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Sample records for proximal phalangeal fractures

  1. Multiple intramedullary nailing of proximal phalangeal fractures of hand

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    Patankar Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proximal phalangeal fractures are commonly encountered fractures in the hand. Majority of them are stable and can be treated by non-operative means. However, unstable fractures i.e. those with shortening, displacement, angulation, rotational deformity or segmental fractures need surgical intervention. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the functional outcome after surgical stabilization of these fractures with joint-sparing multiple intramedullary nailing technique. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with 35 isolated unstable proximal phalangeal shaft fractures of hand were managed by surgical stabilization with multiple intramedullary nailing technique. Fractures of the thumb were excluded. All the patients were followed up for a minimum of six months. They were assessed radiologically and clinically. The clinical evaluation was based on two criteria. 1. total active range of motion for digital functional assessment as suggested by the American Society for Surgery of Hand and 2. grip strength. Results: All the patients showed radiological union at six weeks. The overall results were excellent in all the patients. Adventitious bursitis was observed at the point of insertion of nails in one patient. Conclusion: Joint-sparing multiple intramedullary nailing of unstable proximal phalangeal fractures of hand provides satisfactory results with good functional outcome and fewer complications.

  2. No difference between two types of exercise after proximal phalangeal fracture fixation: a randomised trial

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    Lauren Miller

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Constrained and unconstrained exercises has similar effects after open reduction and internal fixation of proximal phalangeal fracture. Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12610000294055. [Miller L, Crosbie J, Wajon A, Ada L (2016 No difference between two types of exercise after proximal phalangeal fracture fixation: a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 62: 12–19

  3. No difference between two types of exercise after proximal phalangeal fracture fixation: a randomised trial.

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    Miller, Lauren; Crosbie, Jack; Wajon, Anne; Ada, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Are 6 weeks of synergistic wrist and finger exercises with the metacarpophalangeal joint constrained in an orthosis (constrained exercises) more effective than traditional finger exercises with the metacarpophalangeal joint unconstrained (unconstrained exercises) after open reduction and internal fixation of a proximal phalangeal fracture in terms of impairment, activity limitation and participation restriction at 6 and 12 weeks? Randomised, parallel-group trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinded outcome assessors. Sixty-six participants within 1 week of open reduction and internal fixation of proximal phalangeal fractures. The experimental group carried out 6 weeks of synergistic wrist and finger exercises with the metacarpophalangeal joint constrained, whilst the control group carried out finger exercises with the metacarpophalangeal joint unconstrained, as part of a comprehensive rehabilitation program. The primary outcomes were: active proximal interphalangeal joint extension of the injured finger, total active range of motion, and strength. Secondary outcomes were: pain, difficulty with specific hand activity and difficulty with usual hand activity. A blinded assessor measured outcomes at Weeks 1, 6 and 12. By Week 6, there were no significant between-group differences in improvement for: active proximal interphalangeal joint extension (MD 2 deg, 95% CI -3 to 7); total active finger range of motion (MD 0 deg, 95% CI -21 to 22); strength (MD -2kg, 95% CI -8 to 4); pain (MD 1/50, 95% CI -3 to 5); difficulty with specific hand activity (MD 2/60, 95% CI -3 to 8); or difficulty with usual hand activity (MD 0/40, 95% CI -4 to 3). By Week 12, there were also no significant between-group differences in any outcome. Constrained and unconstrained exercises has similar effects after open reduction and internal fixation of proximal phalangeal fracture. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12610000294055). Copyright © 2016

  4. [Forensic identification of 50 phalangeal fracture cases].

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    Ji, Bin; Li, Jia-Qi

    2013-02-01

    To study the characteristics of forensic identification of phalangeal fracture and to use a combination of medical records, imaging materials, and forensic examination data in identification. Fifty cases of phalangeal fracture involved in the forensic identification were collected from 2009 to 2011. The general situation, the distribution of fracture, the fracture morphology, the injury-causing objects and the results of identification were analyzed retrospectively. Majority of the cases of phalangeal fracture were young and middle-aged men. The index finger and distal phalanx fractures were common. There was no difference in the number of phalangeal fracture between left and right hand. Most of the injury-causing objects were knives and sticks, followed by bricks and stones. The injury-causing objects and modes are related to the morphology of fracture, the distribution of fracture and the severity of the injury. The comprehensive analysis is helpful in forensic identification of phalangeal fracture.

  5. Operative management of bilateral Salter-Harris type III fractures of the proximal phalanges of the great toes of a 10-year-old female ballet dancer: a case report.

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    Csonka, Akos; Sikarinkul, Eakachit; Gargyan, Istvan; Boa, Kristof; Varga, Endre

    2016-07-01

    Differentiation between the normal variant cleft epiphysis and Salter-Harris type III fracture of the first proximal phalanges of the foot in children might be challenging. The authors describe a case of a 10-year-old ballet dancer girl with bilateral epiphyseal segmentation of the first proximal phalanges of the foot, unresponsive to conservative treatment. Considered a nonhealing stress-induced fracture, operative treatment with closed reduction and Herbert screw insertion was chosen on both sides. Complete union was achieved, with significant reduction of pain. The presented case suggests that internal fixation can be a viable option in the treatment of the problem.

  6. Phalangeal bone mineral density predicts incident fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Brixen, Kim; Rubin, Katrine Hass

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the use of phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting fractures in a cohort (15,542) who underwent a BMD scan. In both women and men, a decrease in BMD was associated with an increased risk of fracture when adjusted for age and prevalent fractures...

  7. A review of phalangeal neck fractures in children.

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    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Al-Qattan, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    Phalangeal neck fractures are uncommon and are almost exclusively seen in children. Most paediatric hand fractures are treated conservatively and an excellent outcome is expected in almost all cases. Paediatric phalangeal neck fractures are different mainly because they are unstable and have a high risk of complications. Even minimally displaced phalangeal neck fractures are known to be unstable following reduction and hence k-wire fixation is required. Furthermore, complications such as persistent deformity, nonunion, and avascular necrosis are commonly seen following management of phalangeal neck fractures; such complications are extremely rare in other paediatric hand fractures. The current paper aims to review the diagnosis, classification, management and complications of these fractures in children. The paper also aims to introduce an extended classification of phalangeal neck fractures and to explain the clinical relevance of the extended classification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synostosis of proximal phalangeal bases for loss of distal metacarpal

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    Pankaj Jindal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A finger rendered unstable due to loss of metacarpal head can be stabilized by creating a synostosis at the base of the proximal phalanx of the affected finger with the adjacent normal finger. A cortico cancellous graft bridges the two adjacent proximal phalanges at their bases which are temporarily stabilized with an external fixator. The procedure can be done for, recurrence of giant cell tumor of metacarpal and for traumatic metacarpal loss. The procedure and long term follow up of one patient is presented who had giant cell tumor. This option should be considered before offering ray amputation. There is no micro vascular surgery involved, nor is there any donor site morbidity. The graft heals well without any absorption. The affected finger shows excellent function in the long term followup.

  9. Safe corridors for K-wiring in phalangeal fractures

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    C Rex

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: K-wiring through the safe corridor has proved to yield the best clinical results because of least tethering of soft tissues as evidenced by performing "on-table active finger movement test" at the time of surgery. We strongly recommend K-wiring through safe portals in all phalangeal fractures.

  10. Use of a modified transfixation pin cast for treatment of comminuted phalangeal fractures in horses.

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    Rossignol, Fabrice; Vitte, Amélie; Boening, Josef

    2014-01-01

    To (1) report a modified transfixation pin cast technique, using dorsal recumbency for fracture reduction, distal positioning of the pins in the epiphysis and distal metaphysis, and a hybrid cast, combining plaster of Paris (POP) and fiberglass casting, and (2) report outcome in 11 adult horses. Case series. Adult horses (n = 11) with comminuted phalangeal fractures. Horses were anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency. The phalangeal fracture was reduced by limb traction using a cable attached to the hoof. Screw fixation in lag fashion of fracture fragments was performed when possible. Transfixation casting was performed using two 6.3 mm positive profile centrally threaded pins with the 1st pin placed in the epiphysis of the metacarpus/tarsus at the center of, or slightly proximal to, the condylar fossa and the 2nd one 3-4 cm proximal. A hybrid cast was applied. Forelimbs were involved in 9 horses and the hind limb in 2. Pins were maintained for a minimum of 6 weeks. No pin loosening was observed at the time of removal (6-8 weeks). A pony fractured the distal aspect of the metacarpus at the proximal pin. Nine horses survived (82%); none of the horses developed septic arthritis despite the distal location of the distal pin, close to the fetlock joint. This modified transfixation pin casting technique was associated with good pin longevity and could reduce the risk of secondary pin hole fractures and pin loosening. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  11. Comparison of Clinical Outcomes of Phalangeal Fracture Treated with Dorsolateral Approach or Post-middle Approach Using AO Mini Titanium Plate.

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    Li, Guang; Liu, Shen; Chen, Guoting; Li, Zengchun; Liu, Yangzhou; Sun, Guixin; Lu, Qingyou; Li, Xia; Tan, Jun; Guan, Ming

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical outcomes of various fixation methods for proximal phalangeal fractures with Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) mini titanium plate by dorsolateral approach or post-middle approach. Clinical results of 62 fingers of 53 patients with proximal phalangeal fracture were evaluated. For dorsolateral approach, the lateral bundle of the extensor tendon was drawn away to expose the fracture part of the bone. After reduction, the plate was located at the dorsolateral side of the bone. For post-middle approach, the extensor tendon was split to expose the fracture part of the bone. After reduction, the plate was fixed to the proximal phalangeal side of the bone, and the extensor tendon was repaired with 3-0 nonabsorbable silk sutures. We found low overall complication rates in both groups. The mean total active motion (TAM) for the dorsolateral group and post-middle group was 234.60° ± 22.63° and 221.08° ± 25.69°, respectively. There was a statistical significance between the two groups (P = 0.037 approach group was significantly higher than in post-middle approach group. Dorsolateral approach is an acceptable technique of incision for proximal phalangeal fractures.

  12. Metric dimensions of the proximal phalanges of the human hand and their relationship to side, position, and asymmetry.

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    Garrido Varas, C E; Thompson, T J U

    2011-04-01

    The anatomy of the proximal phalanges of the human hand has been widely described. Nevertheless, when consulting osteology and anatomy publications, the general opinion of researchers is that siding and allocating the proximal phalanges with regard to finger position is difficult, if not impossible. We provide morphological criteria for determining the side of the proximal phalanges and a metric means of allocating a phalanx to a specific finger. This paper also quantifies the absolute and directional asymmetry found in phalanges within this sample. The sample studied consists of three groups, one modern and two archaeological. To investigate these, three measurements were taken-maximum length, maximum width at the base and maximum width at the head. It was found that phalanges could be assigned correctly to the side and finger of origin in 100% of the cases when the five phalanges of a given hand were present, and that this result dropped to 92% when allocating isolated phalanges. The means of the measurements taken were larger in the modern group and a constant relationship between the greater basal width of the second and the fourth proximal phalanges was found. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Fracture Risk Prediction Using Phalangeal Bone Mineral Density or FRAX(®)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Rubin, Katrine Hass; Brixen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    In this prospective study, we investigated the ability of Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD), and age alone to predict fractures using data from a Danish cohort study, Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008, including men (n = 5206) and women (n = 7552......) aged 40-90 yr. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and by phalangeal BMD measurement. Information on incident and prevalent fractures, rheumatoid arthritis, and secondary osteoporosis was retrieved from the Danish National Patient Registry. Survival analyses were used to examine...... the association between low, intermediate, and high risk by phalangeal T-score or FRAX and incident fractures, and receiver operating characteristic curves were obtained. Mean follow-up time was 4.3 yr, and a total of 395 persons (3.1%) experienced a fracture during follow-up. The highest rate of major...

  14. American alligator proximal pedal phalanges resemble human finger bones: Diagnostic criteria for forensic investigators.

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    Ferraro, Joseph V; Binetti, Katie M

    2014-07-01

    A scientific approach to bone and tooth identification requires analysts to pursue the goal of empirical falsification. That is, they may attribute a questioned specimen to element and taxon only after having ruled out all other possible attributions. This requires analysts to possess a thorough understanding of both human and non-human osteology, particularly so for remains that may be morphologically similar across taxa. To date, forensic anthropologists have identified several potential 'mimics' for human skeletal remains, including pig teeth and bear paws. Here we document another possible mimic for isolated human skeletal elements--the proximal pedal phalanges of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) closely resemble the proximal and intermediate hand phalanges of adult humans. We detail morphological similarities and differences between these elements, with the goal of providing sufficient information for investigators to confidently falsify the hypothesis that a questioned phalanx is derived from an American alligator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  16. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  17. Outcome of unstable fractures of metacarpal and phalangeal bones treated by bone tie.

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    Kamath, Jagannath B; Jayasheelan, Nikil; Savur, Amaranth; Mathews, Rejith

    2016-01-01

    Unstable fractures of the metacarpal and phalangeal bones of the hand need surgical stabilization which should be rigid enough for early active mobilization. Conventional methods of open reduction and stabilization in the form of composite fixation or screws with or without plates have served the purpose but can be definitely improvised addressing both biological and mechanical principles of fixation. 34 patients (29 males and 5 females) with an average age of 32 years (range 10-64 years) with unstable fractures of the metacarpal and phalangeal bones of hand who were treated with the modified bone tie between June 2009 and June 2013 were included in this study. 42 fractures, involving the 31 metacarpals and 11 phalanges were included. We have not used this technique in fractures involving the terminal phalanges. Thirty nine of the fractures were treated with K-wires along with the modified bone tie, whereas the other two cases were treated with modified bone tie alone and in one case the bone tie has been used along with the external fixator. The nature of injuries were Road Traffic Accident (n = 24), domestic/industrial injuries (n = 8) and blast (n = 2) injuries. Etiology was crush (n = 24), blunt (n = 7) and incised (n = 3) injuries, respectively. Twenty seven patients were involved with single fractures (either metacarpal or the phalanges), 6 patients had two fractures (both metacarpals or phalanges or one each of metacarpal and phalanx), and 1 patient had three fractures in this study. Dominant hand was involved in 14 patients (40%). We achieved excellent to good results in 83% of 42 fractures within an average period of 10 weeks. Postoperative grip strength of 85% was achieved with in an average period of 12 weeks. Twenty six (20 metacarpals and 6 phalanges) of the 42 fractures regained >85% of the total active movements (TAMs) compared to the contralateral side were considered excellent results. All patients were followed up for a minimum of 1 year. This

  18. Principles of metacarpal and phalangeal fracture management: a review of rehabilitation concepts.

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    Hardy, Maureen A

    2004-12-01

    Patients with common hand fractures are likely to present in a wide variety of outpatient orthopedic practices. Successful rehabilitation of hand fractures addresses the need to (1) maintain fracture stability for bone healing, (2) introduce soft tissue mobilization for soft tissue integrity, and (3) remodel any restrictive scar from injury or surgery. It is important to recognize the intimate relationship of these 3 tissues (bone, soft tissue, and scar) when treating hand fractures. Fracture terminology precisely defines fracture type, location, and management strategy for hand fractures. These terms are reviewed, with emphasis on their operational definitions, as they relate to the course of therapy. The progression of motion protocols is dependent on the type of fracture healing, either primary or secondary, which in turn is determined by the method of fracture fixation. Current closed- and open-fixation methods for metacarpal and phalangeal fractures are addressed for each fracture location. The potential soft tissue problems that are often associated with each type of fracture are explained, with preventative methods of splinting and treatment. A comprehensive literature review is provided to compare evidence for practice in managing the variety of fracture patterns associated with metacarpal and phalangeal fractures, following closed- and open-fixation techniques. Emphasis is placed on initial hand positioning to protect the fracture reduction, exercise to maintain or regain joint range of motion, and specific tendon-gliding exercises to prevent restrictive adhesions, all of which are necessary to assure return of function post fracture.

