Sample records for proximal point algorithm

  1. Convergence Analysis of a Proximal Point Algorithm for Minimizing Differences of Functions


    An, Nguyen Thai; Nam, Nguyen Mau


    Several optimization schemes have been known for convex optimization problems. However, numerical algorithms for solving nonconvex optimization problems are still underdeveloped. A progress to go beyond convexity was made by considering the class of functions representable as differences of convex functions. In this paper, we introduce a generalized proximal point algorithm to minimize the difference of a nonconvex function and a convex function. We also study convergence results of this algo...

  2. Alternating proximal algorithm for blind image recovery


    Bolte, Jérôme; Combettes, Patrick Louis; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe


    International audience; We consider a variational formulation of blind image recovery problems. A novel iterative proximal algorithm is proposed to solve the associated nonconvex minimization problem. Under suitable assumptions, this algorithm is shown to have better convergence properties than standard alternating minimization techniques. The objective function includes a smooth convex data fidelity term and nonsmooth convex regularization terms modeling prior information on the data and on ...

  3. Two-Step Proximal Gradient Algorithm for Low-Rank Matrix Completion

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    Qiuyu Wang


    Full Text Available In this paper, we  propose a two-step proximal gradient algorithm to solve nuclear norm regularized least squares for the purpose of recovering low-rank data matrix from sampling of its entries. Each iteration generated by the proposed algorithm is a combination of the latest three points, namely, the previous point, the current iterate, and its proximal gradient point. This algorithm preserves the computational simplicity of classical proximal gradient algorithm where a singular value decomposition in proximal operator is involved. Global convergence is followed directly in the literature. Numerical results are reported to show the efficiency of the algorithm.

  4. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming


    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  5. Best Proximity Points for a New Class of Generalized Proximal Mappings

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    Tayyab Kamran


    Full Text Available The best proximity points are usually used to find the optimal approximate solution of the operator equation Tx = x, when T has no fixed point. In this paper, we prove some best proximity point theorems for nonself multivalued operators, following the foot steps of Basha and Shahzad [Best proximity point theorems for generalized proximal contractions, Fixed Point Theory Appl., 2012, 2012:42].

  6. On the existence of best proximity points for generalized contractions

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    V. Vetrivel


    Full Text Available In this article we establish the existence of a unique best proximity point for some generalized non self contractions on a metric space in a simpler way using a geometric result. Our results generalize some recent best proximity point theorems and several fixed point theorems proved by various authors.

  7. Interproximal contact points and proximal caries in posterior primary teeth. (United States)

    Allison, Paul J; Schwartz, Stephane


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the risk of proximal caries in posterior primary teeth is higher when interproximal contact points are closed than when they are open. A cross-sectional study design was used with a sample of 286 children aged 24 to 72 months (mean age 54 months +/- 16 months). Children with any permanent dentition were excluded. Caries (defined as a lesion halfway through enamel or further) was assessed radiographically by a single dentist. The open/closed nature of contact points was assessed by a different dentist through resistance to dental floss. Data concerning known risk factors and indicators for caries were also collected. Analyses were performed at the level of the contact point, comparing the same contact points in different children. Multiple logistic regression was used to asses the relationship between open/closed status and caries status for each posterior contact point. In 7 of the 8 contact points examined, the odds for caries were significantly increased when contact points were dosed. This research suggests that the risk for proximal caries in the posterior primary dentition is raised if contact points are dosed compared to those that are open.

  8. A primal-dual algorithm framework for convex saddle-point optimization. (United States)

    Zhang, Benxin; Zhu, Zhibin


    In this study, we introduce a primal-dual prediction-correction algorithm framework for convex optimization problems with known saddle-point structure. Our unified frame adds the proximal term with a positive definite weighting matrix. Moreover, different proximal parameters in the frame can derive some existing well-known algorithms and yield a class of new primal-dual schemes. We prove the convergence of the proposed frame from the perspective of proximal point algorithm-like contraction methods and variational inequalities approach. The convergence rate [Formula: see text] in the ergodic and nonergodic senses is also given, where t denotes the iteration number.

  9. Tractable Algorithms for Proximity Search on Large Graphs (United States)


    Education never ends, Watson. It is a series of lessons with the greatest for the last. — Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes . 2.1 Introduction A...Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes . 5.1 Introduction In this thesis, our main goal is to design fast algorithms for proximity search in large graphs. In chapter 3...Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes . In this thesis our main focus is on investigating some useful random walk based prox- imity measures. We have started

  10. Interior point algorithms theory and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Yinyu


    The first comprehensive review of the theory and practice of one of today's most powerful optimization techniques. The explosive growth of research into and development of interior point algorithms over the past two decades has significantly improved the complexity of linear programming and yielded some of today's most sophisticated computing techniques. This book offers a comprehensive and thorough treatment of the theory, analysis, and implementation of this powerful computational tool. Interior Point Algorithms provides detailed coverage of all basic and advanced aspects of the subject.

  11. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

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    Zhangsong Yao


    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  12. A rigorous algorithm for telescope pointing (United States)

    Wallace, Patrick T.


    A typical modern telescope control system points by first calculating the direction of the target in nominal mount coordinates and then applying small corrections to the demanded mount angles. The pointing refers to the rotation axis of the instrument mount, and rotator demands are calculated via parallactic angle. This simple approach works well enough when the corrections are small and the accuracy objectives are modest. However, a more rigorous approach can pay off, in the form of improved pointing, more accurate guide probe predictions, reduced residual field rotation and reliable world coordinate system information even when the detector is off-axis. In this paper I propose a rigorous vector/matrix algorithm for generating pointing predictions on an imperfect telescope, with support for autoguiding, field stabilization and world coordinate systems even in difficult cases such as Nasmyth and coude.

  13. Best proximity points of contractive mappings on a metric space with a graph and applications

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    Asrifa Sultana


    Full Text Available We establish an existence and uniqueness theorem on best proximity point for contractive mappings on a metric space endowed with a graph. As an application of this theorem, we obtain a result on the existence of unique best proximity point for uniformly locally contractive mappings. Moreover, our theorem subsumes and generalizes many recent  fixed point and best proximity point results.

  14. On Optimal Fuzzy Best Proximity Coincidence Points of Proximal Contractions Involving Cyclic Mappings in Non-Archimedean Fuzzy Metric Spaces

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    Manuel De la Sen


    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to deal with some properties of interest in two types of fuzzy ordered proximal contractions of cyclic self-mappings T integrated in a pair ( g , T of mappings. In particular, g is a non-contractive fuzzy self-mapping, in the framework of non-Archimedean ordered fuzzy complete metric spaces and T is a p -cyclic proximal contraction. Two types of such contractions (so called of type I and of type II are dealt with. In particular, the existence, uniqueness and limit properties for sequences to optimal fuzzy best proximity coincidence points are investigated for such pairs of mappings.

  15. A Best Proximity Point Result in Modular Spaces with the Fatou Property

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    Mohamed Jleli


    Full Text Available Consider a nonself-mapping , where is a pair of nonempty subsets of a modular space . A best proximity point of is a point satisfying the condition: . In this paper, we introduce the class of proximal quasicontraction nonself-mappings in modular spaces with the Fatou property. For such mappings, we provide sufficient conditions assuring the existence and uniqueness of best proximity points.

  16. A modified iterative closest point algorithm for noisy data (United States)

    Tihonkih, Dmitrii; Makovetskii, Artyom; Voronin, Aleksei


    The problem of aligning of 3D point data is the known registration task. The most popular registration algorithm is the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The traditional ICP algorithm is a fast and accurate approach for rigid registration between two point clouds but it is unable to handle affine case. Recently, extension of the ICP algorithm for composition of scaling, rotation, and translation is proposed. A generalized ICP version for an arbitrary affine transformation is also suggested. In this paper, a new iterative algorithm for registration of point clouds based on the point-to-plane ICP algorithm with affine transformations is proposed. At each iteration, a closed-form solution to the affine transformation is derived. This approach allows us to get a precise solution for transformations such as rotation, translation, and scaling. With the help of computer simulation, the proposed algorithm is compared with common registration algorithms.

  17. Best Proximity Point Theorems in Partially Ordered b-Quasi Metric Spaces

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    Ali Abkar


    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the notion of an ordered rational proximal contraction in partially ordered b-quasi metric spaces. We shall then prove some best proximity point theorems in partially ordered b-quasi metric spaces.

  18. PHOTOJOURNALISM AND PROXIMITY IMAGES: two points of view, two professions?

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    Daniel Thierry


    Full Text Available For many decades, classic photojournalistic practice, firmly anchored in a creed established since Lewis Hine (1874-1940, has developed a praxis and a doxa that have barely been affected by the transformations in the various types of journalism. From the search for the “right image” which would be totally transparent by striving to refute its enunciative features from a perspective of maximumobjectivity, to the most seductive photography at supermarkets by photo agencies, the range of images seems to be decidedly framed. However, far from constituting high-powered reportingor excellent photography that is rewarded with numerous international prizes and invitations to the media-artistic world, local press photography remains in the shadows. How does oneoffer a representation of one’s self that can be shared in the local sphere? That is the first question which editors of the local daily and weekly press must grapple with. Using illustrations of the practices, this article proposes an examination of the origins ofthese practices and an analysis grounded on the originality of theauthors of these proximity photographs.

  19. Photojournalism and proximity images: two points of view, two professions?

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    Daniel Thierry


    Full Text Available For many decades, classic photojournalistic practice, firmly anchored in a creed established since Lewis Hine (1874-1940, has developed a praxis and a doxa that have barely been affected by the transformations in the various types of journalism. From the search for the “right image” which would be totally transparent by striving to refute its enunciative features from a perspective of maximumobjectivity, to the most seductive photography at supermarkets by photo agencies, the range of images seems to be decidedly framed. However, far from constituting high-powered reportingor excellent photography that is rewarded with numerous international prizes and invitations to the media-artistic world, local press photography remains in the shadows. How does oneoffer a representation of one’s self that can be shared in the local sphere? That is the first question which editors of the local daily and weekly press must grapple with. Using illustrations of the practices, this article proposes an examination of the origins ofthese practices and an analysis grounded on the originality of theauthors of these proximity photographs.

  20. Hybrid Proximal-Point Methods for Zeros of Maximal Monotone Operators, Variational Inequalities and Mixed Equilibrium Problems

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    Kriengsak Wattanawitoon


    Full Text Available We prove strong and weak convergence theorems of modified hybrid proximal-point algorithms for finding a common element of the zero point of a maximal monotone operator, the set of solutions of equilibrium problems, and the set of solution of the variational inequality operators of an inverse strongly monotone in a Banach space under different conditions. Moreover, applications to complementarity problems are given. Our results modify and improve the recently announced ones by Li and Song (2008 and many authors.

  1. Best Proximity Point Results in Complex Valued Metric Spaces

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    Binayak S. Choudhury


    complex valued metric spaces. We treat the problem as that of finding the global optimal solution of a fixed point equation although the exact solution does not in general exist. We also define and use the concept of P-property in such spaces. Our results are illustrated with examples.

  2. Nearest Neighbour Corner Points Matching Detection Algorithm

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    Zhang Changlong


    Full Text Available Accurate detection towards the corners plays an important part in camera calibration. To deal with the instability and inaccuracies of present corner detection algorithm, the nearest neighbour corners match-ing detection algorithms was brought forward. First, it dilates the binary image of the photographed pictures, searches and reserves quadrilateral outline of the image. Second, the blocks which accord with chess-board-corners are classified into a class. If too many blocks in class, it will be deleted; if not, it will be added, and then let the midpoint of the two vertex coordinates be the rough position of corner. At last, it precisely locates the position of the corners. The Experimental results have shown that the algorithm has obvious advantages on accuracy and validity in corner detection, and it can give security for camera calibration in traffic accident measurement.

  3. A scale-space curvature matching algorithm for the reconstruction of complex proximal humeral fractures. (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Lazaros; Székely, Gábor; Gerber, Christian; Fürnstahl, Philipp


    The optimal surgical treatment of complex fractures of the proximal humerus is controversial. It is proven that best results are obtained if an anatomical reduction of the fragments is achieved and, therefore, computer-assisted methods have been proposed for the reconstruction of the fractures. However, complex fractures of the proximal humerus are commonly accompanied with a relevant displacement of the fragments and, therefore, algorithms relying on the initial position of the fragments might fail. The state-of-the-art algorithm for complex fractures of the proximal humerus requires the acquisition of a CT scan of the (healthy) contralateral anatomy as a reconstruction template to address the displacement of the fragments. Pose-invariant fracture line based reconstruction algorithms have been applied successful for reassembling broken vessels in archaeology. Nevertheless, the extraction of the fracture lines and the necessary computation of their curvature are susceptible to noise and make the application of previous approaches difficult or even impossible for bone fractures close to the joints, where the cortical layer is thin. We present a novel scale-space representation of the curvature, permitting to calculate the correct alignment between bone fragments solely based on corresponding regions of the fracture lines. The fractures of the proximal humerus are automatically reconstructed based on iterative pairwise reduction of the fragments. The validation of the presented method was performed on twelve clinical cases, surgically treated after complex proximal humeral fracture, and by cadaver experiments. The accuracy of our approach was compared to the state-of-the-art algorithm for complex fractures of the proximal humerus. All reconstructions of the clinical cases resulted in an accurate approximation of the pre-traumatic anatomy. The accuracy of the reconstructed cadaver cases outperformed the current state-of-the-art algorithm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  4. Momentum and Stochastic Momentum for Stochastic Gradient, Newton, Proximal Point and Subspace Descent Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Loizou, Nicolas


    In this paper we study several classes of stochastic optimization algorithms enriched with heavy ball momentum. Among the methods studied are: stochastic gradient descent, stochastic Newton, stochastic proximal point and stochastic dual subspace ascent. This is the first time momentum variants of several of these methods are studied. We choose to perform our analysis in a setting in which all of the above methods are equivalent. We prove global nonassymptotic linear convergence rates for all methods and various measures of success, including primal function values, primal iterates (in L2 sense), and dual function values. We also show that the primal iterates converge at an accelerated linear rate in the L1 sense. This is the first time a linear rate is shown for the stochastic heavy ball method (i.e., stochastic gradient descent method with momentum). Under somewhat weaker conditions, we establish a sublinear convergence rate for Cesaro averages of primal iterates. Moreover, we propose a novel concept, which we call stochastic momentum, aimed at decreasing the cost of performing the momentum step. We prove linear convergence of several stochastic methods with stochastic momentum, and show that in some sparse data regimes and for sufficiently small momentum parameters, these methods enjoy better overall complexity than methods with deterministic momentum. Finally, we perform extensive numerical testing on artificial and real datasets, including data coming from average consensus problems.

  5. Junction Point Detection Algorithm for SAR Image

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    Jun Zhang


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel junction point detector based on an azimuth consensus for remote sensing images. To eliminate the impact of noise and some noncorrelated edges of SAR image, an azimuth consensus constraint is developed. In addition to detecting the locations of junctions at the subpixel level, this operator recognizes their structures as well. A new formula that includes a minimization criterion for the total weighted distance is proposed to compute the locations of junction points accurately. Compared with other well-known detectors, including Forstner, JUDOCA, and CPDA, the experimental results indicate that our operator outperforms them both in location accuracy of junction points and in angle accuracy of branch edges. Moreover, our method possesses satisfying robustness to the impact of noise and changes of the SAR images. Our operator can be potentially used to solve a number of problems in computer vision, such as SAR image registration, wide-baseline matching, and UAV navigation system.

  6. GASPACHO: a generic automatic solver using proximal algorithms for convex huge optimization problems (United States)

    Goossens, Bart; Luong, Hiêp; Philips, Wilfried


    Many inverse problems (e.g., demosaicking, deblurring, denoising, image fusion, HDR synthesis) share various similarities: degradation operators are often modeled by a specific data fitting function while image prior knowledge (e.g., sparsity) is incorporated by additional regularization terms. In this paper, we investigate automatic algorithmic techniques for evaluating proximal operators. These algorithmic techniques also enable efficient calculation of adjoints from linear operators in a general matrix-free setting. In particular, we study the simultaneous-direction method of multipliers (SDMM) and the parallel proximal algorithm (PPXA) solvers and show that the automatically derived implementations are well suited for both single-GPU and multi-GPU processing. We demonstrate this approach for an Electron Microscopy (EM) deconvolution problem.

  7. An Automatic Filter Algorithm for Dense Image Matching Point Clouds (United States)

    Dong, Y. Q.; Zhang, L.; Cui, X. M.; Ai, H. B.


    Although many filter algorithms have been presented over past decades, these algorithms are usually designed for the Lidar point clouds and can't separate the ground points from the DIM (dense image matching, DIM) point clouds derived from the oblique aerial images owing to the high density and variation of the DIM point clouds completely. To solve this problem, a new automatic filter algorithm is developed on the basis of adaptive TIN models. At first, the differences between Lidar and DIM point clouds which influence the filtering results are analysed in this paper. To avoid the influences of the plants which can't be penetrated by the DIM point clouds in the searching seed pointes process, the algorithm makes use of the facades of buildings to get ground points located on the roads as seed points and construct the initial TIN. Then a new densification strategy is applied to deal with the problem that the densification thresholds do not change as described in other methods in each iterative process. Finally, we use the DIM point clouds located in Potsdam produced by Photo-Scan to evaluate the method proposed in this paper. The experiment results show that the method proposed in this paper can not only separate the ground points from the DIM point clouds completely but also obtain the better filter results compared with TerraSolid. 1.

  8. Existence of common fixed point and best proximity point for generalized nonexpansive type maps in convex metric space. (United States)

    Rathee, Savita; Dhingra, Kusum; Kumar, Anil


    Here, we extend the notion of (E.A.) property in a convex metric space defined by Kumar and Rathee (Fixed Point Theory Appl 1-14, 2014) by introducing a new class of self-maps which satisfies the common property (E.A.) in the context of convex metric space and ensure the existence of common fixed point for this newly introduced class of self-maps. Also, we guarantee the existence of common best proximity points for this class of maps satisfying generalized non-expansive type condition. We furnish an example in support of the proved results.

  9. Analysing Music with Point-Set Compression Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David


    Several point-set pattern-discovery and compression algorithms designed for analysing music are reviewed and evaluated. Each algorithm takes as input a point-set representation of a score in which each note is represented as a point in pitch-time space. Each algorithm computes the maximal...... translatable patterns (MTPs) in this input and the translational equivalence classes (TECs) of these MTPs, where each TEC contains all the occurrences of a given MTP. Each TEC is encoded as a ⟨pattern,vector set⟩ pair, in which the vector set gives all the vectors by which the pattern can be translated...... and sections in pieces of classical music. On the first task, the best-performing algorithms achieved success rates of around 84%. In the second task, the best algorithms achieved mean F1 scores of around 0.49, with scores for individual pieces rising as high as 0.71....

  10. Best Proximity Point Results in Non-Archimedean Modular Metric Space

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    Mohadeshe Paknazar


    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the new notion of Suzuki-type ( α , β , θ , γ -contractive mapping and investigate the existence and uniqueness of the best proximity point for such mappings in non-Archimedean modular metric space using the weak P λ -property. Meanwhile, we present an illustrative example to emphasize the realized improvements. These obtained results extend and improve certain well-known results in the literature.

  11. SQNR Estimation of Fixed-Point DSP Algorithms (United States)

    Caffarena, Gabriel; Carreras, Carlos; López, Juan A.; Fernández, Ángel


    A fast and accurate quantization noise estimator aiming at fixed-point implementations of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) algorithms is presented. The estimator enables significant reduction in the computation time required to perform complex word-length optimizations. The proposed estimator is based on the use of Affine Arithmetic (AA) and it is presented in two versions: (i) a general version suitable for differentiable nonlinear algorithms, and Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) algorithms with and without feedbacks; and (ii) an LTI optimized version. The process relies on the parameterization of the statistical properties of the noise at the output of fixed-point algorithms. Once the output noise is parameterized (i.e., related to the fixed-point formats of the algorithm signals), a fast estimation can be applied throughout the word-length optimization process using as a precision metric the Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio (SQNR). The estimator is tested using different LTI filters and transforms, as well as a subset of non-linear operations, such as vector operations, adaptive filters, and a channel equalizer. Fixed-point optimization times are boosted by three orders of magnitude while keeping the average estimation error down to 4%.

  12. The Expansion of Initial Point Algorithm for K-Modes Algorithm (United States)

    Juliandri; Zarlis, M.; Situmorang, Z.


    The determination of the starting point in the k-modes algorithm is taken by random. Of course, such a thing can lead to an iteration of unpredictable numbers and accuracy. Therefore, it is necessary to develop different algorithms that are used to determine the starting point with hierarchical agglomerative clustering approach instead of randomly selecting the starting point in the initial iteration. At the end of this research is expected clustering process can produce more efficient iteration. The result of determining the value generated in this algorithm is the incorporation of a number of cluster central points on the variables based on the calculation of the approach which has the average linkage algorithm. Followed by calculating the difference of objective function on each iteration, of course, finished clustering process on k-modes. Iteration will stop after the difference of objective function is smaller than the specified limit.

  13. a Review of Point Clouds Segmentation and Classification Algorithms (United States)

    Grilli, E.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.


    Today 3D models and point clouds are very popular being currently used in several fields, shared through the internet and even accessed on mobile phones. Despite their broad availability, there is still a relevant need of methods, preferably automatic, to provide 3D data with meaningful attributes that characterize and provide significance to the objects represented in 3D. Segmentation is the process of grouping point clouds into multiple homogeneous regions with similar properties whereas classification is the step that labels these regions. The main goal of this paper is to analyse the most popular methodologies and algorithms to segment and classify 3D point clouds. Strong and weak points of the different solutions presented in literature or implemented in commercial software will be listed and shortly explained. For some algorithms, the results of the segmentation and classification is shown using real examples at different scale in the Cultural Heritage field. Finally, open issues and research topics will be discussed.

  14. Design of Automatic Extraction Algorithm of Knowledge Points for MOOCs (United States)

    Chen, Haijian; Han, Dongmei; Zhao, Lina


    In recent years, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are very popular among college students and have a powerful impact on academic institutions. In the MOOCs environment, knowledge discovery and knowledge sharing are very important, which currently are often achieved by ontology techniques. In building ontology, automatic extraction technology is crucial. Because the general methods of text mining algorithm do not have obvious effect on online course, we designed automatic extracting course knowledge points (AECKP) algorithm for online course. It includes document classification, Chinese word segmentation, and POS tagging for each document. Vector Space Model (VSM) is used to calculate similarity and design the weight to optimize the TF-IDF algorithm output values, and the higher scores will be selected as knowledge points. Course documents of “C programming language” are selected for the experiment in this study. The results show that the proposed approach can achieve satisfactory accuracy rate and recall rate. PMID:26448738

  15. Design of Automatic Extraction Algorithm of Knowledge Points for MOOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijian Chen


    Full Text Available In recent years, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs are very popular among college students and have a powerful impact on academic institutions. In the MOOCs environment, knowledge discovery and knowledge sharing are very important, which currently are often achieved by ontology techniques. In building ontology, automatic extraction technology is crucial. Because the general methods of text mining algorithm do not have obvious effect on online course, we designed automatic extracting course knowledge points (AECKP algorithm for online course. It includes document classification, Chinese word segmentation, and POS tagging for each document. Vector Space Model (VSM is used to calculate similarity and design the weight to optimize the TF-IDF algorithm output values, and the higher scores will be selected as knowledge points. Course documents of “C programming language” are selected for the experiment in this study. The results show that the proposed approach can achieve satisfactory accuracy rate and recall rate.

  16. Design of Automatic Extraction Algorithm of Knowledge Points for MOOCs. (United States)

    Chen, Haijian; Han, Dongmei; Dai, Yonghui; Zhao, Lina


    In recent years, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are very popular among college students and have a powerful impact on academic institutions. In the MOOCs environment, knowledge discovery and knowledge sharing are very important, which currently are often achieved by ontology techniques. In building ontology, automatic extraction technology is crucial. Because the general methods of text mining algorithm do not have obvious effect on online course, we designed automatic extracting course knowledge points (AECKP) algorithm for online course. It includes document classification, Chinese word segmentation, and POS tagging for each document. Vector Space Model (VSM) is used to calculate similarity and design the weight to optimize the TF-IDF algorithm output values, and the higher scores will be selected as knowledge points. Course documents of "C programming language" are selected for the experiment in this study. The results show that the proposed approach can achieve satisfactory accuracy rate and recall rate.

  17. A superlinear interior points algorithm for engineering design optimization (United States)

    Herskovits, J.; Asquier, J.


    We present a quasi-Newton interior points algorithm for nonlinear constrained optimization. It is based on a general approach consisting of the iterative solution in the primal and dual spaces of the equalities in Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions. This is done in such a way to have primal and dual feasibility at each iteration, which ensures satisfaction of those optimality conditions at the limit points. This approach is very strong and efficient, since at each iteration it only requires the solution of two linear systems with the same matrix, instead of quadratic programming subproblems. It is also particularly appropriate for engineering design optimization inasmuch at each iteration a feasible design is obtained. The present algorithm uses a quasi-Newton approximation of the second derivative of the Lagrangian function in order to have superlinear asymptotic convergence. We discuss theoretical aspects of the algorithm and its computer implementation.

  18. Fixed-point error analysis of Winograd Fourier transform algorithms (United States)

    Patterson, R. W.; Mcclellan, J. H.


    The quantization error introduced by the Winograd Fourier transform algorithm (WFTA) when implemented in fixed-point arithmetic is studied and compared with that of the fast Fourier transform (FFT). The effect of ordering the computational modules and the relative contributions of data quantization error and coefficient quantization error are determined. In addition, the quantization error introduced by the Good-Winograd (GW) algorithm, which uses Good's prime-factor decomposition for the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) together with Winograd's short length DFT algorithms, is studied. Error introduced by the WFTA is, in all cases, worse than that of the FFT. In general, the WFTA requires one or two more bits for data representation to give an error similar to that of the FFT. Error introduced by the GW algorithm is approximately the same as that of the FFT.

  19. Algorithm for output of floating-point numbers in fixed-point form ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Input/output of data items and information are very common operations performed on computer systems. Various data types require special ways to perform these operations on them. Floating-point numbers are no exceptions. Presented in this paper is an algorithm with which floating-point numbers can be converted to ...

  20. Hybrid Harmony Search Algorithm and Interior Point Method for Economic Dispatch with Valve-Point Effect (United States)

    Sivasubramani, S.; Ahmad, Md. Samar


    This paper proposes a new hybrid algorithm combining harmony search (HS) algorithm and interior point method (IPM) for economic dispatch (ED) problem with valve-point effect. ED problem with valve-point effect is modeled as a non-linear, constrained and non-convex optimization problem having several local minima. IPM is a best non-linear optimization method for convex optimization problems. Since ED problem with valve-point effect has multiple local minima, IPM results in a local optimum solution. In order to avoid IPM getting trapped in a local optimum, a new evolutionary algorithm HS, which is good in global exploration, has been combined. In the hybrid method, HS is used for global search and IPM for local search. The hybrid method has been tested on three different test systems to prove its effectiveness. Finally, the simulation results are also compared with other methods reported in the literature.

  1. Fixed-point auto-landing algorithm for UAV based on point tracking (United States)

    Shao, Zhiyu; Nie, Zhengang; Feng, Yuan; Feng, Shunshan


    A new automatic fixed-point landing algorithm for UAV using the instantaneous speed obtained by image sensors and computer vision method is proposed. In the proposed scheme, once the specified land pad for landing is captured, the UAV will switch from auto-seeking mode to landing mode. In the landing mode, the feature point of the prospective zone is extracted and then being tracked. The noise in the motion parameter introduced by the feature point mismatching is reduced by fast iterative least square algorithm, and the accurate instantaneous speed of UAV is obtained. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm efficiently improve the accuracy of the estimation of instantaneous velocity for the fixed-point landing system of UAV.

  2. Robust algorithm for point matching in uncalibrated stereo vision systems

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    Marcelo Ricardo Stemmer


    Full Text Available This article introduces a new point matching algorithm for stereo images. The cameras used for capturing the image do not need to be calibrated. The only requirement is the existence of a set of segmented corners in each image. In order to execute the point matching, the algorithm starts by applying non-parametric techniques to the pair of images and a set of candidate matches is selected. After that, the reliability of each point is calculated based on a proposed equation. Finally, the fundamental matrix of the system is estimated and the epipolar restriction is used to eliminate outliers. Tests made on real images demonstrate the viability of the proposed method.

  3. Arc-Search Infeasible Interior-Point Algorithm for Linear Programming


    Yang, Yaguang


    Mehrotra's algorithm has been the most successful infeasible interior-point algorithm for linear programming since 1990. Most popular interior-point software packages for linear programming are based on Mehrotra's algorithm. This paper proposes an alternative algorithm, arc-search infeasible interior-point algorithm. We will demonstrate, by testing Netlib problems and comparing the test results obtained by arc-search infeasible interior-point algorithm and Mehrotra's algorithm, that the propo...

  4. The Research and Application of SURF Algorithm Based on Feature Point Selection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Fang Hu


    Full Text Available As the pixel information of depth image is derived from the distance information, when implementing SURF algorithm with KINECT sensor for static sign language recognition, there can be some mismatched pairs in palm area. This paper proposes a feature point selection algorithm, by filtering the SURF feature points step by step based on the number of feature points within adaptive radius r and the distance between the two points, it not only greatly improves the recognition rate, but also ensures the robustness under the environmental factors, such as skin color, illumination intensity, complex background, angle and scale changes. The experiment results show that the improved SURF algorithm can effectively improve the recognition rate, has a good robustness.

  5. Fixed-point image orthorectification algorithms for reduced computational cost (United States)

    French, Joseph Clinton

    Imaging systems have been applied to many new applications in recent years. With the advent of low-cost, low-power focal planes and more powerful, lower cost computers, remote sensing applications have become more wide spread. Many of these applications require some form of geolocation, especially when relative distances are desired. However, when greater global positional accuracy is needed, orthorectification becomes necessary. Orthorectification is the process of projecting an image onto a Digital Elevation Map (DEM), which removes terrain distortions and corrects the perspective distortion by changing the viewing angle to be perpendicular to the projection plane. Orthorectification is used in disaster tracking, landscape management, wildlife monitoring and many other applications. However, orthorectification is a computationally expensive process due to floating point operations and divisions in the algorithm. To reduce the computational cost of on-board processing, two novel algorithm modifications are proposed. One modification is projection utilizing fixed-point arithmetic. Fixed point arithmetic removes the floating point operations and reduces the processing time by operating only on integers. The second modification is replacement of the division inherent in projection with a multiplication of the inverse. The inverse must operate iteratively. Therefore, the inverse is replaced with a linear approximation. As a result of these modifications, the processing time of projection is reduced by a factor of 1.3x with an average pixel position error of 0.2% of a pixel size for 128-bit integer processing and over 4x with an average pixel position error of less than 13% of a pixel size for a 64-bit integer processing. A secondary inverse function approximation is also developed that replaces the linear approximation with a quadratic. The quadratic approximation produces a more accurate approximation of the inverse, allowing for an integer multiplication calculation

  6. Optimal Power Flow by Interior Point and Non Interior Point Modern Optimization Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Połomski


    Full Text Available The idea of optimal power flow (OPF is to determine the optimal settings for control variables while respecting various constraints, and in general it is related to power system operational and planning optimization problems. A vast number of optimization methods have been applied to solve the OPF problem, but their performance is highly dependent on the size of a power system being optimized. The development of the OPF recently has tracked significant progress both in numerical optimization techniques and computer techniques application. In recent years, application of interior point methods to solve OPF problem has been paid great attention. This is due to the fact that IP methods are among the fastest algorithms, well suited to solve large-scale nonlinear optimization problems. This paper presents the primal-dual interior point method based optimal power flow algorithm and new variant of the non interior point method algorithm with application to optimal power flow problem. Described algorithms were implemented in custom software. The experiments show the usefulness of computational software and implemented algorithms for solving the optimal power flow problem, including the system model sizes comparable to the size of the National Power System.

  7. Face pose tracking using the four-point algorithm (United States)

    Fung, Ho Yin; Wong, Kin Hong; Yu, Ying Kin; Tsui, Kwan Pang; Kam, Ho Chuen


    In this paper, we have developed an algorithm to track the pose of a human face robustly and efficiently. Face pose estimation is very useful in many applications such as building virtual reality systems and creating an alternative input method for the disabled. Firstly, we have modified a face detection toolbox called DLib for the detection of a face in front of a camera. The detected face features are passed to a pose estimation method, known as the four-point algorithm, for pose computation. The theory applied and the technical problems encountered during system development are discussed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the system is able to track the pose of a face in real time using a consumer grade laptop computer.

  8. A Three-level BDDC algorithm for saddle point problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, X.


    BDDC algorithms have previously been extended to the saddle point problems arising from mixed formulations of elliptic and incompressible Stokes problems. In these two-level BDDC algorithms, all iterates are required to be in a benign space, a subspace in which the preconditioned operators are positive definite. This requirement can lead to large coarse problems, which have to be generated and factored by a direct solver at the beginning of the computation and they can ultimately become a bottleneck. An additional level is introduced in this paper to solve the coarse problem approximately and to remove this difficulty. This three-level BDDC algorithm keeps all iterates in the benign space and the conjugate gradient methods can therefore be used to accelerate the convergence. This work is an extension of the three-level BDDC methods for standard finite element discretization of elliptic problems and the same rate of convergence is obtained for the mixed formulation of the same problems. Estimate of the condition number for this three-level BDDC methods is provided and numerical experiments are discussed.

  9. Implementation of a Point Algorithm for Real-Time Convex Optimization (United States)

    Acikmese, Behcet; Motaghedi, Shui; Carson, John


    The primal-dual interior-point algorithm implemented in G-OPT is a relatively new and efficient way of solving convex optimization problems. Given a prescribed level of accuracy, the convergence to the optimal solution is guaranteed in a predetermined, finite number of iterations. G-OPT Version 1.0 is a flight software implementation written in C. Onboard application of the software enables autonomous, real-time guidance and control that explicitly incorporates mission constraints such as control authority (e.g. maximum thrust limits), hazard avoidance, and fuel limitations. This software can be used in planetary landing missions (Mars pinpoint landing and lunar landing), as well as in proximity operations around small celestial bodies (moons, asteroids, and comets). It also can be used in any spacecraft mission for thrust allocation in six-degrees-of-freedom control.

  10. Best Proximity point for Z-contraction and Suzuki type Z-contraction mappings with an application to fractional calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayya Komal


    Full Text Available In this article, we introduced the best proximity point theorems for $\\mathcal{Z}$-contraction and Suzuki type $\\mathcal{Z}$-contraction in the setting of complete metric spaces. Also by the help of weak $P$-property and $P$-property, we proved existence and uniqueness of best proximity point. There is a simple example to show the validity of our results. Our results extended and unify many existing results in the literature. Moreover, an application to fractional order functional differential equation is discussed.

  11. The Proximities of Asteroids and Critical Points of the Distance Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljevic, S.


    Full Text Available The proximities are important for different purposes,for example to evaluate the risk of collisions of asteroids or comets with the Solar-System planets. We describe a simple and efficient method for finding the asteroid proximities in the case of elliptical orbits with a common focus. In several examples we have compared our method with the recent excellent algebraic and polynomial solutions of Gronchi (2002, 2005.

  12. The proximities of asteroids and critical points of the distance function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Slaviša


    Full Text Available The proximities are important for different purposes, for example to evaluate the risk of collisions of asteroids or comets with the Solar-System planets. We describe a simple and efficient method for finding the asteroid proximities in the case of elliptical orbits with a common focus. In several examples we have compared our method with the recent excellent algebraic and polynomial solutions of Gronchi (2002, 2005.

  13. An efficient point-to-plane registration algorithm for affine transformations (United States)

    Makovetskii, Artyom; Voronin, Sergei; Kober, Vitaly; Tihonkih, Dmitrii


    The problem of aligning of 3D point data is the known registration task. The most popular registration algorithm is the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The traditional ICP algorithm is a fast and accurate approach for rigid registration between two point clouds but it is unable to handle affine case. Recently, extension of the ICP algorithm for composition of scaling, rotation, and translation is proposed. A generalized ICP version for an arbitrary affine transformation is also suggested. In this paper, a new iterative algorithm for registration of point clouds based on the point-to-plane ICP algorithm with affine transformations is proposed. At each iteration, a closed-form solution to the affine transformation is derived. This approach allows us to get a precise solution for transformations such as rotation, translation, and scaling. With the help of computer simulation, the proposed algorithm is compared with common registration algorithms.

  14. The implement of Talmud property allocation algorithm based on graphic point-segment way (United States)

    Cen, Haifeng


    Under the guidance of the Talmud allocation scheme's theory, the paper analyzes the algorithm implemented process via the perspective of graphic point-segment way, and designs the point-segment way's Talmud property allocation algorithm. Then it uses Java language to implement the core of allocation algorithm, by using Android programming to build a visual interface.

  15. Rehabilitation of proximal hamstring tendinopathy utilizing eccentric training, lumbopelvic stabilization, and trigger point dry needling: 2 case reports. (United States)

    Jayaseelan, Dhinu J; Moats, Nick; Ricardo, Christopher R


    Case report. Proximal hamstring tendinopathy is a relatively uncommon overuse injury seen in runners. In contrast to the significant amount of literature guiding the evaluation and treatment of hamstring strains, there is little literature about the physical therapy management of proximal hamstring tendinopathy, other than the general recommendations to increase strength and flexibility. Two runners were treated in physical therapy for proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Each presented with buttock pain with running and sitting, as well as tenderness to palpation at the ischial tuberosity. Each patient was prescribed a specific exercise program focusing on eccentric loading of the hamstrings and lumbopelvic stabilization exercises. Trigger point dry needling was also used with both runners to facilitate improved joint motion and to decrease pain. Both patients were treated in 8 to 9 visits over 8 to 10 weeks. Clinically significant improvements were seen in pain, tenderness, and function in each case. Each patient returned to running and sitting without symptoms. Proximal hamstring tendinopathy can be difficult to treat. In these 2 runners, eccentric loading of the hamstrings, lumbopelvic stabilization exercises, and trigger point dry needling provided short- and long-term pain reduction and functional benefits. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of this cluster of interventions for this condition. Therapy, level 4.

  16. An Accelerated Proximal Gradient Algorithm for Singly Linearly Constrained Quadratic Programs with Box Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congying Han


    is proved that the new algorithm can terminate at an ε-optimal solution within O(1/ε iterations. Moreover, no line search is needed in this algorithm, and the global convergence can be proved under mild conditions. Numerical results are reported for solving quadratic programs arising from the training of support vector machines, which show that the new algorithm is efficient.

  17. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    positive numbers. The word 'algorithm' was most often associated with this algorithm till 1950. It may however be pOinted out that several non-trivial algorithms such as synthetic (polynomial) division have been found in Vedic Mathematics which are dated much before Euclid's algorithm. A programming language Is used.

  18. A Novel Algorithm for Predicting Phycocyanin Concentrations in Cyanobacteria: A Proximal Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachidananda Mishra


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to evaluate the performance of existing spectral band ratio algorithms and develop a novel algorithm to quantify phycocyanin (PC in cyanobacteria using hyperspectral remotely-sensed data. We performed four spectroscopic experiments on two different laboratory cultured cyanobacterial species and found that the existing band ratio algorithms are highly sensitive to chlorophylls, making them inaccurate in predicting cyanobacterial abundance in the presence of other chlorophyll-containing organisms. We present a novel spectral band ratio algorithm using 700 and 600 nm that is much less sensitive to the presence of chlorophyll.

  19. Formulation and error analysis for a generalized image point correspondence algorithm (United States)

    Shapiro, Linda (Editor); Rosenfeld, Azriel (Editor); Fotedar, Sunil; Defigueiredo, Rui J. P.; Krishen, Kumar


    A Generalized Image Point Correspondence (GIPC) algorithm, which enables the determination of 3-D motion parameters of an object in a configuration where both the object and the camera are moving, is discussed. A detailed error analysis of this algorithm has been carried out. Furthermore, the algorithm was tested on both simulated and video-acquired data, and its accuracy was determined.

  20. The Homogeneous Interior-Point Algorithm: Nonsymmetric Cones, Warmstarting, and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skajaa, Anders

    problems involving constraints that require nonsymmetric cones in their formulation. The second part studies the possibility of warmstarting the homogeneous interior-point algorithm for conic problems. The main outcome of the first part is the introduction of a completely new homogeneous interior...... algorithms for these problems is still limited. The goal of this thesis is to investigate and shed light on two computational aspects of homogeneous interior-point algorithms for convex conic optimization: The first part studies the possibility of devising a homogeneous interior-point method aimed at solving......-point algorithm designed to solve nonsymmetric convex conic optimization problems. The algorithm is presented in detail and then analyzed. We prove its convergence and complexity. From a theoretical viewpoint, it is fully competitive with other algorithms and from a practical viewpoint, we show that it holds lots...

  1. Spline Trajectory Algorithm Development: Bezier Curve Control Point Generation for UAVs (United States)

    Howell, Lauren R.; Allen, B. Danette


    A greater need for sophisticated autonomous piloting systems has risen in direct correlation with the ubiquity of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology. Whether surveying unknown or unexplored areas of the world, collecting scientific data from regions in which humans are typically incapable of entering, locating lost or wanted persons, or delivering emergency supplies, an unmanned vehicle moving in close proximity to people and other vehicles, should fly smoothly and predictably. The mathematical application of spline interpolation can play an important role in autopilots' on-board trajectory planning. Spline interpolation allows for the connection of Three-Dimensional Euclidean Space coordinates through a continuous set of smooth curves. This paper explores the motivation, application, and methodology used to compute the spline control points, which shape the curves in such a way that the autopilot trajectory is able to meet vehicle-dynamics limitations. The spline algorithms developed used to generate these curves supply autopilots with the information necessary to compute vehicle paths through a set of coordinate waypoints.

  2. Performance Comparison of Widely-Used Maximum Power Point Tracker Algorithms under Real Environmental Conditions


    DURUSU, A.; NAKIR, I.; AJDER, A.; Ayaz, R.; Akca, H.; Tanrioven, M.


    Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) play an essential role in extracting power from photovoltaic (PV) panels as they make the solar panels to operate at the maximum power point (MPP) whatever the changes of environmental conditions are. For this reason, they take an important place in the increase of PV system efficiency. MPPTs are driven by MPPT algorithms and a number of MPPT algorithms are proposed in the literature. The comparison of the MPPT algorithms in literature are ...

  3. Optimization Algorithms for Calculation of the Joint Design Point in Parallel Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    In large structures it is often necessary to estimate the reliability of the system by use of parallel systems. Optimality criteria-based algorithms for calculation of the joint design point in a parallel system are described and efficient active set strategies are developed. Three possible...... algorithms are tested in two examples against well-known general non-linear optimization algorithms. Especially one of the suggested algorithms seems to be stable and fast....

  4. A deterministic algorithm for fitting a step function to a weighted point-set

    KAUST Repository

    Fournier, Hervé


    Given a set of n points in the plane, each point having a positive weight, and an integer k>0, we present an optimal O(nlogn)-time deterministic algorithm to compute a step function with k steps that minimizes the maximum weighted vertical distance to the input points. It matches the expected time bound of the best known randomized algorithm for this problem. Our approach relies on Coles improved parametric searching technique. As a direct application, our result yields the first O(nlogn)-time algorithm for computing a k-center of a set of n weighted points on the real line. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  5. A point kernel algorithm for microbeam radiation therapy (United States)

    Debus, Charlotte; Oelfke, Uwe; Bartzsch, Stefan


    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a treatment approach in radiation therapy where the treatment field is spatially fractionated into arrays of a few tens of micrometre wide planar beams of unusually high peak doses separated by low dose regions of several hundred micrometre width. In preclinical studies, this treatment approach has proven to spare normal tissue more effectively than conventional radiation therapy, while being equally efficient in tumour control. So far dose calculations in MRT, a prerequisite for future clinical applications are based on Monte Carlo simulations. However, they are computationally expensive, since scoring volumes have to be small. In this article a kernel based dose calculation algorithm is presented that splits the calculation into photon and electron mediated energy transport, and performs the calculation of peak and valley doses in typical MRT treatment fields within a few minutes. Kernels are analytically calculated depending on the energy spectrum and material composition. In various homogeneous materials peak, valley doses and microbeam profiles are calculated and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. For a microbeam exposure of an anthropomorphic head phantom calculated dose values are compared to measurements and Monte Carlo calculations. Except for regions close to material interfaces calculated peak dose values match Monte Carlo results within 4% and valley dose values within 8% deviation. No significant differences are observed between profiles calculated by the kernel algorithm and Monte Carlo simulations. Measurements in the head phantom agree within 4% in the peak and within 10% in the valley region. The presented algorithm is attached to the treatment planning platform VIRTUOS. It was and is used for dose calculations in preclinical and pet-clinical trials at the biomedical beamline ID17 of the European synchrotron radiation facility in Grenoble, France.

  6. Proximity of the Superconducting Dome and the Quantum Critical Point in the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model (United States)

    Yang, S.-X.; Fotso, H.; Su, S.-Q.; Galanakis, D.; Khatami, E.; She, J.-H.; Moreno, J.; Zaanen, J.; Jarrell, M.


    We use the dynamical cluster approximation to understand the proximity of the superconducting dome to the quantum critical point in the two-dimensional Hubbard model. In a BCS formalism, Tc may be enhanced through an increase in the d-wave pairing interaction (Vd) or the bare pairing susceptibility (χ0d). At optimal doping, where Vd is revealed to be featureless, we find a power-law behavior of χ0d(ω=0), replacing the BCS log, and strongly enhanced Tc. We suggest experiments to verify our predictions.

  7. Approximate Proximal Point Algorithms for Finding Zeroes of Maximal Monotone Operators in Hilbert Spaces


    Haiyun Zhou; Shin Min Kang; Yeol Je Cho


    Abstract Let be a real Hilbert space, a nonempty closed convex subset of , and a maximal monotone operator with . Let be the metric projection of onto . Suppose that, for any given , , and , there exists satisfying the following set-valued mapping equation: for all , where with as and is regarded as an error sequence such that . Let be a real sequence such that as and . For any fixed , define a sequence iteratively as for all . Then converges stron...

  8. Robust Mean Change-Point Detecting through Laplace Linear Regression Using EM Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengkai Yang


    normal distribution, we developed the expectation maximization (EM algorithm to estimate the position of mean change-point. We investigated the performance of the algorithm through different simulations, finding that our methods is robust to the distributions of errors and is effective to estimate the position of mean change-point. Finally, we applied our method to the classical Holbert data and detected a change-point.

