gap of pristine BNNT, leading to the reduction of the band gap in various ways. Most Pd(3)M@BNNT nanocomposites exhibit nonzero magnetic moments, which mainly originate from the contribution of the Pd(3)M clusters. In particular, the adsorption of O(2) molecule on BNNT is greatly enhanced due to Pd(3)M encapsulation. The elongation of O-O bonds of the adsorbed O(2) molecules indicates that Pd(3)M@BNNT could be used to fabricate the oxidative catalysis.

  4. Four integration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel; Munkvold, Bjørn Erik

    2010-01-01

    and Socio-Technical Integration. We analyze and describe the advantages and disadvantages of each pattern. The four patterns are ideal types. To explore the forces and challenges in these patterns three longitudinal case studies were conducted. In particular we investigate the management challenges for each...... pattern. We find that the patterns are context sensitive, and describe the different contexts where the patterns are applicable. For IS project management the four integration patterns is a contribution to the management of integration risks, extending the vocabulary for assessing and mitigating...

  5. Partial discharge patterns and surface deterioration in voids in filled and unfilled epoxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    investigated by scanning electron microscopy for voids exposed to PD as well as voids without discharges. Different kinds of surface deterioration were found. An attempt was made to establish a relationship between aging phenomena as exhibited by void surface changes and discharge patterns......Results are presented from analyses of pulses from partial discharges (PDs) in single spherical voids in filled and unfilled epoxy plastic and related to the observed surface deterioration. The filler types used were dolomite, alumina, and silica. Long-time aging tests including pulse phase....../height analyses were performed over a period of 2400 h and showed very characteristic discharge patterns for each material combination. A unique behavior with regard to changes of pulse repetition rate and maximum apparent charge was observed for PD in alumina- and silica-filled epoxy. The void surfaces were...

  6. Frequency Dependent PD-pulse Distortion in Rotating Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens

    1996-01-01

    at the machine terminals. The results show a variation of the attenuation of the discharge pulses inside the machine of about 20 dB highest for pulses from the far end, i.e. the neutral point. The capability of exact localization of the discharges in the winding gives a correct measure of the range...... of the current transformer based detection method, when being applied to rotating machines. The results are discussed with regard to the practical application of PD detection systems on rotating machines, particularly considering aspects of range and applicability of systems in the HF ranges...

  7. Rotational and vibrational bands in {sup 108}Pd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara-Nunez, J.A.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Cybulska, E.W.; Medina, N.H.; Rao, M.N.; Ribas, R.V.; Rizzutto, M.A.; Seale, W.A.; Falla-Sotelo, F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2004-09-15

    The {sup 108}Pd nucleus has been studied with the {sup 100}Mo({sup 11}B, p2n{gamma}) reaction at 43 MeV incident energy. {gamma}-{gamma}-t, {gamma}-{gamma}-charged particle coincidences and directional correlation ratios were measured using the {gamma} spectrometer formed by four Compton suppressed HPGe detectors and a 4{pi} charged-particle ancillary detector system. The structure of the bands was interpreted within the framework of the cranked shell model and total Routhian calculations. (author)

  8. Hysteresis-free nanoplasmonic pd-au alloy hydrogen sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadell, Carl; Nugroho, Ferry Anggoro Ardy; Lidström, Emil

    2015-01-01

    hydrogen sensors. By increasing the amount of Au in the alloy nanoparticles up to 25 atom %, we are able to suppress the hysteresis between hydrogen absorption and desorption, thereby increasing the sensor accuracy to below 5% throughout the investigated 1 mbar to 1 bar hydrogen pressure range. Furthermore......, we observe an 8-fold absolute sensitivity enhancement at low hydrogen pressures compared to sensors made of pure Pd, and an improved sensor response time to below one second within the 0-40 mbar pressure range, that is, below the flammability limit, by engineering the nanoparticle size....

  9. EVALUATION OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN PERITONEAL DIALYSIS (PD) PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dratwa, Max; Verger, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, analysis of the French Language Peritoneal Dialysis Registry (RDPLF) data revealed that 6 patients out of 355 (1,7%) were transferred to HD because of malnutrition after a median period of 31 months. Furthermore, malnutrition was responsible for the death of 5.1 % patients after a median period of 14 months. So, as nutritional status has been shown to impact morbidity and mortality of dialysis patients, we set out to measure this status in incident PD patients of 2 European centers u...