  19. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  20. [Osteosynthesis of fractures of the metacarpals and phalanges of the hand with mini plate: about 12 cases].

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    Moncef, Erraji; Abdelhafid, Derfoufi; Abdessamad, Kharraji; Omar, Agoumi; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Abdelkrim, Daoudi; Hicham, Yacoubi

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of unstable fractures of metacarpals and phalanges remains subject of controversy. Few series have been reported in the literature, making their analysis difficult. We provide a retrospective study involving 12 patients, operated on by this technique for displaced fractures of the metacarpals and phalanges, over a two year period. The final overall results were good in 75% of the cases, average in 16,5% of the cases and bad in 8,5% of the cases. Stability of mini plates in unstable fractures of the metacarpals and phalanges allowed early mobilization of hand joints, thus avoiding stiffness.

  1. Biomechanics of Internal Fixation Modalities for Middle Phalangeal Base Fracture Dislocation.

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    Foo, Gen-Lin; Ramruttun, Amit K; Cheah, Andre Eujin; Chong, Alphonsus Kin-Sze; Foo, Tun-Lin

    2017-03-01

    Internal fixation modalities of unstable (>50 percent articular involvement) middle phalangeal volar lip fracture-dislocations include interfragmentary screw and volar buttress plating. This study investigates the mechanical properties (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and stiffness) of interfragmentary screw (IS), simple buttress plating (BP) and buttress plating with subchondral screw (BP+S). Fifteen cadaveric digits (5 index, 5 middle, and 5 ring) were prepared by excising its skin envelope and flexor tendons while preserving the structures around the proximal interphalangeal joint. An oblique osteotomy involving 50 percent of the articular surface was performed, and this was fixed with based on its study group: interfragmentary screw (IS), simple buttress plating (BP) and buttress plating with subchondral screw (BP+S). These specimens were then loaded to failure. Yield strength was as follows: BP+S (33.5±9.76 N), IS (13.6±5.46 N), and BP (8.1±3.84 N). Ultimate tensile strength was as follows: BP+S (49.1±21.4 N), IS (15.6±5.19 N), and BP (8.86±3.99 N). Stiffness was as follows: BP+S (4.77±1.32 N/mm), IS (2.44±0.86 N/mm), and BP (1.84±0.71 N/mm). A buttress plate and screw construct confers significantly more stability than either interfragmentary screw or buttress plate only fixation in an experimental model.

  2. Staple fixation for akin proximal phalangeal osteotomy in the treatment of hallux valgus interphalangeus.

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    Neumann, Julie A; Reay, Kathleen D; Bradley, Kendall E; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-04-01

    The Akin proximal phalangeal osteotomy is commonly used in conjunction with metatarsal osteotomies to treat hallux valgus. Multiple fixation methods including suture, wire, screw, and staple fixation have been described. The aims of this study were to assess the intraoperative and postoperative complications and to evaluate short-term postoperative outcomes in patients who underwent Akin osteotomy with staple fixation. Forty-four patients (51 feet) with painful hallux valgus were retrospectively reviewed at an average of 40.4 ± 15.8 (range, 25.9 to 79.9) weeks following an Akin osteotomy with staple fixation. Patient reported preoperative and postoperative Visual Analog Score (VAS) (0 to 10, 0 = no pain) was recorded. Level of activity was reported postoperatively. Hallux valgus angles (HVAs), intermetatarsal angles (IMAs), and hallux valgus interphalangeus angles (IPAs) were evaluated on preoperative as well as final postoperative radiographs. Postoperative clinical and radiographic examinations were used to evaluate for complications. Mean VAS improved from 4.4 ± 2.6 to 1.0 ± 1.2 (P hallux valgus correction with improvement in pain and hallux valgus deformity with a low risk for complications. Level IV, case series. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  4. [Arthroscopic fracture management in proximal humeral fractures].

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    Lill, H; Katthagen, C; Jensen, G; Voigt, C

    2013-04-01

    Arthroscopy has become increasingly more established in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. In addition to the known advantages of minimally invasive surgery fracture and implant positioning can be optimized and controlled arthroscopically and relevant intra-articular concomitant pathologies (e.g. biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff) can be diagnosed and treated. Arthroscopic techniques have proven to be advantageous in the treatment of various entities of greater tuberosity fractures, lesser tuberosity fractures (suture bridging technique) and subcapital humeral fractures (arthroscopic nailing). This article presents an overview on innovative arthroscopic modalities for treating proximal humeral fractures, describes the surgical techniques and the advantages compared to open procedures as well as initial clinical results.

  5. The analysis of densitometric and geometric parameters of bilateral proximal phalanges in horses with the use of peripheral quantitative computed tompgraphy

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    Dzierzęcka Małgorzata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proximal phalanges in horses are among bones that are most prone to injuries. So far, the detailed analysis of densitometric and geometric parameters of both front legs proximal phalanges in horses has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the densitometric and geometric parameters between proximal phalanges in equine both front legs with the use of peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. Methods The study material comprised isolated both front legs proximal phalanges derived from 22 horses. The structure analysis of the proximal phalanges was conducted with the pQCT. The following bone parameters were determined: bone mineral content, volumetric bone mineral density, total bone area, trabecular area, cortical area, cortical thickness, periosteal circumference, endocortical circumference, Strength Strain Index. Tomographic analysis of proximal phalanges was conducted at three levels: at 15%, 50% and 85% of the bone length. Results The statistical analysis showed that both the densitometric and geometric parameters of the bone at 50% and 85% of its length, did not present any statistically significant differences for the left or right proximal phalanges of the forelimb. At the same time, all examined parameters measured at 15% of the bone length, in the vicinity of the proximal metaphysis revealed significant statistical differences between both front legs proximal phalanges. Conclusions The proximal phalanx parameters in the forelimbs are significantly different for the left and right proximal phalanx at 15% of the length and they indicate higher Strength Strain Index of the left bone in this location. The densitometric and geometric parameters of the bone at 50% and 85% of its length, did not present any statistically significant differences for the left or right proximal phalanges of the left and right forelimbs. The most serious changes caused by asymmetrical load of the thoracic limbs in

  6. Chronic circumferential periostitis of proximal phalanges related to tight fitting rings.

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    Matcuk, George R; Learch, Thomas J; Keesara, Sravanthi R

    2006-11-01

    We present three cases of chronic erosion injuries to the phalanges seen at our institution. We review the literature regarding this uncommon injury and discuss the clinical scenarios in which these injuries may occur, the radiographic findings, treatment options, and outcomes.

  7. Racing performance of Swedish Standardbred trotting horses with proximal palmar/plantar first phalangeal (Birkeland) fragments compared to fragment free controls.

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    Carmalt, James L; Borg, Hanna; Näslund, Hans; Waldner, Cheryl

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether horses with a proximal palmar/plantar first phalangeal osteochondral fragment (POF) had comparable racing careers (prior to and following surgery) to horses without this fracture. A retrospective cohort study included 174 Swedish Standardbred trotters with osteochondral fragmentation in the palmar/plantar fetlock joint and 613 radiographically negative control horses presented for prepurchase examinations. Medical records and radiographs were examined for each horse. Racing data were retrieved from online Swedish Standardbred harness racing records. The effect of having a POF on race speed compared to radiographically negative control horses was examined using generalised estimating equations. Multivariable regression was used to examine differences in money earned and career longevity. The horses raced a total of 16,448 races. Horses gained speed as a function of race number. There was no difference in racing speed between horses with POF fractures that raced before surgery and control horses. Horses did not slow before, nor speed up after, surgery. There was no difference in the number of days between the last race prior to, or the first race after, the hospital visit between POF and control horses. Career earnings and lifetime starts were not significantly different between groups. The results of this study suggest the need to reevaluate the previously reported benefits of surgical intervention for POF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Complications in proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intramedullary compression device for proximal ulna fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Han, Fucai; Decruz, Joshua; Pannirselvam, Vinodhkumar; Murphy, Diarmuid

    2015-02-01

    Proximal ulna fractures account for 20% of all proximal forearm fractures. Many treatment options are available for such fractures, such as cast immobilisation, plate and screw fixation, tension band wiring and intramedullary screw fixation, depending on the fracture pattern. Due to the subcutaneous nature of the proximal forearm, it is vulnerable to open injuries over the dorsal aspect of the proximal ulna. This may in turn prove challenging, as it is critical to obtain adequate soft tissue coverage to reduce the risk of implant exposure and bony infections. We herein describe a patient with a Gustillo III-B open fracture of the proximal ulna, treated with minimally invasive intramedullary screw fixation using a 6.0-mm cannulated headless titanium compression screw (FusiFIX, Péronnas, France).

  10. Management of Acute Proximal Humeral Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vamsi Krishna; Singh, Anshuman; Anakwenze, Oke A

    2017-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures, which typically occur in elderly persons, are among the most common fractures. A myriad of nonsurgical and surgical treatment options exist for these injuries, including short-term immobilization and early physical therapy, percutaneous fixation, plate osteosynthesis, intramedullary nailing, hemiarthroplasty, and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The choice of treatment depends on the fracture type and severity, surgeon expertise, patient age, and patient health status.

  11. Discrimination of hip fractures by quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges and the calcaneus and dual X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damilakis, John E-mail: damilaki@med.uoc.gr; Papadokostakis, George; Perisinakis, Kostas; Maris, Thomas; Dimitriou, P.; Hadjipavlou, Alexander; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2004-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the ability of different techniques used for the assessment of bone status to discriminate between postmenopausal women with and without hip fracture. Fifty-one postmenopausal women (mean age 64.5{+-}6.5) who had sustained a low energy hip fracture and 51 age-matched controls (mean age 64.6{+-}6.0) were studied. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) assessment was carried out using the Ubis 3000 device capable of measuring broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound at the calcaneus (SOS{sub C}) and the Sunlight Omnisense device capable of estimating speed of sound at the phalanges (SOS{sub P}). Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Correlations between QUS variables ranged from r=0.35 to 0.72 and between QUS variables and BMD from r=0.30 to 0.36. BMD was the best discriminator of hip fractures (odds ratio = 3.61, area under curve = 0.824). All QUS variables were significant discriminators of hip fractures with odds ratios ranging from 1.88 to 2.63 and areas under the ROC curves ranging from 0.663 to 0.740. Among the QUS variables, the SOS{sub P} showed the best odds ratio and area under curve. Comparison between the areas under the ROC curve did not show any significant difference between SOS{sub P}, BUA and BMD. On the contrary, the difference between SOS{sub C} and BMD was significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, BMD and QUS variables investigated in the current study were significant discriminators of hip fractures. The differentiation of the hip fractures by BMD was significantly better than that of BUA measured at the calcaneus. Moreover, BMD discriminated fractured patients better than BUA and SOS{sub P}, although the difference did not reach statistical significance.

  12. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Among stress fractures associated with sports activities, patellar stress fracture is rare. Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella. We describe an extremely rare case of transverse stress fracture of proximal patella in a 9-year-old athlete. A 9-year old boy, who participated in sports (sprints and Kendo) presented with left knee pain without any external injury. In plain radiographs, a fracture line was observed in the proximal 1/3 of the left patella, and a patella stress fracture was diagnosed. For treatment, because 7 months of conservative therapy showed no improvement, internal fixation was carried out using Acutrak screws, and bone union was thus achieved. Three months after the operation, he was able to return to his previous level of athletic sports activity. Regarding the mechanism of onset, it is believed that the causes are longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure. On the other hand, the contact region of the patella with the femur changes with the flexion angle of the knee. In the current case, the fracture occurred at a site where the patella was in contact with the femur at a flexion angle of >90°, so it is believed that it occurred as a clinical condition from being subjected to repeated longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure at a flexion angle of >90°, during the sports activities of sprints and Kendo. The nonunion of the transverse stress fracture of his proximal patella was successfully treated with internal fixation using Acutrak screws. PMID:26871789

  13. Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rebouças Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Impacted valgus fractures of the proximal humerus are considered to be a special type fracture, since impaction of the humeral head on the metaphysis with maintenance of the posteromedial periosteum improves the prognosis regarding occurrences of avascular necrosis. This characteristic can also facilitate the reduction maneuver and increase the consolidation rate of these fractures, even in more complex cases. The studies included were obtained by searching the Bireme, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for those published between 1991 and 2013. The objective of this study was to identify the most common definitions, classifications and treatment methods used for these fractures in the orthopedic medical literature.