  9. A Feedback Optimal Control Algorithm with Optimal Measurement Time Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Jost


    Full Text Available Nonlinear model predictive control has been established as a powerful methodology to provide feedback for dynamic processes over the last decades. In practice it is usually combined with parameter and state estimation techniques, which allows to cope with uncertainty on many levels. To reduce the uncertainty it has also been suggested to include optimal experimental design into the sequential process of estimation and control calculation. Most of the focus so far was on dual control approaches, i.e., on using the controls to simultaneously excite the system dynamics (learning as well as minimizing a given objective (performing. We propose a new algorithm, which sequentially solves robust optimal control, optimal experimental design, state and parameter estimation problems. Thus, we decouple the control and the experimental design problems. This has the advantages that we can analyze the impact of measurement timing (sampling independently, and is practically relevant for applications with either an ethical limitation on system excitation (e.g., chemotherapy treatment or the need for fast feedback. The algorithm shows promising results with a 36% reduction of parameter uncertainties for the Lotka-Volterra fishing benchmark example.

  10. Performance Comparison of Widely-Used Maximum Power Point Tracker Algorithms under Real Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURUSU, A.


    Full Text Available Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs play an essential role in extracting power from photovoltaic (PV panels as they make the solar panels to operate at the maximum power point (MPP whatever the changes of environmental conditions are. For this reason, they take an important place in the increase of PV system efficiency. MPPTs are driven by MPPT algorithms and a number of MPPT algorithms are proposed in the literature. The comparison of the MPPT algorithms in literature are made by a sun simulator based test system under laboratory conditions for short durations. However, in this study, the performances of four most commonly used MPPT algorithms are compared under real environmental conditions for longer periods. A dual identical experimental setup is designed to make a comparison between two the considered MPPT algorithms as synchronized. As a result of this study, the ranking among these algorithms are presented and the results show that Incremental Conductance (IC algorithm gives the best performance.

  11. On User Algorithms for GNSS Precise Point Positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bakker, P.F.


    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) processing method with the objective of providing high positioning accuracy without the need for a nearby base station or dense network of reference stations operated by the user. To reach this objective, PPP uses the

  12. Algorithms and Data Structures for Strings, Points and Integers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Søren Juhl

    . The problem of extracting important patterns from text has many diverse applications such as data mining, intrusion detection and genomic analysis. Consequently, there are many variations of the pattern extraction problem with different notions of patterns and importance measures. We study a natural variation...... the points and be able to count the number of points within a query range with a weight exceeding some threshold. This query appears naturally in a software system built by Milestone Systems, and allows detecting motion in video from surveillance cameras. We implement a prototype of an index for 3...... is implemented in the latest version of the Milestone Systems software system. Finger Predecessor. The predecessor problem is to store a set of n integers from a universe of size N to support predecessor queries, returning the largest integer in the set smaller than a given integer q. We study a variation where...

  13. An Improvement of a Fuzzy Logic-Controlled Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm for Photovoltic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woonki Na


    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm using a fuzzy logic controller (FLC in order to extract potential maximum power from photovoltaic cells. The objectives of the proposed algorithm are to improve the tracking speed, and to simultaneously solve the inherent drawbacks such as slow tracking in the conventional perturb and observe (P and O algorithm. The performances of the conventional P and O algorithm and the proposed algorithm are compared by using MATLAB/Simulink in terms of the tracking speed and steady-state oscillations. Additionally, both algorithms were experimentally validated through a digital signal processor (DSP-based controlled-boost DC-DC converter. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs with a shorter tracking time, smaller output power oscillation, and higher efficiency, compared with the conventional P and O algorithm.

  14. A density based algorithm to detect cavities and holes from planar points (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Sun, Yizhong; Pang, Yueyong


    Delaunay-based shape reconstruction algorithms are widely used in approximating the shape from planar points. However, these algorithms cannot ensure the optimality of varied reconstructed cavity boundaries and hole boundaries. This inadequate reconstruction can be primarily attributed to the lack of efficient mathematic formulation for the two structures (hole and cavity). In this paper, we develop an efficient algorithm for generating cavities and holes from planar points. The algorithm yields the final boundary based on an iterative removal of the Delaunay triangulation. Our algorithm is mainly divided into two steps, namely, rough and refined shape reconstructions. The rough shape reconstruction performed by the algorithm is controlled by a relative parameter. Based on the rough result, the refined shape reconstruction mainly aims to detect holes and pure cavities. Cavity and hole are conceptualized as a structure with a low-density region surrounded by the high-density region. With this structure, cavity and hole are characterized by a mathematic formulation called as compactness of point formed by the length variation of the edges incident to point in Delaunay triangulation. The boundaries of cavity and hole are then found by locating a shape gradient change in compactness of point set. The experimental comparison with other shape reconstruction approaches shows that the proposed algorithm is able to accurately yield the boundaries of cavity and hole with varying point set densities and distributions.

  15. A batch algorithm for estimating trajectories of point targets using expectation maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahmathullah, Abu; Raghavendra, Selvan; Svensson, Lennart


    In this paper, we propose a strategy that is based on expectation maximization for tracking multiple point targets. The algorithm is similar to probabilistic multi-hypothesis tracking (PMHT), but does not relax the point target model assumptions. According to the point target models, a target can......, extensive simulations comparing the mean optimal sub-pattern assignment (MOSPA) performance of the algorithm for different scenarios averaged over several Monte Carlo iterations show that the proposed algorithm performs better than JPDA and PMHT. We also compare it to benchmarking algorithm: N- scan pruning...... based track-oriented multiple hypothesis tracking (TOMHT). The proposed algorithm shows a good trade-off between computational complexity and the MOSPA performance....

  16. Artificial Neural Network In Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm Of Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modestas Pikutis


    Full Text Available Scientists are looking for ways to improve the efficiency of solar cells all the time. The efficiency of solar cells which are available to the general public is up to 20%. Part of the solar energy is unused and a capacity of solar power plant is significantly reduced – if slow controller or controller which cannot stay at maximum power point of solar modules is used. Various algorithms of maximum power point tracking were created, but mostly algorithms are slow or make mistakes. In the literature more and more oftenartificial neural networks (ANN in maximum power point tracking process are mentioned, in order to improve performance of the controller. Self-learner artificial neural network and IncCond algorithm were used for maximum power point tracking in created solar power plant model. The algorithm for control was created. Solar power plant model is implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment.

  17. Parallel algorithm for dominant points correspondences in robot binocular stereo vision (United States)

    Al-Tammami, A.; Singh, B.


    This paper presents an algorithm to find the correspondences of points representing dominant feature in robot stereo vision. The algorithm consists of two main steps: dominant point extraction and dominant point matching. In the feature extraction phase, the algorithm utilizes the widely used Moravec Interest Operator and two other operators: the Prewitt Operator and a new operator called Gradient Angle Variance Operator. The Interest Operator in the Moravec algorithm was used to exclude featureless areas and simple edges which are oriented in the vertical, horizontal, and two diagonals. It was incorrectly detecting points on edges which are not on the four main directions (vertical, horizontal, and two diagonals). The new algorithm uses the Prewitt operator to exclude featureless areas, so that the Interest Operator is applied only on the edges to exclude simple edges and to leave interesting points. This modification speeds-up the extraction process by approximately 5 times. The Gradient Angle Variance (GAV), an operator which calculates the variance of the gradient angle in a window around the point under concern, is then applied on the interesting points to exclude the redundant ones and leave the actual dominant ones. The matching phase is performed after the extraction of the dominant points in both stereo images. The matching starts with dominant points in the left image and does a local search, looking for corresponding dominant points in the right image. The search is geometrically constrained the epipolar line of the parallel-axes stereo geometry and the maximum disparity of the application environment. If one dominant point in the right image lies in the search areas, then it is the corresponding point of the reference dominant point in the left image. A parameter provided by the GAV is thresholded and used as a rough similarity measure to select the corresponding dominant point if there is more than one point the search area. The correlation is used as

  18. A Primal-Dual Interior Point-Linear Programming Algorithm for MPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Kristian; Sokoler, Leo Emil; Jørgensen, John Bagterp


    Constrained optimal control problems for linear systems with linear constraints and an objective function consisting of linear and l1-norm terms can be expressed as linear programs. We develop an efficient primal-dual interior point algorithm for solution of such linear programs. The algorithm...

  19. Multiple-Point Temperature Gradient Algorithm for Ring Laser Gyroscope Bias Compensation. (United States)

    Li, Geng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wei, Guo; Xie, Yuanping; Yu, Xudong; Long, Xingwu


    To further improve ring laser gyroscope (RLG) bias stability, a multiple-point temperature gradient algorithm is proposed for RLG bias compensation in this paper. Based on the multiple-point temperature measurement system, a complete thermo-image of the RLG block is developed. Combined with the multiple-point temperature gradients between different points of the RLG block, the particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to tune the support vector machine (SVM) parameters, and an optimized design for selecting the thermometer locations is also discussed. The experimental results validate the superiority of the introduced method and enhance the precision and generalizability in the RLG bias compensation model.

  20. Design and Implementation of Numerical Linear Algebra Algorithms on Fixed Point DSPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene Frantz


    Full Text Available Numerical linear algebra algorithms use the inherent elegance of matrix formulations and are usually implemented using C/C++ floating point representation. The system implementation is faced with practical constraints because these algorithms usually need to run in real time on fixed point digital signal processors (DSPs to reduce total hardware costs. Converting the simulation model to fixed point arithmetic and then porting it to a target DSP device is a difficult and time-consuming process. In this paper, we analyze the conversion process. We transformed selected linear algebra algorithms from floating point to fixed point arithmetic, and compared real-time requirements and performance between the fixed point DSP and floating point DSP algorithm implementations. We also introduce an advanced code optimization and an implementation by DSP-specific, fixed point C code generation. By using the techniques described in the paper, speed can be increased by a factor of up to 10 compared to floating point emulation on fixed point hardware.

  1. Moving Point Density Estimation Algorithm Based on a Generated Bayesian Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Asahara


    Full Text Available To improve decision making, real-time population density must be known. However, calculating the point density of a huge dataset in real time is impractical in terms of processing time. Accordingly, a fast algorithm for estimating the distribution of the density of moving points is proposed. The algorithm, which is based on variational Bayesian estimation, takes a parametric approach to speed up the estimation process. Although the parametric approach has a drawback, that is the processes to be carried out on the server are very slow, the proposed algorithm overcomes the drawback by using the result of an estimation of an adjacent past density distribution.

  2. The Pointing Self-calibration Algorithm for Aperture Synthesis Radio Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, S.; Cornwell, T. J., E-mail: [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)


    This paper is concerned with algorithms for calibration of direction-dependent effects (DDE) in aperture synthesis radio telescopes (ASRT). After correction of direction-independent effects (DIE) using self-calibration, imaging performance can be limited by the imprecise knowledge of the forward gain of the elements in the array. In general, the forward gain pattern is directionally dependent and varies with time due to a number of reasons. Some factors, such as rotation of the primary beam with Parallactic Angle for Azimuth–Elevation mount antennas are known a priori. Some, such as antenna pointing errors and structural deformation/projection effects for aperture-array elements cannot be measured a priori. Thus, in addition to algorithms to correct for DD effects known a priori, algorithms to solve for DD gains are required for high dynamic range imaging. Here, we discuss a mathematical framework for antenna-based DDE calibration algorithms and show that this framework leads to computationally efficient optimal algorithms that scale well in a parallel computing environment. As an example of an antenna-based DD calibration algorithm, we demonstrate the Pointing SelfCal (PSC) algorithm to solve for the antenna pointing errors. Our analysis show that the sensitivity of modern ASRT is sufficient to solve for antenna pointing errors and other DD effects. We also discuss the use of the PSC algorithm in real-time calibration systems and extensions for antenna Shape SelfCal algorithm for real-time tracking and corrections for pointing offsets and changes in antenna shape.

  3. Finite Element Modelling of a Field-Sensed Magnetic Suspended System for Accurate Proximity Measurement Based on a Sensor Fusion Algorithm with Unscented Kalman Filter. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Amor; Sarjaš, Andrej


    The presented paper describes accurate distance measurement for a field-sensed magnetic suspension system. The proximity measurement is based on a Hall effect sensor. The proximity sensor is installed directly on the lower surface of the electro-magnet, which means that it is very sensitive to external magnetic influences and disturbances. External disturbances interfere with the information signal and reduce the usability and reliability of the proximity measurements and, consequently, the whole application operation. A sensor fusion algorithm is deployed for the aforementioned reasons. The sensor fusion algorithm is based on the Unscented Kalman Filter, where a nonlinear dynamic model was derived with the Finite Element Modelling approach. The advantage of such modelling is a more accurate dynamic model parameter estimation, especially in the case when the real structure, materials and dimensions of the real-time application are known. The novelty of the paper is the design of a compact electro-magnetic actuator with a built-in low cost proximity sensor for accurate proximity measurement of the magnetic object. The paper successively presents a modelling procedure with the finite element method, design and parameter settings of a sensor fusion algorithm with Unscented Kalman Filter and, finally, the implementation procedure and results of real-time operation.

  4. Finite Element Modelling of a Field-Sensed Magnetic Suspended System for Accurate Proximity Measurement Based on a Sensor Fusion Algorithm with Unscented Kalman Filter (United States)

    Chowdhury, Amor; Sarjaš, Andrej


    The presented paper describes accurate distance measurement for a field-sensed magnetic suspension system. The proximity measurement is based on a Hall effect sensor. The proximity sensor is installed directly on the lower surface of the electro-magnet, which means that it is very sensitive to external magnetic influences and disturbances. External disturbances interfere with the information signal and reduce the usability and reliability of the proximity measurements and, consequently, the whole application operation. A sensor fusion algorithm is deployed for the aforementioned reasons. The sensor fusion algorithm is based on the Unscented Kalman Filter, where a nonlinear dynamic model was derived with the Finite Element Modelling approach. The advantage of such modelling is a more accurate dynamic model parameter estimation, especially in the case when the real structure, materials and dimensions of the real-time application are known. The novelty of the paper is the design of a compact electro-magnetic actuator with a built-in low cost proximity sensor for accurate proximity measurement of the magnetic object. The paper successively presents a modelling procedure with the finite element method, design and parameter settings of a sensor fusion algorithm with Unscented Kalman Filter and, finally, the implementation procedure and results of real-time operation. PMID:27649197

  5. Zinc Speciation in Proximity to Phosphate Application Points in a Lead/Zinc Smelter–Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Lucas R.; Pierzynski, Gary M.; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Newville, Matthew


    The use of P to immobilize Pb in contaminated soils has been well documented. However, the influence of P on Zn speciation in soils has not been extensively examined, and these two metals often occur as co-contaminants. We hypothesized that additions of P to a Pb/Zn-contaminated soil would induce Zn phosphate mineral formation and fluid P sources would be more effective than granular P amendments. A combination of different synchrotron-based techniques, namely, spatially resolved micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), micro-extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ-EXAFS), and micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD), were used to speciate Zn at two incubation times in the proximity of application points (0 to 4 mm) for fluid and granular P amendments in a Pb/Zn smelter-contaminated soil. Phosphate rock (PR), triple super phosphate (TSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and fluid ammonium polyphosphate induced Zn phosphate formation. Ammonium polyphosphate was more effective at greater distances (up to 3.7 mm) from the point of P application. Phosphoric acid increased the presence of soluble Zn species because of increased acidity. Soluble Zn has implications with respect to Zn bioavailability, which may negatively impact vegetation and other sensitive organisms. Although additions of P immobilize Pb, this practice needs close monitoring due to potential increases in Zn solubility in a Pb/Zn smelter-contaminated soil.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Different Ground Filtering Algorithms for Uav-Based Point Clouds (United States)

    Serifoglu, C.; Gungor, O.; Yilmaz, V.


    Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generation is one of the leading application areas in geomatics. Since a DEM represents the bare earth surface, the very first step of generating a DEM is to separate the ground and non-ground points, which is called ground filtering. Once the point cloud is filtered, the ground points are interpolated to generate the DEM. LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) point clouds have been used in many applications thanks to their success in representing the objects they belong to. Hence, in the literature, various ground filtering algorithms have been reported to filter the LiDAR data. Since the LiDAR data acquisition is still a costly process, using point clouds generated from the UAV images to produce DEMs is a reasonable alternative. In this study, point clouds with three different densities were generated from the aerial photos taken from a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) to examine the effect of point density on filtering performance. The point clouds were then filtered by means of five different ground filtering algorithms as Progressive Morphological 1D (PM1D), Progressive Morphological 2D (PM2D), Maximum Local Slope (MLS), Elevation Threshold with Expand Window (ETEW) and Adaptive TIN (ATIN). The filtering performance of each algorithm was investigated qualitatively and quantitatively. The results indicated that the ATIN and PM2D algorithms showed the best overall ground filtering performances. The MLS and ETEW algorithms were found as the least successful ones. It was concluded that the point clouds generated from the UAVs can be a good alternative for LiDAR data.

  7. A fully automated algorithm of baseline correction based on wavelet feature points and segment interpolation (United States)

    Qian, Fang; Wu, Yihui; Hao, Peng


    Baseline correction is a very important part of pre-processing. Baseline in the spectrum signal can induce uneven amplitude shifts across different wavenumbers and lead to bad results. Therefore, these amplitude shifts should be compensated before further analysis. Many algorithms are used to remove baseline, however fully automated baseline correction is convenient in practical application. A fully automated algorithm based on wavelet feature points and segment interpolation (AWFPSI) is proposed. This algorithm finds feature points through continuous wavelet transformation and estimates baseline through segment interpolation. AWFPSI is compared with three commonly introduced fully automated and semi-automated algorithms, using simulated spectrum signal, visible spectrum signal and Raman spectrum signal. The results show that AWFPSI gives better accuracy and has the advantage of easy use.

  8. Change Detection from differential airborne LiDAR using a weighted Anisotropic Iterative Closest Point Algorithm (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Kusari, A.; Glennie, C. L.; Oskin, M. E.; Hinojosa-Corona, A.; Borsa, A. A.; Arrowsmith, R.


    Differential LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) from repeated surveys has recently emerged as an effective tool to measure three-dimensional (3D) change for applications such as quantifying slip and spatially distributed warping associated with earthquake ruptures, and examining the spatial distribution of beach erosion after hurricane impact. Currently, the primary method for determining 3D change is through the use of the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm and its variants. However, all current studies using ICP have assumed that all LiDAR points in the compared point clouds have uniform accuracy. This assumption is simplistic given that the error for each LiDAR point is variable, and dependent upon highly variable factors such as target range, angle of incidence, and aircraft trajectory accuracy. Therefore, to rigorously determine spatial change, it would be ideal to model the random error for every LiDAR observation in the differential point cloud, and use these error estimates as apriori weights in the ICP algorithm. To test this approach, we implemented a rigorous LiDAR observation error propagation method to generate estimated random error for each point in a LiDAR point cloud, and then determine 3D displacements between two point clouds using an anistropic weighted ICP algorithm. The algorithm was evaluated by qualitatively and quantitatively comparing post earthquake slip estimates from the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake between a uniform weight and anistropically weighted ICP algorithm, using pre-event LiDAR collected in 2006 by Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI), and post-event LiDAR collected by The National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM).

  9. a Hadoop-Based Algorithm of Generating dem Grid from Point Cloud Data (United States)

    Jian, X.; Xiao, X.; Chengfang, H.; Zhizhong, Z.; Zhaohui, W.; Dengzhong, Z.


    Airborne LiDAR technology has proven to be the most powerful tools to obtain high-density, high-accuracy and significantly detailed surface information of terrain and surface objects within a short time, and from which the Digital Elevation Model of high quality can be extracted. Point cloud data generated from the pre-processed data should be classified by segmentation algorithms, so as to differ the terrain points from disorganized points, then followed by a procedure of interpolating the selected points to turn points into DEM data. The whole procedure takes a long time and huge computing resource due to high-density, that is concentrated on by a number of researches. Hadoop is a distributed system infrastructure developed by the Apache Foundation, which contains a highly fault-tolerant distributed file system (HDFS) with high transmission rate and a parallel programming model (Map/Reduce). Such a framework is appropriate for DEM generation algorithms to improve efficiency. Point cloud data of Dongting Lake acquired by Riegl LMS-Q680i laser scanner was utilized as the original data to generate DEM by a Hadoop-based algorithms implemented in Linux, then followed by another traditional procedure programmed by C++ as the comparative experiment. Then the algorithm's efficiency, coding complexity, and performance-cost ratio were discussed for the comparison. The results demonstrate that the algorithm's speed depends on size of point set and density of DEM grid, and the non-Hadoop implementation can achieve a high performance when memory is big enough, but the multiple Hadoop implementation can achieve a higher performance-cost ratio, while point set is of vast quantities on the other hand.

  10. A new convergence analysis and perturbation resilience of some accelerated proximal forward-backward algorithms with errors (United States)

    Reem, Daniel; De Pierro, Alvaro


    Many problems in science and engineering involve, as part of their solution process, the consideration of a separable function which is the sum of two convex functions, one of them possibly non-smooth. Recently a few works have discussed inexact versions of several accelerated proximal methods aiming at solving this minimization problem. This paper shows that inexact versions of a method of Beck and Teboulle (fast iterative shrinkable tresholding algorithm) preserve, in a Hilbert space setting, the same (non-asymptotic) rate of convergence under some assumptions on the decay rate of the error terms The notion of inexactness discussed here seems to be rather simple, but, interestingly, when comparing to related works, closely related decay rates of the errors terms yield closely related convergence rates. The derivation sheds some light on the somewhat mysterious origin of some parameters which appear in various accelerated methods. A consequence of the analysis is that the accelerated method is perturbation resilient, making it suitable, in principle, for the superiorization methodology. By taking this into account, we re-examine the superiorization methodology and significantly extend its scope. This work was supported by FAPESP 2013/19504-9. The second author was supported also by CNPq grant 306030/2014-4.

  11. Efficient mesh motion using radial basis functions with volume grid points reduction algorithm (United States)

    Xie, Liang; Liu, Hong


    As one of the most robust mesh deformation technique available, the radial basis function (RBF) mesh deformation has been accepted widely. However, for volume mesh deformation driven by surface motion, the RBF system may become impractical for large meshes due to the large number of both surface (control) points and volume points. Surface points selection procedure based on the greedy algorithm results in an efficient implementation of the RBF-based mesh deformation procedure. The greedy algorithm could reduce the number of surface points involved in the RBF interpolation while acquire an acceptable accuracy as shown in literature. To improve the efficiency of the RBF method furthermore, an issue that how to reduce the number of the volume points needed to be moved is addressed. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for volume points reduction based on a wall distance based restricting function which is added to the formulation of the RBF based interpolation. This restricting function is firstly introduced by the current article. To support large deformation, a multi-level subspace interpolation is essentially needed, although this technique was used to improve the efficiency of the surface points selection procedure in the existed literature. The key point of this technique is setting the error of previous interpolation step as the object of current step, and restricting interpolation region gradually. Because the tolerance of the error is decreased hierarchically, the number of the surface points is increased but the number of the volume points needed to be moved is reduced gradually. Therefore, the CPU cost of updating the mesh motion could be reduced eventually since it scales with the product of these two numbers. The computational requirement of the proposed procedure is reduced evidently compared with the standard procedure as proved by some examples.

  12. Hybrid Extragradient Iterative Algorithms for Variational Inequalities, Variational Inclusions, and Fixed-Point Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Chuan Ceng


    Full Text Available We investigate the problem of finding a common solution of a general system of variational inequalities, a variational inclusion, and a fixed-point problem of a strictly pseudocontractive mapping in a real Hilbert space. Motivated by Nadezhkina and Takahashi's hybrid-extragradient method, we propose and analyze new hybrid-extragradient iterative algorithm for finding a common solution. It is proven that three sequences generated by this algorithm converge strongly to the same common solution under very mild conditions. Based on this result, we also construct an iterative algorithm for finding a common fixed point of three mappings, such that one of these mappings is nonexpansive, and the other two mappings are strictly pseudocontractive mappings.

  13. A hybrid algorithm for multiple change-point detection in continuous measurements (United States)

    Priyadarshana, W. J. R. M.; Polushina, T.; Sofronov, G.


    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is one of the techniques that can be used to detect copy number variations in DNA sequences. It has been identified that abrupt changes in the human genome play a vital role in the progression and development of many diseases. We propose a hybrid algorithm that utilizes both the sequential techniques and the Cross-Entropy method to estimate the number of change points as well as their locations in aCGH data. We applied the proposed hybrid algorithm to both artificially generated data and real data to illustrate the usefulness of the methodology. Our results show that the proposed algorithm is an effective method to detect multiple change-points in continuous measurements.

  14. CASH algorithm versus 3-point checklist and its modified version in evaluation of melanocytic pigmented skin lesions: The 4-point checklist. (United States)

    di Meo, Nicola; Stinco, Giuseppe; Bonin, Serena; Gatti, Alessandro; Trevisini, Sara; Damiani, Giovanni; Vichi, Silvia; Trevisan, Giusto


    Dermoscopy, in expert hands, increases accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions of a single operator, compared with clinical examination. Simplified algorithmic methods have been developed to help less expert dermoscopists in diagnosis of melanocytic lesions. This study included 125 melanocytic skin lesions divided into melanocytic nevi, dysplastic nevi and thin melanomas (<1 mm). We compared the 3-point checklist and CASH algorithm to analyze different pigmented skin lesions. Based on preliminary results, we proposed a new modified algorithm, called the 4-point checklist, whose accuracy is similar to the CASH algorithm and whose simplicity is similar to the 3-point checklist. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. An Effective, Robust And Parallel Implementation Of An Interior Point Algorithm For Limit State Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dollerup, Niels; Jepsen, Michael S.; Damkilde, Lars


    The artide describes a robust and effective implementation of the interior point optimization algorithm. The adopted method includes a precalculation step, which reduces the number of variables by fulfilling the equilibrium equations a priori. This work presents an improved implementation of the ...

  16. Computational Analysis of Distance Operators for the Iterative Closest Point Algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higinio Mora

    Full Text Available The Iterative Closest Point (ICP algorithm is currently one of the most popular methods for rigid registration so that it has become the standard in the Robotics and Computer Vision communities. Many applications take advantage of it to align 2D/3D surfaces due to its popularity and simplicity. Nevertheless, some of its phases present a high computational cost thus rendering impossible some of its applications. In this work, it is proposed an efficient approach for the matching phase of the Iterative Closest Point algorithm. This stage is the main bottleneck of that method so that any efficiency improvement has a great positive impact on the performance of the algorithm. The proposal consists in using low computational cost point-to-point distance metrics instead of classic Euclidean one. The candidates analysed are the Chebyshev and Manhattan distance metrics due to their simpler formulation. The experiments carried out have validated the performance, robustness and quality of the proposal. Different experimental cases and configurations have been set up including a heterogeneous set of 3D figures, several scenarios with partial data and random noise. The results prove that an average speed up of 14% can be obtained while preserving the convergence properties of the algorithm and the quality of the final results.

  17. Adaptive algorithm for classifying LiDAR data into water and land points by multifeature statistics (United States)

    Wei, Li-Xin; Yang, Biao; Jiang, Jian-Ping; Cao, Guan-Zhong


    Classifying light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data into water and land points is an issue for the application of low-attitude airborne LiDAR (e.g., digital terrain model generation and river shoreline extraction). To solve the problem of distinguishing the water points from the land points in complex landscapes, an adaptive classification algorithm of water LiDAR point clouds is proposed, which consists of the following steps. First, the descriptors of local terrain slope and point density are designed by analyzing the characteristics of low-altitude airborne LiDAR water point clouds. Then Bayes' theorem is introduced to establish membership functions of the elevation, slope, and density. Next, the adaptive weights of the individual membership functions are determined according to the t-test of the independent samples of water and land points. Finally, a classification model based on multifeature statistics is obtained, and the adaptive classification threshold of the model is determined by the probability density of the training samples. Typical experiments conducted in the middle-lower Yangtze River riparian zone indicate that water classification accuracies higher than 99% are obtained by this algorithm, even in complex landscapes with mudflats and inland plains.

  18. Long step homogeneous interior point algorithm for the p* nonlinear complementarity problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešaja Goran


    Full Text Available A P*-Nonlinear Complementarity Problem as a generalization of the P*-Linear Complementarity Problem is considered. We show that the long-step version of the homogeneous self-dual interior-point algorithm could be used to solve such a problem. The algorithm achieves linear global convergence and quadratic local convergence under the following assumptions: the function satisfies a modified scaled Lipschitz condition, the problem has a strictly complementary solution, and certain submatrix of the Jacobian is nonsingular on some compact set.

  19. Automatic Registration of TLS-TLS and TLS-MLS Point Clouds Using a Genetic Algorithm (United States)

    Yan, Li; Xie, Hong; Chen, Changjun


    Registration of point clouds is a fundamental issue in Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing because point clouds scanned from multiple scan stations or by different platforms need to be transformed to a uniform coordinate reference frame. This paper proposes an efficient registration method based on genetic algorithm (GA) for automatic alignment of two terrestrial LiDAR scanning (TLS) point clouds (TLS-TLS point clouds) and alignment between TLS and mobile LiDAR scanning (MLS) point clouds (TLS-MLS point clouds). The scanning station position acquired by the TLS built-in GPS and the quasi-horizontal orientation of the LiDAR sensor in data acquisition are used as constraints to narrow the search space in GA. A new fitness function to evaluate the solutions for GA, named as Normalized Sum of Matching Scores, is proposed for accurate registration. Our method is divided into five steps: selection of matching points, initialization of population, transformation of matching points, calculation of fitness values, and genetic operation. The method is verified using a TLS-TLS data set and a TLS-MLS data set. The experimental results indicate that the RMSE of registration of TLS-TLS point clouds is 3~5 mm, and that of TLS-MLS point clouds is 2~4 cm. The registration integrating the existing well-known ICP with GA is further proposed to accelerate the optimization and its optimizing time decreases by about 50%. PMID:28850100

  20. Automatic Registration of TLS-TLS and TLS-MLS Point Clouds Using a Genetic Algorithm. (United States)

    Yan, Li; Tan, Junxiang; Liu, Hua; Xie, Hong; Chen, Changjun


    Registration of point clouds is a fundamental issue in Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing because point clouds scanned from multiple scan stations or by different platforms need to be transformed to a uniform coordinate reference frame. This paper proposes an efficient registration method based on genetic algorithm (GA) for automatic alignment of two terrestrial LiDAR scanning (TLS) point clouds (TLS-TLS point clouds) and alignment between TLS and mobile LiDAR scanning (MLS) point clouds (TLS-MLS point clouds). The scanning station position acquired by the TLS built-in GPS and the quasi-horizontal orientation of the LiDAR sensor in data acquisition are used as constraints to narrow the search space in GA. A new fitness function to evaluate the solutions for GA, named as Normalized Sum of Matching Scores, is proposed for accurate registration. Our method is divided into five steps: selection of matching points, initialization of population, transformation of matching points, calculation of fitness values, and genetic operation. The method is verified using a TLS-TLS data set and a TLS-MLS data set. The experimental results indicate that the RMSE of registration of TLS-TLS point clouds is 3~5 mm, and that of TLS-MLS point clouds is 2~4 cm. The registration integrating the existing well-known ICP with GA is further proposed to accelerate the optimization and its optimizing time decreases by about 50%.

  1. Extending the inverse scattering series free-surface-multiple-elimination algorithm by accommodating the source property on data with interfering or proximal seismic events (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Yang, Jinlong; Weglein, Arthur B.


    The inverse scattering series free-surface-multiple-elimination (FSME) algorithm is modified and extended to accommodate the source property-source radiation pattern. That accommodation can provide additional value for the fidelity of the free-surface multiple predictions. The new extended FSME algorithm retains all the merits of the original algorithm, i.e., fully data-driven and with a requirement of no subsurface information. It is tested on a one-dimensional acoustic model with proximal and interfering seismic events, such as interfering primaries and multiples. The results indicate the new extended FSME algorithm can predict more accurate free-surface multiples than methods without the accommodation of the source property if the source has a radiation pattern. This increased effectiveness in prediction contributes to removing free-surface multiples without damaging primaries. It is important in such cases to increase predictive effectiveness because other prediction methods, such as the surface-related-multiple-elimination algorithm, has difficulties and problems in prediction accuracy, and those issues affect efforts to remove multiples through adaptive subtraction. Therefore accommodation of the source property can not only improve the effectiveness of the FSME algorithm, but also extend the method beyond the current algorithm (e.g. improving the internal multiple attenuation algorithm).

  2. A homogeneous interior-point algorithm for nonsymmetric convex conic optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skajaa, Anders; Ye, Yinyu


    A homogeneous interior-point algorithm for solving nonsymmetric convex conic optimization problems is presented. Starting each iteration from the vicinity of the central path, the method steps in the approximate tangent direction and then applies a correction phase to locate the next well...... are presented for the TeX -cone problem, the facility location problem, entropy maximization problems and geometric programs; all formulated as nonsymmetric convex conic optimization problems....

  3. Lyapunov Tuning of the Leaky Lms Algorithm for Single-Source Single-Point Noise Cancellation (United States)

    Cartes, D. A.; Ray, L. R.; Collier, R. D.


    Least-mean square (LMS) algorithms, which are commonly used for adaptive feedforward noise cancellation, have performance issues related to insufficient excitation, non-stationary reference inputs, finite-precision arithmetic, quantisation noise and measurement noise. Such factors cause weight drift and potential instability in the conventional LMS algorithm. Here, we analyse the stability and performance of the leaky LMS algorithm, which is widely used to correct weight drift. A Lyapunov tuning method is developed to find an adaptive leakage parameter and adaptive step size that provide optimum performance and retain stability in the presence of measurement noise on the reference input of known variance. The method accounts for non-persistent excitation conditions and non-stationary reference inputs and requires no a priori knowledge of the reference input signal characteristics other than a lower bound on its magnitude or a minimum signal-to-noise ratio. The Lyapunov tuning method is demonstrated for three candidate adaptive leakage and step size parameter combinations, each of which is a function of the instantaneous measured reference input, measurement noise variance, and/or filter length. These candidates illustrate stability vs performance tradeoffs in the leaky LMS algorithm elicited through the Lyapunov tuning method. The performance of each candidate Lyapunov tuned algorithm is evaluated experimentally in a single source, single-point acoustic noise cancellation system.

  4. Generalized recovery algorithm for 3D super-resolution microscopy using rotating point spread functions (United States)

    Shuang, Bo; Wang, Wenxiao; Shen, Hao; Tauzin, Lawrence J.; Flatebo, Charlotte; Chen, Jianbo; Moringo, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Logan D. C.; Kelly, Kevin F.; Landes, Christy F.


    Super-resolution microscopy with phase masks is a promising technique for 3D imaging and tracking. Due to the complexity of the resultant point spread functions, generalized recovery algorithms are still missing. We introduce a 3D super-resolution recovery algorithm that works for a variety of phase masks generating 3D point spread functions. A fast deconvolution process generates initial guesses, which are further refined by least squares fitting. Overfitting is suppressed using a machine learning determined threshold. Preliminary results on experimental data show that our algorithm can be used to super-localize 3D adsorption events within a porous polymer film and is useful for evaluating potential phase masks. Finally, we demonstrate that parallel computation on graphics processing units can reduce the processing time required for 3D recovery. Simulations reveal that, through desktop parallelization, the ultimate limit of real-time processing is possible. Our program is the first open source recovery program for generalized 3D recovery using rotating point spread functions.

  5. Lost in Virtual Reality: Pathfinding Algorithms Detect Rock Fractures and Contacts in Point Clouds (United States)

    Thiele, S.; Grose, L.; Micklethwaite, S.


    UAV-based photogrammetric and LiDAR techniques provide high resolution 3D point clouds and ortho-rectified photomontages that can capture surface geology in outstanding detail over wide areas. Automated and semi-automated methods are vital to extract full value from these data in practical time periods, though the nuances of geological structures and materials (natural variability in colour and geometry, soft and hard linkage, shadows and multiscale properties) make this a challenging task. We present a novel method for computer assisted trace detection in dense point clouds, using a lowest cost path solver to "follow" fracture traces and lithological contacts between user defined end points. This is achieved by defining a local neighbourhood network where each point in the cloud is linked to its neighbours, and then using a least-cost path algorithm to search this network and estimate the trace of the fracture or contact. A variety of different algorithms can then be applied to calculate the best fit plane, produce a fracture network, or map properties such as roughness, curvature and fracture intensity. Our prototype of this method (Fig. 1) suggests the technique is feasible and remarkably good at following traces under non-optimal conditions such as variable-shadow, partial occlusion and complex fracturing. Furthermore, if a fracture is initially mapped incorrectly, the user can easily provide further guidance by defining intermediate waypoints. Future development will include optimization of the algorithm to perform well on large point clouds and modifications that permit the detection of features such as step-overs. We also plan on implementing this approach in an interactive graphical user environment.

  6. An Error Analysis of the Phased Array Antenna Pointing Algorithm for STARS Flight Demonstration No. 2 (United States)

    Carney, Michael P.; Simpson, James C.


    STARS is a multicenter NASA project to determine the feasibility of using space-based assets, such as the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and Global Positioning System (GPS), to increase flexibility (e.g. increase the number of possible launch locations and manage simultaneous operations) and to reduce operational costs by decreasing the need for ground-based range assets and infrastructure. The STARS project includes two major systems: the Range Safety and Range User systems. The latter system uses broadband communications (125 kbps to 500 kbps) for voice, video, and vehicle/payload data. Flight Demonstration #1 revealed the need to increase the data rate of the Range User system. During Flight Demo #2, a Ku-band antenna will generate a higher data rate and will be designed with an embedded pointing algorithm to guarantee that the antenna is pointed directly at TDRS. This algorithm will utilize the onboard position and attitude data to point the antenna to TDRS within a 2-degree full-angle beamwidth. This report investigates how errors in aircraft position and attitude, along with errors in satellite position, propagate into the overall pointing vector.

  7. On a Hopping-Points SVD and Hough Transform-Based Line Detection Algorithm for Robot Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Ravankar


    Full Text Available Line detection is an important problem in computer vision, graphics and autonomous robot navigation. Lines detected using a laser range sensor (LRS mounted on a robot can be used as features to build a map of the environment, and later to localize the robot in the map, in a process known as Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM. We propose an efficient algorithm for line detection from LRS data using a novel hopping-points Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Hough transform-based algorithm, in which SVD is applied to intermittent LRS points to accelerate the algorithm. A reverse-hop mechanism ensures that the end points of the line segments are accurately extracted. Line segments extracted from the proposed algorithm are used to form a map and, subsequently, LRS data points are matched with the line segments to localize the robot. The proposed algorithm eliminates the drawbacks of point-based matching algorithms like the Iterative Closest Points (ICP algorithm, the performance of which degrades with an increasing number of points. We tested the proposed algorithm for mapping and localization in both simulated and real environments, and found it to detect lines accurately and build maps with good self-localization.

  8. Quad-Rotor Helicopter Autonomous Navigation Based on Vanishing Point Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Wang


    Full Text Available Quad-rotor helicopter is becoming popular increasingly as they can well implement many flight missions in more challenging environments, with lower risk of damaging itself and its surroundings. They are employed in many applications, from military operations to civilian tasks. Quad-rotor helicopter autonomous navigation based on the vanishing point fast estimation (VPFE algorithm using clustering principle is implemented in this paper. For images collected by the camera of quad-rotor helicopter, the system executes the process of preprocessing of image, deleting noise interference, edge extracting using Canny operator, and extracting straight lines by randomized hough transformation (RHT method. Then system obtains the position of vanishing point and regards it as destination point and finally controls the autonomous navigation of the quad-rotor helicopter by continuous modification according to the calculated navigation error. The experimental results show that the quad-rotor helicopter can implement the destination navigation well in the indoor environment.

  9. Artifact Removal from Biosignal using Fixed Point ICA Algorithm for Pre-processing in Biometric Recognition (United States)

    Mishra, Puneet; Singla, Sunil Kumar


    In the modern world of automation, biological signals, especially Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Electrocardiogram (ECG), are gaining wide attention as a source of biometric information. Earlier studies have shown that EEG and ECG show versatility with individuals and every individual has distinct EEG and ECG spectrum. EEG (which can be recorded from the scalp due to the effect of millions of neurons) may contain noise signals such as eye blink, eye movement, muscular movement, line noise, etc. Similarly, ECG may contain artifact like line noise, tremor artifacts, baseline wandering, etc. These noise signals are required to be separated from the EEG and ECG signals to obtain the accurate results. This paper proposes a technique for the removal of eye blink artifact from EEG and ECG signal using fixed point or FastICA algorithm of Independent Component Analysis (ICA). For validation, FastICA algorithm has been applied to synthetic signal prepared by adding random noise to the Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. FastICA algorithm separates the signal into two independent components, i.e. ECG pure and artifact signal. Similarly, the same algorithm has been applied to remove the artifacts (Electrooculogram or eye blink) from the EEG signal.

  10. [Determination of Virtual Surgery Mass Point Spring Model Parameters Based on Genetic Algorithms]. (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Hu, Xuyi; Zhu, Qiguang


    Mass point-spring model is one of the commonly used models in virtual surgery. However, its model parameters have no clear physical meaning, and it is hard to set the parameter conveniently. We, therefore, proposed a method based on genetic algorithm to determine the mass-spring model parameters. Computer-aided tomography (CAT) data were used to determine the mass value of the particle, and stiffness and damping coefficient were obtained by genetic algorithm. We used the difference between the reference deformation and virtual deformation as the fitness function to get the approximate optimal solution of the model parameters. Experimental results showed that this method could obtain an approximate optimal solution of spring parameters with lower cost, and could accurately reproduce the effect of the actual deformation model as well.

  11. Sales Spotter: An Algorithm to Identify Sale Prices in Point-of-Sale Data


    Iqbal A. Syed


    This paper develops an algorithm, called the sales spotter, which identifies the sale prices in the transaction price series provided in point-of-sale data. The goal of the sales spotter is to identify the maximum number of sale prices while minimizing the incorrect attribution of non-sale price reductions to sale prices. The spotter is developed and the values of its parameters are selected by analysing around 7.5 million agged sales in a US supermarket scanner data. At the optimal values of...

  12. Dual Search Maximum Power Point (DSMPP Algorithm Based on Mathematical Analysis under Shaded Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrooz Hajighorbani


    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV systems represent a clean, renewable source of energy that has non-linear current-voltage (I-V and power-voltage (P-V characteristics. To increase the efficiency, a PV system must operate at the maximum power point (MPP to produce the maximum available power. Under uniform conditions, there is only a single MPP in the P-V curve of a PV system; however, determining the MPP is more complicated under partially shaded conditions (PSCs because multiple peak power points exist. In recent years, various studies have been performed to obtain the highest peak power point under PSCs, which is referred to as the global maximum power point (GMPP. In this paper, a novel method based on mathematical analysis that reduces the search zone and simultaneously identifies the possible MPPs in the specified zone is proposed; this proposed method is called the dual search maximum power point (DSMPP algorithm. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, simulation and hardware implementations are carried out. The results show that the search time of GMPP is significantly reduced and the GMPP is detected in the minimum amount of time with high accuracy and minimum oscillation in the power produced.

  13. An automatic, stagnation point based algorithm for the delineation of Wellhead Protection Areas (United States)

    Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea; di Molfetta, Antonio


    Time-related capture areas are usually delineated using the backward particle tracking method, releasing circles of equally spaced particles around each well. In this way, an accurate delineation often requires both a very high number of particles and a manual capture zone encirclement. The aim of this work was to propose an Automatic Protection Area (APA) delineation algorithm, which can be coupled with any model of flow and particle tracking. The computational time is here reduced, thanks to the use of a limited number of nonequally spaced particles. The particle starting positions are determined coupling forward particle tracking from the stagnation point, and backward particle tracking from the pumping well. The pathlines are postprocessed for a completely automatic delineation of closed perimeters of time-related capture zones. The APA algorithm was tested for a two-dimensional geometry, in homogeneous and nonhomogeneous aquifers, steady state flow conditions, single and multiple wells. Results show that the APA algorithm is robust and able to automatically and accurately reconstruct protection areas with a very small number of particles, also in complex scenarios.

  14. Review of the maximum power point tracking algorithms for stand-alone photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, V.; Olias, E.; Barrado, A.; Lazaro, A. [Departamento de Tecnologia Electronica/Grupo de Sistemas Electronicos de Potencia, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad, 30-28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)


    A survey of the algorithms for seeking the maximum power point (MPP) is proposed. As has been shown, there are many ways of distinguishing and grouping methods that seek the MPP from a photovoltaic (PV) generator. However, in this article they are grouped as either direct or nondirect methods. The indirect methods ('quasi seeks') have the particular feature that the MPP is estimated from the measures of the PV generator's voltage and current PV, the irradiance, or using empiric data, by mathematical expressions of numerical approximations. Therefore, the estimation is carried out for a specific PV generator installed in the system. Thus, they do not obtain the maximum power for any irradiance or temperature and none of them are able to obtain the MPP exactly. Subsequently, they are known as 'quasi seeks'. Nevertheless, the direct methods ('true seeking methods') can also be distinguished. They offer the advantage that they obtain the actual maximum power from the measures of the PV generator's voltage and current PV. In that case, they are suitable for any irradiance and temperature. All algorithms, direct and indirect, can be included in some of the DC/DC converters, Maximum power point trackings (MPPTs), for the stand-alone systems. (author)

  15. Comparison of dermatoscopic diagnostic algorithms based on calculation: The ABCD rule of dermatoscopy, the seven-point checklist, the three-point checklist and the CASH algorithm in dermatoscopic evaluation of melanocytic lesions. (United States)

    Unlu, Ezgi; Akay, Bengu N; Erdem, Cengizhan


    Dermatoscopic analysis of melanocytic lesions using the CASH algorithm has rarely been described in the literature. The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy rates of the ABCD rule of dermatoscopy, the seven-point checklist, the three-point checklist, and the CASH algorithm in the diagnosis and dermatoscopic evaluation of melanocytic lesions on the hairy skin. One hundred and fifteen melanocytic lesions of 115 patients were examined retrospectively using dermatoscopic images and compared with the histopathologic diagnosis. Four dermatoscopic algorithms were carried out for all lesions. The ABCD rule of dermatoscopy showed sensitivity of 91.6%, specificity of 60.4%, and diagnostic accuracy of 66.9%. The seven-point checklist showed sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of 87.5, 65.9, and 70.4%, respectively; the three-point checklist 79.1, 62.6, 66%; and the CASH algorithm 91.6, 64.8, and 70.4%, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study that compares the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of the ABCD rule of dermatoscopy, the three-point checklist, the seven-point checklist, and the CASH algorithm for the diagnosis of melanocytic lesions on the hairy skin. In our study, the ABCD rule of dermatoscopy and the CASH algorithm showed the highest sensitivity for the diagnosis of melanoma. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  16. Analisis Perbandingan Performansi Penjadwalan Paket Antara Homogeneous Algorithm Dengan Hybrid Algorithm Pada Jaringan Point-To-Multipoint Wimax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadiek Pranindito


    Full Text Available Saat ini, dalam dunia telekomunikasi, (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access WiMaX merupakan teknologi nirkabel yang menyediakan hubungan jalur lebar dalam jarak jauh, memiliki kecepatan akses yang tinggi dan jangkauan yang luas serta menyediakan berbagai macam jenis layanan. Masalah yang menarik dan menantang pada WiMaX adalah dalam hal menyediakan jaminan kualitas pelayanan (QoS untuk jenis layanan yang berbeda dengan bermacam-macam kebutuhan QoS-nya. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan QoS tersebut, maka diperlukan suatu algoritma penjadwalan. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan simulasi jaringan WiMaX menerapkan algoritma penjadwalan dengan metode homogeneous algorithm dan hybrid algorithm. Perwakilan pada metode homogeneous algorithm akan menggunakan algoritma penjadwalan Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ dan Deficit Round Robin (DRR, sedangkan pada metode hybrid algorithm menggunakan penggabungan antara algoritma penjadwalan DRR dan WFQ. Pengujian kinerja algoritma penjadwalan tersebut dilakukan dengan membandingkan kedalam 5 jenis kelas QoS pada WiMAX yaitu UGS,  rtPS, nrtPS, ertPS, dan Best Effort. Dari hasil pengujian, hybrid algorithm memberikan nilai QoS yang lebih baik jika dibandingkan dengan homogeneous algorithm. hybrid algorithm sangat cocok jika diterapkan pada kondisi jaringan yang memiliki trafik dengan paket data yang bervariasi, karena dapat menghasilkan throughput yang tinggi, serta dapat menghasilkan nilai delay dan jitter yang rendah

  17. Goal-Programming-Driven Genetic Algorithm Model for Wireless Access Point Deployment Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shu Wang


    Full Text Available Appropriate wireless access point deployment (APD is essential for ensuring seamless user communication. Optimal APD enables good telecommunication quality, balanced capacity loading, and optimal deployment costs. APD is a typical NP-complex problem because improving wireless networking infrastructure has multiple objectives (MOs. This paper proposes a method that integrates a goal-programming-driven model (PM and a genetic algorithm (GA to resolve the MO-APD problem. The PM identifies the target deployment subject of four constraints: budget, coverage, capacity, and interference. The PM also calculates dynamic capacity requirements to replicate real wireless communication. Three experiments validate the feasibility of the PM. The results demonstrate the utility and stability of the proposed method. Decision makers can easily refer to the PM-identified target deployment before allocating APs.

