Sample records for proximal pin placement

  1. Low Incidence of Neurovascular Complications After Placement of Proximal Tibial Traction Pins. (United States)

    Sobol, Garret; Gibson, Peter; Patel, Param; Koury, Kenneth; Sirkin, Michael; Reilly, Mark; Adams, Mark


    Skeletal tibial traction is a temporizing measure used preoperatively for femoral fractures to improve the length and alignment of the limb and provide pain relief. The goal of this study was to identify possible neurovascular morbidity associated with the use of bedside skeletal tibial traction to treat femur fractures. All femoral fractures treated with proximal tibial traction during a 10-year period at an urban level I trauma center were retrospectively reviewed. The medical record was reviewed to determine whether a pin-related complication had occurred. Records also were reviewed to identify ipsilateral multi-ligamentous knee injuries that were not diagnosed until after the application of traction. In total, 303 proximal tibial traction pins were placed. A total of 7 (2.3%; 95% confidence interval, 0.60%-4.0%) pin-related neurologic complications and zero vascular complications were noted. All complications involved motor and/or sensory deficits in the distribution of the peroneal nerve. Of the 7 complications, 6 resolved fully after surgery and removal of the pin. After traction placement, 6 (2.0%) ipsilateral multiligamentous knee injuries were diagnosed. None of these patients had a neurovascular complication. This study suggests that bedside placement of proximal tibial traction for femoral fractures is associated with a low incidence of neurovascular complications and that traction can be safely placed at the bedside by residents. A thorough neurovascular examination should be performed before insertion, and care should be taken to identify the proper starting point and reduce soft tissue trauma during pin placement. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Pinning technique for shoulder fractures in adolescents: computer modelling of percutaneous pinning of proximal humeral fractures (United States)

    Mehin, Ramin; Mehin, Afshin; Wickham, David; Letts, Merv


    Background In the technique of percuatenous pinning of proximal humerus fractures, the appropriate entry site and trajectory of pins is unknown, especially in the adolescent population. We sought to determine the ideal entry site and trajectory of pins. Methods We used magnetic resonance images of nonfractured shoulders in conjunction with radiographs of shoulder fractures that were treated with closed reduction and pinning to construct 3-dimensional computer-generated models. We used engineering software to determine the ideal location of pins. We also conducted a literature review. Results The nonfractured adolescent shoulder has an articular surface diameter of 41.3 mm, articular surface thickness of 17.4 mm and neck shaft angle of 36°. Although adolescents and adults have relatively similar shoulder skeletal anatomy, they suffer different types of fractures. In our study, 14 of 16 adolescents suffered Salter–Harris type II fractures. The ideal location for the lateral 2 pins in an anatomically reduced shoulder fracture is 4.4 cm and 8.0 cm from the proximal part of the humeral head directed at 21.2° in the coronal plane relative to the humeral shaft. Conclusion Operative management of proximal humerus fractures in adolescents requires knowledge distinct from that required for adult patients. This is the first study to examine the anatomy of the nonfractured proximal humerus in adolescents. This is also the first study to attempt to model the positioning of percutaneous proximal humerus pins. PMID:20011155

  3. Evaluation of percutaneous pinning in unstable proximal humeral fractures: A novel technique

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    Nishikant Kumar


    Full Text Available Management of unstable proximal humeral fractures has remained controversial since ages. Open reduction and internal fixation have resulted in devastating complications like stiffness of shoulder joint, avascular necrosis, infection, etc., We are presenting a novel method of percutaneous pinning of unstable proximal humeral fractures. All cases (32 were done closely without soft tissue stripping. All cases were followed-up for a period of 3 years; and results were assessed according to 100 point constant score. A total of 75% cases showed excellent to good results. To minimize the complications like pin site infection, loosening, neurovascular damage we used fixed pin site insertion technique, and threaded pins in osteoporotic patients. So percutaneous pinning is a safe and novel method of management of unstable proximal humeral fractures if certain principles are borne in mind before using it.

  4. Prophylactic pinning for slipped capital femoral epiphysis: does it affect proximal femoral morphology? (United States)

    Cousins, Gerard R; Campbell, Donald M; Wilson, Neil I L; Maclean, Jamie G B


    This study was designed to determine whether prophylactic pinning of the unaffected hip in unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis affects the proximal femoral morphology. Twenty-four hips prophylactically pinned were compared with 26 cases observed. The articulotrochanteric distance (ATD) and the trochanteric-trochanteric distance (TTD) were measured. Postoperative radiographs were compared with final follow-up radiographs. The final TTD : ATD ratio was higher (P=0.048) in the pinned group, suggesting relative coxa vara/breva. There was a smaller difference between the two hips in the prophylactically pinned group (0.7) as opposed to those observed (1.47). Prophylactic pinning does not cause growth to stop immediately but alters the proximal femoral morphology.

  5. [Biomechanical study of percutaneous pinning as the treatment of proximal humerus fractures]. (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-yan; Wang, Man-yi; Rong, Guo-wei


    To investigate the influence on fracture stability by different pin construct during percutaneous pinning for the treatment of proximal humerus fractures. Eighteen pairs (36) adult fresh-frozen humeri were match-paired and divided into 4 groups. Dual-energy bone density scan had been used in order to rule out the influence by different degrees of osteoporosis of the cadaver. Two-part surgical neck fracture model was carried out unanimously in all 36 humeri. Four terminal threaded pins (2.5 mm in diameter) were used in fixation for all specimen. Parallel type pinning (box type) were carried out in 2 groups and convergent type pinning (fan shape) in the other 2 groups. Instron5566 biomechanical tester was applied in determining both anti-shear and anti-torsion ultimate load of each specimen. There was no statistical difference between parallel pin construct and convergent construct in regard of anti-shear resistance (P = 0.73). But by mean of anti-torsion resistance, the parallel construct had significant advantage over the convergent construct (P = 0.04). According to our biomechanical data, parallel pin construct seems to have better torsional stability. We suggest that parallel pin fixation should be applied whenever possible. Convergent pin construct should be considered when parallel construct is not possible or the distance between pins are too small (< 1 cm).

  6. Gas Gangrene as a Result of Femoral Traction Pin Placement

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    Benjamin C. Taylor


    Full Text Available Treatment of adult femoral shaft fractures typically involves operative stabilization with intramedullary implants, external fixation, or a plate and screw construct. However, when stabilization is delayed for any reason, use of a traction pin is recommended to stabilize the fracture, prevent significant shortening, as well as to help with pain control. In this paper, we present the rare complication of a severe gas gangrene infection caused by Clostridium perfringens that led to several amputations and ultimately death. We also discuss risks of temporary skeletal traction and techniques to overcome the morbidity of such a procedure.

  7. Cadaveric analysis of capsular attachments of the distal femur related to pin and wire placement. (United States)

    Lowery, Kathryn; Dearden, Paul; Sherman, Kevin; Mahadevan, Vishy; Sharma, Hemant


    Septic arthritis following intra-capsular penetration of the knee by external fixation devices is a complication of traction/fixation devices inserted in the lower extremity [1,2]. The authors were unable to find reference to or exact measurements of the capsular attachments relating to the distal femur documented in the current literature. This study aimed to demonstrate the capsular attachments and reflections of the distal femur to determine safe placements of wires or traction devices. The attachments of the capsule to the distal femur were measured in 10 unembalmed cadaveric knees. Capsular attachments were measured anteriorly at the maximal extension of the supra-patella pouch. Medially and laterally measurements were expressed as percentages related to the maximal AP diameter of the distal femur. Mean distance from the centre of the anterior part of the notch to the superior fold was 79.5mm (Range 48.1-120.7 mm). The medial capsular reflections measured in a plane from the adductor tubercle to the anterior edge of the medial femoral condyle demonstrated the capsular reflection was attached an average of 57% back from the anterior edge (Range 41-74%). Laterally the capsular reflections on a line drawn from the maximal diameter in the sagittal plane were attached an average of 48% from the anterior reference point (Range 33-57%). Measuring the reflections at 45 degrees to the long axis of the femur in the sagittal plane the attachment was an average of 51% from the anterior reference point. Capsular reflections varied among specimens. Medially the capsule attachment was up to 74% of diameter of distal femur at the level of the adductor tubercle. Therefore, the insertion of distal femoral traction pins or similar should be placed proximal to the adductor tubercle and no further than 25% of the distance to the anterior cortex. Care is also needed to ensure pins do not travel to exit too anteriorly on the lateral side as capsular attachments were found to be up

  8. The Effect of Cement Placement on Augmentation of the Osteoporotic Proximal Femur


    Sutter, Edward G.; Wall, Simon J.; Mears, Simon C; Belkoff, Stephen M.


    Femoroplasty, the augmentation of the proximal femur, has been shown in biomechanical studies to increase the energy required to produce a fracture and therefore may reduce the risk of such injuries. The purpose of our study was to test the hypotheses that: (1) 15 mL of cement was sufficient to mechanically augment the proximal femur, (2) there was no difference in augmentation effect between cement placement in the intertrochanteric region and in the femoral neck, and (3) cement placement in...

  9. Unstable dorsal proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocations treated with extension-block pinning. (United States)

    Bear, David M; Weichbrodt, Matthew T; Huang, Chris; Hagberg, William C; Balk, Marshall L


    Unstable proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint fracture-dislocations, which can cause significant disability, can be treated with multiple techniques. Extension-block pinning (EBP) allows for early motion and is less technically demanding than alternative surgical treatments. In the study reported here, 12 patients with unstable dorsal PIP fracture-dislocations were treated with closed reduction of the PIP joint followed by percutaneous insertion of a Kirschner wire (K-wire) into the distal aspect of the proximal phalanx. For these patients, extent of articular surface involvement averaged 43% (range, 25%-75%). Active motion was initiated early after surgery, and the K-wire was removed a mean of 25 days after pinning. Radiographic reduction of joint dislocation was achieved and maintained for 11 of the 12 patients at a mean follow-up of 35.5 months. At follow-up, mean visual analog scale (VAS) score was 0.64 (scale, 0-10). Mean score on the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire was 5.7, suggesting minimal functional impairment. Mean PIP active motion was 84° (range, 50°-110°). Grip strength was equal between operative and contralateral hands. Patient satisfaction most closely correlated with low VAS and QuickDASH scores. One patient developed a malunion, which was treated with corrective osteotomy. EBP is a simple, safe, and reproducible technique for unstable PIP fracture-dislocations. This technique yields outcomes similar to those reported for more complex surgical procedures.

  10. Intramedullary Pinning with Tension-Band Wiring for Surgical Neck Fractures Of the Proximal Humerus in Elderly Patients

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    Cheng-Chang Lu


    Full Text Available Most proximal humeral fractures in the elderly population are related to osteoporosis. Several methods have been proposed to treat surgical neck fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly people. This study investigates a new method of intramedullary pinning with tension-band wiring. From June 1998 to March 2001, 10 female patients with a mean age of 73.0 years and displaced two- or three-part surgical neck fractures of the proximal humerus were studied. Two intramedullary pins were used with tension-band wiring via a deltopectoral approach with minimum dissection. The mean follow-up was 20.6 months. Final outcome was evaluated using the constant score, visual analog scale (VAS score, questionnaire, and an outcome assessment form. The outcome was excellent in four patients, good in five, and fair in one. The mean Constant score was 80.8 and the VAS score was 83.0. There was no nonunion, avascular necrosis, deep infection, or pin migration. No patient needed further revision open reduction with internal fixation or prosthesis replacement. We therefore concluded that intramedullary pinning with tension-band wiring is a safe, reliable method, with few complications, for treating surgical neck fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly patients.

  11. Influence of composite resin consistency and placement technique on proximal contact tightness of Class II restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.


    PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of composite resin consistency and placement technique on proximal contact tightness of Class II composite resin restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A manikin model (KaVo Dental) was used with an artificial first molar in which a standardized MO preparation was

  12. Role of Provisional Fixation of Fracture Fragments By Steinmann-Pin and Technical Tips in Proximal Femoral Nailing for Intertrochanteric Fracture. (United States)

    Jain, Mohit J; Mavani, Kinjal J; Patel, Dhaval


    Proximal Femoral Nailing (PFN) in Intertrochanteric Fractures (IF) is becoming the choice of implant due to better biomechanics and prevention of varus collapse associated with Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS). Technical difficulties and implant related complications are yet to be addressed. To understand the technical difficulties involved in PFN and role of provisional fixation of fracture by Steinmann-pin. In this study, 55 patients presented to a tertiary trauma center in India with trochanteric fractures from April 2010 to March 2012 were included and treated with PFN. All patients were followed-up for two years and final outcome assessment included shortening, neck shaft angle and Harris Hip Score was done. In all except one, neck shaft angle greater than 130° was achieved and also maintained in the final follow up (Mean 131.1°). All fractures were united with mean shortening of 3.6 mm and average Harris Hip Score of 91 after two years. There were five complications which included one shortening, two varus collapses, one backed out screws and one reverse Z effect. Though PFN is technically challenging, with proper technique, gives excellent results with negligible varus collapse even in unstable fractures. Three most important technical aspects are achieving good non-varus reduction, inserting nail correctly and accurate placement of lag screws. The technique of provisional fixation of fracture fragments by Steinmann-pin significantly helps in achieving these and reduces the risk of implant failure.

  13. Lower extremity traction pins: indications, technique, and complications. (United States)

    Althausen, Peter L; Hak, David J


    The placement of pins in the lower extremity for the purpose of skeletal traction is a basic skill required by an orthopedic surgeon. These pins are primarily used for the management of fractures and dislocations. Although simple, the insertion and care of these pins can be accompanied by severe complications including damage to neurovascular structures, physeal injury, ligamentous insult, fracture, and infection. We review the techniques of pin insertion at the distal femur, proximal tibia, and calcaneus to provide a foundation for residents and attendings alike so that unnecessary complications may be avoided and proper placement ensured.

  14. Ising Ferromagnets on Proximity Graphs with Varying Disorder of the Node Placement. (United States)

    Schawe, Hendrik; Norrenbrock, Christoph; Hartmann, Alexander K


    We perform Monte Carlo simulations to determine the critical temperatures of Ising Ferromagnets (IFM) on different types of two-dimensional proximity graphs, in which the distribution of their underlying node sets has been changed systematically by means of a parameter σ. This allows us to interpolate between regular grids and proximity graphs based on complete random placement of nodes. Each edge of the planar proximity graphs carries a weighted ferromagnetic coupling. The coupling strengths are determined via the Euclidean distances between coupled spins. The simulations are carried out on graphs with N = 162 to N = 1282 nodes utilising the Wolff cluster algorithm and parallel tempering method in a wide temperature range around the critical point to measure the Binder cumulant in order to obtain the critical temperature for different values of σ. Interestingly, the critical temperatures depend partially non-monotonously on the disorder parameter σ, corresponding to a non-monotonous change of the graph structure. For completeness, we further verify using finite-size scaling methods that the IFM on proximity graphs is for all values of the disorder in the same universality class as the IFM on the two-dimensional square lattice.

  15. Design of intelligent proximity detection zones to prevent striking and pinning fatalities around continuous mining machines. (United States)

    Bissert, P T; Carr, J L; DuCarme, J P; Smith, A K


    The continuous mining machine is a key piece of equipment used in underground coal mining operations. Over the past several decades these machines have been involved in a number of mine worker fatalities. Proximity detection systems have been developed to avert hazards associated with operating continuous mining machines. Incorporating intelligent design into proximity detection systems allows workers greater freedom to position themselves to see visual cues or avoid other hazards such as haulage equipment or unsupported roof or ribs. However, intelligent systems must be as safe as conventional proximity detection systems. An evaluation of the 39 fatal accidents for which the Mine Safety and Health Administration has published fatality investigation reports was conducted to determine whether the accident may have been prevented by conventional or intelligent proximity. Multiple zone configurations for the intelligent systems were studied to determine how system performance might be affected by the zone configuration. Researchers found that 32 of the 39 fatalities, or 82 percent, may have been prevented by both conventional and intelligent proximity systems. These results indicate that, by properly configuring the zones of an intelligent proximity detection system, equivalent protection to a conventional system is possible.

  16. Radiologic Placement of Uncovered Stents for the Treatment of Malignant Colonic Obstruction Proximal to the Descending Colon

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    Yoon, Jehong; Kwon, Se Hwan, E-mail: [Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Kyun [Kyung Hee University, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun Jin [Kyung Hee University, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Ji Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Joo Hyeong [Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)


    PurposeTo evaluate the safety, feasibility, and patency rates of radiologic placement of uncovered stents for the treatment of malignant colonic obstruction proximal to the descending colon.Materials and MethodsThis was a retrospective, single-center study. From May 2003 to March 2015, 53 image-guided placements of uncovered stents (44 initial placements, 9 secondary placements) were attempted in 44 patients (male:female = 23:21; mean age, 71.8 years). The technical and clinical success, complication rates, and patency rates of the stents were also evaluated. Technical success was defined as the successful deployment of the stent under fluoroscopic guidance alone and clinical success was defined as the relief of obstructive symptoms or signs within 48 h of stent deployment.ResultsIn total, 12 (27.3 %) patients underwent preoperative decompression, while 32 (72.7 %) underwent decompression with palliative intent. The technical success rate was 93.2 % (41/44) for initial placement and 88.9 % (8/9) for secondary placement. Secondary stent placement in the palliative group was required in nine patients after successful initial stent placement due to stent obstruction from tumor ingrowth (n = 7) and stent migration (n = 2). The symptoms of obstruction were relieved in all successful cases (100 %). In the palliative group, the patency rates were 94.4 % at 1 month, 84.0 % at 3 months, 64.8 % at 6 months, and 48.6 % at 12 months.ConclusionsThe radiologic placement of uncovered stents for the treatment of malignant obstruction proximal to the descending colon is feasible and safe, and provides acceptable clinical results.

  17. Goniometry of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints, Part II: placement prefereces, interrater reliability, and concurrent validity. (United States)

    Groth, G N; VanDeven, K M; Phillips, E C; Ehretsman, R L


    The purposes of this repeated-measures single-case-design study were to describe goniometric placement preferences and their effect on the measurement of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints, to determine interrater reliability, and to determine concurrent validity. Thirty-nine therapists measured one patient dorsally and laterally with the DeVore and the 6" clear goniometers. No significant differences were found between the two goniometers used in the study. Comparison of the means of lateral and dorsal measurements revealed that the only joint associated with a significant difference was the contracted index proximal interphalangeal joint (p=0.0347). Preferences did affect the standard deviations and ranges but not the means of the measurements. Interrater reliability was high (ICC 2,1: 0.99 and 0.86). Clinical and radiographic measurements were markedly different from each other (paired-difference t-tests), leading to inconclusive concurrent validity.

  18. Subclinical ischemic events in patients undergoing carotid artery stent placement: comparison of proximal and distal protection techniques. (United States)

    Aytac, Emrah; Gürkaş, Erdem; Akpinar, Cetin Kursad; Saleem, Muhammad A; Qureshi, Adnan I


    To determine the relative effectiveness of proximal and distal protection in prevention of cerebral ischemic events during carotid artery stent (CAS) placement using diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI). We analyzed data from patients who had undergone DW-MRI before and within 24 hours of CAS for symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis (with last ischemic events within 3 months). The study was performed prospectively; patients were not randomized, and were treated either with a proximal balloon occlusion system (Mo.Ma; Invatec, Roncadelle, Italy) or filter-type distal protection device (Spider device; ev3, Plymouth, Minnesota, USA). Of the 45 patients (mean age±SD: 66.9±9.8 years; 73.3% were men) who underwent CAS, 19 had proximal protection and 26 distal protection. New ischemic lesions were detected in 26/45 patients on DW-MRI scans obtained within 24 hours after CAS. The proportion of patients with new lesions on DW-MRI at 24 hours was not different between the two groups (47.4% vs 65.4% for proximal and distal protection, respectively). The mean number of new ischemic lesions on post-CAS DW-MRI was non-significantly higher in patients who underwent CAS with distal protection (2.80±3.54 for proximal protection vs 4.96±5.11 for distal protection; p=0.12). The proportion of patients with new lesions >1 cm did not differ between the two groups (5.3% for proximal protection vs 11.5% for distal protection; p=0.62). There was no difference in the rates of ischemic stroke between patients who underwent CAS treatment using proximal and distal protection (5.3% vs 7.7%; p=1.000). We found a relatively high rate of new ischemic lesions in patients undergoing CAS with cerebral protection. There was no difference in the proportion of patients with new lesions between patients treated using distal protection and those treated using proximal protection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  19. Proximal placement of lateral thigh skin markers reduces soft tissue artefact during normal gait using the Conventional Gait Model. (United States)

    Cockcroft, John; Louw, Quinette; Baker, Richard


    A primary source of measurement error in gait analysis is soft-tissue artefact. Hip and knee angle measurements, regularly used in clinical decision-making, are particularly prone to pervasive soft tissue on the femur. However, despite several studies of thigh marker artefact it remains unclear how lateral thigh marker height affects results using variants of the Conventional Gait Model. We compared Vicon Plug-in Gait hip and knee angle estimates during gait using a proximal and distal thigh marker placement for ten healthy subjects. Knee axes were estimated by optimizing thigh rotation offsets to minimize knee varus-valgus range during gait. Relative to the distal marker, the proximal marker produced 37% less varus-valgus range and 50% less hip rotation range (p < 0.001), suggesting that it produced less soft-tissue artefact in knee axis estimates. The thigh markers also produced different secondary effects on the knee centre estimate. Using whole gait cycle optimization, the distal marker showed greater minimum and maximum knee flexion (by 6° and 2° respectively) resulting in a 4° reduction in range. Mid-stance optimization reduced distal marker knee flexion by 5° throughout, but proximal marker results were negligibly affected. Based on an analysis of the Plug-in Gait knee axis definition, we show that the proximal marker reduced sensitivity to soft-tissue artefact by decreasing collinearity between the points defining the femoral frontal plane and reducing anteroposterior movement between the knee and thigh markers. This study suggests that a proximal thigh marker may be preferable when performing gait analysis using the Plug-in Gait model.

  20. Diagonal polarized pin-based cavity antenna array in planar technology

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    Bolt, R.J.; Bruni, S.; Neto, A.; Gerini, G.


    This contribution describes the design and characterization of a very compact 8-element proximity fed cavity antenna array realized completely in PCB technology. The cavities are formed by the placement of a series of through pins (vias) along a rectangular outline. Micro-strip lines excite the

  1. Mechanical evaluation of external skeletal fixator-intramedullary pin tie-in configurations applied to cadaveral humeri from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Redig, Patrick T; Wallace, Larry J; Bourgeault, Craig A; Bechtold, Joan E


    Use of external skeletal fixator-intramedullary pin (ESF-IM) tie-in fixators is an adjustable and effective method of fracture fixation in birds. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of each of the following parameters to the compressive and torsional rigidity of an ESF-IM pin tie-in applied to avian bones with an osteotomy gap: (1) varying the fixation pin position in the proximal bone segment and (2) increasing the number of fixation pins in one or both bone segments. ESF-IM pin tie-in constructs were applied to humeri harvested from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (n=24) that had been euthanatized for clinical reasons. Constructs with a variation in the placement of the proximal fixation pin and with 2, 3, or 4 fixation pins applied to avian bone with an osteotomy gap were loaded to a defined displacement in torque and axial compression. Response variables were determined from resulting load-displacement curves (construct stiffness, load at 1-mm displacement). Increasing the number of fixation pins from 1 to 2 per bone segment significantly increased the stiffness in torque (110%) and compression (60%), and the safe load in torque (107%) and compression (50%). Adding a fixation pin to the distal bone segment to form a 3-pin fixator significantly increased the stiffness (27%) and safe load (20%) in torque but not in axial compression. In the configuration with 2 fixation pins, placing the proximal pin distally in the proximal bone segment significantly increased the stiffness in torque (28%), and the safe load in torque (23%) and in axial compression (32%). Results quantified the relative importance of specific parameters affecting the rigidity of ESF-IM pin tie-in constructs as applied to unstable bone fracture models in birds.

  2. Happy Pinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent


    This is about Pinterest, but with a different approach than usual to social networks. Pinterest is an image site par excellence. The images are as Windows that open outwards and also lets us look inwards and displays the soul and heart, the unintentional or pre-conscious desires. Happy Pinning!...

  3. Assessment of the geometry of proximal femur for short cephalomedullary nail placement: An observational study in dry femora and living subjects (United States)

    Pathrot, Devendra; Ul Haq, Rehan; Aggarwal, Aditya N; Nagar, Mahindra; Bhatt, Shuchi


    Background: Intramedullary devices have increasingly become popular and are widely used for fixation of unstable intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures. These implants have been designed taking into consideration of the anthropometry of the western population which varies from those of other ethnic groups. This study was carried out to assess the geometry of proximal femur for the placement of short cephalomedullary nails in our subset of patients and suggest suitable design modifications based on these parameters. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the following three groups: (1) Anthropometric study of 101 adult human dry femora, (2) radiographs of the same femora, and (3) radiographs of the contralateral uninjured limb of 102 patients with intertrochanteric or subtrochanteric fractures. In Group 1, standard anthropometric techniques were used to measure neck shaft angle (NSA), minimal neck width (NW), trochanteric offset, and distance from the tip of greater trochanter (GT) to the lower border of lesser trochanter on the femoral shaft axis (distance X). In Group 2 and 3, the NSA, minimal NW, NW at 130° and 135°, trochanteric shaft angle (TSA), trochanteric offset, distance X, distance between the tip of GT and the point where the neck axis crosses the line joining the tip of the GT to the lower border of the lesser trochanter on the femoral shaft axis (distance Y), and canal width at 10, 15, and 20 cm from tip of GT were measured on standard radiographs. The values obtained in these three groups were pooled to obtain mean values. Various parameters of commonly used short cephalomedullary nails available for fixation of pertrochanteric fractures were obtained. These were compared to the results obtained to suggest suitable modifications in the nail designs for our subset of patients. Results: The mean parameters observed were as follows: NSA 128.07° ± 4.97 (range 107°–141°), minimum NW 29.0 ± 2.8 mm (range 22–42 mm), NW at 130

  4. Assessment of the geometry of proximal femur for short cephalomedullary nail placement: An observational study in dry femora and living subjects

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    Devendra Pathrot


    Full Text Available Background: Intramedullary devices have increasingly become popular and are widely used for fixation of unstable intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures as well. These implants have been designed taking into consideration the anthropometry of the western population whose anthropometry varies from those of other ethnic groups. This study was carried out to assess the geometry of proximal femur for the placement of short cephalomedullary nails in our subset of patients and suggest suitable design modifications based on these parameters. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the following three groups: (1 Anthropometric study of 101 adult human dry femora, (2 radiographs of the same femora, and (3 radiographs of the contralateral uninjured limb of 102 patients with intertrochanteric or subtrochanteric fractures. In Group 1, standard anthropometric techniques were used to measure neck shaft angle (NSA, minimal neck width (NW, trochanteric offset, and distance from the tip of greater trochanter (GT to the lower border of lesser trochanter on the femoral shaft axis (distance X. In Group 2 and 3, the NSA, minimal NW, NW at 130° and 135°, trochanteric shaft angle (TSA, trochanteric offset, distance X, distance between the tip of GT and the point where the neck axis crosses the line joining the tip of the GT to the lower border of the lesser trochanter on the femoral shaft axis (distance Y, and canal width at 10, 15, and 20 cm from tip of GT were measured on standard radiographs. The values obtained in these three groups were pooled to obtain mean values. Various parameters of commonly used short cephalomedullary nails available for fixation of pertrochanteric fractures were obtained. These were compared to the results obtained to suggest suitable modifications in the nail designs for our subset of patients. Results: The mean parameters observed were as follows: NSA 128.07° ± 4.97 (range 107°–141°, minimum NW 29.0 ± 2.8 mm

  5. Lateral femoral traction pin entry: risk to the femoral artery and other medial neurovascular structures

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    Appleton Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Femoral skeletal traction assists in the reduction and transient stabilization of pelvic, acetabular, hip, and femoral fractures when splinting is ineffective. Traditional teaching has recommended a medial entry site for insertion of the traction pin in order to minimize injury to the femoral artery as it passes through Hunter's canal. The present anatomical study evaluates the risk to the femoral artery and other medial neurovascular structures using a lateral entry approach. Methods Six embalmed cadavers (twelve femurs were obtained for dissection. Steinman pins were drilled from lateral to medial at the level of the superior pole of the patella, at 2 cm, and at 4 cm proximal to this point. Medial superficial dissection was then performed to identify the saphenous nerve, the superior medial geniculate artery, the adductor hiatus, the tendinous insertion of the adductor magnus and the femoral artery. Measurements localizing these anatomic structures relative to the pins were obtained. Results The femoral artery was relatively safe and was no closer than 29.6 mm (mean from any of the three Steinman pins. The superior medial geniculate artery was the medial structure at most risk. Conclusions Lateral femoral traction pin entry is a safe procedure with minimal risk to the saphenous nerve and femoral artery. Of the structures examined, only the superior medial geniculate artery is at a risk of iatrogenic injury due to its position. The incidence of such injury in clinical practice and its clinical significance is not known. Lateral insertion facilitates traction pin placement since it minimizes the need to move the contralateral extremity out of the way of the drilling equipment or the need to elevate or externally rotate the injured extremity relative to the contralateral extremity.

  6. Complications of lateral plate fixation compared with tension band wiring and pin or lag screw fixation for calcaneoquartal arthrodesis. Treatment of proximal intertarsal subluxation occurring secondary to non-traumatic plantar tarsal ligament disruption in dogs. (United States)

    Barnes, D C; Knudsen, C S; Gosling, M; McKee, M; Whitelock, R G; Arthurs, G I; Ness, M G; Radke, H; Langley-Hobbs, S J


    To compare complication rates and the outcomes of these complications after lateral plate fixation with figure-of-eight tension-band-wire and pin or lag screw fixation for arthrodesis of the calcaneoquartal joint, following non-traumatic disruption of the plantar tarsal ligament in dogs. Data were collected retrospectively from five UK referral centres. Diplomate specialists and their residents performed all procedures. Referring veterinarians were contacted for long-term follow-up. Seventy-four procedures were undertaken in 61 dogs. There were 58 arthrodeses in the lateral plate group (Plate), nine in the pin and tension-band-wire group (Pin), and seven in the lag screw and tension-band wire-group (Screw). Compared to Plate (17%), further surgical intervention was required more frequently following Pin (56%, OR = 3.2) or Screw (43%, OR = 2.5) fixation. Clinical failure of arthrodesis occurred less frequently with Plate (5%) compared with Screw (43%, OR = 8.6) and Pin fixation (22%, OR = 4.4). Cases managed with external coaptation postoperatively were more likely to suffer from postoperative complications (OR = 2.2). Lateral plating was associated with fewer postoperative complications than pin and tension-band-wire fixation for arthrodesis of the calcaneoquartal joint in dogs with non-traumatic disruption of the plantar tarsal ligament.

  7. The Half-Pin and the Pin Tract: A Survey of the Limb Lengthening and Reconstruction Society (United States)


    differences in technique being predrilling or no predrilling before half-pin placement and placement of the half-pin by hand or by power . Much of...daily, weekly) and procedure (eg, specific cleansing so- lution).7,9,10 Treatment ranges from use of parenteral or oral antibiotics to pin removal or...antibiotics were prescribed more  often (83%) than  parenteral  antibiotics (17%)  and were given for 8 days on average. Results from this study helped

  8. Nuclear fuel pin scanner (United States)

    Bramblett, Richard L.; Preskitt, Charles A.


    Systems and methods for inspection of nuclear fuel pins to determine fiss loading and uniformity. The system includes infeed mechanisms which stockpile, identify and install nuclear fuel pins into an irradiator. The irradiator provides extended activation times using an approximately cylindrical arrangement of numerous fuel pins. The fuel pins can be arranged in a magazine which is rotated about a longitudinal axis of rotation. A source of activating radiation is positioned equidistant from the fuel pins along the longitudinal axis of rotation. The source of activating radiation is preferably oscillated along the axis to uniformly activate the fuel pins. A detector is provided downstream of the irradiator. The detector uses a plurality of detector elements arranged in an axial array. Each detector element inspects a segment of the fuel pin. The activated fuel pin being inspected in the detector is oscillated repeatedly over a distance equal to the spacing between adjacent detector elements, thereby multiplying the effective time available for detecting radiation emissions from the activated fuel pin.

  9. Use of a modified transfixation pin cast for treatment of comminuted phalangeal fractures in horses. (United States)

    Rossignol, Fabrice; Vitte, Amélie; Boening, Josef


    To (1) report a modified transfixation pin cast technique, using dorsal recumbency for fracture reduction, distal positioning of the pins in the epiphysis and distal metaphysis, and a hybrid cast, combining plaster of Paris (POP) and fiberglass casting, and (2) report outcome in 11 adult horses. Case series. Adult horses (n = 11) with comminuted phalangeal fractures. Horses were anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency. The phalangeal fracture was reduced by limb traction using a cable attached to the hoof. Screw fixation in lag fashion of fracture fragments was performed when possible. Transfixation casting was performed using two 6.3 mm positive profile centrally threaded pins with the 1st pin placed in the epiphysis of the metacarpus/tarsus at the center of, or slightly proximal to, the condylar fossa and the 2nd one 3-4 cm proximal. A hybrid cast was applied. Forelimbs were involved in 9 horses and the hind limb in 2. Pins were maintained for a minimum of 6 weeks. No pin loosening was observed at the time of removal (6-8 weeks). A pony fractured the distal aspect of the metacarpus at the proximal pin. Nine horses survived (82%); none of the horses developed septic arthritis despite the distal location of the distal pin, close to the fetlock joint. This modified transfixation pin casting technique was associated with good pin longevity and could reduce the risk of secondary pin hole fractures and pin loosening. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  10. Multicenter pin care study. (United States)

    Patterson, Miki M


    Pin-site infection is a common complication of external fixation. Because few studies have compared methods of pin care that reduce infection rate, there is a need for evidence-based practice guidelines for pin-site care. Two of 10 original clinical centers completed a prospective, randomized pin-care study between May 2000 and May 2002 to determine which of seven methods for caring for skeletal pins (external fixator, traction, or halo) resulted in the fewest pin-site infections. The 92 subjects had an average infection rate of 34%, and the 527 pins had a rate of 20%. Thirty patients (98 pins) had stage II infections, two patients (12 pins) had stage III infections, and none had deep infection or osteomyelitis. The protocols were (1) half-strength peroxide cleansing and gauze wraps (45%), (2) half-strength peroxide cleansing and Xeroform wraps (9%), (3) saline cleansing and gauze wraps (33%), (4) saline cleansing and Xeroform wraps (26%), (5) antibacterial soap-and-water cleansing and gauze (38%), (6) antibacterial soap-and-water cleansing and Xeroform gauze (50%), and (7) stable dressings with no pin cleansing (36%). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated significant inverse relationships (p = .05) between infection rate and age, as well as fixator type; the latter may be related to exposed threads. Results suggest that other factors outside the realm of this study may affect children's pin-site infection rate and that half-strength peroxide and Xeroform dressings were superior to soap-and-water cleansing. This pilot study indicates a need for further research with a larger sample size and for exploring factors in a younger population.

  11. Pin Size Selection for Normograde Intramedullary Pinning of Distal Humeral Fractures in the Dog. (United States)

    Shipov, Anna; Biton, Erez; Shati, Shachar; Joseph, Rotem; Milgram, Joshua


    To determine the optimal intramedullary (IM) pin size for open and percutaneous normograde pinning of the distal humerus. Ex vivo anatomic study. Sixteen canine cadavers. Sixteen pairs of forelimbs were harvested from canine cadavers weighing 25-35 kg. The craniocaudal diameter of the humeral medullary canal, at the distal 80th percentile of its length, was measured on a lateral radiograph. Forelimbs within each pair were allocated to percutaneous or open pinning techniques. Cadavers were divided into three groups based on IM pin diameter relative to the medullary canal diameter: Group 25-35%, Group 36-45%, and Group 46-55%. Pins were inserted normograde into the medial epicondyle and advanced until they exited the proximal humerus. Pin tracts were dissected and damage to soft tissue, bony structures, and location of entry and exit points were documented. The humeri were also cut at the thinnest point of the medial epicondyle and damage to the bone was evaluated. There was no difference in any of the outcomes between the open and percutaneous techniques. Cortical damage was more frequent in Group 46-55% and included blanching and or fracture of the cortex of the medial epicondyle, with fracture occurring in 6/10 limbs in this group. Pins in Group 46-55% exited the farthest and most distal from the optimal exit point and were difficult to place in all limbs. This study supports a recommendation for open and percutaneous pinning of the humerus with IM pins 36-45% of the medullary canal diameter measured at the distal 80th percentile of humeral length. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  12. PINS Spectrum Identification Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.J. Caffrey


    The Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy—PINS, for short—system identifies the chemicals inside munitions and containers without opening them, a decided safety advantage if the fill chemical is a hazardous substance like a chemical warfare agent or an explosive. The PINS Spectrum Identification Guide is intended as a reference for technical professionals responsible for the interpretation of PINS gamma-ray spectra. The guide is divided into two parts. The three chapters that constitute Part I cover the science and technology of PINS. Neutron activation analysis is the focus of Chapter 1. Chapter 2 explores PINS hardware, software, and related operational issues. Gamma-ray spectral analysis basics are introduced in Chapter 3. The six chapters of Part II cover the identification of PINS spectra in detail. Like the PINS decision tree logic, these chapters are organized by chemical element: phosphorus-based chemicals, chlorine-based chemicals, etc. These descriptions of hazardous, toxic, and/or explosive chemicals conclude with a chapter on the identification of the inert chemicals, e.g. sand, used to fill practice munitions.

  13. Flux Pinning in Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Teruo


    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...

  14. Flux pinning in superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Teruo


    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...

  15. Pinning Down versus Density


    Juhász, István; Soukup, Lajos; Szentmiklóssy, Zoltán


    The pinning down number $ {pd}(X)$ of a topological space $X$ is the smallest cardinal $\\kappa$ such that for any neighborhood assignment $U:X\\to \\tau_X$ there is a set $A\\in [X]^\\kappa$ with $A\\cap U(x)\

  16. Application of computer-aided design and 3D-printed navigation template in Locking Compression Pediatric Hip Plate[Formula: see text] placement for pediatric hip disease. (United States)

    Zheng, Pengfei; Yao, Qingqiang; Xu, Peng; Wang, Liming


    To investigate the feasibility and accuracy of a drill template based on computer-aided design (CAD) and 3D printing technology for the placement of screws in Locking Compression Pediatric Hip Plate (LCP-PHP). LCP-PHP was used in 11 children [5 with femoral neck fracture and 6 with development dysplasia of hip (DDH)]. Using the CT data, the proximal femur model was created by a 3D printer. Fracture reduction and the placement of the screw in the femoral neck and the LCP-PHP were simulated by the computer. The navigation template was designed by the software to match the proximal femur. After the feasibility of the 3D model operation was demonstrated before the operation, the guide pins and the screws were inserted with the help of the navigate template in the operation. During surgery, the navigation template for each case was matched to the bony markers of the proximal femur. With the help of the template, in femoral neck fracture cases, three screws could be accurately inserted into the femoral neck to implant the LCP-PHP and stabilize the fracture. The template for DDH includes all operation parameters and steps for proximal femoral varus rotation and shortening osteotomy, which made the surgery much easier to perform. Radiographs taken after surgery showed that the postoperative results closely corresponded to the preoperative computer simulation. The average time taken for LCP-PHP placement was 26.5 min; radiography was used during surgery only for an average of 6.0 times. Postoperative radiographs showed good results. With the use of CAD and 3D printing technology, accurate placement of individualized navigation template of LCP-PHP can be achieved. This technology can reduce intraoperative damage to the femoral neck epiphysis, decrease operation time, reduce intraoperative hemorrhage, and decrease radiation exposure to patients and personnel during the surgery.

  17. Proximal Hypospadias (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.


    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  18. Pinning, de-pinning and re-pinning of a slowly varying rivulet

    KAUST Repository

    Paterson, C.


    The solutions for the unidirectional flow of a thin rivulet with prescribed volume flux down an inclined planar substrate are used to describe the locally unidirectional flow of a rivulet with constant width (i.e. pinned contact lines) but slowly varying contact angle as well as the possible pinning and subsequent de-pinning of a rivulet with constant contact angle and the possible de-pinning and subsequent re-pinning of a rivulet with constant width as they flow in the azimuthal direction from the top to the bottom of a large horizontal cylinder. Despite being the same locally, the global behaviour of a rivulet with constant width can be very different from that of a rivulet with constant contact angle. In particular, while a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle can always run from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, the behaviour of a rivulet with constant width depends on the value of the width. Specifically, while a narrow rivulet can run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, a wide rivulet can run from the top of the cylinder only to a critical azimuthal angle. The scenario in which the hitherto pinned contact lines of the rivulet de-pin at the critical azimuthal angle and the rivulet runs from the critical azimuthal angle to the bottom of the cylinder with zero contact angle but slowly varying width is discussed. The pinning and de-pinning of a rivulet with constant contact angle, and the corresponding situation involving the de-pinning and re-pinning of a rivulet with constant width at a non-zero contact angle which generalises the de-pinning at zero contact angle discussed earlier, are described. In the latter situation, the mass of fluid on the cylinder is found to be a monotonically increasing function of the constant width. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Synchronizability on complex networks via pinning control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pinning strategies have different pinning synchronizability on the same complex network, and the synchronizability with pinning control is consistent with one without pinning control in various complex networks. Keywords. Complex network; the pinning synchronization; synchronizability. PACS Nos 05.45.Xt; 89.75.−k; 05.45.

  20. The effects of cast support on pin loosening and infection in tibial skeletal traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghtadaei M


    Full Text Available "nBackground: Pin loosening and infection in skeletal traction are important problems in orthopedic surgery and methods which are usually used to manage these problems, are costly and sometimes complicated. In this study, the efficacy of using cast support in infection and loosening of proximal tibial pin was investigated. "nMethods: In a randomized clinical trial, 60 patients referring to Rasul-e- Akram hospital from 1383 to 1384, who needed to have proximal tibial pin for at least one month, were studied. All patients were treated with oral antibiotic until 24 hours after pin insertion. Depending on using cast support or not, they were randomly categorized into two groups (30, 30. The rate of pin loosening and infection between these two groups were compared. "nResults: In the group without cast support infection rate was about %26.7 while this rate was %13.3 in the group with cast support, which means no significant difference (.33. In addition, although the rate of loosening in the group without cast support was more than the other group, it had no statistical meaning. (%20 compared with %10, p= 0.47 "nConclusions: Cast support doesn't affect the rate of pin loosening and pin site infection. However, considering correct technique for pin insertion including prevention of thermal injury and local hematoma is very important. Therefore, the use of cast support is an optional choice up to surgeons' preference.

  1. Nondestrucive analysis of fuel pins (United States)

    Stepan, I.E.; Allard, N.P.; Suter, C.R.


    Disclosure is made of a method and a correspondingly adapted facility for the nondestructive analysis of the concentation of fuel and poison in a nuclear reactor fuel pin. The concentrations of fuel and poison in successive sections along the entire length of the fuel pin are determined by measuring the reactivity of a thermal reactor as each successive small section of the fuel pin is exposed to the neutron flux of the reactor core and comparing the measured reactivity with the reactivities measured for standard fuel pins having various known concentrations. Only a small section of the length of the fuel pin is exposed to the neutron flux at any one time while the remainder of the fuel pin is shielded from the neutron flux. In order to expose only a small section at any one time, a boron-10-lined dry traverse tube is passed through the test region within the core of a low-power thermal nuclear reactor which has a very high fuel sensitivity. A narrow window in the boron-10 lining is positioned at the core center line. The fuel pins are then systematically traversed through the tube past the narrow window such that successive small sections along the length of the fuel pin are exposed to the neutron flux which passes through the narrow window.

  2. Normograde and retrograde pinning of the distal fragment in humeral fractures of the dog. (United States)

    Milgram, Joshua; Hod, Nitai; Benzioni, Hadas


    To determine if normograde and retrograde pinning of the distal humeral fragment, to maximize pin purchase in this fragment, would damage vital structures in and around the elbow and shoulder joints in dogs. Anatomic study. Cadaveric dogs (n = 12; 12 thoracic limb pairs). Twelve thoracic limb pairs were harvested from cross-breed dogs and 1 thoracic limb from each pair was allocated to 1 of 3 groups. A transverse osteotomy was created at the junction of the middle and distal thirds in the diaphyseal fracture group (n = 8) and proximal to the supracondylar foramen in the metaphyseal fracture group (n = 8). The humeri in the normograde group (n = 8) were left intact. In all specimens in the distal and supracondylar fracture groups, retrograde pinning of the distal fragment was performed with the elbow flexed. The pins were driven into the medial epicondyle until they exited the skin caudal to the elbow. Dissection of the soft tissues around the exit tract of the pin was performed. The fracture was then reduced and the pin was advanced until it exited the proximal humeral fragment. In the specimens in the normograde group, pinning was initiated on the distal aspect of the medial epicondyle. The pin was directed parallel to the caudal aspect of the medial epicondyle and driven proximally into the humerus until it exited the proximal humerus. Pins exiting the distal aspect of the medial epicondyle passed through muscle origins in 7 specimens in the diaphyseal osteotomy group and in all 8 specimens in the metaphyseal group. The ulnar nerve was entrapped in 1 specimen in the metaphyseal osteotomy group; however, it was not entrapped in any of the specimens in the diaphyseal osteotomy group. The articular cartilage of the trochlea was damaged in 2 specimens in each of the retrograde pinned groups. There was no damage to articular or periarticular structures by pins exiting the proximal humerus. Retrograde pinning of the distal fragment in humeral fractures in the dog may

  3. Treatment of unstable distal clavicle fractures with Knowles pin. (United States)

    Jou, I-Ming; Chiang, Eric P; Lin, Chii-Jen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wang, Ping-Hui; Su, Wei-Ren


    Unstable distal clavicle fractures often need surgical treatment. This report describes a new intramedullary extra-articular Knowles pin fixation method to treat these unstable fractures. Twelve patients with unstable distal clavicle fractures (Neer type II) had surgery with intramedullary extra-articular Knowles pin fixation. We retrospectively reviewed clinical results for pain, shoulder function, and range of motion, as well as radiographic results, for this institutional review board-approved study. Each patient's operated arm was in a sling for 4 weeks postoperatively. The University of California, Los Angeles shoulder rating scale score was used to evaluate shoulder function. All patients showed radiographically confirmed bony union. The mean period required for healing was 11.5 weeks, and patients were followed up for 6 to 24 months (mean, 15.2 months), during which University of California, Los Angeles scores (mean, 33.9) indicated good clinical results. Three patients had the complication of proximal or distal skin irritation caused by the thread and hub of the Knowles pin. The Knowles pin fixation method is useful for treating unstable distal clavicle fractures. However, sufficient familiarity with the technique and careful preoperative planning to determine the appropriate length of the pin are necessary to prevent complications and to effect a high union rate. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating Approaches to Rendering Braille Text on a High-Density Pin Display. (United States)

    Morash, Valerie S; Russomanno, Alexander; Gillespie, R Brent; OModhrain, Sile


    Refreshable displays for tactile graphics are typically composed of pins that have smaller diameters and spacing than standard braille dots. We investigated configurations of high-density pins to form braille text on such displays using non-refreshable stimuli produced with a 3D printer. Normal dot braille (diameter 1.5 mm) was compared to high-density dot braille (diameter 0.75 mm) wherein each normal dot was rendered by high-density simulated pins alone or in a cluster of pins configured in a diamond, X, or square; and to "blobs" that could result from covering normal braille and high-density multi-pin configurations with a thin membrane. Twelve blind participants read MNREAD sentences displayed in these conditions. For high-density simulated pins, single pins were as quickly and easily read as normal braille, but diamond, X, and square multi-pin configurations were slower and/or harder to read than normal braille. We therefore conclude that as long as center-to-center dot spacing and dot placement is maintained, the dot diameter may be open to variability for rendering braille on a high density tactile display.

  5. Pinning Mechanisms in YBCO Tapes

    CERN Document Server

    Spera, Marcello; Ballarino, Amalia


    In this thesis work, a study on flux pinning mechanisms of commercial YBCO tapes is presented. This study has been performed via critical current characterization using transport (via direct I-V curves) and magnetization (via a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer) measurements. The latter ones turned out to be better concerning the comprehension of the pinning landscape of the provided samples, as a wider range of magnetic fields and temperatures is available for those measurements in the setup I used. The comparison of the experimental data with existing theoretical models allowed me to draw a picture of the pinning mechanisms underlying in each sample, and they turned out to be quite different one another. Moreover, for high-performance research tapes, another interesting feature has been found: the counterplay between the self-field critical current and the in-field one. Very well engineered artificial pinning structures limit the self-field critical current density due to the hi...

  6. Sediment Placement Areas 2012 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Dredge material placement sites (DMPS), including active, inactive, proposed and historical placement sites. Dataset covers US Army Corps of Engineers San Francisco...

  7. Pin Site Complications Associated With Computer-Assisted Navigation in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty. (United States)

    Kamara, Eli; Berliner, Zachary P; Hepinstall, Matthew S; Cooper, H John


    There has been a great increase in the use of navigation technology in joint arthroplasty. In most types of navigation-assisted surgery, several temporary navigation pins are placed in the patient. Goals of this study are (1) to identify complications and (2) risk factors associated with placement of these pins. This is a retrospective cohort study of all navigation-assisted hip and knee arthroplasty performed a single institution over a 3-year period. Records were reviewed and outcome measures were tabulated in a database. Complications included in the database were pin site infection, deep prosthetic joint infection, neurologic injury, vascular injury, and fracture through a pin site. A total of 3136 pin sites in 839 patients were included in the study. Five pin site complications were reported with a complication rate of 0.16% per pin site and 0.60% per patient. The complications-per-procedure were slightly higher for unicondylar knee arthroplasty (0.64%) compared with patellofemoral arthroplasty (0%) and total hip arthroplasty (0.46%), but not statistically significant. There were three infections, one neuropraxia, and one suture abscess. No periprosthetic fractures through a pin site were reported. All complications were resolved with nonoperative treatment. The infections required oral antibiotics, and were associated with transcortical drilling in two cases and juxtacortical drilling in the third. Pins required for navigation-assisted arthroplasty have a low complication rate. Transcortical or juxtacortical drilling may be a risk factor for pin site infection; future studies should be directed at quantifying this effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Interface roughening and pinning (United States)

    Roux, Stéphane; Hansen, Alex


    We study a simple model for thé pinning of an interface by impurities with random strengths, and thé depinning due to thé applied pressure, in a quasi-static propagation lirait. The model is very close to thé so called "Robin Hood" model introduced by Zaitsev. It is designed to describe e.g. thé invasion of a wetting fluid (imbibition) in a heterogeneous porous medium containing a second immiscible fluid. The relation between this model and other previously proposed approaches is discussed. The front of thé invaded domain is shown to develop a self-affine structure with an increase of thé roughness as a power-law of thé injected volume. The value of thé apparent roughness exponent can be favorably compared to some experimental measurements although we argue that thé true roughness exponent is out of reach of commonly used methods. We show that thé distribution f(d, Δ t) of distances d between discrete local invasions at a time interval Δ t can be described by a scaling law f(d, Δ t) = d^{-1}\\varphi(d/sqrt{Δ t}). This form can be obtained from thé identification of a hierarchical structure of "bursts" in thé pressure signal. Those "bursts" are quahtatively similar to those observed in quasistatic drainage, (i.e. invasion percolation), although characterized by différent scaling indices. Nous étudions un modèle simple pour analyser l'accrochage d'une interface sur des impuretés et le décrochage sous l'effet d'une pression appliquée, dans une limite quasi-statique. Ce modèle est très voisin du modèle "Robin Hood" introduit par Zaitsev. Il s'applique en particulier à l'invasion d'un fluide mouillant (imbibition) dans un milieu poreux hétérogène contenant un fluide immiscible. Nous discutons les relations entre ce modèle et d'autres approches proposées pour décrire ce phénomène. Le front d'invasion acquiert une structure auto-affine, avec un développement de la rugosité selon une loi de puissance du volume injecté. La valeur de l

  9. PinBus Interface Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.


    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  10. Use of a modified toggle pin for repair of coxofemoral luxation in dogs with multiple orthopedic injuries: 14 cases (1986-1994). (United States)

    Beckham, H P; Smith, M M; Kern, D A


    To develop modifications of the toggle pin procedure for use as a ligament of the head of the femur (LHF) prosthesis and to assess outcomes when used for coxofemoral luxation (CFL) in dogs with multiple orthopedic injuries. Retrospective case series. 14 dogs with CFL as a component of orthopedic polytrauma. Modifications to previous descriptions of the technique for use of a toggle pin for LHF prosthesis included deletion of the osteotomy of the greater trochanter in 12 of 16 joints with CFL, drilling of the femoral tunnel from a distal-to-proximal direction, deletion of a second femoral bone tunnel for suture placement, and use of a 2-hole polypropylene button to secure the LHF prosthetic suture. Mean age at time of injury, weight, and duration between injury and definitive surgery was 4.1 +/- 1.1 years, 19.7 +/- 2.8 kg, and 5.8 +/- 2.7 days, respectively. Weightbearing began 3.0 +/- 0.4 days after surgery. Mean postoperative follow-up period for dogs with maintained coxofemoral reduction of longer than 1 month (n = 13) was 19.5 +/- 6.1 months. Owners reported good or excellent clinical results, which were confirmed by semiquantitative assessment methods. Radiographic signs of degenerative joint disease were minimal. There was no significant difference between hind limbs when comparing mid-thigh limb circumference at the time of follow-up examination. A modified toggle pin procedure for LHF prosthesis can maintain coxofemoral reduction and allow early weightbearing in dogs with coxofemoral luxation as a component of multiple orthopedic injuries.