  14. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  15. Ostéosynthèse des fractures des métacarpiens et des phalanges de la main par mini plaque: à propos de 12 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncef, Erraji; Abdelhafid, Derfoufi; Abdessamad, Kharraji; Omar, Agoumi; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Abdelkrim, Daoudi; Hicham, Yacoubi

    2016-01-01

    Le traitement des fractures instables des métacarpes et des phalanges reste un objet de controverse. Peu de séries ont été rapportées dans la littérature, rendant leur analyse difficile. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective comportant 12 patients, opérés par cette technique, ayant eu des fractures déplacées des métacarpes ou des phalanges, sur une période de deux ans. Les résultats globaux ont été bons dans 75% des cas, moyenne dans 16,5% des cas et mauvais dans 8,5% des cas. La stabilité du montage par mini plaques des fractures instables des métacarpiens et des phalanges ont permis une mobilisation précoce des articulations de la main, évitant ainsi la raideur. PMID:27800079

  16. [Complex fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint. A case report and focus on palmar proximal interphalangeal fractures-dislocations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, E; Thomsen, L; Hans-Moevi Akué, A; Falcone, M-O

    2013-10-01

    The palmar fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint of fingers is an uncommon injury. We report a complex form in a 16-year old teenager, associating a palmar fracture-dislocation and a fracture of the base of the middle phalanx with the dorsal fragment dislocated between the neck of the proximal phalange and the palmar plate. The management was surgical with open reduction and fixation of the fragments by K-wires and temporary PIP arthrorisis. The result at 6months of follow- up after removal of the wires and physiotherapy was satisfactory. The patient was painless with a range of motion of 115°. Clinically, the sagittal and frontal stability of the joint both in flexion and extension was maintained. Osseous healing was obtained on X-ray control. The patient went back to his usual activities. A focus on palmar fracture-dislocations of PIP joint is presented through incidence, mechanism and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Cast index in predicting outcome of proximal pediatric forearm fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassaan Qaiser Sheikh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Cast index is useful in predicting redisplacement of manipulated distal forearm fractures. We found that in proximal half forearm fractures it is difficult to achieve a CI of <0.8, but increased CI does not predict loss of position in these fractures. We therefore discourage the use of CI in proximal half forearm fractures.

  18. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella: A Case Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    .... Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella...

  19. Computer-aided joint space analysis of the metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint: normative age-related and gender-specific data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeil, Alexander; Boettcher, Joachim; Seidl, Bettina E.; Heyne, Jens-Peter; Petrovitch, Alexander; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); Eidner, Torsten; Wolf, Gunter; Hein, Gert [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Rheumatology and Osteology, Clinic of Internal Medicine III, Jena (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of the study was to provide reference data for computer-aided joint space analysis based on a semi-automated and computer-aided diagnostic system for the measurement of metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint widths; additionally, the determination of sex differences and the investigation of changes in joint width with age were evaluated. Eighty hundred and sixty-nine patients (351 female and 518 male) received radiographs of the hand for trauma and were screened for a host of conditions known to affect the joint spaces. All participants underwent measurements of joint space distances at the metacarpal-phalangeal articulation (JSD-MCP) from the thumb to the small finger and at the proximal-interphalangeal articulation (JSD-PIP) from the index finger to the small finger using computer-aided diagnosis technology with semi-automated edge detection. The study revealed an annual narrowing of the JSD of 0.6% for the JSD-MCP and for the JSD-PIP. Furthermore, the data demonstrated a notable age-related decrease in JSD, including an accentuated age-related joint space narrowing in women for both articulations. Additionally, males showed a significantly wider JSD-MCP (+11.1%) and JSD-PIP (+15.4%) compared with the female cohort in all age groups. Our data presented gender-specific and age-related normative reference values for computer-aided joint space analysis of the JSD-MCP and JSD-PIP that could be used to identify disease-related joint space narrowing, particularly in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis commonly involving the peripheral small hand joints. (orig.)

  20. Orthopaedic approaches to proximal humeral fractures following trauma.

    OpenAIRE

    Mafi, R.; Khan, W.; Mafi, P; Hindocha, S.

    2014-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures have been a topic of discussion in medical literature dating back as far as 3rd century BC. Today, these fractures are the most common type of humeral fractures and account for about 5-6% of all fractures in adults with the incidence rising rapidly with age. In broad terms the management of proximal humeral fractures can be divided into two categories: conservative versus surgical intervention. The aim of treatment is to stabilize the fracture, aid better union and ...

  1. Diffuse phalangeal signal abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging: phalangeal microgeodic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Emery, Kathleen H.; Merrow, Arnold C. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Phalangeal microgeodic disease is a rare and benign self-limited condition involving the phalanges, often in the setting of cold exposure, with characteristic MR imaging abnormalities. Radiographic case descriptions are predominantly from Asia and Europe, with only seven cases using MR to characterize phalangeal microgeodic disease. In this study we describe the MR imaging appearance of unusual and striking phalangeal signal abnormality compatible with phalangeal microgeodic disease at our institution in North America. We retrospectively reviewed cases presenting at our institution with unusual or unexplained phalangeal signal abnormalities between 2001 and 2014. We reviewed the MR imaging appearances in conjunction with radiographs and any other available imaging investigations. Of 189 examinations reviewed during the study period, 8 imaging studies in 6 patients met the study inclusion criteria. Signal abnormality was present in 57 of 112 phalanges (51%), frequently involving the distal phalanges (70%, 28 of 40), followed by the middle phalanges (56%, 18 of 32) and the proximal phalanges (28%, 11 of 40). The pattern of involvement was most commonly diaphysis (38%), followed by metaphysis (32%) and epiphysis (30%). The extent of MR signal abnormality was greater than that suspected based on clinical presentation or on radiographs. The presence of unexplained diffuse characteristic marrow involvement of multiple painful phalanges on MR images, often in the setting of cold exposure, should raise the possibility of phalangeal microgeodic disease. Consideration of this diagnosis based on MR findings would lead to a more conservative management and avoid unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. (orig.)

  2. Plate fixation of extra-articular fractures of the proximal phalanx: do new implants cause less problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei-Thoma, Pascale; Vögelin, Esther; Franz, Torsten

    2015-03-01

    Limited range of finger motion is a frequent complication after plate fixation of phalangeal fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of plate fixation of extra-articular fractures of the proximal phalanx using current low-profile mini-fragment-systems. From 2006 to 2012, 32 patients with 36 extra-articular fractures of the proximal phalanx of the triphalangeal fingers were treated with open reduction and plate fixation (ORPF) using 1.2 and 1.5 mm mini-fragment systems. Patients presenting with open fractures grade 2 and 3 or relevant laceration of adjacent structures were excluded from the study. We retrospectively evaluated the rate of mal-union or non-union after ORPF, the need for revision surgery, for plate removal, and for tenolysis. Data were analyzed for further complications with regard to infections or complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). No infections were noted. Five patients developed transient symptoms of CRPS. Six weeks postoperatively, total active finger motion (TAM) averaged 183°, and all 32 patients underwent formal hand therapy. At the latest follow-up or at the time of plate removal, respectively, the mean TAM improved to 213°. Extension lag of proximal interphalangeal joints was found in 67 % of all fractured fingers. Secondary surgery was necessary in 14 of 32 patients (2 corrective osteotomies, 12 plate removals including 7 procedures explicitly because of reduced mobility). Despite of new implant designs significant problems persist. Adhesions of extensor tendons leading to limited range of finger motion are still the most frequent complications after ORPF of proximal phalangeal fractures, even in absence of significant soft-tissue damage. Therapeutic, Retrospective, Level IV.

  3. Pediatric Phalanx Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzug, Joshua M; Dua, Karan; Sesko Bauer, Andrea; Cornwall, Roger; Wyrick, Theresa O

    2017-02-15

    Phalangeal fractures are the most common type of hand fracture that occurs in the pediatric population and account for the second highest number of emergency department visits in the United States for fractures. The incidence of phalangeal fractures is the highest in children aged 10 to 14 years, which coincides with the time that most children begin playing contact sports. Younger children are more likely to sustain a phalangeal fracture in the home setting as a result of crush and laceration injuries. Salter-Harris type II fractures of the proximal phalanx are the most common type of finger fracture. An unmineralized physis is biomechanically weaker compared with the surrounding ligamentous structures and mature bone, which make fractures about the physis likely. A thorough physical examination is necessary to assess the digital cascade for signs of rotational deformity and/or coronal malalignment. Plain radiographs of the hand and digits are sufficient to confirm a diagnosis of a phalangeal fracture. The management of phalangeal fractures is based on the initial severity of the injury and depends on the success of closed reduction techniques. Nondisplaced phalanx fractures are managed with splint immobilization. Stable, reduced phalanx fractures are immobilized but require close monitoring to ensure maintenance of fracture reduction. Unstable, displaced phalanx fractures require surgical management, preferably via closed reduction and percutaneous pinning.

  4. Spontaneous Healing of a Pediatric Scaphoid Proximal Pole Fracture Nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupani, Neal; Riley, Nicholas; McNab, Ian

    2018-02-01

    Background  Scaphoid fractures in the pediatric population are rare. The majority of nondisplaced fractures tend to unite; however, there is an increased risk of nonunion in proximal pole fractures. Limited evidence exists in their outcomes, owing to the scarcity of the fracture pattern. Case Description  A 13-year-old boy who presented late after developing a traumatic proximal pole scaphoid fracture developed nonunion. He was treated conservatively owing to it being asymptomatic and developed union at 18 months. Literature Review  No previous case of proximal pole pediatric scaphoid fractures with established nonunion that has developed union with conservative management has been described. Clinical Relevance  The authors highlight a unique case of an established proximal pole scaphoid nonunion in a child progressing to union with nonoperative intervention. Owing to its rarity and difficulty in obtaining research, we recommend consideration of nonoperative management of asymptomatic nondisplaced proximal pole fractures in children.

  5. Midshaft humeral fracture following a proximal humeral fracture: a case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayaseelan, Dhinu J; Post, Andrew A; Ruggirello, Leah D; Sault, Josiah D

    2014-01-01

    ... of rehabilitation of a proximal humerus fracture. A 63-year-old female recreational tennis player presented to physical therapy, progressing well following a proximal humeral fracture, sustained 18 weeks prior...

  6. Open Reduction of Proximal Interphalangeal Fracture-Dislocation through a Midlateral Incision Using Absorbable Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Jun Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP joint is a relatively common injury. Various treatments for fracture-dislocation of the PIP joint have been reported. In the present study, we performed open reduction through a midlateral incision using absorbable sutures to reduce the small bone fragments and performed volar plate repair.MethodsWe treated nine patients with fracture-dislocation of the PIP joint with small fractured bone fragments too small for pinning or screw fixation. Patients with volar plate injury were treated with open reduction and volar plate repair at the periosteum of the middle phalangeal bone base by the modified Kessler method using absorbable sutures. All patients were placed in a dorsal aluminum extension block splint, which maintained the PIP joint in approximately 30 degrees of flexion to avoid excessive tension on the sutured volar plate.ResultsAt a mean final follow-up of postoperative 9 months, all patients were evaluated radiographically and had adequate alignment of the PIP joint and reduction of the displaced bone fragments. Range of motion was improved and there were no complications.ConclusionsThis technique is an excellent alternative to the current method of treating patients with fracture-dislocations that include small fragments that are too small for pinning or screw fixation. It is a less invasive surgical method and enables stable reduction and early exercise without noticeable complications.

  7. Conservative Treatment for Bilateral Displaced Proximal Humerus Head Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Corlay, Ruy E; Velutini-Becker, Ricardo; Aguilar-Alcal?, Luis D

    2016-01-01

    Proximal humerus fracture represents five to eight percent of all fractures and is twice as common in women than in men. Most cases of displaced fracture of the proximal humerus are treated surgically; it is probable that more cases are preferred to be treated surgically greater than required. The optimal treatment for these fractures remains controversial, but physicians have a tendency to treat via open reduction and fixation with angular locking plates or glenohumeral arthroplasty.? We pre...

  8. Foal Fractures: Osteochondral Fragmentation, Proximal Sesamoid Bone Fractures/Sesamoiditis, and Distal Phalanx Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesink, Heidi L

    2017-08-01

    Foals are susceptible to many of the same types of fractures as adult horses, often secondary to external sources of trauma. In addition, some types of fractures are specific to foals and occur routinely in horses under 1 year of age. These foal-specific fractures may be due to the unique musculoskeletal properties of the developing animal and may present with distinct clinical signs. Treatment plans and prognoses are tailored specifically to young animals. Common fractures not affecting the long bones in foals are discussed in this article, including osteochondral fragmentation, proximal sesamoid bone fractures/sesamoiditis, and distal phalanx fractures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Thyagarajan David; Haridas Samarth; Jones Denise; Dent Colin; Evans Richard; Williams Rhys

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system) for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years...

  10. Invited Hand Article: Current Concepts in Treatment of Fracture-Dislocations of the Proximal Interphalangeal Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Steven C.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocations are common injuries that require expedient and attentive treatment for the best outcomes. Management can range from protective splinting and early mobilization to complex operations. In this review, the current concepts surrounding the managment of these injuries are reviewed. Methods A literature review was performed of all recent articles pertaining to proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocation, with specific focus on middle phalangeal base fractures. Where appropriate, older articles, or articles on closely related injury types were included for completeness. The methodology and outcomes of each study were analyzed. Results When small avulsion fractures are present, good results are routinely obtained with reduction and early mobilization of stable injuries. Strategies for management of the unstable dorsal fracture-dislocation have evolved over time. To provide early stability, a variety of techniques have evolved, including closed, percutaneous, external, and internal fixation methods. Although each of these techniques can be successful in skilled hands, none have been subjected to rigorous, prospective, comparative trials. Volar dislocations fare less well, with significant loss of motion in many studies. Pilon fractures represent the most complicated injuries, and return of normal motion is not expected. Conclusion The best outcomes can be achieved by (1) establishing enough stability to allow early motion, (2) restoring gliding joint motion rather than non-congruent motion, and (3) restoring the articular surface congruity when possible. Although the majority of literature on this topic consists of expert opinion and retrospective case series, the consensus appears to favor less invasive techniques whenever possible. PMID:25415092

  11. Bilateral trampoline fracture of the proximal tibia in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico B Arkink, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Trampoline fractures are transversely oriented impaction fractures of the proximal tibia sustained by young children jumping on a trampoline. Unaware of the mechanism of this specific nontraumatic fracture, physicians may fail to detect these fractures on plain radiographs, as radiological findings may be very subtle. In this case report, we present a rare case of bilateral trampoline fractures with an explanation of the trauma mechanism.