  18. Consensus-based distributed optimisation of multi-agent networks via a two level subgradient-proximal algorithm (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Liao, Rui-Quan; Zhang, Ding-Xue; Zheng, Gui-Lin


    This paper presents a consensus-based stochastic subgradient algorithm for multi-agent networks to minimise multiple convex but not necessarily differential objective functions, subject to an intersection set of multiple closed convex constraint sets. Compared with the existing results an alternative subgradient algorithm is first introduced based on two level subgradient iterations, where the first level is to minimise the component functions, and the second to enforce the iterates not oscillate from the constraint set wildly. In addition, a distributed consensus-based type of the proposed subgradient algorithm is constructed within the framework of multi-agent networks for the case when the iteration index of local objective functions and local constraint sets is not homologous. Detailed convergence analysis of the proposed algorithms is established using matrix theories and super-martingale convergence theorem. In addition, a pre-step convergence factor is obtained in this study to characterise the distance between the iterations and the optimal set, while some existing literatures only present a convergence work. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed theoretical results.

  19. Genetic algorithm optimization of point charges in force field development: challenges and insights. (United States)

    Ivanov, Maxim V; Talipov, Marat R; Timerghazin, Qadir K


    Evolutionary methods, such as genetic algorithms (GAs), provide powerful tools for optimization of the force field parameters, especially in the case of simultaneous fitting of the force field terms against extensive reference data. However, GA fitting of the nonbonded interaction parameters that includes point charges has not been explored in the literature, likely due to numerous difficulties with even a simpler problem of the least-squares fitting of the atomic point charges against a reference molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), which often demonstrates an unusually high variation of the fitted charges on buried atoms. Here, we examine the performance of the GA approach for the least-squares MEP point charge fitting, and show that the GA optimizations suffer from a magnified version of the classical buried atom effect, producing highly scattered yet correlated solutions. This effect can be understood in terms of the linearly independent, natural coordinates of the MEP fitting problem defined by the eigenvectors of the least-squares sum Hessian matrix, which are also equivalent to the eigenvectors of the covariance matrix evaluated for the scattered GA solutions. GAs quickly converge with respect to the high-curvature coordinates defined by the eigenvectors related to the leading terms of the multipole expansion, but have difficulty converging with respect to the low-curvature coordinates that mostly depend on the buried atom charges. The performance of the evolutionary techniques dramatically improves when the point charge optimization is performed using the Hessian or covariance matrix eigenvectors, an approach with a significant potential for the evolutionary optimization of the fixed-charge biomolecular force fields.

  20. A new full-Newton step O(n) infeasible interior-point algorithm for semidefinite optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansouri, H.; Roos, C.


    Interior-point methods for semidefinite optimization have been studied intensively, due to their polynomial complexity and practical efficiency. Recently, the second author designed a primal-dual infeasible interior-point algorithm with the currently best iteration bound for linear optimization

  1. Research on Scheduling Algorithm for Multi-satellite and Point Target Task on Swinging Mode (United States)

    Wang, M.; Dai, G.; Peng, L.; Song, Z.; Chen, G.


    and negative swinging angle and the computation of time window are analyzed and discussed. And many strategies to improve the efficiency of this model are also put forward. In order to solve the model, we bring forward the conception of activity sequence map. By using the activity sequence map, the activity choice and the start time of the activity can be divided. We also bring forward three neighborhood operators to search the result space. The front movement remaining time and the back movement remaining time are used to analyze the feasibility to generate solution from neighborhood operators. Lastly, the algorithm to solve the problem and model is put forward based genetic algorithm. Population initialization, crossover operator, mutation operator, individual evaluation, collision decrease operator, select operator and collision elimination operator is designed in the paper. Finally, the scheduling result and the simulation for a practical example on 5 satellites and 100 point targets with swinging mode is given, and the scheduling performances are also analyzed while the swinging angle in 0, 5, 10, 15, 25. It can be shown by the result that the model and the algorithm are more effective than those ones without swinging mode.

  2. DC Proximal Newton for Nonconvex Optimization Problems. (United States)

    Rakotomamonjy, Alain; Flamary, Rémi; Gasso, Gilles


    We introduce a novel algorithm for solving learning problems where both the loss function and the regularizer are nonconvex but belong to the class of difference of convex (DC) functions. Our contribution is a new general purpose proximal Newton algorithm that is able to deal with such a situation. The algorithm consists in obtaining a descent direction from an approximation of the loss function and then in performing a line search to ensure a sufficient descent. A theoretical analysis is provided showing that the iterates of the proposed algorithm admit as limit points stationary points of the DC objective function. Numerical experiments show that our approach is more efficient than the current state of the art for a problem with a convex loss function and a nonconvex regularizer. We have also illustrated the benefit of our algorithm in high-dimensional transductive learning problem where both the loss function and regularizers are nonconvex.

  3. AUA White Paper on Nonneurogenic Chronic Urinary Retention: Consensus Definition, Treatment Algorithm, and Outcome End Points. (United States)

    Stoffel, John T; Peterson, Andrew C; Sandhu, Jaspreet S; Suskind, Anne M; Wei, John T; Lightner, Deborah J


    The AUA (American Urological Association) QIPS (Quality Improvement and Patient Safety) committee created a white paper on the diagnosis and management of nonneurogenic chronic urinary retention. Recommendations for the white paper were based on a review of the literature and consensus expert opinion from the workgroup. The workgroup defined nonneurogenic chronic urinary retention as an elevated post-void residual of greater than 300 mL that persisted for at least 6 months and documented on 2 or more separate occasions. It is proposed that chronic urinary retention should be categorized by risk (high vs low) and symptomatology (symptomatic versus asymptomatic). High risk chronic urinary retention was defined as hydronephrosis on imaging, stage 3 chronic kidney disease or recurrent culture proven urinary tract infection or urosepsis. Symptomatic chronic urinary retention was defined as subjectively moderate to severe urinary symptoms impacting quality of life and/or a recent history of catheterization. A treatment algorithm was developed predicated on stratifying patients with chronic urinary retention first by risk and then by symptoms. The proposed 4 primary outcomes that should be assessed to determine effectiveness of retention treatment are 1) symptom improvement, 2) risk reduction, 3) successful trial of voiding without catheterization, and 4) stability of symptoms and risk over time. Defining and categorizing nonneurogenic chronic urinary retention, creating a treatment algorithm and proposing treatment end points will hopefully spur comparative research that will ultimately lead to a better understanding of this challenging condition. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inexact Accelerated Proximal Gradient Algorithms For Matrix l_{2,1}-Norm Minimization Problem in Multi-Task Feature Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Hu


    Full Text Available In this paper, we extend the APG method to solve matrix l_{2,1}-norm minimization problem in multi-task feature learning. We investigate that the resulting inner subproblem has closed-form solution which can be easily determined by taking the problem's favorable structures. Under suitable conditions, we can establish a comprehensive convergence result for the proposed method. Furthermore, we present three different inexact APG algorithms by using the Lipschitz constant, the eigenvalue of Hessian matrix and the Barzilai and Borwein parameter in the inexact model, respectively. Numerical experiments on simulated data and real data set are reported to show the efficiency of proposed method.

  5. An algorithm to locate optimal bond breaking points on a potential energy surface for applications in mechanochemistry and catalysis (United States)

    Bofill, Josep Maria; Ribas-Ariño, Jordi; García, Sergio Pablo; Quapp, Wolfgang


    The reaction path of a mechanically induced chemical transformation changes under stress. It is well established that the force-induced structural changes of minima and saddle points, i.e., the movement of the stationary points on the original or stress-free potential energy surface, can be described by a Newton Trajectory (NT). Given a reactive molecular system, a well-fitted pulling direction, and a sufficiently large value of the force, the minimum configuration of the reactant and the saddle point configuration of a transition state collapse at a point on the corresponding NT trajectory. This point is called barrier breakdown point or bond breaking point (BBP). The Hessian matrix at the BBP has a zero eigenvector which coincides with the gradient. It indicates which force (both in magnitude and direction) should be applied to the system to induce the reaction in a barrierless process. Within the manifold of BBPs, there exist optimal BBPs which indicate what is the optimal pulling direction and what is the minimal magnitude of the force to be applied for a given mechanochemical transformation. Since these special points are very important in the context of mechanochemistry and catalysis, it is crucial to develop efficient algorithms for their location. Here, we propose a Gauss-Newton algorithm that is based on the minimization of a positively defined function (the so-called σ -function). The behavior and efficiency of the new algorithm are shown for 2D test functions and for a real chemical example.

  6. The edge-driven dual-bootstrap iterative closest point algorithm for multimodal retinal image registration (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ling; Li, Chun-Yi; Yang, Gehua


    Red-free (RF) fundus retinal images and fluorescein angiogram (FA) sequence are often captured from an eye for diagnosis and treatment of abnormalities of the retina. With the aid of multimodal image registration, physicians can combine information to make accurate surgical planning and quantitative judgment of the progression of a disease. The goal of our work is to jointly align the RF images with the FA sequence of the same eye in a common reference space. Our work is inspired by Generalized Dual-Bootstrap Iterative Closest Point (GDB-ICP), which is a fully-automatic, feature-based method using structural similarity. GDB-ICP rank-orders Lowe keypoint matches and refines the transformation computed from each keypoint match in succession. Albeit GDB-ICP has been shown robust to image pairs with illumination difference, the performance is not satisfactory for multimodal and some FA pairs which exhibit substantial non-linear illumination changes. Our algorithm, named Edge-Driven DBICP, modifies generation of keypoint matches for initialization by extracting the Lowe keypoints from the gradient magnitude image, and enriching the keypoint descriptor with global-shape context using the edge points. Our dataset consists of 61 randomly selected pathological sequences, each on average having two RF and 13 FA images. There are total of 4985 image pairs, out of which 1323 are multimodal pairs. Edge-Driven DBICP successfully registered 93% of all pairs, and 82% multimodal pairs, whereas GDB-ICP registered 80% and 40%, respectively. Regarding registration of the whole image sequence in a common reference space, Edge-Driven DBICP succeeded in 60 sequences, which is 26% improvement over GDB-ICP.

  7. An Improved Morphological Algorithm for Filtering Airborne LiDAR Point Cloud Based on Multi-Level Kriging Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyang Hui


    Full Text Available Filtering is one of the core post-processing steps for airborne LiDAR point cloud. In recent years, the morphology-based filtering algorithms have proven to be a powerful and efficient tool for filtering airborne LiDAR point cloud. However, most traditional morphology-based algorithms have difficulties in preserving abrupt terrain features, especially when using larger filtering windows. In order to suppress the omission error caused by protruding terrain features, this paper proposes an improved morphological algorithm based on multi-level kriging interpolation. This algorithm is essentially a combination of progressive morphological filtering algorithm and multi-level interpolation filtering algorithm. The morphological opening operation is performed with filtering window gradually downsizing, while kriging interpolation is conducted at different levels according to the different filtering windows. This process is iterative in a top to down fashion until the filtering window is no longer greater than the preset minimum filtering window. Fifteen samples provided by the ISPRS commission were chosen to test the performance of the proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve promising results not only in flat urban areas but also in rural areas. Comparing with other eight classical filtering methods, the proposed method obtained the lowest omission error, and preserved protruding terrain features better.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SECUI D.C.


    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimization algorithm called Democratic Particle Swarm Optimization (DPSO, aiming to solve the economic dispatch problem. The DPSO algorithm is applied in the original version and also in a new version in which it is endowed with the chaotic Sine map (DPSO-Sine algorithm. The performance of DPSO and DPSOSine algorithms is tested on two systems having 13, and respectively 40 generating units. The results show that DPSO and DPSO-Sine have better performances than PSO algorithm and few other optimization techniques used to solve the economic dispatch problem.

  9. Current review and a simplified "five-point management algorithm" for keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Shetty


    Full Text Available Keratoconus is a slowly progressive, noninflammatory ectatic corneal disease characterized by changes in corneal collagen structure and organization. Though the etiology remains unknown, novel techniques are continuously emerging for the diagnosis and management of the disease. Demographical parameters are known to affect the rate of progression of the disease. Common methods of vision correction for keratoconus range from spectacles and rigid gas-permeable contact lenses to other specialized lenses such as piggyback, Rose-K or Boston scleral lenses. Corneal collagen cross-linking is effective in stabilizing the progression of the disease. Intra-corneal ring segments can improve vision by flattening the cornea in patients with mild to moderate keratoconus. Topography-guided custom ablation treatment betters the quality of vision by correcting the refractive error and improving the contact lens fit. In advanced keratoconus with corneal scarring, lamellar or full thickness penetrating keratoplasty will be the treatment of choice. With such a wide spectrum of alternatives available, it is necessary to choose the best possible treatment option for each patient. Based on a brief review of the literature and our own studies we have designed a five-point management algorithm for the treatment of keratoconus.

  10. Dynamic Harmony Search with Polynomial Mutation Algorithm for Valve-Point Economic Load Dispatch. (United States)

    Karthikeyan, M; Raja, T Sree Ranga


    Economic load dispatch (ELD) problem is an important issue in the operation and control of modern control system. The ELD problem is complex and nonlinear with equality and inequality constraints which makes it hard to be efficiently solved. This paper presents a new modification of harmony search (HS) algorithm named as dynamic harmony search with polynomial mutation (DHSPM) algorithm to solve ORPD problem. In DHSPM algorithm the key parameters of HS algorithm like harmony memory considering rate (HMCR) and pitch adjusting rate (PAR) are changed dynamically and there is no need to predefine these parameters. Additionally polynomial mutation is inserted in the updating step of HS algorithm to favor exploration and exploitation of the search space. The DHSPM algorithm is tested with three power system cases consisting of 3, 13, and 40 thermal units. The computational results show that the DHSPM algorithm is more effective in finding better solutions than other computational intelligence based methods.

  11. Verification of the Solar Dynamics Observatory High Gain Antenna Pointing Algorithm Using Flight Data (United States)

    Bourkland, Kristin L.; Liu, Kuo-Chia


    presentehat shows the readback delay does not have a negative impact on gimbal control. The decision was made to consider implementing two of the jitter mitigation techniques on board the spacecraft: stagger stepping and the NSR. Flight data from two sets of handovers, one set without jitter mitigation and the other with mitigation enabled, were examined. The trajectory of the predicted handover was compared with the measured trajectory for the two cases, showing that tracking was not negatively impacted with the addition of the jitter mitigation techniques. Additionally, the individual gimbal steps were examined, and it was confirmed that the stagger stepping and NSRs worked as designed. An Image Quality Test was performed to determine the amount of cumulative jitter from the reaction wheels, HGAs, and instruments during various combinations of typical operations. In this paper, the flight results are examined from a test where the HGAs are following the path of a nominal handover with stagger stepping on and HMI NSRs enabled. In this case, the reaction wheels are moving at low speed and the instruments are taking pictures in their standard sequence. The flight data shows the level of jitter that the instruments see when their shutters are open. The HGA-induced jitter is well within the jitter requirement when the stagger step and NSR mitigation options are enabled. The SDO HGA pointing algorithm was designed to achieve nominal antenna pointing at the ground station, perform slews during handover season, and provide three HGA-induced jitter mitigation options without compromising pointing objectives. During the commissioning phase, flight data sets were collected to verify the HGA pointing algorithm and demonstrate its jitter mitigation capabilities.

  12. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the description of algorithms and programming languages, what is the role of control abstraction? • What are the inherent limitations of the algorithmic processes? In future articles in this series, we will show that these constructs are powerful and can be used to encode any algorithm. In the next article, we will discuss ...

  13. An Optimized Structure on FPGA of Key Point Detection in SIFT Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chenyu


    Full Text Available SIFT algorithm is the most efficient and powerful algorithm to describe the features of images and it has been applied in many fields. In this paper, we propose an optimized method to realize the hardware implementation of the SIFT algorithm. We mainly discuss the structure of Data Generation here. A pipeline architecture is introduced to accelerate this optimized system. Parameters’ setting and approximation’s controlling in different image qualities and hardware resources are the focus of this paper. The results of experiments fully prove that this structure is real-time and effective, and provide consultative opinion to meet the different situations.

  14. Building optimal regression tree by ant colony system-genetic algorithm: application to modeling of melting points. (United States)

    Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Zare-Shahabadi, Vali; Akhond, Morteza


    The classification and regression trees (CART) possess the advantage of being able to handle large data sets and yield readily interpretable models. A conventional method of building a regression tree is recursive partitioning, which results in a good but not optimal tree. Ant colony system (ACS), which is a meta-heuristic algorithm and derived from the observation of real ants, can be used to overcome this problem. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of CART and its combination with ACS for modeling of melting points of a large variety of chemical compounds. Genetic algorithm (GA) operators (e.g., cross averring and mutation operators) were combined with ACS algorithm to select the best solution model. In addition, at each terminal node of the resulted tree, variable selection was done by ACS-GA algorithm to build an appropriate partial least squares (PLS) model. To test the ability of the resulted tree, a set of approximately 4173 structures and their melting points were used (3000 compounds as training set and 1173 as validation set). Further, an external test set containing of 277 drugs was used to validate the prediction ability of the tree. Comparison of the results obtained from both trees showed that the tree constructed by ACS-GA algorithm performs better than that produced by recursive partitioning procedure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Building optimal regression tree by ant colony system-genetic algorithm: Application to modeling of melting points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmateenejad, Bahram, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare-Shahabadi, Vali [Young Researchers Club, Mahshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhond, Morteza [Department of Chemistry, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Highlights: {yields} Ant colony systems help to build optimum classification and regression trees. {yields} Using of genetic algorithm operators in ant colony systems resulted in more appropriate models. {yields} Variable selection in each terminal node of the tree gives promising results. {yields} CART-ACS-GA could model the melting point of organic materials with prediction errors lower than previous models. - Abstract: The classification and regression trees (CART) possess the advantage of being able to handle large data sets and yield readily interpretable models. A conventional method of building a regression tree is recursive partitioning, which results in a good but not optimal tree. Ant colony system (ACS), which is a meta-heuristic algorithm and derived from the observation of real ants, can be used to overcome this problem. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of CART and its combination with ACS for modeling of melting points of a large variety of chemical compounds. Genetic algorithm (GA) operators (e.g., cross averring and mutation operators) were combined with ACS algorithm to select the best solution model. In addition, at each terminal node of the resulted tree, variable selection was done by ACS-GA algorithm to build an appropriate partial least squares (PLS) model. To test the ability of the resulted tree, a set of approximately 4173 structures and their melting points were used (3000 compounds as training set and 1173 as validation set). Further, an external test set containing of 277 drugs was used to validate the prediction ability of the tree. Comparison of the results obtained from both trees showed that the tree constructed by ACS-GA algorithm performs better than that produced by recursive partitioning procedure.

  16. Point Mutations in Exon 1B of APC Reveal Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Proximal Polyposis of the Stomach as a Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Variant (United States)

    Li, Jun; Woods, Susan L.; Healey, Sue; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Lee, Jason S.; Sivakumaran, Haran; Wayte, Nicci; Nones, Katia; Waterfall, Joshua J.; Pearson, John; Patch, Anne-Marie; Senz, Janine; Ferreira, Manuel A.; Kaurah, Pardeep; Mackenzie, Robertson; Heravi-Moussavi, Alireza; Hansford, Samantha; Lannagan, Tamsin R.M.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Simpson, Peter T.; da Silva, Leonard; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Clouston, Andrew D.; Bettington, Mark; Grimpen, Florian; Busuttil, Rita A.; Di Costanzo, Natasha; Boussioutas, Alex; Jeanjean, Marie; Chong, George; Fabre, Aurélie; Olschwang, Sylviane; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Bellos, Evangelos; Coin, Lachlan; Rioux, Kevin; Bathe, Oliver F.; Wen, Xiaogang; Martin, Hilary C.; Neklason, Deborah W.; Davis, Sean R.; Walker, Robert L.; Calzone, Kathleen A.; Avital, Itzhak; Heller, Theo; Koh, Christopher; Pineda, Marbin; Rudloff, Udo; Quezado, Martha; Pichurin, Pavel N.; Hulick, Peter J.; Weissman, Scott M.; Newlin, Anna; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Sampson, Jone E.; Hamman, Kelly; Goldgar, David; Poplawski, Nicola; Phillips, Kerry; Schofield, Lyn; Armstrong, Jacqueline; Kiraly-Borri, Cathy; Suthers, Graeme K.; Huntsman, David G.; Foulkes, William D.; Carneiro, Fatima; Lindor, Noralane M.; Edwards, Stacey L.; French, Juliet D.; Waddell, Nicola; Meltzer, Paul S.; Worthley, Daniel L.; Schrader, Kasmintan A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia


    Gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS) is an autosomal-dominant cancer-predisposition syndrome with a significant risk of gastric, but not colorectal, adenocarcinoma. We mapped the gene to 5q22 and found loss of the wild-type allele on 5q in fundic gland polyps from affected individuals. Whole-exome and -genome sequencing failed to find causal mutations but, through Sanger sequencing, we identified point mutations in APC promoter 1B that co-segregated with disease in all six families. The mutations reduced binding of the YY1 transcription factor and impaired activity of the APC promoter 1B in luciferase assays. Analysis of blood and saliva from carriers showed allelic imbalance of APC, suggesting that these mutations lead to decreased allele-specific expression in vivo. Similar mutations in APC promoter 1B occur in rare families with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Promoter 1A is methylated in GAPPS and sporadic FGPs and in normal stomach, which suggests that 1B transcripts are more important than 1A in gastric mucosa. This might explain why all known GAPPS-affected families carry promoter 1B point mutations but only rare FAP-affected families carry similar mutations, the colonic cells usually being protected by the expression of the 1A isoform. Gastric polyposis and cancer have been previously described in some FAP-affected individuals with large deletions around promoter 1B. Our finding that GAPPS is caused by point mutations in the same promoter suggests that families with mutations affecting the promoter 1B are at risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, regardless of whether or not colorectal polyps are present. PMID:27087319

  17. An evolutionary computation based algorithm for calculating solar differential rotation by automatic tracking of coronal bright points (United States)

    Shahamatnia, Ehsan; Dorotovič, Ivan; Fonseca, Jose M.; Ribeiro, Rita A.


    Developing specialized software tools is essential to support studies of solar activity evolution. With new space missions such as Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), solar images are being produced in unprecedented volumes. To capitalize on that huge data availability, the scientific community needs a new generation of software tools for automatic and efficient data processing. In this paper a prototype of a modular framework for solar feature detection, characterization, and tracking is presented. To develop an efficient system capable of automatic solar feature tracking and measuring, a hybrid approach combining specialized image processing, evolutionary optimization, and soft computing algorithms is being followed. The specialized hybrid algorithm for tracking solar features allows automatic feature tracking while gathering characterization details about the tracked features. The hybrid algorithm takes advantages of the snake model, a specialized image processing algorithm widely used in applications such as boundary delineation, image segmentation, and object tracking. Further, it exploits the flexibility and efficiency of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), a stochastic population based optimization algorithm. PSO has been used successfully in a wide range of applications including combinatorial optimization, control, clustering, robotics, scheduling, and image processing and video analysis applications. The proposed tool, denoted PSO-Snake model, was already successfully tested in other works for tracking sunspots and coronal bright points. In this work, we discuss the application of the PSO-Snake algorithm for calculating the sidereal rotational angular velocity of the solar corona. To validate the results we compare them with published manual results performed by an expert.

  18. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , i is referred to as the loop-index, 'stat-body' is any sequence of ... while i ~ N do stat-body; i: = i+ 1; endwhile. The algorithm for sorting the numbers is described in Table 1 and the algorithmic steps on a list of 4 numbers shown in. Figure 1.

  19. The collapsed cone algorithm for 192Ir dosimetry using phantom-size adaptive multiple-scatter point kernels (United States)

    Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa; Plamondon, Mathieu; Beaulieu, Luc


    The aim of this work was to investigate how dose distributions calculated with the collapsed cone (CC) algorithm depend on the size of the water phantom used in deriving the point kernel for multiple scatter. A research version of the CC algorithm equipped with a set of selectable point kernels for multiple-scatter dose that had initially been derived in water phantoms of various dimensions was used. The new point kernels were generated using EGSnrc in spherical water phantoms of radii 5 cm, 7.5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm and 50 cm. Dose distributions derived with CC in water phantoms of different dimensions and in a CT-based clinical breast geometry were compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the Geant4-based brachytherapy specific MC code Algebra. Agreement with MC within 1% was obtained when the dimensions of the phantom used to derive the multiple-scatter kernel were similar to those of the calculation phantom. Doses are overestimated at phantom edges when kernels are derived in larger phantoms and underestimated when derived in smaller phantoms (by around 2% to 7% depending on distance from source and phantom dimensions). CC agrees well with MC in the high dose region of a breast implant and is superior to TG43 in determining skin doses for all multiple-scatter point kernel sizes. Increased agreement between CC and MC is achieved when the point kernel is comparable to breast dimensions. The investigated approximation in multiple scatter dose depends on the choice of point kernel in relation to phantom size and yields a significant fraction of the total dose only at distances of several centimeters from a source/implant which correspond to volumes of low doses. The current implementation of the CC algorithm utilizes a point kernel derived in a comparatively large (radius 20 cm) water phantom. A fixed point kernel leads to predictable behaviour of the algorithm with the worst case being a source/implant located well within a patient

  20. Evaluation of stochastic algorithms for financial mathematics problems from point of view of energy-efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanassov, E.; Dimitrov, D., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Gurov, T. [Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, BAS, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 25A, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)


    The recent developments in the area of high-performance computing are driven not only by the desire for ever higher performance but also by the rising costs of electricity. The use of various types of accelerators like GPUs, Intel Xeon Phi has become mainstream and many algorithms and applications have been ported to make use of them where available. In Financial Mathematics the question of optimal use of computational resources should also take into account the limitations on space, because in many use cases the servers are deployed close to the exchanges. In this work we evaluate various algorithms for option pricing that we have implemented for different target architectures in terms of their energy and space efficiency. Since it has been established that low-discrepancy sequences may be better than pseudorandom numbers for these types of algorithms, we also test the Sobol and Halton sequences. We present the raw results, the computed metrics and conclusions from our tests.

  1. Evaluation of stochastic algorithms for financial mathematics problems from point of view of energy-efficiency (United States)

    Atanassov, E.; Dimitrov, D.; Gurov, T.


    The recent developments in the area of high-performance computing are driven not only by the desire for ever higher performance but also by the rising costs of electricity. The use of various types of accelerators like GPUs, Intel Xeon Phi has become mainstream and many algorithms and applications have been ported to make use of them where available. In Financial Mathematics the question of optimal use of computational resources should also take into account the limitations on space, because in many use cases the servers are deployed close to the exchanges. In this work we evaluate various algorithms for option pricing that we have implemented for different target architectures in terms of their energy and space efficiency. Since it has been established that low-discrepancy sequences may be better than pseudorandom numbers for these types of algorithms, we also test the Sobol and Halton sequences. We present the raw results, the computed metrics and conclusions from our tests.

  2. A Homogeneous and Self-Dual Interior-Point Linear Programming Algorithm for Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Frison, Gianluca; Skajaa, Anders


    We develop an efficient homogeneous and self-dual interior-point method (IPM) for the linear programs arising in economic model predictive control of constrained linear systems with linear objective functions. The algorithm is based on a Riccati iteration procedure, which is adapted to the linear...... is significantly faster than several state-of-the-art IPMs based on sparse linear algebra, and 2) warm-start reduces the average number of iterations by 35-40%....

  3. An improved contour symmetry axes extraction algorithm and its application in the location of picking points of apples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.; Song, H.; Yu, X.; Zhang, W.; Qu, W.; Xu, Y.


    The key problem for picking robots is to locate the picking points of fruit. A method based on the moment of inertia and symmetry of apples is proposed in this paper to locate the picking points of apples. Image pre-processing procedures, which are crucial to improving the accuracy of the location, were carried out to remove noise and smooth the edges of apples. The moment of inertia method has the disadvantage of high computational complexity, which should be solved, so convex hull was used to improve this problem. To verify the validity of this algorithm, a test was conducted using four types of apple images containing 107 apple targets. These images were single and unblocked apple images, single and blocked apple images, images containing adjacent apples, and apples in panoramas. The root mean square error values of these four types of apple images were 6.3, 15.0, 21.6 and 18.4, respectively, and the average location errors were 4.9°, 10.2°, 16.3° and 13.8°, respectively. Furthermore, the improved algorithm was effective in terms of average runtime, with 3.7 ms and 9.2 ms for single and unblocked and single and blocked apple images, respectively. For the other two types of apple images, the runtime was determined by the number of apples and blocked apples contained in the images. The results showed that the improved algorithm could extract symmetry axes and locate the picking points of apples more efficiently. In conclusion, the improved algorithm is feasible for extracting symmetry axes and locating the picking points of apples. (Author)

  4. An improved contour symmetry axes extraction algorithm and its application in the location of picking points of apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Wang


    Full Text Available The key problem for picking robots is to locate the picking points of fruit. A method based on the moment of inertia and symmetry of apples is proposed in this paper to locate the picking points of apples. Image pre-processing procedures, which are crucial to improving the accuracy of the location, were carried out to remove noise and smooth the edges of apples. The moment of inertia method has the disadvantage of high computational complexity, which should be solved, so convex hull was used to improve this problem. To verify the validity of this algorithm, a test was conducted using four types of apple images containing 107 apple targets. These images were single and unblocked apple images, single and blocked apple images, images containing adjacent apples, and apples in panoramas. The root mean square error values of these four types of apple images were 6.3, 15.0, 21.6 and 18.4, respectively, and the average location errors were 4.9°, 10.2°, 16.3° and 13.8°, respectively. Furthermore, the improved algorithm was effective in terms of average runtime, with 3.7 ms and 9.2 ms for single and unblocked and single and blocked apple images, respectively. For the other two types of apple images, the runtime was determined by the number of apples and blocked apples contained in the images. The results showed that the improved algorithm could extract symmetry axes and locate the picking points of apples more efficiently. In conclusion, the improved algorithm is feasible for extracting symmetry axes and locating the picking points of apples.

  5. Off-axis phase-only holograms of 3D objects using accelerated point-based Fresnel diffraction algorithm (United States)

    Zeng, Zhenxiang; Zheng, Huadong; Yu, Yingjie; Asundi, Anand K.


    A method for calculating off-axis phase-only holograms of three-dimensional (3D) object using accelerated point-based Fresnel diffraction algorithm (PB-FDA) is proposed. The complex amplitude of the object points on the z-axis in hologram plane is calculated using Fresnel diffraction formula, called principal complex amplitudes (PCAs). The complex amplitudes of those off-axis object points of the same depth can be obtained by 2D shifting of PCAs. In order to improve the calculating speed of the PB-FDA, the convolution operation based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used to calculate the holograms rather than using the point-by-point spatial 2D shifting of the PCAs. The shortest recording distance of the PB-FDA is analyzed in order to remove the influence of multiple-order images in reconstructed images. The optimal recording distance of the PB-FDA is also analyzed to improve the quality of reconstructed images. Numerical reconstructions and optical reconstructions with a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) show that holographic 3D display is feasible with the proposed algorithm. The proposed PB-FDA can also avoid the influence of the zero-order image introduced by SLM in optical reconstructed images.

  6. IEEE-754 compliant Algorithms for Fast Multiplication of Double Precision Floating Point Numbers


    Geetanjali Wasson


    In image and signal processing applications floating-point multiplication is major concern in calculations. Performing multiplication on floating point data is a long course of action and requires huge quantity of processing time. By improving the speed of multiplication task overall speed of the system can be enhanced. The Bottleneck in the floating point multiplication process is the multiplication of mantissas which needs 53*53 bit integer multiplier f...

  7. From Tls Point Clouds to 3d Models of Trees: a Comparison of Existing Algorithms for 3d Tree Reconstruction (United States)

    Bournez, E.; Landes, T.; Saudreau, M.; Kastendeuch, P.; Najjar, G.


    3D models of tree geometry are important for numerous studies, such as for urban planning or agricultural studies. In climatology, tree models can be necessary for simulating the cooling effect of trees by estimating their evapotranspiration. The literature shows that the more accurate the 3D structure of a tree is, the more accurate microclimate models are. This is the reason why, since 2013, we have been developing an algorithm for the reconstruction of trees from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) data, which we call TreeArchitecture. Meanwhile, new promising algorithms dedicated to tree reconstruction have emerged in the literature. In this paper, we assess the capacity of our algorithm and of two others -PlantScan3D and SimpleTree- to reconstruct the 3D structure of trees. The aim of this reconstruction is to be able to characterize the geometric complexity of trees, with different heights, sizes and shapes of branches. Based on a specific surveying workflow with a TLS, we have acquired dense point clouds of six different urban trees, with specific architectures, before reconstructing them with each algorithm. Finally, qualitative and quantitative assessments of the models are performed using reference tree reconstructions and field measurements. Based on this assessment, the advantages and the limits of every reconstruction algorithm are highlighted. Anyway, very satisfying results can be reached for 3D reconstructions of tree topology as well as of tree volume.

  8. Singular point detection algorithm based on the transition line of the fingerprint orientation image

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathekga, ME


    Full Text Available single ridge splits into two ridges. Singular points occur in the form of a core and a delta. A core can be defined as the turning point of the innermost loop of a fingerprint and a delta is the point where the fingerprint ridges tend to triangulate.... These can be summarized as follows [1]: • Poincare´ index methods • Methods based on the local characteristics of the orien- tation image • Partition-based methods The first group of methods classify a point as a core or delta by computing...

  9. An effective, robust and parallel implementation of an interior point algorithm for limit state optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dollerup, Niels; Jepsen, Michael S.; Frier, Christian


    in the determination of the search direction in each iteration step, and the formualtion also allows for parallel computation. The implementation has been used in load optimization of reinforced concrete slabs but is fully general. Different examples are treated to benchmark the algorithm with previous work...

  10. Fusion of phase congruency and harris algorithm for extraction of iris corner points

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza-Hocquet, G


    Full Text Available of reliable iris features. This work proposes a fusion of Phase congruency and Harris algorithm to detect corner features found within the arrangement of iris patterns. This fusion produces a feature vector with the exact location of corner features...

  11. An efficient reliability algorithm for locating design point using the combination of importance sampling concepts and response surface method (United States)

    Shayanfar, Mohsen Ali; Barkhordari, Mohammad Ali; Roudak, Mohammad Amin


    Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is a useful tool for computation of probability of failure in reliability analysis. However, the large number of required random samples makes it time-consuming. Response surface method (RSM) is another common method in reliability analysis. Although RSM is widely used for its simplicity, it cannot be trusted in highly nonlinear problems due to its linear nature. In this paper, a new efficient algorithm, employing the combination of importance sampling, as a class of MCS, and RSM is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, analysis starts with importance sampling concepts and using a represented two-step updating rule of design point. This part finishes after a small number of samples are generated. Then RSM starts to work using Bucher experimental design, with the last design point and a represented effective length as the center point and radius of Bucher's approach, respectively. Through illustrative numerical examples, simplicity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm and the effectiveness of the represented rules are shown.

  12. Layer stacking: A novel algorithm for individual forest tree segmentation from LiDAR point clouds (United States)

    Elias Ayrey; Shawn Fraver; John A. Kershaw; Laura S. Kenefic; Daniel Hayes; Aaron R. Weiskittel; Brian E. Roth


    As light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology advances, it has become common for datasets to be acquired at a point density high enough to capture structural information from individual trees. To process these data, an automatic method of isolating individual trees from a LiDAR point cloud is required. Traditional methods for segmenting trees attempt to isolate...

  13. Iterative Algorithm for Common Fixed Points of Infinite Family of Nonexpansive Mappings in Banach Spaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Songnian; Guo, Jun


    ...]C an infinite family of nonexpansive mappings with the nonempty set of common fixed points [superscript]...k=1∞[/superscript] Fix ([subscript]Tk[/subscript] ) , and f:C[arrow right]C a contraction...

  14. Adaptive Mapping of Linear DSP Algorithms to Fixed-Point Arithmetic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Lawrence J; Voronenko, Yevgen; Pueschel, Markus; Hong, Inpyo


    Embedded DSP (digital signal processing) applications are typically implemented using fixed point arithmetic -- in hardware to reduce area requirements and increase throughput, but also in software since most embedded processors...

  15. On synchronal algorithm for fixed point and variational inequality problems in hilbert spaces. (United States)

    Bulama, L M; Kılıçman, A


    The aim of this article is to expand and generalize some approximation methods proposed by Tian and Di (J Fixed Point Appl, 2011. doi:10.1186/1687-1812-21) to the class of [Formula: see text]-total asymptotically strict pseudocontraction to solve the fixed point problem as well as variational inequality problem in the frame work of Hilbert space. Further, the results presented in this paper extend, improve and also generalize several known results in the literature .

  16. Strong Convergence Iterative Algorithms for Equilibrium Problems and Fixed Point Problems in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua Wang


    Full Text Available We first introduce the concept of Bregman asymptotically quasinonexpansive mappings and prove that the fixed point set of this kind of mappings is closed and convex. Then we construct an iterative scheme to find a common element of the set of solutions of an equilibrium problem and the set of common fixed points of a countable family of Bregman asymptotically quasinonexpansive mappings in reflexive Banach spaces and prove strong convergence theorems. Our results extend the recent ones of some others.

  17. Validation of Point Clouds Segmentation Algorithms Through Their Application to Several Case Studies for Indoor Building Modelling (United States)

    Macher, H.; Landes, T.; Grussenmeyer, P.


    Laser scanners are widely used for the modelling of existing buildings and particularly in the creation process of as-built BIM (Building Information Modelling). However, the generation of as-built BIM from point clouds involves mainly manual steps and it is consequently time consuming and error-prone. Along the path to automation, a three steps segmentation approach has been developed. This approach is composed of two phases: a segmentation into sub-spaces namely floors and rooms and a plane segmentation combined with the identification of building elements. In order to assess and validate the developed approach, different case studies are considered. Indeed, it is essential to apply algorithms to several datasets and not to develop algorithms with a unique dataset which could influence the development with its particularities. Indoor point clouds of different types of buildings will be used as input for the developed algorithms, going from an individual house of almost one hundred square meters to larger buildings of several thousand square meters. Datasets provide various space configurations and present numerous different occluding objects as for example desks, computer equipments, home furnishings and even wine barrels. For each dataset, the results will be illustrated. The analysis of the results will provide an insight into the transferability of the developed approach for the indoor modelling of several types of buildings.

  18. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Algorithms. 3. Procedures and Recursion. R K Shyamasundar. In this article we introduce procedural abstraction and illustrate its uses. Further, we illustrate the notion of recursion which is one of the most useful features of procedural abstraction. Procedures. Let us consider a variation of the pro blem of summing the first M.

  19. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    number of elements. We shall illustrate the widely used matrix multiplication algorithm using the two dimensional arrays in the following. Consider two matrices A and B of integer type with di- mensions m x nand n x p respectively. Then, multiplication of. A by B denoted, A x B , is defined by matrix C of dimension m xp where.

  20. Efficient QR sequential least square algorithm for high frequency GNSS precise point positioning seismic application (United States)

    Barbu, Alina L.; Laurent-Varin, Julien; Perosanz, Felix; Mercier, Flavien; Marty, Jean-Charles


    The implementation into the GINS CNES geodetic software of a more efficient filter was needed to satisfy the users who wanted to compute high-rate GNSS PPP solutions. We selected the SRI approach and a QR factorization technique including an innovative algorithm which optimizes the matrix reduction step. A full description of this algorithm is given for future users. The new capacities of the software have been tested using a set of 1 Hz data from the Japanese GEONET network including the Mw 9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Station coordinates solution agreed at a sub-decimeter level with previous publications as well as with solutions we computed with the National Resource Canada software. An additional benefit from the implementation of the SRI filter is the capability to estimate high-rate tropospheric parameters too. As the CPU time to estimate a 1 Hz kinematic solution from 1 h of data is now less than 1 min we could produced series of coordinates for the full 1300 stations of the Japanese network. The corresponding movie shows the impressive co-seismic deformation as well as the wave propagation along the island. The processing was straightforward using a cluster of PCs which illustrates the new potentiality of the GINS software for massive network high rate PPP processing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Thorne


    Full Text Available Search methods often display non-convergence or excessive convergence time on certain classes of nonlinear functions arising in engineering design. The authors will define a new geometric -programming based search method for single variable polynomials that displays quadratic convergence from any starting point Comparison over a group of test problems is made with a version of Newton's method

  2. Proximal Hypospadias (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.


    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  3. Determining decoupling points in a supply chain networks using NSGA II algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Ebrahimiarjestan


    Full Text Available Purpose: In the model, we used the concepts of Lee and Amaral (2002 and Tang and Zhou (2009 and offer a multi-criteria decision-making model that identify the decoupling points to aim to minimize production costs, minimize the product delivery time to customer and maximize their satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach: We encounter with a triple-objective model that meta-heuristic method (NSGA II is used to solve the model and to identify the Pareto optimal points. The max (min method was used. Findings: Our results of using NSGA II to find Pareto optimal solutions demonstrate good performance of NSGA II to extract Pareto solutions in proposed model that considers determining of decoupling point in a supply network. Originality/value: So far, several approaches to model the future have been proposed, of course, each of them modeled a part of this concept. This concept has been considered more general in the model that defined in follow.  In this model, we face with a multi-criteria decision problem that includes minimization of the production costs and product delivery time to customers as well as customer consistency maximization.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Rawabdeh


    Full Text Available Landslides are among the major threats to urban landscape and manmade infrastructure. They often cause economic losses, property damages, and loss of lives. Temporal monitoring data of landslides from different epochs empowers the evaluation of landslide progression. Alignment of overlapping surfaces from two or more epochs is crucial for the proper analysis of landslide dynamics. The traditional methods for point-cloud-based landslide monitoring rely on using a variation of the Iterative Closest Point (ICP registration procedure to align any reconstructed surfaces from different epochs to a common reference frame. However, sometimes the ICP-based registration can fail or may not provide sufficient accuracy. For example, point clouds from different epochs might fit to local minima due to lack of geometrical variability within the data. Also, manual interaction is required to exclude any non-stable areas from the registration process. In this paper, a robust image-based registration method is introduced for the simultaneous evaluation of all registration parameters. This includes the Interior Orientation Parameters (IOPs of the camera and the Exterior Orientation Parameters (EOPs of the involved images from all available observation epochs via a bundle block adjustment with self-calibration. Next, a semi-global dense matching technique is implemented to generate dense 3D point clouds for each epoch using the images captured in a particular epoch separately. The normal distances between any two consecutive point clouds can then be readily computed, because the point clouds are already effectively co-registered. A low-cost DJI Phantom II Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV was customised and used in this research for temporal data collection over an active soil creep area in Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada. The customisation included adding a GPS logger and a Large-Field-Of-View (LFOV action camera which facilitated capturing high-resolution geo-tagged images

  5. Computational proximity excursions in the topology of digital images

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F


    This book introduces computational proximity (CP) as an algorithmic approach to finding nonempty sets of points that are either close to each other or far apart. Typically in computational proximity, the book starts with some form of proximity space (topological space equipped with a proximity relation) that has an inherent geometry. In CP, two types of near sets are considered, namely, spatially near sets and descriptivelynear sets. It is shown that connectedness, boundedness, mesh nerves, convexity, shapes and shape theory are principal topics in the study of nearness and separation of physical aswell as abstract sets. CP has a hefty visual content. Applications of CP in computer vision, multimedia, brain activity, biology, social networks, and cosmology are included. The book has been derived from the lectures of the author in a graduate course on the topology of digital images taught over the past several years. Many of the students have provided important insights and valuable suggestions. The topics in ...

  6. A novel multi-aperture based sun sensor based on a fast multi-point MEANSHIFT (FMMS) algorithm. (United States)

    You, Zheng; Sun, Jian; Xing, Fei; Zhang, Gao-Fei


    With the current increased widespread interest in the development and applications of micro/nanosatellites, it was found that we needed to design a small high accuracy satellite attitude determination system, because the star trackers widely used in large satellites are large and heavy, and therefore not suitable for installation on micro/nanosatellites. A Sun sensor + magnetometer is proven to be a better alternative, but the conventional sun sensor has low accuracy, and cannot meet the requirements of the attitude determination systems of micro/nanosatellites, so the development of a small high accuracy sun sensor with high reliability is very significant. This paper presents a multi-aperture based sun sensor, which is composed of a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) mask with 36 apertures and an active pixels sensor (APS) CMOS placed below the mask at a certain distance. A novel fast multi-point MEANSHIFT (FMMS) algorithm is proposed to improve the accuracy and reliability, the two key performance features, of an APS sun sensor. When the sunlight illuminates the sensor, a sun spot array image is formed on the APS detector. Then the sun angles can be derived by analyzing the aperture image location on the detector via the FMMS algorithm. With this system, the centroid accuracy of the sun image can reach 0.01 pixels, without increasing the weight and power consumption, even when some missing apertures and bad pixels appear on the detector due to aging of the devices and operation in a harsh space environment, while the pointing accuracy of the single-aperture sun sensor using the conventional correlation algorithm is only 0.05 pixels.