  11. proximal femur geometry in the adult kenyan femur and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implications considering that the implants used to treat fractures in the proximal femur would usually traverse the neck and lodge in the femoral head. A very narrow neck may not allow adequate implant placement especially for those implants that employ two proximal locking screws. This has been shown, in a study by ...

  12. Improved pinning regime by energetic ions using reduction of pinning potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy; Gandini, Alberto; Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Parks, Drew; Mayes, Bill


    When ion damage is used to create pinning centers, full columnar pinning centers provide the largest pinning potential, U{sub pin}, but not the greatest J{sub c} or pinned field, B{sub pin}. Some of the characteristics of columnar defects which limit J{sub c} and B{sub pin} are discussed, including reduction of percolation path, and the need for a larger number of columns of damage, for pinning, than are usually estimated. It is concluded that columnar pinning centers are limited to B{sub pin}<4 T, and also severely reduce J{sub c}. Evidence is reviewed that aligned damage, or broken-columnar pinning centers, described herein, can provide orders of magnitude higher J{sub c}, and higher pinned field, despite providing lower U{sub pin}. A pinning center morphology is discussed which utilizes multiple-in-line-damage (MILD). For, e.g., present day large grain HTS J{sub c}, obtainable by MILD pinning, is estimated to be of the order of 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, even when crystal plane alignment and weak links are not improved. Pinned field is increased by over an order of magnitude. An experiment is proposed to confirm these observations, and to directly compare MILD to columnar pinning centers. It will also determine the optimum MILD structure. Other measurements of interest, made possible by the same data set, are described.

  13. Pin site metastasis of meningioma. (United States)

    Ozer, Ercan; Kalemci, Orhan; Acar, Umit Dursun; Canda, Serafettin


    Metastasis of meningiomas due to iatrogenic implantation of tumour cells is extremely rare and only four cases have been reported to date. In this study, we report a 45-year-old female patient who presented with meningioma metastasis at the pin site of head holder applied in the original operation.

  14. Fluxon Pinning in Niobium Films

    CERN Document Server

    Calatroni, Sergio; Darriulat, Pierre; Peck, M A; Valente, A M


    Resistive losses induced by the presence of trapped magnetic flux in niobium superconducting films have been studied using 1.5 GHz microwaves. They are measured to span a very broad spectrum depending on the film-substrate interface and on the gas used in the sputtering discharge. An interpretation in terms of pinning by noble gas clusters is considered.

  15. Injury to neurovascular structures with insertion of traction pins around the knee. (United States)

    Lowe, Jason A; Rister, Jamie; Eastman, Jonathan; Freind, Jonathan


    Identify risk to neurovascular structures around the knee with placement of skeletal traction pins. Kirchner wires were inserted into cadaveric limbs followed by layer dissecting of each leg. Correlations between weight, height, BMI, and distance were determined after calculating the average distance with deviation between each anatomic structure and the Kirschner wire. Insertion of traction pins around the knee did not result in injury to neurovascular structures. Both weight and BMI positively correlated with distance between implants and neurovascular structure. Data collected suggests similar trends for all other anatomic structures.

  16. Boat boarding ladder placement (United States)


    Presented in three volumes; 'Boat Boarding Ladder Placement,' which explores safety considerations including potential for human contact with a rotating propeller; 'Boat Handhold Placement,' which explores essential principles and methods of fall con...

  17. Pin-pin resonance as a reference in determining ballasted railway track vibration behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Man, A.P.


    Pin-pin resonance is one of the most significant preferred vibration modes of beams, which are supported at equal distances, such as rails at sleepers in railway track structures do. Pin-pin resonance is a vibration that appears in one basic (first) mode and several higher modes, however the basic

  18. A prospective comparative study of pin site infection in pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures: daily pin care vs. no pin care. (United States)

    Kao, Hsuan-Kai; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Lee, Wei-Chun; Yang, Wen-E; Chang, Chia-Hsieh


    Pin site infection is a critical issue for patients' safety in skeletal fixation using percutaneous pins or wires. Closed reduction and percutaneous Kirschner wires fixation are the mainstay of treatment in pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures. Little information is available in the literature about the optimal regimen of pin site care in children. We performed a prospective comparative study of 61 children with supracondylar humeral fractures between June 2011 and March 2013 after approval by the institutional review board. They were allocated into two groups of different postoperative pin site care methods by the emergency department arrival date and received fracture fixation within 24 h. Postoperatively, 30 children underwent pin site cleaning every day whereas the other 31 patients did not have the pin sites cleaned until the pins removal 4-6 weeks later. Demographic data were not significantly different between the two groups. The infection rate was significantly higher in patients who underwent daily pin site care (90.3 vs. 53.3 %, p = 0.001). Of the 144 pin sites, infection occurred at 42 (57.5 %) pin sites in the daily care group and at 19 (26.8 %) pin sites in the non-care group. The number of telephone consultations for postoperative care was significantly higher in the daily care group (1.0 vs. 0.27 call/case, p = 0.007). Daily pin site care was associated with a higher infection rate and greater stress in postoperative care that required more telephone consultations. The study results could not support daily pin site care. Careful observation of pin sites was recommended in the treatment of pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures.

  19. External fixation of femoral shaft fractures in children: enhanced stability with the use of an auxiliary pin. (United States)

    Sola, J; Schoenecker, P L; Gordon, J E


    From 1989 through 1994, we used a monolateral external fixator (Orthofix) to treat 39 femur fractures in 37 patients. The average age of the patients was 9.5 years (range, 5+11 to 18+8 years); 38 fractures were closed, and one was a grade I (Gustillo-Anderson classification) open fracture. Twenty-two fractures were treated by using the standard Orthofix pin configuration with two or three pins held in the pin clamps both above and below the fracture. We treated the remaining 16 fractures identically, except for the addition of an auxiliary pin, which was secured to the body of the fixator by using wire and methylmethacrylate. All patients were followed up to union and fixator removal at a mean of 97 days after fixator placement (range, 50-175 days). Thirty-one (84%) patients were followed up for 1 year after injury. Six of 22 femurs without an auxiliary pin required remanipulation for loss of reduction. Only one of 16 femurs treated with an auxiliary pin required remanipulation. Four of 22 femurs without an auxiliary pin went on to malunion. No femur with an auxiliary pin went on to malunion.

  20. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  1. The continuum disordered pinning model. (United States)

    Caravenna, Francesco; Sun, Rongfeng; Zygouras, Nikos

    Any renewal processes on [Formula: see text] with a polynomial tail, with exponent [Formula: see text], has a non-trivial scaling limit, known as the [Formula: see text]-stable regenerative set. In this paper we consider Gibbs transformations of such renewal processes in an i.i.d. random environment, called disordered pinning models. We show that for [Formula: see text] these models have a universal scaling limit, which we call the continuum disordered pinning model (CDPM). This is a random closed subset of [Formula: see text] in a white noise random environment, with subtle features:Any fixed a.s. property of the [Formula: see text]-stable regenerative set (e.g., its Hausdorff dimension) is also an a.s. property of the CDPM, for almost every realization of the environment.Nonetheless, the law of the CDPM is singular with respect to the law of the [Formula: see text]-stable regenerative set, for almost every realization of the environment. The existence of a disordered continuum model, such as the CDPM, is a manifestation of disorder relevance for pinning models with [Formula: see text].

  2. Biomechanical evaluation of a toggle pin technique for management of coxofemoral luxation. (United States)

    Flynn, M F; Edmiston, D N; Roe, S C; Richardson, D C; DeYoung, D J; Abrams, C F


    Toggle pin stabilization is an accepted technique for the management of coxofemoral (CF) luxation in dogs. The purpose of this study was to determine, in vitro, the respective contributions of several aspects of toggle pin repair to the overall stability of fixation. Factors evaluated were the manner and frequency with which toggle pins oriented on insertion, effect of orientation on toggle pin strength, effect of suture type on ligament prosthesis strength and load sustained by the fixation, and comparison of repair using a modified toggle design to that of capsulorrhaphy. When placed in cadavers using standard technique, conventional toggle pins were found to orient significantly more frequently in one of two possible positions. Mechanical testing of fixations performed in experimentally luxated cadaver hips demonstrated a high (12/20) incidence of toggle pin failure using the conventional implant in the most common orientation. When tested alone, toggle pins were weakest mechanically in this orientation. Rotating the implant 180 degrees increased mean load to failure by 249%. There was no significant difference in load sustained by conventional toggle fixations using No. 2 braided polyester versus 50 lb test monofilament nylon as the suture ligament prosthesis. However, the higher stiffness of the polyester suture may be more favorable for use in this application. Fixation using a toggle rod designed to allow evaluation of construct stability when failure of the toggle is eliminated resulted in an increase in maximum load sustained before luxation (47% of the intact control hips). This load was not significantly different than the resistance to luxation afforded by capsulorrhaphy. This study suggests that when implanting conventional toggle pins, consideration should be given to ensuring placement in the strongest orientation.

  3. Investigation of the bulk pinning force in YBCO superconducting films with nano-engineered pinning centres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisan, A., E-mail: [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); National Institute of Materials Physics, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Dang, V.S.; Yearwood, G.; Mikheenko, P. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Huhtinen, H.; Paturi, P. [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku FI-20014 (Finland)


    Highlights: • Pinning centres in YBCO films increase critical current density and pinning force. • Normalised pinning force vs. reduced field give information on their nature. • Dew-Hughes model was used to analyse various nanostructured YBCO films. • Main pinning mechanism is normal surface pinning. - Abstract: For practical applications of superconducting materials in applied magnetic fields, artificial pinning centres in addition to natural ones are required to oppose the Lorentz force. These pinning centres are actually various types of defects in the superconductor matrix. The pinning centres can be categorised on their dimension (volume, surface, or point) and on their character (normal cores or Δκ cores). We have used the Dew Hughes approach to determine the types of pinning centres present in various samples, with various thicknesses, temperatures and nanostructured additions to the superconducting matrix. Results show that normal surface pinning centres are present throughout almost all the samples, as dominant pinning mechanism. Such 2D extended pinning centres are mainly due to dislocations, grain boundaries, nanorods. Strong normal point pinning centres were found to be common in BZO doped YBCO samples. Other types of pinning centres, in various (minor) concentrations were also found in some of the samples.

  4. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G


    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  5. Mechanical evaluation of pin and tension-band wire factors in an olecranon osteotomy model. (United States)

    Neat, Benjamin C; Kowaleski, Michael P; Litsky, Alan S; Boudrieau, Randy J


    To evaluate the effect of altering pin and wire diameter, wire position and configuration, and osteotomy angle on applied load and absorbed strain energy in a pin and tension-band wire (PTBW) fixation model. In vitro mechanical study. Delrin models (n=96). PTBW was applied to Delrin olecranon osteotomy models. A control configuration was defined and then altered, 1 variable (wire diameter, pin diameter, wire-hole position, wire configuration, osteotomy angle) at a time, to create 11 test configurations. Tensile force was applied and displacement at the caudal aspect of the osteotomy was measured. Fixation strength, in terms of tensile load and strain energy, was compared between control and each test configuration at 4 osteotomy displacements. Models with larger wire, pins, or combined figure-of-eight/lateral wires were stronger than control, whereas those with smaller wire, pins, or a solitary lateral wire were weaker. The superior strength of the larger wire was apparent for all assessed osteotomy displacement. PTBW fixation strength increases as implant diameter is increased, with wire diameter having greatest effect. Lateral wire configuration is weaker than figure-of-eight, but can be added to figure-of-eight configuration to increase strength. Wire-hole position and osteotomy angle have little effect on PTBW strength. Wire diameter is the key determinant of PTBW strength, whereas pin diameter is somewhat less critical. Wire passage through an additional hole proximally provides equivalent strength and may avoid soft-tissue entrapment and subsequent loosening.

  6. Spectroscopic amplifier for pin diode; Amplificador espectroscopico para diodo Pin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso M, M. S.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)


    The photodiode remains the basic choice for the photo-detection and is widely used in optical communications, medical diagnostics and field of corpuscular radiation. In detecting radiation it has been used for monitoring radon and its progeny and inexpensive spectrometric systems. The development of a spectroscopic amplifier for Pin diode is presented which has the following characteristics: canceler Pole-Zero (P/Z) with a time constant of 8 μs; constant gain of 57, suitable for the acquisition system; 4th integrator Gaussian order to waveform change of exponential input to semi-Gaussian output and finally a stage of baseline restorer which prevents Dc signal contribution to the next stage. The operational amplifier used is the TLE2074 of BiFET technology of Texas Instruments with 10 MHz bandwidth, 25 V/μs of slew rate and a noise floor of 17 nv/(Hz)1/2. The integrated circuit has 4 operational amplifiers and in is contained the total of spectroscopic amplifier that is the goal of electronic design. The results show like the exponential input signal is converted to semi-Gaussian, modifying only the amplitude according to the specifications in the design. The total system is formed by the detector, which is the Pin diode, a sensitive preamplifier to the load, the spectroscopic amplifier that is what is presented and finally a pulse height analyzer (Mca) which is where the spectrum is shown. (Author)

  7. Product placement in movie


    Savchenko, I. I.; САВЧЕНКО И.И.


    The concept of product placement itself is nothing new. The area is; however, experiencing a significant growth due to the difficulties of reaching the consumers with traditional advertising. The ongoing debate an a discussion on concerning product placement provides the foundation of the article. Based on this, the aim of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of this area. Also, the aim is to gain a deeper understanding specifically about the process of product placement and the cri...

  8. Pinning of holographic sliding stripes (United States)

    Jokela, Niko; Järvinen, Matti; Lippert, Matthew


    In a holographic probe-brane model exhibiting a spontaneously spatially modulated ground state, we introduce explicit sources of symmetry breaking in the form of ionic and antiferromagnetic lattices. For the first time in a holographic model, we demonstrate pinning, in which the translational Goldstone mode is lifted by the introduction of explicit sources of translational symmetry breaking. The numerically computed optical conductivity fits very well to a Drude-Lorentz model with a small residual metallicity, precisely matching analytic formulas for the DC conductivity. We also find an instability of the striped phase in the presence of a large-amplitude ionic lattice.

  9. PIN1 gene variants in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedlecki Janusz


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, NIMA-interacting 1 (PIN1 plays a significant role in the brain and is implicated in numerous cellular processes related to Alzheimer's disease (AD and other neurodegenerative conditions. There are confounding results concerning PIN1 activity in AD brains. Also PIN1 genetic variation was inconsistently associated with AD risk. Methods We performed analysis of coding and promoter regions of PIN1 in early- and late-onset AD and frontotemporal dementia (FTD patients in comparison with healthy controls. Results Analysis of eighteen PIN1 common polymorphisms and their haplotypes in EOAD, LOAD and FTD individuals in comparison with the control group did not reveal their contribution to disease risk. In six unrelated familial AD patients four novel PIN1 sequence variants were detected. c.58+64C>T substitution that was identified in three patients, was located in an alternative exon. In silico analysis suggested that this variant highly increases a potential affinity for a splicing factor and introduces two intronic splicing enhancers. In the peripheral leukocytes of one living patient carrying the variant, a 2.82 fold decrease in PIN1 expression was observed. Conclusion Our data does not support the role of PIN1 common polymorphisms as AD risk factor. However, we suggest that the identified rare sequence variants could be directly connected with AD pathology, influencing PIN1 splicing and/or expression.

  10. A simple three-dimensional stent for proper placement of mini-implant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felicita, A Sumathi


    This paper deals with the fabrication of a three-dimensional stent which is simple in design but provides an accurate placement of a mini-implant in three planes of space, namely, sagittal (root proximity), vertical...

  11. Pinning of fermionic occupation numbers. (United States)

    Schilling, Christian; Gross, David; Christandl, Matthias


    The Pauli exclusion principle is a constraint on the natural occupation numbers of fermionic states. It has been suspected since at least the 1970s, and only proved very recently, that there is a multitude of further constraints on these numbers, generalizing the Pauli principle. Here, we provide the first analytic analysis of the physical relevance of these constraints. We compute the natural occupation numbers for the ground states of a family of interacting fermions in a harmonic potential. Intriguingly, we find that the occupation numbers are almost, but not exactly, pinned to the boundary of the allowed region (quasipinned). The result suggests that the physics behind the phenomenon is richer than previously appreciated. In particular, it shows that for some models, the generalized Pauli constraints play a role for the ground state, even though they do not limit the ground-state energy. Our findings suggest a generalization of the Hartree-Fock approximation.

  12. Pattern Reconfigurable Patch Antenna menggunakan Edge Shorting Pin dan Symmetrical Control Pin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Abstrak Metode baru dalam mendesain suatu pattern reconfigurable antenna telah diteliti. Penelitian ini fokus pada optimasi antena patch lingkaran single layer pencatuan probe koaksial dengan mengintegrasikan 24 switch/shorting pin pada sisi patch yang disebut edge shorting pin dan 8 shorting pin membentuk lingkaran dengan radius tertentu dan selanjutnya disebut symmetrical control pin yang fungsinya sebagai metode penyepadan impedansi. Algoritma Genetika yang dikombinasikan dengan Finite Element Software digunakan untuk mengoptimasi kombinasi  switch, radius lingkaran symmetrical control pin, dan radius patch untuk mendapatkan kemampuan pattern reconfigurability. Antena ini menghasilkan 8 kemungkinan arah radiasi azzimuth dengan resolusi 45o dan arah elevasi 30o pada frekuensi 2,4 Ghz. Optimasi, simulasi, fabrikasi, dan pengukuran dilakukan untuk memverifikasi hasil penelitian. Kata kunci: Patch Lingkaran, Edge Shorting Pin, Symmetrical Control Pin, Algoritma Genetika, Pattern Reconfigurable   Abstract New method for desaining pattern reconfigurable antenna was studied. This study focuses on the optimization of a single layer circular patch antenna with probe feed by integrating the 24 switch / shorting pin on the side of the patch that called Edge Shorting Pins and 8 shorting pins form circular line in such radius that called Symmetrical Control Pins as a impedance matching method. Genetic algorithm combined with the Finite Element Software is used to optimize the switch combination, the radius of circular line of symmetrical control pins, and the patch radius to obtain a pattern reconfigurability capabilities. This antenna produces 8 possible directions of azimuth radiation with a resolution of 45o and 30o elevation direction at a frequency of 2.4 GHz. Optimization, simulation, fabrication, and measurement was done to verify the results. Keywords: Circular Patch, Edge Shorting Pin, Symmetrical Control Pin, Genetic Algorithm, Pattern

  13. Whither Advanced Placement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lichten


    Full Text Available This is a review of the Advanced Placement (AP Program. In disagreement with claims of the College Board, there is firm evidence that the average test performance level has dropped. The College Board's scale and claims for AP qualification disagree seriously with college standards. A majority of tests taken do not qualify. It appears that "advanced placement" is coming closer to "placement." This article recommends that the College Board's policy of concentrating on numbers of participants should be changed to an emphasis on student performance and program quality.

  14. Improved Bonding of Partially Osteomyelitic Bone to Titanium Pins Owing to Biomimetic Coating of Apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki


    Full Text Available Increased fixation strength of the bone-pin interface is important for inhibiting pin loosening after external fixation. In a previous study, an apatite (Ap layer was formed on anodically oxidized titanium (Ti pins by immersing them in an infusion fluid-based supersaturated calcium phosphate solution at 37 °C for 48 h. In the present study, an Ap layer was also successfully formed using a one-step method at 25 °C for 48 h in an infusion fluid-based supersaturated calcium phosphate solution, which is clinically useful due to the immersion temperature. After percutaneous implantation in a proximal tibial metaphysis for four weeks in rabbits (n = 20, the Ti pin coated with the Ap layer showed significantly increased extraction torque compared with that of an uncoated Ti screw even with partial osteomyelitis present, owing to dense bone formation on the Ap layer in the cortical and medullary cavity regions. When the infection status was changed from “no osteomyelitis” to “partial osteomyelitis,” the extraction torque in the Ap group with “partial osteomyelitis” was almost identical to that for “no osteomyelitis” cases. These results suggest that the Ap layer formed by the room temperature process could effectively improve the fixation strength of the Ti pin for external fixation clinically even with partial osteomyelitis present.

  15. Pinning Loss Power Density in Superconductors (United States)

    Matsushita, Teruo


    The pinning loss power density is theoretically derived based on the resistive energy dissipation when the flux lines are driven by the Lorentz force in a superconductor. The obtained loss power density does not depend on the viscosity or flow resistivity, but is proportional to the pinning force density only, and it possesses the nature of hysteresis loss, as commonly measured in experiments. These features are predicted by the critical state model, which was recently proved theoretically. The obtained pinning force density is consistent with the prediction of the coherent potential approximation theory, a kind of statistical summation theory, for flux pinning. Thus, the irreversible properties associated with the flux pinning can be comprehensively described by these flux pinning theories. The irreversible flux pinning in the superconductor is compared with similar irreversible phenomena such as the motion of magnetic domain walls in ferromagnetic materials and the friction in mechanical systems. The possibility is also discussed for a general theoretical description of these irreversible phenomena in which the hysteresis loss occurs.

  16. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil


    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  17. Electroanalytical devices with pins and thread. (United States)

    Glavan, Ana C; Ainla, Alar; Hamedi, Mahiar M; Fernández-Abedul, M Teresa; Whitesides, George M


    This work describes the adaptive use of conventional stainless steel pins-used in unmodified form or coated with carbon paste-as working, counter, and quasi-reference electrodes in electrochemical devices fabricated using cotton thread or embossed omniphobic R(F) paper to contain the electrolyte and sample. For some applications, these pin electrodes may be easier to modify and use than printed electrodes, and their position and orientation can be changed as needed. Electroanalytical devices capable of multiplex analysis (thread-based arrays or 96-well plates) were easily fabricated using pins as electrodes in either thread or omniphobic R(F) paper.

  18. Feasibility of C-arm guided closed intramedullary pinning for the stabilization of canine long bone fractures. (United States)

    Kaur, Anupreet; Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Deepesh; Mohindroo, Jitender; Saini, Narinder Singh


    To evaluate the feasibility of C-arm guided closed intramedullary pinning (simple Steinmann and end threaded) techniques for the stabilization of various canine long bone fractures. The present study was conducted on 19 dogs with long bone fractures which were stabilized using simple Steinmann (Group I; n=6) and end threaded (Group II; n=13) pinning under C-arm guidance. Signalment, history of trauma, clinical examination, and hematobiochemical findings were recorded at the time of presentation. Radiography of the affected limb was carried out in two views to determine type and site of the fracture. Treatment of all the fractures was attempted using simple Steinman and end threaded pinning under the C-arm guidance. The success and failure of the closed technique were correlated with age, site, and type of fractures. The mean body weight and age of the dogs were 18.53±2.18 kg and 21.58±5.85 months, respectively. Early presented cases at a mean day of 2.84±0.54 were included. Out of 19 cases, it was possible to place implant successfully in 10 cases (success rate 52.63%) only. The remaining 9 cases had serious intraoperative complications like a misdirection of the pin after engaging the proximal fragment (n=3), missing the proximal fragment completely, and formation of the false tract (n=6). The majority of these complications were associated with younger age and proximal or distal third oblique fractures. High success rate of C-arm guided closed pinning was observed in midshaft fractures (75%) and transverse fractures (77.78%) in dogs of more than 1 year of age (77.78%). Simple Steinmann pinning was better feasible in a closed manner with a high success rate (66.70%) but also had implant related complications. Although, C-arm guided end threaded pinning was less (46.15%) successful, slightly tedious and time-consuming but had better implant stability than that of simple intramedullary pinning. From the present study, it was concluded that C-arm guided closed

  19. Infection after spanning external fixation for high-energy tibial plateau fractures: is pin site-plate overlap a problem? (United States)

    Laible, Catherine; Earl-Royal, Emily; Davidovitch, Roy; Walsh, Mike; Egol, Kenneth A


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether overlap between temporary external fixator pins and definitive plate fixation correlates with infection in high-energy tibial plateau fractures. Retrospective chart and radiographic review. Academic medical center. Seventy-nine patients with unilateral high-energy tibial plateau fractures formed the basis of this report. Placement of knee-spanning external fixation followed by delayed internal fixation for high-energy tibial plateau fractures treated at our institution between 2000 and 2008. Demographic patient information was reviewed. Radiographs were reviewed to assess for the presence of overlap between the temporary external fixator pins and the definitive plate fixation. Fisher exact and t test analyses were performed to compare those patients who had overlap and those who did not and were used to determine whether this was a factor in the development of a postoperative infection. Development of infection in those whose external fixation pin sites overlapped with the definitive internal fixation device compared with those whose pin sites did not overlap with definitive plate and screws. Six knees in six patients developed deep infections requiring serial irrigation and débridement and intravenous antibiotics. Of these six infections, three were in patients with closed fractures and three in patients with open fractures. Two of these six infections followed definitive plate fixation that overlapped the external fixator pin sites with an average of 4.2 cm of overlap. In the four patients who developed an infection and had no overlap, the average distance between the tip of the plate to the first external fixator pin was 6.3 cm. There was no correlation seen between infection and distance from pin to plate, pin-plate overlap distance, time in the external fixator, open fracture, classification of fracture, sex of the patient, age of the patient, or healing status of the fracture. Fears of definitive fracture

  20. Pinning Synchronization of Switched Complex Dynamical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Du


    Full Text Available Network topology and node dynamics play a key role in forming synchronization of complex networks. Unfortunately there is no effective synchronization criterion for pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology. In this paper, pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology is studied. Two basic problems are considered: one is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks under arbitrary switching; the other is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks by design of switching when synchronization cannot achieved by using any individual connection topology alone. For the two problems, common Lyapunov function method and single Lyapunov function method are used respectively, some global synchronization criteria are proposed and the designed switching law is given. Finally, simulation results verify the validity of the results.

  1. Nucleophosmin Interacts with PIN2/TERF1-interacting Telomerase Inhibitor 1 (PinX1) and Attenuates the PinX1 Inhibition on Telomerase Activity. (United States)

    Cheung, Derek Hang-Cheong; Ho, Sai-Tim; Lau, Kwok-Fai; Jin, Rui; Wang, Ya-Nan; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Jun-Jian; Shaw, Pang-Chui


    Telomerase activation and telomere maintenance are critical for cellular immortalization and transformation. PIN2/TERF1-interacting telomerase inhibitor 1 (PinX1) is a telomerase regulator and the aberrant expression of PinX1 causes telomere shortening. Identifying PinX1-interacting proteins is important for understanding telomere maintenance. We found that PinX1 directly interacts with nucleophosmin (NPM), a protein that has been shown to positively correlate with telomerase activity. We further showed that PinX1 acts as a linker in the association between NPM and hTERT, the catalytic subunit of telomerase. Additionally, the recruitment of NPM by PinX1 to the telomerase complex could partially attenuate the PinX1-mediated inhibition on telomerase activity. Taken together, our data reveal a novel mechanism that regulates telomerase activation through the interaction between NPM, PinX1 and the telomerase complex.

  2. IMp: The customizable LEGO® Pinned Insect Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Dupont


    Full Text Available We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble.

  3. LOFT DTT rake pin stress analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosby, W.R.


    A stress analysis of the 3/8-inch and 1/4-inch pins which hold the rake assembly to the flange was performed and shows stresses to be lower than the Class 1 allowables of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The alternating pin stresses were found to be below the endurance limit and fatigue failure will not occur. The rake assembly was assumed to be loaded by steady drag and lift forces and alternating vortex shedding forces.

  4. Artificial pinning in thick YBCO films: Pinning potential and c-axis correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisan, Adrian, E-mail: [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); National Institute of Materials Physics, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Mikheenko, Pavlo; Sarkar, Asis; Dang, Van Son; Awang Kechik, Mohammed M.; Abell, John S. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Paturi, Petriina; Huhtinen, Hannu [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 (Finland)


    We have introduced artificial pinning centres in thick (>1 {mu}m) YBCO films grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition using substrate decoration, quasi-multilayers, and target doping approaches. We have found that the frequency dependence of critical current density is consistent with a logarithmic dependence of pinning potential on current density. For most of materials used as nano-dots, artificially-induced pinning centres have a larger potential than natural ones. From angle-dependent in-field transport measurements and from Transmission Electron Microscopy we have found evidence of c-axis correlated pinning centres.

  5. Product Placement in Cartoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Oroz Štancl


    Full Text Available Product placement is a marketing approach for integrating products or services into selected media content. Studies have shown that the impact of advertising on children and youth are large, and that it can affect their preferences and attitudes. The aim of this article is to determine the existing level of product placement in cartoons that are broadcast on Croatian television stations. Content analysis of cartoons in a period of one month gave the following results: in 30% of cartoons product placement was found; most product placement were visual ads, in 89%, however, auditory product placement and plot connection was also found. Most ads were related to toys and it is significant that even 65% of cartoons are accompanied by a large amount of products available on the Croatian market. This is the result of two sales strategies: brand licensing (selling popular cartoon characters to toys, food or clothing companies and cartoon production based on existing line of toys with the sole aim of making their sales more effective.

  6. Glassy dynamics in randomly pinned particle systems (United States)

    Phan, Anh; Schweizer, Kenneth

    We generalize the force-level, microscopic Elastically Collective Nonlinear Langevin Equation theory of activated relaxation in bulk hard sphere and thermal liquids to address the role of internal quenched disorder. So-called neutral confinement is considered where a subset of particles are randomly pinned and there is no change of equilibrium pair structure. As the pinned fraction grows, the cage scale dynamical constraints are intensified, resulting in the mobile particles becoming more localized, a larger glassy shear modulus, and an enhanced cage scale barrier. However, based on an approximate analysis of how quenched disorder modifies collective elastic field fluctuations, random pinning is predicted to effectively screen or localize the strain field associated with the longer range elastic component of the activation barrier, leading to an overall reduction of it with pinning fraction. The different response of the cage and elastic barriers to quenched disorder results in subtle predictions for how the alpha relaxation time varies with pinning fraction and system volume fraction. A semi-quantitative comparison with recent simulations of a pinned-mobile water model are consistent with the theory. Predictions are made for thermal molecular liquids.

  7. Improved pinning by multiple in-line damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Sawh, Ravi-Persad [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Gandini, Alberto [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Parks, Drew [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)


    Columnar pinning centres provide the largest pinning potential, U{sub pin}, but not the greatest J{sub c} or pinnable field, B{sub pin}. Characteristics of ion-generated columnar defects which limit J{sub c} and B{sub pin} are discussed, including reduction of the percolation path, and the need for a larger number of columns of damage, for pinning, than are usually estimated. It is concluded that columnar pinning centres limit B{sub pin} to less than 4 T, and also severely reduce J{sub c}. The goal of maximizing U{sub pin}, via columnar centres, appears to have obscured a more rewarding approach and resulted in neglect of a large regime of ion interactions. Evidence is reviewed that multiple in-line damage (MILD), described herein, can provide orders of magnitude higher J{sub c} and B{sub pin}, despite providing lower U{sub pin}. The MILD pinning centre morphology is discussed, and it is estimated that for present-day large grain high T{sub c} superconductors, a J{sub c} value of {approx}10{sup 6}Acm{sup -2} is obtainable at 77 K, even when crystal plane alignment and weak links are not improved. In addition, the pinned field is increased by over an order of magnitude. An experiment is proposed to confirm these calculations, directly compare MILD pinning to continuous columnar pinning, and determine the optimum MILD structure. Applications of MILD pinning are discussed.

  8. Proximal Probes Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  9. Performance comparison of pin fin in-duct flow arrays with various pin cross-sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahiti, N. [LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)]. E-mail:; Lemouedda, A. [Department of Process Engineering, Georg-Simon-Ohm University of Applied Sciences, Wassertorstr. 10, D-90489 Nuremberg (Germany); Stojkovic, D. [LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Durst, F. [LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Franz, E. [Department of Process Engineering, Georg-Simon-Ohm University of Applied Sciences, Wassertorstr. 10, D-90489 Nuremberg (Germany)


    Pin fin arrays are frequently used for cooling of high thermal loaded electronic components. Whereas the pin fin accomplishment regarding heat transfer is always higher than that of other fin configurations, the high pressure drop accompanying pins seriously reduces their overall performance. In order to check how the form of pin cross-section influences the pressure drop and heat transfer capabilities, six forms of pin cross-section were numerically investigated. By employing the conjugate heat transfer boundary conditions, numerical simulations close to realistic working conditions were performed. Two geometric comparison criteria were applied so that the conclusions derived from numerical computations were valid for various possible geometric parameters and working conditions. Both staggered and inline pin arrangements were investigated as these are common in practical applications. The heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics are presented in terms of appropriate dimensionless variables. The final judgment of the performance of the pin fin cross-section was performed based on the heat exchanger performance plot. Such a plot allows the assessment of the pin performance including their heat transfer and the pressure drop.

  10. Impingement thermal performance of perforated circular pin-fin heat sinks (United States)

    Wen, Mao-Yu; Yeh, Cheng-Hsiung


    The study presents the experimental information on heat transfer performance of jet impingement cooling on circular pin- fin heat sinks with/without a hollow perforated base plate. Smoke flow visualization is also used to investigate the behavior of the complicated flow phenomena of the present heat sinks for this impingement cooling. The effects of flow Reynolds numbers (3458≤Re≤11,526), fin height, the geometry of the heat sinks (with/without a hollow perforated base plate), and jet-to-test heat sink placement (1 ≤H/d≤16) are examined. In addition, empirical correlation to estimate the heat transfer coefficient was also developed.

  11. 76 FR 54163 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines (United States)


    ... pinned by the machine. Proximity detection is a technology that uses electronic sensors to detect motion... also observed the Booyco Collision Warning System (CWS) being used on continuous mining machines. The... further analysis due to its potential to force machine operators out of previously safe areas into...

  12. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey


    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

  13. Pinning, flux diodes and ratchets for vortices interacting with conformal pinning arrays (United States)

    Olson Reichhardt, C. J.; Wang, Y. L.; Xiao, Z. L.; Kwok, W. K.; Ray, D.; Reichhardt, C.; Jankó, B.


    A conformal pinning array can be created by conformally transforming a uniform triangular pinning lattice to produce a new structure in which the six-fold ordering of the original lattice is conserved but where there is a spatial gradient in the density of pinning sites. Here we examine several aspects of vortices interacting with conformal pinning arrays and how they can be used to create a flux flow diode effect for driving vortices in different directions across the arrays. Under the application of an ac drive, a pronounced vortex ratchet effect occurs where the vortices flow in the easy direction of the array asymmetry. When the ac drive is applied perpendicular to the asymmetry direction of the array, it is possible to realize a transverse vortex ratchet effect where there is a generation of a dc flow of vortices perpendicular to the ac drive due to the creation of a noise correlation ratchet by the plastic motion of the vortices. We also examine vortex transport in experiments and compare the pinning effectiveness of conformal arrays to uniform triangular pinning arrays. We find that a triangular array generally pins the vortices more effectively at the first matching field and below, while the conformal array is more effective at higher fields where interstitial vortex flow occurs.

  14. A pinned polymer model of posture control

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, C C; Chow, Carson C; Collins, J J


    A phenomenological model of human posture control is posited. The dynamics are modelled as an elastically pinned polymer under the influence of noise. The model accurately reproduces the two-point correlation functions of experimental posture data and makes predictions for the response function of the postural control system. The physiological and clinical significance of the model is discussed.

  15. Synchronizability on complex networks via pinning control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is proved that the maximum eigenvalue sequence of the principal submatrices of coupling matrix is decreasing. The method of calculating the number of pinning nodes is given based on this theory. The findings reveal the relationship between the decreasing speed of maximum eigenvalue sequence of the principal ...

  16. Physicist pins hopes on particle collider

    CERN Multimedia


    Physicist pins hopes on particle collider By Deseret Morning News Published: Monday, Dec. 31, 27 12:4 a.m. MST FONT Scott Thomas, a 187 State University graduate, is working at the frontiers of science. The theoretical physicist is crafting ways to extract fundamental secrets that seem certain to be uncovered by the Large Hadron Collider.

  17. Pinning Susceptibility Near the Jamming Transition (United States)

    Nashed, Samer; Graves, Amy; Goodrich, Carl; Padgett, Elliot; Liu, Andrea


    The study of jamming in the presence of pinned obstacles is of both practical and theoretical interest. In simulations of soft, bidisperse disks and spheres, we pin a small fraction, nf of particles prior to the equilibration process. The presence of pinned particles is known to lower the critical packing fraction, ϕJ, for jamming. Further, around this threshold there is a peak in a quantity which we have termed the ``pinning susceptibility'': χP =limnf --> 0∂PJ(ϕ/,nf) ∂nf . In the thermodynamic limit, we have posited that χP ~| Δϕ | -γP . Finite-size scaling calculations, involving careful fits of PJ to logistic sigmoidal functions, yield a value for the critical exponent, γP. This new exponent is proposed to be independent of inter-particle potential. Its dependence on dimensionality (2 vs. 3 dimensions) will be discussed. Acknowledgement is made to the Donors of the Petroleum Research Fund administered by the American Chemical Society, NSF grant DMR-1062638 and DOE grant DE-FG02-05ER46199.

  18. Unintended pregnancy after long-term Essure microinserts placement. (United States)

    Arjona, José Eduardo; Serrano, Jose Julio; Povedano, Balbino; Carrasco, Santiago; Castelo-Branco, Camil


    A case of uterine perforation by an Essure microinserts placed in proximity to the tubal ostia mimicking proper microinsert placement and bilateral tubal occlusion on imaging techniques is presented. The presence of Essure microinserts did not interfere with implantation and pregnancy, and in this case, no adjacent intraabdominal tissue damage was caused by the misplaced device, which was finally removed almost 3 years after insertion. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Construction of mammary gland specific expression plasmid pIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    ). In order to verify plasmid bioactivity, plasmid pIN was transiently transfected into human breast cancer cell line Bcap-37 (Zhang et al.,. 2009). Quantitative PCR results showed that pIN could be transcribed successfully in ...

  20. Pinning control of complex networked systems synchronization, consensus and flocking of networked systems via pinning

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Housheng


    Synchronization, consensus and flocking are ubiquitous requirements in networked systems. Pinning Control of Complex Networked Systems investigates these requirements by using the pinning control strategy, which aims to control the whole dynamical network with huge numbers of nodes by imposing controllers for only a fraction of the nodes. As the direct control of every node in a dynamical network with huge numbers of nodes might be impossible or unnecessary, it’s then very important to use the pinning control strategy for the synchronization of complex dynamical networks. The research on pinning control strategy in consensus and flocking of multi-agent systems can not only help us to better understand the mechanisms of natural collective phenomena, but also benefit applications in mobile sensor/robot networks. This book offers a valuable resource for researchers and engineers working in the fields of control theory and control engineering.   Housheng Su is an Associate Professor at the Department of Contro...

  1. Complications following dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint. (United States)

    Mangelson, John J; Stern, Peter J; Abzug, Joshua M; Chang, James; Osterman, A Lee


    Dorsal fracture-dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint are challenging injuries to treat and are associated with many complications. The determination of stability is crucial to appropriate management. Stable injuries can usually be treated nonsurgically, whereas unstable injuries typically require surgical stabilization. Many surgical techniques have been used, including extension block pinning, volar plate arthroplasty, open reduction and internal fixation, external fixation, and hemihamate autografting. Because stiffness and flexion contracture are frequent complications, every effort should be made to initiate early motion while maintaining concentric reduction. Other complications include redislocation, chronic swelling, swan neck and coronal plane deformities, and pin tract infections. Assessing injury characteristics, including chronicity, the percentage of articular surface fractured, and the degree of comminution, and understanding complications will help in determining the most appropriate treatment. Chronic dislocations and those injuries in which painful arthritis develops can be successfully treated with salvage procedures, including arthroplasty and arthrodesis.

  2. Pin site care for preventing infections associated with external bone fixators and pins. (United States)

    Lethaby, Anne; Temple, Jenny; Santy-Tomlinson, Julie


    Metal pins are used to apply skeletal traction or external fixation devices in the management of orthopaedic fractures. These percutaneous pins protrude through the skin, and the way in which they are treated after insertion may affect the incidence of pin site infection. This review set out to summarise the evidence of pin site care on infection rates. To assess the effect on infection rates of different methods of cleansing and dressing orthopaedic percutaneous pin sites. In September 2013, for this third update, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. We evaluated all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effect on infection and other complication rates of different methods of cleansing or dressing orthopaedic percutaneous pin sites. Two review authors independently assessed the citations retrieved by the search strategies for reports of relevant RCTs, then independently selected trials that satisfied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and undertook quality assessment. A total of eleven trials (572 participants) were eligible for inclusion in the review but not all participants contributed data to each comparison. Three trials compared a cleansing regimen (saline, alcohol, hydrogen peroxide or antibacterial soap) with no cleansing (application of a dry dressing), three trials compared alternative sterile cleansing solutions (saline, alcohol, peroxide, povidone iodine), three trials compared methods of cleansing (one trial compared identical pin site care performed daily or weekly and the two others compared sterile with non sterile techniques), one trial compared daily pin site care with no care and six trials compared different dressings (using different solutions/ointments and dry and impregnated gauze or sponges). One small blinded

  3. Skeletal pin traction: guidelines on postoperative care and support. (United States)

    Davis, Peter

    Orthopaedic pins and wires have been used to apply skeletal traction for many years, and there has been an increase in the use of external fixators (Santy, 2000; Sims and Saleh, 2000). Multiple pins are frequently used and, as such, create potential portals for infection. Infection rates for these pins are reported to be as high as 85 per cent (Sims and Saleh, 2000). However, pin-site management practices are diverse, contradictory and lack consistency.

  4. Antioxidant Prophylaxis in the Prevention of Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) (United States)


    Prevention of Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: A. Pratap Kumar, Ph.D...Prophylaxis in the Prevention of Prostatic Intraepithelial 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Neoplasia (PIN) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0275 5c...Histopathological changes referred to as Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) are considered to be the most likely precursor of prostate cancer. The

  5. Capacitive proximity sensor (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.


    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  6. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides


    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  7. Temporary antibiotic cement-covered gamma nail spacer for an infected nonunion of the proximal femur. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hugo; Ziran, Bruce H


    We report the case of an infected nonunion of the proximal femoral in an elderly patient. There was extensive involvement of the entire proximal femur precluding salvage. An impromptu use of a cephalomedullary nail coated with antibiotic-laden bone cement is described, followed by reimplantation with a revision-type proximal femoral prosthesis. The patient had resection of the proximal femur, placement of a temporary functional spacer, and reimplantation after a course of antibiotics, with good success. The method we describe is a reasonable alternative when standard off-the-shelf systems or other methods of temporary spacer creation are not available.

  8. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy


    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  9. Genome-wide identification and evolution of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) gene family in Glycine max. (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Wei, Haichao


    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants. Wild and cultivated soybean varieties have significant differences worth further investigation, such as plant morphology, seed size, and seed coat development; these characters may be related to auxin biology. The PIN gene family encodes essential transport proteins in cell-to-cell auxin transport, but little research on soybean PIN genes (GmPIN genes) has been done, especially with respect to the evolution and differences between wild and cultivated soybean. In this study, we retrieved 23 GmPIN genes from the latest updated G. max genome database; six GmPIN protein sequences were changed compared with the previous database. Based on the Plant Genome Duplication Database, 18 GmPIN genes have been involved in segment duplication. Three pairs of GmPIN genes arose after the second soybean genome duplication, and six occurred after the first genome duplication. The duplicated GmPIN genes retained similar expression patterns. All the duplicated GmPIN genes experienced purifying selection (Ka/Ks artificial selection of the soybean PIN genes. Five artificially selected GmPIN genes were identified by comparing the genome sequence of 17 wild and 14 cultivated soybean varieties. Our research provides useful and comprehensive basic information for understanding GmPIN genes.

  10. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics]. (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N


    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  11. Proximate Analysis of Coal (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.


    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  12. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  13. Radiometric characteristics of new diamond PIN photodiodes (United States)

    Ben Moussa, A.; Schühle, U.; Scholze, F.; Kroth, U.; Haenen, K.; Saito, T.; Campos, J.; Koizumi, S.; Laubis, C.; Richter, M.; Mortet, V.; Theissen, A.; Hochedez, J. F.


    New PIN photodiode devices based on CVD diamond have been produced showing high responsivity in a narrow bandpass around 200 nm. A set of measurement campaigns was carried out to obtain their XUV-to-VIS characterization (responsivity, stability, linearity, homogeneity). The responsivity has been measured from the XUV to the NIR, in the wavelength range of 1 nm to 1127 nm (i.e. 1240 to 1.1 eV). The diamond detectors exhibit a high responsivity of 10 to 30 mA W-1 around 200 nm and demonstrate a visible rejection ratio (200 nm versus 500 nm) of six orders of magnitude. We show that these PIN diamond photodiodes are sensitive sensors in the 200 to 220 nm range, stable under brief irradiation with a good linearity and homogeneity. They will be used for the first time in a solar physics space instrument LYRA, the Large Yield RAdiometer.

  14. Transpyloric Feeding Tube Placement Using Electromagnetic Placement Device in Children. (United States)

    Goggans, Margaret; Pickard, Sharon; West, Alina Nico; Shah, Samir; Kimura, Dai


    Transpyloric feeding tubes (TPT) are often recommended in critically ill children. Blind tube placement, however, can be difficult, be time-consuming, and incur multiple radiation exposures. An electromagnetic device (EMD) is available for confirmation of successful placement of TPTs. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the efficacy of an EMD for TPT placement in children and determine its impact on placement success, radiation exposure, confirmation time, and cost for tube placement compared with traditional blind TPT placement. Retrospective data were collected in patients receiving a TPT before (pre-EMD group) and after implementation of an EMD (EMD group). Need for radiographic exposure decreased significantly in the EMD group (n = 40) compared with the pre-EMD group (n = 38) (0.6 vs 1.6 x-rays, P tube confirmation took a significantly shorter time in the EMD group than in the pre-EMD group (1.45 vs 4.59 hours, P maintaining TPT placement success. The use of an EMD can potentially offer large cost savings. Elimination of abdominal x-ray with EMD during TPT placement was achieved without any serious complications in approximately half of the children.

  15. Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Straka, M. (Halliburton NUS, Idaho Falls, ID (United States))


    Research has been conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin bumup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PFL/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design bumup. Using peaking factors commensurate widi actual bumups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document also contains appendices A through J of this report.

  16. Cheap and Easy PIN Entering Using Eye Gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprowski Pawel


    Full Text Available PINs are one of the most popular methods to perform simple and fast user authentication. PIN stands for Personal Identification Number, which may have any number of digits or even letters. Nevertheless, 4-digit PIN is the most common and is used for instance in ATMs or cellular phones. The main advantage of the PIN is that it is easy to remember and fast to enter. There are, however, some drawbacks. One of them - addressed in this paper - is a possibility to steal PIN by a technique called `shoulder surfing'. To avoid such problems a novel method of the PIN entering was proposed. Instead of using a numerical keyboard, the PIN may be entered by eye gazes, which is a hands-free, easy and robust technique. References:

  17. [Developmental Placement.] Collected Research References. (United States)

    Bjorklund, Gail

    Drawing on information and references in the ERIC system, this literature review describes research related to a child's developmental placement. The issues examined include school entrance age; predictive validity, reliability, and features of Gesell School Readiness Assessment; retention; and the effectiveness of developmental placement. A…

  18. Improvement possibilities of the I-V characteristics of PIN photodiodes damaged by gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dejan S.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the behavior of PIN photodiodes after combined gamma and neutron irradiation. Different types of PIN photodiodes have been exposed first to gamma and then to neutron irradiation. I-V characteristics (current dependence on voltage of photodiodes have been measured after each of these irradiations. It has been noted that the photocurrent level after the neutron irradiation is higher than before it, which is not consistent with the current theories about the effects of neutron radiation on semiconductors. In order to explain this behavior of the photodiodes, the Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport through the material has been used. It is proposed that a possible cause for current enhancement are defects in semiconductor created by gamma irradiation and effects of neutron irradiation on these defects. The results can be explained by an intercentre transfer of charge between defects in close proximity to each other. The aim of this paper is to investigate the improvement possibilities of the I-V characteristics of PIN photodiodes, and photodetectors in general, damaged by gamma irradiation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171007

  19. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi


    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  20. Proximal humeral fractures


    Mauro, Craig S.


    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  1. NDT of bridge pins on Pennsylvania Dept. of Transportation structures (United States)

    Miller, William J.; Chaney, M. K.


    The Pennsyulvania Department of Transportation conducted a two phase investigation of all fracture critical pin hanger assemblies between 1988 and 1991 of 23 bridges. The first phase consisted of visually inspecting and documenting the condition of the pin assemblies. The second phase involved nondestructive testing of the pins and any hanger assembly parts that the engineer requested. This testing was performed by consultant engineering firms under contract with individual Penn DOT Engineering Districts. The Mehoopany Bridge was the only structure which was tested exclusively by the department's personnel. Twenty fracture critical bridges were consequently retrofitted with support girders or rod support assemblies. The remaining three locations had the pin hanger assemblies removed and the structures were made continuous. Also, the pins were replaced at some of the 20 locations. All removed pins were requested to be retained and sent to the Department's Materials and Testing Laboratory for evaluation testing. A large number of the pins were destroyed during removal and some were discarded during construction. The following criteria was established by department personnel for MTD's testing of the pins and defect comparisons with consulting engineer's test results: 1) modified ASTM A388 standard test, using 18 degree transducer; 2) 1/16 inch saw notches used as reference standard; 3) straight beam and angle test probes for UT of in-place pins; 4) 45 degree and 70 degree angle beam bore hole test probe for verification of pin defects.