  12. Internal fixation of proximal humerus fractures using the T2-proximal humeral nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Dragos; Fernandez-Valencia, Jenaro A; Rios, Moisés; Cuñé, Jordi; Domingo, Anna; Prat, Salvi

    2009-09-01

    Surgical management of proximal humerus fractures remains controversial and there is an increasing interest in intramedullary nailing. Created to improve previous designs, the T2-proximal humeral nail (PHN) (Stryker) has been recently released, and the English literature lacks a series evaluating its results. We present a clinical prospective study evaluating this implant for proximal humeral fractures. We evaluated the functional and radiological results and possible complications. Twenty-nine patients with displaced fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with this nail. One patient was lost right after surgery and excluded from the assessment. Eighteen patients were older than 70 years. There were 21 fractures of the proximal part of the humerus and 7 fractures that also involved the shaft; 15 of the fractures were two-part fractures (surgical neck), 5 were three-part fractures, and 1 was a four-part fracture. All fractures healed in a mean period of 2.7 months. There was one delayed union that healed in 4 months. One case of avascular necrosis of the humeral head was observed (a four-part fracture), but remained asymptomatic and did not require further treatment. In one case a back-out of one proximal screw was observed. A final evaluation with a minimum 1 year follow-up was performed by an independent observer; in 18 patients, the mean Constant score was 65.7 or 76.1% with the adjustment of age and gender; in 19 patients, the mean Oxford Shoulder Score was 21.7. The results obtained with the T2-PHN nail indicate that it represents a safe and reliable method in the treatment of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus. The proximal fixation mechanism diminishes the rate of back-out of the screws, a frequent complication described in the literature. Better functional results were obtained from the patients younger than 70 years, but these were not statistically significant.

  13. Racing performance in Standardbred trotting horses with proximal palmar/plantar first phalangeal fragments relative to the timing of surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, J L; Borg, H; Näslund, H; Waldner, C

    2015-07-01

    Proximal palmar/plantar osteochondral fragmentation of the first phalanx is a frequent radiographic finding in Standardbred horses. These lesions are routinely removed prior to the onset of a racing career with no evidence to support the timing of this surgical intervention. To determine whether horses racing before surgery slowed as they approached surgery date and whether they speeded up after surgery. To investigate the factors affecting whether a horse raced after surgery and compare the performance of horses that did and did not race before surgery. A retrospective study using 193 Swedish Standardbred trotters. Medical records and radiographs of each horse were examined. Racing data were retrieved from official online records. Generalising estimating equations were used to examine presurgery racing performance and determine whether this differed between horses that raced before surgery and those that had not. Multivariable regression was used to examine career earnings and number of career races. Horses racing before surgery neither slowed as they approached surgery, nor speeded up after surgery. Race speed of horses raced before surgery was not different from those that only raced after surgery. Racing before surgery was not associated with whether horses raced following surgery. Only horses with 3 affected legs had slower race speeds than other horses. No other horse level variables affected race speed, number of career races, career earnings or top speed. There was no significant difference in race speed between horses that raced before surgery and those that did not. Horses did not slow down prior to surgery. Horses with 3 affected legs ran slower than those with only a single or 2 affected limbs. There was no association between timing of surgery and race speed or career longevity. The potential benefits of surgical intervention should be critically examined. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Treatment of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures with locking proximal humerus plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Cheng; Li, Yu-Lin; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Wu, Qiang; Feng, Shi-Qing

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of the locking proximal humerus plate to treat proximal humerus fractures. A retrospective clinical trial. Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with locking proximal humerus plates. The deltopectoral anterolateral acromial approach was used to the proximal humerus; open reduction and locking proximal humerus plate were applied. Constant Score was used to measure the shoulder functional recovery, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to measure subjective evaluation of pain. The radiology was observed. After average 26.7 months, the average Constant Score was 72.6 ± 13.2 points and the average VAS was 1.2 ± 0.8 points. All the complications such as screw perforation into the glenohumeral joint, screws loosening, soft tissue infections, avascular necrosis and delayed union occurred in eight cases (11.8 %). The effectiveness of the locking proximal humerus plate was similar to other published literatures on treating fractures of the proximal humerus; however, a lower complications rate in short follow-up time was observed in this study. It may potentially provide a favorable option for treating three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Dealing with each particular fracture pattern, surgeons should have a decision of appropriate way to internal fixation.

  15. Concomitant ipsilateral proximal tibia and femoral Hoffa fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anuj; Aggarwal, Prakash; Pankaj, Amite

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report our experience on concomitant ipsilateral proximal tibia and femoral Hoffa fractures. Nine patients (8 male, 1 female; mean age: 30.9; range: 19-49 years) presented to our emergency room with an ipsilateral proximal tibia and femoral Hoffa fracture, following road traffic accident. Six patients had open fracture. Two patients had ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture, two patients had fracture of intercondylar part of distal femur, one had fracture of patella and one had fracture of both bones of the leg. Out of nine Hoffa's fracture eight involved lateral and one involved medial femoral condyle. There were five type II, two type VI, one type I and one type IV proximal tibial fracture according to Schatzker classification. Mean duration of follow-up was 13 months (range: 9-21 months). At final follow-up, all fractures united. Mean knee society score was 163 (range: 127-182). Mean ROM at knee joint was 97.4 degrees (75°-115°). Our results suggest that in this combination of intraarticular fractures anatomic reduction and rigid fixation followed by early mobilization reveal satisfactory results.

  16. Shoulder arthroplasty in complex acute and chronic proximal humeral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich, Lars Henrik; Søjbjerg, J.O.; Sneppen, O.

    1991-01-01

    From 1983 to 1988, 42 shoulder arthroplasties were performed on comminuted acute or chronic proximal humeral fractures. Patients were categorized according to the post-fracture operative delay; there were 15 four-part fractures, with median post-fracture delay of 13 days (range: 7 to 21), and 27...... chronic fractures, including 11 four-part fractures, 9 three-part fractures, and 7 two-part fractures, with median post-fracture delay of 14 months (range: 4 to 72). Follow up was approximately 2 years in both groups (range: 1 to 5). All patients were evaluated according to a modified Neer score......-system and classified into four groups. Pain relief was satisfactory in the acute group, but was unpredictable in the chronic group. The results in the acute group were significantly superior (P less than .05). In the acute group, 3 (20%) patients had an excellent result and 6 patients (40%) had a good result, compared...

  17. Mild exercise early in life produces changes in bone size and strength but not density in proximal phalangeal, third metacarpal and third carpal bones of foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Elwyn C; Rogers, Christopher W; van Weeren, P Rene; Barneveld, Albert; McIlwraith, C Wayne; Kawcak, Christopher E; Goodship, Allen E; Smith, Roger K W

    2011-12-01

    Exercise or lack of it in early life affects chondro-osseous development. Two groups of horses were used to investigate the effects of age and exercise regimen on bone parameters of diaphyseal, metaphyseal, epiphyseal and cuboidal bones of the distal limb of Thoroughbreds. One group had exercised only spontaneously from an early age at pasture (PASTEX group), while the other group of horses were exposed to a 30% greater workload through additional defined exercise (CONDEX). Longitudinal data from peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) were obtained from eight scan sites of the left forelimb (proximal phalangeal (P(p); 1 site), third metacarpal (Mc3; six sites) and third carpal (C(3); one site) bones) of 32 Thoroughbred foals scanned five times from ∼3 weeks to 17 months of age. The primary outcome measures were bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), and periosteal circumference (Peri C) in diaphyseal bone, with cortical thickness (CortTh), volumetric bone mineral density (BMD(v)) and a bone strength index (SSI) also being analysed. At the P(p) site within the model there was a significant effect (P=0.00-0.025) of conditioning exercise increasing bone parameters, except endosteal circumference (Endo C) and BMD(v). The BMC, BA, and SSI of P(p) were significantly greater in the CONDEX than PASTEX groups at 12 and 17 months (P=0.015-0.042) and CortTh at 17 months (P=0.033). At the M55 site of Mc3 BMC, BA and SSI (P=0.02-0.04), and at the M33 site, SSI (P=0.05) were higher in the CONDEX than PASTEX group. The adaptive responses, consistent with diaphyseal strengthening, were more marked in the diaphysis of P(p) than Mc3. In the Mc3, metaphysis, trabecular BMD(v) was less in the CONDEX than PASTEX group, associated with greater bone mineral accretion in the outer cortical-sub-cortical bone in the CONDEX group. There were no significant between-group differences in any epiphyseal or cuboidal bone parameter. Although the early imposed exercise regimen

  18. Fractures of the proximal humerus in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Raj Joshi, Dr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most children proximal humeral fractures are treated non-operatively with generally good results. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of closed/open reduction in children with severely displaced proximal humeral fractures. Materials and Methods: The charts of 15 patients (8 girls and 7 boys; mean age: 9.4 years with proximal humeral fractures who were managed at our institution were reviewed from October 2011 to December 2013. Results: There were 7 metaphyseal fractures and 8 physeal injuries which were angulated according to Neer-Horowitz score as grade II (n=2, grade III(n=4 and grade IV(n=9. Associated lesions comprised open fracture with head trauma in a 2 year old female child which was operated on primarily and the 14 others by secondary intention. All patients were treated surgically with either closed (n = 5 or open (n=10 reduction and internal fixation with Kirschner wire or titanium elastic nails (TENs. They were assessed for clinical and radiological healing at a mean follow up of 1.25 years ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 years. Conclusion: Surgical option is indicated for severely displaced and unstable fractures in older children and adolescents. In addition to the periosteum , long head of the biceps, deltoid muscle, and bone fragments in combination can prevent fracture reduction. Key words: Proximal humerus fracture, Children, Open reduction, Operative.

  19. Total hip arthroplasty after failed treatment of proximal femur fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsunaga, Tomonori; Fujiwara, Kazuo; Endo, Hirosuke; Noda, Tomoyuki; Tetsunaga, Tomoko; Sato, Toru; Shiota, Naofumi; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-03-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a good option as a salvage procedure after failed treatment of proximal femur fracture. The anatomy of the proximal femur, however, makes this surgery complicated and challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic and clinical outcomes of THA after failed treatment of proximal femur fractures. We retrospectively analysed 50 consecutive THAs (42 women, 8 men; mean age 77 years) after failed treatment of a proximal femur fracture. Mean postoperative follow-up was 58.1 months. Preoperative diagnoses were femoral neck fracture in 18 hips and trochanteric fracture in 32 hips, including three that were infected. Failure resulted from cutout in 22 cases, osteonecrosis in 12, non-union with failed fixation in nine, postoperative osteoarthritis in four, and infection in three. Factors compared included radiographic assessment, complication rate, visual analogue scale (VAS), and Harris Hip Scores (HHS). Radiographic variables included femoral neck anteversion and cup and stem alignment. Absolute values of the differences in femoral neck anteversion between the affected and healthy sides were 6.0° in the femoral neck fracture group and 19.2° in the trochanteric fracture group (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in cup anteversion (p = 0.20) or stem anteversion (p = 0.08). The complication rate was significantly higher in the trochanteric fracture group than in the femoral neck fracture group (25 vs 0%, p fracture group included three periprosthetic fractures (9.4%), two dislocations (6.3%), two surgical-site infections (6.3%), and one stem penetration (3.1%). Although no significant differences between groups were seen in the VAS or HHS at final follow-up (p = 0.32, 0.09, respectively), these measures were significantly improved at final follow-up in both groups (p fractures requires consideration of complication risk and incorrect femoral neck anteversion.

  20. A Review of Management Options for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Robert W; Modi, Chetan S

    2014-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are common and although the majority can be managed non-operatively, the optimal treatment of displaced or complex fractures remains controversial. Non-operative treatment is typically selected for minimally displaced fractures where union rates are high and good or excellent outcomes can be expected in approximately 80% of cases. The aims of surgical fixation are to restore articular surface congruency, alignment and the relationship between the tuberosities and th...

  1. Evolution of treatment of of the proximal humerus fractures (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Kogan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article in generalized form acquaints with the publications devoted to the bases of proximal humeral fractures treatment. A brief digression on anatomy and biomechanics of the humeral joint allows to consider the main morphological features of it. The most commonly used classification of proximal humeral fractures concisely classify many types of damage. According to the clinical and anatomical characteristics of fractures tracked the historical aspect, the development and the current state of the most common methods of treatment. In his review collected works authors share their experience in the application of methods. It allows to further the perspective directions.

  2. Radiographic anatomy of the proximal femur: femoral neck fracture vs. transtrochanteric fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lecia Carneiro Leão de Araújo Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between radiographic parameters of the proximal femur with femoral neck fractures or transtrochanteric fractures. METHODS: Cervicodiaphyseal angle (CDA, femoral neck width (FNW, hip axis length (HAL, and acetabular tear drop distance (ATD were analyzed in 30 pelvis anteroposterior view X-rays of patients with femoral neck fractures (n = 15 and transtrochanteric fractures (n = 15. The analysis was performed by comparing the results of the X-rays with femoral neck fractures and with transtrochanteric fractures. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences between samples were observed. CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between radiographic parameters evaluated and specific occurrence of femoral neck fractures or transtrochanteric fractures.

  3. The diaphysial axis-metacarpal head angle in the management of fractures of the base of the proximal phalanx in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, M M; Al-Motairi, M I; Al-Naeem, H A

    2013-11-01

    The diaphysial axis-metacarpal head angle (DHA) is the angle formed between the longitudinal axis of the diaphysis of the proximal phalanx and central point of the metacarpal head. The normal DHA ranges from 177.1° and 180.0°. There were no significant differences between DHA measurements when taken by the same observer at two separate occasions (P = 0.986) or when taken by two different observers (P = 0.948). We have put an algorithm of management of paediatric phalangeal base fractures incorporating the DHA in the decision making. A prospective study of 92 children (5-14 years) with phalangeal base fractures was conducted. Closed reduction was possible in all but one case in which open reduction and K-wire fixation was required. Closed reduction of the remaining 91 fractures yielded a 'good' reduction in 80 cases (no finger deformity on clinical examination with a post-reduction DHA greater than 177°). After a mean follow-up of 4.2 months, all these 80 cases qualified for an excellent outcome as per Al-Qattan's criteria. The remaining 11 children were considered to have an 'acceptable' reduction (no scissoring, but there was a mild residual lateral deviation of the finger with a DHA angle of 169.4° to 176.2°). At a mean follow-up of 28 months, all these 11 mal-united fractures remodelled with normalization of the DHA; and all 11 children qualified for an excellent outcome as per Al-Qattan's criteria. The current series stresses on the advantages of using DHA in the objective assessment of paediatric phalangeal base fractures and demonstrates the remodelling of fractures with about 10° of lateral deviation.

  4. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yongyu; You, Wei; Zhu, Weimin; Cui, Jiaming; Chen, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases. PMID:29081829

  5. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyu Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases.