  7. Industrial experience of process identification and set-point decision algorithm in a full-scale treatment plant. (United States)

    Yoo, Changkyoo; Kim, Min Han


    This paper presents industrial experience of process identification, monitoring, and control in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. The objectives of this study were (1) to apply and compare different process-identification methods of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) autotuning for stable dissolved oxygen (DO) control, (2) to implement a process monitoring method that estimates the respiration rate simultaneously during the process-identification step, and (3) to propose a simple set-point decision algorithm for determining the appropriate set point of the DO controller for optimal operation of the aeration basin. The proposed method was evaluated in the industrial wastewater treatment facility of an iron- and steel-making plant. Among the process-identification methods, the control signal of the controller's set-point change was best for identifying low-frequency information and enhancing the robustness to low-frequency disturbances. Combined automatic control and set-point decision method reduced the total electricity consumption by 5% and the electricity cost by 15% compared to the fixed gain PID controller, when considering only the surface aerators. Moreover, as a result of improved control performance, the fluctuation of effluent quality decreased and overall effluent water quality was better.

  8. Distributed Interior-point Method for Loosely Coupled Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakazad, Sina Khoshfetrat; Hansson, Anders; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard


    In this paper, we put forth distributed algorithms for solving loosely coupled unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. Such problems are usually solved using algorithms that are based on a combination of decomposition and first order methods. These algorithms are commonly very slow...... and require many iterations to converge. In order to alleviate this issue, we propose algorithms that combine the Newton and interior-point methods with proximal splitting methods for solving such problems. Particularly, the algorithm for solving unconstrained loosely coupled problems, is based on Newton......’s method and utilizes proximal splitting to distribute the computations for calculating the Newton step at each iteration. A combination of this algorithm and the interior-point method is then used to introduce a distributed algorithm for solving constrained loosely coupled problems. We also provide...

  9. Single point biochemical measurement algorithm for early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. (United States)

    Butler, Stephen A; Abban, Thomas K A; Borrelli, Paola T A; Luttoo, Jameel M; Kemp, Bryn; Iles, Ray K


    Tubal rupture as a result of an ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of first trimester maternal mortality. Currently, the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy depends on transvaginal ultrasound and serial serum measurements of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), which requires follow up. The objective of this study was to examine whether single point measurements at presentation could distinguish between women with ectopic pregnancy, viable pregnancy, and spontaneous miscarriage. Serum total hCG (hCGt), hyperglycosylated hCG (hCGh), free beta subunit of hCG (hCGβ), progesterone (P), and CA-125 were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay over a 3 month period in 441 women presenting at the emergency room with abdominal pain and a positive pregnancy test. Patient outcomes were followed and confirmed by histology. 65 samples were excluded due to poor sample storage, or lost to follow up. The pregnancy outcomes were 175 viable pregnancies, 175 spontaneous miscarriages, and 26 ectopic pregnancies. A serum hCGt ectopic pregnancy from viable pregnancy; but did not differentiate spontaneous miscarriage. Serum CA125 ectopic pregnancy from spontaneous miscarriage. Sequential application of hCGt and CA-125 cut off followed by ultrasound could detect 100% of ectopic pregnancies with 87% specificity for all intrauterine pregnancies. The combination of serum hCGt ectopic pregnancy at initial presentation. © 2013.

  10. Analysis of the Pointing Accuracy of a 6U CubeSat Mission for Proximity Operations and Resident Space Object Imaging (United States)


    together with the Novatel OEMV-1 GPS receiver and patch antenna , complete the guidance navigation and control suite. During proximity operations, the...are produced by the upper atmospheric particles colliding with the CubeSat. The worst case scenario of solar max activity is modeled for the cal...atmosphere at the nominal altitude of 500km gives a composition of 94% Oxygen and 6% Nitrogen. The number and mass densities are n=3.769×1014m−3 and ρ

  11. A full-Newton step feasible interior-point algorithm for P∗(κ-LCP based on a new search direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Kheirfam


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a full-Newton step feasible interior-point algorithm for a P∗(κ linear complementarity problem based on a new search direction. We apply a vector-valued function generated by a univariate function on nonlinear equations of the system which defines the central path. Furthermore, we derive the iteration bound for the algorithm, which coincides with the best-known iteration bound for these types of algorithms. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm is competitive and reliable.

  12. On optimal fuzzy best proximity coincidence points of fuzzy order preserving proximal Ψ(σ, α)-lower-bounding asymptotically contractive mappings in non-Archimedean fuzzy metric spaces. (United States)

    De la Sen, Manuel; Abbas, Mujahid; Saleem, Naeem


    This paper discusses some convergence properties in fuzzy ordered proximal approaches defined by [Formula: see text]-sequences of pairs, where [Formula: see text] is a surjective self-mapping and [Formula: see text] where Aand Bare nonempty subsets of and abstract nonempty set X and [Formula: see text] is a partially ordered non-Archimedean fuzzy metric space which is endowed with a fuzzy metric M, a triangular norm * and an ordering [Formula: see text] The fuzzy set M takes values in a sequence or set [Formula: see text] where the elements of the so-called switching rule [Formula: see text] are defined from [Formula: see text] to a subset of [Formula: see text] Such a switching rule selects a particular realization of M at the nth iteration and it is parameterized by a growth evolution sequence [Formula: see text] and a sequence or set [Formula: see text] which belongs to the so-called [Formula: see text]-lower-bounding mappings which are defined from [0, 1] to [0, 1]. Some application examples concerning discrete systems under switching rules and best approximation solvability of algebraic equations are discussed.

  13. Planetary Crater Detection and Registration Using Marked Point Processes, Multiple Birth and Death Algorithms, and Region-Based Analysis (United States)

    Solarna, David; Moser, Gabriele; Le Moigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Serpico, Sebastiano B.


    Because of the large variety of sensors and spacecraft collecting data, planetary science needs to integrate various multi-sensor and multi-temporal images. These multiple data represent a precious asset, as they allow the study of targets spectral responses and of changes in the surface structure; because of their variety, they also require accurate and robust registration. A new crater detection algorithm, used to extract features that will be integrated in an image registration framework, is presented. A marked point process-based method has been developed to model the spatial distribution of elliptical objects (i.e. the craters) and a birth-death Markov chain Monte Carlo method, coupled with a region-based scheme aiming at computational efficiency, is used to find the optimal configuration fitting the image. The extracted features are exploited, together with a newly defined fitness function based on a modified Hausdorff distance, by an image registration algorithm whose architecture has been designed to minimize the computational time.

  14. Free Shape Context Descriptors Optimized with Genetic Algorithm for the Detection of Dead Tree Trunks in ALS Point Clouds (United States)

    Polewski, P.; Yao, W.; Heurich, M.; Krzystek, P.; Stilla, U.


    In this paper, a new family of shape descriptors called Free Shape Contexts (FSC) is introduced to generalize the existing 3D Shape Contexts. The FSC introduces more degrees of freedom than its predecessor by allowing the level of complexity to vary between its parts. Also, each part of the FSC has an associated activity state which controls whether the part can contribute a feature value. We describe a method of evolving the FSC parameters for the purpose of creating highly discriminative features suitable for detecting specific objects in sparse point clouds. The evolutionary process is built on a genetic algorithm (GA) which optimizes the parameters with respect to cross-validated overall classification accuracy. The GA manipulates both the structure of the FSC and the activity flags, allowing it to perform an implicit feature selection alongside the structure optimization by turning off segments which do not augment the discriminative capabilities. We apply the proposed descriptor to the problem of detecting single standing dead tree trunks from ALS point clouds. The experiment, carried out on a set of 285 objects, reveals that an FSC optimized through a GA with manually tuned recombination parameters is able to attain a classification accuracy of 84.2%, yielding an increase of 4.2 pp compared to features derived from eigenvalues of the 3D covariance matrix. Also, we address the issue of automatically tuning the GA recombination metaparameters. For this purpose, a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) which dynamically adjusts the magnitude of the recombination effects is co-evolved with the FSC parameters in a two-tier evolution scheme. We find that it is possible to obtain an FLC which retains the classification accuracy of the manually tuned variant, thereby limiting the need for guessing the appropriate meta-parameter values.

  15. Interior point algorithm-based power flow optimisation of a combined AC and DC multi-terminal grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Beg


    Full Text Available The high cost of power electronic equipment, lower reliability and poor power handling capacity of the semiconductor devices had stalled the deployment of systems based on DC (multi-terminal direct current system (MTDC networks. The introduction of voltage source converters (VSCs for transmission has renewed the interest in the development of large interconnected grids based on both alternate current (AC and DC transmission networks. Such a grid platform also realises the added advantage of integrating the renewable energy sources into the grid. Thus a grid based on DC MTDC network is a possible solution to improve energy security and check the increasing supply demand gap. An optimal power solution for combined AC and DC grids obtained by the solution of the interior point algorithm is proposed in this study. Multi-terminal HVDC grids lie at the heart of various suggested transmission capacity increases. A significant difference is observed when MTDC grids are solved for power flows in place of conventional AC grids. This study deals with the power flow problem of a combined MTDC and an AC grid. The AC side is modelled with the full power flow equations and the VSCs are modelled using a connecting line, two generators and an AC node. The VSC and the DC losses are also considered. The optimisation focuses on several different goals. Three different scenarios are presented in an arbitrary grid network with ten AC nodes and five converter stations.

  16. Grid-based algorithm to search critical points, in the electron density, accelerated by graphics processing units. (United States)

    Hernández-Esparza, Raymundo; Mejía-Chica, Sol-Milena; Zapata-Escobar, Andy D; Guevara-García, Alfredo; Martínez-Melchor, Apolinar; Hernández-Pérez, Julio-M; Vargas, Rubicelia; Garza, Jorge


    Using a grid-based method to search the critical points in electron density, we show how to accelerate such a method with graphics processing units (GPUs). When the GPU implementation is contrasted with that used on central processing units (CPUs), we found a large difference between the time elapsed by both implementations: the smallest time is observed when GPUs are used. We tested two GPUs, one related with video games and other used for high-performance computing (HPC). By the side of the CPUs, two processors were tested, one used in common personal computers and other used for HPC, both of last generation. Although our parallel algorithm scales quite well on CPUs, the same implementation on GPUs runs around 10× faster than 16 CPUs, with any of the tested GPUs and CPUs. We have found what one GPU dedicated for video games can be used without any problem for our application, delivering a remarkable performance, in fact; this GPU competes against one HPC GPU, in particular when single-precision is used. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Proximity-effect-induced Superconducting Gap in Topological Surface States - A Point Contact Spectroscopy Study of NbSe2/Bi2Se3Superconductor-Topological Insulator Heterostructures. (United States)

    Dai, Wenqing; Richardella, Anthony; Du, Renzhong; Zhao, Weiwei; Liu, Xin; Liu, C X; Huang, Song-Hsun; Sankar, Raman; Chou, Fangcheng; Samarth, Nitin; Li, Qi


    Proximity-effect-induced superconductivity was studied in epitaxial topological insulator Bi 2 Se 3 thin films grown on superconducting NbSe 2 single crystals. A point contact spectroscopy (PCS) method was used at low temperatures down to 40 mK. An induced superconducting gap in Bi 2 Se 3 was observed in the spectra, which decreased with increasing Bi 2 Se 3 layer thickness, consistent with the proximity effect in the bulk states of Bi 2 Se 3 induced by NbSe 2 . At very low temperatures, an extra point contact feature which may correspond to a second energy gap appeared in the spectrum. For a 16 quintuple layer Bi 2 Se 3 on NbSe 2 sample, the bulk state gap value near the top surface is ~159 μeV, while the second gap value is ~120 μeV at 40 mK. The second gap value decreased with increasing Bi 2 Se 3 layer thickness, but the ratio between the second gap and the bulk state gap remained about the same for different Bi 2 Se 3 thicknesses. It is plausible that this is due to superconductivity in Bi 2 Se 3 topological surface states induced through the bulk states. The two induced gaps in the PCS measurement are consistent with the three-dimensional bulk state and the two-dimensional surface state superconducting gaps observed in the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurement.

  18. Alternating proximal gradient method for nonnegative matrix factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yangyang


    Nonnegative matrix factorization has been widely applied in face recognition, text mining, as well as spectral analysis. This paper proposes an alternating proximal gradient method for solving this problem. With a uniformly positive lower bound assumption on the iterates, any limit point can be proved to satisfy the first-order optimality conditions. A Nesterov-type extrapolation technique is then applied to accelerate the algorithm. Though this technique is at first used for convex program, it turns out to work very well for the non-convex nonnegative matrix factorization problem. Extensive numerical experiments illustrate the efficiency of the alternating proximal gradient method and the accleration technique. Especially for real data tests, the accelerated method reveals high superiority to state-of-the-art algorithms in speed with comparable solution qualities.

  19. The Prevalence and Marketing of Electronic Cigarettes in Proximity to At-Risk Youths: An Investigation of Point-of-Sale Practices near Alternative High Schools (United States)

    Miller, Stephen; Pike, James; Chapman, Jared; Xie, Bin; Hilton, Brian N.; Ames, Susan L.; Stacy, Alan W.


    This study examines the point-of-sale marketing practices used to promote electronic cigarettes at stores near schools that serve at-risk youths. One hundred stores selling tobacco products within a half-mile of alternative high schools in Southern California were assessed for this study. Seventy percent of stores in the sample sold electronic…

  20. On the convergence of a linesearch based proximal-gradient method for nonconvex optimization (United States)

    Bonettini, S.; Loris, I.; Porta, F.; Prato, M.; Rebegoldi, S.


    We consider a variable metric linesearch based proximal gradient method for the minimization of the sum of a smooth, possibly nonconvex function plus a convex, possibly nonsmooth term. We prove convergence of this iterative algorithm to a critical point if the objective function satisfies the Kurdyka-Łojasiewicz property at each point of its domain, under the assumption that a limit point exists. The proposed method is applied to a wide collection of image processing problems and our numerical tests show that our algorithm results to be flexible, robust and competitive when compared to recently proposed approaches able to address the optimization problems arising in the considered applications.

  1. Simulation and analysis of an isolated full-bridge DC/DC boost converter operating with a modified perturb and observe maximum power point tracking algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calebe A. Matias


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to simulate and analyze an isolated full-bridge DC/DC boost converter, for photovoltaic panels, running a modified perturb and observe maximum power point tracking method. The zero voltage switching technique was used in order to minimize the losses of the converter for a wide range of solar operation. The efficiency of the power transfer is higher than 90% for large solar operating points. The panel enhancement due to the maximum power point tracking algorithm is 5.06%.

  2. Quantum genetic algorithm for dynamic economic dispatch with valve-point effects and including wind power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jia-Chu; Lin, Whei-Min [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University (China); Liao, Gwo-Ching [Department of Electrical Engineering, Fortune Institute of Technology (China); Tsao, Ta-Peng [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology (China)


    An optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to solve the problem of the economic dispatch that includes wind power generation using quantum genetic algorithm (QGA). In additional to the detail introduction for models of general economic dispatch as well as their associated constraints, the effect of wind power generation is also included in this paper. On the other hand, the use of quantum genetic algorithms to solve the process of economic dispatch is also discussed and real scenarios are used for simulation tests later on. After comparing the algorithm used in this paper with several other algorithms commonly used to solve optimization problems, the results show that the algorithm used in this paper is able to find the optimal solution most quickly and accurately (i.e. to obtain the minimum cost for power generation in the shortest time). At the end, the impact to the total cost saving for the power generation after adding (or not adding) wind power generation is also discussed. The actual operating results prove that the algorithm proposed in this paper is economical and practical as well as superior. They are quite valuable for further research. (author)

  3. Utilizing the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm for enhanced registration of high resolution surface models - more than a simple black-box application (United States)

    Stöcker, Claudia; Eltner, Anette


    Advances in computer vision and digital photogrammetry (i.e. structure from motion) allow for fast and flexible high resolution data supply. Within geoscience applications and especially in the field of small surface topography, high resolution digital terrain models and dense 3D point clouds are valuable data sources to capture actual states as well as for multi-temporal studies. However, there are still some limitations regarding robust registration and accuracy demands (e.g. systematic positional errors) which impede the comparison and/or combination of multi-sensor data products. Therefore, post-processing of 3D point clouds can heavily enhance data quality. In this matter the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm represents an alignment tool which iteratively minimizes distances of corresponding points within two datasets. Even though tool is widely used; it is often applied as a black-box application within 3D data post-processing for surface reconstruction. Aiming for precise and accurate combination of multi-sensor data sets, this study looks closely at different variants of the ICP algorithm including sub-steps of point selection, point matching, weighting, rejection, error metric and minimization. Therefore, an agricultural utilized field was investigated simultaneously by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) sensors two times (once covered with sparse vegetation and once bare soil). Due to different perspectives both data sets show diverse consistency in terms of shadowed areas and thus gaps so that data merging would provide consistent surface reconstruction. Although photogrammetric processing already included sub-cm accurate ground control surveys, UAV point cloud exhibits an offset towards TLS point cloud. In order to achieve the transformation matrix for fine registration of UAV point clouds, different ICP variants were tested. Statistical analyses of the results show that final success of registration and therefore

  4. A primal-dual large-update interior-point algorithm for semi-definite optimization based on a new kernel function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dequan Zhao


    Full Text Available Based on a new parametric kernel function, this paper presents a primal-dual large-update interior-point algorithm (IPM for semi-definite optimization (SDO problems. The new parametric function is neither self-regular function nor the usual logarithmic barrier function.  It is strongly convex and possesses some novel  analytic properties. We analyse this new parametric kernel function and show that the proposed algorithm has favorable complexity bound in terms of the analytic properties of the kernel function. Moreover, the complexity bound for our large-update IPM is shown to be O(\\sqrt{n}(\\log n^2 \\log\\frac{n}{\\epsilon}. Some numerical results are reported to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  6. A New Multi-Step Iterative Algorithm for Approximating Common Fixed Points of a Finite Family of Multi-Valued Bregman Relatively Nonexpansive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiyada Kumam


    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce a new multi-step iteration for approximating a common fixed point of a finite class of multi-valued Bregman relatively nonexpansive mappings in the setting of reflexive Banach spaces. We prove a strong convergence theorem for the proposed iterative algorithm under certain hypotheses. Additionally, we also use our results for the solution of variational inequality problems and to find the zero points of maximal monotone operators. The theorems furnished in this work are new and well-established and generalize many well-known recent research works in this field.

  7. Some Convergence and Stability Results for the Kirk Multistep and Kirk-SP Fixed Point Iterative Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Gürsoy


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new Kirk type iterative algorithm called Kirk multistep iteration and to study its convergence. We also prove some theorems related to the stability results for the Kirk multistep and Kirk-SP iterative processes by employing certain contractive-like operators. Our results generalize and unify some other results in the literature.

  8. Movement of Hinteres Langtalkar rock glacier 2009 - 2013 by using the ICProx-algorithm at very high resolution point clouds from terrestrial laserscanning (United States)

    Avian, Michael; Wujanz, Daniel


    Beginning in 2000 terrestrial laserscanning has been carried out annually (except 2001-2003) at the front of the very active rock glacier Hinteres Langtalkar, Schober Mountains, Austria (HLC; N46°59', E12°47'). From 2009 on the sensor Riegl LMS Z620 has been in use for data acquisition. The rock glacier Hinteres Langtalkar is characterised by a very active rock glacier front (up to 3.40 m a-1) which leads to massive problems in the comparison of the data sets and subsequent calculation of movement vectors. Surface based matching approaches like e.g. the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm do not need reference points measured or extracted geometric planes. These approaches fail in applications where widespread deformations occur. To overcome this drawback the ICProx-algorithm is applied which identifies deformation by comparison of locally determined transformation vectors. Non moving areas are identified by conducting the maximum subset method (MSS). So the ICProx algorithm provides a new tool to match point clouds with large inherent deformation zones. As we see in our analyses, the ICProx approach works very well at the test site Hinteres Langtalkar. In contrary to the conventional ICP approach - no matching was achieved due to too large deformation rates at the front area of the rock glacier - the ICProx showed satisfactory results in the matching the entire valley-head. Misalignments only occurred in areas with a very small incident and simultaneous large distances to the scanner.

  9. Deconvolution of the two-dimensional point-spread function of area detectors using the maximum-entropy algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafsma, H; de Vries, R.Y.


    The maximum-entropy method (MEM) has been applied for the deconvolution of the point-spread function (PSF) of two-dimensional X-ray detectors. The method is robust, model and image independent, and only depends on the correct description of the two-dimensional point-spread function and gain factor

  10. Considering transmission loss for an economic dispatch problem without valve-point loading using an EP-EPSO algorithm


    PANDIAN, Sevugarathinam MUTHU VIJAYA; THANUSHKODI, Keppanagowder


    Economic dispatch (ED) is one of the most important optimization problems in a power system. The objective of ED is sharing the power demand among the online generators while keeping the minimum cost of generation as a constraint. The aim of this paper is to operate an electric power system as economically as possible within its security limits. This paper proposes the following 2 new particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms to solve a nonconvex economic dispatch problem: an efficien...

  11. Mobility Management Algorithms for the Client-Driven Mobility Frame System–Mobility from a Brand New Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Fülöp


    Full Text Available In this paper a new mobility management is introduced. The main idea in this approach is that the mobil node should manage the mobility for itself not the network. The network nodes provide only basic services for mobile entities: connectivity and administration. We construct a framework called the Client-based Mobility Frame System (CMFS for this mobility environment. We developed the CMFS protocol as a solution over IPv4 and we show how to use Mobile IPv6 to realize our concept. We propose some basic mobility management solutions that can be implemented into the mobile clients and give details about a working simulation of a complete Mobility Management System. Example mobility management approaches such as the centralized- and hierarchical- or cellular-like ones are also defined and hints are given what kind of algorithms might be implemented upon the Client-based Mobility Frame System over IPv4 and IPv6 as well. We introduce some example algorithms that can work with the CMFS making mobility management efficient by minimizing signalling load on the network. In the present work modeling and detailed discussion on the parameters of the algorithms is given and comparison to existing mobility approaches and protocols is done. We prepared a simulation to test our protocol and to back up the proposals we provide the reader with simulation results. We stress that still one the most important benefit of our findings is that all the MNs can run different management strategies and can optimize mobility for themselves.

  12. Algorithmic-Reducibility = Renormalization-Group Fixed-Points; ``Noise''-Induced Phase-Transitions (NITs) to Accelerate Algorithmics (``NIT-Picking'') Replacing CRUTCHES!!!: Gauss Modular/Clock-Arithmetic Congruences = Signal X Noise PRODUCTS.. (United States)

    Siegel, J.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig


    Cook-Levin computational-"complexity"(C-C) algorithmic-equivalence reduction-theorem reducibility equivalence to renormalization-(semi)-group phase-transitions critical-phenomena statistical-physics universality-classes fixed-points, is exploited with Gauss modular/clock-arithmetic/model congruences = signal X noise PRODUCT reinterpretation. Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS(SON of ``TRIZ''): Category-Semantics(C-S) tabular list-format truth-table matrix analytics predicts and implements "noise"-induced phase-transitions (NITs) to accelerate versus to decelerate Harel [Algorithmics(1987)]-Sipser[Intro. Theory Computation(1997) algorithmic C-C: "NIT-picking" to optimize optimization-problems optimally(OOPO). Versus iso-"noise" power-spectrum quantitative-only amplitude/magnitude-only variation stochastic-resonance, this "NIT-picking" is "noise" power-spectrum QUALitative-type variation via quantitative critical-exponents variation. Computer-"science" algorithmic C-C models: Turing-machine, finite-state-models/automata, are identified as early-days once-workable but NOW ONLY LIMITING CRUTCHES IMPEDING latter-days new-insights!!!

  13. SigVox - A 3D feature matching algorithm for automatic street object recognition in mobile laser scanning point clouds (United States)

    Wang, Jinhu; Lindenbergh, Roderik; Menenti, Massimo


    Urban road environments contain a variety of objects including different types of lamp poles and traffic signs. Its monitoring is traditionally conducted by visual inspection, which is time consuming and expensive. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) systems sample the road environment efficiently by acquiring large and accurate point clouds. This work proposes a methodology for urban road object recognition from MLS point clouds. The proposed method uses, for the first time, shape descriptors of complete objects to match repetitive objects in large point clouds. To do so, a novel 3D multi-scale shape descriptor is introduced, that is embedded in a workflow that efficiently and automatically identifies different types of lamp poles and traffic signs. The workflow starts by tiling the raw point clouds along the scanning trajectory and by identifying non-ground points. After voxelization of the non-ground points, connected voxels are clustered to form candidate objects. For automatic recognition of lamp poles and street signs, a 3D significant eigenvector based shape descriptor using voxels (SigVox) is introduced. The 3D SigVox descriptor is constructed by first subdividing the points with an octree into several levels. Next, significant eigenvectors of the points in each voxel are determined by principal component analysis (PCA) and mapped onto the appropriate triangle of a sphere approximating icosahedron. This step is repeated for different scales. By determining the similarity of 3D SigVox descriptors between candidate point clusters and training objects, street furniture is automatically identified. The feasibility and quality of the proposed method is verified on two point clouds obtained in opposite direction of a stretch of road of 4 km. 6 types of lamp pole and 4 types of road sign were selected as objects of interest. Ground truth validation showed that the overall accuracy of the ∼170 automatically recognized objects is approximately 95%. The results demonstrate

  14. Maximum power point tracking algorithm based on sliding mode and fuzzy logic for photovoltaic sources under variable environmental conditions (United States)

    Atik, L.; Petit, P.; Sawicki, J. P.; Ternifi, Z. T.; Bachir, G.; Della, M.; Aillerie, M.


    Solar panels have a nonlinear voltage-current characteristic, with a distinct maximum power point (MPP), which depends on the environmental factors, such as temperature and irradiation. In order to continuously harvest maximum power from the solar panels, they have to operate at their MPP despite the inevitable changes in the environment. Various methods for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) were developed and finally implemented in solar power electronic controllers to increase the efficiency in the electricity production originate from renewables. In this paper we compare using Matlab tools Simulink, two different MPP tracking methods, which are, fuzzy logic control (FL) and sliding mode control (SMC), considering their efficiency in solar energy production.

  15. Algorithms for Collision Detection Between a Point and a Moving Polygon, with Applications to Aircraft Weather Avoidance (United States)

    Narkawicz, Anthony; Hagen, George


    This paper proposes mathematical definitions of functions that can be used to detect future collisions between a point and a moving polygon. The intended application is weather avoidance, where the given point represents an aircraft and bounding polygons are chosen to model regions with bad weather. Other applications could possibly include avoiding other moving obstacles. The motivation for the functions presented here is safety, and therefore they have been proved to be mathematically correct. The functions are being developed for inclusion in NASA's Stratway software tool, which allows low-fidelity air traffic management concepts to be easily prototyped and quickly tested.

  16. Improvement of registration accuracy in accelerated partial breast irradiation using the point-based rigid-body registration algorithm for patients with implanted fiducial markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Minoru; Yoshimura, Michio, E-mail:; Sato, Sayaka; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Masahiro; Hirata, Kimiko; Ogura, Masakazu; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Fujimoto, Takahiro [Division of Clinical Radiology Service, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)


    Purpose: To investigate image-registration errors when using fiducial markers with a manual method and the point-based rigid-body registration (PRBR) algorithm in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) patients, with accompanying fiducial deviations. Methods: Twenty-two consecutive patients were enrolled in a prospective trial examining 10-fraction APBI. Titanium clips were implanted intraoperatively around the seroma in all patients. For image-registration, the positions of the clips in daily kV x-ray images were matched to those in the planning digitally reconstructed radiographs. Fiducial and gravity registration errors (FREs and GREs, respectively), representing resulting misalignments of the edge and center of the target, respectively, were compared between the manual and algorithm-based methods. Results: In total, 218 fractions were evaluated. Although the mean FRE/GRE values for the manual and algorithm-based methods were within 3 mm (2.3/1.7 and 1.3/0.4 mm, respectively), the percentages of fractions where FRE/GRE exceeded 3 mm using the manual and algorithm-based methods were 18.8%/7.3% and 0%/0%, respectively. Manual registration resulted in 18.6% of patients with fractions of FRE/GRE exceeding 5 mm. The patients with larger clip deviation had significantly more fractions showing large FRE/GRE using manual registration. Conclusions: For image-registration using fiducial markers in APBI, the manual registration results in more fractions with considerable registration error due to loss of fiducial objectivity resulting from their deviation. The authors recommend the PRBR algorithm as a safe and effective strategy for accurate, image-guided registration and PTV margin reduction.

  17. Maximum Power Point tracking algorithm based on I-V characteristic of PV array under uniform and non-uniform conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Iman-Eini, H.; Asaei, B.


    This paper presents a new algorithm based on characteristic equation of solar cells to determine the Maximum Power Point (MPP) of PV modules under partially shaded conditions (PSC). To achieve this goal, an analytic condition is introduced to determine uniform or non-uniform atmospheric conditions...... quickly. This paper also proposes an effective and quick response technique to find the MPP of PV array among Global Peak (GP) and local peaks when PSC occurs based on the analytic condition. It also can perform in a manner like conventional MPPT method when the insolation conditions are uniform. In order...

  18. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.


    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

  19. An Implementable First-Order Primal-Dual Algorithm for Structured Convex Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ma


    Full Text Available Many application problems of practical interest can be posed as structured convex optimization models. In this paper, we study a new first-order primaldual algorithm. The method can be easily implementable, provided that the resolvent operators of the component objective functions are simple to evaluate. We show that the proposed method can be interpreted as a proximal point algorithm with a customized metric proximal parameter. Convergence property is established under the analytic contraction framework. Finally, we verify the efficiency of the algorithm by solving the stable principal component pursuit problem.

  20. Manual Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery Using a Saddle Point Model Predictive Control Algorithm: Results of a Crossover Randomized Overnight Study. (United States)

    Guilhem, Isabelle; Penet, Maxime; Paillard, Anaïs; Carpentier, Marc; Esvant, Annabelle; Lefebvre, Marie-Anne; Poirier, Jean-Yves


    The purpose was to assess the efficacy of a new closed-loop algorithm (Saddle Point Model Predictive Control, SP-MPC) in achieving nocturnal normoglycemia while reducing the risk of hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. In this randomized crossover study, 10 adult patients (mean hemoglobin A1c 7.35 ± 1.04%) were assigned to be treated overnight by open loop using sensor-augmented pump therapy (open-loop SAP) or manual closed-loop delivery. During closed loop, insulin doses were calculated using the SP-MPC algorithm and administered as manual boluses every 15 minutes from 9:00 pm to 8:00 am. Patients consumed a self-selected meal (65-125 g of carbohydrates) at 7:00 pm accompanied by their usual prandial bolus. Blood glucose was measured every 30 minutes. The primary endpoints were the time spent in target (70-145 mg/dl) and time spent below 70 mg/dl from 11:00 pm to 8:00 am. Time spent in target did not differ between closed-loop and open-loop SAP. The number of hypoglycemic events (145 mg/dl was significantly lower during closed-loop than during open-loop SAP ( P = .03) as well as HBGI ( P = .02). This pilot study suggests that the use of the SP-MPC algorithm may improve mean overnight glucose control and reduce the number of hypoglycemic events as compared to SAP therapy.

  1. Real-time estimation of prostate tumor rotation and translation with a kV imaging system based on an iterative closest point algorithm (United States)

    Nasehi Tehrani, Joubin; O'Brien, Ricky T.; Rugaard Poulsen, Per; Keall, Paul


    Previous studies have shown that during cancer radiotherapy a small translation or rotation of the tumor can lead to errors in dose delivery. Current best practice in radiotherapy accounts for tumor translations, but is unable to address rotation due to a lack of a reliable real-time estimate. We have developed a method based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm that can compute rotation from kilovoltage x-ray images acquired during radiation treatment delivery. A total of 11 748 kilovoltage (kV) images acquired from ten patients (one fraction for each patient) were used to evaluate our tumor rotation algorithm. For each kV image, the three dimensional coordinates of three fiducial markers inside the prostate were calculated. The three dimensional coordinates were used as input to the ICP algorithm to calculate the real-time tumor rotation and translation around three axes. The results show that the root mean square error was improved for real-time calculation of tumor displacement from a mean of 0.97 mm with the stand alone translation to a mean of 0.16 mm by adding real-time rotation and translation displacement with the ICP algorithm. The standard deviation (SD) of rotation for the ten patients was 2.3°, 0.89° and 0.72° for rotation around the right-left (RL), anterior-posterior (AP) and superior-inferior (SI) directions respectively. The correlation between all six degrees of freedom showed that the highest correlation belonged to the AP and SI translation with a correlation of 0.67. The second highest correlation in our study was between the rotation around RL and rotation around AP, with a correlation of -0.33. Our real-time algorithm for calculation of rotation also confirms previous studies that have shown the maximum SD belongs to AP translation and rotation around RL. ICP is a reliable and fast algorithm for estimating real-time tumor rotation which could create a pathway to investigational clinical treatment studies requiring real


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faosan Mapa


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wireless Mesh Network (WMN adalah suatu konektivitas jaringan yang self-organized, self-configured dan multi-hop. Tujuan dari WMN adalah menawarkan pengguna suatu bentuk jaringan nirkabel yang dapat dengan mudah berkomunikasi dengan jaringan konvensional dengan kecepatan tinggi dan dengan cakupan yang lebih luas serta biaya awal yang minimal. Diperlukan suatu desain protokol routing yang efisien untuk WMN yang secara adaptif dapat mendukung mesh routers dan mesh clients. Dalam tulisan ini, diusulkan untuk mengoptimalkan protokol OLSR, yang merupakan protokol routing proaktif. Digunakan heuristik yang meningkatkan protokol OLSR melalui adaptive refreshing time interval dan memperbaiki metode MPR selecting algorithm. Suatu analisa dalam meningkatkan protokol OLSR melalui adaptive refreshing time interval dan memperbaiki algoritma pemilihan MPR menunjukkan kinerja yang signifikan dalam hal throughput jika dibandingkan dengan protokol OLSR yang asli. Akan tetapi, terdapat kenaikan dalam hal delay. Pada simulasi yang dilakukan dapat disimpulkan bahwa OLSR dapat dioptimalkan dengan memodifikasi pemilihan node MPR berdasarkan cost effective dan penyesuaian waktu interval refreshing hello message sesuai dengan keadaan

  3. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil


    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  4. Development and Positioning Accuracy Assessment of Single-Frequency Precise Point Positioning Algorithms by Combining GPS Code-Pseudorange Measurements with Real-Time SSR Corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miso Kim


    Full Text Available We have developed a suite of real-time precise point positioning programs to process GPS pseudorange observables, and validated their performance through static and kinematic positioning tests. To correct inaccurate broadcast orbits and clocks, and account for signal delays occurring from the ionosphere and troposphere, we applied State Space Representation (SSR error corrections provided by the Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS in South Korea. Site displacements due to solid earth tide loading are also considered for the purpose of improving the positioning accuracy, particularly in the height direction. When the developed algorithm was tested under static positioning, Kalman-filtered solutions produced a root-mean-square error (RMSE of 0.32 and 0.40 m in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. For the moving platform, the RMSE was found to be 0.53 and 0.69 m in the horizontal and vertical directions.

  5. A points-based algorithm for prognosticating clinical outcome of Chiari malformation Type I with syringomyelia: results from a predictive model analysis of 82 surgically managed adult patients. (United States)

    Thakar, Sumit; Sivaraju, Laxminadh; Jacob, Kuruthukulangara S; Arun, Aditya Atal; Aryan, Saritha; Mohan, Dilip; Sai Kiran, Narayanam Anantha; Hegde, Alangar S


    OBJECTIVE Although various predictors of postoperative outcome have been previously identified in patients with Chiari malformation Type I (CMI) with syringomyelia, there is no known algorithm for predicting a multifactorial outcome measure in this widely studied disorder. Using one of the largest preoperative variable arrays used so far in CMI research, the authors attempted to generate a formula for predicting postoperative outcome. METHODS Data from the clinical records of 82 symptomatic adult patients with CMI and altered hindbrain CSF flow who were managed with foramen magnum decompression, C-1 laminectomy, and duraplasty over an 8-year period were collected and analyzed. Various preoperative clinical and radiological variables in the 57 patients who formed the study cohort were assessed in a bivariate analysis to determine their ability to predict clinical outcome (as measured on the Chicago Chiari Outcome Scale [CCOS]) and the resolution of syrinx at the last follow-up. The variables that were significant in the bivariate analysis were further analyzed in a multiple linear regression analysis. Different regression models were tested, and the model with the best prediction of CCOS was identified and internally validated in a subcohort of 25 patients. RESULTS There was no correlation between CCOS score and syrinx resolution (p = 0.24) at a mean ± SD follow-up of 40.29 ± 10.36 months. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the presence of gait instability, obex position, and the M-line-fourth ventricle vertex (FVV) distance correlated with CCOS score, while the presence of motor deficits was associated with poor syrinx resolution (p ≤ 0.05). The algorithm generated from the regression model demonstrated good diagnostic accuracy (area under curve 0.81), with a score of more than 128 points demonstrating 100% specificity for clinical improvement (CCOS score of 11 or greater). The model had excellent reliability (κ = 0.85) and was validated with

  6. Proximal Probes Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  7. Treatment of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures with locking proximal humerus plate. (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Cheng; Li, Yu-Lin; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Wu, Qiang; Feng, Shi-Qing


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of the locking proximal humerus plate to treat proximal humerus fractures. A retrospective clinical trial. Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with locking proximal humerus plates. The deltopectoral anterolateral acromial approach was used to the proximal humerus; open reduction and locking proximal humerus plate were applied. Constant Score was used to measure the shoulder functional recovery, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to measure subjective evaluation of pain. The radiology was observed. After average 26.7 months, the average Constant Score was 72.6 ± 13.2 points and the average VAS was 1.2 ± 0.8 points. All the complications such as screw perforation into the glenohumeral joint, screws loosening, soft tissue infections, avascular necrosis and delayed union occurred in eight cases (11.8 %). The effectiveness of the locking proximal humerus plate was similar to other published literatures on treating fractures of the proximal humerus; however, a lower complications rate in short follow-up time was observed in this study. It may potentially provide a favorable option for treating three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Dealing with each particular fracture pattern, surgeons should have a decision of appropriate way to internal fixation.

  8. Translational Imaging Spectroscopy for Proximal Sensing. (United States)

    Rogass, Christian; Koerting, Friederike M; Mielke, Christian; Brell, Maximilian; Boesche, Nina K; Bade, Maria; Hohmann, Christian


    Proximal sensing as the near field counterpart of remote sensing offers a broad variety of applications. Imaging spectroscopy in general and translational laboratory imaging spectroscopy in particular can be utilized for a variety of different research topics. Geoscientific applications require a precise pre-processing of hyperspectral data cubes to retrieve at-surface reflectance in order to conduct spectral feature-based comparison of unknown sample spectra to known library spectra. A new pre-processing chain called GeoMAP-Trans for at-surface reflectance retrieval is proposed here as an analogue to other algorithms published by the team of authors. It consists of a radiometric, a geometric and a spectral module. Each module consists of several processing steps that are described in detail. The processing chain was adapted to the broadly used HySPEX VNIR/SWIR imaging spectrometer system and tested using geological mineral samples. The performance was subjectively and objectively evaluated using standard artificial image quality metrics and comparative measurements of mineral and Lambertian diffuser standards with standard field and laboratory spectrometers. The proposed algorithm provides highly qualitative results, offers broad applicability through its generic design and might be the first one of its kind to be published. A high radiometric accuracy is achieved by the incorporation of the Reduction of Miscalibration Effects (ROME) framework. The geometric accuracy is higher than 1 μpixel. The critical spectral accuracy was relatively estimated by comparing spectra of standard field spectrometers to those from HySPEX for a Lambertian diffuser. The achieved spectral accuracy is better than 0.02% for the full spectrum and better than 98% for the absorption features. It was empirically shown that point and imaging spectrometers provide different results for non-Lambertian samples due to their different sensing principles, adjacency scattering impacts on the signal

  9. [The algorithm for the determination of the sufficient number of dynamic electroneurostimulation procedures based on the magnitude of individual testing voltage at the reference point]. (United States)

    Chernysh, I M; Zilov, V G; Vasilenko, A M; Frolkov, B K

    This article was designed to present evidence of the advantages of the personified approach to the treatment of the patients presenting with arterial hypertension (AH), lumbar spinal dorsopathy (LSD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and duodenal ulcer (DU) at the stage of exacerbation obtained by the measurements of testing voltage at the reference point (Utest). The objective of the present study was to develop the algorithm for the determination of the sufficient number (optimal duration) of therapeutic procedures of the protracted treatment with the use of the Utest at the reference point. The study included 647 patients (439 women and 208 men at the age varying from 25 to 72 years) with grade I-II AH, DU at the stage of exacerbation, grades II and III lumbar spinal dorsopathy, grade II-III COPD. The informed written content to participate in the study was obtained from all the patients. They were divided into three groups. Those comprising group 1 were treated by standard therapy, patients of group 2 received the same treatment supplemented by dynamic electroneurostimulation (DENS) while the patients of the third group were given personified DENS in accordance with the determined sufficient number of DENS procedures. The blood pressure in the patients with AH comprising group 3 was found to decrease more significantly in comparison with those in groups 1 an 2 (by 9% and 3% respectively). The intensity of pain syndrome in the patients with lumbar spinal dorsopathy evaluated based on the visual analog scale decreased two-fold in group 3 in comparison with the 1.2 and 1.8 times decrease in groups 1 and 2 respectively. The level of pH in the stomach of patients with DU increased by 33.3% in group 3 in comparison with 12,5%, in group 1 and 21,8% in group 2. Vital capacity of the lungs in the patients of group 3 presenting with COPD and treated with the use of the personified approach was found to increase almost up to 612 ml in comparison with 477 ml

  10. Inexact proximal Newton methods for self-concordant functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinchao; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Vandenberghe, Lieven


    with an application to L1-regularized covariance selection, in which prior constraints on the sparsity pattern of the inverse covariance matrix are imposed. In the numerical experiments the proximal Newton steps are computed by an accelerated proximal gradient method, and multifrontal algorithms for positive definite......We analyze the proximal Newton method for minimizing a sum of a self-concordant function and a convex function with an inexpensive proximal operator. We present new results on the global and local convergence of the method when inexact search directions are used. The method is illustrated...

  11. Complications in proximal humeral fractures. (United States)

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio


    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analyzing algorithms for nonlinear and spatially nonuniform phase shifts in the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics: Student research reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, N. [Pittsford Sutherland High School, NY (United States)


    Phase-shifting interferometry has many advantages, and the phase shifting nature of the Liquid Crystal Point Diffraction Interferometer (LCPDI) promises to provide significant improvement over other current OMEGA wavefront sensors. However, while phase-shifting capabilities improve its accuracy as an interferometer, phase-shifting itself introduces errors. Phase-shifting algorithms are designed to eliminate certain types of phase-shift errors, and it is important to chose an algorithm that is best suited for use with the LCPDI. Using polarization microscopy, the authors have observed a correlation between LC alignment around the microsphere and fringe behavior. After designing a procedure to compare phase-shifting algorithms, they were able to predict the accuracy of two particular algorithms through computer modeling of device-specific phase shift-errors.

  13. Algorithms and Algorithmic Languages. (United States)

    Veselov, V. M.; Koprov, V. M.

    This paper is intended as an introduction to a number of problems connected with the description of algorithms and algorithmic languages, particularly the syntaxes and semantics of algorithmic languages. The terms "letter, word, alphabet" are defined and described. The concept of the algorithm is defined and the relation between the algorithm and…

  14. Operationalizing hippocampal volume as an enrichment biomarker for amnestic MCI trials: effect of algorithm, test-retest variability and cut-point on trial cost, duration and sample size (United States)

    Yu, P.; Sun, J.; Wolz, R.; Stephenson, D.; Brewer, J.; Fox, N.C.; Cole, P.E.; Jack, C.R.; Hill, D.L.G.; Schwarz, A.J.


    Objective To evaluate the effect of computational algorithm, measurement variability and cut-point on hippocampal volume (HCV)-based patient selection for clinical trials in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods We used normal control and amnestic MCI subjects from ADNI-1 as normative reference and screening cohorts. We evaluated the enrichment performance of four widely-used hippocampal segmentation algorithms (FreeSurfer, HMAPS, LEAP and NeuroQuant) in terms of two-year changes in MMSE, ADAS-Cog and CDR-SB. We modeled the effect of algorithm, test-retest variability and cut-point on sample size, screen fail rates and trial cost and duration. Results HCV-based patient selection yielded not only reduced sample sizes (by ~40–60%) but also lower trial costs (by ~30–40%) across a wide range of cut-points. Overall, the dependence on the cut-point value was similar for the three clinical instruments considered. Conclusion These results provide a guide to the choice of HCV cut-point for aMCI clinical trials, allowing an informed trade-off between statistical and practical considerations. PMID:24211008

  15. Capacitive proximity sensor (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.


    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  16. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides


    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  17. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy


    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  18. Design and Implementation of 256‐Point Radix‐4 100 Gbit/s FFT Algorithm into FPGA for High‐Speed Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polat, Gokhan; Ozturk, Sitki; Yakut, Mehmet


    ...‐4 is decided to be the optimal solution for our fully parallel FPGA application. The algorithms that we will implement during the development phase are to be tested on a Xilinx Virtex‐6 FPGA platform...

  19. Algorithms used for read-out optical system pointing to multiplexed computer generated 1D-Fourier holograms and decoding the encrypted information (United States)

    Donchenko, Sergey S.; Odinokov, Sergey B.; Betin, Alexandr U.; Hanevich, Pavel; Semishko, Sergey; Zlokazov, Evgenii Y.


    The holographic disk reading device for recovery of CGFH is described. Principle of its work is shown. Analyzed approaches for developing algorithms, used in this device: guidance and decoding. Listed results of experimental researches.

  20. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics]. (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N


    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  1. Proximate Analysis of Coal (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.