  2. Biomechanical analysis of four external fixation pin insertion techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon Arango


    Full Text Available Having multiple external fixation pin designs and insertion techniques has led to debate as to which combination creates the stiffest construct. This study sought to biomechanically evaluate construct strength using self-drilling (SD and self-tapping (ST pins inserted with either bicortical or unicortical fixation. SD and ST 5.0 mm stainless steel pins were used in combination with bicortical self-drilling (BCSD, bicortical self-tapping (BCST, unicortical self-drilling (UCSD, and unicortical selftapping (UCST techniques. Pre-drilling for the self-tapping pins was completed with a 4.0 mm drill bit using ¾ inch polyvinyl chloride (PVC pipe as the insertional medium. The PVC pin constructs were then loaded to failure in a cantilever bending method using a mechanical testing system. Ten trials of each technique were analyzed. BCSD insertion technique had the highest maximum failure force and stiffness of all tested techniques (P<0.0001. SD pins were significantly stronger to bending forces than ST pins in both the unicortical and bicortical setting (P<0.0001. Three point bending tests of the 5.0 mm SD and ST threaded area showed that threaded portion of the SD pins had a 300 N greater maximum failure force than the ST pins. Biomechanical analysis of external fixation pin insertion techniques demonstrates that bicortical fixation with SD pins achieved the greatest resistance to bending load. Despite both pins being 5.0 mm and constructed from stainless steel, ST and SD behaved differently with regard to maximum failure force and stiffness. This study demonstrates that insertion technique and pin selection are both important variables when attempting to achieve a stiff external fixation construct.

  3. A proposed parameterization of interface discontinuity factors depending on neighborhood for pin-by-pin diffusion computations for LWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, Jose Javier; Garcia-Herranz, Nuria; Ahnert, Carol, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)


    There exists an interest in performing full core pin-by-pin computations for present nuclear reactors. In such type of problems the use of a transport approximation like the diffusion equation requires the introduction of correction parameters. Interface discontinuity factors can improve the diffusion solution to nearly reproduce a transport solution. Nevertheless, calculating accurate pin-by-pin IDF requires the knowledge of the heterogeneous neutron flux distribution, which depends on the boundary conditions of the pin-cell as well as the local variables along the nuclear reactor operation. As a consequence, it is impractical to compute them for each possible configuration. An alternative to generate accurate pin-by-pin interface discontinuity factors is to calculate reference values using zero-net-current boundary conditions and to synthesize afterwards their dependencies on the main neighborhood variables. In such way the factors can be accurately computed during fine-mesh diffusion calculations by correcting the reference values as a function of the actual environment of the pin-cell in the core. In this paper we propose a parameterization of the pin-by-pin interface discontinuity factors allowing the implementation of a cross sections library able to treat the neighborhood effect. First results are presented for typical PWR configurations. (author)

  4. A mechanism to pin skyrmions in chiral magnets (United States)

    Liu, Ye-Hua; Li, You-Quan


    We propose a mechanism to pin skyrmions in chiral magnetic thin films by introducing local maxima of magnetic exchange strength as pinning centers. The local maxima can be realized by engineering the local density of itinerant electrons. The stationary properties and the dynamical pinning and depinning processes of an isolated skyrmion around a pinning center are studied. We carry out numerical simulations of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation and find a way to control the position of an isolated skyrmion in a pinning center lattice using electric current pulses. The results are verified by a Thiele equation analysis. We also find that the critical current to depin a skyrmion, which is estimated to have order of magnitude 107-108 A m-2, has linear dependence on the pinning strength.

  5. Optimum Prestress of Tanks with Pinned Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum-Nielsen, Troels


    Amin Ghali and Eleanor Elliott presented in their paper an interesting suggestion for prestressing of circular tanks without sliding joints. For many prestressed tanks the following construction procedure is adopted:In order to ensure compressive hoop forces in the wall near the base, the wall...... is allowed to slide freely in the radial direction during tensioning (free base).After tensioning such displacements are prevented (pinned base). The present paper addresses the problem of prestress of such tanks.Keywords: circular prestressing; creep properties; prestressed concrete; redistribution...

  6. Flux pinning properties of c-axis correlated pinning centres in PLD-YBCO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, H; Yamasaki, H; Develos-Bagarinao, K; Nakagawa, Y; Mawatari, Y; Nie, J C; Obara, H; Kosaka, S [Energy Electronics Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba Centre 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)


    Flux pinning properties of pinning centres having correlation along the c-axis in epitaxial YBCO films were investigated by measuring the magnetic-field angle {psi}-dependence of the critical current density J{sub C} and the E-J-characteristics. YBCO films were prepared by using the pulsed-laser-deposition method on four different substrates at three different target-to-substrate distances D. The {psi}-dependence of J{sub C} showed large peaks when magnetic field B was applied parallel to the c-axis (B parallel c), and we observed two types of J{sub C}-peak: that is, a broad peak for the films deposited at small D (50-60 mm), and a narrow peak for the films deposited at large D (112 and 142 mm). The E-J-characteristics followed the power law, E {approx} J{sup n}, and the {psi}-dependence of the n-value also showed broad peaks around B parallel c for the films deposited at D = 50-60 mm, and narrow peaks for the film deposited at D = 112 mm. Based on these results and our previous microstructural observations by AFM and TEM, we confirm that the broad-angle flux pinning effect around B parallel c may be attributed to a high density of elongated precipitates, and the narrow-angle pinning effect around B parallel c may be attributed to dense planar defects parallel to the c-axis.

  7. Use of a colonoscope for distal duodenal stent placement in patients with malignant obstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Jeurnink (Suzanne); A. Repici (Alessandro); C. Luigiano (Carmelo); N. Pagano (Nico); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); P.D. Siersema (Peter)


    textabstractBackground: Stent placement in the distal duodenum or proximal jejunum with a therapeutic gastroscope can be difficult, because of the reach of the endoscope, loop formation in the stomach, and flexibility of the gastroscope. The use of a colonoscope may overcome these problems.

  8. The pin pixel detector--X-ray imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Marsh, A S; Simmons, J E; Stephenson, R


    The development and testing of a soft X-ray gas pixel detector, which uses connector pins for the anodes is reported. Based on a commercial 100 pin connector block, a prototype detector of aperture 25.4 mm centre dot 25.4 mm can be economically fabricated. The individual pin anodes all show the expected characteristics of small gas detectors capable of counting rates reaching 1 MHz per pin. A 2-dimensional resistive divide readout system has been developed to permit the imaging properties of the detector to be explored in advance of true pixel readout electronics.

  9. Epigallocatechin-gallate suppresses tumorigenesis by directly targeting Pin1 (United States)

    Urusova, Darya V.; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Dong Joon; Jung, Sung Keun; Zykova, Tatyana A.; Carper, Andria; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang


    The most active anticancer component in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The human peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase (Pin1) plays a critical role in oncogenic signaling. Herein, we report the X-ray crystal structure of the Pin1/EGCG complex resolved at 1.9 Å resolution. Notably, the structure revealed the presence of EGCG in both the WW and PPIase domains of Pin1. The direct binding of EGCG with Pin1 was confirmed and the interaction inhibited Pin1 PPlase activity. In addition, proliferation of cells expressing Pin1 was inhibited and tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model was suppressed. The binding of EGCG with Arg17 in the WW domain prevented the binding of c-Jun, a well-known Pin1 substrate. EGCG treatment corresponded with a decreased abundance of cyclin D1 and diminution of TPA-induced AP-1 or NFκB promoter activity in cells expressing Pin1. Overall, these results showed that EGCG directly suppresses the tumor promoting effect of Pin1. PMID:21750208

  10. Epigallocatechin-gallate Suppresses Tumorigenesis by Directly Targeting Pin1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urusova, Darya V. [Univ. of Minnesota, Austin, MN (United States). Hormel Inst.; Shim, Jung-Hyun [Univ. of Minnesota, Austin, MN (United States). Hormel Inst.; Soonchunhyang Univ., Cheonan (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Biochemistry; Kim, Dong Joon [Univ. of Minnesota, Austin, MN (United States). Hormel Inst.; Jung, Sung Keun [Univ. of Minnesota, Austin, MN (United States). Hormel Inst.; Zykova, Tatyana A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Austin, MN (United States). Hormel Inst.; Carper, Andria [Univ. of Minnesota, Austin, MN (United States). Hormel Inst.; Bode, Ann M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Austin, MN (United States). Hormel Inst.; Dong, Zigang [Univ. of Minnesota, Austin, MN (United States). Hormel Inst.


    The most active anticancer component in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The human peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase (Pin1) plays a critical role in oncogenic signaling. Herein, we report the X-ray crystal structure of the Pin1/EGCG complex resolved at 1.9 Å resolution. Notably, the structure revealed the presence of EGCG in both the WW and PPIase domains of Pin1. The direct binding of EGCG with Pin1 was confirmed and the interaction inhibited Pin1 PPIase activity. In addition, proliferation of cells expressing Pin1 was inhibited and tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model was suppressed. The binding of EGCG with Arg17 in the WW domain prevented the binding of c-Jun, a well-known Pin1 substrate. EGCG treatment corresponded with a decreased abundance of cyclin D1 and diminution of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-l3-acetate–induced AP-1 or NF-κB promoter activity in cells expressing Pin1. Overall, these results showed that EGCG directly suppresses the tumor-promoting effect of Pin1.

  11. Study of the Radiation Hardness of VCSEL and PIN Arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.P.; Kass, R.D.; Law, A.; Rau, A.; Smith, D.S.; Lebbai, M.R.M.; Skubic, P.L.; Abi, B.; Rizardinova, F.


    The silicon trackers of the ATLAS experiment at LHC (CERN) use optical links for data transmission. VCSEL arrays operating at 850 nm are used to transmit optical signals while PIN arrays are used to convert the optical signals into electrical signals. We investigate the feasibility of using the devices at the Super LHC (SLHC). We irradiated VCSEL and GaAs PIN arrays from three vendors and silicon PIN arrays from one vendor. All arrays can be operated up to the SLHC dosage except the GaAs PIN arrays which have very low responsivities after irradiation and hence are probably not suitable for the SLHC application.

  12. Nano-engineered pinning centres in YBCO superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisan, A., E-mail: [National Institute for Materials Physics Bucharest, 105 bis Atomistilor Str., 077125 Magurele (Romania); School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Dang, V.S. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Nano and Energy Center, VNU Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Mikheenko, P. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)


    Highlights: • Power applications of YBCO films/coated conductors in technological relevant magnetic fields requires nano-engineered pinning centre. • Three approaches have been proposed: substrate decoration, quasi-multilayers, and targets with secondary phase nano-inclusions. • Combination of all three approaches greatly increased critical current in YBCO films. • Bulk pinning force, pinning potential, and critical current density are estimated and discussed in relation with the type and strength of pinning centres related to the defects evidenced by Transmission Electron Microscopy. - Abstract: For practical applications of superconducting materials in applied magnetic fields, artificial pinning centres in addition to natural ones are required to oppose the Lorentz force. These pinning centres are actually various types of defects in the superconductor matrix. The pinning centres can be categorised on their dimension (volume, surface or point) and on their character (normal cores or Δκ cores). Different samples have been produced by Pulsed Laser Deposition, with various thicknesses, temperatures and nanostructured additions to the superconducting matrix. They have been characterized by SQUID Magnetic Properties Measurement System and Physical Properties Measurement System, as well as by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Correlations between pinning architecture, TEM images, and critical currents at various fields and field orientations will be shown for a large number of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} films with various types and architectures of artificial pinning centres.

  13. Pin-ups: pictures that fascinate and seduce Pin-ups: fotografias que encantam e seduzem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Pellegrino de Oliveira Souza


    Full Text Available Starting from photography studies, social anthropology and body visual, this article approaches the social construction of the feminine image through times. It narrates the history of erotic pinups photography and its fetishist elements. Pin-ups have aroused in the end of 19tcentury and it represents the free spirit of women. Slowly, it provokes the breakup of sensuality and sexuality feminine traditionalism. The article also discusses women’s sensuality as a desire object. The pin-ups sensual demure – with a mystery atmosphere – stimulated the eroticism at the beginning of the 20 century and, until nowadays, it provokes admiration, sigh and desire. Com base em estudos sobre fotografia, antropologia social e visual do corpo, este artigo aborda a imagem feminina socialmente construída através dos tempos. Narra o histórico da fotografia erótica de pin-ups e seus elementos fetichistas. As pin-ups surgiram no final do século XIX e representaram o espírito “livre” das mulheres. Sutilmente, incitavam o rompimento do tradicionalismo da época quanto à sensualidade e sexualidade feminina. O artigo aborda também a sensualidade feminina como objeto de desejo. O recato sensual das pin-ups – com ar de mistério – alavancou o erotismo no início do século XX e, até os dias atuais, provoca admiração, suspiros e desejos.

  14. FPIN2 analysis of metal fueled pins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, T H


    The FPIN2 code is used to calculate the thermal and mechanical behavior of a single fast reactor fuel pin experiencing a wide range of transients. This report describes the modifications and additions made to the FPIN2 code in order to handle metal fueled pins. The changes discussed in this status report have initially focused upon EBR-II driver fuel in order to calculate the temperature histories of EBR-II fuel and to understand the detailed behavior of metal fuel during recent TREAT experiments. Equations describing material behavior of metal fuel including thermal properties, elastic properties, secondary creep and fission gas swelling are presented and were easily incorporated into the FPIN2 code framework. The addition of a fission gas plenum model and a model to close the fuel-clad radial gap at 100% fuel melting required substantial modification to the code. Additional changes were made to handle heat transfer with a sodium bond, eutectic release of cladding axial restraint and eutectic penetration of the cladding. Three example calculations are presented including a study of the effect of fuel creep on axial elongation and temperature contour maps for EBR-II driver fuel. Some results from an FPIN2 analysis of TREAT experiment M2 are discussed.

  15. The Egyptian Hair Pin: practical, sacred, fatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joann Fletcher


    Full Text Available Generally regarded as little more than a mundane tool employed in daily life, the humble hairpin occasionally played a rather more prominent role in history than has perhaps been appreciated. As the most ancient implements associated with hair styling, simple pins of bone and ivory were commonly employed in Egypt by c.4000 BC as a means of securing long hair in an upswept style (e.g. Petrie and Mace 1901, 21, 34. Although their occasional use by men undermines the assumption that hairpins are 'a relatively certain example of a “gendered” artefact' (Wilfong 1997, 67, the vast majority have been found in female burials. They can be made of bone and ivory, wood, steatite, glass, gold, silver and bronze, and two 12cm long bronze examples were found within the hair of Princess Ahmosi c.1550 BC (Fletcher 1995, 376, 441 while the hair of an anonymous woman at Gurob c.AD 110 had been secured in a bun with pins of bone, tortoiseshell and silver (Walker and Bierbrier 1997, 209.

  16. Lightning Pin Injection Testing on MOSFETS (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Sankalita


    Lightning transients were pin-injected into metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to induce fault modes. This report documents the test process and results, and provides a basis for subsequent lightning tests. MOSFETs may be present in DC-DC power supplies and electromechanical actuator circuits that may be used on board aircraft. Results show that unprotected MOSFET Gates are susceptible to failure, even when installed in systems in well-shielded and partial-shielded locations. MOSFET Drains and Sources are significantly less susceptible. Device impedance decreased (current increased) after every failure. Such a failure mode may lead to cascading failures, as the damaged MOSFET may allow excessive current to flow through other circuitry. Preliminary assessments on a MOSFET subjected to 20-stroke pin-injection testing demonstrate that Breakdown Voltage, Leakage Current and Threshold Voltage characteristics show damage, while the device continues to meet manufacturer performance specifications. The purpose of this research is to develop validated tools, technologies, and techniques for automated detection, diagnosis and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight, such as from lightning transients; and to understand the interplay between lightning-induced surges and aging (i.e. humidity, vibration thermal stress, etc.) on component degradation.

  17. Medio-lateral entry pin versus lateral entry pin for displaced pediatric supracondylar fractures: A comparative, prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kandel


    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Supracondylar fracture is one of the commonest fractures in children. Although the technique of pinning is controversial, percutaneous medio-lateral entry pinning is theoretically considered more stable biomechanical construct. The drawback of this method is injury to ulnar nerve which is not encountered in only lateral entry pinning.Materials & Methods: This was a prospective, comparative and observational study done in 60 patients which was alternately divided into two groups. The first group (A underwent medio-lateral entry pinning and the second group (B underwent lateral entry pinning. They were followed for 24 weeks and the outcome was assessed using Flynn’s criteria.Results: At twenty-four weeks, the mean loss of range of motion of elbow in medio-lateral pinning group was 3.70 degrees (SD±1.93 and that in lateral pinning group was 4.23 degrees (SD ±1.38. The mean loss in carrying angle at twenty-four weeks in medio-lateral group was 2.93 degrees (SD±2.19 and that in lateral group was 4.17 (SD±2.24. There were 2 (6.67% cases of iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury in medio-lateral pinning group. Out of thirty patients, in medio-lateral pinning group, 25 had excellent results, 5 had good results and none had fair or poor results. While out of 30 patients in lateral pinning group, 23 had excellent results, 7 had good results and none had fair or poor results.Conclusion: There is no significant difference in outcome in terms of loss of carrying angle and range of motion between the medio-lateral pinning group and the lateral pinning group at the end of 6 months.Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, Vol.11(4 2015: 28-31

  18. Percutaneous Distraction Pinning for Metacarpophalangeal Joint Stabilization After Blast or Crush Injuries of the Hand. (United States)

    Langford, Matthew A; Cheung, Kevin; Li, Zhongyu


    Unstable, severely comminuted fractures of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint are difficult to treat. Closed treatment and casting of these fractures often fail to maintain proper alignment and impede wound care where concomitant open injuries such as gunshot wounds are present. Conventional pinning or plating techniques are not feasible if extensive bone loss and comminution are present. A distraction pinning technique represents a potential alternative, but results with this approach, to our knowledge, have not been reported. The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate the effectiveness (defined as osseous union and joint stability) of distraction pinning for comminuted fractures involving MCP joints after gunshot or crush injuries; (2) to report the short-term results in terms of pain and function in a small group of patients who underwent MCP distraction pinning; and (3) to evaluate complications and return to work status of these patients in the short term. We reviewed 10 patients with comminuted pilon-type fractures of the base of the proximal phalanx or metacarpal head treated with wire distraction fixation from 2005 and 2014. During that period, we used this technique to treat all patients whose fractures were deemed too comminuted for plating or pinning, and during that period, no other techniques (such as simple external fixation) were used for patients meeting those indications. The minimum followup was 6 months; eight of the 10 patients were accounted at a median of 10 months (range, 6-89 months). The median age was 47 years (range, 28-57 years), and seven of the eight were male. Kirschner wire fixation frames were removed 3.5 to 6 weeks after the index surgery when fracture consolidation was confirmed on radiography by the treating surgeon. Stability and range of motion of the MCP joint were assessed using physical examination, radiographs, and goniometer by the treating surgeon. Patients completed the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and

  19. A Skeletal Traction Technique for Proximal Femur Fracture Management in an Austere Environment. (United States)

    Lidwell, David; Meghoo, Colin A


    Skeletal traction is a useful technique for managing proximal femur fractures in austere environments where fracture stabilization for this injury is difficult. We present a technique and a construct appropriate for field use that facilitates patient evacuation, and we provide guidelines for the use of this technique by an advanced medical provider managing these injuries. The objectives of this article are to enable to reader to (1) recognize the role of skeletal traction in managing proximal femur fractures in an austere environment, (2) identify the key steps in placing transfemoral skeletal traction pins, and (3) identify options and requirements for building a traction construct in resource-limited environments. 2016.

  20. Visual positioning for round pin chips based on a parametric deformable template (United States)

    Wang, Zujin; Huang, Xiaodiao


    With increasing necessities for reliable printed circuit board (PCB) products, there has been a considerable demand for a high speed and high precision vision positioning system. To locate a round pin chip with high accuracy and reliability with the obtained image, a positioning method is proposed based on the analysis of the image features, in which a deformable template is used to detect the deflection angle and the offset. The deformable template is constructed according to the arrangement of pins, whose offset, deflection, and zoom are denoted with five parameters. In addition, an energy function is defined by combining the image gradient, gray, and geometry features, which is optimized with the genetic algorithm to find the best matching position between the deformable template and a target image. The last experimental results show that this method has good accuracy, stability, and computing speed, and the detection errors are <0.1 deg and 0.25 pixels, which can meet the positioning accuracy of the placement machine vision system.

  1. Pinning Stabilizes Neighboring Surface Nanobubbles against Ostwald Ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dollet, B.; Lohse, Detlef


    Pinning of the contact line and gas oversaturation explain the stability of single surface nanobubbles. In this article, we theoretically show that the pinning also suppresses the Ostwald ripening process between neighboring surface nanobubbles, thus explaining why in a population of neighboring

  2. Pin cherry effects on Allegheny hardwood stand development (United States)

    Todd E. Ristau; Stephen B. Horsley


    Pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica L.) develops an early height advantage over associated species. Data from three long-term studies, extending up to 70 years after complete overstory removal, were used to evaluate the effects of pin cherry density on associates. Survival of seedling-origin stems of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh...

  3. Clinical standards in skeletal traction pin site care. (United States)

    Jones-Walton, P


    This descriptive study describes orthopaedic nursing practice behavior relevant to the treatment of skeletal traction pin sites. Data describe clinical practice norms for such variables as product usage, treatment frequency, and aseptic technique. These norms can be used as the basis for further scientific investigation of pin care and the development of uniform treatment standards within the nursing specialty domain.

  4. Inscuteable Regulates the Pins-Mud Spindle Orientation Pathway (United States)

    Mauser, Jonathon F.; Prehoda, Kenneth E.


    During asymmetric cell division, alignment of the mitotic spindle with the cell polarity axis ensures that the cleavage furrow separates fate determinants into distinct daughter cells. The protein Inscuteable (Insc) is thought to link cell polarity and spindle positioning in diverse systems by binding the polarity protein Bazooka (Baz; aka Par-3) and the spindle orienting protein Partner of Inscuteable (Pins; mPins or LGN in mammals). Here we investigate the mechanism of spindle orientation by the Insc-Pins complex. Previously, we defined two Pins spindle orientation pathways: a complex with Mushroom body defect (Mud; NuMA in mammals) is required for full activity, whereas binding to Discs large (Dlg) is sufficient for partial activity. In the current study, we have examined the role of Inscuteable in mediating downstream Pins-mediated spindle orientation pathways. We find that the Insc-Pins complex requires Gαi for partial activity and that the complex specifically recruits Dlg but not Mud. In vitro competition experiments revealed that Insc and Mud compete for binding to the Pins TPR motifs, while Dlg can form a ternary complex with Insc-Pins. Our results suggest that Insc does not passively couple polarity and spindle orientation but preferentially inhibits the Mud pathway, while allowing the Dlg pathway to remain active. Insc-regulated complex assembly may ensure that the spindle is attached to the cortex (via Dlg) before activation of spindle pulling forces by Dynein/Dynactin (via Mud). PMID:22253744

  5. Inscuteable regulates the Pins-Mud spindle orientation pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon F Mauser

    Full Text Available During asymmetric cell division, alignment of the mitotic spindle with the cell polarity axis ensures that the cleavage furrow separates fate determinants into distinct daughter cells. The protein Inscuteable (Insc is thought to link cell polarity and spindle positioning in diverse systems by binding the polarity protein Bazooka (Baz; aka Par-3 and the spindle orienting protein Partner of Inscuteable (Pins; mPins or LGN in mammals. Here we investigate the mechanism of spindle orientation by the Insc-Pins complex. Previously, we defined two Pins spindle orientation pathways: a complex with Mushroom body defect (Mud; NuMA in mammals is required for full activity, whereas binding to Discs large (Dlg is sufficient for partial activity. In the current study, we have examined the role of Inscuteable in mediating downstream Pins-mediated spindle orientation pathways. We find that the Insc-Pins complex requires Gαi for partial activity and that the complex specifically recruits Dlg but not Mud. In vitro competition experiments revealed that Insc and Mud compete for binding to the Pins TPR motifs, while Dlg can form a ternary complex with Insc-Pins. Our results suggest that Insc does not passively couple polarity and spindle orientation but preferentially inhibits the Mud pathway, while allowing the Dlg pathway to remain active. Insc-regulated complex assembly may ensure that the spindle is attached to the cortex (via Dlg before activation of spindle pulling forces by Dynein/Dynactin (via Mud.

  6. Optical fuel pin scanner. [Patent application; for reading identifications (United States)

    Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.


    This patent relates to an optical identification system developed for post-irradiation disassembly and analysis of fuel bundle assemblies. The apparatus is designed to be lowered onto a stationary fuel pin to read identification numbers or letters imprinted on the circumference of the top fuel pin and cap. (DLC)

  7. Ankle Arthrodesis Using a Vertical Steinman's Pin in a Severely ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was one case of pin site infection and one case of cellulitis. According to the Mazur ankle score at final follow-up, 22 patients (67%) had excellent results, 8 (24%) good, 2 (6%) fair and 1(3%) poor results. Conclusion: Ankle arthrodesis using a vertical Steinman's pin is a reliable technique in low resource settings and ...

  8. Fundamental Characteristics of a Pinned Photodiode CMOS Pixels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Y.


    This thesis gives an insightful analysis of the pinned photodiode 4T CMOS pixel from three different aspects. Firstly, from the charge accumulated aspect, the PPD full well capacity and related parameters of influence are investigated such as the pinning voltage, and transfer gate potential barrier.

  9. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre


    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  10. Pin stack array for thermoacoustic energy conversion (United States)

    Keolian, Robert M.; Swift, Gregory W.


    A thermoacoustic stack for connecting two heat exchangers in a thermoacoustic energy converter provides a convex fluid-solid interface in a plane perpendicular to an axis for acoustic oscillation of fluid between the two heat exchangers. The convex surfaces increase the ratio of the fluid volume in the effective thermoacoustic volume that is displaced from the convex surface to the fluid volume that is adjacent the surface within which viscous energy losses occur. Increasing the volume ratio results in an increase in the ratio of transferred thermal energy to viscous energy losses, with a concomitant increase in operating efficiency of the thermoacoustic converter. The convex surfaces may be easily provided by a pin array having elements arranged parallel to the direction of acoustic oscillations and with effective radial dimensions much smaller than the thicknesses of the viscous energy loss and thermoacoustic energy transfer volumes.

  11. Progressive inhibition of neuromuscular structures (PINS) technique. (United States)

    Dowling, D J


    Progressive inhibition of neuromuscular structures (PINS) is a technique that can be included in the osteopathic manipulative treatment repertoire. It relies on knowledge of anatomy and neuromuscular physiologic features as well as on standard forms of osteopathic palpatory diagnosis and treatment. It is a variant of the inhibition technique that has been taught as an osteopathic manipulative technique for many years, and it bears some resemblance to other manual medicine techniques. The emphasis of the approach is the determination of the alteration of the tissues due to dysfunction, delivering treatment based on palpatory evaluation and patient feedback. Two related points are initially chosen, followed by a progression from one to the other. Relationships to similar techniques are also discussed. Theoretical as well as selected practical applications are presented.

  12. Cracking Bank PINs by Playing Mastermind (United States)

    Focardi, Riccardo; Luccio, Flaminia L.

    The bank director was pretty upset noticing Joe, the system administrator, spending his spare time playing Mastermind, an old useless game of the 70ies. He had fought the instinct of telling him how to better spend his life, just limiting to look at him in disgust long enough to be certain to be noticed. No wonder when the next day the director fell on his chair astonished while reading, on the newspaper, about a huge digital fraud on the ATMs of his bank, with millions of Euros stolen by a team of hackers all around the world. The article mentioned how the hackers had 'played with the bank computers just like playing Mastermind', being able to disclose thousands of user PINs during the one-hour lunch break. That precise moment, a second before falling senseless, he understood the subtle smile on Joe's face the day before, while training at his preferred game, Mastermind.

  13. Organic p-i-n solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maennig, B.; Drechsel, J.; Gebeyehu, D.; Kozlowski, F.; Werner, A.; Li, F.; Grundmann, S.; Sonntag, S.; Koch, M.; Leo, K.; Pfeiffer, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062, Dresden (Germany); Simon, P. [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden, 01187, Dresden (Germany); Hoppe, H.; Meissner, D.; Sariciftci, N.S. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS), Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University, 4040, Linz (Austria); Riedel, I.; Dyakonov, V.; Parisi, J. [Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Institute of Physics, University of Oldenburg, 26111, Oldenburg (Germany)


    We introduce a p-i-n-type heterojunction architecture for organic solar cells where the active region is sandwiched between two doped wide-gap layers. The term p-i-n means here a layer sequence in the form p-doped layer, intrinsic layer and n-doped layer. The doping is realized by controlled co-evaporation using organic dopants and leads to conductivities of 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -5} S/cm in the p- and n-doped wide-gap layers, respectively. The photoactive layer is formed by a mixture of phthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc) and the fullerene C{sub 60} and shows mainly amorphous morphology. As a first step towards p-i-n structures, we show the advantage of using wide-gap layers in M-i-p-type diodes (metal layer-intrinsic layer-p-doped layer). The solar cells exhibit a maximum external quantum efficiency of 40% between 630-nm and 700-nm wavelength. With the help of an optical multilayer model, we optimize the optical properties of the solar cells by placing the active region at the maximum of the optical field distribution. The results of the model are largely confirmed by the experimental findings. For an optically optimized device, we find an internal quantum efficiency of around 82% under short-circuit conditions. Adding a layer of 10-nm thickness of the red material N,N'-dimethylperylene-3,4:9,10-dicarboximide (Me-PTCDI) to the active region, a power-conversion efficiency of 1.9% for a single cell is obtained. Such optically thin cells with high internal quantum efficiency are an important step towards high-efficiency tandem cells. First tandem cells which are not yet optimized already show 2.4% power-conversion efficiency under simulated AM 1.5 illumination of 125 mW/cm{sup 2}. (orig.)

  14. Liquid Drop Pinning on Micro-patterned Surfaces (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed; Kalinin, Yevgeniy; Baur, Robin; Thorne, Robert


    Pinning of liquid drops on surfaces is important in many areas of biotechnology. Micro-patterned surfaces provide a way to control drop pinning, and to investigate the mechanisms of pinning on real (rough) surfaces. Continuous circular rings on silicon wafers produced by etching the interior and surrounding silicon are shown to dramatically increase contact line pinning. The critical apparent contact angles and liquid drop volumes are measured and correlated with parameters that describe the ring geometry, such as ring-wall height and width, as well as with ring surface energy (hydrophilicity / hydrophobicity). Micro-patterning of surfaces in this way can be used to improve drop pinning, shape reproducibility and imaging in high-throughput protein crystallization.

  15. PIN-Dependent Auxin Transport: Action, Regulation, and Evolution (United States)

    Adamowski, Maciek; Friml, Jiří


    Auxin participates in a multitude of developmental processes, as well as responses to environmental cues. Compared with other plant hormones, auxin exhibits a unique property, as it undergoes directional, cell-to-cell transport facilitated by plasma membrane-localized transport proteins. Among them, a prominent role has been ascribed to the PIN family of auxin efflux facilitators. PIN proteins direct polar auxin transport on account of their asymmetric subcellular localizations. In this review, we provide an overview of the multiple developmental roles of PIN proteins, including the atypical endoplasmic reticulum-localized members of the family, and look at the family from an evolutionary perspective. Next, we cover the cell biological and molecular aspects of PIN function, in particular the establishment of their polar subcellular localization. Hormonal and environmental inputs into the regulation of PIN action are summarized as well. PMID:25604445


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  17. Retractable Pin Tools for the Friction Stir Welding Process (United States)


    Two companies have successfully commercialized a specialized welding tool developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Friction stir welding uses the high rotational speed of a tool and the resulting frictional heat created from contact to crush, 'stir' together, and forge a bond between two metal alloys. It has had a major drawback, reliance on a single-piece pin tool. The pin is slowly plunged into the joint between two materials to be welded and rotated as high speed. At the end of the weld, the single-piece pin tool is retracted and leaves a 'keyhole,' something which is unacceptable when welding cylindrical objects such as drums, pipes and storage tanks. Another drawback is the requirement for different-length pin tools when welding materials of varying thickness. An engineer at the MSFC helped design an automatic retractable pin tool that uses a computer-controlled motor to automatically retract the pin into the shoulder of the tool at the end of the weld, preventing keyholes. This design allows the pin angle and length to be adjusted for changes in material thickness and results in a smooth hole closure at the end of the weld. Benefits of friction stir welding, using the MSFC retractable pin tool technology, include the following: The ability to weld a wide range of alloys, including previously unweldable and composite materials; provision of twice the fatigue resistance of fusion welds and no keyholes; minimization of material distortion; no creation of hazards such as welding fumes, radiation, high voltage, liquid metals, or arcing; automatic retraction of the pin at the end of the weld; and maintaining full penetration of the pin.

  18. Development of a prototype pin-by-pin fine mesh calculation code for BWR core analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Akio; Yamane, Yoshihiro [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Kosaka, Shinya; Hirano, Gou [TEPCO SYSTEMS CORPORATION, Tokyo (Japan)


    A prototype core analysis code for BWR, SUBARU, which is based on the three-dimensional pin-by-pin fine-mesh calculation, is being developed. The SUBARU code has several features, e.g., incorporation of the SP3 transport theory, capability to treat the staggered meshes, and so on. In this paper, to estimate the prediction accuracy of this core analysis code, a hypothetical 2D ABWR core which is consisted by 8x8 low-enrichment UO{sub 2} fuel assembly, 9x9 high-enrichment UO{sub 2} fuel assembly, and 10x10 MOX fuel assembly is analyzed. To investigate the prediction accuracy, we compared the pin-wise fission rate distribution which was obtained by the cell-heterogeneous transport calculation by MOC. To evaluate the computational costs, a hypothetical 3D ABWR core is also used. These results suggest that SUBARU would have enough accuracy and reasonable calculation costs for the reference BWR core analysis when further investigation is taken into account. (authors)

  19. Zener pinning by coherent particles: pinning efficiency and particle reorientation mechanisms (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Chao; Guan, Miao; Ren, Fuzeng; Wang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Shunhu; Zhao, Bingbing


    Zener pinning by coherent particles in copper-nickel model alloys has been studied using molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that 4 nm Ni particles were easily cut by migrating Cu grain boundaries during boundary passage, while 7-8 nm particles were harder to cut and coherency-to-incoherency change occurred for some boundaries. Due to low volume fraction and easy cutting, 4 nm particles had a limited pinning effect on grain boundary motion. The increase in volume fraction and the suppressed cutting for 7-8 nm particles caused the boundary motion to be significantly retarded. Different grain boundaries exhibited the distinct ability to move past the same size particle. Significantly, with the pinning effect of Ni particles, misorientation dependence of boundary migration velocity became obvious, which is consistent with the findings in practical materials. During or after passage, the Ni particles were found to change orientation to become coherent with grain growth via various atomistic mechanisms. The mechanisms were discussed with respect to particle size and boundary misorientation.

  20. Dynamic Assessment for Better Placement: Implications of Vygotsky’s ZAD and ZPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessam Agheshteh


    Full Text Available As argued by Poehner (2008, Dynamic Assessment (DA can substantially improve our understanding of students’ abilities and promote their development at the same time by providing information on both the individuals’ Zone of Actual Development (ZAD and their Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD, and this way helps us avoid overestimates and underestimates of these individuals’ abilities. The present study, as a result, was an attempt to investigate the role DA can play in students’ placement into appropriate levels and courses of education. For this end, the researchers observed and recorded the placement interviews of four placement teachers in the Iran Language Institute (ILI and Nashr-e-Zaban. The researchers analyzed the gathered data and found out that the placement teachers dealt more with the students’ ZAD than their ZPD. Adopting the Interactionist Model of DA, and believing that “understanding individuals’ abilities necessitates intervention” (Poehner, 2008, p. 113, the researchers discussed DA and its key concepts including ZPD, mediation, scaffolding, intervention, the assessment-instruction integration and the role these could play in a better prediction of the students’ future performance and emergent abilities. Having discussed DA and its key concepts using some examples from previous placement interviews in a six-hour course, the researchers observed and recorded the placement interviews of the four teachers in the following term. The gathered data were transcribed and interpreted to see if the intervention had an effect on placement teachers’ performance of placement interviews. The results showed that placement teachers then relied more on DA and its key concepts as better indicators of students’ future performance. The implications are for those teachers who hold placement interviews to adopt a more development-oriented approach and assess the students’ both ZAD and ZPD so that they can avoid misplacements

  1. A pinning puzzle: two similar, non-superconducting chemical deposits in YBCO-one pins, the other does not

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Weinstein, Roy; Gandini, Alberto; Skorpenske, Harley; Parks, Drew, E-mail: Weinstein@uh.ed [Beam Particle Dynamics Laboratories, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Texas Center for Superconductivity at UH, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5002 (United States)


    The pinning effects of two kinds of U-rich deposits in YBCO (YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}) are compared. One is a five-element compound, (U{sub 0.6}Pt{sub 0.4})YBa{sub 2}O{sub 6}, which is a paramagnetic double perovskite which forms as profuse stable nanosize deposits, and pins very well. The other is a four-element compound, (U{sub 0.4}Y{sub 0.6})BaO{sub 3}, which is a ferromagnetic single perovskite which forms as profuse stable nanosize deposits and pins very weakly or not at all. The pinning comparison is done with nearly equal deposit sizes and number of deposits per unit volume for the two compounds. Evidence for the pinning capability, chemical makeup, x-ray diffraction signature, and magnetic properties of the two compounds is reported.

  2. Stent Placement for Carotid Web. (United States)

    Martinez-Perez, Rafael; Lownie, Stephen P; Pandey, Sachin K; Boulton, Mel R


    The carotid web is an intraluminal shelf-like projection arising from the posterior wall of the carotid bifurcation and an uncommon etiology of ischemic strokes. We describe the feasibility of endovascular stent placement to treat this condition. A 47-year-old woman presented with a sudden occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery. Computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography showed a carotid web in the ipsilateral carotid bifurcation. Treatment included mechanical thrombectomy for the middle cerebral artery occlusion and carotid stent placement to prevent further ischemic episodes from the carotid web. At the 6-month follow-up, good apposition of the stent against the artery wall was noted, and the patient was free of neurologic symptoms. Carotid artery stent placement is a feasible option in the management of carotid webs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Variable Bone Density of Scaphoid: Importance of Subchondral Screw Placement. (United States)

    Swanstrom, Morgan M; Morse, Kyle W; Lipman, Joseph D; Hearns, Krystle A; Carlson, Michelle G


    Background  Ideal internal fixation of the scaphoid relies on adequate bone stock for screw purchase; so, knowledge of regional bone density of the scaphoid is crucial. Questions/Purpose  The purpose of this study was to evaluate regional variations in scaphoid bone density. Materials and Methods  Three-dimensional CT models of fractured scaphoids were created and sectioned into proximal/distal segments and then into quadrants (volar/dorsal/radial/ulnar). Concentric shells in the proximal and distal pole were constructed in 2-mm increments moving from exterior to interior. Bone density was measured in Hounsfield units (HU). Results  Bone density of the distal scaphoid (453.2 ± 70.8 HU) was less than the proximal scaphoid (619.8 ± 124.2 HU). There was no difference in bone density between the four quadrants in either pole. In both the poles, the first subchondral shell was the densest. In both the proximal and distal poles, bone density decreased significantly in all three deeper shells. Conclusion  The proximal scaphoid had a greater density than the distal scaphoid. Within the poles, there was no difference in bone density between the quadrants. The subchondral 2-mm shell had the greatest density. Bone density dropped off significantly between the first and second shell in both the proximal and distal scaphoids. Clinical Relevance  In scaphoid fracture ORIF, optimal screw placement engages the subchondral 2-mm shell, especially in the distal pole, which has an overall lower bone density, and the second shell has only two-third the density of the first shell.

  4. Pin-based electrochemical glucose sensor with multiplexing possibilities. (United States)

    Rama, Estefanía C; Costa-García, Agustín; Fernández-Abedul, M Teresa


    This work describes the use of mass-produced stainless-steel pins as low-cost electrodes to develop simple and portable amperometric glucose biosensors. A potentiostatic three-electrode configuration device is designed using two bare pins as reference and counter electrodes, and a carbon-ink coated pin as working electrode. Conventional transparency film without any pretreatment is used to punch the pins and contain the measurement solution. The interface to the potentiostat is very simple since it is based on a commercial female connection. This electrochemical system is applied to glucose determination using a bienzymatic sensor phase (glucose oxidase/horseradish peroxidase) with ferrocyanide as electron-transfer mediator, achieving a linear range from 0.05 to 1mM. It shows analytical characteristics comparable to glucose sensors previously reported using conventional electrodes, and its application for real food samples provides good results. The easy modification of the position of the pins allows designing different configurations with possibility of performing simultaneous measurements. This is demonstrated through a specific design that includes four pin working-electrodes. Different concentrations of antibody labeled with alkaline phosphatase are immobilized on the pin-heads and after enzymatic conversion of 3-indoxylphosphate and silver nitrate, metallic silver is determined by anodic stripping voltammetry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pin tract infection with external fixation of pediatric fractures. (United States)

    Schalamon, Johannes; Petnehazy, Thomas; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Zwick, Ernst B; Singer, Georg; Hoellwarth, Michael E


    This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and severity of pin tract infections in a series of pediatric trauma patients. All pediatric trauma patients with external fixation who were treated at our institution between 1998 and 2003 were included. The charts of 30 children (20 males; 10 females; mean age, 13.2 years; range, 7-19 years) with 37 episodes of external fixation were reviewed. The average duration of external fixation was 17.5 weeks (range, 1-94 weeks). Pin tract infections were graded using the Dahl classification. Bacterial cultures were obtained in case of drainage from the pin site. In 18 (48%) of 37 external fixations, no signs of infection occurred during the treatment period. In the remaining 19 (52%) external fixations, 35 episodes of infection were documented. Most infections were mild or moderate, whereas only 3 (9%) severe deep infections were noted (grade 5). Six (17%) infections healed with local application of rifamycin, whereas 27 (77%) of 35 infections were successfully treated with systemic antibiotics (cefuroxime, clindamycin). The remaining 2 infections (6%) required removal of a pin. Pin tract infection occurred in half of the patients who were treated with external fixations. Most of the pin site infections in the present series were mild and could be managed by local or systemic application of antibiotics. The occurrence of pin tract infections did not require a change of the method of stabilization.

  6. Loss of Pin1 Suppresses Hedgehog-Driven Medulloblastoma Tumorigenesis. (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Zhang, Honglai; Park, Sung-Soo; Venneti, Sriram; Kuick, Rork; Ha, Kimberly; Michael, Lowell Evan; Santi, Mariarita; Uchida, Chiyoko; Uchida, Takafumi; Srinivasan, Ashok; Olson, James M; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Rual, Jean-François


    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Therapeutic approaches to medulloblastoma (combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy) have led to significant improvements, but these are achieved at a high cost to quality of life. Alternative therapeutic approaches are needed. Genetic mutations leading to the activation of the Hedgehog pathway drive tumorigenesis in ~30% of medulloblastoma. In a yeast two-hybrid proteomic screen, we discovered a novel interaction between GLI1, a key transcription factor for the mediation of Hedgehog signals, and PIN1, a peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase that regulates the postphosphorylation fate of its targets. The GLI1/PIN1 interaction was validated by reciprocal pulldowns using epitope-tagged proteins in HEK293T cells as well as by co-immunoprecipiations of the endogenous proteins in a medulloblastoma cell line. Our results support a molecular model in which PIN1 promotes GLI1 protein abundance, thus contributing to the positive regulation of Hedgehog signals. Most importantly, in vivo functional analyses of Pin1 in the GFAP-tTA;TRE-SmoA1 mouse model of Hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma demonstrate that the loss of Pin1 impairs tumor development and dramatically increases survival. In summary, the discovery of the GLI1/PIN1 interaction uncovers PIN1 as a novel therapeutic target in Hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Turbulent flow over a pin fin array: Parametric study (United States)

    Cruz Perez, Benjamin

    Modern jet engines reach very high combustion temperatures to achieve higher thermal efficiencies which can damage the turbine blades. Damage can occur in the turbine blade due to the temperature difference between the interior and the exterior causing material creep and thermal fatigue. To avoid damage efficient cooling systems have been proposed such as film cooling, internal channels, and pin fins. This research focus on pin fins, which are small protruding cylinders at the trailing edge of the turbine blade, specifically the purpose of this work is to find the optimum layout of pin fins such that it enhances the heat transfer process with a minimum pressure drop. To find this optimum pin configuration experiments and numerical simulations have been performed. Experiments consisted on determine the friction factor for pin fins arrays ranging from one row to ten rows at equally spaced intervals and various Reynolds number (Re). Experiments demonstrated that for arrays with more than 6 rows of pin fins the friction factor follows a decreasing trend as the Re increases and the pressure drop due to the array to the total pressure drop ratio is about 90%. The numerical method used for the Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) is the same presented by [1]. DNS consisted on changing the spacing between the pin fins and the Re. For a fixed spanwise distance the streamwise distance was varied and for a fixed streamwise distance the spanwise distance was varied for a constant Re. Finally, for a fixed spacing the Re was varied. The numerical results shows that the heat transfer trends to increase as the spacing between the pin fins becomes smaller, and the friction factor decreases as the spacing becomes larger. For a fixed pin configuration the heat transfer and the friction factor increases with decreasing Re.

  8. Use of cranial fixation pins in pediatric neurosurgery. (United States)

    Berry, Cherisse; Sandberg, David I; Hoh, Daniel J; Krieger, Mark D; McComb, J Gordon


    Cranial fixation using pins during neurosurgical procedures is commonplace; however, parameters for the application of these devices in pediatric patients are not well defined. Variability in the thickness of the developing cranium necessitates age-specific considerations to reduce the risk of adverse events. To suggest possible guidelines for the use of cranial fixation pins in children, we surveyed neurosurgeons treating pediatric patients regarding their experience with such devices. An Institutional Review Board-approved, 30-item multiple choice survey was provided by electronic mail to 605 neurosurgeons treating pediatric patients. The survey included specific questions regarding their experience with cranial fixation pins with respect to age ranges of patients, selection of pin size, type of pin pressure applied, and complications encountered. One hundred sixty-four (27%) responses were received. One hundred fifty-eight of the 164 (96%) neurosurgeons reported using cranial fixation pins in their pediatric practice. Forty-four of the 164 (27%) apply fixation pins in patients aged 1 to 2 years. Eighty-two (50%) apply pins in patients aged 2 to 3 years, and 89 (54%) apply pins in patients aged 3 to 4 years. For patients aged 2 to 5 years old, the majority of responders use between 10 and 40 pounds of pressure, whereas for those older than 5 years of age, most use between 30 and 40 pounds of pressure. After age 10, patients are treated as adults. Eighty-nine of the 164 (54%) responders reported complications directly related to the use of cranial fixation pins, including cranial fracture, epidural or subdural hematoma, scalp laceration, or cerebrospinal fluid leak. One hundred fifty-four of the 164 (94%) neurosurgeons responded that they are not aware of any standard guidelines for cranial fixation pin use in pediatric patients. Seven (4%) who stated that they were aware of guidelines did not describe where they obtained those guidelines. Cranial fixation pins

  9. Free precession of neutron stars: Role of possible vortex pinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaham, J.


    Vortex pinning affects neutron stellar free precession by modifying its frequency and geometry, in a gyroscopic effect. For neutron stars with low oblateness, the free precession frequency is given by p/=psi..cap omega.., where psi is the ratio of moments of inertia of the pinned superfluid to the rigid component of the rest of the star, and ..cap omega.. is half the superfluid vorticity. This poses a severe difficulty on any interpretation of the 35/sup d/ cycle in Her X-1 in terms of neutron stellar wobble, if vortex pinning exists.

  10. A reciprocating pin-on-plate test-rig for studying friction materials for holding brakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Drago, Nicola; Klit, Peder


    This paper refers to testing of friction materials for holding brakes. In contrast to the more typical case of high energy brakes, holding brakes operate usually in a reciprocating sense, at very low sliding speeds and allow significantly higher clamping pressures. The design of a reciprocating p...... different friction materials running against an unhardened steel surface are presented as a usage case. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.......This paper refers to testing of friction materials for holding brakes. In contrast to the more typical case of high energy brakes, holding brakes operate usually in a reciprocating sense, at very low sliding speeds and allow significantly higher clamping pressures. The design of a reciprocating pin......-on-plate test-rig for studying the evolution of wear by monitoring the pin height reduction using Eddy-current proximity sensors is presented. Moreover, a new mechanism for recording the friction force is suggested. Apart from the design of the test-rig, friction force and wear rate measurements for two...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Mikołajczyk


    Full Text Available Product placement can have a significant impact on brand awareness and customer purchasing decisions. The article discusses techniques applied in the mass media against the EU legal background and the opportunities it offers in reaching the target audience.

  12. Superconducting vortex pinning with artificial magnetic nanostructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez, M.; Martin, J. I.; Villegas, J. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Gonzalez, E. M.; Vicent, J. L.; Schuller, I. K.; Univ. de Oviedo-CINN; Unite Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales; Univ. Paris-Sud; Univ.Complutense de Madrid; Univ. California at San Diego


    This review is dedicated to summarizing the recent research on vortex dynamics and pinning effects in superconducting films with artificial magnetic structures. The fabrication of hybrid superconducting/magnetic systems is presented together with the wide variety of properties that arise from the interaction between the superconducting vortex lattice and the artificial magnetic nanostructures. Specifically, we review the role that the most important parameters in the vortex dynamics of films with regular array of dots play. In particular, we discuss the phenomena that appear when the symmetry of a regular dot array is distorted from regularity towards complete disorder including rectangular, asymmetric, and aperiodic arrays. The interesting phenomena that appear include vortex-lattice reconfigurations, anisotropic dynamics, channeling, and guided motion as well as ratchet effects. The different regimes are summarized in a phase diagram indicating the transitions that take place as the characteristic distances of the array are modified respect to the superconducting coherence length. Future directions are sketched out indicating the vast open area of research in this field.

  13. Equilibrium ultrastable glasses produced by random pinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocky, Glen M.; Reichman, David R. [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, 3000 Broadway, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Berthier, Ludovic [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, UMR 5221, CNRS and Université Montpellier 2, Montpellier (France)


    Ultrastable glasses have risen to prominence due to their potentially useful material properties and the tantalizing possibility of a general method of preparation via vapor deposition. Despite the importance of this novel class of amorphous materials, numerical studies have been scarce because achieving ultrastability in atomistic simulations is an enormous challenge. Here, we bypass this difficulty and establish that randomly pinning the position of a small fraction of particles inside an equilibrated supercooled liquid generates ultrastable configurations at essentially no numerical cost, while avoiding undesired structural changes due to the preparation protocol. Building on the analogy with vapor-deposited ultrastable glasses, we study the melting kinetics of these configurations following a sudden temperature jump into the liquid phase. In homogeneous geometries, we find that enhanced kinetic stability is accompanied by large scale dynamic heterogeneity, while a competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous melting is observed when a liquid boundary invades the glass at constant velocity. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale, atomistically resolved, and experimentally relevant simulations of the kinetics of ultrastable glasses.

  14. The effect of intramedullary pin size and plate working length on plate strain in locking compression plate-rod constructs under axial load. (United States)

    Pearson, Tim; Glyde, Mark R; Day, Robert E; Hosgood, Giselle L


    To investigate the effect of intramedullary pin size and plate working length on plate strain in locking compression plate-rod constructs. A synthetic bone model with a 40 mm fracture gap was used. Locking compression plates with monocortical locking screws were tested with no pin (LCP-Mono) and intramedullary pins of 20% (LCPR-20), 30% (LCPR-30) and 40% (LCPR-40) of intramedullary diameter. Two screws per fragment modelled a long (8-hole) and short (4-hole) plate working length. Strain responses to axial compression were recorded at six regions of the plate via three-dimensional digital image correlation. The addition of a pin of any size provided a significant decrease in plate strain. For the long working length, LCPR-30 and LCPR-40 had significantly lower strain than the LCPR-20, and plate strain was significantly higher adjacent to the screw closest to the fracture site. For the short working length, there was no significant difference in strain across any LCPR constructs or at any region of the plate. Plate strain was significantly lower for the short working length compared to the long working length for the LCP-Mono and LCPR-20 constructs, but not for the LCPR-30 and LCPR-40 constructs. The increase in plate strain encountered with a long working length can be overcome by the use of a pin of 30-40% intramedullary diameter. Where placement of a large diameter pin is not possible, screws should be placed as close to the fracture gap as possible to minimize plate strain and distribute it more evenly over the plate.