  6. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF PHILOS PLATE FIXATION FOR PROXIMAL HUMERUS FRACTURES

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    Ch. Venkateswarlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Treating a proximal humerus fracture remained a challenging problem until proximal humeral internal locking system has been developed. Our study aims at evaluating the functional outcome of 30 consecutive patients with proximal humeral fracture treated by Philos plate fixation; 30 patients with proximal humeral fractures who attended our hospital between December 2013 and December 2015 were included in the study; 18 women and 12 men with a mean age of 47.5years (30-60 years are included. Data was collected prospectively and outcomes were assessed using constant shoulder score. The mean follow-up period was 12 months (6-18 months. Mean union time of all the fractures was 11.4 weeks (8-20 weeks. The mean constant shoulder score at final review was 70.5 (52-92. Philos plate provides stable fracture fixation for proximal humerus fracture in both young and elderly patients, which enables for early mobilisation and achieves acceptable functional results.

  7. Transverse Stress Fracture of the Proximal Patella: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Kato, Ko; Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Nakagawa, Shuji; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sudo, Akihiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-02-01

    Among stress fractures associated with sports activities, patellar stress fracture is rare. Regarding patella stress fractures, so far only distal transverse or lateral longitudinal fractures have been reported, but there are no reports of transverse fractures occurring in the proximal patella. We describe an extremely rare case of transverse stress fracture of proximal patella in a 9-year-old athlete.A 9-year old boy, who participated in sports (sprints and Kendo) presented with left knee pain without any external injury. In plain radiographs, a fracture line was observed in the proximal 1/3 of the left patella, and a patella stress fracture was diagnosed. For treatment, because 7 months of conservative therapy showed no improvement, internal fixation was carried out using Acutrak screws, and bone union was thus achieved. Three months after the operation, he was able to return to his previous level of athletic sports activity.Regarding the mechanism of onset, it is believed that the causes are longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure. On the other hand, the contact region of the patella with the femur changes with the flexion angle of the knee. In the current case, the fracture occurred at a site where the patella was in contact with the femur at a flexion angle of >90°, so it is believed that it occurred as a clinical condition from being subjected to repeated longitudinal traction force and patellofemoral contact pressure at a flexion angle of >90°, during the sports activities of sprints and Kendo. The nonunion of the transverse stress fracture of his proximal patella was successfully treated with internal fixation using Acutrak screws.

  8. [Angle-stable intramedullary nailing of proximal humerus fractures with the PHN (proximal humeral nail)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Jochen; Hansen, Matthias; Rommens, Pol Maria

    2009-09-01

    Stable fixation of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus through minimally invasive operative technique and rapid bone healing as well as restoration of original anatomy. Early functional training with the goal of restoration of former mobility and daily activities. Unstabile two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus (AO classification: 11-A2, 11-A3, 11-B1, 11-B2, 11-B3). Subcapital nonunion of the humerus. Pathologic fractures. Pediatric fractures of the proximal humerus. Fractures of the proximal humerus types 11-C2 und 11-C3 according to the AO classification. Active local infection, e.g., after former operation. Closed reduction. Anterior acromial incision, splitting of the deltoid muscle and the rotator cuff. Opening of the medullary canal with the awl. Nail introduction. Spiral blade introduction in cannulated technique through stab incision. Distal interlocking through aiming device, angle-stable blocking of nail and blade through end cap. Postoperative fixation in Gilchrist sling until 2nd postoperative day; then physiotherapy respecting fracture type and stability, local swelling, patient's age and compliance, and concomitant injuries. 151 proximal humeral fractures were treated with a proximal humeral nail (PHN). 108 patients could be followed up 1 year postoperatively. Significant complications were perforation of the articular surface through bolts or blades (n = 8), implant-related pain (n = 10), fragment dislocation (n = 2), nonunion (n = 2), humeral head necrosis (n = 3), and superficial infection (n = 1). 1 year after the operation, the Constant-Murley Score showed a median value of 75.3 in the injured shoulder and of 89.9 in the uninjured shoulder. The DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) Score was 5.9 preoperatively and 9.3 at 1 year postoperatively. The worst results regarding the Constant-Murley Score as well as the DASH Score were found in C-type fractures.

  9. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty in acute fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Rasmussen, Jeppe V; Olsen, Bo S

    2013-01-01

    The indications for surgical intervention in complex fractures of the proximal humerus are disputed. In elderly patients with poor bone stock it may be impossible to obtain satisfactory fixation of the tuberosities to a hemiarthroplasty (HA). In such cases primary insertion of a reverse shoulder...... control group of HA. The median constant score was 58 (range 44-68) which is comparable to previous reviews of HA in 4-part fractures. Complications included dislocation, infection, hematoma, instability, neurological injury, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, intraoperative fractures, periprosthetic fractures...

  10. New classification of proximal humeral fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, W.R.; Rupp, H.G.; Siebler, G.

    1986-08-01

    Neer's classification of humeral fractures was proved on 657 patients. This classification enables the radiologist to estimate the risk of avascular necrosis of the head of the humerus. The problematic group is that of four part lesions, which has a 19% incidence of humeral head necrosis. Since in this group minimal osteosynthesis produces better functional results than extensive osteosynthesis, a detailed pre-operative radiological description of the fracture type is necessary in order to spare the patient from extensive surgery which could have unsatisfactory results.

  11. Diagnosing displaced four-part fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Bagger, Jens; Sylvest, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Displaced four-part fractures comprise 2-10 % of all proximal humeral fractures. The optimal treatment is unclear and randomised trials are needed. The conduct and interpretation of such trials is facilitated by a reproducible fracture classification. We aimed at quantifying observer agreement...... on the classification of displaced four-part fractures according to the Neer system. Published and unpublished data from five observer studies were reviewed. Observers agreed less on displaced four-part fractures than on the overall Neer classification. Mean kappa values for interobserver agreement ranged from 0.......16 to 0.48. Specialists agreed slightly more than fellows and residents. Advanced imaging modalities (CT and 3D CT) seemed to contribute more to classification of displaced four-part patterns than in less complex fracture patterns. Low observer agreement may challenge the clinical approach to displaced...

  12. Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handoll, Helen H G; Brorson, Stig

    2015-01-01

    that early mobilisation resulted in better recovery and less pain in people with mainly minimally displaced fractures. There was evidence of little difference between the two groups in shoulder complications (2/127 early mobilisation versus 3/132 delayed mobilisation; 4 trials) and fracture displacement...... supervised exercise in a swimming pool plus home exercise.Eight trials, involving 567 older participants, evaluated surgical intervention for displaced fractures. There was high quality evidence of no clinically important difference in patient-reported shoulder and upper-limb function at one- or two......BACKGROUND: Fracture of the proximal humerus, often termed shoulder fracture, is a common injury in older people. The management of these fractures varies widely. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2001 and last updated in 2012. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (benefits...

  13. Surgical treatment of proximal humerus fractures using PHILOS plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To evaluate functional outcome and complications of open reduction and internal fixation with proximal humeral internal locking system (PHILOS plate for proximal humerus fractures. Methods: We reviewed 51 patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation with PHILOS plate between the years 2007 to 2012. There were 35 men and 16 women with a mean age of 38 years (range 24-68. There were 41 patients in the age group of <60 years and 10 patients in the age group of >60 years. According to Neer classification system, 8, 15 and 23 patients had 2-part, 3-part, and 4-part fractures, respectively and 5 patients had 4-part fracture dislocation. All surgeries were carried out at our tertiary care trauma centre. Functional evaluation of the shoulder at final follow-up was done using Constant-Murley score. Results: The mean follow-up period was 30 months (range 12-44 months. Two patients were lost to followup. Of the remaining 49 patients, all fractures were united clinically and radiologically. The mean time for radiological union was 12 weeks (range 8-20 weeks. At the final follow-up the mean Constant-Murley score was 79 (range 50-100. The results were excellent in 25 patients, good in 13 patients, fair in 6 atients and poor in 5 patients. During the follow-up, four cases of varus malunion, one case of subacromial impingement, one case of deep infection, one case of intraarticular screw penetration and one case of failure of fi xation were noted. No cases of avascular necrosis, hardware failure, locking screw loosening or nonunion were noted. Conclusion: PHILOS provides stable fixation in proximal humerus fractures. To prevent potential complications like avascular necrosis, meticulous surgical dissection to preserve vascularity of humeral head is necessary. Key words: Proximal humerus fracture; Fracture fixation, internal; Proximal humeral internal locking system

  14. Indications for computed tomography (CT-) diagnostics in proximal humeral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrs, Christian; Rolauffs, Bernd; Südkamp, Norbert P

    2009-01-01

    diagnostics depending on the fractured parts. METHODS: In a prospective diagnostic study in two level 1 trauma centers, 44 patients with proximal humeral fractures were diagnosed with conventional X-rays (22 AP + axillary views, 22 AP + scapular Y-views) and CT (multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) and maximum...... a significantly better assessment of the relevant structures than conventional diagnostics (p X-rays with AP view and a high-quality axillary view are useful for primary diagnostics of the fracture......--independently of the number of fractured parts--when the proximal humerus and the shoulder joint are not presented with sufficient X-ray-quality to establish a treatment plan....

  15. Double parabolic Kirschner-wires as dynamic distractor for treatment of unstable intraarticular phalangeal fractures of hand

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    Bhaskar Borgohain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of complex injuries of interphalangeal joints (IPJs is difficult. The restoration of joint stability for early joint mobility till fracture union is the key for successful outcome. Although various treatment options like dynamic splinting, external fixator, closed reduction, transarticular Kirschner (K-wire and ORIF, etc., are available in literature, a universally accepted ideal treatment for complex intraarticular fractures of IPJs is still evolving. Open reduction is difficult because fixation of volar fragment is often impractical and radical procedures like volar plate arthroplasty, arthrodesis or joint replacement, etc., may become mandatory for salvage. We describe percutaneous technique to treat unstable fractures and dorsal fracture-dislocations of the PIP joint and report short-term postoperative results. Materials and Methods: Ten cases of unstable or potentially unstable intraarticular fractures including pilon fractures and fracture-dislocations of IP joints were treated percutaneously by double parabolic K-wire technique (DPK. The device was used as a dynamic distraction, using the principle of ligamentotaxis. The idea was to commence early postoperative continuous active and active-assisted joint motion exercises and to carry on the frame as a definitive treatment for achieving fracture union. Results: In all patients of fracture-dislocation the reduction was satisfactory and early mobility was achieved. Although there is a tendency towards over-distraction, no loss of reduction occurred. Pin tract infection occurred in one with no delayed union or nonunion. The average total range of motion for each involved IP joint was 93.5 degree and the average total active range of motion was 90.8° each at the end of 4 months followup. Excellent to good results were restored in nearly all cases without further interventions. Conclusion: DPK technique may be a cheap and valuable definitive treatment option in the

  16. Improving outcomes for patients with proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dipal; Dhillon, Amritpaul; Mulvaney, Emily; Robinson, Margaret; Weerasuriya, Namal

    2014-09-25

    A peri-operative bay was created to treat all patients with proximal femoral fractures admitted to one trauma ward at the Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham. All patients had urinary catheterisation and their fluid intake and output was recorded; patients had daily blood tests and were cared for on pressure-relieving mattresses. In addition, a study day was provided for all nursing staff on the management of patients with proximal femoral fractures. These measures resulted in a significant decrease in the incidence of acute kidney injury, reduced the length of hospital stay for patients on this ward and reduced the numbers of falls and pressure-related injuries for these patients.

  17. Proximal femoral bone geometry in osteoporotic hip fractures in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A number of different bone geometries have been reported to be correlated with osteoporosis, bone mineral density and fractures. Those correlations are used for diagnosis, treatment and prediction of fracture risk in osteoporosis cases. However there have been no studies of significant bone parameters predicting osteoporosis and hip fracture in Thailand To evaluate the correlation between geometric parameters of the proximal femur and both the Singh index and bone mineral density as well as to investigate the relationship between those two metrics and osteoporotic hip fracture in the Thai population. Forty-four Thai patients with osteoporotic hip fractures andforty-five healthy Thai people matched for age and gender were included in the present study. Bone mineral density and bone geometry from plain hip radiographs of non-fracture sites in the fracture group and proximal femur radiographs of the same site in the healthy group were measured That data were analyzed to determine levels of correlation. Bone geometries were also analyzed to determine hip fracture predictive capacity. Correlation between the Singh index and bone mineral density was significant (p hip fracture (p = 0.014 and p = 0.035, respectively). Each 1 mm reduction in the width of the femoral medial neck cortex increased the osteoporotic hip fracture risk by a factor of 2.7 (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.15-0.93). In the Thai population, bone geometry from plain radiographs can help predict the risk of osteoporotic hip fracture. Osteoporosis is correlated with a low Singh index value. The width of the femoral medial neck cortex is a reliable predictor of hip fracture risk.

  18. Proximal femoral fractures: Principles of management and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Ravi; Banerjee, Sumit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to review the principles involved in the management of proximal femoral fractures as reported in the literature. Methods: A medical literature search in the MEDLINE (PubMed) and Cochrane database was undertaken to review strategies and principles in proximal femoral fracture treatment. Randomized control trials and meta analysis were given preference while case reports/small series were rejected. Results and conclusions: Early anatomical reduction and surgical fixation remains the best option to reduce the risk of complications like non-union and avascular necrosis in treating fracture neck femurs. Cancellous screws continue to be the preferred treatment for fixation of neck femur fractures in younger population until the benefit of using sliding hip screws is validated by large multicentric studies. In the geriatric age group, early prosthetic replacement brings down the mortality and morbidity associated with neck femur fractures. Sliding hip screw (DHS) is the best available option for stable inter trochanteric fractures. The use of intramedullary nails e.g. PFN is beneficial in treating inter trochanteric fractures with comminution and loss of lateral buttress. Intramedullary implants have been proven to have increased success rates in subtrochanteric fractures and should be preferred over extramedullary plate fixation systems. PMID:25983451

  19. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Yongyu Ye; Wei You; Weimin Zhu; Jiaming Cui; Kang Chen; Daping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze...