    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  2. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  3. Ising Ferromagnets on Proximity Graphs with Varying Disorder of the Node Placement. (United States)

    Schawe, Hendrik; Norrenbrock, Christoph; Hartmann, Alexander K


    We perform Monte Carlo simulations to determine the critical temperatures of Ising Ferromagnets (IFM) on different types of two-dimensional proximity graphs, in which the distribution of their underlying node sets has been changed systematically by means of a parameter σ. This allows us to interpolate between regular grids and proximity graphs based on complete random placement of nodes. Each edge of the planar proximity graphs carries a weighted ferromagnetic coupling. The coupling strengths are determined via the Euclidean distances between coupled spins. The simulations are carried out on graphs with N = 162 to N = 1282 nodes utilising the Wolff cluster algorithm and parallel tempering method in a wide temperature range around the critical point to measure the Binder cumulant in order to obtain the critical temperature for different values of σ. Interestingly, the critical temperatures depend partially non-monotonously on the disorder parameter σ, corresponding to a non-monotonous change of the graph structure. For completeness, we further verify using finite-size scaling methods that the IFM on proximity graphs is for all values of the disorder in the same universality class as the IFM on the two-dimensional square lattice.

  4. Demonstration of automated proximity and docking technology (United States)

    Anderson, Robert L.; Tsugawa, Roy K.; Bryan, Thomas C.


    Automated spacecraft docking operations are being performed using a full scale motion based simulator and an optical sensor. This presentation will discuss the work in progress at TRW and MSFC facilities to study the problem of automated proximity and docking operations. The docking sensor used in the MSFC Optical Sensor and simulation runs are performed using the MSFC Flat Floor Facility. The control algorithms and six degrees of freedom (6DOF) simulation software were developed at TRW and integrated into the MSFC facility. Key issues being studied are the quantification of docking sensor requirements and operational constraints necessary to perform automated docking maneuvers, control algorithms capable of performing automated docking in the presence of sensitive and noisy sensor data, and sensor technologies for automated proximity and docking operations. As part of this study the MSFC sensor characteristics were analyzed and modeled so that off line simulation runs can be performed for control algorithm testing. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate full 6DOF docking capabilities with actual sensors on the MSFC motion based simulator. We present findings from actual docking simulation runs which show sensor and control loop performance as well as problem areas which require close attention. The evolution of various control algorithms using both phase plane and Clohessy-Wiltshire techniques are discussed. In addition, 6DOF target acquisition and control strategies are described.

  5. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi


    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  6. Proximal humeral fractures


    Mauro, Craig S.


    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  7. Autodriver algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bourmistrova


    Full Text Available The autodriver algorithm is an intelligent method to eliminate the need of steering by a driver on a well-defined road. The proposed method performs best on a four-wheel steering (4WS vehicle, though it is also applicable to two-wheel-steering (TWS vehicles. The algorithm is based on coinciding the actual vehicle center of rotation and road center of curvature, by adjusting the kinematic center of rotation. The road center of curvature is assumed prior information for a given road, while the dynamic center of rotation is the output of dynamic equations of motion of the vehicle using steering angle and velocity measurements as inputs. We use kinematic condition of steering to set the steering angles in such a way that the kinematic center of rotation of the vehicle sits at a desired point. At low speeds the ideal and actual paths of the vehicle are very close. With increase of forward speed the road and tire characteristics, along with the motion dynamics of the vehicle cause the vehicle to turn about time-varying points. By adjusting the steering angles, our algorithm controls the dynamic turning center of the vehicle so that it coincides with the road curvature center, hence keeping the vehicle on a given road autonomously. The position and orientation errors are used as feedback signals in a closed loop control to adjust the steering angles. The application of the presented autodriver algorithm demonstrates reliable performance under different driving conditions.

  8. Computational method for the correction of proximity effect in electron-beam lithography (Poster Paper) (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Yuan; Owen, Gerry; Pease, Roger Fabian W.; Kailath, Thomas


    Dose correction is commonly used to compensate for the proximity effect in electron lithography. The computation of the required dose modulation is usually carried out using 'self-consistent' algorithms that work by solving a large number of simultaneous linear equations. However, there are two major drawbacks: the resulting correction is not exact, and the computation time is excessively long. A computational scheme, as shown in Figure 1, has been devised to eliminate this problem by the deconvolution of the point spread function in the pattern domain. The method is iterative, based on a steepest descent algorithm. The scheme has been successfully tested on a simple pattern with a minimum feature size 0.5 micrometers , exposed on a MEBES tool at 10 KeV in 0.2 micrometers of PMMA resist on a silicon substrate.

  9. Distributed Uplink Resource Allocation in Cognitive Radio Networks -- Part II: Equilibria and Algorithms for Joint Access Point Selection and Power Allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Mingyi; Barrera, Jorge


    In the first part of this paper, we have studied solely the spectrum sharing aspect of the above problem, and proposed algorithms for the CUs in the single AP network to efficiently share the spectrum. In this second part of the paper, we build upon our previous understanding of the single AP network, and formulate the joint spectrum decision and spectrum sharing problem in a multiple AP network into a non-cooperative game, in which the feasible strategy of a player contains a discrete variable (the AP/spectrum decision) and a continuous vector (the power allocation among multiple channels). The structure of the game is hence very different from most non-cooperative spectrum management game proposed in the literature. We provide characterization of the Nash Equilibrium (NE) of this game, and present a set of novel algorithms that allow the CUs to distributively and efficiently select the suitable AP and share the channels with other CUs. Finally, we study the properties of the proposed algorithms as well as t...

  10. HIV point of care diagnosis: preventing misdiagnosis experience from a pilot of rapid test algorithm implementation in selected communes in Vietnam. (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thi Thuy; Best, Susan; Pham, Hong Thang; Troung, Thi Xuan Lien; Hoang, Thi Thanh Ha; Wilson, Kim; Ngo, Thi Hong Hanh; Chien, Xuan; Lai, Kim Anh; Bui, Duc Duong; Kato, Masaya


    In Vietnam, HIV testing services had been available only at provincial and district health facilities, but not at the primary health facilities. Consequently, access to HIV testing services had been limited especially in rural areas. In 2012, Vietnam piloted decentralization and integration of HIV services at commune health stations (CHSs). As a part of this pilot, a three-rapid test algorithm was introduced at CHSs. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of a three-rapid test algorithm and the implementation of quality assurance measures to prevent misdiagnosis, at primary health facilities. The three-rapid test algorithm (Determine HIV-1/2, followed by ACON HIV 1/2 and DoubleCheckGold HIV 1&2 in parallel) was piloted at CHSs from August 2012 to December 2013. Commune health staff were trained to perform HIV testing. Specimens from CHSs were sent to the provincial confirmatory laboratory (PCL) for confirmatory and validation testing. Quality assurance measures were undertaken including training, competency assessment, field technical assistance, supervision and monitoring and external quality assessment (EQA). Data on HIV testing were collected from the testing logbooks at commune and provincial facilities. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Sensitivity and specificity of the rapid testing algorithm were calculated. A total of 1,373 people received HIV testing and counselling (HTC) at CHSs. Eighty people were diagnosed with HIV infection (5.8%). The 755/1244 specimens reported as HIV negative at the CHS were sent to PCL and confirmed as negative, and all 80 specimens reported as HIV positive at CHS were confirmed as positive at the PCL. Forty-nine specimens that were reactive with Determine but negative with ACON and DoubleCheckGold at the CHSs were confirmed negative at the PCL. The results show this rapid test algorithm to be 100% sensitive and 100% specific. Of 21 CHSs that received two rounds of EQA panels, 20 CHSs submitted accurate

  11. A Channel Assignment Extension of Active Access-Point Configuration Algorithm for Elastic WLAN System and Its Implementation Using Raspberry Pi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mamun, Md. Selim Al; Funabiki, Nobuo; Lwin, Kyaw Soe; Islam, Md. Ezharul; Kao, Wen-Chung


    Recently, Wireless Local-Area Network (WLAN) has become prevailing as it provides flexible Internet access to users with low cost through installation of several types of access points (APs) in the network...

  12. Algorithming the Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Martina; Uprichard, Emma


    changes: it’s not the ocean, it’s the internet we’re talking about, and it’s not a TV show producer, but algorithms that constitute a sort of invisible wall. Building on this assumption, most research is trying to ‘tame the algorithmic tiger’. While this is a valuable and often inspiring approach, we...... would like to emphasize another side to the algorithmic everyday life. We argue that algorithms can instigate and facilitate imagination, creativity, and frivolity, while saying something that is simultaneously old and new, always almost repeating what was before but never quite returning. We show...... this by threading together stimulating quotes and screenshots from Google’s autocomplete algorithms. In doing so, we invite the reader to re-explore Google’s autocomplete algorithms in a creative, playful, and reflexive way, thereby rendering more visible some of the excitement and frivolity that comes from being...

  13. Cook-Levin Theorem Algorithmic-Reducibility/Completeness = Wilson Renormalization-(Semi)-Group Fixed-Points; ``Noise''-Induced Phase-Transitions (NITs) to Accelerate Algorithmics (``NIT-Picking'') REPLACING CRUTCHES!!!: Models: Turing-machine, finite-state-models, finite-automata (United States)

    Young, Frederic; Siegel, Edward

    Cook-Levin theorem theorem algorithmic computational-complexity(C-C) algorithmic-equivalence reducibility/completeness equivalence to renormalization-(semi)-group phase-transitions critical-phenomena statistical-physics universality-classes fixed-points, is exploited via Siegel FUZZYICS =CATEGORYICS = ANALOGYICS =PRAGMATYICS/CATEGORY-SEMANTICS ONTOLOGY COGNITION ANALYTICS-Aristotle ``square-of-opposition'' tabular list-format truth-table matrix analytics predicts and implements ''noise''-induced phase-transitions (NITs) to accelerate versus to decelerate Harel [Algorithmics (1987)]-Sipser[Intro.Thy. Computation(`97)] algorithmic C-C: ''NIT-picking''(!!!), to optimize optimization-problems optimally(OOPO). Versus iso-''noise'' power-spectrum quantitative-only amplitude/magnitude-only variation stochastic-resonance, ''NIT-picking'' is ''noise'' power-spectrum QUALitative-type variation via quantitative critical-exponents variation. Computer-''science''/SEANCE algorithmic C-C models: Turing-machine, finite-state-models, finite-automata,..., discrete-maths graph-theory equivalence to physics Feynman-diagrams are identified as early-days once-workable valid but limiting IMPEDING CRUTCHES(!!!), ONLY IMPEDE latter-days new-insights!!!

  14. Voronoi Particle Merging Algorithm for PIC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Luu, Phuc T


    We present a new particle-merging algorithm for the particle-in-cell method. Based on the concept of the Voronoi diagram, the algorithm partitions the phase space into smaller subsets, which consist of only particles that are in close proximity in the phase space to each other. We show the performance of our algorithm in the case of magnetic shower.

  15. Preconditioned Alternating Projection Algorithms for Maximum a Posteriori ECT Reconstruction. (United States)

    Krol, Andrzej; Li, Si; Shen, Lixin; Xu, Yuesheng


    We propose a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) for solving the maximum a posteriori (MAP) emission computed tomography (ECT) reconstruction problem. Specifically, we formulate the reconstruction problem as a constrained convex optimization problem with the total variation (TV) regularization. We then characterize the solution of the constrained convex optimization problem and show that it satisfies a system of fixed-point equations defined in terms of two proximity operators raised from the convex functions that define the TV-norm and the constrain involved in the problem. The characterization (of the solution) via the proximity operators that define two projection operators naturally leads to an alternating projection algorithm for finding the solution. For efficient numerical computation, we introduce to the alternating projection algorithm a preconditioning matrix (the EM-preconditioner) for the dense system matrix involved in the optimization problem. We prove theoretically convergence of the preconditioned alternating projection algorithm. In numerical experiments, performance of our algorithms, with an appropriately selected preconditioning matrix, is compared with performance of the conventional MAP expectation-maximization (MAP-EM) algorithm with TV regularizer (EM-TV) and that of the recently developed nested EM-TV algorithm for ECT reconstruction. Based on the numerical experiments performed in this work, we observe that the alternating projection algorithm with the EM-preconditioner outperforms significantly the EM-TV in all aspects including the convergence speed, the noise in the reconstructed images and the image quality. It also outperforms the nested EM-TV in the convergence speed while providing comparable image quality.

  16. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre


    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  18. Algorithms Introduction to Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 1. Algorithms Introduction to Algorithms. R K Shyamasundar. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 20-27. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  19. Solving discrete zero point problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, G.; Talman, A.J.J.; Yang, Z.F.


    In this paper an algorithm is proposed to .nd a discrete zero point of a function on the collection of integral points in the n-dimensional Euclidean space IRn.Starting with a given integral point, the algorithm generates a .nite sequence of adjacent integral simplices of varying dimension and

  20. Strike Point Control for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolemen, E.; Gates, D. A.; Rowley, C. W.; Kasdin, N. J.; Kallman, J.; Gerhardt, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Mueller, D.


    This paper presents the first control algorithm for the inner and outer strike point position for a Spherical Torus (ST) fusion experiment and the performance analysis of the controller. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD) will be installed on NSTX which is believed to provide better pumping than lithium coatings on carbon PFCs. The shape of the plasma dictates the pumping rate of the lithium by channeling the plasma to LLD, where strike point location is the most important shape parameter. Simulations show that the density reduction depends on the proximity of strike point to LLD. Experiments were performed to study the dynamics of the strike point, design a new controller to change the location of the strike point to desired location and stabilize it. The most effective PF coils in changing inner and outer strike points were identified using equilibrium code. The PF coil inputs were changed in a step fashion between various set points and the step response of the strike point position was obtained. From the analysis of the step responses, PID controllers for the strike points were obtained and the controller was tuned experimentally for better performance. The strike controller was extended to include the outer-strike point on the inner plate to accommodate the desired low outer-strike points for the experiment with the aim of achieving "snowflake" divertor configuration in NSTX.

  1. An algorithm for finding a common solution for a system of mixed equilibrium problem, quasi-variational inclusion problem and fixed point problem of nonexpansive semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Min


    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a hybrid iterative scheme for finding a common element of the set of solutions for a system of mixed equilibrium problems, the set of common fixed points for a nonexpansive semigroup and the set of solutions of the quasi-variational inclusion problem with multi-valued maximal monotone mappings and inverse-strongly monotone mappings in a Hilbert space. Under suitable conditions, some strong convergence theorems are proved. Our results extend some recent results in the literature.

  2. Parallel algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Henri; Robert, Yves


    ""…The authors of the present book, who have extensive credentials in both research and instruction in the area of parallelism, present a sound, principled treatment of parallel algorithms. … This book is very well written and extremely well designed from an instructional point of view. … The authors have created an instructive and fascinating text. The book will serve researchers as well as instructors who need a solid, readable text for a course on parallelism in computing. Indeed, for anyone who wants an understandable text from which to acquire a current, rigorous, and broad vi

  3. Proximal caries detection: Sirona Sidexis versus Kodak Ektaspeed Plus. (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Ludlow, John B; Caplan, Daniel


    This study compared the accuracy of intraoral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD) receptor for proximal caries detection. Four observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 40 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a five-point confidence scale. The actual status of each surface was determined from ground section histology. Responses were evaluated by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Areas under ROC curves (Az) were assessed through a paired t-test. The performance of the CCD-based intraoral sensor was not different statistically from Ektaspeed Plus film in detecting proximal caries.

  4. Approximate solutions of common fixed-point problems

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J


    This book presents results on the convergence behavior of algorithms which are known as vital tools for solving convex feasibility problems and common fixed point problems. The main goal for us in dealing with a known computational error is to find what approximate solution can be obtained and how many iterates one needs to find it. According to know results, these algorithms should converge to a solution. In this exposition, these algorithms are studied, taking into account computational errors which remain consistent in practice. In this case the convergence to a solution does not take place. We show that our algorithms generate a good approximate solution if computational errors are bounded from above by a small positive constant. Beginning with an introduction, this monograph moves on to study: · dynamic string-averaging methods for common fixed point problems in a Hilbert space · dynamic string methods for common fixed point problems in a metric space · dynamic string-averaging version of the proximal...

  5. Effect of electroacupuncture at distal–proximal acupoint combinations on spinal interleukin-1 beta in a rat model of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Jiang


    Conclusion: EA at distal + proximal acupoints, distal points, as well as proximal points attenuated upregulation of spinal IL-1β, alleviated the extent of neuropathic pain hypersensitivity, and promoted mechanical withdrawal threshold, resulting in EA analgesia.

  6. Powered Descent Guidance with General Thrust-Pointing Constraints (United States)

    Carson, John M., III; Acikmese, Behcet; Blackmore, Lars


    The Powered Descent Guidance (PDG) algorithm and software for generating Mars pinpoint or precision landing guidance profiles has been enhanced to incorporate thrust-pointing constraints. Pointing constraints would typically be needed for onboard sensor and navigation systems that have specific field-of-view requirements to generate valid ground proximity and terrain-relative state measurements. The original PDG algorithm was designed to enforce both control and state constraints, including maximum and minimum thrust bounds, avoidance of the ground or descent within a glide slope cone, and maximum speed limits. The thrust-bound and thrust-pointing constraints within PDG are non-convex, which in general requires nonlinear optimization methods to generate solutions. The short duration of Mars powered descent requires guaranteed PDG convergence to a solution within a finite time; however, nonlinear optimization methods have no guarantees of convergence to the global optimal or convergence within finite computation time. A lossless convexification developed for the original PDG algorithm relaxed the non-convex thrust bound constraints. This relaxation was theoretically proven to provide valid and optimal solutions for the original, non-convex problem within a convex framework. As with the thrust bound constraint, a relaxation of the thrust-pointing constraint also provides a lossless convexification that ensures the enhanced relaxed PDG algorithm remains convex and retains validity for the original nonconvex problem. The enhanced PDG algorithm provides guidance profiles for pinpoint and precision landing that minimize fuel usage, minimize landing error to the target, and ensure satisfaction of all position and control constraints, including thrust bounds and now thrust-pointing constraints.

  7. Development of procedures for programmable proximity aperture lithography (United States)

    Whitlow, H. J.; Gorelick, S.; Puttaraksa, N.; Napari, M.; Hokkanen, M. J.; Norarat, R.


    Programmable proximity aperture lithography (PPAL) with MeV ions has been used in Jyväskylä and Chiang Mai universities for a number of years. Here we describe a number of innovations and procedures that have been incorporated into the LabView-based software. The basic operation involves the coordination of the beam blanker and five motor-actuated translators with high accuracy, close to the minimum step size with proper anti-collision algorithms. By using special approaches, such writing calibration patterns, linearisation of position and careful backlash correction the absolute accuracy of the aperture size and position, can be improved beyond the standard afforded by the repeatability of the translator end-point switches. Another area of consideration has been the fluence control procedures. These involve control of the uniformity of the beam where different approaches for fluence measurement such as simultaneous aperture current and the ion current passing through the aperture using a Faraday cup are used. Microfluidic patterns may contain many elements that make-up mixing sections, reaction chambers, separation columns and fluid reservoirs. To facilitate conception and planning we have implemented a .svg file interpreter, that allows the use of scalable vector graphics files produced by standard drawing software for generation of patterns made up of rectangular elements.

  8. MAMAP – a new spectrometer system for column-averaged methane and carbon dioxide observations from aircraft: retrieval algorithm and first inversions for point source emission rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bovensmann


    estimates for strong point source emission rates that are within ±10% of the reported values, given appropriate flight patterns and detailed knowledge of wind conditions.

  9. Proximal collagenous gastroenteritides:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Riis, Lene Buhl; Danese, Silvio


    a systematic review of collagenous gastritis, collagenous sprue, and a combination thereof. METHOD: The search yielded 117 studies which were suitable for inclusion in the systematic review. Excluding repeated cases, 89 case reports and 28 case series were reported, whereas no prospective studies...... of these disorders is presented. The prognosis of both collagenous gastritis and sprue seems not to be as dismal as considered previously. Data point to involvement of immune or autoimmune mechanisms potentially driven by luminal antigens initiating the fibroinflammatory condition. CONCLUSIONS: To reach...

  10. Challenges of diagnosing acute HIV-1 subtype C infection in African women: performance of a clinical algorithm and the need for point-of-care nucleic-acid based testing. (United States)

    Mlisana, Koleka; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena; Werner, Lise; Feinstein, Addi; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Naicker, Nivashnee; Williamson, Carolyn; Garrett, Nigel


    Prompt diagnosis of acute HIV infection (AHI) benefits the individual and provides opportunities for public health intervention. The aim of this study was to describe most common signs and symptoms of AHI, correlate these with early disease progression and develop a clinical algorithm to identify acute HIV cases in resource limited setting. 245 South African women at high-risk of HIV-1 were assessed for AHI and received monthly HIV-1 antibody and RNA testing. Signs and symptoms at first HIV-positive visit were compared to HIV-negative visits. Logistic regression identified clinical predictors of AHI. A model-based score was assigned to each predictor to create a risk score for every woman. Twenty-eight women seroconverted after a total of 390 person-years of follow-up with an HIV incidence of 7.2/100 person-years (95%CI 4.5-9.8). Fifty-seven percent reported ≥1 sign or symptom at the AHI visit. Factors predictive of AHI included age signs and symptoms correlated with higher HIV-1 RNA at diagnosis (r = 0.63; psigns and symptoms of AHI is critical for early diagnosis of HIV infection. Our algorithm may assist in risk-stratifying individuals for AHI, especially in resource-limited settings where there is no routine testing for AHI. Independent validation of the algorithm on another cohort is needed to assess its utility further. Point-of-care antigen or viral load technology is required, however, to detect asymptomatic, antibody negative cases enabling early interventions and prevention of transmission.

  11. Clinical validation of high-resolution image reconstruction algorithms in brain 18F-FDG-PET: effect of incorporating Gaussian filter, point spread function, and time-of-flight. (United States)

    Nagaki, Akio; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Matsutomo, Norikazu


    Accurate estimation of radiopharmaceutical uptake in the brain is difficult because of count statistics, low spatial resolution, and smoothing filter. The aim of this study was to assess the counting rate performance of PET scanners and the image quality with different combinations of high-resolution image reconstruction algorithms in brain F-2-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (F-FDG)-PET. Using 23 patient studies, we analyzed the coincidence rates of true and random, random fraction, and the noise equivalent counts per axial length (NECpatient) in brain and liver bed positions. The reconstruction algorithms were combined with baseline ordered subsets expectation maximization, Gaussian filter (GF), point spread function (PSF), and time-of-flight (TOF). The image quality of the brain cortex was quantitatively evaluated with respect to spatial resolution, contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The true coincidence rate in the brain was higher by 1.86 times and the random coincidence rate was lower by 0.61 times compared with that in the liver. In the brain, random fraction was lower and NECpatient was higher than that of the liver. Although GF improved the SNR, spatial resolution and contrast were reduced by 12 and 11%, respectively (P<0.01). PSF improved spatial resolution and SNR by 11 and 53%, respectively (P<0.01), and TOF improved SNR by ∼23% (P<0.01). We have demonstrated that a high-resolution image reconstruction algorithm for brain F-FDG-PET is promising without the use of a GF because of high true coincidence counts and that combined with PSF and TOF is optimal for obtaining a better SNR of the image.

  12. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig


    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  13. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt


    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  14. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas


    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...... describe a new algorithm that avoids the problems of previous local-neighbourhood based algorithms. Our algorithm is theoretically I/O-efficient, that is, it is capable of efficiently processing massive sonar point clouds that do not fit in internal memory but must reside on disk. The algorithm is also...

  15. Digital camera resolution and proximal caries detection. (United States)

    Prapayasatok, S; Janhom, A; Verochana, K; Pramojanee, S


    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection from digitized film images captured by a digital camera at different resolution settings. Twenty-five periapical radiographs of 50 premolar and 25 molar teeth were photographed using a digital camera, Sony Cyber-shot, DSC-S75 at three different resolution settings: 640 x 480, 1280 x 960 and 1600 x 1200. Seventy-five digital images were transferred to a computer, saved and opened using ACDSee software. In addition, a PowerPoint slide was made from each digital image. Five observers scored three groups of images (the films, the displayed 1:1 digital images on the ACDSee software, and the PowerPoint slides) for the existence of proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale, and the depth of caries on a 4-point scale. Ground sections of the teeth were used as the gold standard. Az values under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each group of images and at different resolutions were compared using the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Mean different values between the lesions' depth interpreted by the observers and that of the gold standard were analysed. Films showed the highest Az values. Only the 1280 x 960 images on the ACDSee software showed no significant difference of the Az value from the films (P=0.28). The digital images from three resolution settings on the PowerPoint slides showed no significant differences, either among each other or between them and the films. For caries depth, the 1280 x 960 images showed lower values of mean difference in enamel lesions compared with the other two resolution groups. This study showed that in order to digitize conventional films, it was not necessary to use the highest camera resolution setting to achieve high diagnostic accuracy for proximal caries detection. The 1280 x 960 resolution setting of the digital camera demonstrated comparable diagnostic accuracy with film and was adequate for digitizing radiographs for caries

  16. Correction of Misclassifications Using a Proximity-Based Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulevich Ilya


    Full Text Available An estimation method for correcting misclassifications in signal and image processing is presented. The method is based on the use of context-based (temporal or spatial information in a sliding-window fashion. The classes can be purely nominal, that is, an ordering of the classes is not required. The method employs nonlinear operations based on class proximities defined by a proximity matrix. Two case studies are presented. In the first, the proposed method is applied to one-dimensional signals for processing data that are obtained by a musical key-finding algorithm. In the second, the estimation method is applied to two-dimensional signals for correction of misclassifications in images. In the first case study, the proximity matrix employed by the estimation method follows directly from music perception studies, whereas in the second case study, the optimal proximity matrix is obtained with genetic algorithms as the learning rule in a training-based optimization framework. Simulation results are presented in both case studies and the degree of improvement in classification accuracy that is obtained by the proposed method is assessed statistically using Kappa analysis.

  17. On-orbit demonstration of automated closure and capture using ESA-developed proximity operations technologies and an existing, serviceable NASA Explorer Platform spacecraft (United States)

    Hohwiesner, Bill; Claudinon, Bernard


    The European Space Agency (ESA) has been working to develop an autonomous rendezvous and docking capability since 1984 to enable Hermes to automatically dock with Columbus. As a result, ESA with Matra, MBB, and other space companies have developed technologies that are also directly supportive of the current NASA initiative for Automated Rendezvous and Capture. Fairchild and Matra would like to discuss the results of the applicable ESA/Matra rendezvous and capture developments, and suggest how these capabilities could be used, together with an existing NASA Explorer Platform satellite, to minimize new development and accomplish a cost effective automatic closure and capture demonstration program. Several RV sensors have been developed at breadboard level for the Hermes/Columbus program by Matra, MBB, and SAAB. Detailed algorithms for automatic rendezvous, closure, and capture have been developed by ESA and CNES for application with Hermes to Columbus rendezvous and docking, and they currently are being verified with closed-loop software simulation. The algorithms have multiple closed-loop control modes and phases starting at long range using GPS navigation. Differential navigation is used for coast/continuous thrust homing, holdpoint acquisition, V-bar hopping, and station point acquisition. The proximity operation sensor is used for final closure and capture. A subset of these algorithms, comprising the proximity operations algorithms, could easily be extracted and tailored to a limited objective closure and capture flight demonstration.

  18. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew


    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  19. Algorithm design

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinberg, Jon


    Algorithm Design introduces algorithms by looking at the real-world problems that motivate them. The book teaches students a range of design and analysis techniques for problems that arise in computing applications. The text encourages an understanding of the algorithm design process and an appreciation of the role of algorithms in the broader field of computer science.

  20. Genetic algorithms (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.


    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  1. Sensitivity Analysis of the Proximal-Based Parallel Decomposition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ma


    Full Text Available The proximal-based parallel decomposition methods were recently proposed to solve structured convex optimization problems. These algorithms are eligible for parallel computation and can be used efficiently for solving large-scale separable problems. In this paper, compared with the previous theoretical results, we show that the range of the involved parameters can be enlarged while the convergence can be still established. Preliminary numerical tests on stable principal component pursuit problem testify to the advantages of the enlargement.

  2. Challenges of diagnosing acute HIV-1 subtype C infection in African women: performance of a clinical algorithm and the need for point-of-care nucleic-acid based testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleka Mlisana

    Full Text Available Prompt diagnosis of acute HIV infection (AHI benefits the individual and provides opportunities for public health intervention. The aim of this study was to describe most common signs and symptoms of AHI, correlate these with early disease progression and develop a clinical algorithm to identify acute HIV cases in resource limited setting.245 South African women at high-risk of HIV-1 were assessed for AHI and received monthly HIV-1 antibody and RNA testing. Signs and symptoms at first HIV-positive visit were compared to HIV-negative visits. Logistic regression identified clinical predictors of AHI. A model-based score was assigned to each predictor to create a risk score for every woman.Twenty-eight women seroconverted after a total of 390 person-years of follow-up with an HIV incidence of 7.2/100 person-years (95%CI 4.5-9.8. Fifty-seven percent reported ≥1 sign or symptom at the AHI visit. Factors predictive of AHI included age <25 years (OR = 3.2; 1.4-7.1, rash (OR = 6.1; 2.4-15.4, sore throat (OR = 2.7; 1.0-7.6, weight loss (OR = 4.4; 1.5-13.4, genital ulcers (OR = 8.0; 1.6-39.5 and vaginal discharge (OR = 5.4; 1.6-18.4. A risk score of 2 correctly predicted AHI in 50.0% of cases. The number of signs and symptoms correlated with higher HIV-1 RNA at diagnosis (r = 0.63; p<0.001.Accurate recognition of signs and symptoms of AHI is critical for early diagnosis of HIV infection. Our algorithm may assist in risk-stratifying individuals for AHI, especially in resource-limited settings where there is no routine testing for AHI. Independent validation of the algorithm on another cohort is needed to assess its utility further. Point-of-care antigen or viral load technology is required, however, to detect asymptomatic, antibody negative cases enabling early interventions and prevention of transmission.

  3. Worlds largest particle physics laboratory selects Proxim Wireless Mesh

    CERN Multimedia


    "Proxim Wireless has announced that the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the world's largest particle physics laboratory and the birthplace of the World Wide Web, is using it's ORiNOCO AP-4000 mesh access points to extend the range of the laboratory's Wi-Fi network and to provide continuous monitoring of the lab's calorimeters" (1/2 page)

  4. The validity of proximal caries detection using magnifying visual aids. (United States)

    Haak, Rainer; Wicht, Michael J; Hellmich, Martin; Gossmann, Andrea; Noack, Michael J


    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of proximal caries detection supported by a prism loupe and a surgical microscope used by examiners having different professional experience. One hundred and sixty extracted premolars and molars with varying degrees of proximal caries or sound surfaces were embedded in 10 pairs of models with proximal tooth contacts and a simulated gingiva mask. The proximal surfaces were visually evaluated by 14 observers (7 students, 7 dentists) according to a 5-point caries rating scale using a head-worn prism loupe (x4.5), a surgical microscope (x 14) and without any magnifying device (control). The validity of observations was expressed as ROC curves calculated for two gold standard thresholds: (a) the presence of caries and (b) macroscopic cavitation. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of 'observer group' and 'diagnostic modality'. An influence of the observer group could not be demonstrated (p > 0.72), whereas significant differences were revealed between the diagnostic modalities (p caries detection with magnifying aids were smaller compared to the control group. It was concluded that the use of a prism loupe or a surgical microscope does not improve the validity of proximal caries detection if the operators, irrespective of being dental students or clinical instructors, are inexperienced in its utilisation. In general only moderate validity was achieved with visual inspection of proximal sites. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Geodesics on Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchuan Yu


    Full Text Available We present a novel framework to compute geodesics on implicit surfaces and point clouds. Our framework consists of three parts, particle based approximate geodesics on implicit surfaces, Cartesian grid based approximate geodesics on point clouds, and geodesic correction. The first two parts can effectively generate approximate geodesics on implicit surfaces and point clouds, respectively. By introducing the geodesic curvature flow, the third part produces smooth and accurate geodesic solutions. Differing from most of the existing methods, our algorithms can converge to a given tolerance. The presented computational framework is suitable for arbitrary implicit hypersurfaces or point clouds with high genus or high curvature.

  6. Structural-surface extraction from 3D laser radar point clouds (United States)

    Lersch, James R.; Webb, Brian N.; West, Karen F.


    Structural segmentation of 3-D point-cloud data is an important step in the acquisition, recognition and visual representation of objects from point data. Associating groups of points that are consistent with structural surface elements allows decision making based on object components that are much more meaningful that the points alone. Processing begins by filtering the 3-D point-cloud data to smooth surfaces and remove noise. Filtering is essential for accurate surface-normal estimation. Our point filtering algorithm steps a 3-D box through the data, using an efficient search algorithm that employs priority queues for sequential sorting in x, y, and z. Filtering is based on the computation of a best planar fit at each box location. After filtering, processing continues by again stepping through the data and computing local surface normals at each filtered point. We then compute a Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) with nodes consisting of the filtered points, edges established by proximity, and edge weights set as the Euclidean distance between local surface normals. A modified range tree that is computed on the fly from unsorted point data is used in implementing the MST. We then employ a novel procedure to determine the edges that should be broken, leaving subgraphs that represent structural surfaces. These surfaces have been used for visual display of 3-D LADAR data, extraction of surfaces for automatic detection of buildings, and differentiation between man-made and natural objects.

  7. Topology of digital images visual pattern discovery in proximity spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F


    This book carries forward recent work on visual patterns and structures in digital images and introduces a near set-based a topology of digital images. Visual patterns arise naturally in digital images viewed as sets of non-abstract points endowed with some form of proximity (nearness) relation. Proximity relations make it possible to construct uniform topolo- gies on the sets of points that constitute a digital image. In keeping with an interest in gaining an understanding of digital images themselves as a rich source of patterns, this book introduces the basics of digital images from a computer vision perspective. In parallel with a computer vision perspective on digital images, this book also introduces the basics of prox- imity spaces. Not only the traditional view of spatial proximity relations but also the more recent descriptive proximity relations are considered. The beauty of the descriptive proximity approach is that it is possible to discover visual set patterns among sets that are non-overlapping ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  9. Algorithmic cryptanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Joux, Antoine


    Illustrating the power of algorithms, Algorithmic Cryptanalysis describes algorithmic methods with cryptographically relevant examples. Focusing on both private- and public-key cryptographic algorithms, it presents each algorithm either as a textual description, in pseudo-code, or in a C code program.Divided into three parts, the book begins with a short introduction to cryptography and a background chapter on elementary number theory and algebra. It then moves on to algorithms, with each chapter in this section dedicated to a single topic and often illustrated with simple cryptographic applic

  10. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture ...

  11. Algorithmic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hougardy, Stefan


    Algorithms play an increasingly important role in nearly all fields of mathematics. This book allows readers to develop basic mathematical abilities, in particular those concerning the design and analysis of algorithms as well as their implementation. It presents not only fundamental algorithms like the sieve of Eratosthenes, the Euclidean algorithm, sorting algorithms, algorithms on graphs, and Gaussian elimination, but also discusses elementary data structures, basic graph theory, and numerical questions. In addition, it provides an introduction to programming and demonstrates in detail how to implement algorithms in C++. This textbook is suitable for students who are new to the subject and covers a basic mathematical lecture course, complementing traditional courses on analysis and linear algebra. Both authors have given this "Algorithmic Mathematics" course at the University of Bonn several times in recent years.

  12. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  13. A novel electronic algorithm using host biomarker point-of-care tests for the management of febrile illnesses in Tanzanian children (e-POCT): A randomized, controlled non-inferiority trial. (United States)

    Keitel, Kristina; Kagoro, Frank; Samaka, Josephine; Masimba, John; Said, Zamzam; Temba, Hosiana; Mlaganile, Tarsis; Sangu, Willy; Rambaud-Althaus, Clotilde; Gervaix, Alain; Genton, Blaise; D'Acremont, Valérie


    The management of childhood infections remains inadequate in resource-limited countries, resulting in high mortality and irrational use of antimicrobials. Current disease management tools, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) algorithm, rely solely on clinical signs and have not made use of available point-of-care tests (POCTs) that can help to identify children with severe infections and children in need of antibiotic treatment. e-POCT is a novel electronic algorithm based on current evidence; it guides clinicians through the entire consultation and recommends treatment based on a few clinical signs and POCT results, some performed in all patients (malaria rapid diagnostic test, hemoglobin, oximeter) and others in selected subgroups only (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, glucometer). The objective of this trial was to determine whether the clinical outcome of febrile children managed by the e-POCT tool was non-inferior to that of febrile children managed by a validated electronic algorithm derived from IMCI (ALMANACH), while reducing the proportion with antibiotic prescription. We performed a randomized (at patient level, blocks of 4), controlled non-inferiority study among children aged 2-59 months presenting with acute febrile illness to 9 outpatient clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In parallel, routine care was documented in 2 health centers. The primary outcome was the proportion of clinical failures (development of severe symptoms, clinical pneumonia on/after day 3, or persistent symptoms at day 7) by day 7 of follow-up. Non-inferiority would be declared if the proportion of clinical failures with e-POCT was no worse than the proportion of clinical failures with ALMANACH, within statistical variability, by a margin of 3%. The secondary outcomes included the proportion with antibiotics prescribed on day 0, primary referrals, and severe adverse events by day 30 (secondary hospitalizations and deaths). We enrolled 3,192 patients

  14. A novel electronic algorithm using host biomarker point-of-care tests for the management of febrile illnesses in Tanzanian children (e-POCT: A randomized, controlled non-inferiority trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Keitel


    Full Text Available The management of childhood infections remains inadequate in resource-limited countries, resulting in high mortality and irrational use of antimicrobials. Current disease management tools, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI algorithm, rely solely on clinical signs and have not made use of available point-of-care tests (POCTs that can help to identify children with severe infections and children in need of antibiotic treatment. e-POCT is a novel electronic algorithm based on current evidence; it guides clinicians through the entire consultation and recommends treatment based on a few clinical signs and POCT results, some performed in all patients (malaria rapid diagnostic test, hemoglobin, oximeter and others in selected subgroups only (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, glucometer. The objective of this trial was to determine whether the clinical outcome of febrile children managed by the e-POCT tool was non-inferior to that of febrile children managed by a validated electronic algorithm derived from IMCI (ALMANACH, while reducing the proportion with antibiotic prescription.We performed a randomized (at patient level, blocks of 4, controlled non-inferiority study among children aged 2-59 months presenting with acute febrile illness to 9 outpatient clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In parallel, routine care was documented in 2 health centers. The primary outcome was the proportion of clinical failures (development of severe symptoms, clinical pneumonia on/after day 3, or persistent symptoms at day 7 by day 7 of follow-up. Non-inferiority would be declared if the proportion of clinical failures with e-POCT was no worse than the proportion of clinical failures with ALMANACH, within statistical variability, by a margin of 3%. The secondary outcomes included the proportion with antibiotics prescribed on day 0, primary referrals, and severe adverse events by day 30 (secondary hospitalizations and deaths. We enrolled 3

  15. Photoactivated In Vivo Proximity Labeling. (United States)

    Beck, David B; Bonasio, Roberto


    Identification of molecular interactions is paramount to understanding how cells function. Most available technologies rely on co-purification of a protein of interest and its binding partners. Therefore, they are limited in their ability to detect low-affinity interactions and cannot be applied to proteins that localize to difficult-to-solubilize cellular compartments. In vivo proximity labeling (IPL) overcomes these obstacles by covalently tagging proteins and RNAs based on their proximity in vivo to a protein of interest. In IPL, a heterobifunctional probe comprising a photoactivatable moiety and biotin is recruited by a monomeric streptavidin tag fused to a protein of interest. Following UV irradiation, candidate interacting proteins and RNAs are covalently biotinylated with tight spatial and temporal control and subsequently recovered using biotin as an affinity handle. Here, we describe experimental protocols to discover novel protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions using IPL. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Proximity Effects in Superconductor-Graphene Junctions (United States)

    Cuellar, Fabian A.; Perconte, David; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Dlubak, Bruno; Piquemail, Maelis; Bernard, Rozenn; Trastoy, Juan; Moreau-Luchaire, Constance; Seneor, Pierre; Villegas, Javier E.; Kidambi, Piran; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John


    Superconducting proximity effects are of particular interest in graphene: because of its band structure, an unconventional (specular) Andreev reflection is expected. In this context, high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions are especially attractive. In these, the size of the superconducting energy-gap may exceed the graphene doping inhomogeneities around the Dirac point, which should favor the observation of the specular Andreev reflection. Yet, the fabrication of high-Tc superconductor-graphene junctions is challenging: the usual growth and lithography processes in both materials are incompatible. We report here on a fabrication method that allow us to fabricate planar cuprate superconductor-graphene junctions, which we characterize via conductance spectroscopy. We analyze the features in the conductance spectra as a function of graphene doping, and discuss them in the framework of the Andreev reflection. Work supported by Labex Nanosaclay.

  17. Prox-1 Automated Proximity Operations (United States)


    on demonstrating the functionality required to meet minimum mission success criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of...also includes deployment of LightSail-B from the P-POD, and imaging of LightSail-B for 20 minutes as it recedes from Prox-1. small satellite ; proximity...criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of all spacecraft subsystems, including flight qualification of the following new

  18. Prediction of biases for optical proximity correction through partial coherent identification (United States)

    Jeong, Moongyu; Hahn, Jae W.


    Most approaches to model-based optical proximity correction (OPC) use an iterative algorithm to determine the optimum mask. Each iteration requires at least one simulation, which is the most time-consuming part of model-based OPC. As the layout becomes more complicated and the process conditions are driven to the physical limit, the required number of iterations increases dramatically. To overcome this problem, we propose a method to predict the OPC bias of layout segments with a single-hidden-layer neural network. The segments are characterized by length and based on intensities at the corresponding control points, and these features are used as input to the network, which is trained with an extreme learning machine. We obtain a best-error root mean square of 1.29 nm from training and test experiments for layout clips sampled from a random contact layer of a logic device. In addition, we reduced the iterations by 27.0% by initializing the biases in the trained network before performing the main iterations of the OPC algorithm.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS. 1 Alhassan, A. J. 1M .S. Sule, 1J. ... ABSTRACT. This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. Proximate ... days, before pulverized to powder and kept in plastic container.

  20. On the Simplex Algorithm Initializing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša V. Stojković


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the importance of starting point in the simplex algorithm. Three different methods for finding a basic feasible solution are compared throughout performed numerical test examples. We show that our two methods on the Netlib test problems have better performances than the classical algorithm for finding initial solution. The comparison of the introduced optimization softwares is based on the number of iterative steps and on the required CPU time. It is pointed out that on average it takes more iterations to determine the starting point than the number of iterations required by the simplex algorithm to find the optimal solution.

  1. Evolutionary pattern search algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, W.E.


    This paper defines a class of evolutionary algorithms called evolutionary pattern search algorithms (EPSAs) and analyzes their convergence properties. This class of algorithms is closely related to evolutionary programming, evolutionary strategie and real-coded genetic algorithms. EPSAs are self-adapting systems that modify the step size of the mutation operator in response to the success of previous optimization steps. The rule used to adapt the step size can be used to provide a stationary point convergence theory for EPSAs on any continuous function. This convergence theory is based on an extension of the convergence theory for generalized pattern search methods. An experimental analysis of the performance of EPSAs demonstrates that these algorithms can perform a level of global search that is comparable to that of canonical EAs. We also describe a stopping rule for EPSAs, which reliably terminated near stationary points in our experiments. This is the first stopping rule for any class of EAs that can terminate at a given distance from stationary points.

  2. Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation. (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise; Cerepani, Mary Jo


    Finger dislocations are common injuries that are often managed by emergency nurse practitioners. A systematic physical examination following these injuries is imperative to avoid complications. Radiographic views, including the anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views, are imperative to evaluate these finger dislocations. A dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is the most common finger dislocation type often easily reduced. A volar PIP dislocation can often be difficult to reduce and may result in finger deformity. Finger dislocations should be reduced promptly. Referral to an orthopedic hand specialist is required if the dislocation is unable to be reduced or if the finger joint is unstable following reduction attempts.

  3. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.


    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  4. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  5. SU-F-T-15: Evaluation of 192Ir, 60Co and 169Yb Sources for High Dose Rate Prostate Brachytherapy Inverse Planning Using An Interior Point Constraint Generation Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mok Tsze Chung, E; Aleman, D [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Safigholi, H; Nicolae, A; Davidson, M; Ravi, A; Song, W [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)


    Purpose: The effectiveness of using a combination of three sources, {sup 60}Co, {sup 192}Ir and {sup 169}Yb, is analyzed. Different combinations are compared against a single {sup 192}Ir source on prostate cancer cases. A novel inverse planning interior point algorithm is developed in-house to generate the treatment plans. Methods: Thirteen prostate cancer patients are separated into two groups: Group A includes eight patients with the prostate as target volume, while group B consists of four patients with a boost nodule inside the prostate that is assigned 150% of the prescription dose. The mean target volume is 35.7±9.3cc and 30.6±8.5cc for groups A and B, respectively. All patients are treated with each source individually, then with paired sources, and finally with all three sources. To compare the results, boost volume V150 and D90, urethra Dmax and D10, and rectum Dmax and V80 are evaluated. For fair comparison, all plans are normalized to a uniform V100=100. Results: Overall, double- and triple-source plans were better than single-source plans. The triple-source plans resulted in an average decrease of 21.7% and 1.5% in urethra Dmax and D10, respectively, and 8.0% and 0.8% in rectum Dmax and V80, respectively, for group A. For group B, boost volume V150 and D90 increased by 4.7% and 3.0%, respectively, while keeping similar dose delivered to the urethra and rectum. {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir produced better plans than their counterparts in the double-source category, whereas {sup 60}Co produced more favorable results than the remaining individual sources. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential advantage of using a combination of two or three sources, reflected in dose reduction to organs-at-risk and more conformal dose to the target. three sources, reflected in dose reduction to organs-at-risk and more conformal dose to the target. Our results show that {sup 60}Co, {sup 192}Ir and {sup 169}Yb produce the best plans when used simultaneously and

  6. Online co-regularized algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, T. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Heskes, T.


    We propose an online co-regularized learning algorithm for classification and regression tasks. We demonstrate that by sequentially co-regularizing prediction functions on unlabeled data points, our algorithm provides improved performance in comparison to supervised methods on several UCI benchmarks


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sithole


    Full Text Available The notion of a ‘Best’ segmentation does not exist. A segmentation algorithm is chosen based on the features it yields, the properties of the segments (point sets it generates, and the complexity of its algorithm. The segmentation is then assessed based on a variety of metrics such as homogeneity, heterogeneity, fragmentation, etc. Even after an algorithm is chosen its performance is still uncertain because the landscape/scenarios represented in a point cloud have a strong influence on the eventual segmentation. Thus selecting an appropriate segmentation algorithm is a process of trial and error. Automating the selection of segmentation algorithms and their parameters first requires methods to evaluate segmentations. Three common approaches for evaluating segmentation algorithms are ‘goodness methods’, ‘discrepancy methods’ and ‘benchmarks’. Benchmarks are considered the most comprehensive method of evaluation. This paper shortcomings in current benchmark methods are identified and a framework is proposed that permits both a visual and numerical evaluation of segmentations for different algorithms, algorithm parameters and evaluation metrics. The concept of the framework is demonstrated on a real point cloud. Current results are promising and suggest that it can be used to predict the performance of segmentation algorithms.