  15. Product Placement in James Bond Movies


    Habětín, Matěj


    The topic of this bachelor thesis is product placement in James Bond movies. My goal was to explore the issue of product placement on cases of selected movies and its impact on the audience (especially on the Czech audience). I divided my bachelor thesis into six chapters. The first three are mostly theoretical. Here I focus mainly on marketing communications mix and its forms, then on product placement in movies in general. In the remaining three chapters, I occupied with product placement e...

  16. Magnetic vortices as localized mesoscopic domain wall pinning sites (United States)

    Novak, R. L.; Sampaio, L. C.


    We report on the controllable pinning of domain walls in a stripe with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by magnetostatic coupling to a magnetic vortex in disks located above the stripe. Pinning mechanisms and depinning fields, studied by means of micromagnetic simulations, are reported. An asymmetric magnetization reversal process is observed and explained in terms of two main contributions to the domain wall pinning: coupling between the in-plane and out-of-plane components of its stray field and the vortex. The in-plane coupling is symmetric with respect to the wall sense of motion while the out-of-plane coupling leads to the observed asymmetry in the hysteresis loops. The energy landscape of the domain wall derived from the micromagnetic simulations supports these findings. This novel pinning strategy, which can be realized by current nanofabrication techniques, opens up new possibilities for the non-destructive control of domain wall mobility in domain wall based spintronic devices.

  17. Critical currents in quasiperiodic pinning arrays: chains and Penrose lattices. (United States)

    Misko, Vyacheslav; Savel'ev, Sergey; Nori, Franco


    We study the critical depinning current Jc versus the applied magnetic flux Phi, for quasiperiodic (QP) chains and 2D arrays of pinning centers placed on the nodes of a fivefold Penrose lattice. In QP chains, the peaks in Jc(Phi) are determined by a sequence of harmonics of the long and short segments of the chain. The critical current Jc(Phi) has a remarkable self-similarity. In 2D QP pinning arrays, we predict analytically and numerically the main features of Jc(Phi), and demonstrate that the Penrose lattice of pinning sites provides an enormous enhancement of Jc(Phi), even compared to triangular and random pinning site arrays. This huge increase in Jc(Phi) could be useful for applications.

  18. PIN architecture for ultrasensitive organic thin film photoconductors. (United States)

    Jin, Zhiwen; Wang, Jizheng


    Organic thin film photoconductors (OTFPs) are expected to have wide applications in the field of optical communications, artificial vision and biomedical sensing due to their great advantages of high flexibility and low-cost large-area fabrication. However, their performances are not satisfactory at present: the value of responsivity (R), the parameter that measures the sensitivity of a photoconductor to light, is below 1 AW(-1). We believe such poor performance is resulted from an intrinsic self-limited effect of present bare blend based device structure. Here we designed a PIN architecture for OTFPs, the PIN device exhibits a significantly improved high R value of 96.5 AW(-1). The PIN architecture and the performance the PIN device shows here should represent an important step in the development of OTFPs.

  19. PIN architecture for ultrasensitive organic thin film photoconductors (United States)

    Jin, Zhiwen; Wang, Jizheng


    Organic thin film photoconductors (OTFPs) are expected to have wide applications in the field of optical communications, artificial vision and biomedical sensing due to their great advantages of high flexibility and low-cost large-area fabrication. However, their performances are not satisfactory at present: the value of responsivity (R), the parameter that measures the sensitivity of a photoconductor to light, is below 1 AW−1. We believe such poor performance is resulted from an intrinsic self-limited effect of present bare blend based device structure. Here we designed a PIN architecture for OTFPs, the PIN device exhibits a significantly improved high R value of 96.5 AW−1. The PIN architecture and the performance the PIN device shows here should represent an important step in the development of OTFPs. PMID:24936952

  20. Stroboscopic phenomena in superconductors with dynamic pinning landscape

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jelić, Ž L; Milošević, M V; Van de Vondel, J; Silhanek, A V


    Introducing artificial pinning centers is a well established strategy to trap quantum vortices and increase the maximal magnetic field and applied electric current that a superconductor can sustain without dissipation...

  1. Cytokinin response factors regulate PIN-FORMED auxin transporters. (United States)

    Šimášková, Mária; O'Brien, José Antonio; Khan, Mamoona; Van Noorden, Giel; Ötvös, Krisztina; Vieten, Anne; De Clercq, Inge; Van Haperen, Johanna Maria Adriana; Cuesta, Candela; Hoyerová, Klára; Vanneste, Steffen; Marhavý, Peter; Wabnik, Krzysztof; Van Breusegem, Frank; Nowack, Moritz; Murphy, Angus; Friml, Jiří; Weijers, Dolf; Beeckman, Tom; Benková, Eva


    Auxin and cytokinin are key endogenous regulators of plant development. Although cytokinin-mediated modulation of auxin distribution is a developmentally crucial hormonal interaction, its molecular basis is largely unknown. Here we show a direct regulatory link between cytokinin signalling and the auxin transport machinery uncovering a mechanistic framework for cytokinin-auxin cross-talk. We show that the CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTORS (CRFs), transcription factors downstream of cytokinin perception, transcriptionally control genes encoding PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters at a specific PIN CYTOKININ RESPONSE ELEMENT (PCRE) domain. Removal of this cis-regulatory element effectively uncouples PIN transcription from the CRF-mediated cytokinin regulation and attenuates plant cytokinin sensitivity. We propose that CRFs represent a missing cross-talk component that fine-tunes auxin transport capacity downstream of cytokinin signalling to control plant development.

  2. Fracture Analysis of 40Cr Steel Pin Roll (United States)

    Li, Yong; Jia, Youlu; Xie, Xianjiao


    Fracture of 40Cr steel pin roll happened along the cross-section at the spot of filling aperture. By the use of analysis of optical microscopy and microhardness, it can be known that filling aperture and its nitration case (ε phase) and large amounts of non-metal inclusions (bulk obscure inclusions) in steel were the main reasons which led to the facture of 40Cr steel pin roll.

  3. AtPIN: Arabidopsis thaliana Protein Interaction Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Filho Marcio C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions (PPIs constitute one of the most crucial conditions to sustain life in living organisms. To study PPI in Arabidopsis thaliana we have developed AtPIN, a database and web interface for searching and building interaction networks based on publicly available protein-protein interaction datasets. Description All interactions were divided into experimentally demonstrated or predicted. The PPIs in the AtPIN database present a cellular compartment classification (C3 which divides the PPI into 4 classes according to its interaction evidence and subcellular localization. It has been shown in the literature that a pair of genuine interacting proteins are generally expected to have a common cellular role and proteins that have common interaction partners have a high chance of sharing a common function. In AtPIN, due to its integrative profile, the reliability index for a reported PPI can be postulated in terms of the proportion of interaction partners that two proteins have in common. For this, we implement the Functional Similarity Weight (FSW calculation for all first level interactions present in AtPIN database. In order to identify target proteins of cytosolic glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (Cyt-gluRS (AT5G26710 we combined two approaches, AtPIN search and yeast two-hybrid screening. Interestingly, the proteins glutamine synthetase (AT5G35630, a disease resistance protein (AT3G50950 and a zinc finger protein (AT5G24930, which has been predicted as target proteins for Cyt-gluRS by AtPIN, were also detected in the experimental screening. Conclusions AtPIN is a friendly and easy-to-use tool that aggregates information on Arabidopsis thaliana PPIs, ontology, and sub-cellular localization, and might be a useful and reliable strategy to map protein-protein interactions in Arabidopsis. AtPIN can be accessed at

  4. Pin Worm Survey on Infant School Children in Gunma Prefecture


    佐藤, 久美子; 阿部, 美幸; 伊藤, 恵美; 金田, 聡子; 関口, 直美; 深町, 容子; 松渕, ユカ子; 柳, 博美; 鈴木, 守


    Pin worms (Enterobius vermicularis) are the commonest intestinal parasite in Japan. Examination of this worm infection is usually made by microscopic observation on the swab taken on a scothch tape. We conducted a survey of pin worm infection among infant school children of 4-6 years old. Suitable days for swab examination were studied by comparing the detection rate according to the consecutive days tested. Results were summarized as follows: 1. Three hundred sixteen children (172 boys and 1...

  5. A Cognitive Model of College Mathematics Placement (United States)


    study focused on the precalculus -- calculus placement decision. The Cognitive model uses novel, or analysis level, placement test items in an attempt to...relative to the requirements of a precalculus course. Placement test scores may be partitioned to give analysis and non-analysis subtest scores which can...67 5.1.1 1989 Intercorrelations ....................................................................... 67 5.1.2 1989 Precalculus -Calculus

  6. Mathematics Placement at the University of Illinois (United States)

    Ahlgren Reddy, Alison; Harper, Marc


    Data from the ALEKS-based placement program at the University of Illinois is presented visually in several ways. The placement exam (an ALEKS assessment) contains precise item-specific information and the data show many interesting properties of the student populations of the placement courses, which include Precalculus, Calculus, and Business…

  7. Product placement in movies - James Bond


    Kalová, Simona


    Product placement as a means of marketing communication is getting very important. The thesis defines product placement, deals with its history and explains some of its forms. It focuses mainly on its occurrance in movies, especially in the series concerning British secret agent James Bond. The research part focuses on the consumer`s opinion on product placement.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Sivakumar K


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Techniques for treating complex proximal humeral fractures vary and include fixations using tension bands, percutaneous pins, bone suture, T-plates, intramedullary nails, double tubular plates, hemiarthroplasty, plant tan humerus fixator plates, Polaris nails and blade plates. Complications of these techniques include cutout or back out of the screws and plates, avascular necrosis, nonunion, malunion, nail migration, rotator cuff impairment and impingement syndromes. Insufficient anchorage from conventional implants may lead to early loosening and failure, especially in osteoporotic bones. In general, nonoperative treatment of displaced three and four-part fractures of the proximal humerus leads to poor outcome due to intraarticular nature of injury and inherent instability of the fragments. Comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus are at risk of fixation failure, screw loosening and fracture displacement. Open reduction and internal fixation with conventional plate and screws has been associated with unacceptably high incidence of screw pull out. PHILOS (the proximal humeral internal locking system plate is an internal fixation system that enables angled stabilisation with multiple interlocking screws for fractures of the proximal humerus. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 patients with proximal humerus fractures who were admitted in the Department of Orthopaedics, Government General Hospital, Kakinada, during the period November 2014 - November 2016 were taken up for study according to inclusion criteria. All patients were treated with PHILOS plate. These proximal humerus fractures were classified according to Neer’s classification. Patients were followed up at 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months’ interval. Functional outcomes for pain, range of motion and muscle power and function were assessed using the Constant-Murley scoring system. Collected data analysed with independent t-test and ANNOVA test. RESULTS The outcome of the study was 1

  9. Dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide is a novel inhibitor of Pin1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatara, Yota; Lin, Yi-Chin; Bamba, Yoshimasa; Mori, Tadashi [Molecular Enzymology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Amamiya, Tsutsumidori, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 981-8555 (Japan); Uchida, Takafumi, E-mail: [Molecular Enzymology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Amamiya, Tsutsumidori, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 981-8555 (Japan)


    Pin1 is involved in eukaryotic cell proliferation by changing the structure and function of phosphorylated proteins. PiB, the Pin1 specific inhibitor, blocks cancer cell proliferation. However, low solubility of PiB in DMSO has limited studies of its effectiveness. We screened for additional Pin1 inhibitors and identified the DMSO-soluble compound dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide (DTM) that inhibits Pin1 activity with an EC50 value of 4.1 {mu}M. Molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that DTM competitively inhibits Pin1 activity, with a K{sub i} value of 0.05 {mu}M. The K{sub D} value of DTM with Pin1 was determined to be 0.06 {mu}M by SPR technology. Moreover, DTM specifically inhibited peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity in HeLa cells. FACS analysis showed that DTM induced G0 arrest of the HCT116 cells. Our results suggest that DTM has the potential to guide the development of novel antifungal and/or anticancer drugs.

  10. Mechanisms of Soldering Formation on Coated Core Pins (United States)

    Song, Jie; Denouden, Tony; Han, Qingyou


    Die soldering is one of the major casting defects during the high-pressure die casting (HPDC) process, causing dimensional inaccuracy of the castings and increased downtimes of the HPDC machine. In this study, we analyzed actually failed core pins to determine the mechanism of soldering and its procedures. The results show that the soldering process starts from a local coating failure, involves a series of intermetallic phase formation from reactions between molten aluminum alloys and the H13 steel pin, and accelerates when an aluminum-rich, face-centered cubic (fcc) phase is formed between the intermetallic phases. It is the formation of the aluminum-rich fcc phase in the reaction region that joins the core pin with the casting, resulting in the sticking of the casting to the core pin. When undercuts are formed on the core pin, the ejection of castings from the die will lead to either a core pin failure or damages to the casting being ejected.

  11. Pinned vorticity in rotating superfluids, with application to neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pines, D.; Shaham, J. (Illinois Univ., Urbana (USA). Dept. of Physics); Alpar, M.A.; Anderson, P.W.


    The dynamic consequences of the existence of pinned vorticity in a rotating superfluid are studied by means of a simple model: the behavior of a rotating cylinder which contains a uniform region of either weakly or strongly pinned vorticity and which is being spun up or spun down by an external torque. It is shown that in the case of strong pinning, spin down can lead to periodic jumps (glitches) in the rotation frequency of the cylinder, followed by quasi-oscillatory relaxation, while in the case of weak pinning no glitches occur unless the cylinder is shaken so violently that vortices unpin. We conclude that the giant glitches and post-glitch behavior observed in the Vela pulsar may be explained by the sudden release of some 10% of the strongly pinned vortices in the neutron crust every few years as a result of pulsar spin down. We further suggest that the post-glitch behavior observed in the Crab pulsar can be explained if the macroglitches represent vorticity jumps induced by small starquakes in the weakly pinned vortex region expected in the crust of a young neutron star, and that the differences in ''glitch'' behavior of the Crab, Vela, and older pulsars may be explained on evolutionary grounds.

  12. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig


    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  13. A survey of Populus PIN-FORMED family genes reveals their diversified expression patterns. (United States)

    Liu, Bobin; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Lin; Li, Jianbo; Zheng, Huanquan; Chen, Jun; Lu, Mengzhu


    The plant hormone auxin is a key regulator of plant development, and its uneven distribution maintained by polar intercellular auxin transport in plant tissues can trigger a wide range of developmental processes. Although the roles of PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins in intercellular auxin flow have been extensively characterized in Arabidopsis, their roles in woody plants remain unclear. Here, a comprehensive analysis of PIN proteins in Populus is presented. Fifteen PINs are encoded in the genome of Populus, including four PIN1s, one PIN2, two PIN3s, three PIN5s, three PIN6s, and two PIN8s. Similar to Arabidopsis AtPIN proteins, PtPINs share conserved topology and transmembrane domains, and are either plasma membrane- or endoplasmic reticulum-localized. The more diversified expansion of the PIN family in Populus, comparing to that in Arabidopsis, indicates that some auxin-regulated developmental processes, such as secondary growth, may exhibit unique features in trees. More importantly, different sets of PtoPINs have been found to be strongly expressed in the roots, leaves, and cambium in Populus; the dynamic expression patterns of selected PtoPINs were further examined during the regeneration of shoots and roots. This genome-wide analysis of the Populus PIN family provides important cues for their potential roles in tree growth and development. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  14. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt


    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  15. Antimicrobial efficacy of external fixator pins coated with a lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine complex to prevent pin tract infection in a goat model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dejong, E. Schuyler; Deberardino, T. M.; Brooks, D. E.; Nelson, B. J.; Campbell, Allison A.; Bottoni, Craig R.; Pusateri, A. E.; Walton, R. S.; Guymon, C. H.; Mcmanus, Albert T.


    Background: Pin tract infection is a common complication of external fixation. An antiinfective external fixator pin might help to reduce the incidence of pin tract infection and improve pin fixation. Methods: Stainless steel and titanium external fixator pins, with and without a lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine coating, were evaluated in a goat model. Two pins contaminated with an identifiable Staphylococcus aureus strain were inserted into each tibia of 12 goats. The pin sites were examined daily. On day 14, the animals were killed, and the pin tips cultured. Insertion and extraction torques were measured. Results: Infection developed in 100% of uncoated pins, whereas coated pins demonstrated 4.2% infected, 12.5% colonized, and the remainder, 83.3%, had no growth (p < 0.01). Pin coating decreased the percent loss of fixation torque over uncoated pins (p = 0.04). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine coating was successful in decreasing infection and improving fixation of external fixator pins.

  16. Repeat biopsy in patients with initial diagnosis of PIN; La biopsia ripetuta nei pazienti con diagnosi iniziale di PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Matteis, Massimo [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Radiologia Albertoni; Poggi, Cristina; De Martino, Antonietta; Pavlica, Pietro [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Radiologia Palagi, Dipartimento area radiologica; Corti, Barbara [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Anatomia ed istologia patologica, Dipartimento oncologico ed ematologico; Barozzi, Libero [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Radiologia d' urgenza, Dipartimento emergenze ed accettazione


    Purpose. Prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN) is considered a pre-malignant lesion and the main precursor of invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma. A PIN diagnosis established by prostate needle biopsy poses a difficult clinical management. problem. We retrospectively reviewed our three-year experience in order to identify criteria for referring patients to repeat biopsy. Materials and methods. We reviewed the repeat biopsy records of 72 patients in whom PIN had been detected on initial US-guided needle biopsy of the prostate. All the patients had a minimum of 6 biopsy cores taken, and they all had PSA > 4 ng/ml. Results. Adenocarcinoma was detected in 15 patients out of 50 (30%) with an initial diagnosis of low-grade PIN and in 10 patients out of 22 (45.4%) with high grade PIN, in 7 out of 18 (39%) in whom PSA levels had decreased during the observation interval, in 16 patients out of 46 (35%) in whom the PSA had increased and in 2 patients out of 8 (25%) with stable PSA. Conclusions. Our results seem to confirm that PIN can be considered a precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma or a histological alteration often associated with it. Patients with low-grade PIN and particularly those with high-grade PIN should be regularly subjected to repeat biopsy at short intervals due to the high frequency of the final diagnosis of carcinoma. No agreement has been reached on the time interval between the first and the second biopsy. The PSA changes during the observation period are not a statistically significant parameter to suggest the repetition of prostatic biopsy. [Italian] Scopo. La neoplasia prostatica intraepiteliale (PIN) e considerata una lesione premaligna ed il precursore principale dell'adenocarcinoma prostatico infiltrante. La diagnosi di PIN ottenuta con l'agobiopsia della prostata rappresenta un difficile problema gestionale clinico. In una valutazione retrospettiva della nostra esperienza di 3 anni si e cercato di individuare i criteri che possano

  17. Interplay between collective pinning and artificial defects on domain wall propagation in Co/Pt multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G; Hierro-Rodriguez, A; Perez-Junquera, A; Montenegro, N; Alameda, J M; Velez, M [Dept. Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Menendez, J L [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN). Principado de Asturias-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC)-Univ. Oviedo -UO, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Ravelosona, D, E-mail: mvelez@uniovi.e [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, Univ. Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)


    The interplay between collective pinning on intrinsic structural defects and artificial pinning at a patterned hole is studied in magnetic multilayers with perpendicular anisotropy. The pinning strength of a patterned hole is measured through its efficiency to stop domain wall (DW) propagation into a consecutive unpatterned nanowire section (using antisymmetric magnetoresistance to detect the direction of DW propagation) whereas collective pinning is characterized by the field dependence of DW velocity. Close to room temperature, collective pinning becomes weaker than artificial pinning so that pinning at the hole compensates nucleation-pad geometry, blocking DW propagation across the nanowire.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The availability of in office Cone Beam CT (CBCT scanners, dental implant planning software, CAD CAM milling, and rapid printing technologies allow for the precise placement of dental implants and immediate prosthetic temporization. These technologies allow for flapless implant placement, or open flap bone reduction for “All on 4” techniques with improved preoperative planning and intraoperative performance. CBCT permits practitioners in an office setting with powerful diagnostic capabilities for the evaluation of bone quality and quantity, as well as dental and osseous pathology essential for better informed dental implant treatment. CBCT provides the convenience of in office imaging and decreased radiation exposure. Rapid printing technologies provide decreased time and high accuracy for bone model and surgical guide fabrication.

  19. Asymptomatic Migration of a Kirschner Wire from the Proximal Aspect of the Humerus to the Thoracic Cavity: A Case Report. (United States)

    Pientka, William F; Bates, Christopher M; Webb, Brian G


    A 78-year-old man presented with an open fracture of the proximal aspect of the humerus and an axillary artery laceration; the fracture was treated provisionally with Kirschner wires (K-wires). Forty-five days postoperatively, he presented with pin prominence at the lateral aspect of the arm, and was incidentally noted to have migration of a separate K-wire to the left lung. He underwent successful thoracotomy and lung wedge resection for wire removal. K-wires used in the fixation of fractures of the proximal aspect of the humerus may migrate into the thoracic cavity. No modification of this technique, including the use of threaded, terminally bent, or external pins that are visibly secured, eliminates the potential for devastating complications.

  20. Role of the Arabidopsis PIN6 Auxin Transporter in Auxin Homeostasis and Auxin-Mediated Development


    Cazzonelli, Christopher I.; Marleen Vanstraelen; Sibu Simon; Kuide Yin; Ashley Carron-Arthur; Nazia Nisar; Gauri Tarle; Cuttriss, Abby J.; Searle, Iain R.; Eva Benkova; Ulrike Mathesius; Josette Masle; Jiří Friml; Pogson, Barry J.


    Plant-specific PIN-formed (PIN) efflux transporters for the plant hormone auxin are required for tissue-specific directional auxin transport and cellular auxin homeostasis. The Arabidopsis PIN protein family has been shown to play important roles in developmental processes such as embryogenesis, organogenesis, vascular tissue differentiation, root meristem patterning and tropic growth. Here we analyzed roles of the less characterised Arabidopsis PIN6 auxin transporter. PIN6 is auxin-inducible...

  1. Examination of gavage tube placement in children. (United States)

    Ellett, M L; Beckstrand, J


    A primary issue in ensuring safe and effective enteral feeding by tube is achieving and maintaining correct tube position. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of tube placement errors, risk factors associated with these errors, and accuracy of commonly used bedside placement-screening methods. In this descriptive study, 39 hospitalized children having one or more types of enteral tubes were studied prospectively. Tube placement was assessed across time, using three common placement-screening methods compared to radiographs. Tube placement error occurred in 43.5% of tubes at least once during the observation period. Children who were comatose or semicomatose, were inactive, had swallowing problems, or had Argyle tubes were more likely to have tube placement errors. Findings suggest that radiographs to document tube placement may be needed, at least on initial enteral tube insertion.

  2. Proximity of Lateral Critical Structures to the All-Epiphyseal Outside-In Femoral Tunnels in Pediatric Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. (United States)

    Lane, Mark K; Mutch, Jennifer; Ratkowiak, Kaitlyn; Lemos, Stephen E; Kalra, Kunal


    To describe the proximity of the lateral critical structures (peroneal nerve [PN], popliteus tendon [PT], lateral collateral ligament [LCL], and articular cartilage [AC]) to the femoral tunnel for outside-in all-epiphyseal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in reference to knee flexion angle. All-epiphyseal ACL reconstructions were performed in 12 human cadaveric knees using arthroscopy and outside-in drilling for anatomic femoral tunnel placement that was ensured by identifying the center of the total ACL footprint. Fluoroscopy was used to confirm tunnel position and reconstructions were performed with quadrupled semitendinosus and gracilis autograft with Xtendobutton (Smith & Nephew, Andover, MA) fixation on the femoral side. After reconstruction, the lateral side of the knee was dissected and the LCL, PT, distal and posterior AC, and the PN were identified. The distances of these structures from the center of the exiting femoral tunnel were then measured using a digital caliper at 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of knee flexion. Any gross damage to these structures caused by the femoral drilling was also noted. Data were compiled and the mean and standard deviations (SD) of the distances from the pin to the structures of interest were calculated. The normality of the data at each flexion angle was assessed using Shapiro-Wilk tests (P > .05), and the relationship between flexion angle and average distance was evaluated using repeated measures analysis of variance (P footprint of the ACL. Information garnered from this study may help clinicians better understand the risk to the lateral critical structures when an outside-in femoral tunnel is not drilled in the appropriate degree of knee flexion. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Alpha particles spectrometer with photodiode PIN; Espectrometro de particulas alfa con fotodiodo PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon R, A.; Hernandez V, R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares e Ingenieria Electrica, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 09869 Zacatecas (Mexico); Ramirez G, J. [Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica, Direccion General de Innovacion y Tecnologia de Informacion, Av. Heroes de Nacozari Sur 2301, Fracc. Jardines del Parque, 20276 Aguascalientes (Mexico)], e-mail:


    The radiation propagates in form of electromagnetic waves or corpuscular radiation; if the radiation energy causes ionization in environment that crosses it is considered ionizing radiation. To detect radiation several detectors types are used, if the radiation are alpha particles are used detectors proportional type or trace elements. In this work the design results, construction and tests of an alpha particles spectrometer are presented, which was designed starting from a photodiode PIN type. The system design was simulated with a code for electronic circuits. With results of simulation phase was constructed the electronic phase that is coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The resulting electronic is evaluated analyzing the electronic circuit performance before an alphas triple source and alpha radiation that produce two smoke detectors of domestic use. On the tests phase we find that the system allows obtain, in a multichannel, the pulses height spectrum, with which we calibrate the system. (Author)

  4. Silicide Schottky Contacts to Silicon: Screened Pinning at Defect Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, T.J.


    Silicide Schottky contacts can be as large as 0.955 eV (E{sub v} + 0.165 eV) on n-type silicon and as large as 1.05 eV (E{sub c} {minus} 0.07 eV) on p-type silicon. Current models of Schottky barrier formation do not provide a satisfactory explanation of occurrence of this wide variation. A model for understanding Schottky contacts via screened pinning at defect levels is presented. In the present paper it is shown that most transition metal silicides are pinned approximately 0.48 eV above the valence band by interstitial Si clusters. Rare earth disilicides pin close to the divacancy acceptor level 0.41 eV below the conduction band edge while high work function silicides of Ir and Pt pin close to the divacancy donor level 0.21 eV above the valence band edge. Selection of a particular defect pinning level depends strongly on the relative positions of the silicide work function and the defect energy level on an absolute energy scale.

  5. Performance of electrical contact pins near a nuclear explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragan, C.E.; Silbert, M.G.; Ellis, A.N.; Robinson, E.E.; Daddario, M.J.


    The pressures attainable in equation-of-state studies using nuclear-explosion-driven shock waves greatly exceed those that can be reached in normal laboratory conditions. However, the diagnostic instrumentation must survive in the high-radiation environment present near such an explosion. Therefore, a set of experiments were fielded on the Redmud event to test the feasibility of using electrical contact pins in this environment. In these experiments a 60-cm-high shield of boron-lead was placed on the rack lid approximately 1 m from the device. A sample consisting of slabs of molybdenum and /sup 238/U was placed on top of the shield, and twelve electrical contact pins were embedded to five different depths in the materials. Five different multiplexing-charging circuits were used for the pins, and a piezoelectric quartz gauge was placed on top of the uranium to obtain an estimate of the fission-energy deposition. All of the charged pins survived the radiation and produced signals indicating shock arrival. The uncertainty in determining the pin-closure time was approximately 3 ns. The signal from the quartz gauge corresponded to a pressure that was consistent with the calculated neutron fluence.

  6. Pin1 and neurodegeneration: a new player for prion disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Isopi


    Full Text Available Pin1 is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that catalyzes the cis/trans conversion of phosphorylated proteins at serine or threonine residues which precede a proline. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerization induces a conformational change of the proteins involved in cell signaling process. Pin1 dysregulation has been associated with some neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. Proline-directed phosphorylation is a common regulator of these pathologies and a recent work showed that it is also involved in prion disorders. In fact, prion protein phosphorylation at the Ser-43-Pro motif induces prion protein conversion into a disease-associated form. Furthermore, phosphorylation at Ser-43-Pro has been observed to increase in the cerebral spinal fluid of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease patients. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of prion disorders, suggesting Pin1 as a potential new player in the disease. In this paper, we review the mechanisms underlying Pin1 involvement in the aforementioned neurodegenerative pathologies focusing on the potential role of Pin1 in prion disorders.

  7. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew


    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  8. Thumb proximal phalanx reconstruction with nonvascularized corticocancellous olecranon bone graft. (United States)

    Soong, Maximillian


    Large segmental bone defects of the phalanges reportedly have been treated with free vascularized grafts from the hand, foot, or knee, or with nonvascularized grafts from the iliac crest. A nonvascularized structural corticocancellous graft from a local site would be advantageous. The olecranon has been used as a source of both cancellous and corticocancellous graft. The authors describe a unique case of the use of nonvascularized corticocancellous olecranon bone graft for structural purposes in a mutilating thumb injury. The patient injured the left thumb with a miter saw, resulting in a large degloving wound over a severely comminuted fracture of the proximal phalanx, with segmental bone loss between a base fragment and displaced condylar fragments. Provisional pin fixation was performed at the time of initial emergent irrigation and debridement, along with repairs of the extensor pollicis longus, radial digital nerve, and dorsal digital nerve. This was followed 3 weeks later by non-vascularized corticocancellous bone grafting from the olecranon to the proximal phalanx under regional anesthesia. The thumb was mobilized at 11 weeks, and solid union was radiographically confirmed at 6 months. The patient achieved moderate active range of motion and was able to return to work as a physical therapist. The elbow healed uneventfully and without pain or fracture at the donor site. This case shows that robust structural bone graft for the phalanges may be obtained from the nearby olecranon, under regional anesthesia, without microsurgery, and with potential advantages over the iliac crest. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Pin Tool Geometry Effects in Friction Stir Welding (United States)

    Querin, J. A.; Rubisoff, H. A.; Schneider, J. A.


    In friction stir welding (FSW) there is significant evidence that material can take one of two different flow paths when being displaced from its original position in front of the pin tool to its final position in the wake of the weld. The geometry of the pin tool, along with the process parameters, plays an important role in dictating the path that the material takes. Each flow path will impart a different thermomechanical history on the material, consequently altering the material microstructure and subsequent weld properties. The intention of this research is to isolate the effect that different pin tool attributes have on the flow paths imparted on the FSWed material. Based on published weld tool geometries, a variety of weld tools were fabricated and used to join AA2219. Results from the tensile properties and microstructural characterization will be presented.

  10. Ordered Pinning Arrays with Tunable Geometry via Thermal Effects (United States)

    Trastoy, Juan; Bernard, Rozenn; Briatico, Javier; Villegas, Javier E.; Malnou, Maxime; Bergeal, Nicolas; Lesueur, Jerome; Ulysse, Christian; Faini, Giancarlo


    We have used geometrically frustrated pinning arrays to create artificial vortex-ice. The pinning arrays are fabricated via ion irradiation of high-Tc superconducting films. These arrays present a very unique characteristic: the frustration can be reversibly switched on/off using temperature as a control knob, which allows stabilizing either a vortex-ice or a square vortex lattice. We have further investigated the thermal switching mechanism by studying the matching of the flux lattice to arrays that are incrementally deformed upon fabrication by introducing minute variations of the distance between pins. The array deformation exacerbates the thermal effects, leading to dramatic variations of the vortex distribution as a function of temperature. These results illustrate the strength of the temperature-induced reconfiguration effects, which may constitute a novel knob in fluxtronic devices based on vortex manipulation. Work supported by the French ANR MASTHER, the COST Action NanoSC, the Ville de Paris and the Galician Fundacion Barrie.

  11. Sessile droplet de-pinning: new life for gravimetric data. (United States)

    Chan, Kwaichow B; Pierce, Scott M


    Using three different types of surfaces as exemplars, we report a gravimetric method as a viable tool for studying the de-pinning process. Namely, the de-pin time, tau(d) (the time required for a horizontal sessile droplet to de-pin at the triple phase line on a given substrate), is estimated without using a time consuming and expensive video imaging system. This is made possible by deciphering the non-linear portion of mass vs time data of an evaporating sessile droplet. Typical gravimetric glass-substrate evaporative mass loss vs time data has two regimes: a long, linear regime followed by a short, non-linear regime. Traditionally, researchers extract only the evaporation rate of a droplet from the linear regime but discard (by truncating the data) or ignore (thus deriving no information from) the non-linear regime. The origin of the linear to non-linear transition, found almost universally in gravimetric data, persists unremarked upon. By constructing three very different types of surfaces and comparing gravimetric data with video imaging data taken simultaneously, we report the transition is correlated to the onset of the de-pinning event in each case. This realization enables us to measure the de-pin time, tau(d), with gravimetric data only; i.e., without the video system, gathering more information from gravimetric data than previously considered. The method has application in estimating the de-pin time of a droplet deposited on a substrate that yields poor top-view contrast for videography, such as a water droplets on silicon wafers or glass substrates. Finally, gravimetric data is more accurate for evaporation modeling when substrate/droplet interaction areas are not circular.

  12. 8 Pin RIC Socket for Hearing Aid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Davids, Søren


    The current paper presents the development of an 8 Pin RIC (Receiver in the canal) Socket for hearing instruments within the framework of the COTECH project. There are 8 industrial demonstrators developed in COTECH based on the converged product and process design. Sonion’s 8 Pin RIC Socket is one......-automated process and the other one is fully automated process. This paper presents the entire process chain for both the concepts and makes a comparative analysis based on the experimental investigation and validation. The work presented here can be a source of valuable information for industrial users...... and researchers working with micro production of metal-plastic hybrid components....

  13. Critical Currents in Quasiperiodic Pinning Arrays: Chains and Penrose Lattices


    Misko, V. R.; Savel'ev, Sergey; Nori, Franco


    We study the critical depinning current Jc versus the applied magnetic flux Phi, for quasiperiodic (QP) chains and 2D arrays of pinning centers placed on the nodes of a five-fold Penrose lattice. In QP chains, the peaks in Jc(Phi) are determined by a sequence of harmonics of the long and short segments of the chain. The critical current Jc(Phi) has a remarkable self-similarity. In 2D QP pinning arrays, we predict analytically and numerically the main features of Jc(Phi), and demonstrate that ...

  14. Dosimetric characteristics of a PIN diode for radiotherapy application. (United States)

    Kumar, R; Sharma, S D; Philomina, A; Topkar, A


    The PIN diode developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) was modified for its use as a dosimeter in radiation therapy. For this purpose the diode was mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB) and provided with necessary connections so that its response against irradiation can be recorded by a standard radiotherapy electrometer. The dosimetric characteristics of the diode were studied in Co-60 gamma rays as well as high energy X-rays. The measured sensitivity of this PIN diode is 4 nC/cGy which is about ten times higher than some commercial diode dosimeters. The leakage current from the diode is 0.04 nA. The response of the PIN diode is linear in the range of 20-1000 cGy which covers the full range of radiation dose encountered in radiotherapy treatments. The non-linearity of the diode response is 3.5% at 20 cGy and it is less than 1.5% at higher dose values. Its repeatability is within 0.5%. The angular response variation is about 5.6% within 6608 with respect to normal beam incidence. The response of the PIN diode at 6 and 18 MV X-rays varies within 2% with respect to its response at Co-60 gamma rays. The source to surface distance (SSD) dependence of the PIN diode was studied for Co-60 beam. It was found that the response of the diode decreases almost linearly relative to given dose for beams with constant collimator setting but increasing SSD (decreasing dose-rate). Within this study the diode response varied by about 2.5% between the maximum and minimum SSD. The dose-rate dependence of the PIN diode for 6 and 15 MV-rays was studied. The variation in response of diode for both energies in the studied dose range is less than 1%. The field size dependence of the PIN diode response is within 1% with respect to the response of ionisation chamber. These studies indicate that the characteristics of the PIN diode are suitable for use in radiotherapy dosimetry.

  15. The Safe Zone for External Fixator Pins in the Femur (United States)


    anatomy to avoid inad- vertent neurovascular injury and intra-articular pin penetra- tion.7,8 Pins placed into the shaft of the femur can be in a lateral...trochanter (LT), perpendicular to the femoral shaft. The final step involved palpation of the superior border of the patella, which was marked. Using a...with SAS 9.1 (Cary, NC). RESULTS Description of Nerve Anatomy The first branch crossed the femur at an average distance from the ASIS of 107 ± 22 mm


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  17. Palliation of proximal malignant biliary obstruction by endoscopic endoprosthesis insertion. (United States)

    Polydorou, A A; Cairns, S R; Dowsett, J F; Hatfield, A R; Salmon, P R; Cotton, P B; Russell, R C


    For four years up to December 1987, 190 patients (median age 73 years) with proximal malignant biliary obstruction were treated by endoscopic endoprosthesis insertion. Altogether 101 had cholangiocarcinoma, 21 gall bladder carcinoma, 20 local spread of pancreatic carcinoma, and 48 metastatic malignancy. Fifty eight patients had type I, 54 type II, and 78 type III proximal biliary strictures (Bismuth classification). All patients were either unfit or unsuitable for an attempt at curative surgical resection. A single endoprosthesis was placed initially, with a further stent being placed only if relief of cholestasis was insufficient or sepsis developed in undrained segments. The combined percutaneous-endoscopic technique was used to place the endoprosthesis when appropriate, after failed endoscopic endoprosthesis insertion or for second endoprosthesis placement. Full follow up was available in 97%.Thirteen patients were still alive at the time of review and all but one had been treated within the past six months. Initial endoprosthesis insertion succeeded technically at the first attempt in 127 patients, at the second in 30, and at a combined procedure in a further 13 (cumulative total success rate 89% - type I: 93%; type II: 94%; and type III: 84%). There was adequate biliary drainage after single endoprosthesis insertion in 152 of the 170 successful placements, giving an overall successful drainage rate of 80%. Three patients had a second stent placed by combined procedure because of insufficient drainage, giving an overall successful drainage rate of 82% (155 of 190). The final overall drainage success rates were type I: 91%; type II: 83%; and type III: 73%. The early complication rates were type I: 7%; type II: 14%; and type III: 31%. The principle early complication was clinical cholangitis, which occurred in 13 patients (7%) and required second stent placement in five. The 30 day mortality was 22% overall (type I: 14%; type II: 15%; and type III: 32%) but the

  18. Product placement of computer games in cyberspace. (United States)

    Yang, Heng-Li; Wang, Cheng-Shu


    Computer games are considered an emerging media and are even regarded as an advertising channel. By a three-phase experiment, this study investigated the advertising effectiveness of computer games for different product placement forms, product types, and their combinations. As the statistical results revealed, computer games are appropriate for placement advertising. Additionally, different product types and placement forms produced different advertising effectiveness. Optimum combinations of product types and placement forms existed. An advertisement design model is proposed for use in game design environments. Some suggestions are given for advertisers and game companies respectively.

  19. Overexpression of PvPin1, a Bamboo Homolog of PIN1-Type Parvulin 1, Delays Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zheng


    Full Text Available Because of the long and unpredictable flowering period in bamboo, the molecular mechanism of bamboo flowering is unclear. Recent study showed that Arabidopsis PIN1-type parvulin 1 (Pin1At is an important floral activator and regulates floral transition by facilitating the cis/trans isomerization of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues preceding proline motifs in suppressor of overexpression of CO 1 (SOC1 and agamous-like 24 (AGL24. Whether bamboo has a Pin1 homolog and whether it works in bamboo flowering are still unknown. In this study, we cloned PvPin1, a homolog of Pin1At, from Phyllostachys violascens (Bambusoideae. Bioinformatics analysis showed that PvPin1 is closely related to Pin1-like proteins in monocots. PvPin1 was widely expressed in all tested bamboo tissues, with the highest expression in young leaf and lowest in floral bud. Moreover, PvPin1 expression was high in leaves before bamboo flowering then declined during flower development. Overexpression of PvPin1 significantly delayed flowering time by downregulating SOC1 and AGL24 expression in Arabidopsis under greenhouse conditions and conferred a significantly late flowering phenotype by upregulating OsMADS56 in rice under field conditions. PvPin1 showed subcellular localization in both the nucleus and cytolemma. The 1500-bp sequence of the PvPin1 promoter was cloned, and cis-acting element prediction showed that ABRE and TGACG-motif elements, which responded to abscisic acid (ABA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA, respectively, were characteristic of P. violascens in comparison with Arabidopsis. On promoter activity analysis, exogenous ABA and MeJA could significantly inhibit PvPin1 expression. These findings suggested that PvPin1 may be a repressor in flowering, and its delay of flowering time could be regulated by ABA and MeJA in bamboo.

  20. Discharging pin sites following K-wire fixation of distal radial fractures: a case for pin removal? (United States)

    Desai, Aravind; Dramis, Asterios; Thompson, Neville; Board, Tim; Choudhary, Awani


    The aim of this study was to find out whether discharging pin sites following Kirschner-wire fixation of distal radial fractures warrant early wire removal. In a prospective study of 50 patients with a closed distal radial fracture treated by manipulation and either percutaneous or mini-incision Kirschner-wiring, we identified 14 patients (28%) with discharging pin sites. All of the cases were observed within the first two weeks following surgery. Of the 14 cases, only 2 patients had a positive swab culture and were treated with systemic antibiotics. In all cases the Kirschner wires were left in situ until serial radiographs demonstrated satisfactory union. Three patients (8.6%) in the percutaneous group had superficial radial nerve irritation, which settled following wire removal. Deep soft tissue infection, pyoarthrosis, osteomyelitis, and extensor tendon rupture were not encountered. We conclude that pin site discharge, whether sterile or infected, is in general not an indication for early wire removal.

  1. Bilateral sacroiliac luxation fixation using a single transiliosacral pin: surgical technique and clinical outcomes in eight cats. (United States)

    Parslow, A; Simpson, D J


    A very limited safe anatomical window for transiliosacral implant placement exists in cats (risk of iatrogenic trauma and implant interference. We describe a safe and effective method for bilateral sacroiliac fixation in cats using a single implant to minimise inadvertent iatrogenic damage to local structures and restore pelvic canal diameter. Eight cats underwent surgical fixation for traumatic bilateral sacroiliac luxation using a single smooth intramedullary pin. The pin spanned both ilial wings and sacrum. Implants were applied using a Universal C-guide. Pre- and postsurgery pelvic canal diameter ratios were calculated. Short-term follow-up was performed at 10 to 14 days postoperatively. Long-term follow-up was performed using the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index Questionnaire. Long-term radiographic assessment was available in two cases. The technique achieved safe and accurate implant position with precise sacroiliac joint reduction. Pelvic canal diameter ratios were restored to normal in all cases. Rapid return to normal hind leg function and excellent long-term clinical outcomes were achieved. This technique offers a simple, safe, repeatable and affordable technique for treating bilateral sacroiliac luxations in the cat without the aid of fluoroscopy. The procedure can be performed using surgical tools and inventory readily available in general small animal practices. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Early results for treatment of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus using Contours PHP (proximal humeral plate). (United States)

    Biazzo, Alessio; Cardile, Carlo; Brunelli, Luca; Ragni, Paolo; Clementi, Daniele


    The management of displaced 2- and 3-part fractures of the proximal humerus is controversial, both in younger and in elderly patients. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the functional results of the Contours Proximal Humerus Plate (OrthofixR, Bussolengo,Verona, Italy), for the treatment of displaced 2- and 3-part fractures of the proximal humerus. We retrospectively reviewed 55 patients with proximal humerus fractures, who underwent osteosynthesis with Contours Proximal Humerus Plate from December 2011 to March 2015. We had 21 patients with 2-part fractures and with an average age of 67.1 years and 34 patients with 3-part fractures, with average age of 63.6 years. The average union time was 3 months. The mean Constant score was 67 for 2-part fracture group and 64.9 for 3-part fracture group. The difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.18). The overall complication rate was 14.5 %. Six patients underwent additional surgery (10.9%). The most frequent major complication was secondary loss of reduction following varus collapse of the fracture (2 cases). In these patients, there was loss of medial hinge integrity due to impaction and osteoporosis. The placement of the main locking screw in the calcar area to provide inferomedial support is the rational of the Contours Proximal Humerus Plate. Osteosynthesis with Contours Proximal Humerus Plate is a safe system for treating displaced 2- and 3-part fractures of the proximal humerus, with good functional results and complication rates comparable to those reported in the literature.

  3. Improved image placement performance of HL-7000M (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaomi; Ito, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Oonuki, Kazuyoshi; Kadowaki, Yasuhiro; Sato, Hidetoshi; Kawano, Hajime; Wang, Zhigang; Mizuno, Kazui; Matsuoka, Genya


    HL-7000M electron beam (EB) lithography system has been developed as a leading edge mask writer for the generation of 90 nm node production and 65 nm node development. It is capable of handling large volume data files such as full Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) patterns and angled patterns for System on Chip (SoC). Aiming at the technological requirements of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) 2002 Update, a newly designed electron optics column generating a vector-scan variable shaped beam and a digital disposition system with a storage area network technology have been implemented into HL-7000M. This new high-resolution column and other mechanical components have restrained the beam drift and fluctuation factors. The improved octapole electrostatic deflectors with new dynamic focus correction and gain alignment methods have been built into the object lens system of the column. These enhanced features are worth mentioning due to the achievement of HL-7000M's Image Placement (IP) performance. Its accuracy in 3σ of a 14 x 14 global grid matching result over an area of 135 mm x 135 mm measured by Leica LMS IPRO are X: 6.09 nm and Y: 7.85 nm. In addition, the shot astigmatism correction has been in the development and testing process and is expected to improve the local image placement accuracy dramatically.

  4. Comparative evaluation of pin-in-fiberglass cast and Kirschner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four adult (two males and two females) dogs were used to comparatively evaluate the effectiveness of pin-in-fiberglass cast with Kirschner-Ehmer type I external skeletal fixative in the management of surgically created radius-ulna fractures in dogs. These dogs were assigned to two groups (A and B) with each group made ...

  5. Registration of fluorescence in biomolecular solutions using dynamic pin photodiode (United States)

    Savchenko, E. A.; Nepomnyashchaya, E. K.; Dyubo, D. B.; Velichko, E. N.; Tsybin, O. Yu


    The application of a dynamic pin-photodiode as a recording device of the fluorescence radiation is considered. An experimental setup for registration of luminescence signals from biomolecules excited by laser radiation was developed. Rhodamine 6G and chlorophyll were investigated.

  6. Vortex lattice mobility and effective pinning potentials in the peak ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In that region of field and temperature the mobility of the vortex lattice (VL) is found to be dependent on the dynamical history. Recently we reported evidence that the VL reorganizes and accesses to robust VL configurations (VLCs) with different effective pinning potential wells arising in response to different system histories.

  7. Ising antiferromagnet with mobile, pinned, and quenched defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Motivated by recent experiments on (Sr,Ca,La14Cu24O41, a two-dimensional Ising antiferromagnet with mobile, locally pinned and quenched defects is introduced and analyzed using mainly Monte Carlo techniques. The interplay between the arrangement of the defects and the magnetic ordering as well as the effect of an external field are studied.

  8. Flux-Vortex Pinning and Neutron Star Evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. Srinivasan et al. (1990) proposed a simple and elegant explanation for the reduction of the neutron star magnetic dipole moment during binary evolution leading to low mass X-ray binaries and eventually to millisecond pulsars: Quantized vortex lines in the neutron star core superfluid will pin against the quantized flux ...

  9. 1071-IJBCS-Article-Crépin Pene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    :// Late season sugarcane performance as affected by soil water deficit at the yield formation stage in commercial farms of northern Ivory Coast. Crépin B. PÉNÉ *, Marco H. OUATTARA and Sylvain G. KOULIBALY.

  10. Glitches and pinned vorticity in the Crab pulsar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpar, M.A. (Bogazici Univ., Istanbul, Turkey); Anderson, P.W.; Pines, D.; Shaham, J.


    It is suggested that the glitch behavior observed in the Crab pulsar is associated with vorticity jumps induced by a starquake or a comparable external fluctuation in the weakly pinned vortex region expected in the crust of a young neutron star, and that the differences in the glitch behavior of the Crab, Vela, and older pulsars may be explained on evolutionary grounds.

  11. Comparative evaluation of pin-in-fiberglass cast and Kirschner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 30, 2017 ... two dogs. The radius-ulna fracture was created in all the dogs under general anaesthesia as follows: Group A, .... Plate V: The middle pins inserted through the remaining two open ..... fractures in dogs and cats in Tripoli-Libya.

  12. Analyzing the use of pins in safety bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Fonseca, Cesar A. L. L.; Weber, Hans I.; Fleischer, Philip F.


    A new concept for safety bearings is analyzed: useful in emergency situations, it shall protect the bearing from destruction by the use of pins which impact with a disc, both capable of good energy dissipation. Results of work in progress are presented by validating partial stages of the developm...

  13. ``Pinning strategy": a novel approach for predicting the backbone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sep 6, 2006 ... In this study, we propose a new method called “pinning strategy” that used this specific feature to predict long protein fragments. Its goal is to define highly probable successions of PBs. It starts from the most probable SW and is then extended with overlapping SWs. Starting from an initial prediction rate of ...

  14. Investigation on flow and heat transfer characteristics in rectangular channel with drop-shaped pin fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengming Wang


    Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics inside a rectangular channel embedded with pin fins were numerically and experimentally investigated. Several differently shaped pin fins (i.e., circular, elliptical, and drop-shaped with the same cross-sectional areas were compared in a staggered arrangement. The Reynolds number based on the obstructed section hydraulic diameter (defined as the ratio of the total wetted surface area to the open duct volume available for flow was varied from 4800 to 8200. The more streamlined drop-shaped pin fins were better at delaying or suppressing separation of the flow passing through them, which decreased the aerodynamic penalty compared to circular pin fins. The heat transfer enhancement of the drop-shaped pin fins was less than that of the circular pin fins. In terms of specific performance parameters, drop-shaped pin fins are a promising alternative configuration to circular pin fins.

  15. Familial placement of Wightia (Lamiales)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qing-Mei; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Liu, Guo-Li


    samples (including 51 genera from 13 families of Lamiales) were employed in a molecular study. Phylograms suggest that Wightia is sister to Paulownia or Phrymaceae; species tree shows Wightia and Paulownia are sister groups which clustered with Phrymaceae in an unresolved clade. Chemical evidence shows......The familial placement of Wightia has long been a problem. Here, we present a comprehensive phylogenetic inspection of Wightia based on noncoding chloroplast loci (the rps16 intron and the trnL–F region) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, and on chemical analysis. A total of 70...... affinity of Wightia to Paulowniaceae. With the addition of morphological, palynological and ecological characters, we suppose a familial position of Wightia belonging to or close to Paulowniaceae. Brandisia (a member of Orobanchaceae) does not have a close relationship with Wightia....

  16. Principles of subcutaneous port placement. (United States)

    Gonda, Shaun J; Li, Ruizong


    The introduction of totally implantable subcutaneous devices in the early 1980s provided patients with secure, reliable venous access and also gave them the ability to move more freely and have a more normal lifestyle with these devices in place. The most common totally implantable device used today is the subcutaneous port. These ports consist of an injection port connected to a catheter. Ports provide a number of advantages compared with other venous catheters; the most important is the reduced risk of infection. These devices have significantly lower rates of infection than nontunneled and tunneled catheters. Additional advantages include less frequent irrigation and minimal home care, and they are less prone to environmental or cutaneous contamination when not being accessed. This article will focus on the placement of these ports. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 32 CFR 1656.10 - Job placement. (United States)


    ... a position approved for Alternative Service Work. Selective Service must review the job within 30... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job placement. 1656.10 Section 1656.10 National....10 Job placement. (a) Selective Service will maintain a job bank for the exclusive purpose of placing...