  20. [Morbidity and mortality of surgically treated proximal humerus fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isart, A; Sánchez, J F; Santana, F; Puig, L; Cáceres, E; Torrens, C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyse the factors associated with mortality and the capacity to perform daily life activities (DLA) in patients with surgically treated proximal humeral fractures. A retrospective study was conducted on 94 patients with a surgically treated proximal humeral fracture, with a mean follow-up of 8 years (2 - 12 years). A correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the type of fracture, surgical technique, comorbidities and mortality and DLA. The Student t test was used for statistical analysis. A total of 72 patients were identified, 18.6% of them died during follow-up, all diagnosed with some comorbidity. There was no correlation between mortality, type of fracture or the technique used. Most of the patients (85.4%) had comorbidities, and 79.5% were completely independent for DLA. Although there was no relationship with the type of fracture, there was a significant reduction in the performing of DLA in patients treated with hemiarthroplasty, and in patients with neurological disorders. There was a mortality of 18.6% among patients with surgically treated proximal humerus fractures. The majority of surgically treated patients were fully independent for DLA at long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Management of proximal humeral fractures by the Ilizarov external fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meselhy, Mohammed Anter; Singer, Mohamed Salah

    2017-09-01

    External fixation can be performed in poor bone and soft tissue conditions, and can be used in patients with poor general conditions or multiple injuries as a rapid, mini-invasive procedure. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the Ilizarov external fixator in the management of proximal humeral fractures. Between May 2011 and December 2013, 14 patients with displaced proximal humeral fractures were enrolled in the current study. Nine patients were males and five were females, with mean age 42.9 years (range 21-55). All fractures were acute. The mode of injury was road traffic accident in eight patients and fall in six patients. There were six patients with two-part fracture, one of them with fracture dislocation, and eight patients presented with three-part fracture, two of them with fracture dislocation. All fractures were fixed using the Ilizarov external fixation. The average operative time was about 67 min (range 50-90). The mean follow-up period was (18) months (range 12-28). Healing was obtained in all 14 patients in a mean of 10.4 weeks (range 8-14). At the final follow-up, the mean constant score was 73.1 points (range 60-97 points), the mean visual analog score (VAS) for pain 3.2 (range 1-5), the mean DASH score 31.8 points (range 10-55 points), and the mean satisfaction VAS 7.6 (range 4-10). The Ilizarov external fixation is an effective technique in managing proximal humeral fractures with good outcome and low complication rates. Level IV, case series.

  2. A STUDY ON PROXIMAL HUMERAL FRACTURES STABILISED WITH PHILOS PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Sivakumar K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Techniques for treating complex proximal humeral fractures vary and include fixations using tension bands, percutaneous pins, bone suture, T-plates, intramedullary nails, double tubular plates, hemiarthroplasty, plant tan humerus fixator plates, Polaris nails and blade plates. Complications of these techniques include cutout or back out of the screws and plates, avascular necrosis, nonunion, malunion, nail migration, rotator cuff impairment and impingement syndromes. Insufficient anchorage from conventional implants may lead to early loosening and failure, especially in osteoporotic bones. In general, nonoperative treatment of displaced three and four-part fractures of the proximal humerus leads to poor outcome due to intraarticular nature of injury and inherent instability of the fragments. Comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus are at risk of fixation failure, screw loosening and fracture displacement. Open reduction and internal fixation with conventional plate and screws has been associated with unacceptably high incidence of screw pull out. PHILOS (the proximal humeral internal locking system plate is an internal fixation system that enables angled stabilisation with multiple interlocking screws for fractures of the proximal humerus. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 patients with proximal humerus fractures who were admitted in the Department of Orthopaedics, Government General Hospital, Kakinada, during the period November 2014 - November 2016 were taken up for study according to inclusion criteria. All patients were treated with PHILOS plate. These proximal humerus fractures were classified according to Neer’s classification. Patients were followed up at 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months’ interval. Functional outcomes for pain, range of motion and muscle power and function were assessed using the Constant-Murley scoring system. Collected data analysed with independent t-test and ANNOVA test. RESULTS The outcome of the study was 1

  3. Bilateral traumatic proximal humerus fractures managed by open reduction and internal fixation with locked plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal Atin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Fractures of the proximal humerus are uncommon in young patients. Although bilateral fracture of proximal humerus itself is rare, association with epilepsy and electrocution is frequent. Only one case of traumatic bilateral proximal humerus fracture has been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of bilateral traumatic dis- placed proximal humerus fractures in a 40 years old male patient, which was treated by means of open reduction and internal fixation with proximal humerus locked pates on both sides and obtained a good functional outcome. Key words: Humeral fractures; Shoulder fractures; Fracture fixation, internal

  4. Long endomedullary nail in proximal third humeral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caforio, Marco; Maniscalco, Pietro; Colombo, Massimiliano; Calori, Giorgio Maria

    2016-10-01

    Proximal humeral fractures with a spiral line of fracture extending from the humeral head to the diaphyseal region are increasing. Treatment for these fractures is comparable to that for shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a new "Long" humeral nail for this type of lesion and identify the best distal locking. Forty-three patients treated with a Long Diphos Nail® were selected for this study: main exclusion criteria were poor cognitive and responsive ability to physical therapy, four-part fracture requiring humeral head replacement, an isolated greater or lesser tubercle fracture and a head-splitting fracture. All patients were divided into two groups according to the distal locking (single or double) and clinically evaluated at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. The following parameters were evaluated: fracture healing on radiographic images every month; level of pain with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); recovery of shoulder function or ability to resume normal daily activities according to the Constant Scoring System (CSS); patient satisfaction; and complications, like fracture consolidation defect or delay. A statistical analysis was performed. Improvements in pain, satisfaction and shoulder functional recovery were recorded. Patients reached fracture healing in two to six months. The mean healing time was better for double distal locking (p=0.04).There was a clinically greater difference (p=0.006) between the groups for the mean Constant score at 3 months follow-up, with better results for the double distal locking group. Complications were: one patient with a consolidation delay with a single distal locking screw breakage; it was necessary to remove the nail and perform a second treatment. The results of the study indicate the efficacy of Long Diphos Nail® in the treatment of fractures with a line of fracture extending to the proximal diaphyseal region. The features of a multiplane stabilisation above the fracture and a distal

  5. Proximal femoral periprosthetic fracture fixation with a hooked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximal femoral periprosthetic fracture fixation with a hooked locking plate: a Kenyan experience. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and ...

  6. Proximal third humeral shaft fractures -- a fracture entity not fully characterized by conventional AO classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedtfeld, H W; Biber, R

    2014-01-01

    The retrospective study was made to evaluate the fracture patterns at the proximal humeral shaft for which the long version of a standard proximal humeral nail (PHNLV) has been used. The indication has been decided by the individual surgeons. Over a five year period 72 consecutive PHNLV cases of an acute fracture were identified and were included in the study. Mean patient age was 68.9 years. Gender ratio was m/f=22/50. 86.1% of the patients fractured their humerus by a fall, the rest by a high velocity accident. We analysed patient comorbidity, ASA score, osteoporosis, social status before accident, additional injuries affecting local soft tissues or other anatomic regions. We analysed the expansion of the fractures, dividing the humerus into five zones. Fracture morphology was categorized according to the standard AO/ASIF classification (if applicable). Comorbidities were found in 76.4% of the patients. Almost all patients (93.1%) had been living independently at home before the accident. 47.2% of patients had osteoporosis in their medical history. Five patients (6.9%) had a primary palsy of the radial nerve. Six fractures chosen for PHNLV fixation were clearly restricted to the humeral head. The remaining 66 fractures were located in the humeral shaft (AO region 12). There were 5 segmental fractures. Of the remaining 67 fractures affecting the proximal third of the humeral shaft 49.3 percent extended into the humeral head. 98 percent of these fractures displayed spiral morphology. Proximal humeral shaft fractures are amazingly similar to subtrochanteric and distal tibial shaft fractures: Spiral fracture types with different grades of comminution are absolutely dominant; a great proportion of the fractures extend into the humeral head with growing tendency of displacement if located closer to the humeral head. Diverging traction of deltoid and pectoralis muscle causes typical displacement if the fracture line runs in between their attachments substantiating the

  7. The influence of local bone quality on fracture pattern in proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchelli, Ruben A; Jenny, Katharina; Zdravkovic, Vilijam; Erhardt, Johannes B; Jost, Bernhard; Spross, Christian

    2017-12-26

    Bone mineral density and fracture morphology are widely discussed and relevant factors when considering the different treatment options for proximal humerus fractures. It was the aim of this study to investigate the influence of local bone quality on fracture patterns of the Neer classification as well as on fracture impaction angle in these injuries. All acute, isolated and non-pathological proximal humerus fractures admitted to our emergency department were included. The fractures were classified according to Neer and the humeral head impaction angle was measured. Local bone quality was assessed using the Deltoid Tuberosity Index (DTI). The distribution between DTI and fracture pattern was analysed. 191 proximal humerus fractures were included (61 men, mean age 59 years; 130 women, mean age 69.5). 77 fractures (40%) were classified as one-part, 72 (38%) were two-part, 24 (13%) were three- and four-part and 18 (9%) were fracture dislocations. 30 fractures (16%) were varus impacted, whereas 45 fractures (24%) were classified as valgus impacted. The mean DTI was 1.48. Valgus impaction significantly correlated with good bone quality (DTI ≥ 1.4; p = 0.047) whereas no such statistical significance was found for the Neer fracture types. We found that valgus impaction significantly depended on good bone quality. However, neither varus impaction nor any of the Neer fracture types correlated with bone quality. We conclude that the better bone quality of valgus impacted fractures may be a reason for their historically benign amenability to ORIF. On the other hand, good local bone quality does not prevent fracture comminution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koljonen, Paul Aarne; Fang, Christian; Lau, Tak Wing; Leung, Frankie; Cheung, Nigel W K

    2015-08-01

    To report the outcome after minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) through the deltoid-splitting approach for proximal humeral fractures. 10 men and 30 women aged 37 to 88 years underwent MIPO through the deltoid-splitting approach using the Proximal Humerus Internal Locking System or the Locking Proximal Humerus Plate for 2-part (n=18), 3-part (n=20), and 4-part (n=2) proximal humeral fractures. The rehabilitation protocol was standardised. All 40 patients were followed up at 3 months, 34 (85%) at 6 months, 30 (75%) at one year, and 13 (33%) at 2 years. Two patients had malunion. No patient had avascular necrosis, infection, nerve palsy, or nonunion. The mean Constant score at one year and 2 years was 75 and 87.5, respectively. The Constant score at 6 months correlated to that at one year (r=0.926, pfracture grade, or hand dominance. MIPO for fixation of proximal humeral fractures using a locking plate is safe and effective in enabling an early return of shoulder function.

  9. Intramedullary Nailing for Pathological Fractures of the Proximal Humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Seok; Han, Ilkyu; Cho, Hwan Seong; Park, In Woong; Park, Jong Woong; Kim, Han-Soo

    2016-12-01

    Endoprosthetic reconstruction is widely applied for pathological fractures of the proximal humerus; however, functional impairment is usually unsatisfactory. The aims of the current study are to evaluate the reliability of interlocking intramedullary (IM) nailing with cement augmentation as a fixation method in proximal humeral lesions and to assess functional outcomes. We reviewed 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus who underwent interlocking IM nailing and cement augmentation. Functional scores and pain relief were assessed as outcomes. The mean follow-up period was 14.2 months. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional score and Karnofsky performance status scale score were 27.7 and 75.6, respectively. Improvement of pain assessed using the visual analogue scale was 6.2 on average. Thirty-one patients (97%) experienced no pain after surgery. The mean ranges of forward flexion and abduction were 115° and 112.6°, respectively. All patients achieved stability and had no local recurrence without failure of fixation until the last follow-up. Proximal interlocking IM nailing with cement augmentation appears to be a reliable treatment option for pathological or impending fractures of the proximal humerus in selected patients with metastatic tumors, even with extensive bone destruction.

  10. Concomitant physeal fractures of the distal femur and proximal tibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sferopoulos, N.K. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2005-07-01

    Concomitant physeal fractures of the distal femur and proximal tibia are very rare in children and adolescents. They are included in the classification of the ''floating knee'' injuries. Two cases with this combined injury are reported. They were closed injuries and in both patients the fracture of the proximal tibial epiphyseal plate was nondisplaced. In the first, a six-year-old girl, an early diagnosis was made radiographically. The intra-articular femoral fracture was operatively reduced and fixed. No growth abnormality was encountered 12 years later. The second patient, a 16-year-old boy, was conservatively treated for a displaced fracture-separation of the distal femoral epiphysis. Four weeks later there was physeal widening on both sides of the knee which indicated an associated fracture of the proximal tibial epiphyseal plate. One year after injury there was a varus deformity of the knee that was treated with a corrective osteotomy. Ten years later there is normal alignment of the leg. (orig.)

  11. Minimally Invasive Fixation for Proximal Humeral Fracture: A Review on the use of T2 Proximal Humeral Nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Ling Iris Ngai

    2013-12-01

    Discussion and conclusion: With the proper surgical technique high union rate, good functional recovery, and low complication rate can be achieved by using T2 Proximal Humeral Nail in managing traumatic proximal humeral fracture.

  12. Displaced proximal humeral fractures: when is surgery necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Iskandar; Montesa, Guillermo; Collado, Francisco; González, David; Carnero, Pablo; Rojas, Facundo; Nagib, Mohamed; Pérez, Verónica; Álvarez, Miguel; Tamimi, Faleh

    2015-10-01

    Several therapeutic methods have been traditionally used in the treatment of displaced proximal humeral fractures; however, the indication of these treatments is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the medium-term functional results of four methods commonly used in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures [conservative treatment, proximal humeral nails (PHN), percutaneous K-wiring (PKW), and locking-plates (LP)] taking into consideration the type of fracture and the age of the patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on patients with proximal humeral fractures treated with one of the following methods: conservative treatment, PHN, PKW, or LP. Functional results were assessed using the absolute Constant score and the disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand score (DASH). The functional outcome was analysed according to age (≥65 years and fracture type (displaced 2-fragment and 3-4-fragment fractures). A total of 113 patients were included in the study, with a mean age of 65.3 SD 15.2 years and average follow-up time of 26.2 SD 12.6 months. Patients under 65 years had higher Constant scores when treated with PHN and PKW than those treated conservatively (77.2 vs. 54.7, p=0.01 and 74.0 vs. 54.7, p=0.03, respectively). Patients above 65 years had higher Constant scores when treated with PKW compared to PHN and conservative treatment (68.7 vs. 51.9, p=0.02 and 68.7 vs. 55.9, p=0.029, respectively). In 2-fragment fractures, PKW resulted in higher Constant scores than conservative treatment (70.4 vs. 53.9, p=0.048). No differences were found in the final outcome between patients treated with LP and those treated conservatively regardless of age, and fracture type. There were also no differences between any of the evaluated methods in the treatment of 3-4-fragment fractures. The use of PKW was associated with better functional results than conservative treatment in individuals of all ages, especially in patients with 2-fragment

  13. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for proximal humeral fractures: clinical and radiologic outcomes according to fracture type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Hoon-Sang; Shin, Sang-Jin