  8. Proximal supination osteotomy of the first metatarsal for hallux valgus. (United States)

    Yasuda, Toshito; Okuda, Ryuzo; Jotoku, Tsuyoshi; Shima, Hiroaki; Hida, Takashi; Neo, Masashi


    Risk factors for hallux valgus recurrence include postoperative round-shaped lateral edge of the first metatarsal head and postoperative incomplete reduction of the sesamoids. To prevent the occurrence of such conditions, we developed a proximal supination osteotomy of the first metatarsal. Our aim was to describe this novel technique and report the outcomes in this report. Sixty-six patients (83 feet) underwent a distal soft tissue procedure combined with a proximal supination osteotomy. After the proximal crescentic osteotomy, the proximal fragment was pushed medially, and the distal fragment was abducted, and then the distal fragment of the first metatarsal was manually supinated. Outcomes were assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score and radiographic examinations. The average follow-up duration was 34 (range, 25 to 52) months. The mean AOFAS score improved significantly from 58.0 points preoperatively to 93.8 points postoperatively (P hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angle decreased significantly from 38.6 and 18.0 degrees preoperatively to 11.0 and 7.9 degrees postoperatively, respectively (both, P hallux valgus, defined as a hallux valgus angle ≥ 25 degrees. The rates of occurrence of a positive round sign and incomplete reduction of the sesamoids significantly decreased postoperatively, which may have contributed to the low hallux valgus recurrence rates. We conclude that a proximal supination osteotomy was an effective procedure for correction of hallux valgus and can achieve a low rate of hallux valgus recurrence. Level IV, retrospective case series. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Minimally invasive percutaneous plating of proximal humeral shaft fractures with the Proximal Humerus Internal Locking System (PHILOS). (United States)

    Brunner, Alexander; Thormann, Sebastian; Babst, Reto


    This study evaluated our results after minimally invasive percutaneous plating of proximal humeral shaft fractures with the Proximal Humerus Internal Locking System (PHILOS, Synthes, Switzerland). Between 2005 and 2008, 15 patients with unilateral displaced proximal humeral shaft fractures were treated and followed up over a median period of 27 months (range, 12-38 months). The final follow-up included anteroposterior and lateral x-rays, range of shoulder motion, pain by visual analog scale (VAS), the Constant-Murley shoulder score, the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Elbow (DASH) score, and the Short Form 36 (SF36) assessment. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. No secondary fracture displacement or radial neuropathy was observed postoperatively. One patient had open reduction and internal fixation for pseudoarthrosis 16 months after the initial surgery. At the final follow-up, the median range of motion of the operated shoulder was flexion, 145°; extension, 45°; internal rotation, 40°; external rotation, 70°; and abduction, 135°. Median results on outcome assessments were VAS pain score, 0 points; Constant-Murley score, 74 points, representing 87.5% of the median Constant-Murley score of the unaffected shoulder; DASH score, 34 points, and the SF36, 83 points. Minimally invasive percutaneous plating with the PHILOS offers a valid option in the treatment of proximal humeral shaft fractures with comparable rates of nonunion and lower rates of radial neuropathy compared with open procedures. Furthermore, the results indicate that this method is associated with lower rates of wound infection and a shorter stay in the hospital for the patient. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Parallel Butterfly Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Poulson, Jack


    The butterfly algorithm is a fast algorithm which approximately evaluates a discrete analogue of the integral transform (Equation Presented.) at large numbers of target points when the kernel, K(x, y), is approximately low-rank when restricted to subdomains satisfying a certain simple geometric condition. In d dimensions with O(Nd) quasi-uniformly distributed source and target points, when each appropriate submatrix of K is approximately rank-r, the running time of the algorithm is at most O(r2Nd logN). A parallelization of the butterfly algorithm is introduced which, assuming a message latency of α and per-process inverse bandwidth of β, executes in at most (Equation Presented.) time using p processes. This parallel algorithm was then instantiated in the form of the open-source DistButterfly library for the special case where K(x, y) = exp(iΦ(x, y)), where Φ(x, y) is a black-box, sufficiently smooth, real-valued phase function. Experiments on Blue Gene/Q demonstrate impressive strong-scaling results for important classes of phase functions. Using quasi-uniform sources, hyperbolic Radon transforms, and an analogue of a three-dimensional generalized Radon transform were, respectively, observed to strong-scale from 1-node/16-cores up to 1024-nodes/16,384-cores with greater than 90% and 82% efficiency, respectively. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  11. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  13. Extraoral imaging for proximal caries detection: Bitewings vs scanogram. (United States)

    Khan, Emad A; Tyndall, Donald A; Caplan, Daniel


    The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 3 extraoral imaging modalities with an intraoral bitewing radiograph for proximal caries detection. Three modalities of Cranex TOME scanograms, x-ray film and DenOptix photostimulable phosphor plates with and without digital enhancement, were compared with Insight intraoral radiographs for proximal caries detection. Nine observers evaluated images of the proximal surfaces of 45 extracted posterior teeth. The presence or absence of caries was scored using a 5-point confidence scale. The ground truth was determined from histological sections. Responses were evaluated by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (A z ). Repeated measures ANOVA (at alpha = 0.05) demonstrated significant differences among modalities ( P = .041). Paired t tests with Bonferroni correction demonstrated that Insight was superior to only unenhanced digital scanograms ( P = .003). Mean A z scores (+/-SD) were 0.73 (+/-0.08) for Insight, 0.65 (+/-0.06) for screen/film scanogram, 0.64 (+/-0.04) for unenhanced digital scanogram, and 0.66 (+/-0.07) for enhanced digital scanogram. The performances of film-based and enhanced digital scanograms were not statistically different from Insight film for proximal caries detection. Unenhanced digital scanograms exhibited a statistically significant lower diagnostic accuracy than Insight film.

  14. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.


    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  15. RFID Location Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zi Min


    Full Text Available With the development of social services, people’s living standards improve further requirements, there is an urgent need for a way to adapt to the complex situation of the new positioning technology. In recent years, RFID technology have a wide range of applications in all aspects of life and production, such as logistics tracking, car alarm, security and other items. The use of RFID technology to locate, it is a new direction in the eyes of the various research institutions and scholars. RFID positioning technology system stability, the error is small and low-cost advantages of its location algorithm is the focus of this study.This article analyzes the layers of RFID technology targeting methods and algorithms. First, RFID common several basic methods are introduced; Secondly, higher accuracy to political network location method; Finally, LANDMARC algorithm will be described. Through this it can be seen that advanced and efficient algorithms play an important role in increasing RFID positioning accuracy aspects.Finally, the algorithm of RFID location technology are summarized, pointing out the deficiencies in the algorithm, and put forward a follow-up study of the requirements, the vision of a better future RFID positioning technology.

  16. Proximal Multitask Learning Over Networks With Sparsity-Inducing Coregularization (United States)

    Nassif, Roula; Richard, Cedric; Ferrari, Andre; Sayed, Ali H.


    In this work, we consider multitask learning problems where clusters of nodes are interested in estimating their own parameter vector. Cooperation among clusters is beneficial when the optimal models of adjacent clusters have a good number of similar entries. We propose a fully distributed algorithm for solving this problem. The approach relies on minimizing a global mean-square error criterion regularized by non-differentiable terms to promote cooperation among neighboring clusters. A general diffusion forward-backward splitting strategy is introduced. Then, it is specialized to the case of sparsity promoting regularizers. A closed-form expression for the proximal operator of a weighted sum of $\\ell_1$-norms is derived to achieve higher efficiency. We also provide conditions on the step-sizes that ensure convergence of the algorithm in the mean and mean-square error sense. Simulations are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the strategy.

  17. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  18. Dirac-electron-mediated magnetic proximity effect in topological insulator/magnetic insulator heterostructures (United States)

    Li, Mingda; Song, Qichen; Zhao, Weiwei; Garlow, Joseph A.; Liu, Te-Huan; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Chan, Moses H. W.; Chen, Gang; Chang, Cui-Zu


    The possible realization of dissipationless chiral edge current in a topological insulator/magnetic insulator heterostructure is based on the condition that the magnetic proximity exchange coupling at the interface is dominated by the Dirac surface states of the topological insulator. Here we report a polarized neutron reflectometry observation of Dirac-electron-mediated magnetic proximity effect in a bulk-insulating topological insulator (B i0.2S b0.8)2 T e3 /magnetic insulator EuS heterostructure. We are able to maximize the proximity-induced magnetism by applying an electrical back gate to tune the Fermi level of topological insulator to be close to the Dirac point. A phenomenological model based on diamagnetic screening is developed to explain the suppressed proximity-induced magnetism at high carrier density. Our work paves the way to utilize the magnetic proximity effect at the topological insulator/magnetic insulator heterointerface for low-power spintronic applications.

  19. Open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures with use of the locking proximal humerus plate. Surgical technique. (United States)

    Konrad, G; Bayer, J; Hepp, P; Voigt, C; Oestern, H; Kääb, M; Luo, C; Plecko, M; Wendt, K; Köstler, W; Südkamp, N


    The treatment of unstable displaced proximal humeral fractures, especially in the elderly, remains controversial. The objective of the present prospective, multicenter, observational study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the complication rate after open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures with use of a locking proximal humeral plate. One hundred and eighty-seven patients (mean age, 62.9 +/- 15.7 years) with an acute proximal humeral fracture were managed with open reduction and internal fixation with a locking proximal humeral plate. At the three-month, six month,and one-year follow-up examinations, 165 (88%), 158 (84%), and 155 (83%) of the 187 patients were assessed with regard to pain, shoulder mobility, and strength. The Constant score was determined at each interval, and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score was determined for the injured and contralateral extremities at the time of the one-year follow-up. Between three months and one year, the mean range of motion and the mean Constant score for the injured shoulders improved substantially. Twelve months after surgery, the mean Constant score for the injured side was 70.6 +/- 13.7 points, corresponding to 85.1% +/- 14.0% of the score for the contralateral side. The mean DASH score at the time of the one-year follow-up was 15.2 +/- 16.8 points. Sixty-two complications were encountered in fifty-two (34%) of 155 patients at the time of the one-year follow-up. Twenty-five complications (40%) were related to incorrect surgical technique and were present at the end of the operative procedure. The most common complication, noted in twenty-one (14%) of 155 patients, was intraoperative screw perforation of the humeral head. Twenty-nine patients (19%) had an unplanned second operation within twelve months after the fracture. Surgical treatment of displaced proximal humeral fractures with use of the locking proximal humeral plate that was evaluated in the

  20. Diversity-Guided Evolutionary Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær


    Population diversity is undoubtably a key issue in the performance of evolutionary algorithms. A common hypothesis is that high diversity is important to avoid premature convergence and to escape local optima. Various diversity measures have been used to analyze algorithms, but so far few...... algorithms have used a measure to guide the search. The diversity-guided evolutionary algorithm (DGEA) uses the wellknown distance-to-average-point measure to alternate between phases of exploration (mutation) and phases of exploitation (recombination and selection). The DGEA showed remarkable results...

  1. Elementary functions algorithms and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Jean-Michel


    This textbook presents the concepts and tools necessary to understand, build, and implement algorithms for computing elementary functions (e.g., logarithms, exponentials, and the trigonometric functions). Both hardware- and software-oriented algorithms are included, along with issues related to accurate floating-point implementation. This third edition has been updated and expanded to incorporate the most recent advances in the field, new elementary function algorithms, and function software. After a preliminary chapter that briefly introduces some fundamental concepts of computer arithmetic, such as floating-point arithmetic and redundant number systems, the text is divided into three main parts. Part I considers the computation of elementary functions using algorithms based on polynomial or rational approximations and using table-based methods; the final chapter in this section deals with basic principles of multiple-precision arithmetic. Part II is devoted to a presentation of “shift-and-add” algorithm...

  2. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  3. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  4. Numerical stability of finite difference algorithms for electrochemical kinetic simulations. Matrix stability analysis of the classic explicit, fully implicit and Crank-Nicolson methods, extended to the 3- and 4-point gradient approximation at the electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieniasz, Leslaw K.; Østerby, Ole; Britz, Dieter


    We extend the analysis of the stepwise numerical stability of the classic explicit, fully implicit and Crank-Nicolson finite difference algorithms for electrochemical kinetic simulations, to the multipoint gradient approximations at the electrode. The discussion is based on the matrix method...

  5. Nonlinear Rescaling and Proximal-Like Methods in Convex Optimization (United States)

    Polyak, Roman; Teboulle, Marc


    The nonlinear rescaling principle (NRP) consists of transforming the objective function and/or the constraints of a given constrained optimization problem into another problem which is equivalent to the original one in the sense that their optimal set of solutions coincides. A nonlinear transformation parameterized by a positive scalar parameter and based on a smooth scaling function is used to transform the constraints. The methods based on NRP consist of sequential unconstrained minimization of the classical Lagrangian for the equivalent problem, followed by an explicit formula updating the Lagrange multipliers. We first show that the NRP leads naturally to proximal methods with an entropy-like kernel, which is defined by the conjugate of the scaling function, and establish that the two methods are dually equivalent for convex constrained minimization problems. We then study the convergence properties of the nonlinear rescaling algorithm and the corresponding entropy-like proximal methods for convex constrained optimization problems. Special cases of the nonlinear resealing algorithm are presented. In particular a new class of exponential penalty-modified barrier functions methods is introduced.

  6. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures


    Thyagarajan David; Haridas Samarth; Jones Denise; Dent Colin; Evans Richard; Williams Rhys


    Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system) for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years...

  7. The reliability and accuracy of two methods for proximal caries detection and depth on directly visible proximal surfaces: an in vitro study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Alloza, Alvaro Luna; Promisiero, L


    This study aimed to determine the reliability and accuracy of the ICDAS and radiographs in detecting and estimating the depth of proximal lesions on extracted teeth. The lesions were visible to the naked eye. Three trained examiners scored a total of 132 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 106...... primary teeth and 160 sound/carious proximal surfaces from 140 permanent teeth. The selected surfaces were first scored visually, using the 7 classes in the ICDAS. They were then assessed on radiographs using a 5-point classification system. Reexaminations were conducted with both scoring systems. Teeth...... and the radiographs. The associations between the 2 detection methods were measured to be moderate. In particular, the ICDAS was accurate in predicting lesion depth (histologically) confined to the enamel/outer third of the dentine versus deeper lesions. This study shows that when proximal lesions are open...

  8. Preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the following proximate ...

  9. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.


    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  10. Grouping by Proximity in Haptic Contour Detection (United States)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Wagemans, Johan


    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection. PMID:23762364

  11. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Vol. 15 (1) 9 - 11. Full-text Available Online at Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms. ADEDAYO, MAJEKODUNMI RACHEL. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, P.M.B.3032, Kano. ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in.

  12. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spigelia anthelmia is used traditionally in Southern Nigeria for the treatment of infant convulsion and epilepsy. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant effect of the methanolic extract of Spigelia anthelmia. Phytochemical evaluation and proximate analysis was carried ...

  13. Hierarchical e-beam proximity correction in mask making (United States)

    Hofmann, Ulrich; Kalus, Christian K.; Rosenbusch, Anja; Jonckheere, Rik M.; Hourd, Andrew C.


    Both e-beam and optical proximity effects are still a major barrier in the transfer of an ULSI design from the CAD station to the printed result on wafer. Optical proximity effect correction (OPC) is shown to be a strong tool to improve the printing latitudes for i-line lithography of 0.35 micrometers feature sizes and below, but leads to fractal geometries around 0.1 micrometers (corresponding to 0.5 micrometers on a 5x reticle). This quantum leap in required minimum linewidth on the mask may urge mask makers to apply e-beam proximity effect correction (PEC), even more than a decrease in the reticle magnification from 5x to 4x (and further) would. For raster scan e-beams, which are typically used in mask making, correction by dose variation is not practical. Hence, PEC for these systems must be tackled by modifying the geometry of the design, in a way similar to OPC techniques. Both corrections must compromise between the accuracy achieved, which is dominated by the selected (correction and exposure) grid size, and the resulting throughput loss, caused by the use of a smaller grid size. Sigma-C now introduces a new algorithm, which enables the proximity effect correction by shape variation. It is included into CAPROX and supports hierarchy in the same manner as the other postprocessing operations. The exposure of the shape corrected pattern on a raster scan machine requires only one beam pass, whereas dose variation would require one pass for each dose. Exposures were made at IMEC and at Compugraphics. The first results on Leica EBMF10.5 and MEBES III are promising. The pure shape correction increases the line width uniformity and opens the process window for critical dimensions below 1 micrometers . Performance measurements show that the 64 Mb DRAM is a job of a few hours.

  14. Intramedullary compression device for proximal ulna fracture. (United States)

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Han, Fucai; Decruz, Joshua; Pannirselvam, Vinodhkumar; Murphy, Diarmuid


    Proximal ulna fractures account for 20% of all proximal forearm fractures. Many treatment options are available for such fractures, such as cast immobilisation, plate and screw fixation, tension band wiring and intramedullary screw fixation, depending on the fracture pattern. Due to the subcutaneous nature of the proximal forearm, it is vulnerable to open injuries over the dorsal aspect of the proximal ulna. This may in turn prove challenging, as it is critical to obtain adequate soft tissue coverage to reduce the risk of implant exposure and bony infections. We herein describe a patient with a Gustillo III-B open fracture of the proximal ulna, treated with minimally invasive intramedullary screw fixation using a 6.0-mm cannulated headless titanium compression screw (FusiFIX, Péronnas, France).

  15. Combinatorial algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, T C


    Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discusses binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. 153 black-and-white illus. 23 tables.Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable, widely used text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discussed are binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. New to this edition: Chapter 9


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The article discusses the possibility of applying the entropy-probabilistic model of the operator x-ray television in- troscope in the algorithm of the computer simulator in order to increase the effectiveness of professional training of em- ployees of the aviation security service employees. The model is based on a stochastic representation of the system “opera- tor” in the form of multi-dimensional random vector, each component of which is a random continuous value, describing the probability of dangerous goods detection forbidden for transportation by air transport. The main advantages of the pro- posed approach are as follows:ease of implementation and interpretation of the operator entropy model;entropy model, realized in specific algorithm, is applicable for diagnostic tasks and stochastic system “operator” control and also for effective management in the learning process.

  17. Management of proximal humeral fractures by the Ilizarov external fixator. (United States)

    Meselhy, Mohammed Anter; Singer, Mohamed Salah


    External fixation can be performed in poor bone and soft tissue conditions, and can be used in patients with poor general conditions or multiple injuries as a rapid, mini-invasive procedure. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the Ilizarov external fixator in the management of proximal humeral fractures. Between May 2011 and December 2013, 14 patients with displaced proximal humeral fractures were enrolled in the current study. Nine patients were males and five were females, with mean age 42.9 years (range 21-55). All fractures were acute. The mode of injury was road traffic accident in eight patients and fall in six patients. There were six patients with two-part fracture, one of them with fracture dislocation, and eight patients presented with three-part fracture, two of them with fracture dislocation. All fractures were fixed using the Ilizarov external fixation. The average operative time was about 67 min (range 50-90). The mean follow-up period was (18) months (range 12-28). Healing was obtained in all 14 patients in a mean of 10.4 weeks (range 8-14). At the final follow-up, the mean constant score was 73.1 points (range 60-97 points), the mean visual analog score (VAS) for pain 3.2 (range 1-5), the mean DASH score 31.8 points (range 10-55 points), and the mean satisfaction VAS 7.6 (range 4-10). The Ilizarov external fixation is an effective technique in managing proximal humeral fractures with good outcome and low complication rates. Level IV, case series.

  18. Uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction of the proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Min


    Full Text Available Background: Allograft-prosthetic composite can be divided into three groups names cemented, uncemented, and partially cemented. Previous studies have mainly reported outcomes in cemented and partially cemented allograft-prosthetic composites, but have rarely focused on the uncemented allograft-prosthetic composites. The objectives of our study were to describe a surgical technique for using proximal femoral uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite and to present the radiographic and clinical results. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients who underwent uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction of the proximal femur after bone tumor resection were retrospectively evaluated at an average followup of 24.0 months. Clinical records and radiographs were evaluated. Results: In our series, union occurred in all the patients (100%; range 5-9 months. Until the most recent followup, there were no cases with infection, nonunion of the greater trochanter, junctional bone resorption, dislocation, allergic reaction, wear of acetabulum socket, recurrence, and metastasis. But there were three periprosthetic fractures which were fixed using cerclage wire during surgery. Five cases had bone resorption in and around the greater trochanter. The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS score and Harris hip score (HHS were 26.2 points (range 24-29 points and 80.6 points (range 66.2-92.7 points, respectively. Conclusions: These results showed that uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite could promote bone union through compression at the host-allograft junction and is a good choice for proximal femoral resection. Although this technology has its own merits, long term outcomes are yet not validated.

  19. An Approximate Proximal Bundle Method to Minimize a Class of Maximum Eigenvalue Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang


    Full Text Available We present an approximate nonsmooth algorithm to solve a minimization problem, in which the objective function is the sum of a maximum eigenvalue function of matrices and a convex function. The essential idea to solve the optimization problem in this paper is similar to the thought of proximal bundle method, but the difference is that we choose approximate subgradient and function value to construct approximate cutting-plane model to solve the above mentioned problem. An important advantage of the approximate cutting-plane model for objective function is that it is more stable than cutting-plane model. In addition, the approximate proximal bundle method algorithm can be given. Furthermore, the sequences generated by the algorithm converge to the optimal solution of the original problem.

  20. Algorithm 865

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Fred G.; Reid, John K.; Wasniewski, Jerzy


    variables, and the speed is usually better than that of the LAPACK algorithm that uses full storage (n2 variables). Included are subroutines for rearranging a matrix whose upper or lower-triangular part is packed by columns to this format and for the inverse rearrangement. Also included is a kernel...

  1. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu


    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  2. MM Algorithms for Geometric and Signomial Programming. (United States)

    Lange, Kenneth; Zhou, Hua


    This paper derives new algorithms for signomial programming, a generalization of geometric programming. The algorithms are based on a generic principle for optimization called the MM algorithm. In this setting, one can apply the geometric-arithmetic mean inequality and a supporting hyperplane inequality to create a surrogate function with parameters separated. Thus, unconstrained signomial programming reduces to a sequence of one-dimensional minimization problems. Simple examples demonstrate that the MM algorithm derived can converge to a boundary point or to one point of a continuum of minimum points. Conditions under which the minimum point is unique or occurs in the interior of parameter space are proved for geometric programming. Convergence to an interior point occurs at a linear rate. Finally, the MM framework easily accommodates equality and inequality constraints of signomial type. For the most important special case, constrained quadratic programming, the MM algorithm involves very simple updates.

  3. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...

  4. Automatic Registration of Low Altitude UAV Sequent Images and Laser Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Chi


    Full Text Available It is proposed that a novel registration method for automatic co-registration of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV images sequence and laser point clouds. Firstly, contours of building roofs are extracted from the images sequence and laser point clouds using marked point process and local salient region detection, respectively. The contours from each data are matched via back-project proximity. Secondly, the exterior orientations of the images are recovered using a linear solver based on the contours corner pairs followed by a co-planar optimization which is implicated by the matched lines form contours pairs. Finally, the exterior orientation parameters of images are further optimized by matching 3D points generated from images sequence and laser point clouds using an iterative near the point (ICP algorithm with relative movement threshold constraint. Experiments are undertaken to check the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method achieves high-precision co-registration of low-altitude UAV image sequence and laser points cloud robustly. The accuracy of the co-produced DOMs meets 1:500 scale standards.

  5. Algorithmic Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, Annette

    layered set of accounts to help build our understanding of how individuals relate to their devices, search systems, and social network sites. This work extends critical analyses of the power of algorithms in implicating the social self by offering narrative accounts from multiple perspectives. It also......This paper takes an actor network theory approach to explore some of the ways that algorithms co-construct identity and relational meaning in contemporary use of social media. Based on intensive interviews with participants as well as activity logging and data tracking, the author presents a richly...... contributes an innovative method for blending actor network theory with symbolic interaction to grapple with the complexity of everyday sensemaking practices within networked global information flows....

  6. Proximity and Collaboration in European Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.W.; Werker, C.


    Collaborations are particularly important for the development and deployment of technology. We analyze the influence of organizational, technological and geographical proximity on European nanotechnology collaborations with the help of a publication dataset and additional geographical information.

  7. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.


    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  8. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule. (United States)

    Hamm, L L; Simon, E E


    The transport of ammonia in the proximal tubule is a complex interaction of a number of processes. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule is clearly bidirectional; ammonia is secreted into the early proximal tubule lumen, but later in the proximal tubule, efflux out of the lumen may result in net ammonia reabsorption. Two mechanisms of ammonia transport have clearly been established: NH3 diffusion and NH4+ transport on the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. The relative contribution of these pathways to ammonia transport is still unsettled. Other pathways for ammonia transport, particularly NH4+ efflux out of the lumen, may be important as well. A variety of factors may modulate ammonia transport: plasma, cell and luminal pH, luminal flow rate, luminal potassium, and angiotensin II. Each of these factors also alters ammonia production rates and in most circumstances, ammonia transport appears to follow ammonia production rates.

  9. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 ... Key words: Rhynchophorus phoenicis, Oryctes monoceros, proximate composition, cholesterol, heat treatment. INTRODUCTION. Insects have played ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde Emmanuel


    Oct 6, 2011 ... Fish allows for protein improved nutrition in that it has a high biological value in terms of high ... marine algae upon which the fish feed [11]. ... Proximate composition of catfish Clarias gariepinus and Tarpon atlanticus were.

  11. Multiple intramedullary nailing of proximal phalangeal fractures of hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patankar Hemant


    Full Text Available Background: Proximal phalangeal fractures are commonly encountered fractures in the hand. Majority of them are stable and can be treated by non-operative means. However, unstable fractures i.e. those with shortening, displacement, angulation, rotational deformity or segmental fractures need surgical intervention. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the functional outcome after surgical stabilization of these fractures with joint-sparing multiple intramedullary nailing technique. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with 35 isolated unstable proximal phalangeal shaft fractures of hand were managed by surgical stabilization with multiple intramedullary nailing technique. Fractures of the thumb were excluded. All the patients were followed up for a minimum of six months. They were assessed radiologically and clinically. The clinical evaluation was based on two criteria. 1. total active range of motion for digital functional assessment as suggested by the American Society for Surgery of Hand and 2. grip strength. Results: All the patients showed radiological union at six weeks. The overall results were excellent in all the patients. Adventitious bursitis was observed at the point of insertion of nails in one patient. Conclusion: Joint-sparing multiple intramedullary nailing of unstable proximal phalangeal fractures of hand provides satisfactory results with good functional outcome and fewer complications.

  12. Fixed-point adiabatic quantum search (United States)

    Dalzell, Alexander M.; Yoder, Theodore J.; Chuang, Isaac L.


    Fixed-point quantum search algorithms succeed at finding one of M target items among N total items even when the run time of the algorithm is longer than necessary. While the famous Grover's algorithm can search quadratically faster than a classical computer, it lacks the fixed-point property—the fraction of target items must be known precisely to know when to terminate the algorithm. Recently, Yoder, Low, and Chuang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 210501 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.210501] gave an optimal gate-model search algorithm with the fixed-point property. Previously, it had been discovered by Roland and Cerf [Phys. Rev. A 65, 042308 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevA.65.042308] that an adiabatic quantum algorithm, operating by continuously varying a Hamiltonian, can reproduce the quadratic speedup of gate-model Grover search. We ask, can an adiabatic algorithm also reproduce the fixed-point property? We show that the answer depends on what interpolation schedule is used, so as in the gate model, there are both fixed-point and non-fixed-point versions of adiabatic search, only some of which attain the quadratic quantum speedup. Guided by geometric intuition on the Bloch sphere, we rigorously justify our claims with an explicit upper bound on the error in the adiabatic approximation. We also show that the fixed-point adiabatic search algorithm can be simulated in the gate model with neither loss of the quadratic Grover speedup nor of the fixed-point property. Finally, we discuss natural uses of fixed-point algorithms such as preparation of a relatively prime state and oblivious amplitude amplification.

  13. A General Simulation Method for Multiple Bodies in Proximate Flight (United States)

    Meakin, Robert L.


    Methods of unsteady aerodynamic simulation for an arbitrary number of independent bodies flying in close proximity are considered. A novel method to efficiently detect collision contact points is described. A method to compute body trajectories in response to aerodynamic loads, applied loads, and inter-body collisions is also given. The physical correctness of the methods are verified by comparison to a set of analytic solutions. The methods, combined with a Navier-Stokes solver, are used to demonstrate the possibility of predicting the unsteady aerodynamics and flight trajectories of moving bodies that involve rigid-body collisions.

  14. Proximity-induced superconductivity in Landau-quantized graphene monolayers (United States)

    Cohnitz, Laura; De Martino, Alessandro; Häusler, Wolfgang; Egger, Reinhold


    We consider massless Dirac fermions in a graphene monolayer in the ballistic limit, subject to both a perpendicular magnetic field B and a proximity-induced pairing gap Δ . When the chemical potential is at the Dirac point, our exact solution of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation yields Δ -independent relativistic Landau levels. Since eigenstates depend on Δ , many observables nevertheless are sensitive to pairing, e.g., the local density of states or the edge state spectrum. By solving the problem with an additional in-plane electric field, we also discuss how snake states are influenced by a pairing gap.

  15. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity studies were carried out on the leaf extract of Cola lepidota, in accordance with established standard procedures. The proximate analysis reveals a moisture content of 27.43 ± 3.11 % w/w, total ash value 9.32 ± 0.27 % w/w, acid insoluble ash 3.12 ± 1.05 % w/w ...

  16. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was investigated using standard procedures. Proximate analysis included in g% dry weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a moisture content of 70.04 ...

  17. Painful Spastic Hip Dislocation: Proximal Femoral Resection


    Albiñana, Javier; Gonzalez-Moran, Gaspar


    The dislocated hip in a non-ambulatory child with spastic paresis tends to be a painful interference to sleep, sitting upright, and perineal care. Proximal femoral resection-interposition arthroplasty is one method of treatment for this condition. We reviewed eight hips, two bilateral cases, with a mean follow-up of 30 months. Clinical improvement was observed in all except one case, with respect to pain relief and sitting tolerance. Some proximal migration was observed in three cases, despit...

  18. Proximity to urban parks and mental health. (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; Cohen, Deborah


    Urban parks have received attention in recent years as a possible environmental factor that could encourage physical activity, prevent obesity, and reduce the incidence of chronic conditions. Despite long hypothesized benefits of parks for mental health, few park studies incorporate mental health measures. To test the association between proximity to urban parks and psychological distress. Cross-sectional analysis of individual health survey responses. Data were collected for a study of capital improvements of neighborhood parks in Los Angeles. A survey was fielded on a sample of residential addresses, stratified by distance from the park (within 400m, 800m, 1.6 km, and 3.2km; N=1070). We used multiple regression to estimate the relationship between the psychological distress as measured by the MHI-5 (outcome variable) and distance to parks (main explanatory variable), controlling for observed individual characteristics. Mental health is significantly related to residential distance from parks, with the highest MHI-5 scores among residents within short walking distance from the park (400m) and decreasing significantly over the next distances. The number of visits and physical activity minutes are significantly and independently related to distance, although controlling for them does not reduce the association between distance and mental health. This paper provides a new data point for an arguably very old question, but for which empirical data are sparse for the US. A nearby urban park is associated with the same mental health benefits as decreasing local unemployment rates by 2 percentage points, suggesting at least the potential of environmental interventions to improve mental health. The analysis is cross-sectional, making it impossible to control for important confounders, including residential selection. Mental health policy has traditionally focused on individual-centered interventions. Just as health policy for preventable chronic illnesses has shifted

  19. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)


    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  20. Transformations through Proximity Flying: A Phenomenological Investigation (United States)

    Holmbom, Maria; Brymer, Eric; Schweitzer, Robert D.


    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants’ perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity. PMID:29104552

  1. Stochastic Reformulations of Linear Systems: Algorithms and Convergence Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Richtarik, Peter


    We develop a family of reformulations of an arbitrary consistent linear system into a stochastic problem. The reformulations are governed by two user-defined parameters: a positive definite matrix defining a norm, and an arbitrary discrete or continuous distribution over random matrices. Our reformulation has several equivalent interpretations, allowing for researchers from various communities to leverage their domain specific insights. In particular, our reformulation can be equivalently seen as a stochastic optimization problem, stochastic linear system, stochastic fixed point problem and a probabilistic intersection problem. We prove sufficient, and necessary and sufficient conditions for the reformulation to be exact. Further, we propose and analyze three stochastic algorithms for solving the reformulated problem---basic, parallel and accelerated methods---with global linear convergence rates. The rates can be interpreted as condition numbers of a matrix which depends on the system matrix and on the reformulation parameters. This gives rise to a new phenomenon which we call stochastic preconditioning, and which refers to the problem of finding parameters (matrix and distribution) leading to a sufficiently small condition number. Our basic method can be equivalently interpreted as stochastic gradient descent, stochastic Newton method, stochastic proximal point method, stochastic fixed point method, and stochastic projection method, with fixed stepsize (relaxation parameter), applied to the reformulations.

  2. A Line-Search-Based Partial Proximal Alternating Directions Method for Separable Convex Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-hua Zeng


    Full Text Available We propose an appealing line-search-based partial proximal alternating directions (LSPPAD method for solving a class of separable convex optimization problems. These problems under consideration are common in practice. The proposed method solves two subproblems at each iteration: one is solved by a proximal point method, while the proximal term is absent from the other. Both subproblems admit inexact solutions. A line search technique is used to guarantee the convergence. The convergence of the LSPPAD method is established under some suitable conditions. The advantage of the proposed method is that it provides the tractability of the subproblem in which the proximal term is absent. Numerical tests show that the LSPPAD method has better performance compared with the existing alternating projection based prediction-correction (APBPC method if both are employed to solve the described problem.

  3. Optical proximity correction for anamorphic extreme ultraviolet lithography (United States)

    Clifford, Chris; Lam, Michael; Raghunathan, Ananthan; Jiang, Fan; Fenger, Germain; Adam, Kostas


    The change from isomorphic to anamorphic optics in high numerical aperture (NA) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) scanners necessitates changes to the mask data preparation flow. The required changes for each step in the mask tape out process are discussed, with a focus on optical proximity correction (OPC). When necessary, solutions to new problems are demonstrated, and verified by rigorous simulation. Additions to the OPC model include accounting for anamorphic effects in the optics, mask electromagnetics, and mask manufacturing. The correction algorithm is updated to include awareness of anamorphic mask geometry for mask rule checking (MRC). OPC verification through process window conditions is enhanced to test different wafer scale mask error ranges in the horizontal and vertical directions. This work will show that existing models and methods can be updated to support anamorphic optics without major changes. Also, the larger mask size in the Y direction can result in better model accuracy, easier OPC convergence, and designs which are more tolerant to mask errors.

  4. A method for sex estimation using the proximal femur. (United States)

    Curate, Francisco; Coelho, João; Gonçalves, David; Coelho, Catarina; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Navega, David; Cunha, Eugénia


    The assessment of sex is crucial to the establishment of a biological profile of an unidentified skeletal individual. The best methods currently available for the sexual diagnosis of human skeletal remains generally rely on the presence of well-preserved pelvic bones, which is not always the case. Postcranial elements, including the femur, have been used to accurately estimate sex in skeletal remains from forensic and bioarcheological settings. In this study, we present an approach to estimate sex using two measurements (femoral neck width [FNW] and femoral neck axis length [FNAL]) of the proximal femur. FNW and FNAL were obtained in a training sample (114 females and 138 males) from the Luís Lopes Collection (National History Museum of Lisbon). Logistic regression and the C4.5 algorithm were used to develop models to predict sex in unknown individuals. Proposed cross-validated models correctly predicted sex in 82.5-85.7% of the cases. The models were also evaluated in a test sample (96 females and 96 males) from the Coimbra Identified Skeletal Collection (University of Coimbra), resulting in a sex allocation accuracy of 80.1-86.2%. This study supports the relative value of the proximal femur to estimate sex in skeletal remains, especially when other exceedingly dimorphic skeletal elements are not accessible for analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Greedy algorithm with weights for decision tree construction

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail


    An approximate algorithm for minimization of weighted depth of decision trees is considered. A bound on accuracy of this algorithm is obtained which is unimprovable in general case. Under some natural assumptions on the class NP, the considered algorithm is close (from the point of view of accuracy) to best polynomial approximate algorithms for minimization of weighted depth of decision trees.

  6. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G


    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  7. Alleyway Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Kruse Aagaard, Anders


    topografier. Alleyway Points består af en række eksperimenter, som søger at udforske denne sammenvævning af disse to parallelle domæner gennem en pendulering imellem det fysiske og det digitale. En gyde danner rammen om disse forsøg, hvor den etablerede punktsky i sig selv bliver anskuet som en digital......Forskelligartede former for fotogrammetri og 3D-scanning muliggør indfangelse af den fysiske verden i det digitale domæne. Dette har vist sig instrumentelt i et utal af forskellige henseender. Når virkeligheden bliver digitaliseret, bliver den frigjort fra sine materielle forpligtigelser: der er...... dialog og pendulering mellem de to domæner, hvor grænsen mellem, hvad der kan anskues som det virkelige og repræsentionen deraf, bliver gradvis mere utydelig. Dette adskiller sig fra to dominerende diskurser inden for arbejdsgange mellem det virkelige og det digitale, der ofte er ensrettede bevægelser...

  8. Proximity Induced Superconducting Properties in One and Two Dimensional Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten

    This report is concerned with the properties of one and two dimensional semiconducting materials when brought into contact with a superconductor. Experimentally we study the 2D electron gas in an InGaAs/InAs heterostructure with aluminum grown in situ on the surface, and theoretically we show...... that a superconducting 1D nanowire can harbor Majorana bound states in the absence of spin–orbit coupling. We fabricate and measure micrometer–sized mesoscopic devices demonstrating the inheritance of superconducting properties in the 2D electron gas. By placing a quantum point contact proximal to the interface between...... a voltage is passed through the Josephson junction, we observe multiple Andreev reflections and preliminary results point to a highly transmissive interface between the 2D electron gas and the superconductor. In the theoretical section we demonstrate analytically and numerically, that in a 1D nanowire...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sithole


    Full Text Available As lidar point clouds become larger streamed processing becomes more attractive. This paper presents a framework for the streamed segmentation of point clouds with the intention of segmenting unstructured point clouds in real-time. The framework is composed of two main components. The first component segments points within a window shifting over the point cloud. The second component stitches the segments within the windows together. In this fashion a point cloud can be streamed through these two components in sequence, thus producing a segmentation. The algorithm has been tested on airborne lidar point cloud and some results of the performance of the framework are presented.

  10. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity. (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao


    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  11. [Disorders of sex development and proximal hypospadias]. (United States)

    Oswald, J


    Children with ambiguous genitalia due to different chromosome or gonadal sex are a particular challenge concerning the diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Proximal hypospadias patients with normal gonadal development should be distinguished from children with DSD (disorders of sex development) to guarantee normal gender identity and the best possible surgical therapy. This paper focuses on the terminology, embryology, and pathophysiology of the different manifestations of DSD. The state of knowledge about this disease pattern with particular emphasis on proximal hypospadias based on national and international scientific discussions is presented. The different clinical pictures as well as therapeutic options of DSD with a special focus on recent literature and giving particular attention to patients with proximal hypospadias are presented. Because of the complexity of patients suffering from disorders of sex development an interdisciplinary DSD healthcare team including a paediatric endocrinologist as well as paediatric urologist should be provided. These specialists enable an accurate diagnosis in severe hypospadias patients without reference to DSD diseases patterns.

  12. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J


    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...... proximal lesions identified radiographically around the enamel-dentin junction to the outer third of the dentin, were included. Lesions were randomly allocated for treatment to test-A (Infiltration: ICON-pre-product; DMG), test-B (Sealing: Prime-Bond-NT; Dentsply), or control-C (Placebo). Primary outcome...

  13. Knowledge networks in the Dutch aviation industry: The proximity paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekel, T.; Boschma, R.A.


    The importance of geographical proximity for interaction and knowledge sharing has been discussed extensively in recent years. There is increasing consensus that geographical proximity is just one out of many types of proximities that might be relevant. We argue that proximity may be a crucial

  14. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)


    Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies

  15. Transverse preputial onlay island flap urethroplasty for single-stage correction of proximal hypospadias. (United States)

    Singal, Arbinder Kumar; Dubey, Manish; Jain, Viral


    Transverse preputial onlay island flap urethroplasty (TPOIF) was described initially for distal hypospadias, but has seen extended application for proximal hypospadias. We describe a set of modifications in the technique and results in a large series of proximal hypospadias. All children who underwent TPOIF repair for proximal hypospadias (proximal penile, penoscrotal and scrotal) from June 2006 to June 2013 by a single surgeon were prospectively followed till June, 2014. A standard technique and postoperative protocol were followed. Salient points to be emphasized in the technique: (1) dissection of the dartos pedicle till penopubic junction to prevent penile torsion, (2) incorporation of the spongiosum in the urethroplasty, (3) midline urethral plate incision in glans (hinging the plate), (4) Dartos blanket cover on whole urethroplasty. Out of 136 children with proximal hypospadias, 92 children who underwent TPOIF formed the study group. Out of 92 children, 48 (52 %) children required a tunica albuginea plication for chordee correction. In total, 16 (17 %) patients developed 24 complications and 11 children (12 %) required second surgeries: fistula closure in 7 (with meatoplasty in 5), glansplasty for glans dehiscence in 2 and excision of diverticulum in 2. Two children required a third surgery. Only 5 children had a noticeable penile torsion (less than 30 degree), and 7 had a patulous meatus. Transverse preputial onlay island flap urethroplasty can deliver reliable cosmetic and functional outcomes in proximal hypospadias.

  16. SMAP's Radar OBP Algorithm Development (United States)

    Le, Charles; Spencer, Michael W.; Veilleux, Louise; Chan, Samuel; He, Yutao; Zheng, Jason; Nguyen, Kayla


    An approach for algorithm specifications and development is described for SMAP's radar onboard processor with multi-stage demodulation and decimation bandpass digital filter. Point target simulation is used to verify and validate the filter design with the usual radar performance parameters. Preliminary FPGA implementation is also discussed.

  17. Distribution Bottlenecks in Classification Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartjes, G.J.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Hurink, Johann L.


    The abundance of data available on Wireless Sensor Networks makes online processing necessary. In industrial applications for example, the correct operation of equipment can be the point of interest while raw sampled data is of minor importance. Classi﬿cation algorithms can be used to make state

  18. Adaptive protection algorithm and system (United States)

    Hedrick, Paul [Pittsburgh, PA; Toms, Helen L [Irwin, PA; Miller, Roger M [Mars, PA


    An adaptive protection algorithm and system for protecting electrical distribution systems traces the flow of power through a distribution system, assigns a value (or rank) to each circuit breaker in the system and then determines the appropriate trip set points based on the assigned rank.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Active well coincidence counter assays have been performed on uranium metal highly enriched in {sup 235}U. The data obtained in the present program, together with highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal data obtained in other programs, have been analyzed using two approaches, the standard approach and an alternative approach developed at BNL. Analysis of the data with the standard approach revealed that the form of the relationship between the measured reals and the {sup 235}U mass varied, being sometimes linear and sometimes a second-order polynomial. In contrast, application of the BNL algorithm, which takes into consideration the totals, consistently yielded linear relationships between the totals-corrected reals and the {sup 235}U mass. The constants in these linear relationships varied with geometric configuration and level of enrichment. This indicates that, when the BNL algorithm is used, calibration curves can be established with fewer data points and with more certainty than if a standard algorithm is used. However, this potential advantage has only been established for assays of HEU metal. In addition, the method is sensitive to the stability of natural background in the measurement facility.

  20. preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the ...

  1. Proximate, mineral composition, antioxidant activity, and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four varieties of the red pepper fruits (Capsicum species) were evaluated for chemical composition, antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents using standard analytical technique, ferric-ion reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and Folin-Colcalteau method respectively. The proximate composition values ...

  2. 9__43 - 50__Tijjani_Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sena et al., 1998). In Nigeria, the plant is commonly consumed by the Hausa speaking communities as a spice and a sauce (Ibrahim et al., 2012). However, during preparation the leaves and stem are not carefully separated before processing of food. Thus, the present study was aimed at evaluating the proximate, minerals ...

  3. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a little crude fibre content of 0.92 %. The results indicated that ginger rhizome is an excellent natural remedy for a wide range of ailments. Keywords: Zingiber officinale, spice, rhizome, phytochemistry, proximate analysis, Zingiberaceae, zingerone, methanolic extraction. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, Vol.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 24, 2012 ... opinions are analyzed and it revealed that the site has major impacts on the residents perceived quality of life, security and ... Key words: Landfill, Property value, Health and safety, Residential property, Solous. Introduction. The location ... Proximity to landfills and hazardous waste sites can severely affect ...

  5. Renal fibrosis: Primacy of the proximal tubule. (United States)

    Gewin, Leslie S


    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the hallmark of chronic kidney disease and best predictor of renal survival. Many different cell types contribute to TIF progression including tubular epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelia, and inflammatory cells. Previously, most of the attention has centered on myofibroblasts given their central importance in extracellular matrix production. However, emerging data focuses on how the response of the proximal tubule, a specialized epithelial segment vulnerable to injury, plays a central role in TIF progression. Several proximal tubular responses such as de-differentiation, cell cycle changes, autophagy, and metabolic changes may be adaptive initially, but can lead to maladaptive responses that promote TIF both through autocrine and paracrine effects. This review discusses the current paradigm of TIF progression and the increasingly important role of the proximal tubule in promoting TIF both in tubulointerstitial and glomerular injuries. A better understanding and appreciation of the role of the proximal tubule in TIF has important implications for therapeutic strategies to halt chronic kidney disease progression. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 182 179 Comparative Study on the Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 2, 2008 ... Key words: Annona squamosa, Fruits, Proximate, Minerals, nutrient density. INTRODUCTION. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa) also called. “Gwanda masar” in Hausa belong to the family. Annonacae. The most widely grown of all the species are A. muricata, A. cherimola, A reticulata, A. senegalensis and ...

  7. Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown in Tepi area was studied for their class of phytochemicals, mineral and proximate composition using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, terpenoids, saponins, quinones, phenol, tannins, amino acid and ...