  18. 20 CFR 801.103 - Organizational placement. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Organizational placement. 801.103 Section 801... BOARD Establishment and Authority of the Board § 801.103 Organizational placement. As prescribed by the... Administration in the Department of Labor. It is accordingly found appropriate for organizational purposes to...

  19. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities (United States)

    Holman, Lance S.


    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  20. New pole placement algorithm - Polynomial matrix approach (United States)

    Shafai, B.; Keel, L. H.


    A simple and direct pole-placement algorithm is introduced for dynamical systems having a block companion matrix A. The algorithm utilizes well-established properties of matrix polynomials. Pole placement is achieved by appropriately assigning coefficient matrices of the corresponding matrix polynomial. This involves only matrix additions and multiplications without requiring matrix inversion. A numerical example is given for the purpose of illustration.

  1. Clitoral Pain Following Retropubic Midurethral Sling Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Christofferson, DO


    Conclusion: Clitoral pain symptoms following placement of a retropubic midurethral sling should be evaluated and promptly addressed, given the potential negative impact on the patient's sexual function. Christofferson M, Barnard J, and Montoya TI. Clitoral pain following retropubic midurethral sling placement. Sex Med 2015;3:346–348.

  2. Photoactivated In Vivo Proximity Labeling. (United States)

    Beck, David B; Bonasio, Roberto


    Identification of molecular interactions is paramount to understanding how cells function. Most available technologies rely on co-purification of a protein of interest and its binding partners. Therefore, they are limited in their ability to detect low-affinity interactions and cannot be applied to proteins that localize to difficult-to-solubilize cellular compartments. In vivo proximity labeling (IPL) overcomes these obstacles by covalently tagging proteins and RNAs based on their proximity in vivo to a protein of interest. In IPL, a heterobifunctional probe comprising a photoactivatable moiety and biotin is recruited by a monomeric streptavidin tag fused to a protein of interest. Following UV irradiation, candidate interacting proteins and RNAs are covalently biotinylated with tight spatial and temporal control and subsequently recovered using biotin as an affinity handle. Here, we describe experimental protocols to discover novel protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions using IPL. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Prox-1 Automated Proximity Operations (United States)


    on demonstrating the functionality required to meet minimum mission success criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of...also includes deployment of LightSail-B from the P-POD, and imaging of LightSail-B for 20 minutes as it recedes from Prox-1. small satellite ; proximity...criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of all spacecraft subsystems, including flight qualification of the following new



    Pravin*, Jeyapratha


    This paper ambit to evaluate the flexural strength of glass fiber sandwich panels with varying z-pins pitches. Failure of sandwich panel are delamination and core shear, to minimize the crack propagation, pins are inserted in z-direction, by varying pitches through its thickness. During the insertion of pin, may cause the material some damage. Despite the damage, flexural property does not affected due interpolation of pins. Although the experiment were pull out with a phenomenal results of z...

  5. New Universal Tribometer as Pin or Ball-on-Disc and Reciprocating Pin-on-Plate Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kaleli


    Full Text Available The present paper contains a description of a new Universal Tribometer design which enables simulation of different contact and test types such as pin-on-disc, ball-on-disc and linear reciprocating tests. There are many models of wear Tribometer in the world market. These devices are manufactured by various companies abroad and are imported to our country. Cost of this devices start from 50.000 euros and goes to hundreds of thousands of euros. One of the most commonly used of this device is Reciprocating Pin-on-Plate Tribo Test Machine. This wear tester is produced at a low limited cost within the KAP (Scientifical Research Project Coordinator of Yıldız Technical University. The test machine can work including three types of Tribotest rigs (Reciprocating Pin-on-Plate, Pin-on-Disc and Ball-on-Disc. It is designed to operate also at high temperatures up to 500 ˚C. The new piece of equipment allows instrumented tribological testing of piston ring and cylinder liner samples at low and high temperatures and boundary lubrication conditions of any typical gasoline or Diesel engines. Some friction results were shown in boundary lubricating conditions between piston ring and cylinder liner sliding pairs describing Tribotest machine is driven by AC servo motor which is more accurate than DC motor.

  6. A standardized protocol for needle placement in suboccipital muscles. (United States)

    Hallgren, Richard C; Andary, Michael T; Wyman, Andrew J; Rowan, Jacob J


    The objective of this study was to assess the safety and accuracy of using common anatomic landmarks to guide the placement of needle electrodes into suboccipital muscles. Atrophic changes in suboccipital muscles have been reported in some patients who have tension-type headaches, and in some patients who have headaches resulting from whiplash-type injuries. These atrophic changes most likely result from disuse or denervation. Needle electromyography is a definitive technique for determining the cause of muscle atrophy, but requires that needle electrodes be inserted into the muscle. Suboccipital muscles present a challenge to the electromyographer in that they are physically small and are located in close proximity to one another. Atrophied muscles with fatty replacement and the presence of critical structures such as the vertebral artery further complicate the procedure. Using a standardized protocol, three investigators attempted blind needle insertions into each of the suboccipital muscles of eight embalmed cadavers. A dissector then assessed targeted muscle penetrations, final resting positions of the wires, and their proximity to critical structures. Eighty-one percent of 181 attempted insertions penetrated the targeted muscles: 83% for the rectus capitis posterior minor, 83% for the rectus capitis posterior major, 94% for the obliquus capitis superior, and 63% for the obliquus capitis inferior muscles, respectively. It was concluded that readily palpable external landmarks can be used to safely and reliably guide the insertion of needle electrodes into three of the four pairs of suboccipital muscles. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. PIN protein phosphorylation by plant AGC3 kinases and its role in polar auxin transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Fang


    Polar cell-to-cell transport of plant hormone auxin mediated by plasma membrane (PM)-localized PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers generates auxin gradients that provide positional information for various plant developmental processes. The apical-basal polar localization of the PIN proteins that

  8. The PIN family of proteins in potato and their putative role in tuberisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios eRoumeliotis


    Full Text Available The PIN family of trans-membrane proteins mediates auxin efflux throughout the plant and during various phases of plant development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PIN family comprised of 8 members, divided into ‘short’ and ‘long’ PINs according to the length of the hydrophilic domain of the protein. Based on sequence homology using the recently published potato genome sequence (Solanum tuberosum group Phureja we identified ten annotated potato StPIN genes. Mining the publicly available gene expression data, we constructed a catalogue tissue specificity of StPIN gene expression, focusing on the process of tuberization. A total of four StPIN genes exhibited increased expression four days after tuber induction, prior to the onset of stolon swelling. For two PIN genes, StPIN4 and StPIN2, promoter sequences were cloned and fused to the GUS reporter protein to study tissue specificity in more detail. StPIN4 promoter driven GUS staining was detected in the flower stigma, in the flower style, below the ovary and petals, in the root tips, in the vascular tissue of the stolons and in the tuber parenchyma cells. StPIN2 promoter driven GUS staining was detected in flower buds, in the vascular tissue of the swelling stolons and in the storage parenchyma of the growing tubers. Based on our results, we postulate a role for the StPINs in redistributing auxin in the swelling stolon during early events in tuber development.

  9. Role of PIN1 on in vivo periodontal tissue and in vitro cells. (United States)

    Park, K-H; Cho, E-H; Bae, W-J; Kim, H-S; Lim, H-C; Park, Y-D; Lee, M-O; Cho, E-S; Kim, E-C


    Although expression of peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (PIN1) was reported in bone tissue, the precise role of PIN1 in periodontal tissue and cells remain unclear. To elucidate the roles of PIN1 in periodontal tissue, its expression in periodontal tissue and cells, and effects on in vitro 4 osteoblast differentiation and the underlying signaling mechanisms were evaluated. PIN1 was expressed in mouse periodontal tissues including periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs), cementoblasts and osteoblasts at the developing root formation stage (postnatal, PN14) and functional stage of tooth (PN28). Treatment of PIN1 inhibitor juglone, and gene silencing by RNA interference promoted osteoblast differentiation in PDLCs and cementoblasts, whereas the overexpression of PIN1 inhibited. Moreover, osteogenic medium-induced activation of AMPK, mTOR, Akt, ERK, p38 and NF-jB pathways were enhanced by PIN1 siRNA, but attenuated by PIN1 overexpression. Runx2 expressions were induced by PIN1 siRNA, but downregulated by PIN1 overexpression. In summary, this study is the first to demonstrate that PIN1 is expressed in developing periodontal tissue, and in vitro PDLCs and cementoblasts. PIN1 inhibition stimulates osteoblast differentiation, and thus may play an important role in periodontal regeneration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 20 CFR 670.720 - Who provides placement services? (United States)


    ... CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Placement and Continued Services § 670.720 Who... graduates and former students in jobs. Job Corps placement agencies provide placement services under a...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS. 1 Alhassan, A. J. 1M .S. Sule, 1J. ... ABSTRACT. This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. Proximate ... days, before pulverized to powder and kept in plastic container.

  12. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 increases β-cell proliferation and enhances insulin secretion. (United States)

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Mori, Keiichi; Matsunaga, Yasuka; Yamamotoya, Takeshi; Ueda, Koji; Inoue, Yuki; Mitsuzaki-Miyoshi, Keiko; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Fujishiro, Midori; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Ono, Hiraku; Ishihara, Hisamitsu; Asano, Tomoichiro


    The prolyl isomerase Pin1 binds to the phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motif of target proteins and enhances their cis-trans conversion. This report is the first to show that Pin1 expression in pancreatic β cells is markedly elevated by high-fat diet feeding and in ob/ob mice. To elucidate the role of Pin1 in pancreatic β cells, we generated β-cell-specific Pin1 KO (βPin1 KO) mice. These mutant mice showed exacerbation of glucose intolerance but had normal insulin sensitivity. We identified two independent factors underlying impaired insulin secretion in the βPin1 KO mice. Pin1 enhanced pancreatic β-cell proliferation, as indicated by a reduced β-cell mass in βPin1 KO mice compared with control mice. Moreover, a diet high in fat and sucrose failed to increase pancreatic β-cell growth in the βPin1 KO mice, an observation to which up-regulation of the cell cycle protein cyclin D appeared to contribute. The other role of Pin1 was to activate the insulin-secretory step: Pin1 KO β cells showed impairments in glucose- and KCl-induced elevation of the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration and insulin secretion. We also identified salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) as a Pin1-binding protein that affected the regulation of Ca 2+ influx and found Pin1 to enhance SIK2 kinase activity, resulting in a decrease in p35 protein, a negative regulator of Ca 2+ influx. Taken together, our observations demonstrate critical roles of Pin1 in pancreatic β cells and that Pin1 both promotes β-cell proliferation and activates insulin secretion. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Nursing students' experience of practice placements. (United States)

    MacDonald, Kathleen; Paterson, Kirstie; Wallar, Jessica


    Clinical practice placements are an essential component of pre-registration nursing programmes. Integration into a new team in an unfamiliar setting, which has its own values, practices, culture and language, can be stressful for nursing students. This article presents and discusses students' reflections on preparing for, entering and leaving practice placements. Ten students who participated in fortnightly group reflective sessions, discussed and analysed their learning experiences while on practice placements in an acute hospital. The challenges the students encountered were deconstructed using a group narrative approach. The students experienced ethical dilemmas around patient dignity, consent and advocacy as well as factors external to the practice setting, such as navigating systems and processes to access information before starting practice placements, managing household duties and academic workloads while working long shifts, and managing fatigue and loneliness. The students devised recommendations for other students to enable them to navigate their practice placements effectively and enhance their learning experience. Raising awareness among academic and practice placement staff of the challenges students encounter before and during their practice placement is essential to assist students to succeed and maximise their learning potential.

  14. Investigation of bacteremia after separator placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjuman Preet Kaur Dua


    Full Text Available Background: Simple orthodontic procedure such as separator placement can be associated with the occurrence of transient bacteraemia. Use of clorhexidine before separator placement has been recommended as a measure to decrease the bacteraemia. Aim: The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of transient bacteremia after separator placement following use of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash. Methodology: The study group consisted of 27 adult patients who reported for orthodontic treatment (18 males and 9 females. The patients were asked to rinse their mouth for 60 sec with 15 mL of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash before the separator placement. An aseptic technique was used to draw out 5 ml of blood was from either the left or right antecubital fossa immediately before orthodontic separator placement (as control group, and the second 5 ml sample was taken 1–2 min after the placement of separators mesial and distal to all the first molars. All the blood samples were inoculated into culture bottles containing Brain Heart Infusion and incubated aerobically for 7 days. Media used for bacterial growth is chocolate agar and MacConkey agar. Results: From a total of 27 patients and 54 samples, none of the sample was found positive for bacteremia. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that there is no bacteremia after the placement of separators following the use of chlorhexidine mouthwash.

  15. A biomechanical comparison of Kirschner-wire fixation on fracture stability in Salter-Harris type I fractures of the proximal humeral physis in a porcine cadaveric model. (United States)

    Ma, Jiawen; Wang, Tian; Lovric, Vedran; Johnson, Kenneth A; Walsh, William R


    The physis is the weakest component of immature long bones, and physeal fractures constitute about 30% of fractures in growing dogs. Fractures of the proximal humeral physis typically have a Salter Harris type I or II configuration. These fractures require accurate reduction and adequate stabilization to allow for any potential continued longitudinal bone growth, in conjunction with physeal fracture healing. Conventional internal fixation of these fractures involves insertion of two parallel Kirschner wires, although other methods described include tension band wiring, Rush pinning, and lag screws. However these recommendations are based on anecdotal evidence, and information about the biomechanical stability of physeal fracture repair is sparse. The unique anatomical structure of the epiphyseal-metaphyseal complex makes the gripping of the epiphysis for ex vivo biomechanical testing of physeal fracture repair very challenging. The objective of our study was to biomechanically assess the optimal number (three, two or one) of implanted Kirschner wires in a porcine Salter Harris I proximal humeral physeal fracture model, using motion analysis tracking of peri-fragmental retro-reflective markers while constructs were subjected to a constant axial compression and a sinusoidal torque of +/- 2 Nm at 0.5 Hz for 250 cycles. There were significant differences between the three constructs (three, two or one Kirschner wire repair) for gross angular displacement (p  0.33). Motion analysis tracking using peri-fragmental markers in this porcine model of physeal fracture repair found that the stability at the fracture site of one-pin fixation was significantly less than two-pin and three-pin fixation. Whether there was increased stabilization of these fractures with three-pin fixation compared to two-pin fixation was not conclusive in this porcine model.

  16. Urethral Strictures and Artificial Urinary Sphincter Placement. (United States)

    Myers, Jeremy B; Brant, William O; Hotaling, James N; Lenherr, Sara M


    Patients undergoing artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) placement often have complex medical and surgical histories, such as radical prostatectomy, endoscopic treatment of urethral strictures, previous AUS placement, and prior open urethral surgery. Urethral strictures at the bladder neck, membranous urethra, or site of a previous AUS erosion are problems that profoundly affect the timing and treatment success of AUS placement. Understanding the complexities and outcomes in this subset of patients is the only way to inform shared decision making about treatment of urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation. (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise; Cerepani, Mary Jo


    Finger dislocations are common injuries that are often managed by emergency nurse practitioners. A systematic physical examination following these injuries is imperative to avoid complications. Radiographic views, including the anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views, are imperative to evaluate these finger dislocations. A dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is the most common finger dislocation type often easily reduced. A volar PIP dislocation can often be difficult to reduce and may result in finger deformity. Finger dislocations should be reduced promptly. Referral to an orthopedic hand specialist is required if the dislocation is unable to be reduced or if the finger joint is unstable following reduction attempts.

  18. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.


    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  19. Sensor Placement Optimization using Chama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geotechnology and Engineering Dept.; Nicholson, Bethany L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Discrete Math and Optimization Dept.; Laird, Carl Damon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Discrete Math and Optimization Dept.


    Continuous or regularly scheduled monitoring has the potential to quickly identify changes in the environment. However, even with low - cost sensors, only a limited number of sensors can be deployed. The physical placement of these sensors, along with the sensor technology and operating conditions, can have a large impact on the performance of a monitoring strategy. Chama is an open source Python package which includes mixed - integer, stochastic programming formulations to determine sensor locations and technology that maximize monitoring effectiveness. The methods in Chama are general and can be applied to a wide range of applications. Chama is currently being used to design sensor networks to monitor airborne pollutants and to monitor water quality in water distribution systems. The following documentation includes installation instructions and examples, description of software features, and software license. The software is intended to be used by regulatory agencies, industry, and the research community. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the Python Programming Language. References are included for addit ional background on software components. Online documentation, hosted at, will be updated as new features are added. The online version includes API documentation .

  20. Active cloaking for clusters of pins in thin plates

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, Jane; Haslinger, Stewart; Movchan, Natasha; Craster, Richard


    This paper considers active cloaking of a square array of evenly spaced pins in a Kirchhoff plate in the presence of flexural waves. Active sources are distributed exterior to the cluster and are represented by the non-singular Green's function for the biharmonic operator. The complex amplitudes of the active sources, which cancel out selected multipole orders of the scattered field, are found by solving an algebraic system of equations. For frequencies in the zero-frequency stop band, we find that a small number of active sources located on a grid is sufficient for cloaking. For higher frequencies, we achieve efficient cloaking with the active sources positioned on a circle surrounding the cluster. We demonstrate the cloaking efficiency with several numerical illustrations, considering key frequencies from band diagrams and dispersion surfaces for a Kirchhoff plate pinned in a doubly periodic fashion.

  1. Study of the Radiation-Hardness of VCSEL and PIN

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, K K; Fernando, W; Kagan, H P; Kass, R D; Lebbai, M R M; Merritt, H; Moore, J R; Nagarkar, A; Rizatdinova, F; Skubic, P L; Smith, D S; Strang, M


    The silicon trackers of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva) use optical links for data transmission. An upgrade of the trackers is planned for the Super LHC (SLHC), an upgraded LHC with ten times higher luminosity. We study the radiation-hardness of VCSELs (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser) and GaAs and silicon PINs using 24 GeV/c protons at CERN for possible application in the data transmission upgrade. The optical power of VCSEL arrays decreases significantly after the irradiation but can be partially annealed with high drive currents. The responsivities of the PIN diodes also decrease significantly after irradiation, but can be recovered by operating at higher bias voltage. This provides a simple mechanism to recover from the radiation damage.

  2. Subdural abscess associated with halo-pin traction. (United States)

    Garfin, S R; Botte, M J; Triggs, K J; Nickel, V L


    Osteomyelitis and intracranial abscess are among the most serious complications that have been reported in association with the use of the halo device. The cases of five patients who had formation of an intracranial abscess related to the use of a halo cervical immobilizer are described. All of the infections resolved after drainage of the abscess, débridement, and parenteral administration of antibiotics. Meticulous care of the pin sites is essential to avoid this serious complication. Additionally, since all of the infections were associated with prolonged halo-skeletal traction, this technique should be used with caution and with an awareness of the possible increased risks of pin-site infection and of formation of a subdural abscess.

  3. Leituras semióticas de Pinóquio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Giardini Lenzi


    Full Text Available Esta resenha faz breve exposição do conteúdo de Pinocchio: nuove avventure tra segni e linguaggi, organizado por Paolo Fabbri e Isabella Pezzini, que apresenta dez artigos e um tautograma que tratam do tema Pinóquio, alternando entre elementos do texto original, elementos presentes em variações do romance e abordagens sobre a tradução ou a variação em si, sob a óptica da semiótica discursiva. A perseverança e forte proliferação do tema Pinóquio, originalmente ou sob outros pontos de vista trazidos pelos meios de comunicação, estabelece o texto como uma fábula da atualidade que sempre atraiu o olhar científico.

  4. Matching of the Flux Lattice to Geometrically Frustrated Pinning Arrays (United States)

    Trastoy, J.; Bernard, R.; Briatico, J.; Villegas, J. E.; Lesueur, J.; Ulysse, C.; Faini, G.


    We use vortex dynamics on artificial nanoscale energy landscapes as a model to experimentally investigate a problem inspired by ``spin ice'' systems. In particular, we study the matching of the flux lattice to pinning arrays in which the geometrical frustration is expected to impede a unique stable vortex configuration and to promote metastability. This is done with YBCO films in which the nanoscale vortex energy landscape is fabricated via masked ion irradiation. Surprisingly, we found that minimal changes in the distance between pinning sites lead to the suppression of some of the magneto-resistance matching effects, that is, for certain well-defined vortex densities. This effect strongly depends on the temperature. We argue that this behavior can be explained considering the arrays' geometrical frustration and the thermally activated reconfiguration of the vortex lattice between isoenergetic states. Work supported by the French ANR via SUPERHYRBIDS-II and ``MASTHER,'' and the Galician Fundacion Barrie

  5. Effect of electromagnetic-navigated shunt placement on failure rates: a prospective multicenter study. (United States)

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Beems, Tjemme; Jenkinson, Michael D; Byrne, Patricia; Clark, Simon; Kandasamy, Jothy; Goodden, John; Nandoe Tewarie, Rishi D S; Mallucci, Conor L


    As many as 40% of shunts fail in the first year, mainly due to proximal obstruction. The role of catheter position on failure rates has not been clearly demonstrated. The authors conducted a prospective cohort study of navigated shunt placement compared with standard blind shunt placement at 3 European centers to assess the effect on shunt failure rates. All adult and pediatric patients undergoing de novo ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement were included (patients with slit ventricles were excluded). The first cohort underwent standard shunt placement using anatomical landmarks. All centers subsequently adopted electromagnetic (EM) navigation for routine shunt placements, forming the second cohort. Catheter position was graded on postoperative CT in both groups using a 3-point scale developed for this study: (1) optimal position free-floating in CSF; (2) touching choroid or ventricular wall; or (3) intraparenchymal. Episodes and type of shunt revision were recorded. Early shunt failure was defined as that occurring within 30 days of surgery. Patients with shunts were followed-up for 12 months in the standard group, for a median of 6 months in the EM-navigated group, or until shunt failure. A total of 75 patients were included in the study, 41 with standard shunts and 34 with EM-navigated shunts. Seventy-four percent of navigated shunts were Grade 1 compared with 37% of the standard shunts (p=0.001, chi-square test). There were no Grade 3 placements in the navigated group, but 8 in the standard group, and 75% of these failed. Early shunt failure occurred in 9 patients in the standard group and in 2 in the navigated group, reducing the early revision rate from 22 to 5.9% (p=0.048, Fisher exact test). Early shunt failures were due to proximal obstruction in 78% of standard shunts (7 of 9) and in 50% of EM-navigated shunts (1 of 2). Noninvasive EM image guidance in shunt surgery reduces poor shunt placement, resulting in a significant decrease in the early shunt

  6. Nonlinearity measurements of PIN photodiode based ROSA for FTTX applications (United States)

    Wang, Xinzhong; He, Chun; Li, Yao; Zhou, Andy; Tsay, Wei-Shin


    We have designed and fabricated PIN photodiode based ROSA used for FTTX applications. The critical nonlinearity parameters of Inter-modulation Distortion (IMD) were measured by two RF modulated light sources near 1550nm wavelength channels. A cost effective measuring system with narrow pass band filter was set up and some procedures were utilized for determining the low level signals of IMD. Obtained test results were used in real time to guide packaging process to achieve best receiver performance.

  7. Investigation of silicon PIN-detector for laser pulse detection


    Chau, Sam


    This report has been written at SAAB Bofors Dynamics (SBD) AB in Gothenburg at the department of optronic systems. In military observation operations, a target to hit is chosen by illumination of a laser designator. From the targetpoint laser radiation is reflected on a detector that helps identify the target. The detector is a semiconductor PIN-type that has been investigated in a laboratory environment together with a specially designed laser source. The detector is a photodiode and using p...

  8. Prevention of pin tract infection with titanium-copper alloys. (United States)

    Shirai, Toshiharu; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Tohru; Ohtani, Kaori; Zen, Yo; Tomita, Katsuro


    The most frequent complication in external fixation is pin tract infection. To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, many published reports have looked at preventing bacterial adhesion by treating the pin surface. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of a Titanium-Copper (Ti-Cu) alloy on implant infection, and to determine the potential use of the Ti-Cu alloy as a biomaterial. Two forms of Ti-Cu alloys were synthesized: one with 1% Cu and the other with 5% Cu. For analyzing infectious behavior, the implants were exposed to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The reaction of pathogens to the Ti-Cu alloys was compared with their reaction to stainless steel and pure titanium as controls. Both Ti-Cu alloys evidently inhibited colonization by both bacteria. Conversely, cytocompatibility studies were performed using fibroblasts and colony formation on the metals was assessed by counting the number of colonies. Ti-1% Cu alloy showed no difference in the number of colonies compared with the control. External fixator pins made of Ti-Cu alloys were evaluated in a rabbit model. The tissue-implant interactions were analyzed for the presence of infection, inflammatory changes and osteoid-formation. Ti-1% Cu alloy significantly inhibited inflammation and infection, and had excellent osteoid-formation. Copper blood levels were measured before surgery and at 14 days postoperatively. Preoperative and postoperative blood copper values were not statistically different. Overall, it was concluded that Ti-Cu alloys have antimicrobial activity and substantially reduce the incidence of pin tract infection. Ti-1% Cu alloy shows particular promise as a biomaterial. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Anticipating WPS PIN Vulnerability to Secure Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Dwi Rianto


    Full Text Available WiFi Protected Setup (WPS is a standardized function supported by numerous vendors of wireless routers and access point to help set up connection to a wireless local area network. It is designed to simplify the set up and generally enabled by default. Due to design flaw, the WPS or QSS PIN is susceptible to a brute forceattack. In this paper, we test the security vulnerability occurred, evaluate the performance and give recommendations to anticipate the attack.

  10. Performance of a TiN-coated monolithic silicon pin-diode array under mechanical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanDevender, B.A., E-mail: [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bodine, L.I.; Myers, A.W.; Amsbaugh, J.F.; Howe, M.A.; Leber, M.L.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Tolich, K.; Van Wechel, T.D.; Wall, B.L. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)


    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN) will detect tritium {beta}-decay electrons that pass through its electromagnetic spectrometer with a highly segmented monolithic silicon pin-diode focal-plane detector (FPD). This pin-diode array will be on a single piece of 500-{mu}m-thick silicon, with contact between titanium nitride (TiN)-coated detector pixels and front-end electronics made by spring-loaded pogo pins. The pogo pins will exert a total force of up to 50 N on the detector, deforming it and resulting in mechanical stress up to 50 MPa in the silicon bulk. We have evaluated a prototype pin-diode array with a pogo-pin connection scheme similar to the KATRIN FPD. We find that pogo pins make good electrical contact to TiN and observe no effects on detector resolution or reverse-bias leakage current which can be attributed to mechanical stress.

  11. Enhancing speed of pinning synchronizability: low-degree nodes with high feedback gains

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; Liao, Hao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Cai, Shi-Min


    Controlling complex networks is of paramount importance in science and engineering. Despite recent efforts to improve controllability and synchronous strength, little attention has been paid to the speed of pinning synchronizability (rate of convergence in pinning control) and the corresponding pinning node selection. To address this issue, we propose a hypothesis to restrict the control cost, then build a linear matrix inequality related to the speed of pinning controllability. By solving the inequality, we obtain both the speed of pinning controllability and optimal control strength (feedback gains in pinning control) for all nodes. Interestingly, some low-degree nodes are able to achieve large feedback gains, which suggests that they have high influence on controlling system. In addition, when choosing nodes with high feedback gains as pinning nodes, the controlling speed of real systems is remarkably enhanced compared to that of traditional large-degree and large-betweenness selections. Thus, the proposed...

  12. Evidence of domain wall pinning in aluminum substituted cobalt ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, J.C.; Janrao, P.S.; Datar, A.A.; Kanhe, N.S.; Bhoraskar, S.V.; Mathe, V.L.


    In the present work spinel structured cobalt ferrites with aluminum substitution having composition CoAl{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) have been synthesized using chemical co-precipitation method. Their microstructural, magnetic, magnetostriction and magnetoimpedance properties have been investigated. The piezomagnetic coefficient (dλ/dH) obtained from magnetostriction data is found to enhance with 0.1 Al substitutions in place of iron which decreases with further increase of Al content. It is noticed that 0.3 Al substitutions in place of Fe introduces domain wall pinning as evidenced from magnetostriction, magnetoimpedance and dc magnetization data. It is noted that ferrites so prepared using a simple procedure are magnetostrictive in good measure and with the addition of very small amount of non-magnetic aluminum their magnetostriction has shown saturation at relatively low magnetic fields. Such magnetostrictive ferrites find their applications in magnetic sensors and actuators. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of CoAl{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} (x=0.0 to 0.3) ferrites. • Experimental evidence of domain wall pinning. • Analysis of magnetic, micro-structural, structural and spectroscopic data. • Co-relation of the data obtained using various techniques with pinning effect.

  13. Domain wall remote pinning in magnetic nano wires (United States)

    Read, Dan; Miguel, Jorge; Maccherozzi, Francesco; Cavill, Stuart; Dhesi, Sarnjeet; Cardiff University Collaboration; Diamond Light Source Collaboration


    In the current race for information storage media with ever increasing density the position of magnetic domain walls, the region in a magnetic system where the local magnetization continually rotates its direction between adjacent magnetic domains, is one of the most promising routes for future storage media devices. Information storage requires ultrafast read-out and writing operations, but domain walls need to be pinned so that the information is safely stored in the long term. Here we investigate the use of remote magnetostatic charges to trap domain walls. By using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy we have followed the position of domain walls of opposite charge being pinned or repelled by pinning potentials of increasing strength. Micromagnetic simulations show an excellent agreement with the experimental results. We demonstrate the attractive or repulsive character of the interaction between domain wall and trap depending upon the sign of their magnetic charges. These quasi-static experiments are the antecedent to ultrafast time-resolved XMCD-PEEM experiments where the spin-transfer torque effect will be studied dynamically by applying picosecond-long current pulses across the magnetic nanowire.

  14. Contact and Non-contact Measurements of Grinding Pins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdziak Marek


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of contact and non-contact measurements of external profiles of selected grinding pins. The measurements were conducted in order to choose the appropriate measuring technique in the case of the considered measurement task. In the case of contact measurements the coordinate measuring machine ACCURA II was applied. The used coordinate measuring machine was equipped with the contact scanning probe VAST XT and the Calypso inspection software. Contact coordinate measurements were performed by using of different measurement strategies. The applied strategies included different scanning velocities and distances between measured points. Non-contact measurements were conducted by means of the tool presetter produced by the Mahr company. On the basis of gained results the guidelines concerning measurements of grinding pins were formulated. The measurements of analyzed grinding pins performed by means of the non-contact measuring system are characterized by higher reproducibility than the contact measurements. The low reproducibility of contact measurements may be connected with the inaccuracy of the selected coordinate measuring machine and the measuring probe, the measurement parameters and environmental conditions in the laboratory where the coordinate measuring machine is located. Moreover, the paper presents the possible application of results of conducted investigations. The results of non-contact measurements can be used in the simulation studies of grinding processes. The simulations may reduce the costs of machining processes.

  15. Biological significance of PinX1 telomerase inhibitor in esophageal carcinoma treatment. (United States)

    Fan, Xiang-Kui; Yan, Rui-Hua; Geng, Xiang-Qun; Li, Jing-Shan; Chen, Xiang-Ming; Li, Jian-Zhe


    In the present study, to investigate the expression of PinX1 gene and its functional effects in human esophageal carcinoma (Eca)-109 cell line, expression vectors of human PinX1 (pEGFP-C3-PinX1) and its small interfering RNA (PinX1-FAM-siRNA) were constructed and transfected into Eca-109 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. Firstly, the mRNA expression level of PinX1 was examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Once successful transfection was achieved, the effects on the mRNA level of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), telomerase activity, cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, stretch PCR, MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Analysis of restriction and sequencing demonstrated that the recombining plasmids were successfully constructed. The results also indicated that transfection with pEGFP-C3-PinX1 and PinX1-FAM-siRNA into Eca-109 cells significantly increased PinX1 mRNA, decreased hTERT mRNA by 29.9% (Ptelomerase activity (Ptelomerase activity and cell apoptotic index were not altered. Exogenous PinX1 has been demonstrated to be highly expressed in human Eca. PinX1 can inhibit human telomerase activity and the expression of hTERT mRNA, reduce tumor cell growth and induce apoptosis. Notably, these inhibitory functions were inhibited by silencing PinX1 in Eca with PinX1-FAM-siRNA. PinX1 was successfully increased and decreased in the present study, demonstrating that it may be a potential telomerase activity inhibitor. As PinX1 is an endogenous telomerase inhibitor, it may be used as a novel tumor-targeted gene therapy.

  16. Comparison of Extension Orthosis Versus Percutaneous Pinning of the Distal Interphalangeal Joint for Closed Mallet Injuries. (United States)

    Renfree, Kevin J; Odgers, Ryan A; Ivy, Cynthia C


    We compared a static extension orthosis with percutaneous pinning of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) for treatment of closed mallet injuries. After receiving counsel about treatment options, 44 patients (25 women and 19 men; mean age, 57 years) freely chose orthosis and 18 patients (5 women and 13 men; mean age, 51 years) chose pinning. Both the extension orthosis and the pin remained in place for 6 weeks; the pin then was removed, and the care in both groups was transitioned to nighttime orthosis use for an additional 6 weeks. The patients in the pin group were allowed to immediately resume unrestricted activity postoperatively. The mean follow-up was 32 months in the orthosis group and 19 months in the pin group. Final residual extensor lag was better in the pin group (5 vs 10 degrees, P = 0.048). Improvement between the groups was in favor of percutaneous pinning (36 vs 17 degrees, P = 0.001). No correlation was seen between time to treatment (≤14 vs >14 days from injury) and final extensor lag in either group (P = 0.85). The final mean DIPJ flexion was 53 degrees for orthosis and 46 degrees for pinning. Among the patients, 93% of the orthosis group and 100% of the pin group said that they would choose the same treatment again. Both groups had a mean of 5 hand therapy visits during treatment. Two complications occurred in the orthosis group (5%) and 3 (17%) occurred in the pin group. Extension orthotics and pinning are both well-tolerated, effective treatments of mallet injury. The techniques produce satisfactory correction of extensor lag and have high patient satisfaction. Pinning allows better correction of DIPJ extensor lag and results in a smaller degree of final extensor lag. Pinning is more expensive and may result in more DIPJ stiffness (ie, loss of active flexion), but it may be justified in certain patients (eg, medical professionals, food service workers) who would have difficulty working with an orthosis.

  17. Selective Placement Program Coordinator (SPPC) Directory (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — List of the Selective Placement Program Coordinators (SPPC) in Federal agencies, updated as needed. Users can filter the list by choosing a state and/or agency name.

  18. Parametric study of sensor placement for vision-based relative navigation system of multiple spacecraft (United States)

    Jeong, Junho; Kim, Seungkeun; Suk, Jinyoung


    In order to overcome the limited range of GPS-based techniques, vision-based relative navigation methods have recently emerged as alternative approaches for a high Earth orbit (HEO) or deep space missions. Therefore, various vision-based relative navigation systems use for proximity operations between two spacecraft. For the implementation of these systems, a sensor placement problem can occur on the exterior of spacecraft due to its limited space. To deal with the sensor placement, this paper proposes a novel methodology for a vision-based relative navigation based on multiple position sensitive diode (PSD) sensors and multiple infrared beacon modules. For the proposed method, an iterated parametric study is used based on the farthest point optimization (FPO) and a constrained extended Kalman filter (CEKF). Each algorithm is applied to set the location of the sensors and to estimate relative positions and attitudes according to each combination by the PSDs and beacons. After that, scores for the sensor placement are calculated with respect to parameters: the number of the PSDs, number of the beacons, and accuracy of relative estimates. Then, the best scoring candidate is determined for the sensor placement. Moreover, the results of the iterated estimation show that the accuracy improves dramatically, as the number of the PSDs increases from one to three.

  19. Partial Pole Placement in LMI Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuli Ou


    Full Text Available A new approach for pole placement of single-input system is proposed in this paper. Noncritical closed loop poles can be placed arbitrarily in a specified convex region when dominant poles are fixed in anticipant locations. The convex region is expressed in the form of linear matrix inequality (LMI, with which the partial pole placement problem can be solved via convex optimization tools. The validity and applicability of this approach are illustrated by two examples.

  20. Controller placement problem in industrial networks


    Macián Ribera, Sergi


    SDN is the new trend in networks, for next Mobile and optical networks. Dimensioning, design and optimization of Software Defined Optical Networks. To be done at Technical University Munich (TUM) In this work the Controller Placement Problem (CPP) for SDN architecture is studied when it is applied to industrial networks. En este trabajo se estudia el problema CPP (controller placement problem) para la arquitectura SDN, aplicado a redes industriales. En aquest treball s'estudia el pro...

  1. Immediate Implant Placement: Report of Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray M.


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of immediate postextraction implant placement. Immediate placement of dental implants have been claimed of the potential advantages such as reductions in the number of surgical interventions, a shorter treatment time, an ideal 3-dimensional implant positioning, the presumptive preservation of alveolar bone at the site of the tooth extraction and soft tissue aesthetics.

  2. Fair and efficient student placement with couples


    Klaus, Bettina; Klijn, Flip


    We study situations of allocating positions or jobs to students or workers based on priorities. An example is the assignment of medical students to hospital residencies on the basis of one or several entrance exams. For markets without couples, e.g., for ``undergraduate student placement,'' acyclicity is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a fair and efficient placement mechanism (Ergin, 2002). We show that in the presence of couples, which introduces complementarities i...

  3. Realistic Approach for Phasor Measurement Unit Placement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe; Thøgersen, Paul


    This paper presents a realistic cost-effectivemodel for optimal placement of phasor measurement units (PMUs) for complete observability of a power system considering practical cost implications. The proposed model considers hidden or otherwise unaccounted practical costs involved in PMU installat......This paper presents a realistic cost-effectivemodel for optimal placement of phasor measurement units (PMUs) for complete observability of a power system considering practical cost implications. The proposed model considers hidden or otherwise unaccounted practical costs involved in PMU...

  4. Influence of volumetric shrinkage and curing light intensity on proximal contact tightness of class II resin composite restorations: in vitro study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Shamy, H.; Saber, M.H.; Dorfer, C.E.; El-Badrawy, W.; Loomans, B.A.C.


    BACKGROUND : Proximal contact tightness of class II resin composite restorations is influenced by a myriad of factors. Previous studies investigated the role of matrix band type and thickness, consistency of resin composite, and technique of placement. However, the effect of volumetric shrinkage of

  5. A Population-Based Analysis of Three Treatment Modalities for Malignant Obstruction of the Proximal Colon: Acute Resection Versus Stent or Stoma as a Bridge to Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, F. J.; Consten, E. C. J.; Siersema, P. D.; Tanis, P. J.


    Malignant obstruction of the proximal colon (MOPC) traditionally has been treated with acute resection. However, morbidity and mortality rates following these emergency surgeries are high. Initial bowel decompression by stent placement or stoma construction has been used for distal obstructions as

  6. Staged minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis of proximal tibial fractures with acute compartment syndrome. (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Oh, Chang-Wug; Oh, Jong-Keon; Kyung, Hee-Soo; Park, Kyeong-Hyeon; Kim, Hee-June; Jung, Jae-Wook; Jung, Young-Soo


    High-energy proximal tibial fractures often accompany compartment syndrome and are usually treated by fasciotomy with external fixation followed by secondary plating. However, the initial soft tissue injury may affect bony union, the fasciotomy incision or external fixator pin sites may lead to postoperative wound infections, and the staged procedure itself may adversely affect lower limb function. We assess the results of staged minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) for proximal tibial fractures with acute compartment syndrome. Twenty-eight patients with proximal tibial fractures accompanied by acute compartment syndrome who underwent staged MIPO and had a minimum of 12 months follow-up were enrolled. According to the AO/OTA classification, 6 were 41-A, 15 were 41-C, 2 were 42-A and 5 were 42-C fractures; this included 6 cases of open fractures. Immediate fasciotomy was performed once compartment syndrome was diagnosed and stabilization of the fracture followed using external fixation. After the soft tissue condition normalized, internal conversion with MIPO was done on an average of 37 days (range, 9-158) after index trauma. At the time of internal conversion, the external fixator pin site grades were 0 in 3 cases, 1 in 12 cases, 2 in 10 cases and 3 in 3 cases, as described by Dahl. Radiographic assessment of bony union and alignment and a functional assessment using the Knee Society Score and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score were carried out. Twenty-six cases achieved primary bony union at an average of 18.5 weeks. Two cases of nonunion healed after autogenous bone grafting. The mean Knee Society Score and the AOFAS score were 95 and 95.3 respectively, at last follow-up. Complications included 1 case of osteomyelitis in a patient with a grade IIIC open fracture and 1 case of malunion caused by delayed MIPO due to poor wound conditions. Duration of external fixation and the external fixator pin site grade were not related to the

  7. Vortex dynamics in supraconductors in the presence of anisotropic pinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soroka, O.K.


    Vortex dynamics in two different classes of superconductors with anisotropic unidirected pinning sites was experimentally investigated by magnetoresistivity measurements: YBCO-films with unidirected twins and Nb-films deposited on faceted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate surfaces. For the interpretation of the experimental results a theoretical model based on the Fokker-Planck equation was used. It was proved by X-ray measurements that YBCO films prepared on (001) NdGaO{sub 3} substrates exhibit only one twin orientation in contrast to YBCO films grown on (100) SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. The magnetoresistivity measurements of the YBCO films with unidirected twin boundaries revealed the existence of two new magnetoresistivity components, which is a characteristic feature of a guided vortex motion: an odd longitudinal component with respect to the magnetic field sign reversal and an even transversal component. However, due to the small coherence length in YBCO and the higher density of point-like defects comparing to high-quality YBCO single crystals, the strength of the isotropic point pinning was comparable with the strength of the pinning produced by twins. This smeared out all e ects caused by the pinning anisotropy. The behaviour of the odd longitudinal component was found to be independent of the transport current direction with respect to the twin planes. The magnetoresistivity measurements of faceted Nb films demonstrated the appearance of an odd longitudinal and even transversal component of the magnetoresistivity. The temperature and magnetic field dependences of all relevant magnetoresistivity components were measured. The angles between the average vortex velocity vector and the transport current direction calculated from the experimental data for the different transport current orientations with respect to the facet ridges showed that the vortices moved indeed along the facet ridges. An anomalous Hall effect, i.e. a sign change of the odd transversal

  8. X-ray measurement with Pin type semiconductor detectors; Medicion de rayos X con detectores de semiconductor tipo PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez J, F.J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Electronica, C.P. 52045 Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Here are presented the experimental results of the applications of Pin type radiation detectors developed in a National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) project, in the measurement of low energy gamma and X-rays. The applications were oriented mainly toward the Medical Physics area. It is planned other applications which are in process of implementation inside the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. (Author)

  9. Pulmonary Artery Catheter Placement Using Transesophageal Echocardiography. (United States)

    Cronin, Brett; Robbins, Robin; Maus, Timothy


    To assess the feasibility of pulmonary artery catheter placement using transesophageal echocardiography inclusive of a description of the technique. A prospective, proof-of-concept study. Single university hospital. Twenty patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension scheduled for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Pulmonary artery catheters were placed in 20 patients solely by transesophageal echocardiographic guidance. Placement of the pulmonary artery catheter in the pulmonary artery with transesophageal echocardiography guidance in fewer than 10 minutes was considered successful placement. The time to placement was measured from advancement of the pulmonary artery catheter in the superior vena cava (20 cm) to a final location at the junction of the right pulmonary artery and main pulmonary artery. All 20 pulmonary artery catheters were placed successfully using transesophageal echocardiography guidance and the median time to placement was 43 seconds. In 9 of the 20 patients (45%), the catheter was placed successfully on the first attempt without any adjustments. However, in 9 others (45%), the catheter required manipulation under transesophageal echocardiography vision. In 3 patients (15%), the pulmonary artery catheter was observed to be coiled in the right atrium and in 1 instance (5%) manipulation of the catheter in the right ventricle was required to enter the outflow tract. Transesophageal echocardiography is a viable adjunctive method to conventional pressure waveform placement of pulmonary artery catheters in potentially difficult patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The anatomy of the proximal tibia in pediatric and adolescent patients: implications for ACL reconstruction and prevention of physeal arrest. (United States)

    Shea, Kevin G; Apel, Peter J; Pfeiffer, Ronald P; Traughber, Paul D


    Although the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears in skeletally immature patients is still controversial, several studies have advocated ACL reconstruction in selected patients to prevent secondary injury. The proximal tibial physis is a structure at risk during ACL reconstruction in young patients, and physeal growth complications have been reported after surgery in this area. The relationship between the ACL and the proximal tibial physeal/apophyseal regions is poorly understood. This study examined the MRI anatomy of the ACL and the proximal tibia apophysis and epiphysis. MRIs of 59 skeletally immature knees were reviewed (Average age = 12.75 years, range 6-15) to define the anatomy of the epiphyseal and apophyseal regions. Measurements were recorded in three parasagittal planes: (1) at the lateral border of the patellar tendon, (2) the lateral edge of the ACL insertion, and (3) the medial edge of the ACL insertion. A single three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) scan was used to evaluate the position of standard drill holes used in ACL reconstruction to assess for potential degree of injury to the epiphyseal and apophyseal growth plates. In the parasagittal planes, the average height of the epiphysis was 19.6, 20.7, and 21.5 mm at the lateral border of the patellar tendon, the lateral border of the ACL, and the medial border of the ACL, respectively. At the level of the same landmarks, the apophysis extended below the physis at an average of 20.2, 16.8, and 7.0 mm, respectively. Expressed as a percentage of epiphysis height this was an average of 104, 82, and 33%, respectively. Examination of 3D CT images revealed that variations in drill hole placement had effects on the volume of injury to the proximal tibial physis and apophysis. Drill holes that started more medial, distal, and with a steeper angle of inclination reduced the amount of physis and apophysis violated when compared with holes placed more lateral, proximal, and with a

  11. The calcar screw in angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmen Hans-Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With new minimally-invasive approaches for angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures, the need for the placement of oblique inferomedial screws ('calcar screw' has increasingly been discussed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of calcar screws on secondary loss of reduction and on the occurrence of complications. Methods Patients with a proximal humeral fracture who underwent angular stable plate fixation between 01/2007 and 07/2009 were included. On AP views of the shoulder, the difference in height between humeral head and the proximal end of the plate were determined postoperatively and at follow-up. Additionally, the occurrence of complications was documented. Patients with calcar screws were assigned to group C+, patients without to group C-. Results Follow-up was possible in 60 patients (C+ 6.7 ± 5.6 M/C- 5.0 ± 2.8 M. Humeral head necrosis occurred in 6 (C+, 15.4% and 3 (C-, 14.3% cases. Cut-out of the proximal screws was observed in 3 (C+, 7.7% and 1 (C-, 4.8% cases. In each group, 1 patient showed delayed union. Implant failure or lesions of the axillary nerve were not observed. In 44 patients, true AP and Neer views were available to measure the head-plate distance. There was a significant loss of reduction in group C- (2.56 ± 2.65 mm compared to C+ (0.77 ± 1.44 mm; p = 0.01. Conclusions The placement of calcar screws in the angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures is associated with less secondary loss of reduction by providing inferomedial support. An increased risk for complications could not be shown.

  12. Cefazolin-containing poly(ε-caprolactone sponge pad to reduce pin tract infection rate in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki


    Full Text Available In our previous study, a fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2–apatite composite layer coated on titanium screws effectively prevented pin tract infection in rabbits because of enhanced wound healing; however, the FGF-2–apatite composite layers did not completely prevent pin tract infection. Thus, we recently developed a poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL sponge pad embedded with cefazolin sodium (+CEZ, which has a fast-acting bactericidal effect. The pad is placed on the skin around the screws. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-infective efficacy of the +CEZ pad on the pin–skin interface of the FGF-2–apatite-coated titanium screws. The +CEZ pads were prepared by mixing PCL and CEZ in 1,4-dioxane, followed by freeze-drying and compaction. They were analyzed regarding their surface structure, in vitro CEZ release profile, and bactericidal activity. The FGF-2–apatite-coated screws were implanted percutaneously in bilateral rabbit proximal tibial metaphyses—with and without the +CEZ pad—for 4 weeks (n = 20. The + CEZ pads consisted of a porous matrix of PCL in which CEZ was embedded. The CEZ-release profile showed an initial burst on Day 1 and a sustained release lasting for 30 days. The +CEZ pad retained its bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus after preincubation on an agar plate for 7 days. Based on visual inspection, the pin tract infection rate was successfully reduced from 72.2% to 15.0% with the +CEZ pad (p < 0.05, which reduced the bacterial count, especially S. aureus (p < 0.05. The histological inflammation rate of the soft tissues was also significantly lower with the +CEZ pad than without it (p < 0.05. The pin tract infection rate was reduced to one-fifth with the +CEZ pad. Using it as described improves infection resistance during percutaneous implantation.

  13. Cell plate-restricted association of Arabidopsis dynamin related proteins and PIN auxin efflux carriers is required for PIN endocytic trafficking during cytokinesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mravec, J.; Petrasek, J.; Li, N.; Boeren, J.A.; Karlova, R.B.; Kitakura, S.; Naramoto, S.; Nodzynski, T.; Dhonukshe, P.B.; Vries, de S.C.; Zazimalova, E.; Friml, J.


    The polarized transport of the phytohormone auxin [1], which is crucial for the regulation of different stages of plant development [ [2] and [3] ], depends on the asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers [4 A. Vieten, M. Sauer, P.B. Brewer and J. Friml,

  14. Complications in proximal humeral fractures. (United States)

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio


    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pin1 enhances adipocyte differentiation by positively regulating the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. (United States)

    Han, Younho; Lee, Sung Ho; Bahn, Minjin; Yeo, Chang-Yeol; Lee, Kwang Youl


    Pin1 is a peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase and it has a unique enzymatic activity of catalyzing isomerization of the peptide bond between phospho-serine/threonine and proline. Through the conformational change of its substrates, Pin1 regulates diverse biological processes including adipogenesis. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, overexpression of Pin1 enhances adipocyte differentiation whereas inhibition of Pin1 activity suppresses it. However, the precise functions of Pin1 during adipogenesis are not clear. In the present study, we investigated the potential targets of Pin1 during adipogenesis. We found that Pin1 interacts directly with and regulates the transcriptional activity of PPARγ, a key regulator of adipogenesis. In addition, ERK activity and Ser273 of PPARγ, a potential ERK phosphorylation target site, are important for the regulation of PPARγ function by Pin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together our results suggest a novel regulatory mechanism of Pin1 during adipogenesis, in which Pin1 enhances adipocyte differentiation by regulating the function of PPARγ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Excessive Cellular S-nitrosothiol Impairs Endocytosis of Auxin Efflux Transporter PIN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ni


    Full Text Available S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR1 is the key enzyme that regulates cellular levels of S-nitrosylation across kingdoms. We have previously reported that loss of GSNOR1 resulted in impaired auxin signaling and compromised auxin transport in Arabidopsis, leading to the auxin-related morphological phenotypes. However, the molecular mechanism underpinning the compromised auxin transport in gsnor1-3 mutant is still unknown. Endocytosis of plasma-membrane (PM-localized efflux PIN proteins play critical roles in auxin transport. Therefore, we investigate whether loss of GSNOR1 function has any effects on the endocytosis of PIN-FORMED (PIN proteins. It was found that the endocytosis of either the endogenous PIN2 or the transgenically expressed PIN2-GFP was compromised in the root cells of gsnor1-3 seedlings relative to Col-0. The internalization of PM-associated PIN2 or PIN2-GFP into Brefeldin A (BFA bodies was significantly reduced in gsnor1-3 upon BFA treatment in a manner independent of de novo protein synthesis. In addition, the exogenously applied GSNO not only compromised the endocytosis of PIN2-GFP but also inhibited the root elongation in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that, besides the reduced PIN2 level, one or more compromised components in the endocytosis pathway could account for the reduced endocytosis of PIN2 in gsnor1-3.