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the clinical and radiologic outcomes, according to fracture type, of proximal humeral fractures treated by the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique. Of 85 patients with proximal humeral fractures who were treated by the MIPO technique, 62 were evaluated: 27 with 2-part fractures, 24 with 3-part fractures, and 11 with 4-part fractures. An additional inferomedial screw or fibular allograft was used when severe medial cortical comminution was found in the proximal humerus. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were evaluated during the follow-up of 37 months. There was a significant difference in the Constant scores of patients with 4-part fractures compared with those with 3-part fractures (P = .039). The neck-shaft angle in 4-part fractures (121° ± 3°) at final follow-up was significantly lower compared with other fracture types (2-part: 129° ± 9°, P = .036; 3-part: 129° ± 2°, P = .031). Complication rates (72.7%) of 4-part fractures were significantly higher than with other fracture types (2-part, 7.4%; 3-part, 20.8%; P = .001). Sixteen fractures were fixed with an additional inferomedial screw, and 3 patients had insertion of a fibular allograft. Satisfactory clinical and radiologic outcomes were obtained by the MIPO technique in proximal humeral fractures. In addition, medial cortical support can be performed with an inferomedial screw or fibular allograft in the MIPO technique. However, the MIPO technique for 4-part fractures showed relatively inferior outcomes compared with 2- and 3-part fractures. Conversion to open plating is also considered if adequate reduction, that is, a neck-shaft angle >120°, is not able to be obtained in the MIPO technique for 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment of proximal fifth metatarsal bone fractures in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japjec, M; Starešinić, M; Starjački, M; Žgaljardić, I; Štivičić, J; Šebečić, B

    2015-11-01

    Proximal fifth metatarsal (V MT) bone fractures are common injuries that are a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Lawrence and Botte considered different treatment options and the possibility of recovery and divided these fractures into three different regions: tuberosity avulsion fractures (zone I), acute fractures of the metaphysis at the level of the intermetatarsal junction (zone II) and proximal diaphysis stress fracture (zone III). A total of 42 athletes with fracture of the V MT bone in zone II and III were treated in our institution during a 6-year period. All patients were offered surgical treatment, but nine patients refused surgery. Thus, the patients were divided into two groups: group 1 comprised 33 patients who underwent an intramedullary screw fixation operation under regional anaesthesia immediately after the fracture was diagnosed; group 2 contained the remaining nine patients who had refused surgery and received conservative therapy with non-weight-bearing short-leg casts or orthosis. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 24 months. All fractures healed in group 1: healing occurred within 8 weeks in 26 patients and was prolonged to 16 to 18 weeks in four patients. In group 2, fractures healed in four patients but did not heal in five patients even after 6 months. Four of the five patients in whom the fracture did not heal required subsequent osteosynthesis because they had constant problems that caused absence from sport. After the operation, their fractures healed in an average of 10 weeks. One patient decided not to undergo the operation due to the absence of subjective symptoms. Three patients in group 1 who started intensive training sustained a refracture and underwent re-operation in which osteosynthesis was performed with a stronger screw. The fractures then healed again. Treatment results were evaluated radiologically and clinically using the Modified Foot Score. Results in group 1 were significantly better than those in group 2 and there

  15. Postpartum osteoporosis associated with proximal tibial stress fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemetson, I.A.; Anderson, S.E. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, 3010, Bern (Switzerland); Popp, A.; Lippuner, K. [Department of Osteology, University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, 3010, Bern (Switzerland); Ballmer, F. [Knee and Sports Medicine Unit, Lindenhofspital Bern, 3012, Bern (Switzerland)

    2004-02-01

    A 33-year-old woman presented with acute nonspecific knee pain, 6 months postpartum. MR imaging, computed tomography and radiography were performed and a proximal tibia plateau insufficiency fracture was detected. Bone densitometry demonstrated mild postpartum osteoporosis. To our knowledge these findings have not been described in this location and in this clinical setting. The etiology of the atraumatic fracture of the tibia is presumed to be due to a low bone mineral density. The bone loss was probably due to pregnancy, lactation and postpartum hormonal changes. There were no other inciting causes and the patient was normocalcemic. We discuss the presence of a postpartum stress fracture in a hitherto undescribed site in a patient who had lactated following an uncomplicated pregnancy and had no other identifiable cause for a stress fracture. (orig.)

  16. Pinning technique for shoulder fractures in adolescents: computer modelling of percutaneous pinning of proximal humeral fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehin, Ramin; Mehin, Afshin; Wickham, David; Letts, Merv

    2009-01-01

    Background In the technique of percuatenous pinning of proximal humerus fractures, the appropriate entry site and trajectory of pins is unknown, especially in the adolescent population. We sought to determine the ideal entry site and trajectory of pins. Methods We used magnetic resonance images of nonfractured shoulders in conjunction with radiographs of shoulder fractures that were treated with closed reduction and pinning to construct 3-dimensional computer-generated models. We used engineering software to determine the ideal location of pins. We also conducted a literature review. Results The nonfractured adolescent shoulder has an articular surface diameter of 41.3 mm, articular surface thickness of 17.4 mm and neck shaft angle of 36°. Although adolescents and adults have relatively similar shoulder skeletal anatomy, they suffer different types of fractures. In our study, 14 of 16 adolescents suffered Salter–Harris type II fractures. The ideal location for the lateral 2 pins in an anatomically reduced shoulder fracture is 4.4 cm and 8.0 cm from the proximal part of the humeral head directed at 21.2° in the coronal plane relative to the humeral shaft. Conclusion Operative management of proximal humerus fractures in adolescents requires knowledge distinct from that required for adult patients. This is the first study to examine the anatomy of the nonfractured proximal humerus in adolescents. This is also the first study to attempt to model the positioning of percutaneous proximal humerus pins. PMID:20011155

  17. Techniques for intramedullary nailing of proximal tibia fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, Daniel J; Mir, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Despite poor early results with intramedullary nailing of extra-articular proximal tibia fractures, improvements in surgical technique and implant design modifications have resulted in more acceptable outcomes. However, prevention of the commonly encountered apex anterior and/or valgus deformities remains a challenge when treating these injuries. It is necessary for the surgeon to recognize this and know how to neutralize these forces. Surgeons should be comfortable using a variety of the reduction techniques presented to minimize fracture malalignment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [DHS osteosynthesis for proximal femoral fractures: infectious complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubina, M; Skoták, M; Běhounek St, J

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of infectious complications in patients with proximal femoral fractures treated by osteosynthesis using dynamic hip screws (DHS). The group included 501 patients with 532 DHS procedures performed in the years 1996-2010. In 31 patients osteosynthesis was carried out bilaterally. Osteosynthesis was indicated for femoral neck fracture in 18 hips and for pertrochanteric fracture in 514 hips. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy was administered within 48 hours of surgery. The occurrence of infectious complications (surface and deep wound infection), presence of infectious agents, risk factors, and the course of treatment and its outcome were investigated. Of 532 fractures treated by DHS osteosynthesis, seven were infected (1.3%) as follows: one fracture of the femoral neck with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and, of six pertrochanteric fractures, four with Staphylococcus aureus, one with Escherichia coli and one with Staphylococcus epidermidis. Surface wound infection was diagnosed in one case (0.2%) and deep infection in six cases (1.1%). Five revision DHS procedures were carried out in five patients. One or more risk factors were found in each patient with infected DHS. The treatment of infection included wound dressing and abscess drainage without reoperation in two cases, implant removal in three, and implant removal with femoral head resection and spacer insertion in two cases. Second-stage total hip arthroplasty (THA) was performed in one case. Of the seven infected fractures, five (71%) healed successfully. DISCUSSION DHS osteosynthesis is a reliable method for treating proximal femoral fractures. The 1.3% infection rate in our group is comparable with other relevant studies. This complication is serious and requires prolonged treatment but is not as devastating as an infected THA. For the treatment of infected DHS osteosynthesis, standard methods from screw removal to second-stage THA were employed. Infectious complications following

  19. Pseudoarthrosis following proximal humeral fractures: A possible mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooney, P.J.; Cockshott, W.P.

    1986-01-01

    A small series of four patients with pseudarthrosis of the proximal humeral shaft is reported. These patients all had restricted movement of the shoulder joint prior to the trauma, three as a result of rheumatoid arthritis and one due a surgical fusion of the glenohumeral joint. It is suggested that pseudarthrosis is more likely under these circumstances and that pursuit of union of the fracture in such patients may not always be necessary.

  20. A Review of Management Options for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Robert W; Modi, Chetan S

    2014-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are common and although the majority can be managed non-operatively, the optimal treatment of displaced or complex fractures remains controversial. Non-operative treatment is typically selected for minimally displaced fractures where union rates are high and good or excellent outcomes can be expected in approximately 80% of cases. The aims of surgical fixation are to restore articular surface congruency, alignment and the relationship between the tuberosities and the humeral head. Hemiarthroplasty provides patients with reliable pain relief and its indications include fracture dislocations, humeral head splitting fractures and some three- and four- part fractures. The key areas of surgical technique that influence functional outcome include correctly restoring the humeral height, humeral version and tuberosity position. Function, however, is poor if the tuberosities either fail to unite or mal-unite. The interest in reverse shoulder arthroplasty as an alternative option has therefore recently increased, particularly in older patients with poor bone quality and tuberosity comminution. The evidence supporting this, however, is currently limited to multiple case series with higher level studies currently underway. PMID:25067968

  1. Proximal Femoral Geometry and the Risk of Fractures: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Grygorieva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the literature review of the impact of the upper third of the femur geometry (hip axis length, femoral neck angle, inter-trochanteric length, horizontal offset, thickness of the cortical bone, etc. on the risk of fractures. The article demonstrates the capabilities of techniques for measurement of hip geometry, namely conventional X-ray of pelvic bones, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography. Possible correlation is shown between some genetic markers and features of the geometry of the upper third of the femur. Also, there are presented the results of own researches of age and sex characteristics of proximal hip geometry parameters in patients without fractures, as well as in patients of older age groups with internal and extraarticular femoral fractures.

  2. Evaluation of vertebral hidden fractures in patients with proximal femoral fractures

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    André Luís Sebben

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the Spine Deformity Index (SDI and serum levels of vitamin D in patients surgically treated for proximal femur fracture and its relationship with osteoporosis. Methods: Between August and November 2013, patients older than 50 years-old with surgical fracture of the proximal femur by low-energy trauma underwent radiographic evaluation of the spine and the vitamin D levels, and enquired about diagnoses and previous treatment of osteoporosis. Results: Sixty-six patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 78 years; the average level of vitamin D was 19 ng/mL. The SDI ranged between zero and 25, with a mean of 8.2. Eighty percent of these patients had never been treated for osteoporosis. Of the patients analyzed, 89.3% had insufficient levels of vitamin D. Of these, 68.1% had also SDI above 5, and only one fifth of them had any treatment for osteoporosis. Statistical significance was found between age and levels of vitamin D as well as age and SDI. Gender was not predictive of the vitamin D levels or the amount of hidden spine fractures. The season of the year had no direct influence on vitamin D levels. Conclusions: Hospitalized patients with surgical fractures of the proximal femur had a higher SDI associated with vitamin D insufficiency, with osteoporosis most often untreated, which results in delayed spinal fractures diagnosis of spinal fractures and increased risk of new fractures.

  3. [Hip arthroplasty for the severe comminuted proximal femoral fracture with psilateral acetabulum fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Bo; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Huang, Chong-Xin; Liao, Tian-Cheng; Wang, An

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the results of hip arthroplasty for the treatment of severe comminuted proximal femoral fracture with ipsilateral acetabulum fracture. From June 2007 to September 2013, 8 patients (8 hips) with severe comminuted proximal femoral fracture combined with ipsilateral acetabulum fracture were treated with hip arthroplasty. All patients were male and using biological prosthesis. Aged from 33 to 64 years old with an average of 41.9 years. According to Harris score in aspect of pain, function, range of motion to evaluate clinical effects. There was no untoward reaction in 8 patients. And bed rest at 3 months after operation, waiting for acetabulum fracture healed to out-of-bed activity. There was no complications such as pneumonia, bedsore and so on in the patients. Follow-up time was from 9 to 72 months with an average of 35.8 months, the wound healed, there was no the subsidence and loosening of prosthesis, no dislocation and infection. The mean of Harris score was 87.5 points after operation. The effect of the hip replacement in treating severe comminuted proximal femoral fracture with ipsilateral acetabulum fracture is confirmed. It can restore motor function and reduce traumatic complication, may serve as a substitute for internal fixation of difficult operation. The long-term efficacy is necessary to further observe.

  4. Displaced proximal humeral fractures: an Indian experience with locking plates

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    Aggarwal Sameer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of displaced proximal humerus fractures, especially in elderly, remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate functional outcome of locking plate used for fixation of these fractures after open reduction. We also attempted to evaluate the complications and predictors of loss of fixation for such an implant. Methods Over two and a half years, 56 patients with an acute proximal humerus fracture were managed with locking plate osteosynthesis. 47 of these patients who completed a minimum follow up of 1 year were evaluated using Constant score calculation. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 16 and a p value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results The average follow up period was around 21.5 months. Outcomes were excellent in 17%, good in 38.5%, moderate in 34% while poor in 10.5%. The Constant score was poorer for AO-OTA type 3 fractures as compared to other types. The scores were also inferior for older patients (> 65 years old. Complications included screw perforation of head, AVN, subacromial impingement, loss of fixation, axillary nerve palsy and infection. A varus malalignment was found to be a strong predictor of loss of fixation. Conclusion Locking plate osteosynthesis leads to satisfactory functional outcomes in all the patients. Results are better than non locking plates in osteoporotic fractures of the elderly. However the surgery has steep learning curve and various complications could be associated with its use. Nevertheless we believe that a strict adherence to the principles of locking plate use can ensure good result in such challenging fractures.

  5. Pathological fractures of the proximal humerus treated with a proximal humeral locking plate and bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, H J; Lopez-Ben, R; Mann, J P; Ponce, B A

    2010-05-01

    Bone loss secondary to primary or metastatic lesions of the proximal humerus remains a challenging surgical problem. Options include preservation of the joint with stabilisation using internal fixation or resection of the tumour with prosthetic replacement. Resection of the proximal humerus often includes the greater tuberosity and adjacent diaphysis, which may result in poor function secondary to loss of the rotator cuff and/or deltoid function. Preservation of the joint with internal fixation may reduce the time in hospital and peri-operative morbidity compared with joint replacement, and result in a better functional outcome. We included 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus in this study. Functional and radiological assessments were performed. At a mean follow-up of 17.6 months (8 to 61) there was no radiological evidence of failure of fixation. The mean revised musculoskeletal Tumour Society functional score was 94.6% (86% to 99%). There was recurrent tumour requiring further surgery in four patients (12.5%). Of the 22 patients who were employed prior to presentation all returned to work without restrictions. The use of a locking plate combined with augmentation with cement extends the indications for salvage of the proximal humerus with good function in patients with pathological and impending pathological fractures.