  8. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  9. Phytochemical Screening and Proximate Analysis of Newbouldia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the phytochemical and proximate composition of Newboudia laevis leaves and Allium sativum bulb extracts. The leaves and bulbs extracts were analyzed for their chemical composition and antinutritional factors (ANFs) which include moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, total ash ...

  10. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.


    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  11. [Four family members with proximal myotonic myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, A.A.; Velden, M.P. van der; Visser, M.C.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Scheffer, H.; Engelen, B.G.M. van


    A 41-year-old woman had a 15-year history of pain in her thighs and arms, which also became weaker, and a decrease in visual acuity. Her 35-year-old brother, their 38-year-old sister and their 64-year-old mother also had myalgia, myotonia and proximal muscle weakness, and the women also had

  12. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was about 0.01 in concentration. Proximate analysis also shows that it has a high nutritional value such as carbohydrate, fibre, Ash, fat and protein. These results recommended the consumption of these peels of desired physiochemical properties as sources of food fibres or low-calorie bulk ingredients in food applications ...

  13. Proximate composition and consumer acceptability of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to assess the organoleptic differences of Clarias gariepinus smoked with two different energy sources, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Tamarindus indica with the help of a hedonic scale and to determine possible proximate composition difference between the smoked products. Smoking of the fishes ...

  14. Controllable proximity effect in superconducting hybrid devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakurskiy, S.V.


    This thesis is devoted to the study of controllable proximity effects in superconductors, both in terms of fundamental aspects and applications. As a part of this thesis theoretical description was suggested for a number of structures with superconducting electrodes and multiple interlayers. These

  15. Proximate, chemical compositions and sulphur concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ppm) on the nutritional value and the proximate composition of six selected mango cultivars (Tommy Atkins, Peach, Saber, Sunshine, Keitt and Vhavenda) grown in South Africa. The study shows that ...

  16. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  17. Evaluation of the Proximate, Chemical and Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased interest in the utilization of the leaves of Moringa oleifera necessitated this study which evaluated the proximate, chemical and phytochemical composition, especially the presence of anti- physiological and toxic factors in the leaves. The results of the phytochemical analyses were: alkaloid 1.24 ± 0.141%; ...

  18. comparative proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The proximate composition and antioxidant vitamins analysis of two varieties of honey (dark amber and light amber) were carried out using standard methods. The values for moisture, ash, crude lipid, crude protein and crude carbohydrate contents of the two honeys, (light amber and dark amber) are 9.39 ...

  19. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of Rhynchophorus phoenicis and Oryctes monoceros larvae subjected to different heat treatments. ... 514.63 mg/100g dry weight basis (DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 mg/100 g DWB in the smoke-dried samples. Similarly, the ...

  20. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Elemental and Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at phytochemical screening, elemental and proximate composition of two varieties of Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) big yellow and small brown nuts using standard methods. The phytochemicals tested for were alkaloid, saponin, tannin, glycoside, flavonoid, steroid and resin. All the aforementioned ...

  1. Protein biomarker validation via proximity ligation assays. (United States)

    Blokzijl, A; Nong, R; Darmanis, S; Hertz, E; Landegren, U; Kamali-Moghaddam, M


    The ability to detect minute amounts of specific proteins or protein modifications in blood as biomarkers for a plethora of human pathological conditions holds great promise for future medicine. Despite a large number of plausible candidate protein biomarkers published annually, the translation to clinical use is impeded by factors such as the required size of the initial studies, and limitations of the technologies used. The proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a versatile molecular tool that has the potential to address some obstacles, both in validation of biomarkers previously discovered using other techniques, and for future routine clinical diagnostic needs. The enhanced specificity of PLA extends the opportunities for large-scale, high-performance analyses of proteins. Besides advantages in the form of minimal sample consumption and an extended dynamic range, the PLA technique allows flexible assay reconfiguration. The technology can be adapted for detecting protein complexes, proximity between proteins in extracellular vesicles or in circulating tumor cells, and to address multiple post-translational modifications in the same protein molecule. We discuss herein requirements for biomarker validation, and how PLA may play an increasing role in this regard. We describe some recent developments of the technology, including proximity extension assays, the use of recombinant affinity reagents suitable for use in proximity assays, and the potential for single cell proteomics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. © 2013.

  2. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    2009). The aim of this study was to analyses the extract of. Citrus sinensis peels for the phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials Fresh peels of Citrus sinensis were collected from Uselu market in Benin City, Edo. State, Nigeria. It was identified and authenticated by.

  3. Keldysh proximity action for disordered superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review a novel approach to the superconductive proximity effect in dis- ordered normal–superconducting (N–S) structures. The method is based on the multi- charge Keldysh action and is suitable for the treatment of interaction and fluctuation effects. As an application of the formalism, we study the subgap ...

  4. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making (United States)

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.


    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  5. Algorithmic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, W.


    In this paper complex adaptive systems are defined by a self- referential loop in which objects encode functions that act back on these objects. A model for this loop is presented. It uses a simple recursive formal language, derived from the lambda-calculus, to provide a semantics that maps character strings into functions that manipulate symbols on strings. The interaction between two functions, or algorithms, is defined naturally within the language through function composition, and results in the production of a new function. An iterated map acting on sets of functions and a corresponding graph representation are defined. Their properties are useful to discuss the behavior of a fixed size ensemble of randomly interacting functions. This function gas'', or Turning gas'', is studied under various conditions, and evolves cooperative interaction patterns of considerable intricacy. These patterns adapt under the influence of perturbations consisting in the addition of new random functions to the system. Different organizations emerge depending on the availability of self-replicators.

  6. Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) Rendezvous Proximity Operations Design and Trade Studies (United States)

    Griesbach, J.; Westphal, J. J.; Roscoe, C.; Hawes, D. R.; Carrico, J. P.


    The Proximity Operations Nano-Satellite Flight Demonstration (PONSFD) program is to demonstrate rendezvous proximity operations (RPO), formation flying, and docking with a pair of 3U CubeSats. The program is sponsored by NASA Ames via the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) in support of its Small Spacecraft Technology Program (SSTP). The goal of the mission is to demonstrate complex RPO and docking operations with a pair of low-cost 3U CubeSat satellites using passive navigation sensors. The program encompasses the entire system evolution including system design, acquisition, satellite construction, launch, mission operations, and final disposal. The satellite is scheduled for launch in Fall 2015 with a 1-year mission lifetime. This paper provides a brief mission overview but will then focus on the current design and driving trade study results for the RPO mission specific processor and relevant ground software. The current design involves multiple on-board processors, each specifically tasked with providing mission critical capabilities. These capabilities range from attitude determination and control to image processing. The RPO system processor is responsible for absolute and relative navigation, maneuver planning, attitude commanding, and abort monitoring for mission safety. A low power processor running a Linux operating system has been selected for implementation. Navigation is one of the RPO processor's key tasks. This entails processing data obtained from the on-board GPS unit as well as the on-board imaging sensors. To do this, Kalman filters will be hosted on the processor to ingest and process measurements for maintenance of position and velocity estimates with associated uncertainties. While each satellite carries a GPS unit, it will be used sparsely to conserve power. As such, absolute navigation will mainly consist of propagating past known states, and relative navigation will be considered to be of greater importance. For relative observations

  7. Fast image mosaic algorithm based on the improved Harris-SIFT algorithm (United States)

    Jiang, Zetao; Liu, Min


    This paper proposes a fast image mosaic algorithm based on the improved Harris-SIFT algorithm, according to such problems as more memory consumption, greater redundancy quantity of feature points, slower operation speed, and so on, resulting from using the SIFT algorithm in the image matching stage of the image mosaic process. Firstly in the matching stage of the algorithm, the corner point is extracted by using the multi-scale Harris, feature descriptor is constructed by the 88-dimensional vector based on the SIFT feature, the coarse matching is carried out by the nearest neighbor matching method, and then the precise matching point pair and image transformation matrix are obtained by the RANSAC method. The seamless mosaic can be achieved by using the weighted average image fusion. The experimental results show that this algorithm can not only achieve precise seamless mosaic but also improve operation efficiency, compared with the traditional algorithm.

  8. Best proximity pair theorems for relatively nonexpansive mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sankar Raj


    Full Text Available Let A, B be nonempty closed bounded convex subsets of a uniformly convex Banach space and T : A∪B → A∪B be a map such that T(A ⊆ B, T(B ⊆ A and ǁTx − Tyǁ ≤ ǁx − yǁ, for x in A and y in B. The fixed point equation Tx = x does not possess a solution when A ∩ B = Ø. In such a situation it is natural to explore to find an element x0 in A satisfying ǁx0 − Tx0ǁ = inf{ǁa − bǁ : a ∈ A, b ∈ B} = dist(A,B. Using Zorn’s lemma, Eldred proved that such a point x0 exists in a uniformly convex Banach space settings under the conditions stated above. In this paper, by using a convergence theorem we attempt to prove the existence of such a point x0 (called best proximity point without invoking Zorn’s lemma.

  9. A direct heuristic algorithm for linear programming

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The simplex method [6, 23] ± an exponential time (non-polynomial time) algorithm ± or its variation has been used and is being used to solve almost any linear programming problem (LPP) for the last four decades. In 1979, Khachiyan proposed the ellipsoid method ± the first polynomial-time (interior-point) algorithm ± to ...

  10. Tuning the influence of microscopic decoherence on the superconducting proximity effect in a graphene Andreev interferometer. (United States)

    Deon, Fabio; Šopić, Sandra; Morpurgo, Alberto F


    We discuss transport measurements through graphene Andreev interferometers exhibiting reentrance of the superconducting proximity effect. We observe that at high gate voltage (VBG) the energy dependence of the Andreev conductance oscillations exhibits a scaling in agreement with theoretical expectations, which breaks down at low VBG, when the Fermi energy approaches the charge neutrality point. The phenomenon is a manifestation of single particle dephasing that increasingly limits the propagation of superconducting correlations away from the superconductor-graphene interface. Our work addresses the interplay between microscopic decoherence and superconductivity, and shows that graphene provides a useful experimental platform to investigate unexplored regimes and phenomena in the superconducting proximity effect.

  11. Internal fixation of proximal humerus fractures using the T2-proximal humeral nail. (United States)

    Popescu, Dragos; Fernandez-Valencia, Jenaro A; Rios, Moisés; Cuñé, Jordi; Domingo, Anna; Prat, Salvi


    Surgical management of proximal humerus fractures remains controversial and there is an increasing interest in intramedullary nailing. Created to improve previous designs, the T2-proximal humeral nail (PHN) (Stryker) has been recently released, and the English literature lacks a series evaluating its results. We present a clinical prospective study evaluating this implant for proximal humeral fractures. We evaluated the functional and radiological results and possible complications. Twenty-nine patients with displaced fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with this nail. One patient was lost right after surgery and excluded from the assessment. Eighteen patients were older than 70 years. There were 21 fractures of the proximal part of the humerus and 7 fractures that also involved the shaft; 15 of the fractures were two-part fractures (surgical neck), 5 were three-part fractures, and 1 was a four-part fracture. All fractures healed in a mean period of 2.7 months. There was one delayed union that healed in 4 months. One case of avascular necrosis of the humeral head was observed (a four-part fracture), but remained asymptomatic and did not require further treatment. In one case a back-out of one proximal screw was observed. A final evaluation with a minimum 1 year follow-up was performed by an independent observer; in 18 patients, the mean Constant score was 65.7 or 76.1% with the adjustment of age and gender; in 19 patients, the mean Oxford Shoulder Score was 21.7. The results obtained with the T2-PHN nail indicate that it represents a safe and reliable method in the treatment of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus. The proximal fixation mechanism diminishes the rate of back-out of the screws, a frequent complication described in the literature. Better functional results were obtained from the patients younger than 70 years, but these were not statistically significant.

  12. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  13. Distributed Solutions for Loosely Coupled Feasibility Problems Using Proximal Splitting Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakazad, Sina Khoshfetrat; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Hansson, Anders


    In this paper,we consider convex feasibility problems (CFPs) where the underlying sets are loosely coupled, and we propose several algorithms to solve such problems in a distributed manner. These algorithms are obtained by applying proximal splitting methods to convex minimization reformulations ...... in terms of the distance of the iterates to the feasible set, which are similar to those of classical projection methods. In case the feasibility problem is infeasible, we provide convergence rate results that concern the convergence of certain error bounds.......In this paper,we consider convex feasibility problems (CFPs) where the underlying sets are loosely coupled, and we propose several algorithms to solve such problems in a distributed manner. These algorithms are obtained by applying proximal splitting methods to convex minimization reformulations...... of CFPs. We also put forth distributed convergence tests which enable us to establish feasibility or infeasibility of the problem distributedly, and we provide convergence rate results. Under the assumption that the problem is feasible and boundedly linearly regular, these convergence results are given...

  14. Squint mode SAR processing algorithms (United States)

    Chang, C. Y.; Jin, M.; Curlander, J. C.


    The unique characteristics of a spaceborne SAR (synthetic aperture radar) operating in a squint mode include large range walk and large variation in the Doppler centroid as a function of range. A pointing control technique to reduce the Doppler drift and a new processing algorithm to accommodate large range walk are presented. Simulations of the new algorithm for squint angles up to 20 deg and look angles up to 44 deg for the Earth Observing System (Eos) L-band SAR configuration demonstrate that it is capable of maintaining the resolution broadening within 20 percent and the ISLR within a fraction of a decibel of the theoretical value.

  15. Deceptiveness and genetic algorithm dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liepins, G.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Vose, M.D. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))


    We address deceptiveness, one of at least four reasons genetic algorithms can fail to converge to function optima. We construct fully deceptive functions and other functions of intermediate deceptiveness. For the fully deceptive functions of our construction, we generate linear transformations that induce changes of representation to render the functions fully easy. We further model genetic algorithm selection recombination as the interleaving of linear and quadratic operators. Spectral analysis of the underlying matrices allows us to draw preliminary conclusions about fixed points and their stability. We also obtain an explicit formula relating the nonuniform Walsh transform to the dynamics of genetic search. 21 refs.

  16. Developing Algorithms to Improve Defect Extraction and Suppressing Undesired Heat Patterns in Sonic IR Images (United States)

    Obeidat, Omar; Yu, Qiuye; Han, Xiaoyan


    Sonic IR imaging is an emerging NDE technology. This technology uses short pulses of ultrasonic excitation together with infrared imaging to detect defects in materials and structures. Sonic energy is coupled to the specimen under inspection by means of direct contact between the transducer tip and the specimen at some convenient point. This region which is normally in the field of view of the camera appears as intensity peak in the image which might be misinterpreted as defects or obscure the detection and/or extraction of the defect signals in the proximity of the contact region. Moreover, certain defects may have very small heat signature or being buried in noise. In this paper, we present algorithms to improve defect extraction and suppression of undesired heat patterns in sonic IR images. Two approaches are presented, each fits to a specific category of sonic IR images.

  17. [Arthroscopic fracture management in proximal humeral fractures]. (United States)

    Lill, H; Katthagen, C; Jensen, G; Voigt, C


    Arthroscopy has become increasingly more established in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. In addition to the known advantages of minimally invasive surgery fracture and implant positioning can be optimized and controlled arthroscopically and relevant intra-articular concomitant pathologies (e.g. biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff) can be diagnosed and treated. Arthroscopic techniques have proven to be advantageous in the treatment of various entities of greater tuberosity fractures, lesser tuberosity fractures (suture bridging technique) and subcapital humeral fractures (arthroscopic nailing). This article presents an overview on innovative arthroscopic modalities for treating proximal humeral fractures, describes the surgical techniques and the advantages compared to open procedures as well as initial clinical results.

  18. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.


    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  19. Tunable Magnetic Proximity Effects in Graphene Junctions (United States)

    Lazic, Predrag; Belashchenko, Kirill; Zutic, Igor


    The characteristic length of the magnetic proximity effects exceed the thickness of a graphene layer leading to an important, but typically overlooked, modifications of equilibrium and transport properties, as well as the implications for graphene spintronics. Using the first-principles studies that integrate a real space density functional theory (GPAW) with the state-of-the art boundary elements electrostatic code based on the Robin Hood method, we explore tunable electronic structure and magnetic proximity effects in the ferromagnet/insulator/graphene junctions. We show that the inclusion of a finite-size gate electrodes and van der Walls interaction lead to nontrivial effects that could also be important in other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. Work supported by US ONR, NSF-DMR and Nebraska NSF MRSEC.

  20. Management of Proximal Third Arm Replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Taş


    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the recent success in major limb replantation achieved through the advancements in microsurgical techniques, the viability of the extremity is still relatively low at the transhumeral level following a replantation. There are no exact guidelines for deciding whether to undertake a stump repair or a replantation in such amputations at the proximal level. However, a highly motivated patient with realistic expectations and protected shoulder function can be a candidate to undergo replantation. The replanted arm may help the uninjured arm in daily activities. In this report we present the case of a 47-year-old man whose arm was amputated at proximal third level by an asphalt machine and successfully replanted together with the encountered problems and their solutions. The roadmap followed in this rare case may be a guide for hand surgeons.

  1. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of right proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Badge


    Full Text Available Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS comprises approximately 10% of all chondrosarcomas. The tumor generally occurs after the age of 50 years, with equal distribution among males and females. It is most often located in the bones of the pelvis, the proximal femur or humerus, the distal femur, and the ribs. Regardless of treatment, the prognosis is ominous with 90% of patients dying with distant metastases within 2 years. We report a case of DDCS of right proximal femur in a 73-year-old woman. The most important factors affecting survival are early recognition of the radiographic features, adequate histological sampling, and wide-margin resection of the lesion. So for the correct histopathological diagnosis the biopsy sample should be adequate to visualize both cartilaginous and noncartilaginous sarcomatous component which helps to increase the survival of patients before the distant metastasis occurs.

  2. Management of Acute Proximal Humeral Fractures. (United States)

    Kancherla, Vamsi Krishna; Singh, Anshuman; Anakwenze, Oke A


    Proximal humeral fractures, which typically occur in elderly persons, are among the most common fractures. A myriad of nonsurgical and surgical treatment options exist for these injuries, including short-term immobilization and early physical therapy, percutaneous fixation, plate osteosynthesis, intramedullary nailing, hemiarthroplasty, and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The choice of treatment depends on the fracture type and severity, surgeon expertise, patient age, and patient health status.

  3. Superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers


    Zareyan, M.; Belzig, W.; Nazarov, Yu. V.


    We investigate the superconducting proximity effect in clean ferromagnetic layers with rough boundaries. The subgap density of states is formed by Andreev bound states at energies which depend on trajectory length and the ferromagnetic exchange field. At energies above the gap, the spectrum is governed by resonant scattering states. The resulting density of states, measurable by tunneling spectroscopy, exhibits a rich structure, which allows us to connect the theoretical parameters from exper...

  4. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella (United States)

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu


    Abstract Among stress fractures associated with sports activities, patellar stress fracture is rare. Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella. We describe an extremely rare case of transverse stress fracture of proximal patella in a 9-year-old athlete. A 9-year old boy, who participated in sports (sprints and Kendo) presented with left knee pain without any external injury. In plain radiographs, a fracture line was observed in the proximal 1/3 of the left patella, and a patella stress fracture was diagnosed. For treatment, because 7 months of conservative therapy showed no improvement, internal fixation was carried out using Acutrak screws, and bone union was thus achieved. Three months after the operation, he was able to return to his previous level of athletic sports activity. Regarding the mechanism of onset, it is believed that the causes are longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure. On the other hand, the contact region of the patella with the femur changes with the flexion angle of the knee. In the current case, the fracture occurred at a site where the patella was in contact with the femur at a flexion angle of >90°, so it is believed that it occurred as a clinical condition from being subjected to repeated longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure at a flexion angle of >90°, during the sports activities of sprints and Kendo. The nonunion of the transverse stress fracture of his proximal patella was successfully treated with internal fixation using Acutrak screws. PMID:26871789

  5. Isolated Proximal Tibiofibular Dislocation during Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Chiu


    Full Text Available Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are rarely encountered in the Emergency Department (ED. We present a case involving a man presenting to the ED with left knee pain after making a sharp left turn on the soccer field. His physical exam was only remarkable for tenderness over the lateral fibular head. His X-rays showed subtle abnormalities of the tibiofibular joint. The dislocation was reduced and the patient was discharged from the ED with orthopedic follow-up.

  6. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range (United States)

    Vranish, John M.


    Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, mineral ash and total carbohydrates) in the kernels and flour of African Bush Mango (. ) were investigated. The results revealed that the kernels contained moisture (2.5 g/100 g), crude protein (8.9 g/100 g), crude fat (68.4 g/100 g), mineral ash (2.3 g/100 g) and total ...

  8. [Proximity and breastfeeding at the maternity hospital]. (United States)

    Fradin-Charrier, Anne-Claire


    The establishment of breastfeeding, as well as its duration, are facilitated through the proximity of the mother with her new baby. However, in maternity hospitals, breastfeeding mothers very often leave their baby in the nursery at night time. A study carried out in 2014 in several maternity hospitals put forward suggestions and highlighted areas to improve in everyday practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Proximal Gastrojejunal Reconstruction after Pancreaticoduodenal Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wayne


    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction by proximal gastrojejunostomy, and distal biliary and pancreatic anastomoses is infrequently used after resection of the head of the pancreas because of fear of fistulas and cholangitis. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is being performed more frequently for cystic malignant and premalignant lesions. Because of this there is a need for endoscopic visualization and biopsy of the residual pancreatic duct, since multi-centricity is characteristic of some of these malignancies. Since endoscopic access of the bile duct and pancreatic duct is difficult and unsuccessful in 50–70% after B II or Roux Y reconstruction, we prospectively studied the merit and complications (early and late of proximal gastrojejunal (PGJ reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenal resection. Material and Methods. Thirty nine consecutive, non-radomized patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and PGJ reconstruction over 14 mos. There were 21 males and 18 females. Results. 7 patients with IPMN have undergone repeat CT scanning for surveillance, with 3 requiring repeat EUS and ERCP. There were no technical difficulties accessing the pancreas or the pancreatic duct, supporting the PGJ reconstruction. Conclusion. Proximal gastrojejunal reconstruction following pancreaticoduodenal resection may be safely done with similar morbidity to traditional pancreaticojejunal reconstructions. PGJ reconstruction may be of greater value when direct visual access to the bile duct or pancreatic duct is necessary, and should be considered when doing resection for mucinous cysts or IPMN of the head of the pancreas.

  10. Bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibiofibular joint instability. (United States)

    Morrison, Troy D; Shaer, James A; Little, Jill E


    Dislocation of the tibiofibular joint is rare and usually results from a traumatic event. Only 1 case of atraumatic proximal tibiofibular joint instability in a 14-year-old girl has been reported in the literature, however this condition might occur more frequently than once thought. A wide range of treatment options exist for tibiofibular dislocations. Currently, the first choice is a conservative approach, and when this fails, surgical means such as resection of the fibula head, arthrodesis, and reconstruction are considered. However, no consensus exists on the most effective treatment. This article reports a unique case of bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibia and fibular joint instability involving a 30-year-old man with a 20-year history of pain and laxity in the right knee. The patient had no trauma to his knees; he reported 2 immediate family members with similar complaints, which suggests that this case is likely congenital. After conservative approaches proved to be ineffective, the patient underwent capsular reconstruction using free autologous gracilis tendon. At 6-month postoperative follow-up, the patient was pain free with no locking and instability. He then underwent surgery on the left knee. At 1-year follow-up after the second surgery, the patient had no symptoms or restrictions in mobility. We provide an alternative surgical approach to arthrodesis and resection for the treatment of chronic proximal tibiofibular instability. In the treatment of chronic tibiofibular instability, we believe that reconstruction of the tibiofibular joint is a safe and effective choice. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Evaluation of percutaneous pinning in unstable proximal humeral fractures: A novel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishikant Kumar


    Full Text Available Management of unstable proximal humeral fractures has remained controversial since ages. Open reduction and internal fixation have resulted in devastating complications like stiffness of shoulder joint, avascular necrosis, infection, etc., We are presenting a novel method of percutaneous pinning of unstable proximal humeral fractures. All cases (32 were done closely without soft tissue stripping. All cases were followed-up for a period of 3 years; and results were assessed according to 100 point constant score. A total of 75% cases showed excellent to good results. To minimize the complications like pin site infection, loosening, neurovascular damage we used fixed pin site insertion technique, and threaded pins in osteoporotic patients. So percutaneous pinning is a safe and novel method of management of unstable proximal humeral fractures if certain principles are borne in mind before using it.

  12. Algorithm Theory - SWAT 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    issues of theoretical algorithmics and applications in various fields including graph algorithms, computational geometry, scheduling, approximation algorithms, network algorithms, data storage and manipulation, combinatorics, sorting, searching, online algorithms, optimization, etc.......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th Scandinavian Workshop on Algorithm Theory, SWAT 2006, held in Riga, Latvia, in July 2006. The 36 revised full papers presented together with 3 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 154 submissions. The papers address all...

  13. Calibrating animal-borne proximity loggers. (United States)

    Rutz, Christian; Morrissey, Michael B; Burns, Zackory T; Burt, John; Otis, Brian; St Clair, James J H; James, Richard


    Growing interest in the structure and dynamics of animal social networks has stimulated efforts to develop automated tracking technologies that can reliably record encounters in free-ranging subjects. A particularly promising approach is the use of animal-attached 'proximity loggers', which collect data on the incidence, duration and proximity of spatial associations through inter-logger radio communication. While proximity logging is based on a straightforward physical principle - the attenuation of propagating radio waves with distance - calibrating systems for field deployment is challenging, since most study species roam across complex, heterogeneous environments.In this study, we calibrated a recently developed digital proximity-logging system ('Encounternet') for deployment on a wild population of New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides. Our principal objective was to establish a quantitative model that enables robust post hoc estimation of logger-to-logger (and, hence, crow-to-crow) distances from logger-recorded signal-strength values. To achieve an accurate description of the radio communication between crow-borne loggers, we conducted a calibration exercise that combines theoretical analyses, field experiments, statistical modelling, behavioural observations, and computer simulations.We show that, using signal-strength information only, it is possible to assign crow encounters reliably to predefined distance classes, enabling powerful analyses of social dynamics. For example, raw data sets from field-deployed loggers can be filtered at the analysis stage to include predominantly encounters where crows would have come to within a few metres of each other, and could therefore have socially learned new behaviours through direct observation. One of the main challenges for improving data classification further is the fact that crows - like most other study species - associate across a wide variety of habitats and behavioural contexts, with different signal

  14. Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus Proximate chemical composition and fatty acid profiles of Longissimus thoracis from pasture fed LHRH immunocastrated, castrated and intact Bos indicus bulls.

  15. Proximate Analysis and Total Lycopene Content of Some Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 5, 2017 ... Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: ... Keywords: Antioxidant, lycopene content, proximate composition, tomato cultivars. INTRODUCTION ..... from oranges, tomatoes and carrots. African. Journal of ...

  16. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barrera de Azambuja


    Full Text Available The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%. The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively. A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  17. Multimodal optimization by using hybrid of artificial bee colony algorithm and BFGS algorithm (United States)

    Anam, S.


    Optimization has become one of the important fields in Mathematics. Many problems in engineering and science can be formulated into optimization problems. They maybe have many local optima. The optimization problem with many local optima, known as multimodal optimization problem, is how to find the global solution. Several metaheuristic methods have been proposed to solve multimodal optimization problems such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Genetics Algorithm (GA), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm, etc. The performance of the ABC algorithm is better than or similar to those of other population-based algorithms with the advantage of employing a fewer control parameters. The ABC algorithm also has the advantages of strong robustness, fast convergence and high flexibility. However, it has the disadvantages premature convergence in the later search period. The accuracy of the optimal value cannot meet the requirements sometimes. Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) algorithm is a good iterative method for finding a local optimum. Compared with other local optimization methods, the BFGS algorithm is better. Based on the advantages of the ABC algorithm and the BFGS algorithm, this paper proposes a hybrid of the artificial bee colony algorithm and the BFGS algorithm to solve the multimodal optimization problem. The first step is that the ABC algorithm is run to find a point. In the second step is that the point obtained by the first step is used as an initial point of BFGS algorithm. The results show that the hybrid method can overcome from the basic ABC algorithm problems for almost all test function. However, if the shape of function is flat, the proposed method cannot work well.

  18. SkelTre : Robust skeleton extraction from imperfect point clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucksch, A.; Lindenbergh, R.; Menenti, M.


    Terrestrial laser scanners capture 3D geometry of real world objects as a point cloud. This paper reports on a new algorithm developed for the skeletonization of a laser scanner point cloud. The skeletonization algorithm proposed in this paper consists of three steps: (i) extraction of a graph from

  19. The regional dimension of intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pers, Marieke; Mulder, Clara H.

    Previous research has shown the impact of individual characteristics on intergenerational proximity but has largely ignored the regional dimension of such proximity. In this paper, we examine the regional variation in intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands. We address this issue by

  20. Quality Assessment and Proximate Analysis of Amaranthus hybridus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to determine the quality and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea, and Talinum triangulare obtained from open markets in Benin City, Nigeria. Microbiological and proximate analysis were carried out using standard methods. Results of the proximate analysis revealed ...

  1. Proximal femur geometry in the adult Kenyan femur and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Numerous orthopaedic procedures are carried out on the proximal femur. For optimal hip function, these procedures must restore the anatomy of the proximal femur to as near normal as possible. There are currently no local studies that have described in detail the normal anatomy of the proximal femur and its ...

  2. Sub-quadratic decoding of one-point hermitian codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde; Beelen, Peter


    We present the first two sub-quadratic complexity decoding algorithms for one-point Hermitian codes. The first is based on a fast realization of the Guruswami-Sudan algorithm using state-of-the-art algorithms from computer algebra for polynomial-ring matrix minimization. The second is a power...... decoding algorithm: an extension of classical key equation decoding which gives a probabilistic decoding algorithm up to the Sudan radius. We show how the resulting key equations can be solved by the matrix minimization algorithms from computer algebra, yielding similar asymptotic complexities....

  3. A Searching Method of Candidate Segmentation Point in SPRINT Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihao Wang


    Full Text Available SPRINT algorithm is a classical algorithm for building a decision tree that is a widely used method of data classification. However, the SPRINT algorithm has high computational cost in the calculation of attribute segmentation. In this paper, an improved SPRINT algorithm is proposed, which searches better candidate segmentation point for the discrete and continuous attributes. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reduce the computation cost and improve the efficiency of the algorithm by improving the segmentation of continuous attributes and discrete attributes.

  4. Minimally Invasive Fixation for Proximal Humeral Fracture: A Review on the use of T2 Proximal Humeral Nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Ling Iris Ngai


    Discussion and conclusion: With the proper surgical technique high union rate, good functional recovery, and low complication rate can be achieved by using T2 Proximal Humeral Nail in managing traumatic proximal humeral fracture.

  5. Quasi-Random Algorithms for Real-Time Spacecraft Motion Planning and Formation Flight (United States)

    Frazzoli, E.

    Many applications of current interest, including on-orbit servicing of large space structures, space-based interferometry, and distributed radar systems, involve several spacecraft maneuvering in close proximity of one another. Often, the mission requires that the spacecraft be able to react quickly to changes in the environment, for example to reconfigure the formation to investigate a target of opportunity, or to prevent damage from a failure. In these cases, the spacecraft need to solve in real time complex motion planning problems, minimizing meaningful cost functions, such as time or fuel consumption, and taking into account constraints such as collision and plume impingement avoidance. Such problems are provably hard from a computational point of view, in the sense that any deterministic, complete algorithm will require exponential time to find a feasible solution. Recent advances in the robotics field have provided a new class of algorithms based on randomization, which provides computational tractability, by relaxing the completeness requirement to probabilistic completeness (i.e. the solution will be found by such algorithms with arbitrarily high probability in polynomial time). Randomized algorithms have been developed and successfully applied by the author and other researchers to real-time motion planning problems involving autonomous air vehicles and spacecraft attitude motion. In this paper we present a new class of quasi- random algorithms, which, combining optimal orbital maneuvers and deterministic sampling strategies, are able to provide extremely fast and efficient planners. Moreover, these planners are able to guarantee the safety of the space system, that is the satisfaction of collision and plume impingement avoidance constraints, even in the face of finite computation times (i.e., when the planner has to be pre-empted). Formation reconfiguration examples will illustrate the effectiveness of the methods, and a discussion of the results will

  6. Immersive Algorithms: Better Visualization with Less Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li


    of a standard binary search on an array shows an array of sorted numbers and then illustrate the action of the algorithm in a step-by-step fashion. However, this approach does not fully capture the computational environment from the perspective of the algorithm. Specifically, the algorithm does not ”see......” the full sorted array, but only the single position that it accesses during each step of the computation. To fix this discrepancy we introduce the immersive principle that states that at any point in time, the displayed information should closely match the information accessed by the algorithm. We give......Visualizing algorithms, such as drawings, slideshow presentations, animations, videos, and software tools, is a key concept to enhance and support student learning. A typical visualization of an algorithm show the data and then perform computation on the data. For instance, a standard visualization...

  7. PNMBG: Point Neighborhood Merging with Border Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renxia Wan


    Full Text Available The special clustering algorithm is attractive for the task of grouping arbitrary shaped database into several proper classes. Up to now, a wide variety of clustering algorithms designed for this task have been proposed, the majority of these algorithms is density-based. But the effectivity and efficiency still is the great challenges for these algorithms as far as the clustering quality of such task is concerned. In this paper, we propose an arbitrary shaped clustering method with border grids (PNMBG, PNMBG is a crisp partition method. It groups objects to point neighborhoods firstly, and then iteratively merges these point neighborhoods into clusters via grids, only bordering grids are considered during the merging stage. Experiments show that PNMBG has a good efficiency especially on the database with high dimension. In general, PNMBG outperforms DBSCAN in the term of efficiency and has an almost same effectivity with the later.

  8. Perceptual atoms: proximal motion vector-structures and the perception of object motion in depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hershenson Maurice


    Full Text Available A framework is proposed for analyzing the perception of motion in depth produced by simple proximal motion patterns of two to four points. The framework includes input structure, perceptual system constraints, and a depth scaling mechanism. The input is relational stimulation described by two proximal dimensions, orientation and separation, that can change or remain constant over the course of a motion pattern. Combinations of change or no-change in these dimensions yield four basic patterns of proximal stimulation: parallel, circular, perspective, and parallax. These primary patterns initiate automatic processing mechanisms - a unity constraint that treats pairs of points as connected and a rigidity constraint that treats the connection as rigid. When the constraints are activated by perspective or parallax patterns, the rigid connection between the points also appears to move in depth. A scaling mechanism governs the degree to which the objects move in depth in order to maintain the perceived rigidity. Although this framework is sufficient to explain perceptions produced by three- and four-point motion patterns in most cases, some patterns require additional configurational factors to supplement the framework. Nevertheless, perceptual qualities such as shrinking, stretching, bending, and folding emerge from the application of the same processing constraints and depth scaling factors as those that produce the perception of rigid objects moving in depth.

  9. The algorithm design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Skiena, Steven S


    Explaining designing algorithms, and analyzing their efficacy and efficiency, this book covers combinatorial algorithms technology, stressing design over analysis. It presents instruction on methods for designing and analyzing computer algorithms. It contains the catalog of algorithmic resources, implementations and a bibliography

  10. Stationary algorithmic probability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Müller, Markus


    ...,sincetheiractualvaluesdependonthechoiceoftheuniversal referencecomputer.Inthispaper,weanalyzeanaturalapproachtoeliminatethismachine- dependence. Our method is to assign algorithmic probabilities to the different...

  11. The Algorithmic Imaginary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, Taina


    This article reflects the kinds of situations and spaces where people and algorithms meet. In what situations do people become aware of algorithms? How do they experience and make sense of these algorithms, given their often hidden and invisible nature? To what extent does an awareness....... Examining how algorithms make people feel, then, seems crucial if we want to understand their social power....

  12. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis


    大矢, 健一


    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  13. Delayed homicides and the proximate cause. (United States)

    Lin, Peter; Gill, James R


    Delayed homicides result from complications of remote injuries inflicted by "the hands of another." The investigation of delayed homicides may be a challenge due to a number of factors including: failure to report the death to the proper authorities, lack of ready and adequate documentation of the original injury and circumstances, and jurisdictional differences between the places of injury and death. The certification of these deaths also requires the demonstration of a pathophysiologic link between the remote injury and death. In sorting through these issues, it is helpful to rely upon the definition of the proximate cause of death. Over a 2-year period in New York City, there were 1211 deaths certified as homicide of which 42 were due to injuries sustained greater than 1 year before death. The survival interval ranged from 1.3 to 43.2 years. The most common immediate causes of death were: infections (22), seizures (7), and intestinal obstructions/hernias (6). Common patterns of complications included infection following a gunshot wound of the spinal cord, seizure disorder due to blunt head trauma, and intestinal obstruction/hernia due to adhesions from an abdominal stab wound. Spinal cord injuries resulted in paraplegia in 14 instances and quadriplegia in 8. The mean survival interval for paraplegics was 20.3 years and 14.8 years for quadriplegics; infections were a frequent immediate cause of death in both groups, particularly infections due to chronic bladder catheterization. The definition of proximate cause originated with civil law cases and was later applied to death certification as the proximate cause of death. The gradual extinction of the "year and a day rule" for the limitation of bringing homicide charges in delayed deaths may result in more of these deaths going to trial. Medical examiners/coroners must be able to explain the reasoning behind these death certifications and maintain consistent standards for the certification of all delayed deaths due

  14. Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with oblique jejunogastrostomy. (United States)

    Tanaka, Kimitaka; Ebihara, Yuma; Kurashima, Yo; Nakanishi, Yoshitsugu; Asano, Toshimichi; Noji, Takehiro; Murakami, Soichi; Nakamura, Toru; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Okamura, Keisuke; Shichinohe, Toshiaki; Hirano, Satoshi


    Proximal early gastric cancer is a good indication for totally laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (TLPG) with double-tract reconstruction (DTR). However, when most of the dietary intake passes through the escape route of the jejunum, the functional benefits of proximal gastrectomy might be similar to those after total gastrectomy. Our DTR procedure was improved for easy passage through the remnant stomach. The purposes of this study were to present a novel technique for intracorporeal DTR using linear staplers after TLPG and to investigate surgical outcomes. DTR was performed using linear staplers only. A side-to-side jejunogastrostomy with twisting of both the remnant stomach and the anal jejunum was performed for the purpose of passing meals through the remnant stomach (an oblique jejunogastrostomy technique). The ten patients who underwent TLPG with DTR from January 2011 to August 2016 in Hokkaido University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Their clinicopathological characteristics and surgical and postoperative outcomes were collected and analyzed. The median duration of operation was 285 (range 146-440) min. No patients required blood transfusions. The number of dissected lymph nodes was 32 (range 22-56). There were no intraoperative complications, and no cases were converted to open surgery. All the patients were pT1N0M0 stage IA. No anastomotic leakage or complications were detected. Postoperative gastrography after reconstruction showed that contrast medium flowed mainly to the remnant stomach. The average percentage body weight loss was 14.0 ± 7.1% at 10 months. The average percentage decrease in serum hemoglobin was 5.4 ± 10.4% at 12 months. This novel technique for intracorporeal DTR provided a considerable advantage by the passage of dietary intake to the remnant stomach after LPG.

  15. Bicarbonate secretion by rabbit proximal colon. (United States)

    Sullivan, S K; Smith, P L


    Stripped segments of proximal colon (1-6 cm distal to the ampulla caecalis coli) were studied in vitro in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions using the pH-stat technique. With glucose and HCO3-CO2 present in the serosal bathing solution only, proximal colon alkalinizes the luminal bathing solution at a rate of 2.1 +/- 0.2 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2 (n = 36). With HCO3-CO2 present in the luminal bathing solution alone, proximal colon does not significantly acidify or alkalinize the serosal bathing solution. Addition of glucose (10 mM) to the luminal bathing solution abolished luminal alkalinization. Removal of HCO3 and CO2 from the serosal bathing solution or replacement of O2 with N2 also abolished luminal alkalinization. Acetazolamide (0.1 mM) added to both bathing solutions did not alter the rate of luminal alkalinization. Ion-replacement studies revealed that the alkalinization process was highly dependent on the presence of Na in the bathing solutions and much less dependent on the presence of Cl. Furthermore, ouabain (0.1 mM) significantly reduced luminal alkalinization. As in rabbit ileum, serosal epinephrine (0.1 mM) did not alter luminal alkalinization but increased serosal alkalinization by a Na-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that luminal alkalinization results from a Na-dependent, active transcellular HCO3 transport process and that a Na-dependent HCO3 absorptive process is activated by adrenergic stimuli.

  16. Temporal Proximity Promotes Integration of Overlapping Events. (United States)

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R


    Events with overlapping elements can be encoded as two separate representations or linked into an integrated representation, yet we know little about the conditions that promote one form of representation over the other. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the proximity of overlapping events would increase the probability of integration. Participants first established memories for house-object and face-object pairs; half of the pairs were learned 24 hr before an fMRI session, and the other half 30 min before the session. During scanning, participants encoded object-object pairs that overlapped with the initial pairs acquired on the same or prior day. Participants were also scanned as they made inference judgments about the relationships among overlapping pairs learned on the same or different day. Participants were more accurate and faster when inferring relationships among memories learned on the same day relative to those acquired across days, suggesting that temporal proximity promotes integration. Evidence for reactivation of existing memories-as measured by a visual content classifier-was equivalent during encoding of overlapping pairs from the two temporal conditions. In contrast, evidence for integration-as measured by a mnemonic strategy classifier from an independent study [Richter, F. R., Chanales, A. J. H., & Kuhl, B. A. Predicting the integration of overlapping memories by decoding mnemonic processing states during learning. Neuroimage, 124, 323-335, 2016]-was greater for same-day overlapping events, paralleling the behavioral results. During inference itself, activation patterns further differentiated when participants were making inferences about events acquired on the same day versus across days. These findings indicate that temporal proximity of events promotes integration and further influences the neural mechanisms engaged during inference.

  17. On the way to 1 Gb: demonstration of e-beam proximity effect correction for mask making (United States)

    Rosenbusch, Anja; Kalus, Christian K.; Endo, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Yasuki; Endo, Akihiro


    The e-beam proximity effect is well known as one of the limiting factors in e-beam lithography. As features get smaller the need for e-beam proximity effect correction increases. There exist different approaches to cover these effects by varying dose or shape of the pattern layout during the exposure step. Whichever algorithm is used, the question of proximity effect correction gets more and more a performance problem for forefront applications like the 256 megabit and 1 gigabit chips. The correction approach has to handle large data volume in reasonable time. Key to overcome this hurdle is to include hierarchial data handling into the proximity correction algorithm, which involves hierarchical data structures as well as hierarchy reorganization methods. The goal of the present work is to perform all necessary steps in order to guarantee the accuracy of the exposure result for the 1 gigabit memory chip. One step of the preparation is the e-beam proximity correction for raster scan machines. With respect to proximity effect correction, raster scan machines have a severe drawback. The scanning speed is constant while writing the layout, i.e., dose variation is not applicable to compensate for the proximity effect. There is, however, the geometry which can be exploited as degree of freedom. Geometrical variations of the layout underlie many constraints such as neighboring features, the exposure grid of the e-beam tool and, but not least, writing time. The paper presents how to solve some of the major problems occurring when proximity effect correction becomes an unavoidable step in the mask making process. Power and application limits of proximity effect correction for raster scan machines are investigated. The exposure has been carried out on a MEBES 4500 system. Process latitude and line width linearity are presented. In addition, practical questions like file size increase due to proximity correction are investigated. Exposure results of uncorrected and corrected

  18. [Angle-stable intramedullary nailing of proximal humerus fractures with the PHN (proximal humeral nail)]. (United States)

    Blum, Jochen; Hansen, Matthias; Rommens, Pol Maria


    Stable fixation of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus through minimally invasive operative technique and rapid bone healing as well as restoration of original anatomy. Early functional training with the goal of restoration of former mobility and daily activities. Unstabile two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus (AO classification: 11-A2, 11-A3, 11-B1, 11-B2, 11-B3). Subcapital nonunion of the humerus. Pathologic fractures. Pediatric fractures of the proximal humerus. Fractures of the proximal humerus types 11-C2 und 11-C3 according to the AO classification. Active local infection, e.g., after former operation. Closed reduction. Anterior acromial incision, splitting of the deltoid muscle and the rotator cuff. Opening of the medullary canal with the awl. Nail introduction. Spiral blade introduction in cannulated technique through stab incision. Distal interlocking through aiming device, angle-stable blocking of nail and blade through end cap. Postoperative fixation in Gilchrist sling until 2nd postoperative day; then physiotherapy respecting fracture type and stability, local swelling, patient's age and compliance, and concomitant injuries. 151 proximal humeral fractures were treated with a proximal humeral nail (PHN). 108 patients could be followed up 1 year postoperatively. Significant complications were perforation of the articular surface through bolts or blades (n = 8), implant-related pain (n = 10), fragment dislocation (n = 2), nonunion (n = 2), humeral head necrosis (n = 3), and superficial infection (n = 1). 1 year after the operation, the Constant-Murley Score showed a median value of 75.3 in the injured shoulder and of 89.9 in the uninjured shoulder. The DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) Score was 5.9 preoperatively and 9.3 at 1 year postoperatively. The worst results regarding the Constant-Murley Score as well as the DASH Score were found in C-type fractures.

  19. Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rebouças Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus are considered to be a special type fracture, since impaction of the humeral head on the metaphysis with maintenance of the posteromedial periosteum improves the prognosis regarding occurrences of avascular necrosis. This characteristic can also facilitate the reduction maneuver and increase the consolidation rate of these fractures, even in more complex cases. The studies included were obtained by searching the Bireme, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for those published between 1991 and 2013. The objective of this study was to identify the most common definitions, classifications and treatment methods used for these fractures in the orthopedic medical literature.

  20. Management of posttraumatic proximal interphalangeal joint contracture. (United States)

    Houshian, Shirzad; Jing, Shan Shan; Chikkamuniyappa, Chandrasekar; Kazemian, Gholam Hussein; Emami-Moghaddam-Tehrani, Mohammad


    Chronic flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint presents a common yet challenging problem to hand surgeons. Over the years, multiple treatment modalities have been described for this problem, producing limited results. Nonoperative treatment using serial casting and splints should be tried before attempting open surgical release, which should be done in selected patients. The use of external fixation for treating PIP contracture has been encouraging and can be a useful alterative. This review provides an update on the current management of PIP joint contractures and presents a flowchart of treatment to aid decision making. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Proximal iliotibial band syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Guadagnini Falotico


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The overuse injuries in the hip joint occur commonly in sports practitioners and currently due to technical advances in diagnostic imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, are often misdiagnosed. Recently, a group of people were reported, all female, with pain and swelling in the pelvic region.T2-weighted MRI showed increased signal in the enthesis of the iliotibial band (ITB along the lower border of the iliac tubercle. We report a case of a 34 year old woman, non-professional runner, with pain at the iliac crest with no history of trauma and whose MRI was compatible with the proximal iliotibial band syndrome.