  17. A three-dimensional pin-wise analysis for CEA ejection accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Guen-Tae; Park, Min-Ho; Park, Jin-Woo; Um, Kil-Sup; Choi, Tong-Soo [KEPCO NF, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The ejection of a control element assembly (CEA) with high reactivity worth causes the sudden insertion of reactivity into the core. Immediately after the CEA ejection, the nuclear power of the reactor dramatically increases in an exponential behavior until the doppler effect becomes important and turns the reactivity balance and power down to lower levels. The 3-D CEA ejection analysis methodology has been developed using the multi-dimensional code coupling system, CHASER, which couples three dimensional core neutron kinetics code ASTRA, subchannel analysis code THALES, and fuel performance analysis code FROST using message passing interface (MPI). This paper presents the pin-by-pin level analysis result with the 3-D CEA ejection analysis methodology using the CHASER. The pin-by-pin level analysis consists of DNBR, enthalpy and Pellet/Clad Mechanical Interaction (PCMI) analysis. All the evaluations are simulated for APR1400 plant loaded with PLUS7 fuel. In this paper, the pin-by-pin analysis using the multidimensional core transient code, CHASER, is presented with respect to enthalpy, DNBR and PCMI for APR1400 plant loaded with PLUS7 fuel. For the pin-by-pin enthalpy and DNBR analysis, the quarter core for HFP case or 15 - 20 assemblies around the most severe assembly for part powers or HZP cases are selected. And PCMI calculation is performed for all the rods in the whole core during a conservative time period. The pin-by-pin analysis results show that the regulatory guidelines of CEA ejection accident are satisfied.

  18. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 modulates development of CD8+ cDC in mice. (United States)

    Barberi, Theresa J; Dunkle, Alexis; He, You-Wen; Racioppi, Luigi; Means, Anthony R


    Pin1 has previously been described to regulate cells that participate in both innate and adaptive immunity. Thus far, however, no role for Pin1 has been described in modulating conventional dendritic cells, innate antigen presenting cells that potently activate naïve T cells, thereby bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. When challenged with LPS, Pin1-null mice failed to accumulate spleen conventional dendritic cells (cDC). Analysis of steady-state spleen DC populations revealed that Pin1-null mice had fewer CD8+ cDC. This defect was recapitulated by culturing Pin1-null bone marrow with the DC-instructive cytokine Flt3 Ligand. Additionally, injection of Flt3 Ligand for 9 days failed to induce robust expansion of CD8+ cDC in Pin1-null mice. Upon infection with Listeria monocytogenes, Pin1-null mice were defective in stimulating proliferation of adoptively transferred WT CD8+ T cells, suggesting that decreases in Pin1 null CD8+ cDC may affect T cell responses to infection in vivo. Finally, upon analyzing expression of proteins involved in DC development, elevated expression of PU.1 was detected in Pin1-null cells, which resulted from an increase in PU.1 protein half-life. We have identified a novel role for Pin1 as a modulator of CD8+ cDC development. Consistent with reduced numbers of CD8+ cDC in Pin1-null mice, we find that the absence of Pin1 impairs CD8+ T cell proliferation in response to infection with Listeria monocytogenes. These data suggest that, via regulation of CD8+ cDC production, Pin1 may serve as an important modulator of adaptive immunity.

  19. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.


    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  20. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  1. Manchester Clinical Placement Index (MCPI): Conditions for medical students’ learning in hospital and community placements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dornan, Tim; Muijtjens, Arno; Graham, Jennifer; Scherpbier, Albert; Boshuizen, Els


    Dornan, T., Muijtjens, A., Graham, J., Scherpbier, A., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012). Manchester Clinical Placement Index (MCPI): Conditions for medical students’ learning in hospital and community placements. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 17, 703-716. doi:10.1007/s10459-10011-19344-x

  2. Novel Technique for Proximal Bone Anchoring of Penile Prosthesis After Radial Forearm Free Flap Neophallus. (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew J; Bhanvadia, Raj R; Pariser, Joseph J; Hatcher, David M; Gottlieb, Lawrence J; Bales, Gregory T


    To describe outcomes of bone anchoring of penile implant in a neophallus with an accompanying video focusing on operative technique and salient tips for surgeons performing these procedures. Penile prosthesis insertion allows individuals with a neophallus to achieve erectile function. Lack of corporal bodies to accommodate cylinders makes anchoring of any prosthesis challenging. Anchoring the device to the pubic bone is one strategy to achieve proximal stabilization. A single-institution, retrospective chart review of 10 neophallus patients undergoing penile prosthesis placement from 2006 to 2015 was done. The pubic symphysis is exposed and corticotomy created for placement of the rear tip extender of the implant using a Stryker TPS bone drill. Anchoring sutures through the corticotomy defect, rear tip, and proximal cylinder seat the implant. The remainder of the implantation procedure mirrors that used in native tissue. The overall perioperative complication rate was 20%, with a mean follow-up of 49 months. Seventy percent of the patients required reoperation, with a mean of 1.4 prosthesis revision surgeries per patient. Primary causes of revision included infection, poor fixation of the rear tip, and prosthesis failure. Despite high revision rates, 80% of the patients have fully functioning prosthesis as of last follow-up. Limitations include retrospective study design and the small patient cohort. Penile prosthesis placement in the neophallus is feasible and effective. A bone-anchored rear tip is an option to provide proximal stabilization. Continued efforts to minimize the need for revisions are ongoing and necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Domain-growth kinetics and aspects of pinning: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castán, T.; Lindgård, Per-Anker


    transformations, surface reconstructions, and magnetic transitions. No external impurities are introduced, but the model has a number of intrinsic, annealable pinning mechanisms, which strongly influences the growth kinetics. It allows a study of pinning effects of three kinds: (a) pinning of domain walls...... by defects-this is found in effect to stop the growth, forming a metastable state at low temperatures T; (b) temporary pinning by stacking faults or zero-curvature domain walls; and (c) topological pinnings, which are also found to be temporary. These just slow down the growth. The pinning mechanisms...... and the depinning probability at higher temperatures are studied. The excess energy of the domain walls is found to follow an algebraic decay DELTA-E(t) = E(M) + At(-n), with E(M) = 0 for cases (b) and (c) and decaying toward a metastable state with energy E(M) not-equal-to 0 for case (a). The exponent is found...

  4. Confirmation of Essure placement using transvaginal ultrasound. (United States)

    Veersema, Sebastiaan; Vleugels, Michel; Koks, Caroline; Thurkow, Andreas; van der Vaart, Huub; Brölmann, Hans


    To evaluate the protocol for confirmation of satisfactory Essure placement using transvaginal ultrasound. Prospective multicenter cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Outpatient departments of 4 teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Eleven hundred forty-five women who underwent hysteroscopic sterilization using the Essure device between March 2005 and December 2007. Transvaginal ultrasound examination 12 weeks after uncomplicated successful bilateral placement or as indicated according to the transvaginal ultrasound protocol after 4 weeks, and hysterosalpingography (HSG) at 12 weeks to confirm correct placement of the device after 3 months. The rate of successful placement was 88.4% initially. In 164 women (15%), successful placement was confirmed at HSG according the protocol. In 9 patients (0.84%), incorrect position of the device was observed at HSG. The cumulative pregnancy rate after 18 months was 3.85 per thousand women. Transvaginal ultrasound should be the first diagnostic test used to confirm the adequacy of hysteroscopic Essure sterilization because it is minimally invasive, averts ionizing radiation, and does not decrease the effectiveness of the Essure procedure. Copyright © 2011 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fine Control of Local Whitespace in Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrod A. Roy


    Full Text Available In modern design methodologies, a large fraction of chip area during placement is left unused by standard cells and allocated as “whitespace.” This is done for a variety of reasons including the need for subsequent buffer insertion, as a means to ensure routability, signal integrity, and low coupling capacitance between wires, and to improve yield through DFM optimizations. To this end, layout constraints often require a certain minimum fraction of whitespace in each region of the chip. Our work introduces several techniques for allocation of whitespace in global, detail, and incremental placement. Our experiments show how to efficiently improve wirelength by reallocating whitespace in legal placements at the large scale. Additionally, for the first time in the literature, we empirically demonstrate high-precision control of whitespace in designs with macros and obstacles. Our techniques consistently improve the quality of whitespace allocation of top-down as well as analytical placement methods and achieve low penalties on designs from the ISPD 2006 placement contest with minimal interconnect increase.

  6. GaN-based PIN alpha particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guo [Peking University, Shenzhen Graduate School, Guangdong Shenzhen 518055 (China); Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Fu Kai; Yao Changsheng [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Science, Jiangsu Suzhou 215123 (China); Su Dan; Zhang Guoguang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Wang Jinyan [Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Lu Min, E-mail: [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Science, Jiangsu Suzhou 215123 (China)


    GaN-based PIN alpha particle detectors are studied in this article. The electrical properties of detectors have been investigated, such as current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V). The reverse current of all detectors is in nA range applied at 30 V, which is suitable for detector operation. The charge collection efficiency (CCE) is measured to be approximately 80% but the energy resolution is calculated to be about 40% mostly because the intrinsic layer is not sufficiently thick enough.

  7. Current Kink and Capacitance Frequency Dispersion in Silicon PIN Photodiodes (United States)

    Guo, Xia; Feng, Yajie; Liu, Qiaoli; Wang, Huaqiang; Li, Chong; Hu, Zonghai; He, Xiaoying


    Silicon PIN photodiodes in the visible wavelength range have been widely applied in aerospace, defense, security, medical, and scientific instruments because of their high sensitivity and low cost. In this paper, the phenomena of the current kink and the capacitance frequency dispersion are observed. Contamination at the p-type Ohmic contact interface is proposed to explain the current kink effect and capacitance frequency dispersion, according to the temperature-dependent I-V measurement results in which trap-assisted tunneling process demonstrated.

  8. Displacement Damage Effects in Pinned Photodiode CMOS Image Sensors


    Virmontois, Cédric; Goiffon, Vincent; Corbière, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Girard, Sylvain; Bardoux, Alain


    This paper investigates the effects of displacement damage in Pinned Photodiode (PPD) CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) using proton and neutron irradiations. The DDD ranges from 12 TeV/g to ${1.2 times 10^{6}}$ TeV/g. Particle fluence up to $5 times 10^{14}$ $^{-2}$ is investigated to observe electro-optic degradation in harsh environments. The dark current is also investigated and it would appear that it is possible to use the dark current spectroscopy in PPD CIS. The dark current random telegr...

  9. PinX1 regulation of telomerase activity and apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Xiao-Fen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human interacting protein X1 (PinX1 has been identified as a critical telomerase inhibitor and proposed to be a putative tumor suppressor gene. Loss of PinX1 has been found in a large variety of malignancies, however, its function in inhibiting telomerase activity of tumor cells is not well documented. Here we show that PinX1 is essential for down-regulation telomerase activity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods Expression vectors of human PinX1 (pEGFP-C3-PinX1 and its small interfering RNA (PinX1-FAM-siRNA were constructed and transfected into NPC. Their effects on mRNA of telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT, telomerase activity, cell proliferation, cell migration, wound healing, cell cycles and apoptosis were examined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, stretch PCR, MTT assay, Transwell, scratch assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Results Transfection of pEGFP-C3-PinX1 and PinX1-FAM-siRNA increased and reduced PinX1 mRNA by 1.6-fold and 70%, respectively. Over-expression of PinX1 decreased hTERT mRNA by 21%, reduced telomerase activity, inhibited cell growth, migration and wound healing ability, arrested cells in G0/G1 phase, and increased apoptotic index. In contrast, down-regulation of PinX1 did not alter the above characteristics. Conclusions PinX1 may play important roles in NPC proliferation, migration and apoptosis and has application potential in tumor-targeted gene therapy.

  10. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures


    Thyagarajan David; Haridas Samarth; Jones Denise; Dent Colin; Evans Richard; Williams Rhys


    Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system) for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years...

  11. Best Proximity Points for a New Class of Generalized Proximal Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Kamran


    Full Text Available The best proximity points are usually used to find the optimal approximate solution of the operator equation Tx = x, when T has no fixed point. In this paper, we prove some best proximity point theorems for nonself multivalued operators, following the foot steps of Basha and Shahzad [Best proximity point theorems for generalized proximal contractions, Fixed Point Theory Appl., 2012, 2012:42].

  12. Tools and Techniques for Placement Experiments (United States)

    van der Vegt, Wim; Kalz, Marco; Giesbers, Bas; Wild, Fridolin; van Bruggen, Jan

    In Chap. 11 we presented placement in the context of Accreditation of Prior Learning and showed that in the scenario we address we do not assume the availability of controlled vocabulary with which the contents of the learner portfolio or the learning material in the learning network is described. Our placement service is based on the assumption that similarity between material produced or studied by the learner on the one hand and the learning material of the learning network on the other, can be used as a proxy to similarity in learning outcomes. The first task of any such placement service is therefore to establish whether these similarities are present for a given learner. The technology with which this is done, latent semantic analysis, is presented here. The emphasis here is on the technical and computational aspects of data preparation and analysis.

  13. Enquiry into the Topology of Plasma Membrane-Localized PIN Auxin Transport Components. (United States)

    Nodzyński, Tomasz; Vanneste, Steffen; Zwiewka, Marta; Pernisová, Markéta; Hejátko, Jan; Friml, Jiří


    Auxin directs plant ontogenesis via differential accumulation within tissues depending largely on the activity of PIN proteins that mediate auxin efflux from cells and its directional cell-to-cell transport. Regardless of the developmental importance of PINs, the structure of these transporters is poorly characterized. Here, we present experimental data concerning protein topology of plasma membrane-localized PINs. Utilizing approaches based on pH-dependent quenching of fluorescent reporters combined with immunolocalization techniques, we mapped the membrane topology of PINs and further cross-validated our results using available topology modeling software. We delineated the topology of PIN1 with two transmembrane (TM) bundles of five α-helices linked by a large intracellular loop and a C-terminus positioned outside the cytoplasm. Using constraints derived from our experimental data, we also provide an updated position of helical regions generating a verisimilitude model of PIN1. Since the canonical long PINs show a high degree of conservation in TM domains and auxin transport capacity has been demonstrated for Arabidopsis representatives of this group, this empirically enhanced topological model of PIN1 will be an important starting point for further studies on PIN structure-function relationships. In addition, we have established protocols that can be used to probe the topology of other plasma membrane proteins in plants. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced Flux Pinning in Laser Ablated YBCO:BaTiO3 Nanocomposite Thin Film (United States)

    Jha, Alok K.; Khare, Neeraj; Pinto, R.


    The effect of incorporation of BaTiO3 (BTO) nanoparticles on the flux pinning properties of laser deposited YBCO:BTO thin films has been studied. Substantial increase in critical current density (JC) and pinning force density of the nanocomposite thin films was observed. The study of temperature and field dependence of JC of YBCO and YBCO:BTO thin films indicates similar type of pinning. The lattice mismatch between YBCO and BTO seems to introduce more defects resulting in improved flux pinning properties.

  15. Effects of Pin1 loss in HdhQ111 knock-in mice

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    Elena eAgostoni


    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is a fatal, dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disorder due to a pathological expansion of the CAG repeat in the coding region of the HTT gene. In the quest for understanding the molecular basis of neurodegeneration, we have previously demonstrated that the prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays a crucial role in mediating p53-dependent apoptosis triggered by mutant huntingtin (mHtt in vitro. To assess the effects of the lack of Pin1 in vivo, we have bred Pin1 knock-out mice with HdhQ111 knock-in mice, a genetically precise model of HD. We show that Pin1 genetic ablation modifies a portion of HdhQ111 phenotypes in a time-dependent fashion. As an early event, Pin1 activity reduces the DNA damage response. In midlife mice, by taking advantage of next-generation sequencing technology, we show that Pin1 activity modulates a portion of the alterations triggered by mHtt, extending the role of Pin1 to two additional HdhQ111 phenotypes: the unbalance in the synthesis/concentration of hormones, as well as the alteration of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In aging animals, Pin1 significantly increases the number of mHtt-positive nuclear inclusions while it reduces gliosis. In summary, this work provides further support for a role of Pin1 in HD pathogenesis.

  16. Effects of Pin1 Loss in HdhQ111 Knock-in Mice (United States)

    Agostoni, Elena; Michelazzi, Silvia; Maurutto, Marta; Carnemolla, Alisia; Ciani, Yari; Vatta, Paolo; Roncaglia, Paola; Zucchelli, Silvia; Leanza, Giampiero; Mantovani, Fiamma; Gustincich, Stefano; Santoro, Claudio; Piazza, Silvano; Del Sal, Giannino; Persichetti, Francesca


    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal, dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disorder due to a pathological expansion of the CAG repeat in the coding region of the HTT gene. In the quest for understanding the molecular basis of neurodegeneration, we have previously demonstrated that the prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays a crucial role in mediating p53-dependent apoptosis triggered by mutant huntingtin (mHtt) in vitro. To assess the effects of the lack of Pin1 in vivo, we have bred Pin1 knock-out mice with HdhQ111 knock-in mice, a genetically precise model of HD. We show that Pin1 genetic ablation modifies a portion of HdhQ111 phenotypes in a time-dependent fashion. As an early event, Pin1 activity reduces the DNA damage response (DDR). In midlife mice, by taking advantage of next-generation sequencing technology, we show that Pin1 activity modulates a portion of the alterations triggered by mHtt, extending the role of Pin1 to two additional HdhQ111 phenotypes: the unbalance in the “synthesis/concentration of hormones”, as well as the alteration of “Wnt/β-catenin signaling”. In aging animals, Pin1 significantly increases the number of mHtt-positive nuclear inclusions while it reduces gliosis. In summary, this work provides further support for a role of Pin1 in HD pathogenesis. PMID:27199664

  17. Functionally different PIN proteins control auxin flux during bulbil development in Agave tequilana. (United States)

    Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Hernández Cárdenas, Rocío; Santoyo Villa, José Natzul; O'Connor, Devin; Sluis, Aaron; Hake, Sarah; Ordaz-Ortiz, José; Terry, Leon; Simpson, June


    In Agave tequilana, reproductive failure or inadequate flower development stimulates the formation of vegetative bulbils at the bracteoles, ensuring survival in a hostile environment. Little is known about the signals that trigger this probably unique phenomenon in agave species. Here we report that auxin plays a central role in bulbil development and show that the localization of PIN1-related proteins is consistent with altered auxin transport during this process. Analysis of agave transcriptome data led to the identification of the A. tequilana orthologue of PIN1 (denoted AtqPIN1) and a second closely related gene from a distinct clade reported as 'Sister of PIN1' (denoted AtqSoPIN1). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed different patterns of expression for each gene during bulbil formation, and heterologous expression of the A. tequilana PIN1 and SoPIN1 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed functional differences between these genes. Although no free auxin was detected in induced pedicel samples, changes in the levels of auxin precursors were observed. Taken as a whole, the data support the model that AtqPIN1 and AtqSoPIN1 have co-ordinated but distinct functions in relation to auxin transport during the initial stages of bulbil formation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Phylogeny and molecular evolution analysis of PIN-FORMED 1 in angiosperm. (United States)

    Wang, Pengkai; Cheng, Tielong; Wu, Shuang; Zhao, Fangfang; Wang, Guangping; Yang, Liming; Lu, Mengzhu; Chen, Jinhui; Shi, Jisen


    PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1) is an important secondary transporter and determines the direction of intercellular auxin flow. As PIN1 performs the conserved function of auxin transport, it is expected that the sequence and structure of PIN1 is conserved. Therefore, we hypothesized that PIN1 evolve under pervasive purifying selection in the protein-coding sequences in angiosperm. To test this hypothesis, we performed detailed evolutionary analyses of 67 PIN1 sequences from 35 angiosperm species. We found that the PIN1 sequences are highly conserved within their transmembrane regions, part of their hydrophilic regions. We also found that there are two or more PIN1 copies in some of these angiosperm species. PIN1 sequences from Poaceae and Brassicaceae are representative of the modern clade. We identified 12 highly conserved motifs and a significant number of family-specific sites within these motifs. One family-specific site within Motif 11 shows a different residue between monocots and dicots, and is functionally critical for the polarity of PIN1. Likewise, the function of PIN1 appears to be different between monocots and dicots since the phenotype associated with PIN1 overexpression is opposite between Arabidopsis and rice. The evolution of angiosperm PIN1 protein-coding sequences appears to have been primarily driven by purifying selection, but traces of positive selection associated with sequences from certain families also seem to be present. We verified this observation by calculating the numbers of non-synonymous and synonymous changes on each branch of a phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that the evolution of angiosperm PIN1 sequences involve strong purifying selection. In addition, our results suggest that the conserved sequences of PIN1 derive from a combination of the family-specific site variations and conserved motifs during their unique evolutionary processes, which is critical for the functional integrity and stability of these auxin transporters

  19. Modeling and adaptive pinning synchronization control for a chaotic-motion motor in complex network (United States)

    Zhu, Darui; Liu, Chongxin; Yan, Bingnan


    We introduce a chaos model for a permanent-magnet synchronous motor and construct a coupled chaotic motor in a complex dynamic network using the Newman-Watts small-world network algorithm. We apply adaptive pinning control theory for complex networks to obtain suitable adaptive feedback gain and the number of nodes to be pinned. Nodes of low degree are pinned to realize global asymptotic synchronization in the complex network. The proposed adaptive pinning controller is added to the complex motor network for simulation and verification.

  20. Preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the following proximate ...

  1. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.


    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  2. Grouping by Proximity in Haptic Contour Detection (United States)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Wagemans, Johan


    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection. PMID:23762364

  3. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Vol. 15 (1) 9 - 11. Full-text Available Online at Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms. ADEDAYO, MAJEKODUNMI RACHEL. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, P.M.B.3032, Kano. ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in.

  4. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.


    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

  5. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spigelia anthelmia is used traditionally in Southern Nigeria for the treatment of infant convulsion and epilepsy. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant effect of the methanolic extract of Spigelia anthelmia. Phytochemical evaluation and proximate analysis was carried ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar L


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Various treatment modalities have been described for the treatment of distal radius fractures each with its own merits and demerits. Most of the work done with percutaneous pinning has shown a significant residual stiffness of the hand and wrist. Our technique involves percutaneous pinning of the fracture and immobilisation in neutral position of the wrist for. This study's aim was to examine the functional outcome of percutaneous K-wiring of these distal radius fractures with immobilisation in neutral position of the wrist. METHODS A prospective study conducted on thirty adult patients with distal radial fractures treated at Department of Orthopaedics, Rangaraya Medical college, Kakinada between October 2013 to September 2015. RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Standard radiographs in PA and lateral views were taken for confirmation of the diagnosis and also to know the type of fracture. Oblique views were also taken in a few patients who had complex comminuted fractures. The fracture fragments were analysed and involvement of radiocarpal and distal radioulnar joints were assessed and classified according to the Frykman classification. Of the cases, 6(20% of the fractures were type I, 2(6.6% of type II, 3(10% of type III, 6(20% of type IV, 8(26.6% of type V, 5(16.6% of type VI, no cases of type VII and VIII.SURGICAL PROCEDURE The procedures were performed under regional anaesthesia in all cases. After sterile preparation and draping, fracture is reduced by traction and the reduction was evaluated fluoroscopically. A 1.5 cm incision given longitudinally (if needed beginning at the radial styloid and proceeds proximally across to the medial metaphysis and diaphysis. At least two pins (1.6 mm Kirschner wire were inserted and adequate reduction was confirmed on AP/LAT views under image intensifier. Another 1.6 mm K-wire percutaneously 90 degrees orthogonally to these wires starting at the dorsal rim of distal radius just distal to the Lister

  7. Hydrophobic pinning with copper nanowhiskers leads to bactericidal properties.

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    Ajay Vikram Singh

    Full Text Available The considerable morbidity associated with hospitalized patients and clinics in developed countries due to biofilm formation on biomedical implants and surgical instruments is a heavy economic burden. An alternative to chemically treated surfaces for bactericidal activity started emerging from micro/nanoscale topographical cues in the last decade. Here, we demonstrate a putative antibacterial surface using copper nanowhiskers deposited by molecular beam epitaxy. Furthermore, the control of biological response is based on hydrophobic pinning of water droplets in the Wenzel regime, causing mechanical injury and cell death. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed the details of the surface morphology and non-contact mode laser scanning of the surface revealed the microtopography-associated quantitative parameters. Introducing the bacterial culture over nanowhiskers produces mechanical injury to cells, leading to a reduction in cell density over time due to local pinning of culture medium to whisker surfaces. Extended culture to 72 hours to observe biofilm formation revealed biofilm inhibition with scattered microcolonies and significantly reduced biovolume on nanowhiskers. Therefore, surfaces patterned with copper nanowhiskers can serve as potential antibiofilm surfaces. The topography-based antibacterial surfaces introduce a novel prospect in developing mechanoresponsive nanobiomaterials to reduce the risk of medical device biofilm-associated infections, contrary to chemical leaching of copper as a traditional bactericidal agent.

  8. Flux-Vortex Pinning and Neutron Star Evolution (United States)

    Alpar, M. Ali


    G. Srinivasan et al. (1990) proposed a simple and elegant explanation for the reduction of the neutron star magnetic dipole moment during binary evolution leading to low mass X-ray binaries and eventually to millisecond pulsars: Quantized vortex lines in the neutron star core superfluid will pin against the quantized flux lines of the proton superconductor. As the neutron star spins down in the wind accretion phase of binary evolution, outward motion of vortex lines will reduce the dipole magnetic moment in proportion to the rotation rate. The presence of a toroidal array of flux lines makes this mechanism inevitable and independent of the angle between the rotation and magnetic axes. The incompressibility of the flux-line array (Abrikosov lattice) determines the epoch when the mechanism will be effective throughout the neutron star. Flux vortex pinning will not be effective during the initial young radio pulsar phase. It will, however, be effective and reduce the dipole moment in proportion with the rotation rate during the epoch of spindown by wind accretion as proposed by Srinivasan et al. The mechanism operates also in the presence of vortex creep.

  9. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes (United States)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J.; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M.


    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco® Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures

  10. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-8806 (United States); Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-8806 (United States)


    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco{sup ®} Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures.

  11. Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups: photographing femininity after breast cancer. (United States)

    Regehr, Kaitlyn


    Many treatments for breast cancer are traumatic, invasive and harshly visible. In addition to physical trauma, breast cancer is often associated with a variety of psychosocial issues surrounding romantic relationships, sexuality and feminine identity. Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups was a pin-up girl calendar wherein all the models were women who were living with, or had survived, breast cancer. The project's purpose was to raise funds and awareness for breast cancer research and to create a space where survivors could explore and express their post-cancer sexuality. This study uses an observational approach, paired with semi-structured interviews, to explore the ways that breast cancer survivors perceive their post-cancer body and the subsequent impact on relationships and feminine identity. By examining contemporary discussions regarding breast cancer, body image and the objectification of women, it is concluded that although this photographic approach may be at odds with some modern breast cancer activism, it does appear to meet the expressed needs of a particular group of women living with the disease.

  12. Pinning of a drop by a junction on an incline (United States)

    De Coninck, Joël; Fernández Toledano, Juan Carlos; Dunlop, François; Huillet, Thierry


    The shape of a drop pinned on an inclined substrate is a long-standing problem where the complexity of real surfaces, with heterogeneities and hysteresis, makes it complicated to understand the mechanisms behind the phenomena. Here we consider the simple case of a drop pinned on an incline at the junction between a hydrophilic half plane (the top half) and a hydrophobic one (the bottom half). Relying on the equilibrium equations deriving from the balance of forces, we exhibit three scenarios depending on the way the contact line of the drop on the substrate either simply leans against the junction or overfills (partly or fully) into the hydrophobic side. We draw some conclusions on the geometry of the overlap and the stability of these tentative equilibrium states. In the corresponding retention force factor, we find that a major role is played by the wetted length of the junction line, in the spirit of Furmidge's observations. The predictions of the theory are compared with extensive molecular dynamics simulations.

  13. Measurement strategy and analytic model to determine firing pin force (United States)

    Lesenciuc, Ioan; Suciu, Cornel


    As illustrated in literature, ballistics is a branch of theoretical mechanics, which studies the construction and working principles of firearms and ammunition, their effects, as well as the motions of projectiles and bullets1. Criminalistics identification, as part of judiciary identification represents an activity aimed at finding common traits of different objects, objectives, phenomena and beings, but more importantly, traits that differentiate each of them from similar ones2-4. In judicial ballistics, in the case of rifled firearms it is relatively simple for experts to identify the used weapon from traces left on the projectile, as the rifling of the barrel leaves imprints on the bullet, which remain approximately identical even after the respective weapon is fired 100 times with the same barrel. However, in the case of smoothbore firearms, their identification becomes much more complicated. As the firing cap suffers alterations from being hit by the firing pin, determination of the force generated during impact creates the premises for determining the type of firearm used to shoot the respective cartridge. The present paper proposes a simple impact model that can be used to evaluate the force generated by the firing pin during its impact with the firing cap. The present research clearly showed that each rifle, by the combination of the three investigated parameters (impact force maximum value, its variation diagram, and impact time) leave a unique trace. Application of such a method in ballistics can create the perspectives for formulating clear conclusions that eliminate possible judicial errors in this field.

  14. Vortex Pinning in Superconducting MoGe Films Containing Conformal Arrays of Nanoscale Holes and Magnetic Dots (United States)

    Wang, Y. L.; Latimer, M. L.; Xiao, Z. L.; Ocola, L. E.; Divan, R.; Welp, U.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.


    Recent numerical simulations by Ray et al. predict that a conformal pinning array can produce stronger vortex pinning effect than other pinning structures with an equivalent density of pinning sites. Here we present experimental investigations on conformal pinning structures. Direct and conformal pinning arrays of triangular and square lattices were introduced into MoGe superconducting films using focused-ion-beam milling or electron-beam lithography. Transport measurements on critical currents and magnetoresistances were carried out on these samples to reveal the advantages of conformal pinnings. Effects of random pinnings with the same average density were also studied for comparison. Details on sample fabrications and effects of pinning types (holes versus magnetic dots) will be presented. Work supported by the US DoE-BES funded Energy Frontier Research Center (YLW), and by Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (MLL, ZLX, LEO, RD, UW, WKK), under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357

  15. German causative events with placement verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Knop Sabine


    Full Text Available Several studies have described the semantic uses of German posture verbs, but only few have dealt with German placement verbs. The present study wants to make up for this gap. Starting from a collection of examples from the core corpora of the Digitales Wörterbuch der Deutschen Sprache (DWDS and some former studies on posture verbs, it first describes the variety of the most common German placement verbs stellen (‘to put upright’, legen (‘to lay down’, setzen (‘to set’ and stecken (‘to stick’.

  16. Multiple immediate implants placement with immediate loading

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    Sumit Narang


    Full Text Available The replacement of missing teeth with implant-borne restorations has become a treatment modality accepted by the scientific community for fully and partially edentulous patients. Recent reports have demonstrated the successful placement of dental implants into the fresh extraction socket in the anterior as well as in molar regions, which is made possible due to modification in implant surface. The present case report highlights the placement of three bicortical screw (BCS implants into the fresh extraction sockets and one  KOS implant in edentulous area with flapless technique. All the implants were immediately loaded and followed up for a period of 6 months.

  17. Intramedullary compression device for proximal ulna fracture. (United States)

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Han, Fucai; Decruz, Joshua; Pannirselvam, Vinodhkumar; Murphy, Diarmuid


    Proximal ulna fractures account for 20% of all proximal forearm fractures. Many treatment options are available for such fractures, such as cast immobilisation, plate and screw fixation, tension band wiring and intramedullary screw fixation, depending on the fracture pattern. Due to the subcutaneous nature of the proximal forearm, it is vulnerable to open injuries over the dorsal aspect of the proximal ulna. This may in turn prove challenging, as it is critical to obtain adequate soft tissue coverage to reduce the risk of implant exposure and bony infections. We herein describe a patient with a Gustillo III-B open fracture of the proximal ulna, treated with minimally invasive intramedullary screw fixation using a 6.0-mm cannulated headless titanium compression screw (FusiFIX, Péronnas, France).

  18. A Genome-Scale Analysis of the PIN Gene Family Reveals Its Functions in Cotton Fiber Development. (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhou; He, Peng; Yang, Zuoren; Huang, Gai; Wang, Limin; Pang, Chaoyou; Xiao, Hui; Zhao, Peng; Yu, Jianing; Xiao, Guanghui


    The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein, the most important polar auxin transporter, plays a critical role in the distribution of auxin and controls multiple biological processes. However, characterizations and functions of this gene family have not been identified in cotton. Here, we identified the PIN family in Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium arboreum, and Gossypium raimondii. This gene family was divided into seven subgroups. A chromosomal distribution analysis showed that GhPIN genes were evenly distributed in eight chromosomes and that the whole genome and dispersed duplications were the main duplication events for GhPIN expansion. qRT-PCR analysis showed a tissue-specific expression pattern for GhPIN. Likely due to the cis-element variations in their promoters, transcripts of PIN6 and PIN8 genes from the At (tetraploid genome orginated from G. arboreum) subgenome and PIN1a from the Dt (tetraploid genome orginated from G. raimondii) subgenome in G. hirsutum was significantly increased compared to the transcripts in the diploids. The differential regulation of these PIN genes after the polyploidization may be conducive to fiber initiation and elongation. Exogenously applied auxin polar transport inhibitor significantly suppressed fiber growth, which is consistent with the essential function of these PIN genes for regulating cotton fiber development. Furthermore, the overexpression of GhPIN1a_Dt, GhPIN6_At, and GhPIN8_At in Arabidopsis promoted the density and length of trichomes in leaves.

  19. Effective magnetic pinning schemes for enhanced superconducting property in high temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7‑x : a review (United States)

    Huang, Jijie; Wang, Haiyan


    Enhanced superconducting properties under magnetic field in high temperature superconductors are critical for their technological applications and can be enhanced by both defect pinning and magnetic pinning. Different from defect pinning introduced by nonmagnetic pinning centers, magnetic pinning has some advantages over defect pinning, as it pins the magnetic flux rather than the normal core vortices. Various magnetic materials and different designed architectures have been demonstrated to provide magnetic pinning effect. Four major pinning schemes including metal/YBCO, oxide/YBCO, nanocomposite/YBCO and nanoparticle embedded YBCO have been reviewed. Representative literatures for each magnetic pinning scheme are discussed in detail to explore the pinning enhancement for each scheme. In addition, combined magnetic pinning and defect pinning schemes are proposed to further improve superconducting properties.

  20. Treatment of subchondral lucencies in the medial proximal radius with a bone screw in 8 horses. (United States)

    Roquet, Imma; Lane Easter, J; Coomer, Richard P C; Ezquerra, Luis J; Marsh, Chad A; Trostle, Steve S; Santschi, Elizabeth M


    To describe the results of screw placement through subchondral lucencies (SCL) of the proximal radius in 8 horses. Retrospective clinical study. Horses with cubital SCL causing lameness (n=8). Medical record review and clinical follow-up. Eight horses with SCL in the proximal radius causing lameness were treated with a screw placed across the lucency. The horses range in age from 1 to 20 years. In 4 of 8 horses, the lameness had been intermittently severe (apparent at the walk). Lameness was isolated to the cubital joint by intra-articular anesthesia in 5 horses and diagnosed radiographically in all 8. All horses had a 4.5 mm cortical bone screw placed from medial to lateral (6 lag, 2 neutral) across the SCL using fluoroscopic or radiographic control. Postoperative care included stall confinement with hand walking for 30-60 days, followed by an additional 30-60 days of pasture turnout. Radiographic SCL healing (reduction in SCL size) was demonstrated at 3-4 months after surgery in all horses, and 7/8 horses (87.5%) were used as intended (4 performance, 3 pasture turn-out) within 6 months. Lameness in the remaining horse improved initially (dressage) but returned. A screw placed through the SCL of the proximal-medial radius was effective in reducing or resolving lameness associated with the elbow joint in 7/8 horses (88%). Screw placement in the proximal radius should be considered for horses with lameness caused by an SCL when a quick return to exercise is desired or conservative therapy is ineffective. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Distal femoral complications following antegrade intramedullary nail placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Fantry


    Full Text Available While antegrade nailing for proximal and diaphyseal femur fractures is a commonly utilized fixation method with benefits including early mobilization and high rates of fracture union, both intraoperative and postoperative complications may occur. Intraoperative errors include leg length discrepancy, anterior cortical perforation, malreduction of the fracture, and neurovascular injury, and postoperative complications include nonunion, malunion, infection, and hardware failure. This case series reviews complications affecting the distal femur after intramedullary nailing including fracture surrounding a distal femoral interlocking screw (Case #1, nonunion after dynamization with nail penetration into the knee joint (Case #2, and anterior cortical perforation (Case #3. Prevention of intraoperative and postoperative complications surrounding intramedullary nailing requires careful study of the femoral anatomy and nail design specifications (radius of curvature, consideration of the necessity of distal interlocking screws, the need for close radiographic follow-up after nail placement with X-rays of the entire length of the nail, and awareness of possible nail penetration into the knee joint after dynamization.

  2. Immobilization after pinning of supracondylar distal humerus fractures in children: use of the A-frame cast. (United States)

    McKeon, Kathleen E; O'Donnell, June C; Bashyal, Ravi; Hou, Clifford C; Luhmann, Scott J; Dobbs, Matthew B; Gordon, J Eric


    Circumferential casts can contribute to elevated compartment pressures in the setting of acute swelling. We have developed a novel casting method (A-frame cast) that allows cast placement while leaving the antecubital fossa free of casting material. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and complications associated with acute placement of this definitive cast after closed reduction percutaneous pinning (CRPP) of acute supracondylar distal humerus fractures. A retrospective medical record reviewed 436 patients treated with CRPP of supracondylar fractures by 3 surgeons who routinely used an A-frame cast over a 12-year period. All complications or the need for cast modification were noted. Patients with open reduction, ipsilateral fractures, or patients lost to follow-up were excluded. There were 387 patients who met inclusion criteria, including 204 type 2 fractures and 183 type 3 fractures. Forty-three patients had preoperative nerve palsy and 1 had preoperative vascular injury. Of these 387 patients, 369 (95.3%) had an uneventful postoperative course. Nineteen patients (4.9%) required either cast splitting (15) or strict elevation (4) secondary to pain and swelling. Seven of these 19 patients had preoperative nerve palsy and 1 had preoperative vascular injury. The average time from procedure to cast splitting was 17.6 hours. No patients lost their reduction or required a second surgical procedure related to a complication from casting. An "A-frame" cast provides sturdy immobilization without increased risk of compartment syndrome after CRPP of supracondylar fractures in the pediatric population. Consideration should be given to splitting the cast prophylactically in patients with preoperative neurological or vascular deficits. IV-Case Series.

  3. Sensitive pre-amplifier to load for Pin diodes; Pre-amplificador sensible a carga para diodos PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobo V, R. Y.; Hernandez D, V. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico); Ramirez J, F. J., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    The electronic instrumentation is indispensable for the measurement and characterization of the radiation. By means of this essential characteristics of the radiation are determined, as activity and their energy components. The nuclear instrumentation is based on the technical characteristics of the radiation detectors and the electronic devices associates (amplifiers, ana logical and digital converters, multichannel analyzers, etc.) The radiation detectors are very important instruments in fields as the nuclear physics, medicine, radiological protection, industry and in other fields, since they are the only method to capture the radiation and to be able to quantify it in precise form. To detect radiation diverse detector types are used, as the semiconductor type, inside them are the photodiodes type Pin. In this work the results that were obtained of the design, simulation, construction and tests of a preamplifier that was designed starting from a photodiode type Pin are presented. The system was designed and simulated with a program for electronic circuits, in this were carried out many tests being obtained a compact design and achieving the best necessary characteristics for its optimization. With the results of the simulation phase the electronics phase was built, which was couples to a spectroscopic amplifier and a multichannel analyzer. The total of the system was evaluated analyzing its performance before a triple source of alphas. Of the tests phase we find that the system allows obtaining, in a multichannel analyzer, the pulses height spectrum, with a good resolution and with this was calibrated the multichannel analyzer.

  4. Whole core pin-by-pin coupled neutronic-thermal-hydraulic steady state and transient calculations using COBAYA3 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.; Herrero, J. J.; Cuervo, D.; Aragones, J. M., E-mail: jimenez@din.upm.e [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Jose Gutierrez Abascal No. 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    Nowadays coupled 3-dimensional neutron kinetics and thermal-hydraulic core calculations are performed by applying a radial average channel approach using a meshing of one quarter of assembly in the best case. This approach does not take into account the subchannels effects due to the averaging of the physical fields and the loose of heterogeneity in the thermal-hydraulic model. Therefore the models do not have enough resolution to predict those subchannels effects which are important for the fuel design safety margins, because it is in the local scale, where we can search the hottest pellet or the maximum heat flux. The Polytechnic University of Madrid advanced multi-scale neutron-kinetics and thermal-hydraulics methodologies being implemented in COBAYA3 include domain decomposition by alternate core dissections for the local 3-dimensional fine-mesh scale problems (pin cells/subchannels) and an analytical nodal diffusion solver for the coarse mesh scale coupled with the thermal-hydraulic using a model of one channel per assembly or per quarter of assembly. In this work, we address the domain decomposition by the alternate core dissections methodology applied to solve coupled 3-dimensional neutronic-thermal-hydraulic problems at the fine-mesh scale. The neutronic-thermal-hydraulic coupling at the cell-subchannel scale allows the treatment of the effects of the detailed thermal-hydraulic feedbacks on cross-sections, thus resulting in better estimates of the local safety margins at the pin level. (Author)

  5. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu


    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  6. Indicators for placement in foster care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijker, J.; Zandberg, Tj.; Van der Meulen, B.F.

    In order to develop a typology of indicators for long-term treatment in foster care, a cluster analysis has been carried out on the items of a standardized questionnaire which is used by foster care centres in the province of Zuid-Holland. Two types of indication for placement have emerged from the

  7. Nasojejunal tube placement in paediatric intensive care. (United States)

    McDermott, Ann; Tomkins, Natalie; Lazonby, Gill


    Nasojejunal delivery of enteral feeds is a safe and effective alternative to parenteral nutrition in critically ill children in whom intra-gastric feeding is usually poorly tolerated. A guideline for bedside placement of nasojejunal tubes (NJTs) was developed by a mulit-disciplinary group. An audit of practice was carried out following implementation of the guideline. During the audit period 27 NJTs were successfully passed in 21 patients. The result of this innovation has been early initiation of nasojejunal feeding and an increase in bedside placement of NJTs within the PICU. Paediatric radiologists have reported a reduction in requests for NJT placement under X-ray screening and there has been a reduction in the use of medication and X-ray to place NJTs. Based on the audit data, 58 per cent of the children would have definitely or probably commenced parenteral nutrition had NJT placement and feeding been unsuccessful. The audit also demonstrated that 26 out of 27 nurses and doctors reported they found the guidelines easy or very easy to follow. Reducing variations in practice through the use of guidelines increases the frequency of jejunal feeding. This benefits critically ill patients by improving tolerance of enteral feeding for better nutritional outcomes.

  8. Grow Your Own: Online Placement Testing. (United States)

    Sokolik, Maggie; Duber, Jim


    Details the advantages and process of creating an online English-as-a-Second-Language placement test. Outlines the steps for constructing a good test and describes the piloting of an online exam over a 2-year period. (Author/VWL)

  9. Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement and Removal (United States)

    ... in 1,000. There is a very slight risk of an allergic reaction if contrast material is injected. Any procedure that involves placement of a catheter inside a blood vessel carries certain risks. These risks include damage to the blood vessel, ...

  10. Suboccipital neuropathy after bone conduction device placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, H.T.; Ru, J.A. de


    OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of a 70-year-old female with occipital neuropathy following bone conduction device surgery. DESCRIPTION: A 65-year-old woman underwent bone conduction device placement surgery on the left temporal bone. Postoperatively she progressively developed


    Goldberg, Jeffrey L.; Miller, Thomas C.


    Computer generation and placement of map type has been refined into a production mode at Mid-Continent Mapping Center (MCMC) for USGS 1:24,000- and 1:25,000-scale Provisional maps. The map collar program is written in FORTRAN using batch processing that allows the program to work in the background.

  12. Strengthening rural health placements for medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article derives lessons from international experience of innovative rural health placements for medical students. It provides pointers for strengthening South African undergraduate rural health programmes in support of the government's rural health, primary healthcare and National Health Insurance strategies. Methods.

  13. Source placement for equalization in small enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, J.; Cambourakis, G.


    ) but not with those that will deteriorate it (the "undesired" modes). Simulation results in rectangular rooms and in a car cavity show the benefits of source placement in terms of reduced overall error and increased spatial robustness in the equalization process. Additional benefits, which can be derived by proper...

  14. Individual placement and support in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fioritti, A.; Burns, T.; Hilarion, P.; van Weeghel, J.; Cappa, C.; Suñol, R.; Otto, E.


    TOPIC: Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is a psychosocial intervention with a considerable body of evidence for its effectiveness in helping people with severe psychiatric disorders to obtain and maintain competitive jobs. In the last decades several European studies have replicated earlier

  15. Introduction. Teaching Advanced Placement Human Geography. (United States)

    Murphy, Alexander B.


    Introduces this special issue of "Journal of Geography" focusing on the teaching of Advanced Placement (AP) human geography. States that essays were developed by members of the AP Human Geography Development Committee focusing on areas in the human geography course outline which are included in the appendix. (CMK)

  16. Post-placement temperature reduction techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto


    With technology scaled to deep submicron era, temperature and temperature gradient have emerged as important design criteria. We propose two post-placement techniques to reduce peak temperature by intelligently allocating whitespace in the hotspots. Both methods are fully compliant with commercial...

  17. Hierarchical Logistic Regression in Course Placement (United States)

    Schulz, E. Matthew; Betebenner, Damian; Ahn, Meeyeon


    Whether hierarchical logistic regression can reduce the sample size requirement for estimating optimal cutoff scores in a course placement service where predictive validity is measured by a threshold utility function is explored. Data from courses with varying class size were randomly partitioned into two halves per course. Nonhierarchical and…

  18. Strengthening rural health placements for medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. This article derives lessons from international experience of innovative rural health placements for medical students. It provides pointers for strengthening South African undergraduate rural health programmes in support of the government's rural health, primary healthcare and National Health Insurance ...

  19. Stabilization, pole placement, and regular implementability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belur, MN; Trentelman, HL

    In this paper, we study control by interconnection of linear differential systems. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for regular implementability of a-given linear, differential system. We formulate the problems of stabilization and pole placement as problems of finding a suitable,

  20. Stabilization, Pole Placement, and Regular Implementability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belur, Madhu N.; Trentelman, H.L.


    In this paper, we study control by interconnection of linear differential systems. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for regular implementability of a given linear differential system. We formulate the problems of stabilization and pole placement as problems of finding a suitable,

  1. 34 CFR 300.104 - Residential placement (United States)


    ... child with a disability, the program, including non-medical care and room and board, must be at no cost... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residential placement 300.104 Section 300.104 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...

  2. Percutaneous Placement of Peritoneal Dialysis Catheters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To describe our patients' demographics and clinical characteristics, our method of PD catheter placement within the Radiology Department at Kimberley Provincial Hospital, compare our early complication types and frequencies, overall peritonitis rate and one-year catheter survival rate with findings in the ...

  3. Simple, quick, and efficient implant placement jig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Narayan Pai


    Full Text Available Implants have become an inherent part of everyday orthodontic practice, but unlike prosthodontic implants, their placement and insertion into narrow interradicular spaces for orthodontic purposes remain a tricky and challenging part to most clinicians. An innovative and clinically useful method has been described here for safe and easy insertion of mini-implants.

  4. [Treatment of unstable fractures of the proximal end of the humerus using elastic curved intramedullary wires]. (United States)

    Zifko, B; Zifko, B; Poigenfürst, J


    At the Accident Hospital Lorenz Böhler and the Accident Hospital Meidling in Vienna, 48 patients with proximal humeral fractures were treated by closed reduction, intramedullary fixation with elastic pins and immobilization for two weeks in a Velpeau type stockinette (Gilchrist) between February 1985 and February 1986. The pins have a diameter of 2 mm. At there lower end there is a 20 mm long elastic curve which is ment to anker the pin in the entry hole to the intramedullary cavity, preventing sliding out of the implant. At the upper end the last 20 mm of the wire are angulated for 15 degrees. AO-classification was used. 39 patients had surgical neck-fractures. There were 34 displaced fractures (AO-type A 2/2), six dislocation- and more segment fractures and three epiphyseal separations of the adductiontype. The functional results of 36 patients were evaluated according to Neer's table. 29 patients had more than 80 points, four patients had more than 70 points and three had poor results. Reason for poor results was in one case a fracture with dislocation of the greater tuberosity which should have been treated by open reduction and the age in a 82 year old patient, who had a poor functional result after twelve weeks of treatment despite good fracture healing. There were no problems with wound healing, infections, myositis ossificans or Sudeck disease. Closed reductions of unstable surgical neck fractures and intramedullary fixation causes least damage to the soft tissues of the shoulder, leading to early good functional results.

  5. Impact of illumination on model-based SRAF placement for contact patterning (United States)

    Sturtevant, John L.; Jayaram, Srividya; El-Sewefy, Omar; Dave, Aasutosh; LaCour, Pat


    Sub-Resolution Assist Features (SRAFs) have been used extensively to improve the process latitude for isolated and semi-isolated features in conjunction with off-axis illumination. These SRAFs have typically been inserted based upon rules which assign a global SRAF size and proximity to target shapes. Additional rules govern the relationship of assist features to one another, and for random logic contact layers, the overall ruleset can become rather complex. It has been shown that model-based placement of SRAFs for contact layers can result in better worst-case process window than that obtained with rules, and various approaches have been applied to affect such placement. The model comprehends the specific illumination being used, and places assist features according to that model in the optimum location for each contact hole. This paper examines the impact of various illumination schemes on model-based SRAF placement, and compares the resulting process windows. Both standard illumination schemes and more elaborate pixel-based illumination pupil fills are considered.

  6. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...

  7. Assessment and Placement: A Review of the Research. (United States)

    Weber, Jerry


    Reviews research on student assessment and placement, focusing on problems and questions; methods of assessment; establishing cut scores; and evaluation of course placement systems. Includes an extensive bibliography. (LAL)

  8. PPP1, a plant-specific regulator of transcription controls Arabidopsis development and PIN expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamins, René; Barbez, Elke; Ortbauer, Martina; Terpstra, Inez; Lucyshyn, Doris; Moulinier-Anzola, Jeanette; Khan, Muhammad Asaf; Leitner, Johannes; Malenica, Nenad; Butt, Haroon; Korbei, Barbara; Scheres, Ben; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Luschnig, Christian


    Directional transport of auxin is essential for plant development, with PIN auxin transport proteins representing an integral part of the machinery that controls hormone distribution. However, unlike the rapidly emerging framework of molecular determinants regulating PIN protein abundance and

  9. Effects of Linking-Pin Quality on the Quality of Working Life of Lower Participants (United States)

    Graen, George; And Others


    Managerial dyads employed in service organizations were assessed regarding the quality of their upward linking pins--the perceived effectiveness of the leader-member exchange between the incumbents of the linking-pin positions with their immediate superior--and the behavior, attitudes, and treatment of the lower participants. (Author/IRT)

  10. Assessment of Radiographic Image Quality by Visual Examination of Neutron Radiographs of the Calibration Fuel Pin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw


    of a calibration fuel pin. The radiographs were made by the direct, transfer and tracketch methods using different film recording materials. These neutron radiographs of the calibration fuel pin were used for the assessement of radiographic image quality. This was done by visual examination of the radiographs...... and assessing their radiographic image quality on an arbitrary scale....