  10. Electrochemical characterization of nano-sized Pd-based catalysts as cathode materials in direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M; Han, C; Kim, I T; An, J C; Lee, J J; Lee, H K; Shim, J

    2011-01-01

    To improve the catalytic activity of palladium (Pd) as a cathode catalyst in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), we prepared palladium-titanium oxide (Pd-TiO2) catalysts which the Pd and TiO2 nanoparticles were simultaneously impregnated on carbon. We selected Pd and TiO2 as catalytic materials because of their electrochemical stability in acid solution. The crystal structure and the loading amount of Pd and TiO2 on carbon were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The electrochemical characterization of Pd-TiO2/C catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction was carried out in half and single cell systems. The catalytic activities of the Pd-TiO2 catalysts were strongly influenced by the TiO2 content. In the single cell test, the Pd-TiO2 catalysts showed very comparable performance to the Pt catalyst.

  11. The Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition of Pt and Pd nanoparticles on Ni foam for the electrooxidation of alcohols

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, RM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of Pt and Pd metal by surface limited redox replacement reactions was performed using the electrochemical atomic layer deposition. Carbon paper and Ni foam were used as substrates for metal deposition. Supported Pt and Pd...

  12. The electrochemical atomic layer deposition of Pt and Pd nanoparticles on Ni foam for the electro oxidation of alcohols

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, RM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of Pt and Pd metal by surface limited redox replacement reactions was performed using the electrochemical atomic layer deposition. Carbon paper and Ni foam were used as substrates for metal deposition. Supported Pt and Pd...

  13. Pd Nanoparticles Coupled to WO 2.72 Nanorods for Enhanced Electrochemical Oxidation of Formic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Zheng; Erdosy, Daniel P.; Mendoza-Garcia, Adriana; Duchesne, Paul N.; Li, Junrui; Muzzio, Michelle; Li, Qing; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Shouheng (Brown); (Dalhousie U.); (Huazhong)

    2017-03-02

    We synthesize a new type of hybrid Pd/WO2.72 structure with 5 nm Pd nanoparticles (NPs) anchored on 50 × 5 nm WO2.72 nanorods. The strong Pd/WO2.72 coupling results in the lattice expansion of Pd from 0.23 to 0.27 nm and the decrease of Pd surface electron density. As a result, the Pd/WO2.72 shows much enhanced catalysis toward electrochemical oxidation of formic acid in 0.1 M HClO4; it has a mass activity of ~1600 mA/mgPd in a broad potential range of 0.4–0.85 V (vs RHE) and shows no obvious activity loss after a 12 h chronoamperometry test at 0.4 V. Our work demonstrates an important strategy to enhance Pd NP catalyst efficiency for energy conversion reactions.

  14. Physical properties of the GaPd2 intermetallic catalyst in bulk and nanoparticle morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wencka, M.; Schwerin, J.; Klanjšek, M.

    2015-01-01

    properties of the GaPd2 phase on going from the bulk material to the nanoparticles morphology, we have synthesized GaPd2/SiO2 supported nanoparticles and determined their electronic DOS at εF from the 71Ga NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate. The electronic DOS of the GaPd2 was also studied theoretically from......Intermetallic compound GaPd2 is a highly selective catalyst material for the semi-hydrogenation of acetylene. We have determined anisotropic electronic, thermal and magnetic properties of a GaPd2 monocrystal along three orthogonal orthorhombic directions of the structure. By using 69Ga and 71Ga NMR...... first principles. All results are compared to the chemically related compound GaPd. The active–site-isolation concept for an increased catalytic selectivity is discussed in relation to the GaPd2 and GaPd structures....

  15. [Effects of aquatic physical exercise on the kinematic gait pattern in patients with Parkinson's disease: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Paula; Cancela, José M; Ayan, Carlos; do Nascimento, Carla; Seijo-Martínez, Manuel

    2013-03-16

    AIM. To determine the effects of an aquatic-based physical exercise program on gait parameters of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). PATIENTS AND METHODS. A total of nine patients diagnosed with idiopathic PD (stages I-III according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale) carried out an aquatic physical exercise program which lasted for five months, with one session per week. A three-dimensional biomechanical analysis was used to determine the effects of the program on several kinematic variables (walking speed, cadence, stride length, step time, single and double support time, angles of the hip, knee and ankle joints) which were assessed by a treadmill-walking test. RESULTS. At the end of the program, significant improvement in walking speed, stride l