  2. Ontogeny of rabbit proximal tubule urea permeability (United States)



    Urea transport in the proximal tubule is passive and is dependent on the epithelial permeability. The present study examined the maturation of urea permeability (Purea) in in vitro perfused proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) from rabbit renal cortex. Urea transport was lower in neonatal than adult PCT at both 37 and 25°C. The PCT Purea was also lower in the neonates than the adults (37°C: 45.4 ± 10.8 vs. 88.5 ± 15.2 × 10−6 cm/s, P 0.05). The activation energy for PCT Purea was not different between the neonatal and adult groups. BLMV Purea was determined by measuring vesicle shrinkage, due to efflux of urea, using a stop-flow instrument. Neonatal BLMV Purea was not different from adult BLMV Purea at 37°C [1.14 ± 0.05 × 10−6 vs. 1.25 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s; P = not significant (NS)] or 25°C (0.94 ± 0.06 vs. 1.05 ± 0.10 × 10−6 cm/s; P = NS). There was no effect of 250 μM phloretin, an inhibitor of the urea transporter, on Purea in either adult or neonatal BLMV. The activation energy for urea diffusion was also identical in the neonatal and adult BLMV. These findings in the BLMV are in contrast to the brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) where we have previously demonstrated that urea transport is lower in the neonate than the adult. Urea transport is lower in the neonatal proximal tubule than the adult. This is due to a lower rate of apical membrane urea transport, whereas basolateral urea transport is the same in neonates and adults. The lower Purea in neonatal proximal tubules may play a role in overall urea excretion and in developing and maintaining a high medullary urea concentration and thus in the ability to concentrate the urine during renal maturation. PMID:11353675

  3. The BR eigenvalue algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Howell, G.W. [Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Watkins, D.S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Pure and Applied Mathematics


    The BR algorithm, a new method for calculating the eigenvalues of an upper Hessenberg matrix, is introduced. It is a bulge-chasing algorithm like the QR algorithm, but, unlike the QR algorithm, it is well adapted to computing the eigenvalues of the narrowband, nearly tridiagonal matrices generated by the look-ahead Lanczos process. This paper describes the BR algorithm and gives numerical evidence that it works well in conjunction with the Lanczos process. On the biggest problems run so far, the BR algorithm beats the QR algorithm by a factor of 30--60 in computing time and a factor of over 100 in matrix storage space.

  4. Infrared image mosaic using point feature operators (United States)

    Huang, Zhen; Sun, Shaoyuan; Shen, Zhenyi; Hou, Junjie; Zhao, Haitao


    In this paper, we study infrared image mosaic around a single point of rotation, aiming at expanding the narrow view range of infrared images. We propose an infrared image mosaic method using point feature operators including image registration and image synthesis. Traditional mosaic algorithms usually use global image registration methods to extract the feature points in the global image, which cost too much time as well as considerable matching errors. To address this issue, we first roughly calculate the image shift amount using phase correlation and determine the overlap region between images, and then extract image features in overlap region, which shortens the registration time and increases the quality of feature points. We improve the traditional algorithm through increasing constraints of point matching based on prior knowledge of image shift amount based on which the weighted map is computed using fade in-out method. The experimental results verify that the proposed method has better real time performance and robustness.

  5. Software Modules for the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.; Veregge, John R.; Gao, Jay L.; Clare, Loren P.; Mills, David


    The Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) protocol provides time distribution and synchronization services for space systems. A software prototype implementation of the PITS algorithm has been developed that also provides the test harness to evaluate the key functionalities of PITS with simulated data source and sink. PITS integrates time synchronization functionality into the link layer of the CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol. The software prototype implements the network packet format, data structures, and transmit- and receive-timestamp function for a time server and a client. The software also simulates the transmit and receive-time stamp exchanges via UDP (User Datagram Protocol) socket between a time server and a time client, and produces relative time offsets and delay estimates.

  6. Detection of driver drowsiness using wearable devices: A feasibility study of the proximity sensor. (United States)

    He, Jibo; Choi, William; Yang, Yan; Lu, Junshi; Wu, Xiaohui; Peng, Kaiping


    Drowsiness is one of the major factors that cause crashes in the transportation industry. Drowsiness detection systems can alert drowsy operators and potentially reduce the risk of crashes. In this study, a Google-Glass-based drowsiness detection system was developed and validated. The proximity sensor of Google Glass was used to monitor eye blink frequency. A simulated driving study was carried out to validate the system. Driving performance and eye blinks were compared between the two states of alertness and drowsiness while driving. Drowsy drivers increased frequency of eye blinks, produced longer braking response time and increased lane deviation, compared to when they were alert. A threshold algorithm for proximity sensor can reliably detect eye blinks and proved the feasibility of using Google Glass to detect operator drowsiness. This technology provides a new platform to detect operator drowsiness and has the potential to reduce drowsiness-related crashes in driving and aviation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Event-triggered Decision Propagation in Proximity Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik eSarkar


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel event-triggered formulation as an extension of the recently develo-ped generalized gossip algorithm for decision/awareness propagation in mobile sensor networksmodeled as proximity networks. The key idea is to expend energy for communication (messagetransmission and reception only when there is any event of interest in the region of surveillance.The idea is implemented by using an agent’s belief about presence of a hotspot as feedback tochange its probability of (communication activity. In the original formulation, the evolution ofnetwork topology and the dynamics of decision propagation were completely decoupled whichis no longer the case as a consequence of this feedback policy. Analytical results and numeri-cal experiments are presented to show a significant gain in energy savings with no change inthe first moment characteristics of decision propagation. However, numerical experiments showthat the second moment characteristics may change and theoretical results are provided forupper and lower bounds for second moment characteristics. Effects of false alarms on networkformation and communication activity are also investigated.

  8. IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator. (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lukasz P


    Accurate estimation of the isoelectric point (pI) based on the amino acid sequence is useful for many analytical biochemistry and proteomics techniques such as 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, or capillary isoelectric focusing used in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometry. Additionally, pI estimation can be helpful during protein crystallization trials. Here, I present the Isoelectric Point Calculator (IPC), a web service and a standalone program for the accurate estimation of protein and peptide pI using different sets of dissociation constant (pKa) values, including two new computationally optimized pKa sets. According to the presented benchmarks, the newly developed IPC pKa sets outperform previous algorithms by at least 14.9 % for proteins and 0.9 % for peptides (on average, 22.1 % and 59.6 %, respectively), which corresponds to an average error of the pI estimation equal to 0.87 and 0.25 pH units for proteins and peptides, respectively. Moreover, the prediction of pI using the IPC pKa's leads to fewer outliers, i.e., predictions affected by errors greater than a given threshold. The IPC service is freely available at Peptide and protein datasets used in the study and the precalculated pI for the PDB and some of the most frequently used proteomes are available for large-scale analysis and future development. This article was reviewed by Frank Eisenhaber and Zoltán Gáspári.

  9. Optimal Point-to-Point Trajectory Tracking of Redundant Manipulators using Generalized Pattern Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Rein Myo


    Full Text Available Optimal point-to-point trajectory planning for planar redundant manipulator is considered in this study. The main objective is to minimize the sum of the position error of the end-effector at each intermediate point along the trajectory so that the end-effector can track the prescribed trajectory accurately. An algorithm combining Genetic Algorithm and Pattern Search as a Generalized Pattern Search GPS is introduced to design the optimal trajectory. To verify the proposed algorithm, simulations for a 3-D-O-F planar manipulator with different end-effector trajectories have been carried out. A comparison between the Genetic Algorithm and the Generalized Pattern Search shows that The GPS gives excellent tracking performance.

  10. Computation of the heat and entropy of adsorption in proximity of inflection points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poursaeidesfahani, A.; Torres-Knoop, A.; Rigutto, M.; Nair, N.; Dubbeldam, D.; Vlugt, T.J.H.


    The adsorption of different heptane isomers in MFI- and MEL-type Zeolites is studied to investigate the performance of molecular simulation for computing the heat and entropy of adsorption as a function of loading. It is :shown that none of the conventional methods are capable of computing the heat

  11. Can defensible estimates of canopy proximity be obtained based on single point eddy covariance measurements? (United States)

    Hurdebise, Quentin; Heinesch, Bernard; De Ligne, Anne; Vincke, Caroline; Aubinet, Marc


    Understanding if and how the spatial and temporal variability of the surrounding environment affects turbulence is essential for long-term eddy covariance measurements above growing and heterogeneous ecosystems. It requires characterizing the surrounding environment. One way to achieve this is to analyse the canopy aerodynamic distance, which is the difference between measurement height (z) and displacement height (d). In this study, twenty years of eddy covariance measurements from the Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory, a site located in a mixed temperate forest, were used. Canopy aerodynamic distance (z-d) estimates were obtained using two micrometeorological methods: the first one, which is original so far as we know, was based on analysing sensible heat cospectra; the second one was derived from the wind speed profile equation. Canopy height estimates based on inventories were used to validate both methods. The micrometeorological methods allowed the z-d variations due to changes in canopy or measurement height to be detected. In addition, the results obtained using the two methods were well correlated, spatially and temporally, with the z-d derived from canopy height measurements. The micrometeorological approaches used could therefore be a promising tool for investigating z-d variability at a high directional and temporal resolution. Questions remain, however, particularly with regard to the variability observed that cannot be explained by canopy or measurement height variation. Forest management practices and the non-fulfilment of similarity relationships were suspected to be the main explanatory factors.

  12. Visibility of noisy point cloud data

    KAUST Repository

    Mehra, Ravish


    We present a robust algorithm for estimating visibility from a given viewpoint for a point set containing concavities, non-uniformly spaced samples, and possibly corrupted with noise. Instead of performing an explicit surface reconstruction for the points set, visibility is computed based on a construction involving convex hull in a dual space, an idea inspired by the work of Katz et al. [26]. We derive theoretical bounds on the behavior of the method in the presence of noise and concavities, and use the derivations to develop a robust visibility estimation algorithm. In addition, computing visibility from a set of adaptively placed viewpoints allows us to generate locally consistent partial reconstructions. Using a graph based approximation algorithm we couple such reconstructions to extract globally consistent reconstructions. We test our method on a variety of 2D and 3D point sets of varying complexity and noise content. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Algorithmically specialized parallel computers

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Lawrence; Gannon, Dennis B


    Algorithmically Specialized Parallel Computers focuses on the concept and characteristics of an algorithmically specialized computer.This book discusses the algorithmically specialized computers, algorithmic specialization using VLSI, and innovative architectures. The architectures and algorithms for digital signal, speech, and image processing and specialized architectures for numerical computations are also elaborated. Other topics include the model for analyzing generalized inter-processor, pipelined architecture for search tree maintenance, and specialized computer organization for raster

  14. Music analysis and point-set compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David


    COSIATEC, SIATECCompress and Forth’s algorithm are point-set compression algorithms developed for discovering repeated patterns in music, such as themes and motives that would be of interest to a music analyst. To investigate their effectiveness and versatility, these algorithms were evaluated on......-song classification task was COSIATEC, with a success rate of84%. On the other tasks, variants of SIATECCompress performed best, scoring 45% precision and 60% recall on the thematic analysis task, and 21% precision and 55% recall on the fugue analysis task....

  15. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E


    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  16. Scattering Effects in Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Gai, Wei

    PETS (Proximity Effect Tunneling Spectroscopy) technique has been applied to Niobium/Yttrium and Niobium/Lutetium bilayers. We have determined electron - phonon interaction parameter lambda_{rm e -ph} is 0.55 for Yttrium and 0.67 for Lutetium. Spin fluctuations parameter lambda_{ rm S} is 0.20 for Yttrium and 0.33 for Lutetium. We found that the large spin fluctuations in Yttrium and Lutetium has responsibility to the absence of superconductivity in them. Our results have given a reasonable explanation of high superconducting transition temperature in them under high pressure. The large reflection coefficient and strong diffuse scattering at Nb/Y and Nb/Lu interface has been discovered and it should have strong influence on the transport properties of metallic superlattices. From the modeling study of elastic scattering in proximity effect tunnel junctions, we have explained why some conventional made high {rm T_{C}} superconducting tunnel junctions give ideal like characteristics in the gap region but variable strength phonon structures in the phonon region.

  17. Proteomics of Primary Cilia by Proximity Labeling. (United States)

    Mick, David U; Rodrigues, Rachel B; Leib, Ryan D; Adams, Christopher M; Chien, Allis S; Gygi, Steven P; Nachury, Maxence V


    While cilia are recognized as important signaling organelles, the extent of ciliary functions remains unknown because of difficulties in cataloguing proteins from mammalian primary cilia. We present a method that readily captures rapid snapshots of the ciliary proteome by selectively biotinylating ciliary proteins using a cilia-targeted proximity labeling enzyme (cilia-APEX). Besides identifying known ciliary proteins, cilia-APEX uncovered several ciliary signaling molecules. The kinases PKA, AMPK, and LKB1 were validated as bona fide ciliary proteins and PKA was found to regulate Hedgehog signaling in primary cilia. Furthermore, proteomics profiling of Ift27/Bbs19 mutant cilia correctly detected BBSome accumulation inside Ift27(-/-) cilia and revealed that β-arrestin 2 and the viral receptor CAR are candidate cargoes of the BBSome. This work demonstrates that proximity labeling can be applied to proteomics of non-membrane-enclosed organelles and suggests that proteomics profiling of cilia will enable a rapid and powerful characterization of ciliopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases. (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie D; de Waal, Frans B M


    There is disagreement in the literature about the exact nature of the phenomenon of empathy. There are emotional, cognitive, and conditioning views, applying in varying degrees across species. An adequate description of the ultimate and proximate mechanism can integrate these views. Proximately, the perception of an object's state activates the subject's corresponding representations, which in turn activate somatic and autonomic responses. This mechanism supports basic behaviors (e.g., alarm, social facilitation, vicariousness of emotions, mother-infant responsiveness, and the modeling of competitors and predators) that are crucial for the reproductive success of animals living in groups. The Perception-Action Model (PAM), together with an understanding of how representations change with experience, can explain the major empirical effects in the literature (similarity, familiarity, past experience, explicit teaching, and salience). It can also predict a variety of empathy disorders. The interaction between the PAM and prefrontal functioning can also explain different levels of empathy across species and age groups. This view can advance our evolutionary understanding of empathy beyond inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism and can explain different levels of empathy across individuals, species, stages of development, and situations.

  19. Proximal femoral osteotomy in cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Tylkowski, C M; Rosenthal, R K; Simon, S R


    The purpose of this study was to examine the results of the proximal femoral osteotomy for the management of hip deformity in 32 children, aged 4 to 15 years. Twenty-two bilateral and ten unilateral procedures were performed. The indications for surgery were subluxation in 16, dislocation in two, and intoeing and femoral anteversion in 14. The average follow-up was two years and 11 months. CE angle of Wiberg, acetabular index and neck shaft angle were evaluated. The average time to regain preoperative ambulatory status was six months with intensive physical therapy. In osteotomies performed for subluxation, dislocation did not occur; roentgenographic indices showed variability in the degree of subluxation. Osteotomy performed in children older than 8 years of age produced no evidence of acetabular remodeling. THere was no recurrence with osteotomies for dislocation. In those patients with internal rotation gait, improvement resulted. Complications were few and minor. Hip dislocation in children with progressive subluxation, in spite of previous soft-tissue releases, is preventable by proximal femoral osteotomy. The inability of the roentgenographic indices to quantitate the increased stability indicates the procedure's major effect is to realign muscle forces about the hip. Treatment of the intoeing gait produced improvement of rotational deformity.

  20. Obesity and supermarket access: proximity or price? (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Hurvitz, Philip M; Monsivais, Pablo; Moudon, Anne V


    We examined whether physical proximity to supermarkets or supermarket price was more strongly associated with obesity risk. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) collected and geocoded data on home addresses and food shopping destinations for a representative sample of adult residents of King County, Washington. Supermarkets were stratified into 3 price levels based on average cost of the market basket. Sociodemographic and health data were obtained from a telephone survey. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the associations between obesity and supermarket variables. Only 1 in 7 respondents reported shopping at the nearest supermarket. The risk of obesity was not associated with street network distances between home and the nearest supermarket or the supermarket that SOS participants reported as their primary food source. The type of supermarket, by price, was found to be inversely and significantly associated with obesity rates, even after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, and proximity measures (adjusted relative risk=0.34; 95% confidence interval=0.19, 0.63) Improving physical access to supermarkets may be one strategy to deal with the obesity epidemic; improving economic access to healthy foods is another.

  1. Photovoltaic Cells Mppt Algorithm and Design of Controller Monitoring System (United States)

    Meng, X. Z.; Feng, H. B.


    This paper combined the advantages of each maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, put forward a kind of algorithm with higher speed and higher precision, based on this algorithm designed a maximum power point tracking controller with ARM. The controller, communication technology and PC software formed a control system. Results of the simulation and experiment showed that the process of maximum power tracking was effective, and the system was stable.

  2. Pathological fractures of the proximal humerus treated with a proximal humeral locking plate and bone cement. (United States)

    Siegel, H J; Lopez-Ben, R; Mann, J P; Ponce, B A


    Bone loss secondary to primary or metastatic lesions of the proximal humerus remains a challenging surgical problem. Options include preservation of the joint with stabilisation using internal fixation or resection of the tumour with prosthetic replacement. Resection of the proximal humerus often includes the greater tuberosity and adjacent diaphysis, which may result in poor function secondary to loss of the rotator cuff and/or deltoid function. Preservation of the joint with internal fixation may reduce the time in hospital and peri-operative morbidity compared with joint replacement, and result in a better functional outcome. We included 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus in this study. Functional and radiological assessments were performed. At a mean follow-up of 17.6 months (8 to 61) there was no radiological evidence of failure of fixation. The mean revised musculoskeletal Tumour Society functional score was 94.6% (86% to 99%). There was recurrent tumour requiring further surgery in four patients (12.5%). Of the 22 patients who were employed prior to presentation all returned to work without restrictions. The use of a locking plate combined with augmentation with cement extends the indications for salvage of the proximal humerus with good function in patients with pathological and impending pathological fractures.

  3. A Point-Set-Based Footprint Model and Spatial Ranking Method for Geographic Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Gao


    Full Text Available In the recent big data era, massive spatial related data are continuously generated and scrambled from various sources. Acquiring accurate geographic information is also urgently demanded. How to accurately retrieve desired geographic information has become the prominent issue, needing to be resolved in high priority. The key technologies in geographic information retrieval are modeling document footprints and ranking documents based on their similarity evaluation. The traditional spatial similarity evaluation methods are mainly performed using a MBR (Minimum Bounding Rectangle footprint model. However, due to its nature of simplification and roughness, the results of traditional methods tend to be isotropic and space-redundant. In this paper, a new model that constructs the footprints in the form of point-sets is presented. The point-set-based footprint coincides the nature of place names in web pages, so it is redundancy-free, consistent, accurate, and anisotropic to describe the spatial extents of documents, and can handle multi-scale geographic information. The corresponding spatial ranking method is also presented based on the point-set-based model. The new similarity evaluation algorithm of this method firstly measures multiple distances for the spatial proximity across different scales, and then combines the frequency of place names to improve the accuracy and precision. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional methods with higher accuracies under different searching scenarios.

  4. Tuning the Influence of Microscopic Decoherence on the Superconducting Proximity Effect in a Graphene Andreev Interferometer


    Deon Fabio; Sopic Sandra; Morpurgo Alberto F.


    We discuss transport measurements through graphene Andreev interferometers exhibiting reentrance of the superconducting proximity effect. We observe that at high gate voltage (VBG) the energy dependence of the Andreev conductance oscillations exhibits a scaling in agreement with theoretical expectations, which breaks down at low VBG, when the Fermi energy approaches the charge neutrality point. The phenomenon is a manifestation of single particle dephasing that increasingly limits the propaga...

  5. A New Neural Dynamic Classification Algorithm. (United States)

    Rafiei, Mohammad Hossein; Adeli, Hojjat


    The keys for the development of an effective classification algorithm are: 1) discovering feature spaces with large margins between clusters and close proximity of the classmates and 2) discovering the smallest number of the features to perform accurate classification. In this paper, a new supervised classification algorithm, called neural dynamic classification (NDC), is presented with the goal of: 1) discovering the most effective feature spaces and 2) finding the optimum number of features required for accurate classification using the patented robust neural dynamic optimization model of Adeli and Park. The new classification algorithm is compared with the probabilistic neural network (PNN), enhanced PNN (EPNN), and support vector machine using two sets of classification problems. The first set consists of five standard benchmark problems. The second set is a large benchmark problem called Mixed National Institute of Standards and Technology database of handwritten digits. In general, NDC yields the most accurate classification results followed by EPNN. A beauty of the new algorithm is the smoothness of convergence curves which is an indication of robustness and good performance of the algorithm. The main aim is to maximize the prediction accuracy.

  6. Fast Change Point Detection for Electricity Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkeley, UC; Gu, William; Choi, Jaesik; Gu, Ming; Simon, Horst; Wu, Kesheng


    Electricity is a vital part of our daily life; therefore it is important to avoid irregularities such as the California Electricity Crisis of 2000 and 2001. In this work, we seek to predict anomalies using advanced machine learning algorithms. These algorithms are effective, but computationally expensive, especially if we plan to apply them on hourly electricity market data covering a number of years. To address this challenge, we significantly accelerate the computation of the Gaussian Process (GP) for time series data. In the context of a Change Point Detection (CPD) algorithm, we reduce its computational complexity from O($n^{5}$) to O($n^{2}$). Our efficient algorithm makes it possible to compute the Change Points using the hourly price data from the California Electricity Crisis. By comparing the detected Change Points with known events, we show that the Change Point Detection algorithm is indeed effective in detecting signals preceding major events.

  7. Adaptive cockroach swarm algorithm (United States)

    Obagbuwa, Ibidun C.; Abidoye, Ademola P.


    An adaptive cockroach swarm optimization (ACSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper to strengthen the existing cockroach swarm optimization (CSO) algorithm. The ruthless component of CSO algorithm is modified by the employment of blend crossover predator-prey evolution method which helps algorithm prevent any possible population collapse, maintain population diversity and create adaptive search in each iteration. The performance of the proposed algorithm on 16 global optimization benchmark function problems was evaluated and compared with the existing CSO, cuckoo search, differential evolution, particle swarm optimization and artificial bee colony algorithms.

  8. The non-operative resin treatment of proximal caries lesions. (United States)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Martignon, Stefania; Bakhshandeh, Azam; Ricketts, David N J


    Epidemiological data show that the prevalence of caries on proximal surfaces in need of operative treatment is very high around the world, both in the primary and the permanent dentition. This article presents two new treatment methods: proximal sealing and proximal infiltration. The indications are progressing proximal caries lesions, radiographically with a depth around the enamel-dentine junction. A small number of studies regarding the effect of sealing and infiltration on proximal caries versus the use of fluoride varnish, placebo treatment and flossing instructions have been carried out. About half of the studies disclose a not significant difference between test and control treatment. In the other half, the therapeutic effect is significant and corresponds to about 30% reduction in lesion progression. However, longitudinal studies of longer duration are lacking. Proximal sealing and proximal infiltration may have a place in the treatment of non-cavitated proximal lesions. Proximal caries is a problem in both primary and permanent dentitions. Proximal sealants or lesion infiltration are possible treatments.

  9. Spiraling Edge: Fast Surface Reconstruction from Partially Organized Sample Points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Edward; Crossno, Patricia


    Many applications produce three-dimensional points that must be further processed to generate a surface. Surface reconstruction algorithms that start with a set of unorganized points are extremely time-consuming. Sometimes, however, points are generated such that there is additional information available to the reconstruction algorithm. We present Spiraling Edge, a specialized algorithm for surface reconstruction that is three orders of magnitude faster than algorithms for the general case. In addition to sample point locations, our algorithm starts with normal information and knowledge of each point's neighbors. Our algorithm produces a localized approximation to the surface by creating a star-shaped triangulation between a point and a subset of its nearest neighbors. This surface patch is extended by locally triangulating each of the points along the edge of the patch. As each edge point is triangulated, it is removed from the edge and new edge points along the patch's edge are inserted in its place. The updated edge spirals out over the surface until the edge encounters a surface boundary and stops growing in that direction, or until the edge reduces to a small hole that is filled by the final triangle.

  10. Spiraling Edge: Fast Surface Reconstruction from Partially Organized Sample Points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, E.; Crossno, P.


    Many applications produce three-dimensional points that must be further processed to generate a surface. Surface reconstruction algorithms that start with a set of unorganized points are extremely time-consuming. Often, however, points are generated such that there is additional information available to the reconstruction algorithm. We present a specialized algorithm for surface reconstruction that is three orders of magnitude faster than algorithms for the general case. In addition to sample point locations, our algorithm starts with normal information and knowledge of each point's neighbors. Our algorithm produces a localized approximation to the surface by creating a star-shaped triangulation between a point and a subset of its nearest neighbors. This surface patch is extended by locally triangulating each of the points along the edge of the patch. As each edge point is triangulated, it is removed from the edge and new edge points along the patch's edge are inserted in its place. The updated edge spirals out over the surface until the edge encounters a surface boundary and stops growing in that direction, or until the edge reduces to a small hole that fills itself in.

  11. A Sweepline Algorithm for Generalized Delaunay Triangulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    We give a deterministic O(n log n) sweepline algorithm to construct the generalized Voronoi diagram for n points in the plane or rather its dual the generalized Delaunay triangulation. The algorithm uses no transformations and it is developed solely from the sweepline paradigm together with greed......We give a deterministic O(n log n) sweepline algorithm to construct the generalized Voronoi diagram for n points in the plane or rather its dual the generalized Delaunay triangulation. The algorithm uses no transformations and it is developed solely from the sweepline paradigm together...... with greediness. A generalized Delaunay triangulation can be based on an arbitrary strictly convex Minkowski distance function (including all L_p distance functions 1

  12. Geometric Computations On Indecisive Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Phillips, Jeff; Loffler, Maarten


    We study computing with indecisive point sets. Such points have spatial uncertainty where the true location is one of a finite number of possible locations. This data arises from probing distributions a few times or when the location is one of a few locations from a known database. In particular,......-hard. We generalize our polynomial-time algorithm to all LP-type problems. We also utilize our indecisive framework to deterministically and approximately compute on a more general class of uncertain data where the location of each point is given by a probability distribution.......We study computing with indecisive point sets. Such points have spatial uncertainty where the true location is one of a finite number of possible locations. This data arises from probing distributions a few times or when the location is one of a few locations from a known database. In particular......, we study computing distributions of geometric functions such as the radius of the smallest enclosing ball and the diameter. Surprisingly, we can compute the distribution of the radius of the smallest enclosing ball exactly in polynomial time, but computing the same distribution for the diameter is #P...

  13. Rehabilitation and Prevention of Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy. (United States)

    Beatty, Nicholas R; Félix, Ioonna; Hettler, Jessica; Moley, Peter J; Wyss, James F

    Proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) comprises a small but significant portion of hamstring injuries in athletes, especially runners. PHT is a chronic condition that is clinically diagnosed but can be supported with imaging. The main presenting complaint is pain in the lower gluteal or ischial region that may or may not radiate along the hamstrings in the posterior thigh. There is little scientific evidence on which to base the rehabilitation management of PHT. Treatment is almost always conservative, with a focus on activity modification, addressing contributing biomechanical deficiencies, effective tendon loading including eccentric training, and ultrasound-guided interventional procedures which may facilitate rehabilitation. Surgery is limited to recalcitrant cases or those involving concomitant high-grade musculotendinous pathology. The keys to PHT management include early and accurate diagnosis, optimal rehabilitation to allow for a safe return to preinjury activity level, and preventative strategies to reduce risk of reinjury.

  14. Phonon engineering in proximity enhanced superconductor heterostructures. (United States)

    Tang, Yong-Chao; Kwon, Sangil; Mohebbi, Hamid R; Cory, David G; Miao, Guo-Xing


    In this research, we tailor the phonon density of states (DOS) in thin superconducting films to suppress quasiparticle losses. We examine a model system of a proximity-enhanced three-layered Al/Nb/Al heterostructure and show that the local quantized phonon spectrum of the ultrathin Al cladding layers in the heterostructure has a pronounced effect on the superconducting resonator's quality factors. Instead of a monotonic increase of quality factors with decreasing temperatures, we observe the quality factor reaches a maximum at 1.2 K in 5/50/5 nm Al/Nb/Al microstrip resonators, because of a quantized phonon ladder. The phonon DOS may be engineered to enhance the performance of quantum devices.

  15. Efficient triangulation of Poisson-disk sampled point sets

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei


    In this paper, we present a simple yet efficient algorithm for triangulating a 2D input domain containing a Poisson-disk sampled point set. The proposed algorithm combines a regular grid and a discrete clustering approach to speedup the triangulation. Moreover, our triangulation algorithm is flexible and performs well on more general point sets such as adaptive, non-maximal Poisson-disk sets. The experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is robust for a wide range of input domains and achieves significant performance improvement compared to the current state-of-the-art approaches. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  16. Mouse model of proximal tubule endocytic dysfunction. (United States)

    Weyer, Kathrin; Storm, Tina; Shan, Jingdong; Vainio, Seppo; Kozyraki, Renata; Verroust, Pierre J; Christensen, Erik I; Nielsen, Rikke


    Several studies have indicated the central role of the megalin/cubilin multiligand endocytic receptor complex in protein reabsorption in the kidney proximal tubule. However, the poor viability of the existing megalin-deficient mice precludes further studies and comparison of homogeneous groups of mice. Megalin- and/or cubilin-deficient mice were generated using a conditional Cre-loxP system, where the Cre gene is driven by the Wnt4 promoter. Kidney tissues from the mice were analysed for megalin and cubilin expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Renal albumin uptake was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages and analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratios were measured by ELISA and the alkaline picrate method. The Meg(lox/lox);Cre(+), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) and Meg(lox/lox), Cubn(lox/lox);Cre(+) mice were all viable, fertile and developed normal kidneys. Megalin and/or cubilin expression, assessed by immunohistology and western blotting, was reduced by >89%. Consistent with this observation, the mice excreted megalin and cubilin ligands such as transferrin and albumin in addition to low-molecular weight proteins. We further show that megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice excrete albumin with an average of 1.45 ± 0.54 mg/day, suggesting a very low albumin concentration in the glomerular ultrafiltrate. We report here the efficient genetic ablation of megalin, cubilin or both, using a Cre transgene driven by the Wnt4 promoter. The viable megalin/cubilin double-deficient mice now allow for detailed large-scale group analysis, and we anticipate that the mice will be of great value as an animal model for proximal tubulopathies with disrupted endocytosis.

  17. NeatSort - A practical adaptive algorithm


    La Rocca, Marcello; Cantone, Domenico


    We present a new adaptive sorting algorithm which is optimal for most disorder metrics and, more important, has a simple and quick implementation. On input $X$, our algorithm has a theoretical $\\Omega (|X|)$ lower bound and a $\\mathcal{O}(|X|\\log|X|)$ upper bound, exhibiting amazing adaptive properties which makes it run closer to its lower bound as disorder (computed on different metrics) diminishes. From a practical point of view, \\textit{NeatSort} has proven itself competitive with (and of...

  18. Inter-organizational proximity in the context of logistics – research challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Klimas


    Full Text Available Background: One of major areas of modern research econnected with management issues covers inter-organizational networks (including supply chains and cooperation processes aimed at improvement of the effectiveness of their performance to be found in such networks. The logistics is the main factor responsible for effectiveness of the supply chain.  A possible and a quite new direction of research in the area of the performance of processes of the inter-organizational cooperation is the proximity hypothesis that is considered in five dimensions (geographical, organizational, social, cognitive, and institutional. However, according to many authors, there is a lack of research on supply chains conducted from the logistics point of view. The proximity hypothesis in this area of research can be seen as a kind of novum. Therefore, this paper presents the proximity concept from the perspective of the management science, the overview of prior research covering the inter-organizational proximity with supply chain from the logistics point of view as well as the possible future directions of the empirical efforts. Methods: The aim of this paper is to present previous theoretical and empirical results of research covering inter-organizational proximity in logistics and to show current and up-to-date research challenges in this area. The method of the critical analysis of literature is used to realize the goal constructed this way. Results: Knowledge about the influence of the inter-organizational proximity on the performance of supply chains is rather limited, and the research conducted so far, is rather fragmentary and not free of limitations of the conceptual and methodological nature. Additional rationales for further research in this area include knowledge and cognitive gaps indentified in this paper. According to authors the aim of future empirical research should be as follows: (1 unification and update of used conceptual and methodological approaches

  19. Software For Genetic Algorithms (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steve E.


    SPLICER computer program is genetic-algorithm software tool used to solve search and optimization problems. Provides underlying framework and structure for building genetic-algorithm application program. Written in Think C.

  20. Modified Clipped LMS Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lotfizad, Mojtaba; Yazdi, Hadi Sadoghi


    A new algorithm is proposed for updating the weights of an adaptive filter. The proposed algorithm is a modification of an existing method, namely, the clipped LMS, and uses a three-level quantization...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Ch'ng


    Full Text Available The inventorying of biological diversity and studies in biocomplexity require the management of large electronic datasets of organisms. While species inventory has adopted structured electronic databases for some time, the computer modelling of the functional interactions between biological entities at all levels of life is still in the stage of development. One of the challenges for this type of modelling is the biotic interactions that occur between large datasets of entities represented as computer algorithms. In real-time simulation that models the biotic interactions of large population datasets, the use of computational processing time could be extensive. One way of increasing the efficiency of such simulation is to partition the landscape so that entities need only traverse its local space for entities that falls within the interaction proximity. This article presents an efficient segmentation algorithm for biotic interactions for research related to the modelling and simulation of biological systems.

  2. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination. (United States)

    Cowley, Jeffrey C; Gates, Deanna H


    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.

  3. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination (United States)

    Cowley, Jeffrey C.


    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks. PMID:28235005

  4. Linear programming mathematics, theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server


    Linear Programming provides an in-depth look at simplex based as well as the more recent interior point techniques for solving linear programming problems. Starting with a review of the mathematical underpinnings of these approaches, the text provides details of the primal and dual simplex methods with the primal-dual, composite, and steepest edge simplex algorithms. This then is followed by a discussion of interior point techniques, including projective and affine potential reduction, primal and dual affine scaling, and path following algorithms. Also covered is the theory and solution of the linear complementarity problem using both the complementary pivot algorithm and interior point routines. A feature of the book is its early and extensive development and use of duality theory. Audience: The book is written for students in the areas of mathematics, economics, engineering and management science, and professionals who need a sound foundation in the important and dynamic discipline of linear programming.

  5. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren


    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  6. An algorithm for online optimization of accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaobiao [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Corbett, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Safranek, James [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wu, Juhao [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    We developed a general algorithm for online optimization of accelerator performance, i.e., online tuning, using the performance measure as the objective function. This method, named robust conjugate direction search (RCDS), combines the conjugate direction set approach of Powell's method with a robust line optimizer which considers the random noise in bracketing the minimum and uses parabolic fit of data points that uniformly sample the bracketed zone. Moreover, it is much more robust against noise than traditional algorithms and is therefore suitable for online application. Simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to demonstrate the strength of the new algorithm.

  7. Space mapping optimization algorithms for engineering design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawomir; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj


    A simple, efficient optimization algorithm based on space mapping (SM) is presented. It utilizes input SM to reduce the misalignment between the coarse and fine models of the optimized object over a region of interest, and output space mapping (OSM) to ensure matching of response and first......-order derivatives between the mapped coarse model and the fine model at the current iteration point. We also consider an enhanced version in which the input SM coefficients are frequency dependent. The performance of our new algorithms is comparable with the recently published SMIS algorithm when applied...

  8. Dental flossing as a diagnostic method for proximal gingivitis: a validation study. (United States)

    Grellmann, Alessandra Pascotini; Kantorski, Karla Zanini; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Moreira, Carlos Heitor Cunha; Danesi, Cristiane Cademartori; Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin


    This study evaluated the clinical diagnosis of proximal gingivitis by comparing two methods: dental flossing and the gingival bleeding index (GBI). One hundred subjects (aged at least 18 years, with 15% of positive proximal sites for GBI, without proximal attachment loss) were randomized into five evaluation protocols. Each protocol consisted of two assessments with a 10-minute interval between them: first GBI/second floss, first floss/second GBI, first GBI/second GBI, first tooth floss/second floss, and first gum floss-second floss. The dental floss was slid against the tooth surface (TF) and the gingival tissue (GF). The evaluated proximal sites should present teeth with established point of contact and probing depth ≤ 3mm. One trained and calibrated examiner performed all the assessments. The mean percentages of agreement and disagreement were calculated for the sites with gingival bleeding in both evaluation methods (GBI and flossing). The primary outcome was the percentage of disagreement between the assessments in the different protocols. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, McNemar, chi-square and Tukey's post hoc tests, with a 5% significance level. When gingivitis was absent in the first assessment (negative GBI), bleeding was detected in the second assessment by TF and GF in 41.7% (p gingivitis in the second assessment (negative GBI), TF and GF detected bleeding in the first assessment in 38.9% (p = 0.004) and 58.3% (p gingivitis than GBI.

  9. Congenital anomalies, prematurity, and low birth weight rates in relation to nuclear power plant proximity1). (United States)

    Mangones, Tania; Visintainer, Paul; Brumberg, Heather L


    The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal residential proximity to a nuclear reactor is associated with prevalence of certain birth defects. The New York State Vital Statistics and Congenital Malformations Registry data (1992-2001) were analyzed for five Hudson Valley counties in a 20-mile radius from the Indian Point nuclear reactor (Buchanan, NY, USA). Four zones of 5-mile increments were used to categorize proximity to the reactor. Data included congenital anomalies, low birth weight, and prematurity. Over the 10-year period, 702 malformations in 666 children were identified from a birth population of 328,124, yielding a regional rate of 2.1 major malformations per 1000 births. The prevalence of defects, low birth weight, and prematurity were not related to proximity to the nuclear power plant. These data did not substantiate an association between maternal proximity to the reactor and certain birth defects and provide baseline data for comparison in the event of a nuclear accident.

  10. Detection of proximal caries using digital radiographic systems with different resolutions. (United States)

    Nikneshan, Sima; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashhadi; Sabbagh, Sedigheh


    Dental radiography is an important tool for detection of caries and digital radiography is the latest advancement in this regard. Spatial resolution is a characteristic of digital receptors used for describing the quality of images. This study was aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two digital radiographic systems with three different resolutions for detection of noncavitated proximal caries. Diagnostic accuracy. Seventy premolar teeth were mounted in 14 gypsum blocks. Digora; Optime and RVG Access were used for obtaining digital radiographs. Six observers evaluated the proximal surfaces in radiographs for each resolution in order to determine the depth of caries based on a 4-point scale. The teeth were then histologically sectioned, and the results of histologic analysis were considered as the gold standard. Data were entered using SPSS version 18 software and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for data analysis. P proximal caries (P > 0.05). RVG access system had the highest specificity (87.7%) and Digora; Optime at high resolution had the lowest specificity (84.2%). Furthermore, Digora; Optime had higher sensitivity for detection of caries exceeding outer half of enamel. Judgment of oral radiologists for detection of the depth of caries had higher reliability than that of restorative dentistry specialists. The three resolutions of Digora; Optime and RVG access had similar accuracy in detection of noncavitated proximal caries.

  11. Elastomeric impression as a diagnostic method of cavitation in proximal dentin caries in primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriela Azevedo Souza Mariath


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to validate the elastomeric impression after temporary tooth separation as a method of cavitation detection in proximal caries lesions in primary molars with outer half dentin radiolucency. Fifty-one children (4-10 years old, presenting radiolucency in the outer half of the dentin at the proximal surfaces of primary molars and proximal anatomic contact with the adjacent tooth (without restoration/cavitated caries lesion were enrolled in the study. Temporary tooth separation was performed with an orthodontic rubber ring placed around the contact point during 2-3 days. Thereafter, impression of the proximal surfaces was made. The elastomeric impressions were classified as "non-cavitated" or "cavitated" surfaces. Visual inspection after tooth separation was considered as the gold standard. Examiner reliability of visual inspection after tooth separation was determined (kappa 0.92. Impression examination was repeated every 5 participants to evaluate the reproducibility of the method. The frequency of cavitated lesions was 65%, and 67% of those were inactive. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 0.88% (95%CI 0.73-0.95, 0.89% (95%CI 0.67-0.97, 0.94% (95%CI 0.79-0.98 and 0.80% (95%CI 0.58-0.92, respectively. Impression examination showed total agreement regarding cavitation. The evaluation of elastomeric impression after tooth separation is a useful clinical resource in cavitation detection for clinicians and researchers when visual inspection is doubtful.

  12. Spatial Proximity and Intercompany Communication: Myths and Realities


    Aguilera, Anne; Lethiais, Virginie; Alain RALLET


    Spatial proximity is credited with numerous virtues in the economic literature. In particular, for a company to be located near other companies is seen as conducive to the development of business relations. Spatial proximity is also considered to contribute to the quality and efficiency of these relations by facilitating face-to-face meetings that foster the exchange of complex knowledge and, in particular, the emergence of innovation. This article explores the notion of spatial proximity in ...

  13. Diagnosis of Proximal Caries in Primary Molars with DIAGNOdent pen


    Ermler, Romy


    Proximal surfaces, together with fissures, are the areas where most primary caries occur. Due to the anatomy of the deciduous molars, proximal caries cannot be detected at an early stage in crowded teeth by simply using a mirror and probe. Therefore, additional methods to find early proximal caries have to be used. KaVo uses laser fluorescence to detect caries. Originally, the DIAGNOdent devices were able to detect only occlusal caries (56, 61, 62, 65, 66). New results are now also available ...

  14. Role of Information and Organization Structures on Distributed Auction Algorithms: Point-to-Point Communication Architecture (United States)


    assigns an asset j to the best task i attaining the maximum bid and sends the bid to his neighboring DMs; and 4) DM2 updates his bid after...DMs 1, 2, 4 and 5; and 5) DM2 updates his bid after receiving the bids from DM3 (same as in Table 2 (b)). Role of Information and Organization

  15. Graph Colouring Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husfeldt, Thore


    This chapter presents an introduction to graph colouring algorithms. The focus is on vertex-colouring algorithms that work for general classes of graphs with worst-case performance guarantees in a sequential model of computation. The presentation aims to demonstrate the breadth of available...... techniques and is organized by algorithmic paradigm....

  16. Optimal Mixing Evolutionary Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Thierens (Dirk); P.A.N. Bosman (Peter); N. Krasnogor


    htmlabstractA key search mechanism in Evolutionary Algorithms is the mixing or juxtaposing of partial solutions present in the parent solutions. In this paper we look at the efficiency of mixing in genetic algorithms (GAs) and estimation-of-distribution algorithms (EDAs). We compute the mixing

  17. A Proximal Fully Parallel Splitting Method for Stable Principal Component Pursuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchun Sun


    Full Text Available As a special three-block separable convex programming, the stable principal component pursuit (SPCP arises in many different disciplines, such as statistical learning, signal processing, and web data ranking. In this paper, we propose a proximal fully parallel splitting method (PFPSM for solving SPCP, in which the resulting subproblems all admit closed-form solutions and can be solved in distributed manners. Compared with other similar algorithms in the literature, PFPSM attaches a Glowinski relaxation factor η∈3/2,2/3 to the updating formula for its Lagrange multiplier, which can be used to accelerate the convergence of the generated sequence. Under mild conditions, the global convergence of PFPSM is proved. Preliminary computational results show that the proposed algorithm works very well in practice.

  18. Algorithm for Detecting Significant Locations from Raw GPS Data (United States)

    Kami, Nobuharu; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Baba, Teruyuki; Yoshikawa, Takashi

    We present a fast algorithm for probabilistically extracting significant locations from raw GPS data based on data point density. Extracting significant locations from raw GPS data is the first essential step of algorithms designed for location-aware applications. Assuming that a location is significant if users spend a certain time around that area, most current algorithms compare spatial/temporal variables, such as stay duration and a roaming diameter, with given fixed thresholds to extract significant locations. However, the appropriate threshold values are not clearly known in priori and algorithms with fixed thresholds are inherently error-prone, especially under high noise levels. Moreover, for N data points, they are generally O(N 2) algorithms since distance computation is required. We developed a fast algorithm for selective data point sampling around significant locations based on density information by constructing random histograms using locality sensitive hashing. Evaluations show competitive performance in detecting significant locations even under high noise levels.

  19. Calculating Graph Algorithms for Dominance and Shortest Path

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergey, Ilya; Midtgaard, Jan; Clarke, Dave


    expressing all finite paths through a directed graph and (2) Galois connections that capture dominance and path length. The approach illustrates that reasoning in the style of fixed-point calculus extends gracefully to the domain of graph algorithms. We thereby bridge common practice from the school......We calculate two iterative, polynomial-time graph algorithms from the literature: a dominance algorithm and an algorithm for the single-source shortest path problem. Both algorithms are calculated directly from the definition of the properties by fixed-point fusion of (1) a least fixed point...... of program calculation with common practice from the school of static program analysis, and build a novel view on iterative graph algorithms as instances of abstract interpretation...

  20. Segmentation of planar surfaces in LiDAR point clouds of an electrical substation by exploring the structure of points neighbourhood (United States)

    Arastounia, M.; Lichti, D. D.


    According to the Department of Energy of the USA, today's electrical distribution system is 97.97% reliable. However, power outages and interruptions still impact many people. Many power outages are caused by animals coming into contact with the conductive elements of the electrical substations. This can be prevented by covering the conductive electrical objects with insulating materials. The design of these custom-built insulating covers requires a 3D as-built plan of the substation. This research aims to develop automated methods to create such a 3D as-built plan using terrestrial LiDAR data for which objects first need to be recognized in the LiDAR point clouds. This paper reports on the application of a new algorithm for the segmentation of planar surfaces found at electrical substations. The proposed approach is a region growing method that aggregates points based on their proximity to each other and their neighbourhood dispersion direction. PCA (principal components analysis) is also employed to segment planar surfaces in the electrical substation. In this research two different laser scanners, Leica HDS 6100 and Faro Focus3D, were utilized to scan an electrical substation in Airdrie, a city located in north of Calgary, Canada. In this research, three subsets incorporating one subset of Leica dataset with approximately 1.7 million points and two subsets of the Faro dataset with 587 and 79 thousand points were utilized. The performance of our proposed method is compared with the performance of PCA by performing check point analysis and investigation of computational speed. Both methods managed to detect a great proportion of planar points (about 70%). However, the proposed method slightly outperformed PCA. 95% of the points that were segmented by both methods as planar points did actually lie on a planar surface. This exhibits the high ability of both methods to identify planar points. The results also indicate that the computational speed of our method is