  11. Incidence and risk factors for pin tract infection in external fixation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pin tract infection is a complication when using external fixation. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence, rate and risk factors for pin tract infections after external fixation in the orthopedics wards in a major teaching hospital in Togo (West Africa). Methods: A one year prospective cohort study ...

  12. A covalent PIN1 inhibitor selectively targets cancer cells by a dual mechanism of action (United States)

    Campaner, Elena; Rustighi, Alessandra; Zannini, Alessandro; Cristiani, Alberto; Piazza, Silvano; Ciani, Yari; Kalid, Ori; Golan, Gali; Baloglu, Erkan; Shacham, Sharon; Valsasina, Barbara; Cucchi, Ulisse; Pippione, Agnese Chiara; Lolli, Marco Lucio; Giabbai, Barbara; Storici, Paola; Carloni, Paolo; Rossetti, Giulia; Benvenuti, Federica; Bello, Ezia; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Cappuzzello, Elisa; Rosato, Antonio; Del Sal, Giannino


    The prolyl isomerase PIN1, a critical modifier of multiple signalling pathways, is overexpressed in the majority of cancers and its activity strongly contributes to tumour initiation and progression. Inactivation of PIN1 function conversely curbs tumour growth and cancer stem cell expansion, restores chemosensitivity and blocks metastatic spread, thus providing the rationale for a therapeutic strategy based on PIN1 inhibition. Notwithstanding, potent PIN1 inhibitors are still missing from the arsenal of anti-cancer drugs. By a mechanism-based screening, we have identified a novel covalent PIN1 inhibitor, KPT-6566, able to selectively inhibit PIN1 and target it for degradation. We demonstrate that KPT-6566 covalently binds to the catalytic site of PIN1. This interaction results in the release of a quinone-mimicking drug that generates reactive oxygen species and DNA damage, inducing cell death specifically in cancer cells. Accordingly, KPT-6566 treatment impairs PIN1-dependent cancer phenotypes in vitro and growth of lung metastasis in vivo.


    Sternick, Marcelo Back; Dallacosta, Darlan; Bento, Daniela Águida; do Reis, Marcelo Lemos


    To analyze the rigidity of a platform-type external fixator assembly, according to different numbers of pins on each clamp. Computer simulation on a large-sized Cromus dynamic external fixator (Baumer SA) was performed using a finite element method, in accordance with the standard ASTM F1541. The models were generated with approximately 450,000 quadratic tetrahedral elements. Assemblies with two, three and four Schanz pins of 5.5 mm in diameter in each clamp were compared. Every model was subjected to a maximum force of 200 N, divided into 10 sub-steps. For the components, the behavior of the material was assumed to be linear, elastic, isotropic and homogeneous. For each model, the rigidity of the assembly and the Von Mises stress distribution were evaluated. The rigidity of the system was 307.6 N/mm for two pins, 369.0 N/mm for three and 437.9 N/mm for four. The results showed that four Schanz pins in each clamp promoted rigidity that was 19% greater than in the configuration with three pins and 42% greater than with two pins. Higher tension occurred in configurations with fewer pins. In the models analyzed, the maximum tension occurred on the surface of the pin, close to the fixation area.

  14. Effect of pinning and driving force on the metastability effects in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    susceptibility measurements appears to generate a driving force on the vortex matter. In a nascent pinned single ... pinning in order to differentiate the response of different metastable vortex states, one encounters a new phenomenon, viz., ...... using a lock-in amplifier having a wide band filter option. The above-stated noise.

  15. Effect of Pin Geometry on the Mechanical Strength of Friction-Stir-Welded Polypropylene Composite Plates (United States)

    Kordestani, F.; Ashenai Ghasemi, F.; Arab, N. B. M.


    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding process, which has successfully been applied in aerospace and automotive industries for joining materials. The friction stir tool is the key element in the FSW process. In this study, the effect of four different tool pin geometries on the mechanical properties of two types of polypropylene composite plates, with 30% glass and carbon fiber, respectively, were investigated. For this purpose, four pins of different geometry, namely, a threaded-tapered pin, square pin, four-flute threaded pin, and threaded-tapered pin with a chamfer were made and used to carry out the butt welding of 5-mm-thick plates. The standard tensile and Izod impact tests were performed to evaluate the tensile strength and impact toughness of welded specimens. The results indicated that the threaded-tapered pin with a chamfer produced welds with a better surface appearance and higher tensile and impact strengths. The tests also showed that, with the threaded-tapered pin with a chamfer, the impact strength of the glass- and carbon-fiber composite welds were about 40 and 50%, respectively, of that of the base materials.

  16. Auditing the use of percutaneous pinning as a technique of fixation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children are commonly treated with closed reduction and percutaneous pin fixation. There has been controversy regarding the optimal pin configuration in the management of supracondylar humeral fractures in children. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of ...

  17. Temperature dependence of critical currents in REBCO thin films with artificial pinning centers (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kaname; Nishihara, Masaya; Kimoto, Takamasa; Horide, Tomoya; Jha, Alok Kumar; Yoshida, Yutaka; Awaji, Satoshi; Ichinose, Ataru


    Conventionally, δT c type (order parameter modulation) and δl type (mean free path modulation) pinning mechanisms have been proposed to explain the temperature dependence of the flux pinning of superconducting materials. According to previous studies, it is assumed that the temperature dependence of J c of REBa2Cu3O7 (REBCO, RE = Y, Gd, Sm, etc) films without artificial pinning centers (APCs) is δl type, but it is unidentified when APCs are introduced into the films. In this paper, GdBCO thin films doped with BaHfO3 (BHO) deposited on LaAlO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition were studied. A target exchange method was used to alternately ablate two targets of pure GdBCO and BHO for introducing nanorods as APCs into GdBCO films. Since the insulative BHO acts as a strong pinning center, the δT c pinning mechanism is expected for the temperature dependence of J c of these thin films. However, the experimental results showed that the J c of the films with BHO nanorods was determined by the δl pinning mechanism over a wide temperature range. In order to explain these unexpected results, we examined the pinning mechanism by nanorods based on a resultant pinning force model.

  18. Theoretical models of flux pinning and flux motion in high-{Tc} superconducting oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, D.O.


    Various issues involved in the development of phenomenological models of flux pinning and motion in high-{Tc} oxides are discussed. A simplified model is presented for the critical current density and is used to examine the question of whether flux flow results from an instability due to plasticity of the flux-line array or from pin breaking.

  19. Using the Missing Pin to Challenge Concepts of Refraction and Total Internal Reflection (United States)

    Tamang, Sushmika; Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Nopparatjamjomras, Thasaneeya R.


    A container was placed on top of a piece of white paper, and a pin positioned so that it vertically touched an outside wall of the container. Students were asked to predict the image of the pin when it was observed from the top of the container. Two scenarios of either an empty container or a container completely filled with water were considered…

  20. Open Reduction of Proximal Interphalangeal Fracture-Dislocation through a Midlateral Incision Using Absorbable Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Jun Lee


    Full Text Available BackgroundFracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP joint is a relatively common injury. Various treatments for fracture-dislocation of the PIP joint have been reported. In the present study, we performed open reduction through a midlateral incision using absorbable sutures to reduce the small bone fragments and performed volar plate repair.MethodsWe treated nine patients with fracture-dislocation of the PIP joint with small fractured bone fragments too small for pinning or screw fixation. Patients with volar plate injury were treated with open reduction and volar plate repair at the periosteum of the middle phalangeal bone base by the modified Kessler method using absorbable sutures. All patients were placed in a dorsal aluminum extension block splint, which maintained the PIP joint in approximately 30 degrees of flexion to avoid excessive tension on the sutured volar plate.ResultsAt a mean final follow-up of postoperative 9 months, all patients were evaluated radiographically and had adequate alignment of the PIP joint and reduction of the displaced bone fragments. Range of motion was improved and there were no complications.ConclusionsThis technique is an excellent alternative to the current method of treating patients with fracture-dislocations that include small fragments that are too small for pinning or screw fixation. It is a less invasive surgical method and enables stable reduction and early exercise without noticeable complications.

  1. Detecting pin diversion from pressurized water reactors spent fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Young S.; Sitaraman, Shivakumar


    Detecting diversion of spent fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) by determining possible diversion including the steps of providing a detector cluster containing gamma ray and neutron detectors, inserting the detector cluster containing the gamma ray and neutron detectors into the spent fuel assembly through the guide tube holes in the spent fuel assembly, measuring gamma ray and neutron radiation responses of the gamma ray and neutron detectors in the guide tube holes, processing the gamma ray and neutron radiation responses at the guide tube locations by normalizing them to the maximum value among each set of responses and taking the ratio of the gamma ray and neutron responses at the guide tube locations and normalizing the ratios to the maximum value among them and producing three signatures, gamma, neutron, and gamma-neutron ratio, based on these normalized values, and producing an output that consists of these signatures that can indicate possible diversion of the pins from the spent fuel assembly.

  2. Computing the crystal growth rate by the interface pinning method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk; Hummel, Felix; Dellago, Christoph


    An essential parameter for crystal growth is the kinetic coefficient given by the proportionality between supercooling and average growth velocity. Here, we show that this coefficient can be computed in a single equilibrium simulation using the interface pinning method where two......-phase configurations are stabilized by adding a spring-like bias field coupling to an order-parameter that discriminates between the two phases. Crystal growth is a Smoluchowski process and the crystal growth rate can, therefore, be computed from the terminal exponential relaxation of the order parameter. The approach...... from first principles. A generalized version of the method may be used for computing the rates of crystal nucleation or other rare events....

  3. Using Pin as a Memory Reference Generator for Multiprocessor Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurdy, C


    In this paper we describe how we have used Pin to generate a multithreaded reference stream for simulation of a multiprocessor on a uniprocessor. We have taken special care to model as accurately as possible the effects of cache coherence protocol state, and lock and barrier synchronization on the performance of multithreaded applications running on multiprocessor hardware. We first describe a simplified version of the algorithm, which uses semaphores to synchronize instrumented application threads and the simulator on every memory reference. We then describe modifications to that algorithm to model the microarchitectural features of the Itanium2 that affect the timing of memory reference issue. An experimental evaluation determines that while cycle-accurate multithreaded simulation is possible using our approach, the use of semaphores has a negative impact on the performance of the simulator.

  4. Model of Ni-63 battery with realistic PIN structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Charles E.; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah, E-mail: [Georgia Tech Lorraine, Georgia Tech-C.N.R.S., UMI2958, 2-3 rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 777 Atlantic Drive NW, 30332-0250 Atlanta (United States); Arif, Muhammad; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul [Georgia Tech Lorraine, Georgia Tech-C.N.R.S., UMI2958, 2-3 rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); Université de Lorraine, CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, EA 4423, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz (France); Streque, Jeremy; El Gmili, Youssef [Georgia Tech Lorraine, Georgia Tech-C.N.R.S., UMI2958, 2-3 rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); Belahsene, Sofiane; Martinez, Anthony; Ramdane, Abderrahim [Laboratory for Photonics and Nanostructures, CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France)


    GaN, with its wide bandgap of 3.4 eV, has emerged as an efficient material for designing high-efficiency betavoltaic batteries. An important part of designing efficient betavoltaic batteries involves a good understanding of the full process, from the behavior of the nuclear material and the creation of electron-hole pairs all the way through the collection of photo-generated carriers. This paper presents a detailed model based on Monte Carlo and Silvaco for a GaN-based betavoltaic battery device, modeled after Ni-63 as an energy source. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing it with experimental values obtained for a GaN-based p-i-n structure under scanning electron microscope illumination.

  5. Model of Ni-63 battery with realistic PIN structure (United States)

    Munson, Charles E.; Arif, Muhammad; Streque, Jeremy; Belahsene, Sofiane; Martinez, Anthony; Ramdane, Abderrahim; El Gmili, Youssef; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah


    GaN, with its wide bandgap of 3.4 eV, has emerged as an efficient material for designing high-efficiency betavoltaic batteries. An important part of designing efficient betavoltaic batteries involves a good understanding of the full process, from the behavior of the nuclear material and the creation of electron-hole pairs all the way through the collection of photo-generated carriers. This paper presents a detailed model based on Monte Carlo and Silvaco for a GaN-based betavoltaic battery device, modeled after Ni-63 as an energy source. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing it with experimental values obtained for a GaN-based p-i-n structure under scanning electron microscope illumination.

  6. Statistical mechanics of homogeneous partly pinned fluid systems. (United States)

    Krakoviack, Vincent


    The homogeneous partly pinned fluid systems are simple models of a fluid confined in a disordered porous matrix obtained by arresting randomly chosen particles in a one-component bulk fluid or one of the two components of a binary mixture. In this paper, their configurational properties are investigated. It is shown that a peculiar complementarity exists between the mobile and immobile phases, which originates from the fact that the solid is prepared in presence of and in equilibrium with the adsorbed fluid. Simple identities follow, which connect different types of configurational averages, either relative to the fluid-matrix system or to the bulk fluid from which it is prepared. Crucial simplifications result for the computation of important structural quantities, both in computer simulations and in theoretical approaches. Finally, possible applications of the model in the field of dynamics in confinement or in strongly asymmetric mixtures are suggested.

  7. Ab interno sulcus placement of glaucoma tube implants. (United States)

    Camejo, Larissa; Noecker, Robert


    A modified technique for sulcus placement of glaucoma silicone tubes is described. Sulcus placement can be useful in patients with penetrating keratoplasty or in those who are at risk for corneal endothelial decompensation. However, correct placement can be difficult to confirm with a traditional ab externo approach. An ab interno technique for sulcus placement of glaucoma tube implants that both offers an easier approach and facilitates accurate positioning is described.

  8. Cell polarity and patterning by PIN trafficking through early endosomal compartments in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Tanaka


    Full Text Available PIN-FORMED (PIN proteins localize asymmetrically at the plasma membrane and mediate intercellular polar transport of the plant hormone auxin that is crucial for a multitude of developmental processes in plants. PIN localization is under extensive control by environmental or developmental cues, but mechanisms regulating PIN localization are not fully understood. Here we show that early endosomal components ARF GEF BEN1 and newly identified Sec1/Munc18 family protein BEN2 are involved in distinct steps of early endosomal trafficking. BEN1 and BEN2 are collectively required for polar PIN localization, for their dynamic repolarization, and consequently for auxin activity gradient formation and auxin-related developmental processes including embryonic patterning, organogenesis, and vasculature venation patterning. These results show that early endosomal trafficking is crucial for cell polarity and auxin-dependent regulation of plant architecture.

  9. Local production of skeletal traction pins to improve access to skeletal traction. (United States)

    Kadhum, Murtaza; Mannion, Stephen


    Femoral fractures represent a substantial orthopaedic injury. In the developed world, closed reduction and locked intramedullary nailing is recognized as the optimal treatment. In the less developed world, the use of skeletal traction remains limited by cost and availability of traction pins, which are obtained from orthopaedic companies in the UK or Indian subcontinent. This study aimed to establish whether traction pins may be manufactured locally in resource-limited countries from cut down stainless steel rods. The overall costs for traction pins were obtained from five UK, Indian subcontinent-based companies and metal fabrication shops in Africa. Strict design specifications were provided. The mean price for 100 Steinmann pins was$428 in the Indian subcontinent,$96 in Malawi,$105 in Kenya and$244 in Tanzania. Our results indicate that Steinmann pins may be manufactured locally in resource-limited countries at a significantly cheaper price, which may increase the access to skeletal traction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Failure analysis on false call probe pins of microprocessor test equipment (United States)

    Tang, L. W.; Ong, N. R.; Mohamad, I. S. B.; Alcain, J. B.; Retnasamy, V.


    A study has been conducted to investigate failure analysis on probe pins of test modules for microprocessor. The `health condition' of the probe pin is determined by the resistance value. A test module of 5V power supplied from Arduino UNO with "Four-wire Ohm measurement" method is implemented in this study to measure the resistance of the probe pins of a microprocessor. The probe pins from a scrapped computer motherboard is used as the test sample in this study. The functionality of the test module was validated with the pre-measurement experiment via VEE Pro software. Lastly, the experimental work have demonstrated that the implemented test module have the capability to identify the probe pin's `health condition' based on the measured resistance value.

  11. Optimal capacitor sizing and placement based on real time analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, optimal capacitor sizing and placement method was used to improve energy efficiency. It involves the placement of capacitors in a specific location with suitable sizing based on the current load of the electrical system. The optimization is done in real time scenario where the sizing and placement of the ...

  12. Mathematics Placement Test: Typical Results with Unexpected Outcomes (United States)

    Ingalls, Victoria


    Based on the results of a prior case-study analysis of mathematics placement at one university, the mathematics department developed and piloted a mathematics placement test. This article describes the implementation process for a mathematics placement test and further analyzes the test results for the pilot group. As an unexpected result, the…



    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Saevarsson, Hugi; Foxall, Gordon


    An in-store experiment was performed to investigate the effects of shelf placement (high, middle, low) on consumers' purchases of potato chips. Placement of potato chips on the middle shelf was associated with the highest percentage of purchases. The results confirm the importance of item placement as a factor in consumers' buying behavior.

  14. Determining the brand awareness of product placement in video games


    Král, Marek


    This bachelor thesis focusses on the determination of the brand awareness of product placement in video games. The theoretical part includes information about marketing, product placement and video games. The practical part consists of evaluation of the market research about product placements in video games. Conclusion suggests the most important factors influencing the level brand awareness.

  15. 20 CFR 638.409 - Placement and job development. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Placement and job development. 638.409 Section 638.409 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS... Placements in the Job Corps § 638.409 Placement and job development. The overall objective of all Job Corps...

  16. Brand Placement and Consumer Choice: An in-Store Experiment (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Saevarsson, Hugi; Foxall, Gordon


    An in-store experiment was performed to investigate the effects of shelf placement (high, middle, low) on consumers' purchases of potato chips. Placement of potato chips on the middle shelf was associated with the highest percentage of purchases. The results confirm the importance of item placement as a factor in consumers' buying behavior.…

  17. Proximity and Collaboration in European Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.W.; Werker, C.


    Collaborations are particularly important for the development and deployment of technology. We analyze the influence of organizational, technological and geographical proximity on European nanotechnology collaborations with the help of a publication dataset and additional geographical information.

  18. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.


    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  19. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule. (United States)

    Hamm, L L; Simon, E E


    The transport of ammonia in the proximal tubule is a complex interaction of a number of processes. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule is clearly bidirectional; ammonia is secreted into the early proximal tubule lumen, but later in the proximal tubule, efflux out of the lumen may result in net ammonia reabsorption. Two mechanisms of ammonia transport have clearly been established: NH3 diffusion and NH4+ transport on the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. The relative contribution of these pathways to ammonia transport is still unsettled. Other pathways for ammonia transport, particularly NH4+ efflux out of the lumen, may be important as well. A variety of factors may modulate ammonia transport: plasma, cell and luminal pH, luminal flow rate, luminal potassium, and angiotensin II. Each of these factors also alters ammonia production rates and in most circumstances, ammonia transport appears to follow ammonia production rates.

  20. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 ... Key words: Rhynchophorus phoenicis, Oryctes monoceros, proximate composition, cholesterol, heat treatment. INTRODUCTION. Insects have played ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde Emmanuel


    Oct 6, 2011 ... Fish allows for protein improved nutrition in that it has a high biological value in terms of high ... marine algae upon which the fish feed [11]. ... Proximate composition of catfish Clarias gariepinus and Tarpon atlanticus were.

  2. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity studies were carried out on the leaf extract of Cola lepidota, in accordance with established standard procedures. The proximate analysis reveals a moisture content of 27.43 ± 3.11 % w/w, total ash value 9.32 ± 0.27 % w/w, acid insoluble ash 3.12 ± 1.05 % w/w ...

  3. Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was investigated using standard procedures. Proximate analysis included in g% dry weight: crude protein (6.44 ± 0.32), crude fat (0.75 ± 0.04), crude fibre (15.00 ± 0.56), total ash. (3.45 ± 0.20) and a moisture content of 70.04 ...

  4. Painful Spastic Hip Dislocation: Proximal Femoral Resection


    Albiñana, Javier; Gonzalez-Moran, Gaspar


    The dislocated hip in a non-ambulatory child with spastic paresis tends to be a painful interference to sleep, sitting upright, and perineal care. Proximal femoral resection-interposition arthroplasty is one method of treatment for this condition. We reviewed eight hips, two bilateral cases, with a mean follow-up of 30 months. Clinical improvement was observed in all except one case, with respect to pain relief and sitting tolerance. Some proximal migration was observed in three cases, despit...

  5. Results of a compression pin alongwith trochanteric external fixation in management of high risk elderly intertrochanteric fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Arslan


    Conclusions: Treatment of very elderly, high risk patients' with intertrochanteric fractures with external fixation is effective. Compression pin maintained stability better than standard pins after weight bearing, especially for unstable intertrochanteric fractures.

  6. Proximity sensor system development. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pigoski, T.M. [Merrit Systems, Inc. (United States)


    Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMERC) and Merritt Systems, Inc. (MSI) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) for the development and demonstration of a compact, modular proximity sensing system suitable for application to a wide class of manipulator systems operated in support of environmental restoration and waste management activities. In teleoperated modes, proximity sensing provides the manipulator operator continuous information regarding the proximity of the manipulator to objects in the workspace. In teleoperated and robotic modes, proximity sensing provides added safety through the implementation of active whole arm collision avoidance capabilities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), managed by LMERC for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design for the electronics required to support a modular whole arm proximity sensing system based on the use of capacitive sensors developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The use of ASIC technology greatly reduces the size of the electronics required to support the selected sensor types allowing deployment of many small sensor nodes over a large area of the manipulator surface to provide maximum sensor coverage. The ASIC design also provides a communication interface to support sensor commands from and sensor data transmission to a distributed processing system which allows modular implementation and operation of the sensor system. MSI is a commercial small business specializing in proximity sensing systems based upon infrared and acoustic sensors.

  7. Transformations through Proximity Flying: A Phenomenological Investigation (United States)

    Holmbom, Maria; Brymer, Eric; Schweitzer, Robert D.


    Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants’ perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity. PMID:29104552

  8. Mechanisms of Günther Tulip filter tilting during transfemoral placement. (United States)

    Matsui, Y; Horikawa, M; Ohta, K; Jahangiri Noudeh, Y; Kaufman, J A; Farsad, K

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the mechanisms of Günther Tulip filter (GTF) tilting during transfemoral placement in an experimental model with further validation in a clinical series. In an experimental study, 120 GTF placements in an inferior vena cava (IVC) model were performed using 6 configurations of pre-deployment filter position. The angle between the pre-deployment filter axis and IVC axis, and the proximity of the constrained filter legs to IVC wall prior to deployment were evaluated. The association of those pre-deployment factors with post-deployment filter tilting was analyzed. The association noted in the experimental study was then evaluated in a retrospective clinical series of 21 patients. In the experimental study, there was a significant association between the pre-deployment angle and post-deployment filter tilting (P<0.0001). With a low pre-deployment angle (≤5°), a significant association was noted between filter tilting and the proximity of the constrained filter legs to the far IVC wall (P=0.001). In a retrospective clinical study, a significant association between the pre-deployment angle and post-deployment filter tilting was also noted with a linear regression model (P=0.026). Significant association of the pre-deployment angle with post-deployment GTF tilting was shown in both the experimental and clinical studies. The experimental study also showed that proximity of filter legs is relevant when pre-deployment angle is small. Addressing these factors may result in a lower incidence of filter tilting. Copyright © 2017 Editions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Gross anatomical and dimensional characteristics of the proximal hamstring origin. (United States)

    Feucht, Matthias J; Plath, Johannes E; Seppel, Gernot; Hinterwimmer, Stefan; Imhoff, Andreas B; Brucker, Peter U


    the ST/LB. The reported gross anatomic findings and dimensions may aid surgeons in anchor placement at the anatomical attachment site, thereby facilitating anatomic hamstring repair. In addition, the provided data may improve diagnosis and conservative treatment of proximal hamstring tendinopathy, since detailed knowledge about the normal anatomy is crucial for recognizing tendon abnormalities and for several conservative treatment modalities such as shockwave application or ultrasound-guided injections.

  10. Functional outcome of closed fractures of proximal humerus managed by Joshi′s external stabilizing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Gupta


    Full Text Available Background: Proximal humeral fractures account for 4-5% of all fractures; most of them involving elderly and osteoporotic people. 1 51% of such fractures are displaced. Two Fractures with minimal displacement, regardless of the number of fracture lines, can be treated with closed reduction and early mobilization, but anatomical reduction in displaced fractures is difficult to obtain and the incidence of pseudarthrosis is high 3-5. We evaluated the functional results of closed Neer′s 2- and 3-part proximal humerus fractures treated by Joshi′s external stabilizing system. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients with proximal humeral fractures were managed from 2008 to 2010 by Joshi′s stabilizing external fixation. They were 10 males and 6 females, with a mean age of 57.5 years. Based on Neer′s classification, there were eleven 3-part fractures and five 2-part fractures. The mechanism of injuries included seven road traffic accidents and nine fall. Shoulder mobilization exercises were started within 1 week after stabilization with JESS. External fixation was removed after the evidence of union (6-8 weeks. Pain was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS and shoulder range of motion was evaluated by Constant Scoring System. Followup was done at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks, and then at every 4 weeks. Results: Mean followup was of 20.5 months (range 9-30 months. Postoperative mean VAS score and Constant Score of patients was 2.1 (±0.73 and 78.1 (±9.61 at an average followup of 6 months. Mean duration for union was 6.5 (±1.18 weeks. One case of K-wire loosening and one case of pin tract infection were the complications noted. Conclusion: External fixation by JESS is an alternative option to treat Neer′s 2 and 3 part proximal humerus fractures with good results.

  11. Planned and unplanned terminations of foster care placements in the Netherlands: Relationships with characteristics of foster children and foster placements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, F.; Maaskant, A.; Weijers, I.; Weijers, D.; Hermanns, J.


    This study examined the role of placement and child characteristics in the unplanned termination of foster placements. Data were used from 169 foster children aged 0 to 20. Results showed that 35% of all foster placement terminations were unplanned. Outcomes of logistic regression analyses

  12. 22 CFR 96.50 - Placement and post-placement monitoring until final adoption in incoming cases. (United States)


    ... greater. (c) When a placement for adoption is in crisis in the post-placement phase, the agency or person... resolving the crisis and the placement is disrupted, the agency or person assuming custody of the child... contract with the prospective adoptive parent(s) a plan describing the agency's or person's...

  13. Seed Placement in Permanent Breast Seed Implant Brachytherapy: Are Concerns Over Accuracy Valid?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Daniel, E-mail: [Department of Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Hilts, Michelle [Department of Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Batchelar, Deidre [Department of Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Crook, Juanita [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada)


    Purpose: To evaluate seed placement accuracy in permanent breast seed implant brachytherapy (PBSI), to identify any systematic errors and evaluate their effect on dosimetry. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans and postimplant computed tomography scans for 20 PBSI patients were spatially registered and used to evaluate differences between planned and implanted seed positions, termed seed displacements. For each patient, the mean total and directional seed displacements were determined in both standard room coordinates and in needle coordinates relative to needle insertion angle. Seeds were labeled according to their proximity to the anatomy within the breast, to evaluate the influence of anatomic regions on seed placement. Dosimetry within an evaluative target volume (seroma + 5 mm), skin, breast, and ribs was evaluated to determine the impact of seed placement on the treatment. Results: The overall mean (±SD) difference between implanted and planned positions was 9 ± 5 mm for the aggregate seed population. No significant systematic directional displacements were observed for this whole population. However, for individual patients, systematic displacements were observed, implying that intrapatient offsets occur during the procedure. Mean displacements for seeds in the different anatomic areas were not found to be significantly different from the mean for the entire seed population. However, small directional trends were observed within the anatomy, potentially indicating some bias in the delivery. Despite observed differences between the planned and implanted seed positions, the median (range) V{sub 90} for the 20 patients was 97% (66%-100%), and acceptable dosimetry was achieved for critical structures. Conclusions: No significant trends or systematic errors were observed in the placement of seeds in PBSI, including seeds implanted directly into the seroma. Recorded seed displacements may be related to intrapatient setup adjustments. Despite observed seed

  14. Biomechanical Analysis Of The Proximal Femoral Locking Compression Plate: Do Quality Of Reduction And Screw Orientation Influence Construct Stability? (United States)

    Zderic, Ivan; Oh, Jong-Keon; Stoffel, Karl; Sommer, Christoph; Helfen, Tobias; Camino, Gaston; Richards, R Geoff; Nork, Sean E; Gueorguiev, Boyko


    To investigate biomechanically in a human cadaveric model the failure modes of the Proximal Femoral Locking Compression Plate (PF-LCP) and explore the underlying mechanism. Twenty-four fresh-frozen paired human cadaveric femora with simulated unstable intertrochanteric fractures (AO/OTA 31-A3.3) were assigned to four groups with six specimens each for plating with PF-LCP. The groups differed in the quality of fracture reduction and plating fashion of the first and second proximal screws as follows: 1) anatomical reduction with on-axis screw placement; 2) anatomical reduction with off-axis screw placement; 3) malreduction with on-axis screw placement; 4) malreduction with off-axis screw placement. The specimens were tested until failure using a protocol with combined axial and torsional loading. Mechanical failure was defined as abrupt change in machine load-displacement data. Clinical failure was defined as 5° varus tilting of the femoral head as captured with optical motion tracking. Initial axial stiffness (N/mm) in groups 1 to 4 was 213.6±65.0, 209.5±134.0, 128.3±16.6 and 106.3±47.4, respectively. Numbers of cycles to clinical and mechanical failure were 16642±10468 and 8695±1462 in group 1, 14076±3032 and 7449±5663 in group 2, 8800±8584 and 4497±2336 in group 3 and 9709±3894 and 5279±4119 in group 4. Significantly higher stiffness as well as numbers of cycles to both clinical and mechanical failure were detected in group 1 in comparison to group 3, P≤0.044. Generally, malreduction led to significantly earlier construct failure. The observed failures were cut-out of the proximal screws in the femoral head, followed by either screw bending, screw loosening or screw fracture. Proper placement of the proximal screws in anatomically reduced fractures led to significantly higher construct stability. Our data also indicates that once the screws are placed off-axis (>5 degrees), the benefit of an anatomic reduction is lost.

  15. Stent graft placement for dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Gyeong Sik [Dept. of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, College of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young; Ahn, Moon Sang [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and outcomes of stent graft use in dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts. Eleven patients who underwent stent graft placement for a dysfunctional hemodialysis graft were included in this retrospective study. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene covered stent grafts were placed at the venous anastomosis site in case of pseudoaneurysm, venous laceration, elastic recoil or residual restenosis despite the repeated angioplasty. The patency of the arteriovenous graft was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Primary and secondary mean patency was 363 days and 741 days. Primary patency at 3, 6, and 12 months was 82%, 73%, and 32%, respectively. Secondary patency at the 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months was improved to 91%, 82%, 82%, 50%, and 25%, respectively. Fractures of the stent graft were observed in 2 patients, but had no effect on the patency. Stent graft placement in dysfunctional arteriovenous graft is useful and effective in prolonging graft patency.

  16. Optimal sensor placement using machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Semaan, Richard


    A new method for optimal sensor placement based on variable importance of machine learned models is proposed. With its simplicity, adaptivity, and low computational cost, the method offers many advantages over existing approaches. The new method is implemented on an airfoil equipped with a Coanda actuator. The analysis is based on flow field data obtained from 2D unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulations with different actuation conditions. The optimal sensor locations is compared against the current de-facto standard of maximum POD modal amplitude location, and against a brute force approach that scans all possible sensor combinations. The results show that both the flow conditions and the type of sensor have an effect on the optimal sensor placement, whereas the choice of the response function appears to have limited influence.

  17. Identification of Possible Molecular Markers to Predict the Malignant Tendency of the Prostate Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) Lesions (United States)


    Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) Lesions PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Youqiang Ke, Ph.D...NUMBER of the Prostate Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) Lesions 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05-1-0069 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...the malignant tendency of the Prostate Intraepthelial Neoplasia (PIN) lesion. During the past year, our main effort has been made to establish

  18. Evaluation of FFTF fuel pin design procedure vis-a-vis steady state irradiation performance in EBR II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.J.


    The FFTF fuel pin design analysis is shown to be conservative through comparison with pin irradiation experience in EBR-II. This comparison shows that the actual lifetimes of EBR-II fuel pins are either greater than 80,000 MWd/MTM or greater than the calculated allowable lifetimes based on thermal creep strain.

  19. A ROP GTPase-dependent auxin signaling pahtway regulates the subcellular distribution of PIN2 in Arabidopsis roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, D.; Nagawa, S.; Chen, J.; Cao, L.; Scheres, B.


    PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein-mediated auxin polar transport is critically important for development, pattern formation, and morphogenesis in plants. Auxin has been implicated in the regulation of polar auxin transport by inhibiting PIN endocytosis [1 and 2], but how auxin regulates this process is

  20. Treatment of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures with locking proximal humerus plate. (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Cheng; Li, Yu-Lin; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Wu, Qiang; Feng, Shi-Qing


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of the locking proximal humerus plate to treat proximal humerus fractures. A retrospective clinical trial. Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with locking proximal humerus plates. The deltopectoral anterolateral acromial approach was used to the proximal humerus; open reduction and locking proximal humerus plate were applied. Constant Score was used to measure the shoulder functional recovery, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to measure subjective evaluation of pain. The radiology was observed. After average 26.7 months, the average Constant Score was 72.6 ± 13.2 points and the average VAS was 1.2 ± 0.8 points. All the complications such as screw perforation into the glenohumeral joint, screws loosening, soft tissue infections, avascular necrosis and delayed union occurred in eight cases (11.8 %). The effectiveness of the locking proximal humerus plate was similar to other published literatures on treating fractures of the proximal humerus; however, a lower complications rate in short follow-up time was observed in this study. It may potentially provide a favorable option for treating three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Dealing with each particular fracture pattern, surgeons should have a decision of appropriate way to internal fixation.

  1. Esthetic outcomes of immediate implant placements. (United States)

    Evans, Christopher D J; Chen, Stephen T


    Single-rooted teeth deemed not restorable via conventional means may be candidates for implant placement at the time of tooth extraction. Immediate implant placements are believed to preserve soft and hard tissue form and contours, reduce the need for augmentation procedures, minimize surgical exposure of the patient, reduce treatment time and improve esthetic outcomes. This retrospective review analyzed the esthetic outcomes of 42 non-adjacent single-unit implant restorations completed using an immediate implant surgical placement protocol. The mean time in function was 18.9 months (range 6-50 months) and the majority of implants placed had a restorative platform diameter of 4.1 and 4.8 mm. A highly significant change in crown height due to marginal tissue recession of 0.9 +/- 0.78 mm (P=0.000) was recorded for all sites, with no difference seen between implant systems (P=0.837). Thin tissue biotype showed slightly greater recession than thick tissue biotype (1 +/- 0.9 vs. 0.7 +/- 0.57 mm, respectively); however, this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.187). Implants with a buccal shoulder position showed three times more recession than implants with a lingual shoulder position (1.8 +/- 0.83 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.55 mm, respectively) with the difference being highly statistically significant (P=0.000). Immediate implant placement requires very careful case selection and high surgical skill levels if esthetic outcomes are to be achieved. Long-term prospective studies on tissue stability and esthetic outcomes are needed.

  2. Endoscopic placement of enteral feeding tubes


    Rafferty, Gerard P; Tham, Tony CK


    Malnutrition is common in patients with acute and chronic illness. Nutritional management of these malnourished patients is an essential part of healthcare. Enteral feeding is one component of nutritional support. It is the preferred method of nutritional support in patients that are not receiving adequate oral nutrition and have a functioning gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This method of nutritional support has undergone progression over recent times. The method of placement of enteral feedin...

  3. Règlement institutionnel Déplacements

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Julie Pépin

    du progrès économique et social de ces régions. .... Logements/maisons privés ou installations non commerciales où un voyageur peut passer la nuit ...... coût du logement. L'employé ne peut demander un remboursement que pour les distances parcourues pour le compte du CRDI. En ce qui concerne les déplacements ...

  4. A Placement Model for Flight Simulators. (United States)


    simulator basing strategies. Captains David R. VanDenburg and Jon D. Veith developed a mathematical model to assist in the placement analysis of A-7...Institute for Defense Analysis, Arlington VA, August 1977. AD A049979. 23. Sugarman , Robert C., Steven L. Johnson, and William F. H. Ring. "B-I Systems...USAF Cost and Plan- nin& Factors. AFR 173-13. Washington: Govern- ment Printing Office, I February 1982. * 30. Van Denburg, Captain David R., USAF

  5. Method for the placement of palatal implants. (United States)

    Tosun, Tosun; Keles, Ahmet; Erverdi, Nejat


    Palatal implants have been used in the last 2 decades to eliminate headgear wear and to establish stationary anchorage. The aim of this investigation was to establish a method and easy protocol for palatal implant placement. The study comprised 8 male and 15 female patients each having a 4.5 x 8-mm stepped screw titanium implant placed in the palatal region for orthodontic purposes. A surgical template containing metal drill housing was prepared. Angulation of the drill housing was controlled according to the radiologic tracing of the maxilla transferred to a plaster cast section in the paramedian plane. Implants were placed using a noninvasive technique (incision, flap, and suture elimination) and left transmucosally to facilitate the surgical procedure and reduce operations. The paramedian region was selected so as to avoid connective tissues of the palatine suture and because it was considered to be a suitable host site for implant placement. After 3 months of healing, all implants were osseointegrated and no implant was lost throughout the orthodontic treatment. Palatal implants can be used effectively for anchorage maintenance and space-gaining procedures. Usage of a 3-dimensional surgical template eliminated faulty implant placement, reduced chair time, and minimized trauma to the tissues while enhancing osseointegration.

  6. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences? (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey


    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer.

  7. Experiences of Supervision at Practice Placement Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Diack


    Full Text Available Background. Whilst placement supervision and clinical education programmes are of significant value in shaping the behaviours of undergraduate healthcare students, appropriate provisions which are efficacious to the learner are somewhat lacking, particularly for students studying on UK MPharm programmes. Objectives. To explore and explain the value of placement supervision to the personal development and employability of undergraduate pharmacy students. Methods. Students participated in a week long community pharmacy pilot programme, a result of a collaborative effort between the School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences and a small consortium of community pharmacies. Students and stakeholders were asked to evaluate their experiences via separate questionnaires which had been developed to elicit views and attitudes. Key Findings. Feedback from students and stakeholders towards the experience was overwhelmingly positive with multiple benefits being reported. Of particular prominence was the emphasis in student feedback on the value of placement supervision to their professional and personal development. Findings were indicative of a development in clinical practice proficiencies, core skills, and improvement in decision-making practice. Conclusions. The benefits of clinical supervision to the professional and personal development of MPharm students are well documented, although attracting professional pharmacy supervisors is proving a problematic task for educational providers in the UK.

  8. Surface versus lateral illumination effects on an interdigitated Si planar PIN photodiode (United States)

    Menon, P. S.; Shaari, Sahbudin


    The planar PIN Photodiode (PD) has profound advantages compared to the vertical surface/edge illuminated PIN PD. A two dimensional interdigitated silicon PIN PD with a 58 microns × 80 microns active area and finger width of 2 microns and finger spacing of 10 microns respectively was modeled and simulated in a novel approach using Silvaco ATHENA and ATLAS software. The device was illuminated from the surface and laterally and comparison analysis was performed. At a reverse bias of -10 V, the dark current was 1 ps. Photocurrent of 500 nA was obtained for a 5 Wcm-2 optical beam power for both the surface and lateral illumination at a -10 V reverse bias. The total quantum efficiency of the laterally illuminated PIN PD at a wavelength of 850 nm was 95% (responsivity=0.65 A/W) and 75% (responsivity=0.52 A/W) for the surface illuminated PIN PD respectively. The -3dB cutoff frequency of the surface illuminated device was at ~10 kHz and for the laterally illuminated PIN PD, the frequency was at ~0.1 MHz. Lateral illumination in an interdigitated Si planar PIN PD produces higher photocurrent contributing to higher quantum efficiency, responsivity and frequency response as compared to surface illumination.

  9. Cdk2 and Pin1 negatively regulate the transcriptional corepressor SMRT. (United States)

    Stanya, Kristopher J; Liu, Yu; Means, Anthony R; Kao, Hung-Ying


    Silencing mediator for retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) is a transcriptional corepressor that participates in diverse signaling pathways and human diseases. However, regulation of SMRT stability remains largely unexplored. We show that the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 interacts with SMRT both in vitro and in mammalian cells. This interaction requires the WW domain of Pin1 and SMRT phosphorylation. Pin1 regulates SMRT protein stability, thereby affecting SMRT-dependent transcriptional repression. SMRT phosphorylation at multiple sites is required for Pin1 interaction, and these sites can be phosphorylated by Cdk2, which interacts with SMRT. Cdk2-mediated phosphorylation of SMRT is required for Pin1 binding and decreases SMRT stability, whereas mutation of these phosphorylation sites abrogates Pin1 binding and stabilizes SMRT. Finally, decreases in SMRT stability occur in response to the activation of Her2/Neu/ErbB2, and this receptor functions upstream of both Pin1 and Cdk2 in the signaling cascade that regulates SMRT stability and cellular response to tamoxifen.

  10. Long-term results of transarticular pinning for surgical stabilisation of coxofemoral luxation in 20 cats. (United States)

    Sissener, T R; Whitelock, R G; Langley-Hobbs, S J


    The objective of this study was to describe initial and long-term results of open reduction and transarticular pinning for treatment of coxofemoral luxations in cats. Cats were treated by open reduction and transarticular pinning for coxofemoral luxation over a five year period at two institutions. Follow-up assessment included orthopaedic examination, radiography and owner questionnaires. Twenty cats were included in the study (14 males and six females). One cat was affected bilaterally. Mean time to follow-up was 21 months. Seventeen joints were stabilised with a 1.6 mm pin, three with 2.0 mm pins and a 1.2 mm pin was used in the remaining joint. An Ehmer sling was not utilised in any case. All transarticular pins except one were removed (mean 3.5 weeks), with all hips still in reduction The overall success rate was 77 per cent, with two reluxations and one resorbed femoral head noted on radiographs of 13 joints followed long term. All 20 owners reported good to excellent long-term functional outcome for their cats. Results from this study indicate that transarticular pinning for stabilisation of coxofemoral luxation in cats can provide a good long-term outcome without sacrificing the integrity of the coxofemoral joint.

  11. Cyclohexyl ketone inhibitors of Pin1 dock in a trans-diaxial cyclohexane conformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyan G Xu

    Full Text Available Cyclohexyl ketone substrate analogue inhibitors (Ac-pSer-Ψ[C = OCH]-Pip-tryptamine of Pin1, the cell cycle regulatory peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase, were designed and synthesized as potential electrophilic acceptors for the Pin1 active site Cys113 nucleophile to test a proposed nucleophilic addition-isomerization mechanism. Because they were weak inhibitors, models of all three stereoisomers were docked into the active site of Pin1. Each isomer consistently minimized to a trans-diaxial cyclohexane conformation. From this, we hypothesize that Pin1 stretches substrates into a trans-pyrrolidine conformation to lower the barrier to isomerization. Our reduced amide inhibitor of Pin1 adopted a similar trans-pyrrolidine conformation in the crystal structure. The molecular model of 1, which mimics the l-Ser-l-Pro stereochemistry, in the Pin1 active site showed a distance of 4.4 Å, and an angle of 31° between Cys113-S and the ketone carbon. The computational models suggest that the mechanism of Pin1 PPIase is not likely to proceed through nucleophilic addition.

  12. Pin-wheel hexagons: a model for anthraquinone ordering on Cu(111). (United States)

    Simenas, M; Tornau, E E


    The 4-state model of anthraquinone molecules ordering in a pin-wheel large-pore honeycomb phase on Cu(111) is proposed and solved by Monte Carlo simulation. The model is defined on a rescaled triangular lattice with the lattice constant a being equal to intermolecular distance in the honeycomb phase. The pin-wheel triangle formations are obtained taking into account the elongated shape of the molecules and anisotropic interactions for main two attractive short range (double and single dimeric) H-bond interactions. The long-range intermolecular interactions, corresponding to repulsive dipole-dipole forces, are assumed to be isotropic. Also, a very small (compared to short-range forces) isotropic attractive long-range interaction at the "characteristic" distance of a pore diameter is employed, and its effect carefully studied. This interaction is crucial for a formation of closed porous ordered systems, pin-wheel hexagons in particular. If each side of a pin-wheel hexagon is formed of n parallel molecules, the distance of this characteristic interaction is a√(3n(2)+1). The phase diagrams including different pin-wheel hexagon phases and a variety of other ordered structures are obtained. By changing the distance of characteristic interaction, different ordering routes into the experimental pin-wheel honeycomb phase are explored. The results obtained imply that classical explanation of the origin of the pin-wheel honeycomb phase in terms of some balance of attractive and repulsive forces cannot be totally discounted yet.

  13. [Contralateral preventive screwing in proximal femoral epiphysiolysis]. (United States)

    Ghanem, I; Damsin, J P; Carlioz, H


    The incidence of bilaterality in slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) ranges, in the literature, from 19 per cent to 80 per cent. The role of contralateral pinning is to prevent late slipping of the femoral epiphysis and its complications. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness of routine preventive contralateral pinning in SCFE, and to evaluate its complications. We reviewed retrospectively 74 consecutive patients treated for unilateral SCFE by associated routine preventive contralateral pinning. The age at surgery ranged from 10 years and 6 months to 16 years and 10 months. The osteosynthesis was achieved by a single cannulated holothreaded screw with a cross grooved head, with or without the use of washers. An accidental pin penetration was noted in 4 cases. The epiphyseal position of the screw was satisfactory in 56 cases. The patient was allowed to walk the second or third day after surgery with the use of crutches. All our patients were reviewed after the end of squeletal growth. The follow-up ranged from 2 to 12 years and 8 months. The age at which the patient was last seen ranged from 15 years and 7 months to 27 years. Two major complications were noted: a femoral fracture at the level of the screw penetration in one case, and secondary slipping of the epiphysis after premature removal of the screw in two cases. The removal of the screw was considered to be very difficult in 10 cases. A relative overgrowth of the greater trochanter was noted in 8 cases, and was of no clinical significance. No infection was noted. At last follow-up, the shape of the femoral head and the function of the hip were normal in all cases except for one hip where severe coxa vara developed because of a secondary slip after premature removal of the screw. There is a lot of controversy about the real necessity of routine preventive contralateral osteosynthesis in SCFE. In our experience this surgery succeeded in reducing the incidence of secondary contralateral

  14. Downregulation of Pin1 in human atherosclerosis and its association with vascular smooth muscle cell senescence. (United States)

    Lv, Lei; Ye, Meng; Duan, Rundan; Yuan, Kai; Chen, Jiaquan; Liang, Wei; Zhou, Zhaoxiong; Zhang, Lan


    Pin1 is prevalently overexpressed in human cancers and implicated to regulate cell growth and apoptosis. Thus far, however, no role for Pin1 has been described in modulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to assess Pin1 protein level in human normal and atherosclerotic tissues. β-galactosidase staining, cumulative population doubling level, telomerase activity, and relative telomere length measurement were used to confirm VSMC senescence. The expressions of Pin1 and other genes involved in this research were analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting in VSMCs. Apolipoprotein E gene-deleted mice (ApoE-/-) fed a high-fat diet were treated with juglone or 10% ethanol, respectively, for 3 weeks. The extent of atherosclerosis was evaluated by Oil Red O, Masson trichrome staining, and immunohistology. Pin1 protein level decreased in human atherosclerotic tissues and VSMCs, synchronously with increased VSMC senescence. Adenoviral-mediated Pin1 overexpression rescued cellular senescence in atherosclerotic VSMCs, with concurrent down-regulation of P53, p21, growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45-alpha (Gadd45a), phosphorylated retinoblastoma (p-pRb), p65 and upregulation of cyclin subfamilies (cyclin B, D, and E), and cyclin-dependent kinase subfamilies (2, 4, and 6), whereas Pin1 knockdown resulted in the converse effects, indicating that VSMC senescence mediated by Pin1 is an integrated response to diverse signals. In vivo data from ApoE-/- mice showed that treatment of juglone led to accelerated atherosclerosis development. Altogether this work supports a role for Pin1 as a vital modulator of VSMC senescence, thereby providing a novel target for regulation and control of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Decreasing bacterial colonization of external fixation pins via nitric oxide release coatings (United States)

    Holt, Joshua; Hertzberg, Brian; Weinhold, Paul; Storm, Wesley; Schoenfisch, Mark


    Objective Bacterial infection of the pin tract represents the most common complication associated with external fixation. This study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of nitric oxide (NO) releasing xerogel films applied to commercially pure titanium pins in a rat model. Methods Pins were coated with xerogel solution via a dip-coating procedure. Half of the xerogel coated implant pins were modified into NO-donors and served as the NO releasing group while the remaining pins were left unmodified to serve as non-NO releasing xerogel coated controls. Acid etched pins served as uncoated controls. Animal selection was randomized and every rat had one pin from each of the three groups randomly allocated to the 3rd, 4th, or 5th tail vertebrae. Quantification of bacterial infection was performed 48 days post-operatively and the tissue-implant interface was inspected for clinical signs of infection on days 14 and 28 post-implantation. Results Pin tract bacterial colony counts of the NO releasing group (170K±181K) were significantly lower than both the xerogel coated group (677K±675K) and the control group (1,181K±2,717K) 48 days postoperatively (pcoated group and the control group. The NO releasing group also had significantly fewer clinical signs of infection than both the coated and the control groups on postoperative day 28 (pcoatings can inhibit bacterial colonization of external fixation pins both during the initial postsurgical period and up to 48 days post-implantation. PMID:21637124

  16. Comparison of transverse wires and half pins in Taylor Spatial Frame: a biomechanical study. (United States)

    Khurana, Ashish; Byrne, Carlton; Evans, Sam; Tanaka, Hiro; Haraharan, Kartik


    The aim of this study was to compare the stiffness characteristics of Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) fixed with transverse wires and half pins. Experiments were carried out at the biomechanics laboratory at Cardiff University. All mechanical testing was performed with a servo hydraulic test frame (MTS 858 Mini Bionix II(R), MTS Corp., Mineapolis, USA). Custom built mounts were used to attach the bone rigidly to the one end of machine and the TSF ring to the other. Rings were fixed with 1.8 mm transverse wires or hydroxy-apatite coated 6.5 mm half pins in 45 degrees, 60 degrees, 75 degrees and 90 degrees divergence angles. Bone was loaded with axial load to 400 N and torque to 20 Nm in an indestructible manner. Load/displacement curve data were analyzed for slope and axial and angular displacements. For larger diameter rings (180 mm), for axial stiffness there was no statistically significant difference between the transverse wires (4 wires with 2 rings) and the half pins (2 pins with 1 ring) (p > 0.05). For 155 mm internal diameter rings, half pins provided statistically higher axial stiffness than transverse wires (p = 0.036). The half pins show significantly more torsion stiffness in both ring diameters (p < 0.05) in comparison to transverse wires. As in axial stiffness, small diameter rings show increased stiffness in torsion. There is increase in axial and torsion stiffness with the increase in the divergence angle between the wires or pins (p < 0.05). Half pins provide greater stiffness to TSF frames and allow for axial micro motion as well. This work provides a rationale for clinical decision making about the use of tensioned transverse wires in comparison to half pins in construction of a TSF frame.

  17. Theory of Disorder (collective Pinning and Phase Transition) (United States)

    Larkin, Anatoly


    One weak force causes a weak distortion. The result of the action of many weak forces depends on a system: it may lead either to a weak or to a strong distortion. In the Abrikosov lattice of vortices in superconductors, the impurities (centers of pinning) are belonged to our laboratory system and do not move together with vortices. Therefore, the centers of pinning destroy the long-range order in the lattice. Short-range order exists only at the distance smaller than the correlation length L_c.[1] This results in appearance of a friction force, a critical current, a hysteresis. [2,3] In any business, it is important to have certain corner stones, meaning the results, which rise no doubts in their correctness. Such a corner stone for the physics of critical phenomena was provided by ONSAGER in 1944 by his exact solution of two dimensional Ising model. This paper stimulated a large number of theorists toward the study of critical phenomena. The methods of quantum field theory allowed to segregate the most divergent contributions of the perturbation theory: so called, parquet diagrams - and sum up these contributions. As the result, singularity close to phase transition in a real three dimensional system with dipole-dipole interaction was found exactly. [4] After obtaining the results, relevant to a real physical system, we completed this paper with two important appendices of a methodical character. In the first appendix we obtained the same result using the method of multiplicative renormalization group. This method is equivalent to that of parquet diagrams summation, but it is simpler and found later applications in different branches of condensed matter theory. In the second appendix we considered the effect of the symmetry of the order parameter on the singularity at the transition point in a non-physical four dimensional system. I am grateful to my co-authors Yu.N.Ovchinnikov and D.E.Khmelnitskii, my teachers A.D.Sakharov and A.B.Migdal. I should mention here

  18. Halo skeletal traction pin site care: toward developing a standard of care. (United States)

    Olson, R S


    Halo skeletal traction may be used to immobilize a patient's head and neck following a cervical fracture. Prevention of infectious reactions around the pin sites of halo traction is a priority in rehabilitation nursing practice. Although prophylactic treatment of skeletal pin sites is a generally accepted practice, there is great diversity of opinion and very limited systematic investigation as to how the sites should be treated. In this article, the author reviews the literature on pin site care and suggests a protocol based on the current literature.

  19. Cooling system having reduced mass pin fins for components in a gas turbine engine (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J


    A cooling system having one or more pin fins with reduced mass for a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The cooling system may include one or more first surfaces defining at least a portion of the cooling system. The pin fin may extend from the surface defining the cooling system and may have a noncircular cross-section taken generally parallel to the surface and at least part of an outer surface of the cross-section forms at least a quartercircle. A downstream side of the pin fin may have a cavity to reduce mass, thereby creating a more efficient turbine airfoil.

  20. Thick and large area PIN diodes for hard X-ray astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Ota, N; Sugizaki, M; Kaneda, M; Tamura, T; Ozawa, H; Kamae, T; Makishima, K; Takahashi, T; Tashiro, M; Fukazawa, Y; Kataoka, J; Yamaoka, K; Kubo, S; Tanihata, C; Uchiyama, Y; Matsuzaki, K; Iyomoto, N; Kokubun, M; Nakazawa, T; Kubota, A; Mizuno, T; Matsumoto, Y; Isobe, N; Terada, Y; Sugiho, M; Onishi, T; Kubo, H; Ikeda, H; Nomachi, M; Ohsugi, T; Muramatsu, M; Akahori, H


    Thick and large area PIN diodes for the hard X-ray astronomy in the 10-60 keV range are developed. To cover this energy range in a room temperature and in a low background environment, Si PIN junction diodes of 2 mm in thickness with 2.5 cm sup 2 in effective area were developed, and will be used in the bottom of the Phoswich Hard X-ray Detector (HXD), on-board the ASTRO-E satellite. Problems related to a high purity Si and a thick depletion layer during our development and performance of the PIN diodes are presented in detail.

  1. Graph Theory-Based Pinning Synchronization of Stochastic Complex Dynamical Networks. (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Jian; Yang, Guang-Hong


    This paper is concerned with the adaptive pinning synchronization problem of stochastic complex dynamical networks (CDNs). Based on algebraic graph theory and Lyapunov theory, pinning controller design conditions are derived, and the rigorous convergence analysis of synchronization errors in the probability sense is also conducted. Compared with the existing results, the topology structures of stochastic CDN are allowed to be unknown due to the use of graph theory. In particular, it is shown that the selection of nodes for pinning depends on the unknown lower bounds of coupling strengths. Finally, an example on a Chua's circuit network is given to validate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  2. The Pinning by Particles of Low and High Angle Grain Boundaries during Grain Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweed, C.J.; Ralph, B.; Hansen, Niels


    and coworkers. These estimates of local driving pressures have shown that they are similar for both the low and the high angle boundaries encountered in the samples. The pinning effects by particles at high angle boundaries are in general accord with the model due to Zener whilst those at low angle boundaries......A study has been made using transmission electron microscopy of the pinning of grain boundaries in aluminium during grain growth by fine dispersions of alumina particles. The boundary parameters have been determined with precision and the pinning effects measured using an approach due to Ashby...

  3. Hysteretic rotational magnetization of pinned layer in NiO spin-valve

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C G; Hwang, D G; Lee, S S; Kim, C O


    The magnetoresistance (MR) curves during the rotation of magnetic field in NiO spin-valve are well described by taking into account the involved magnetization process of free and pinned layers according to rotating field strength. In particular, hysteretic MR characteristics pronounced in a field strength of 1.5 times the exchange field are ascribed for by the viscosity effect on magnetization rotation of pinned layer. These analyses of MR curves provide a basis decomposing the MR components from each magnetization process of free and pinned layers.

  4. Acute Cholangitis following Biliary Obstruction after Duodenal OTSC Placement in a Case of Large Chronic Duodenocutaneous Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseen Alastal


    Full Text Available Over-the-Scope Clip system, also called “Bear Claw,” is a novel endoscopic modality used for closure of gastrointestinal defect with high efficacy and safety. We present a patient with history of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and multiple abdominal surgeries including Billroth II gastrectomy complicated by a large chronic duodenocutaneous fistula from a Billroth II afferent limb to the abdominal wall. Bear Claw clip was used for closure of this fistula. The patient developed acute cholangitis one day after placement of the Bear Claw clip. Acute cholangitis due to papillary obstruction is a potential complication of Bear Claw placement at the dome of the duodenal stump (afferent limb in patient with Billroth II surgery due to its close proximity to the major papilla.

  5. GERMINAL — A computer code for predicting fuel pin behaviour (United States)

    Melis, J. C.; Roche, L.; Piron, J. P.; Truffert, J.


    In the frame of the R and D on FBR fuels, CEA/DEC is developing the computer code GERMINAL to study the fuel pin thermal-mechanical behaviour during steady-state and incidental conditions. The development of GERMINAL is foreseen in two steps: (1) The GERMINAL 1 code designed as a "working horse" for immediate applications. The version 1 of GERMINAL 1 is presently delivered fully documented with a physical qualification guaranteed up to 8 at%. (2) The version 2 of GERMINAL 1, in addition to what is presently treated in GERMINAL 1 includes the treatment of high burnup effects on the fission gas release and the fuel-clad joint. This version, GERMINAL 1.2, is presently under testing and will be completed up to the end of 1991. The GERMINAL 2 code designed as a reference code for future applications will cover all the aspects of GERMINAL 1 (including high burnup effects) with a more general mechanical treatment, and a completely revised and advanced informatical structure.

  6. Fast recovery SOI PiN diode with multiple trenches (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Zhu, Jing; Zhao, Minna; Ding, Desheng; Chen, Jian; Sun, Weifeng


    In this paper, a 500V SOI PiN lateral diode is proposed and investigated by simulations and experiments. The proposed structure features multiple deep-oxide trenches (MDOT) arranged in the silicon region. Two DOTs (T1 and T2) locating in the i-layer help to block the cathode-anode voltage (VCA), allowing the diode to shorten its i-layer length. With a similar breakdown voltage (BV) of 560V, the i-layer length is shortened from 47 μm for the conventional diode to 21.9 μm for the proposed MDOT diode. The shortened i-layer leads to a reduced number of stored carriers in the i-layer. Another DOT (T3) is inserted at the anode region of proposed MDOT diode and shorted with P+ anode. T3 acts as a vertical field plate, reshaping the electric potential distribution at the anode region and accelerating the depletion during the reverse recovery process. Thanks to the decreased number of the stored carriers and the accelerated depletion, the reverse recovery time (trr) of the proposed MDOT diode (211 ns) can be decreased by 56.7% compared with the conventional diode (487 ns) at the forward current density of 400 A/cm2 at T = 300 K. The proposed MDOT diode exhibits a better trade-off between forward voltage drop (VF) and reverse recovery time (trr) than the conventional and other reported diodes.

  7. Masses of exotic calcium isotopes pin down nuclear forces. (United States)

    Wienholtz, F; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Borgmann, Ch; Breitenfeldt, M; Cakirli, R B; George, S; Herfurth, F; Holt, J D; Kowalska, M; Kreim, S; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Menéndez, J; Neidherr, D; Rosenbusch, M; Schweikhard, L; Schwenk, A; Simonis, J; Stanja, J; Wolf, R N; Zuber, K


    The properties of exotic nuclei on the verge of existence play a fundamental part in our understanding of nuclear interactions. Exceedingly neutron-rich nuclei become sensitive to new aspects of nuclear forces. Calcium, with its doubly magic isotopes (40)Ca and (48)Ca, is an ideal test for nuclear shell evolution, from the valley of stability to the limits of existence. With a closed proton shell, the calcium isotopes mark the frontier for calculations with three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory. Whereas predictions for the masses of (51)Ca and (52)Ca have been validated by direct measurements, it is an open question as to how nuclear masses evolve for heavier calcium isotopes. Here we report the mass determination of the exotic calcium isotopes (53)Ca and (54)Ca, using the multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer of ISOLTRAP at CERN. The measured masses unambiguously establish a prominent shell closure at neutron number N = 32, in excellent agreement with our theoretical calculations. These results increase our understanding of neutron-rich matter and pin down the subtle components of nuclear forces that are at the forefront of theoretical developments constrained by quantum chromodynamics.

  8. [Biological basis of problematic internet use (PIN) and therapeutic implications]. (United States)

    Bauernhofer, Kathrin; Papousek, Ilona; Fink, Andreas; Unterrainer, Human Friedrich; Weiss, Elisabeth M


    The repetitive excessive use of internet has led to an increasing number of reports about the negative consequences of overuse and is now viewed as an important public health issue, although the diagnosis of internet addiction remains problematic. Increasing knowledge about the neurobiological mechanism of behavioral addictions will promote future research and is essential for the development of specific and effective treatment. Growing evidence suggests that the neurobiological substrates and pathways of internet addiction resemble those of substance dependency and other forms of behavioral addictions. This paper reviews the current neuroimaging findings and genetic influencing factors for problematic internet use (PIN)/internet addiction. Recent evidence from neuro-scientific studies has pointed out that certain dysfunctions in the prefrontal cortex possibly driven by impaired dopamine neurotransmission are related to symptoms of internet addiction. Finally the literature on psychological and pharmacological interventions for internet addiction will be discussed. However, due to a lack of methodological sound treatment studies in this field it is currently impossible to recommend any evidence-based treatment of internet addiction.

  9. Industrial Computed Tomography using Proximal Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zang, Guangming


    In this thesis, we present ProxiSART, a flexible proximal framework for robust 3D cone beam tomographic reconstruction based on the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART). We derive the proximal operator for the SART algorithm and use it for minimizing the data term in a proximal algorithm. We show the flexibility of the framework by plugging in different powerful regularizers, and show its robustness in achieving better reconstruction results in the presence of noise and using fewer projections. We compare our framework to state-of-the-art methods and existing popular software tomography reconstruction packages, on both synthetic and real datasets, and show superior reconstruction quality, especially from noisy data and a small number of projections.

  10. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity. (United States)

    Fan, Chao; Liu, Yiding; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao


    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similarity, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of common friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will help model and predict human behaviors based on social proximity.

  11. [Disorders of sex development and proximal hypospadias]. (United States)

    Oswald, J


    Children with ambiguous genitalia due to different chromosome or gonadal sex are a particular challenge concerning the diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Proximal hypospadias patients with normal gonadal development should be distinguished from children with DSD (disorders of sex development) to guarantee normal gender identity and the best possible surgical therapy. This paper focuses on the terminology, embryology, and pathophysiology of the different manifestations of DSD. The state of knowledge about this disease pattern with particular emphasis on proximal hypospadias based on national and international scientific discussions is presented. The different clinical pictures as well as therapeutic options of DSD with a special focus on recent literature and giving particular attention to patients with proximal hypospadias are presented. Because of the complexity of patients suffering from disorders of sex development an interdisciplinary DSD healthcare team including a paediatric endocrinologist as well as paediatric urologist should be provided. These specialists enable an accurate diagnosis in severe hypospadias patients without reference to DSD diseases patterns.

  12. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J


    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...... proximal lesions identified radiographically around the enamel-dentin junction to the outer third of the dentin, were included. Lesions were randomly allocated for treatment to test-A (Infiltration: ICON-pre-product; DMG), test-B (Sealing: Prime-Bond-NT; Dentsply), or control-C (Placebo). Primary outcome...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Araújo-Vila


    Full Text Available Every day more consumers spend much of their free time to the consumption of audiovisual series, which is reflected in the notable increase in downloads and audiences. Therefore, many sectors have decided to use audiovisual series as advertising (brand placement, being one of them the tourism sector (tourism product placement. There are many worldwide destinations that have decided to set in a fiction series, thus being viewed by thousands of spectators, which has resulted in increases in visitors. In the Spanish case is not so clear the use of this strategy, as it is analysed in this article.

  14. Knowledge networks in the Dutch aviation industry: The proximity paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekel, T.; Boschma, R.A.


    The importance of geographical proximity for interaction and knowledge sharing has been discussed extensively in recent years. There is increasing consensus that geographical proximity is just one out of many types of proximities that might be relevant. We argue that proximity may be a crucial

  15. The developmental spectrum of proximal radioulnar synostosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Alison M. [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg Regional Health Association Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, WRHA Program of Genetics and Metabolism, Departments of Paediatrics and Child Health, Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Kibria, Lisa [University of Manitoba, Department of School of Medical Rehabilitation, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); University of Manitoba, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)


    Proximal radioulnar synostosis is a rare upper limb malformation. The elbow is first identifiable at 35 days (after conception), at which stage the cartilaginous anlagen of the humerus, radius and ulna are continuous. Subsequently, longitudinal segmentation produces separation of the distal radius and ulna. However, temporarily, the proximal ends are united and continue to share a common perichondrium. We investigated the hypothesis that posterior congenital dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion are different clinical manifestations of the same primary developmental abnormality. Records were searched for ''proximal radioulnar fusion/posterior radial head dislocation'' in patients followed at the local Children's Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Children. Relevant radiographic, demographic and clinical data were recorded. Ethics approval was obtained through the University Research Ethics Board. In total, 28 patients met the inclusion criteria. The majority of patients (16) had bilateral involvement; eight with posterior dislocation of the radial head only; five had posterior radial head dislocation with radioulnar fusion and two had radioulnar fusion without dislocation. One patient had bilateral proximal radioulnar fusion and posterior dislocation of the left radial head. Nine patients had only left-sided involvement, and three had only right-sided involvement.The degree of proximal fusion varied, with some patients showing 'complete' proximal fusion and others showing fusion that occurred slightly distal to the radial head: 'partially separated.' Associated disorders in our cohort included Poland syndrome (two patients), Cornelia de Lange syndrome, chromosome anomalies (including tetrasomy X) and Cenani Lenz syndactyly. The suggestion of a developmental relationship between posterior dislocation of the radial head and proximal radioulnar fusion is supported by the fact that both anomalies

  16. Trapping of massive thrombus in an inferior vena cava filter: treatment with additional filter placement and aspiration thrombectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Soo; Kim, Young Whan; Cho, Won Hyun; Kim, Hyong Tae; Koo, Ja Hyun; Woo, Seong Ku [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    For the patients suffering from extensive deep vein thrombosis (DVT), the placement of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter in conjunction with anticoagulant therapy has been used to prevent pulmonary embolisms. However, for the patients who anticoagulant is contraindicated or if this is complicated, the use of an IVC filter without concurrent anticoagulation may become the sole treatment for pulmonary embolisms. In this situation, the thrombi trapped in the IVC filter may cause significant clinical problems. We report here on a case of IVC filter thrombosis that was successfully treated by aspiration thrombectomy after placing another filter proximal to the previous filter.

  17. Thermal stress analyses of a header plate with a 51-PIN electrical feed-thru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, V.L.; McCollister, H.L.


    An electronic package currently under development requires a hermetically-sealed electrical connection through a metal header plate. The electrical feedthru consists of 51 RA333 pins in an S-type glass ceramic insulator. Because the feedthru contains a large number of pins spaced closely together, a single glass preform rather than individual glass beads at each pin has been proposed. Finite element analyses were conducted to gain insight into the stress distribution in the header plate, glass, and pins. To verify the finite element analyses, a prototype part was manufactured and examined for cracking in the glass ceramic and for leakage of the glass-to-metal seal. Finite element analyses were then used to investigate effects of the plate geometry and yield strength on stresses in the assembly. This paper illustrates one way that finite element analyses can be used along with selective prototype manufacturing for a timely and cost-effective method of evaluating design parameters of electronic packages.

  18. Seal assembly with anti-rotation pin for high pressure supercritical fluids (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.


    A seal assembly for sealing a machine with a first chamber and a second chamber is provided. A rotating shaft extends through the first and second chambers, and rotates therein. The seal assembly has a seal housing, a seal ring and a seal pin. The seal housing is positionable in the machine housing. The seal housing has a seal pocket extending into a fluid side thereof, and a housing receptacle extending into an inner diameter thereof at the seal pocket. The seal ring is positionable in the seal pocket of the seal housing for forming a seal therewith. The seal ring has a ring receptacle extending into an outer diameter thereof. The ring receptacle is positionable adjacent to the housing receptacle for defining a pin hole therebetween. The seal pin is loosely positionable in the pin hole whereby movement about the seal ring is accommodated while preventing rotation thereof.

  19. Profile design of loaded pins in composite single lap joints: From circular to non-circular (United States)

    Zhou, Yadong; Fei, Qingguo; Tao, Jiayue

    Mechanical joints are the weakest links of composite materials and structures. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the pin profiles on the stress concentration and load-carry capacity of the pin-loaded single-lap joints subjected to tensile loading. Non-circular profiles of pins are numerically investigated to pursue a possible stress concentration reduction in both the net-tension and bearing stresses of composite single lap joints. Firstly, by varying the characteristic parameters, various round-corner squares are evaluated in terms of peak stresses. Secondly, the square-like profile is transferred to the racetrack-like one in order to gain optimal bearing stresses. Thirdly, the pin of the racetrack-like profile is investigated compared to the circular one, taking into account the through-thickness distributions of stresses. Lastly, the orthotropic effect and the load-carry capacity of the proposed profile are also discussed.

  20. Controlling inplane orientation of a monolayer colloidal crystal by meniscus pinning. (United States)

    Ng, Eric Chin Hong; Chin, Kah Mun; Wong, C C


    We demonstrate the usage of meniscus pinning by surface relief boundaries to control in-plane orientation of monolayer colloidal crystals without the interruption of grain disorientation. By optimizing the pinning boundary and withdrawal speed, a well controlled linear meniscus contact line offers unidirectional growth of a colloidal crystal-densely packed crystal direction ⟨11⟩ and ⟨10⟩ parallel to linear edge-giving rise to a single domain crystal with only twins and vacancies present as residual defects. The pinning effect works by eliminating the wavy contact line induced by fingering instability which is commonly found in liquid wetting film. It is found that surfactants and colloidal particles play significant roles to enhance edge pinning, increasing the distance traveled by receding bulk meniscus (during substrate withdrawal) before liquid depinning or rupturing.

  1. Correlation Between Pin Misalignment and Crack Length in THT Solder Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molnar A.


    Full Text Available In this manuscript, correlations were searched for between pin misalignments relative to PCB bores and crack propagation after cyclic thermal shock tests in THT solder joints produced from lead-free solder alloys. In total, 7 compositions were examined including SAC solders with varying Ag, Cu and Ni contents. The crack propagation was initiated by cyclic thermal shock tests with 40°C / +125°C temperature profiles. Pin misalignments relative to the bores were characterized with three attributes obtained from one section of the examined solder joints. Cracks typically originated at the solder/pin or solder/bore interfaces and propagated within the solder. It was shown that pin misalignments did not have an effect on crack propagation, thus, the solder joints’ lifetime.

  2. Three-dimensional flow phenomena in a wire-wrapped 37-pin fuel bundle for SFR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeong, Jae-Ho; Yoo, Jin; Lee, Kwi-Lim; Ha, Kwi-Seok


    Three-dimensional flow phenomena in a wire-wrapped 37-pin fuel assembly mock-up of a Japanese loop-type sodium-cooled fast reactor, Monju, were investigated with a numerical analysis using a general...

  3. Pinning Properties of Commercial Nb-Ti Wires Described by a 2-Components Model

    CERN Document Server

    Muzzi, L; Zignani, Chiarasole Fiamozzi; De Marzi, Gianluca; Muzzi, Luigi; Dominguez, Cesar Octavio; Bottura, Luca; Napolitano, Mathieu; Viola, Rosario; Affinito, Luigi; della Corte, Antonio; Le Naour, Sandrine


    We report on the magnetic and transport characterization of different NbTi commercial strands, carried out at variable temperature and magnetic field. From the critical current densities extracted from transport measurements and magnetization cycles we were able to calculate the normalized bulk pinning forces. The curves show good temperature scaling throughout the explored temperature range, and the reduced pinning force can be described by a simple two-components model system. The extension of the 2-components description of the pinning force to an expression for the critical current density gives a very good agreement with experimental measurements over the whole explored B, T range. The model works for all investigated samples, which are different in size, Cu:nonCu ratios, filament diameters and layouts. These results suggest that pinning mechanisms in conventional NbTi strands should be revised, since Nb-Ti composition gradients and grain boundaries seems to play a not negligible role.

  4. Why Do We Pin? New Gratifications Explain Unique Activities in Pinterest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Ruoxu; Yang, Fan; Zheng, Saijing; Sundar, S. Shyam


    .... This study investigated why individuals use specific features of Pinterest such as pinning, creating, liking, following, commenting, inviting, sharing, checking, searching, and browsing different categories. An online survey (N = 113...

  5. Self-regulation of charged defect compensation and formation energy pinning in semiconductors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Ji-Hui; Yin, Wan-Jian; Park, Ji-Sang; Wei, Su-Huai


    ... as the defect states in practice; (2) defect formation energy, thus defect density, could be pinned and independent on atomic chemical potentials due to the entanglement of atomic chemical potentials and Fermi energy, in contrast...

  6. In-situ tunable vortex pinning with an array of ferromagnetic anti-dots (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhili; Ocola, Leo; Divan, Ralu; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Superconductivity and Magnetism Group, MSD, Argonne National Lab Team


    We investigated vortex pinning effects of a ferromagnetic antidot array in a superconducting film. A square antidot array of 30 nm thick permalloy (Py) was patterned onto a MoGe superconducting film with thickness of 100 nm. Although we found no evidence of vortex pinning enhancement by the pristine magnetic antidot array in perpendicular magnetic fields, we found that by applying an independently controlled in-plane magnetic field the magnetic antidot array can provide excellent vortex pinning, resulting in a tunable superconducting critical current enhancement. Through micromagnetic simulation and magnetic force microscopy imaging, we demonstrate that the tunable vortex pinning originates from spatially periodic stray field generated by the magnetic antidot array in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field. This work was supported by DOE BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 that also funds Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) where the nanopatterning was performed.

  7. Flux pinning mechanism and Hc2-anisotropy in melanin doped bulk MgB2 (United States)

    Shahabuddin Shah, M.; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Alzayed, Nasser S.; Parakkandy, Jafar M.


    Flux pinning mechanism in melanin doped MgB2 superconductor has been studied using a scaling law proposed by Dew-Hughes and another method proposed by Eisterer. Our experimental data could be fitted very closely by the aforementioned scaling law. The fitting parameters, the positions of peaks bpeak and k = bpeak/bn confirm a grain-boundary pinning in the 10% melanin doped sample, while the undoped sample consists of mixed pinning. Furthermore, percolation theory was utilized under grain-boundary approximation to investigate the role of Hc2-anisotropy in the critical current density, and its dependence on applied field as well as temperature. The Hc2-anisotropy decreases with melanin doping resulting in the increase of Jc in high field. There is suppression of flux pinning maximum due to melanin doping, which is found to be the main reason for the degradation of low-field Jc.

  8. Global synchronization of memristive neural networks subject to random disturbances via distributed pinning control. (United States)

    Guo, Zhenyuan; Yang, Shaofu; Wang, Jun


    This paper presents theoretical results on global exponential synchronization of multiple memristive neural networks in the presence of external noise by means of two types of distributed pinning control. The multiple memristive neural networks are coupled in a general structure via a nonlinear function, which consists of a linear diffusive term and a discontinuous sign term. A pinning impulsive control law is introduced in the coupled system to synchronize all neural networks. Sufficient conditions are derived for ascertaining global exponential synchronization in mean square. In addition, a pinning adaptive control law is developed to achieve global exponential synchronization in mean square. Both pinning control laws utilize only partial state information received from the neighborhood of the controlled neural network. Simulation results are presented to substantiate the theoretical results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pinning of scroll waves to flat and highly branched unexcitable heterogeneities (United States)

    Mahanta, Dhriti; Dutta, Sumana; Steinbock, Oliver


    System heterogeneities such as organelles, cells, and anatomical features strongly affect nonlinear wave patterns in biological systems. These effects are more readily studied in otherwise homogeneous chemical reactions that allow the introduction of tailored structures. Following this approach, we investigate the dynamics of three-dimensional excitation vortices pinned to inert sheets with circular holes arranged on a hexagonal lattice. Experiments with the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction and numerical simulations of an excitable reaction-diffusion model reveal vortex pinning that circumvents the rapid collapse of free vortex rings. The pinned scroll waves are affected by the topological mismatch between their looplike rotation backbone and the branched pinning structure. Depending on the initial condition, a multitude of stable vortex states exist, all of which obey topological constraints, suggesting spinlike states for the involved obstacle holes.

  10. Wind Farm Turbine Type and Placement Optimization (United States)

    Graf, Peter; Dykes, Katherine; Scott, George; Fields, Jason; Lunacek, Monte; Quick, Julian; Rethore, Pierre-Elouan


    The layout of turbines in a wind farm is already a challenging nonlinear, nonconvex, nonlinearly constrained continuous global optimization problem. Here we begin to address the next generation of wind farm optimization problems by adding the complexity that there is more than one turbine type to choose from. The optimization becomes a nonlinear constrained mixed integer problem, which is a very difficult class of problems to solve. This document briefly summarizes the algorithm and code we have developed, the code validation steps we have performed, and the initial results for multi-turbine type and placement optimization (TTP_OPT) we have run.

  11. Optimization of Passive Coherent Receiver System Placement (United States)


    area of interest increases in size or more emitters are included. In order to maintain a reasonable program run time, the target is simulated by a...Transmitter 2 Transmitter 3 R 500m R 1500m R 2500m R 3500m R 5000m Transmitter 1 36 A critical transition is made as target altitude continues to increase...from DTED ensures factors such as line-of-sight and antenna elevation create a realistic output for determining optimal placement. The model run

  12. Laparoscopic versus open peritoneal dialysis catheter placement. (United States)

    Cox, Tiffany C; Blair, Laurel J; Huntington, Ciara R; Prasad, Tanushree; Kercher, Kent W; Heniford, B Todd; Augenstein, Vedra A


    Laparoscopy revolutionized many General Surgery procedures by decreasing hospital stay, minimizing recovery time, and reducing wound infection rates. This study evaluates the potential benefits of laparoscopic approach to peritoneal dialysis catheter (PDC) placement. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for laparoscopic and open PDC placement. We evaluated patient demographics, comorbidities, operative time, length of stay (LOS), and postoperative outcomes. Univariate comparison and multivariate logistic regression analysis (MVA) adjusting for confounding factors including age, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, and preoperative conditions were performed. A total of 3134 patients undergoing PDC placement were recorded in the NSQIP database between 2005 and 2012, including 2412 laparoscopic cases (LPDC) (77%) and 722 open (OPDC). Overall, the majority of cases were performed by General Surgeons (81%) with most of the remainder completed by Vascular Surgeons (16.8%). Patients undergoing LPDC versus OPDC demonstrated no significant difference in gender (54 vs. 56% males, p = 0.4), smoking history (8.5 ± 18.3 vs. 7.2 ± 16.9 pack years, p = 0.06), diabetes (42 vs. 40%, p = 0.4), COPD (4.6 vs. 5%, p = 0.63), or preoperative dialysis requirement (72 vs. 73 %, p = 0.6), but they were younger (57.2 ± 14.8 vs. 60.5 ± 15.9 years, p = 0.05) and had a higher BMI (29.3 vs. 29 kg/m(2), p = 0.04). In univariate analysis of LPDC versus OPDC, overall wound complications (1.6 vs. 2.9 %, p = 0.02), deep surgical site infections (0.12 vs. 0.83%, p OPDC had equivalently low rates of catheter failure (0.21 vs. 0.14%, p = 0.7). Using univariate analysis, there appears to be a benefit from LPDC placement. However, after controlling for confounding variables, the techniques appear to have equal outcomes. Surgeons should perform a LPDC or OPDC according to the approach with which they are most familiar. However, continued

  13. Optimal Placement of Wavelength Converting Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belotti, Pietro; Stidsen, Thomas K.


    The all optical network using WDM and optical nodes (OXC's) seems to be a possibility in a near future. The consensus to day seems to be that optical wavelength conversions is un-realistic for several decades, hence wavelength blocking will happen in the all optical networks. A possible solution...... to this problem could be to include digital nodes (DXC's) in the network at the right places. In this article we present a linear programming model which optimizes the placement of these more expensive DXC's in the network....

  14. Characterization of an Mg-implanted GaN p-i-n Diode (United States)


    Characterization of an Mg- implanted GaN p-i-n Diode Travis J. Anderson, Jordan D. Greenlee, Boris N. Feigelson, Karl D. Hobart, and Francis J...Kub Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 Abstract: A p-i-n diode formed by the implantation of Mg in GaN was fabricated and...characterized. After implantation , Mg was activated using the symmetrical multicycle rapid thermal annealing technique with heating pulses up to 1340C

  15. A Study on Fracture Resistance of Class IV Cavities Treated with Pins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boteva E.


    Full Text Available Тhе use of pins in restoration of large cavities with esthetic resin materials appear in the dental literature after 1970 and there are less than 20 publications, focused around restorations of class IV cavities. The aim of the present study is to test the role of pins in the fracture resistance in class IV restorations with resin materials. Materials and methods: 68 matured human upper and lower sound front teeth are included in the study. The groups are upper incisors, lower incisors, canines with or without pins. All cavities are filled with the same resin material, technology and Prime bond NT. Termocycling: 30 days in 30ºС, 100% humidity, 60 days in 100% humidity 2Х12 hours at 35ºС and 40ºС and 100 dry cycles, 20 seconds each in the following order - 45ºС ± 3ºС, room temperature, 5ºС, room temperature, two series, 50 each with two days between in Cultura incubator of Viva Dent 55ºС and ice. Machine for vertical load testing ZD 10/90, load in Newtons (N, from 20 N to 1275 N, speed 0.5 mm/ min, displacement from 0.1 to 1.2 mm. Type of fractures observed: adhesive, cohesive in dentine and in resin material, mixed. Results: The highest proportion of fractures observed was in front teeth with large cavities and with pins, low loading (493-503N. Front teeth with large cavities without pins have better resistance and lower proportion of fractures (488-526N. Canines are more resistible with pins and less without. Lowest resistance is found in lower front teeth when pins are present. Conclusion: In class IV restorations when tissue loses are less than 2/3 of the incisal ridge pins can decrease the fracture resistance of the teeth.

  16. Rigid levitation, flux pinning, thermal depinning and fluctuation in high-Tc superconductors (United States)

    Brandt, E. H.


    Here, the author shows that the strong velocity-independent frictional force on a levitating superconductor and on any type-II superconductor moving in a homogeneous magnetic field is caused by pinning and depinning of the magnetic flux lines in its interior. Levitation may thus be used to investigate the pinning properties of a superconductor, and friction in a superconductor bearing may be minimized by choosing appropriate materials and geometries.

  17. Temperature Distributions in LMR Fuel Pin Bundles as Modeled by COBRA-IV-I (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Stout, Sherry


    Most pin type reactor designs for space power or terrestrial applications group the fuel pins into a number of relatively large fuel pin bundles or subassemblies. Fuel bundles for terrestrial liquid metal fast breeders reactors typically use 217 - 271 pins per sub-assembly, while some SP100 designs use up to 331 pins in a central subassembly that was surrounded by partial assemblies. Because thermal creep is exponentially related to temperature, small changes in fuel pin cladding temperature can make large differences in the lifetime in a high temperature liquid metal reactor (LMR). This paper uses the COBRA-IV-I computer code to determine the temperature distribution within LMR fuel bundles. COBRA-IV-I uses the sub-channel analysis approach to determine the enthalpy (or temperature) and flow distribution in rod bundles for both steady-state and transient conditions. The COBRA code runs in only a few seconds and has been benchmarked and tested extensively over a wide range of flow conditions. In this report the flow and temperature distributions for two types of lithium cooled space reactor core designs were calculated. One design uses a very tight fuel pin packing that has a pitch to diameter ratio of 1.05 (small wire wrap with a diameter of 392 μm) as proposed in SP100. The other design uses a larger pitch to diameter ratio of 1.09 with a larger more conventional sized wire wrap diameter of 1 mm. The results of the COBRA pin bundle calculations show that the larger pitch-to-diameter fuel bundle designs are more tolerant to local flow blockages, and in addition they are less sensitive to mal-flow distributions that occur near the edges of the subassembly.

  18. Surface barrier and bulk pinning in MgB$_2$ superconductor


    Pissas, M.; Moraitakis, E.; Stamopoulos, D.; Papavassiliou, G.; Psycharis, V.; Koutandos, S.


    We present a modified method of preparation of the new superconductor MgB$_2$. The polycrystalline samples were characterized using x-ray and magnetic measurements. The surface barriers control the isothermal magnetization loops in powder samples. In bulk as prepared samples we always observed symmetric magnetization loops indicative of the presence of a bulk pinning mechanism. Magnetic relaxation measurements in the bulk sample reveal a crossover of surface barrier to bulk pinning.

  19. Comparison of transverse wires and half pins in Taylor Spatial Frame: A biomechanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Hiro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the stiffness characteristics of Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF fixed with transverse wires and half pins. Design & Methods Experiments were carried out at the biomechanics laboratory at Cardiff University. All mechanical testing was performed with a servo hydraulic test frame (MTS 858 Mini Bionix II(R, MTS Corp., Mineapolis, USA. Custom built mounts were used to attach the bone rigidly to the one end of machine and the TSF ring to the other. Rings were fixed with 1.8 mm transverse wires or hydroxy-apatite coated 6.5 mm half pins in 45degrees, 60degrees, 75degrees and 90degrees divergence angles. Bone was loaded with axial load to 400 N and torque to 20 Nm in an indestructible manner. Load/displacement curve data were analyzed for slope and axial and angular displacements. Results For larger diameter rings (180 mm, for axial stiffness there was no statistically significant difference between the transverse wires (4 wires with 2 rings and the half pins (2 pins with 1 ring (p > 0.05. For 155 mm internal diameter rings, half pins provided statistically higher axial stiffness than transverse wires (p = 0.036. The half pins show significantly more torsion stiffness in both ring diameters (p Conclusion & Clinical Relevance Half pins provide greater stiffness to TSF frames and allow for axial micro motion as well. This work provides a rationale for clinical decision making about the use of tensioned transverse wires in comparison to half pins in construction of a TSF frame

  20. Domain wall pinning by magnetic inhomogeneities in Sm(CoNi) sub 2. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.; Gaunt, P. (Department of Physics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada (CA))


    Domain wall (thin 180{degree} wall) pinning by pinning sites of atomic size is studied by a new model which is based on the argument that the temperature dependence of the coercivity originates from both thermal activation of the domain wall and the temperature dependence of the height of the energy barriers. This model successfully describes the temperature dependence of the coercivity of a Sm(CoNi){sub 2.5} ferromagnet.

  1. Vortex pinning by the point potential in topological superconductors: A scheme for braiding Majorana bound states (United States)

    Wu, Hai-Dan; Zhou, Tao


    We propose theoretically an effective scheme for braiding Majorana bound states by manipulating the point potential. The vortex pinning effect is carefully elucidated. This effect can be used to control the vortices and Majorana bound states in topological superconductors. The exchange of two vortices induced by moving the potentials is simulated numerically. The zero-energy state in the vortex core is robust with respect to the strength of the potential. The Majorana bound states in a pinned vortex are identified numerically.

  2. Access resistance of stimulation electrodes as a function of electrode proximity to the retina (United States)

    Majdi, Joseph A.; Minnikanti, Saugandhika; Peixoto, Nathalia; Agrawal, Anant; Cohen, Ethan D.


    these series resistance increases observed with retinal proximity could be used as a metric of stimulus electrode placement.

  3. Nursing graduates' perceptions of their undergraduate clinical placement. (United States)

    Hartigan-Rogers, Jackie A; Cobbett, Shelley L; Amirault, Mardi A; Muise-Davis, Martha E


    Student clinical practice is a significant and essential part of nursing education. Accordingly, clinical placements need to be positive and valuable. The purpose of this study was to describe newly-graduated nurses' perceptions of their student clinical intersession placements and how these placements impacted their functioning as graduate nurses. Inductive semantic analysis of the data revealed four themes: developing nursing skills and knowledge; preparing for future employment; experiencing supportive relationships; and experiencing realities of work-life. Educators must ensure that clinical placements are in an environment that is conducive to learning and promotes the personal and professional development of nursing students. Positive clinical experiences are more likely related to how valued and supported students feel than the physical aspects of a placement; thus, it is imperative educators assess and focus on providing placements that offer a supportive learning environment.

  4. Examination the Torsion Properties of pin-to-plate LAMP Joint (United States)

    Markovits, Tamás; Bauernhuber, Andor; Takács, János

    Laser assisted metal plastic (LAMP) joining is a promising new joining technology. In the course of this study, not the mostly examined overlapped sheet to sheet, but the pin-to-plate geometry is investigated. This geometry maybe useful for supporting industrial application of the method because it can utilize the differences in material properties of the joining partners effectively. However, based on previous research, expanded investigation of the pin to plate geometry is needed. Accordingly, the authors applied different metal pin geometries and laser parameters, like different laser spot diameters, laser pulse powers, laser pulse durations, and different metal pin geometries in micro and macro range as well by using pulse mode Nd:YAG laser beam to create transmission laser joining. The material and state of the metal pin (unalloyed steel) and the plastic sheet (PMMA) was investigated as well. In this research the torsion properties of the pin to plate joints were also investigated in order to determine the basic effects of laser technology to the maximal torques on this type of penetrated joints.

  5. Magnetic nanoparticles in MgB{sub 2}: Vortex pinning, pair breaking and connectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babić, Emil [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenička c. 32, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Novosel, Nikolina, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenička c. 32, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pajić, Damir; Galić, Stipe; Zadro, Krešo [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenička c. 32, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Drobac, Đuro [Institute of Physics, Bijenička c. 46, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)


    The results indicating magnetic flux pinning in MgB{sub 2} wires doped with three types of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) are reported. The magnetic state of MNPs, both as-prepared and inside the MgB{sub 2} core, was determined with magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements. The competition between detrimental influence of doping (reduced connectivity, pair breaking) and enhanced flux pinning leads to deterioration of electromagnetic properties of doped wires at high MNP content, whereas light doping causes an enhancement of critical current density, J{sub c}, and/or irreversibility field, B{sub irr}, for all our MNPs. For Ni and dextrin coated NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} MNPs the enhancement of J{sub c} was comparable to that achieved with the best nonmagnetic dopands. Detailed analysis indicates the contribution of magnetic flux pinning including the matching effects in flux pinning on MNPs. - Highlights: • Rigorous study of the effects of magnetic particles on superconductivity in MgB2 wires. • Detailed characterisation of magnetic state of nanoparticles embedded in MgB2 matrix. • Matching effects in pinning of vortices on magnetic nanoparticles • Consistent indications of possible contribution of magnetic pinning of vortices.

  6. Materials design for artificial pinning centres in superconductor PLD coated conductors (United States)

    Feighan, J. P. F.; Kursumovic, A.; MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.


    To date the strategy for inducing pinning in REBa2Cu3O7‑x (REBCO where RE = rare-earth) coated conductors has largely been empirical. Hence, we are not yet at a point where we can dial-in the compositions and process parameters to optimise pinning for particular applications having specific temperature, field, and field angle requirements. In this review, we cover the critical materials science aspects which enable the understanding, design and engineering of desired pinning centre morphologies. Our main emphasis is on in in situ epitaxial growth of REBCO films by vapour deposition. We review the optimal pinning centre morphologies which have been determined to be effective for different operation regimes. We also highlight how the interplay of thermodynamics (including epitaxial effects), film-particle interfacial strain, and kinetics determine pinning morphologies. Finally, we also briefly cover pinning in rapid ex situ, liquid assisted growth which is likely to be a necessary universal approach for applications where low cost is critical.

  7. Nanoscale strain-induced pair suppression as a vortex-pinning mechanism in high- temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llordes, Anna [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Palau, A. [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Gazquez, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Coll, M. [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Vlad, R. [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Pomar, A. [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Arbiol, Jordi [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Guzman, Roger [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Ye, S. [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Rouco, V [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Sandiumenge, Felip [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Ricart, Susagna [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Puig, Teresa [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Chataigner, D. [CRISMAT, Caen, France; Vanacken, J. [INPAC-Institute for Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Leuven, Belgium; Gutierrez, J. [INPAC-Institute for Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Leuven, Belgium; Moschalkov, V. [INPAC-Institute for Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Leuven, Belgium; Deutscher, G. [Tel Aviv University; Magen Dominguez, Cesar [ORNL; Obradors, Xavier [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain


    Boosting large-scale superconductor applications require nanostructured conductors with artificial pinning centres immobilizing quantized vortices at high temperature and magnetic fields. Here we demonstrate a highly effective mechanism of artificial pinning centers in solution-derived high-temperature superconductor nanocomposites through generation of nanostrained regions where Cooper pair formation is suppressed. The nanostrained regions identified from transmission electron microscopy devise a very high concentration of partial dislocations associated with intergrowths generated between the randomly oriented nanodots and the epitaxial YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} matrix. Consequently, an outstanding vortex-pinning enhancement correlated to the nanostrain is demonstrated for four types of randomly oriented nanodot, and a unique evolution towards an isotropic vortex-pinning behaviour, even in the effective anisotropy, is achieved as the nanostrain turns isotropic. We suggest a new vortex-pinning mechanism based on the bond-contraction pairing model, where pair formation is quenched under tensile strain, forming new and effective core-pinning regions.

  8. Experimental and numerical study of Bondura® 6.6 PIN joints (United States)

    Berkani, I.; Karlsen, Ø.; Lemu, H. G.


    Pin joints are widely used in heavy-duty machinery such as aircrafts, cranes and offshore drilling equipment to transfer multi-dimensional shear forces. Their strength and service life depend on the clamping force in the contact region that is provided by interference fits. Though the interference fits provide full contact at the pin-hole interface under pretension loads, the contact interface reduces when the pin is subjected to an external load and hence a smaller contact surface leads to dramatic increase of the contact stress. The PIN joint of Bondura® Technology, investigated in this study, is an innovative solution intended to reduce the slack at the contact surface of the pin joint of heavy-duty machinery by using tapered sleeves on each end of the PIN. The study is aimed to better understand the contact pressure build-up and stress distribution in the supporting contact surface under pre-loading of the joint and the influence of temperature difference between part assembly and operation conditions. Numerical simulation using finite element method and diverse experimental tests were conducted. The numerical simulation and the test results, particularly the tests conducted with lubricated joints, show good conformance.

  9. Ultrasound-guided Percutaneous Medial Pinning of Pediatric Supracondylar Humeral Fractures to Avoid Ulnar Nerve Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Soldado


    Full Text Available Background:  Medial pinning is one of the most controversial aspects of the surgical treatment of supracondylar fractures (SHF owing to the risk of ulnar nerve injury.  Aim: To evaluate the safety and usefulness of medial pinning for SHF using ultrasound imaging for ulnar nerve visualization.   Methods: Fifteen children, with a mean age of 60 months, with displaced SHF were treated with a crossed-pinning configuration after fracture reduction. Intraoperative ultrasound was used to guide medial pin insertion to avoid ulnar nerve injury. Results:  Cubital tunnel anatomy was easily identified in all children. All children showed a subluxating ulnar nerve that required elbow extension to about 90º before medial pin insertion. None suffered ulnar nerve dysfunction after using the referred technique. Conclusions:  Although technically demanding, ultrasound may be a valuable adjuvant to avoid ulnar nerve injury while performing a medial pinning in pediatric SHF.

  10. SCFTIR1/AFB-auxin signalling regulates PIN vacuolar trafficking and auxin fluxes during root gravitropism (United States)

    Baster, Paweł; Robert, Stéphanie; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Vanneste, Steffen; Kania, Urszula; Grunewald, Wim; De Rybel, Bert; Beeckman, Tom; Friml, Jiří


    The distribution of the phytohormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant development including growth response to gravity. Gravitropic root curvature involves coordinated and asymmetric cell elongation between the lower and upper side of the root, mediated by differential cellular auxin levels. The asymmetry in the auxin distribution is established and maintained by a spatio-temporal regulation of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporter activity. We provide novel insights into the complex regulation of PIN abundance and activity during root gravitropism. We show that PIN2 turnover is differentially regulated on the upper and lower side of gravistimulated roots by distinct but partially overlapping auxin feedback mechanisms. In addition to regulating transcription and clathrin-mediated internalization, auxin also controls PIN abundance at the plasma membrane by promoting their vacuolar targeting and degradation. This effect of elevated auxin levels requires the activity of SKP-Cullin-F-boxTIR1/AFB (SCFTIR1/AFB)-dependent pathway. Importantly, also suboptimal auxin levels mediate PIN degradation utilizing the same signalling pathway. These feedback mechanisms are functionally important during gravitropic response and ensure fine-tuning of auxin fluxes for maintaining as well as terminating asymmetric growth. PMID:23211744

  11. An analytical model of heat generation for eccentric cylindrical pin in friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ramadan Shaaban Essa


    Full Text Available An analytical model for heat generation for eccentric cylindrical pin in friction stir welding was developed that utilizes a new factor based on the tool pin eccentricity. The proposed analytical expression is a modification of previous analytical models from the literature, which is verified and well matches with the model developed by previous researchers. Results of plunge force and peak temperature were used to validate the current proposed model. The cylindrical tool pin with eccentricities of 0, 0.2, and 0.8 mm were used to weld two types of aluminum alloys; a low deformation resistant AA1050-H12, and a relatively high deformation resistant AA5754-H24 alloy. The FSW was performed at constant tool rotation speed of 600 rpm and different welding speeds of 100, 300, and 500 mm/min. Experimental results implied that less temperature is generated using eccentric cylindrical pin than cylindrical pin without eccentricity under the given set of FSW process conditions. Furthermore, numerical simulation results show that increasing the pin eccentricity leads to decrease in peak temperature.

  12. Effects of Endwall Fillet and Bulb on the Temperature Uniformity of Pin-Fined Microchannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Pan


    Full Text Available Endwall fillet and bulb structures are proposed in this research to improve the temperature uniformity of pin-fined microchannels. The periodical laminar flow and heat transfer performances are investigated under different Reynolds numbers and radius of fillet and bulb. The results show that at a low Reynolds number, both the fillet and the bulb structures strengthen the span-wise and the normal secondary flow in the channel, eliminate the high temperature area in the pin-fin, improve the heat transfer performance of the rear of the cylinder, and enhance the thermal uniformity of the pin-fin surface and the outside wall. Compared to traditional pin-fined microchannels, the flow resistance coefficient f of the pin-fined microchannels with fillet, as well as a bulb with a 2 μm or 5 μm radius, does not increase significantly, while, f of the pin-fined microchannels with a 10 μm or 15 μm bulb increases notably. Moreover, Nu has a maximum increase of 16.93% for those with fillet and 20.65% for those with bulb, and the synthetic thermal performance coefficient TP increases by 16.22% at most for those with fillet and 15.67% at most for those with bulb. At last, as the Reynolds number increases, heat transfer improvement of the fillet and bulb decreases.

  13. Network approach to the pinning control of drift-wave turbulence. (United States)

    Liu, Panpan; Deng, Zhigang; Yang, Lei; Zhan, Meng; Wang, Xingang


    Network of coupled oscillators has long been employed as an important approach to explore the complicated dynamics in spatially extended systems. Here we show how this approach can be used to the analysis of turbulence pinning control. Specifically, by use of a model of two-dimensional drift-wave plasma turbulence, we investigate how the performance of the turbulence control is influenced by the spatial distribution of the pinning strength. It is found that the dynamics of pinned turbulence can be well captured by a simple model of networked modes, based on which the dependence of the control performance on the pinning distribution can be analytically obtained. In particular, the model predicts that as the distribution of the pinning strength becomes more nonuniform, the performance of turbulence control will be gradually decreased. This theoretical prediction is in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations, including the sinusoidal and localized pinning distributions. Our studies provide a new viewpoint to the mechanism of mode couplings in drift-wave turbulence, as well as be constructive to the design of new schemes for controlling turbulence in realistic systems.

  14. preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the ...

  15. Proximate, mineral composition, antioxidant activity, and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four varieties of the red pepper fruits (Capsicum species) were evaluated for chemical composition, antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents using standard analytical technique, ferric-ion reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and Folin-Colcalteau method respectively. The proximate composition values ...

  16. 9__43 - 50__Tijjani_Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sena et al., 1998). In Nigeria, the plant is commonly consumed by the Hausa speaking communities as a spice and a sauce (Ibrahim et al., 2012). However, during preparation the leaves and stem are not carefully separated before processing of food. Thus, the present study was aimed at evaluating the proximate, minerals ...

  17. Phytochemistry and proximate composition of ginger ( Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a little crude fibre content of 0.92 %. The results indicated that ginger rhizome is an excellent natural remedy for a wide range of ailments. Keywords: Zingiber officinale, spice, rhizome, phytochemistry, proximate analysis, Zingiberaceae, zingerone, methanolic extraction. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, Vol.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 24, 2012 ... opinions are analyzed and it revealed that the site has major impacts on the residents perceived quality of life, security and ... Key words: Landfill, Property value, Health and safety, Residential property, Solous. Introduction. The location ... Proximity to landfills and hazardous waste sites can severely affect ...

  19. Renal fibrosis: Primacy of the proximal tubule. (United States)

    Gewin, Leslie S


    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is the hallmark of chronic kidney disease and best predictor of renal survival. Many different cell types contribute to TIF progression including tubular epithelial cells, myofibroblasts, endothelia, and inflammatory cells. Previously, most of the attention has centered on myofibroblasts given their central importance in extracellular matrix production. However, emerging data focuses on how the response of the proximal tubule, a specialized epithelial segment vulnerable to injury, plays a central role in TIF progression. Several proximal tubular responses such as de-differentiation, cell cycle changes, autophagy, and metabolic changes may be adaptive initially, but can lead to maladaptive responses that promote TIF both through autocrine and paracrine effects. This review discusses the current paradigm of TIF progression and the increasingly important role of the proximal tubule in promoting TIF both in tubulointerstitial and glomerular injuries. A better understanding and appreciation of the role of the proximal tubule in TIF has important implications for therapeutic strategies to halt chronic kidney disease progression. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 182 179 Comparative Study on the Proximate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 2, 2008 ... Key words: Annona squamosa, Fruits, Proximate, Minerals, nutrient density. INTRODUCTION. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa) also called. “Gwanda masar” in Hausa belong to the family. Annonacae. The most widely grown of all the species are A. muricata, A. cherimola, A reticulata, A. senegalensis and ...