  6. Efficiency of the Lausanne clinical pathway for proximal femoral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eFleury

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose/Introduction: The number of hip fractures is rising, due to increases in life expectancy. In such cases patients are at risk from post-operative complications and subsequently the average length of hospitalisation may be extended. In 2011, we established a clinical pathway (CP, a specific model of care for patient-care management, to improve the clinical and economic outcomes of proximal femoral fracture management in elderly patients. The goal was to evaluate the CP using clinical, process and financial indicators.Methods: We included all surgical patients aged 65 and over, admitted to the emergency department with a fracture of the proximal femur following a fall. Assessment parameters included three performance indicators: clinical, process and financial. The clinical indicators were the presence or absence of acute delirium on the third post-operative day, diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia, and the number of patients fulfilling at least 75% of their nutritional requirements at the end of the hospitalisation period. The process indicator was the time interval between arrival at the emergency department and surgery. The financial indicator was based on the number of days spent in hospital.Results: From 2011 to 2013, 669 patients were included in the CP. We observed that the average length of stay in hospital decreased as soon as the CP was implemented and stabilised afterwards. The goal of 90% of patients undergoing surgery within 48 hours of arrival in the emergency department was surpassed in 2013 (93.1%. Furthermore, we observed an improvement in the clinical indicators. Conclusions: The application of a CP allowed an improvement in the qualitative and quantitative efficiency of proximal femoral fracture management in elderly patients, in terms of clinical, process and financial factors.

  7. Management of difficult intra-articular fractures or fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodaki, E; Xing, S G; Mailaender, P; Stang, F

    2015-01-01

    Intra-articular fractures or fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint are difficult clinically because the bone and soft tissue structures are small and intricate. Suboptimal treatment of intra-articular fractures typically leads to functional impairment of the hand. This article reviews the current methods of treatment, together with the senior author's experience in treating difficult proximal interphalangeal joint fractures and dislocations. Besides conservative treatments, surgical treatments include open or closed reduction with traditional Osteosynthesis, such as K-wires, screws or plates. Among recent developments are the percutaneous application of thin cannulated compression screws and novel dynamic external fixators. After a preferred minimally invasive treatment with stable reconstruction of the articular surface, sufficient aftercare is necessary to improve surgical outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Trends in the surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures ? a nationwide 23-year study in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Huttunen Tuomas T; Launonen Antti P; Pihlajamäki Harri; Kannus Pekka; Mattila Ville M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Proximal humeral fractures are common osteoporotic fractures. Most proximal humeral fractures are treated non-surgically, although surgical treatment has gained popularity. The purpose of this study was to determine changes in the surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures in Finland between 1987 and 2009. Methods The study covered the entire adult (>19 y) population in Finland over the 23-year period from 1st of January 1987 to 31st of December 2009. We assessed the...

  9. Treatment of proximal humerus fractures in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launonen, Antti P; Lepola, Vesa; Flinkkilä, Tapio; Laitinen, Minna; Paavola, Mika; Malmivaara, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose There is no consensus on the treatment of proximal humerus fractures in the elderly. Patients and methods We conducted a systematic search of the medical literature for randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials from 1946 to Apr 30, 2014. Predefined PICOS criteria were used to search relevant publications. We included randomized controlled trials involving 2- to 4-part proximal humerus fractures in patients over 60 years of age that compared operative treatment to any operative or nonoperative treatment, with a minimum of 20 patients in each group and a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Outcomes had to be assessed with functional or disability measures, or a quality-of-life score. Results After 2 independent researchers had read 777 abstracts, 9 publications with 409 patients were accepted for the final analysis. No statistically significant differences were found between nonoperative treatment and operative treatment with a locking plate for any disability, for quality-of-life score, or for pain, in patients with 3- or 4-part fractures. In 4-part fractures, 2 trials found similar shoulder function between hemiarthroplasty and nonoperative treatment. 1 trial found slightly better health-related quality of life (higher EQ-5D scores) at 2-year follow-up after hemiarthroplasty. Complications were common in the operative treatment groups (10–29%). Interpretation Nonoperative treatment over locking plate systems and tension banding is weakly supported. 2 trials provided weak to moderate evidence that for 4-part fractures, shoulder function is not better with hemiarthroplasty than with nonoperative treatment. 1 of the trials provided limited evidence that health-related quality of life may be better at 2-year follow-up after hemiarthroplasty. There is a high risk of complications after operative treatment. PMID:25574643

  10. Sequential Proximal Tibial Stress Fractures associated with Prolonged usage of Methotrexate and Corticosteroids: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan TJL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress fractures of the proximal tibia metaphysis are rare in the elderly. We present a case of a 65-year old male who developed sequential proximal tibia stress fractures associated with prolonged usage of methotrexate and prednisolone within a span of 18 months. Magnetic Resonance Imaging revealed an incomplete stress fracture involving the medial proximal tibial region. The patient was treated with stemmed total knee arthroplasty (TKA bilaterally. Stress fractures should be considered in patients with atypical knee pain who have a history of methotrexate and prednisolone usage. TKA is an effective treatment in stress fractures of the proximal tibia.

  11. Influence of Early Bisphosphonate Administration for Fracture Healing in Patients with Osteoporotic Proximal Humerus Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Joong-Bae; Yoo, Jae-Sung; Ryu, Jee-Won; Yu, Kun-Woong

    2016-12-01

    Bisphosphonates are generally known to adversely affect fracture healing because they inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption. However, some authors argue that bisphosphonates have no adverse effect on the restoration of the mechanical integrity of long bones after fractures. It is unclear whether bisphosphonates can be initiated safely in patients with acute proximal humerus fractures. The aim of this study was to determine whether the early use of a bisphosphonate affects healing and outcomes of osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures treated with a locking compression plate. Between August 2004 and June 2013, a total of 82 osteoporotic patients who underwent locking plate fixation of proximal humerus fractures were enrolled retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to the timing of the commencement of treatment with alendronate after surgery: group A (n = 34, initiation of the bisphosphonate treatment within two weeks after surgery) and group B (n = 48, control group, initiation of the treatment three months after surgery). Patients were assessed for radiographic union at 2, 6, 10, and 16 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Clinical assessments were performed using the Constant score and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score at 1 year after surgery. No significant differences were observed between the two groups with respect to radiographic and clinical outcomes after locking plate fixation. All patients obtained fracture union, and the mean time to radiographic union was similar in group A and group B (6.3 and 6.6 weeks, respectively; p = 0.67). This study shows that the early initiation of bisphosphonate treatment does not affect bone union or clinical outcomes in patients with an osteoporotic proximal humerus fracture treated by locking compression plate fixation.

  12. Radiographic and Computed Tomographic Configuration of Incomplete Proximal Fractures of the Proximal Phalanx in Horses Not Used for Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brünisholz, Hervé P; Hagen, Regine; Fürst, Anton E; Kuemmerle, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    To characterize the configuration of incomplete proximal fractures of the proximal phalanx (P1) in horses not used for racing and compare radiographic with computed tomography (CT) findings. Historical cohort. Twenty-four horses with incomplete fractures of P1. Medical records of horses not used for racing diagnosed with an incomplete proximal fracture of P1 based on clinical and radiographic examination and confirmed by CT between 2008 and 2013 were retrieved. Radiographs and CT studies of these horses were analyzed using a subjective grading system and by measuring variables that characterized fracture configuration. Twenty-four horses were included (20 Warmbloods) with a mean age of 9.5 years and mean body weight of 574 kg. Fourteen forelimbs and 10 hind limbs were affected. Mean duration of lameness was 8.7 weeks. Computed tomography was superior to radiography in both identifying the fracture and determining fracture size and location. On CT, 92% of fractures were located in the mid-sagittal plane. Mean proximodistal length of the fracture was 13 mm. Fractures were frequently not bicortical. Fractures in forelimbs were located significantly more dorsally than fractures in hind limbs. A distinct fracture pattern with 2 subchondral lines running parallel in close proximity to each other was identified in 54% of cases. Incomplete proximal fractures of P1 have significant variation in their configurations, especially their dorsopalmar/-plantar location. Computed tomography examination allowed clear identification of the fracture configurations and was superior to radiography. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  13. Chip Fracture of the Proximal Phalanx in Hard Working Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Semieka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in six mature hard working donkeys of both sexes. They were selected from the clinical cases admitted to the Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital, Assiut University during the period of 2007-2010. These animals suffering from chip fracture of the proximal phalanx. Diagnoses of the cases were depending on history, clinical examination and radiographic description. Surgical removal of the bone fragment was performed in all cases. Follow up of the cases revealed satisfactory results without any postoperative complications.

  14. Immediate weight-bearing after osteosynthesis of proximal tibial fractures may be allowed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, Karl Tobias; Palm, Henrik; Holck, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Immediate weight-bearing following osteosynthesis of proximal tibial fractures is traditionally not allowed due to fear of articular fracture collapse. Anatomically shaped locking plates with sub-articular screws could improve stability and allow greater loading forces. The purpose of this study...... was to investigate if immediate weight-bearing can be allowed following locking plate osteosynthesis of proximal tibial fractures....

  15. Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoll, Helen H G; Brorson, Stig

    2015-11-11

    Fracture of the proximal humerus, often termed shoulder fracture, is a common injury in older people. The management of these fractures varies widely. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2001 and last updated in 2012. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of treatment and rehabilitation interventions for proximal humeral fractures in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other databases, conference proceedings and bibliographies of trial reports. The full search ended in November 2014. We considered all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised controlled trials pertinent to the management of proximal humeral fractures in adults. Both review authors performed independent study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. Only limited meta-analysis was performed. We included 31 heterogeneous RCTs (1941 participants). Most of the 18 separate treatment comparisons were tested by small single-centre trials. The main exception was the surgical versus non-surgical treatment comparison tested by eight trials. Except for a large multicentre trial, bias in these trials could not be ruled out. The quality of the evidence was either low or very low for all comparisons except the largest comparison.Nine trials evaluated non-surgical treatment in mainly minimally displaced fractures. Four trials compared early (usually one week) versus delayed (three or four weeks) mobilisation after fracture but only limited pooling was possible and most of the data were from one trial (86 participants). This found some evidence that early mobilisation resulted in better recovery and less pain in people with mainly minimally displaced fractures. There was evidence of little difference between the two groups in shoulder complications (2/127 early mobilisation versus 3/132 delayed mobilisation; 4 trials) and

  16. Techniques for siding manual phalanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M

    2009-12-15

    Identifying the anatomical origin of skeletal elements is a basic and important part of a forensic anthropological investigation, but techniques for determining the side and ray of the phalanges are conspicuously scarce in the physical anthropology literature. Features of particular phalanges are important to aspects of archaeological and paleoanthropological studies, as well as for identification and trauma analysis in forensic cases. Correct siding of phalanges may therefore be quite critical in certain contexts. This study evaluates several siding techniques previously developed and/or described in a recent study by Case and Heilman (2000). Unlike in their study where observers were provided all phalange positional information except for side, observations in this study were undertaken with no positional information provided thus making the examinations more similar to those performed in a forensic context. Tests of phalange siding techniques were carried out on two skeletal samples: the Terry Collection at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History where the ray and side of phalanges are documented and phalange collections are often complete, and the Bass Collection at the University of Tennessee where phalange positional information is undocumented and where phalange collections are seldom complete. The features described by Case and Heilman were found to work quite well. In the documented (Terry) sample, there was a high rate of correct siding, up to 100% for several phalanges. In the undocumented (Bass) sample, the features could be used to side the phalanges to a reasonable degree of certainty, and certainty increased when both sides of a particular phalange were present. Finally, several other useful siding and ray identification features were identified.

  17. A method for designing plates in treatments of proximal humeral fracture and distal radial fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to quickly design fixation plates for fractured proximal humerus and distal radius according to the requirements of surgical treatment. Therefore, a new method to quickly design cloverleaf plate appropriate for proximal humerus and volar plate appropriate for distal radius is put forward. First, three-dimensional (3D reconstruction models of fractured proximal humerus and distal radius were generated based on deforming mean parametric models of proximal humerus and distal radius, respectively. Second, based on region-of-interest marked on the 3D reconstruction model of proximal humerus and distal radius, abutted surfaces of cloverleaf plate and volar plate were established, respectively. Then, parametric abutted surface was established after setting rational parameters for the surface of the cloverleaf plate. Parametric abutted surface of volar plate was established using the same method. Finally, parametric cloverleaf plate and volar plate are generated through thickening their respective parametric abutted surfaces. The parametric plates, acting as templates, accelerate and simplify the design process and therefore allow users to construct plate with editing valid parameters easily. Group of cloverleaf plates and volar plates with different sizes were generated quickly, showing that the proposed method is feasible and effective.

  18. The Adequacy of Diagnosis and Treatment for Osteoporosis in Patients with Proximal Humeral Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae In; Choi, Jun Ha; Kim, Sae Hoon; Oh, Joo Han

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether physicians' practice was adequate for the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with proximal humeral fracture over the age of 50 years, which is one of major osteoporotic fractures. A retrospective nation-wide cohort study was performed using data collected in 2010 by the Korean Health Insurance Review Agency. The incidences of fractures around the hip, spine, and proximal humerus in patients more than 50 years of age, the frequencies of diagnostic bone density scan for osteoporosis, and the prescription for the osteoporosis medication were analyzed and compared. A search of database identified 48,351 hip fractures, 141,208 spine fractures, and 11,609 proximal humeral fractures in patients more than 50 years of age in 2010. Among these patients, 12,097 (25.0%) of hip fractures, 41,962 (29.7%) of spine fractures, and 1,458 (12.6%) of proximal humeral fractures underwent diagnostic bone density scan (p fractures, 27,261 (19.3%) of spine fractures, and 639 (5.5%) of proximal humeral fractures were managed with at least one medication approved for the treatment of osteoporosis (p fractures, 7,271 (5.2%) of spine fractures, and 188 (1.6%) of proximal humeral fractures received diagnostic bone density scans as well as osteoporosis medications (p proximal humeral fractures over the age of 50 years. Additional study and educational programs are necessary to improve this care gap, beginning with physicians who are responsible for the fracture treatment and shoulder diseases.

  19. Missed posterior shoulder dislocation with malunited proximal humerus fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sunil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Posterior dislocation of the shoulder may be missed or neglected at initial presentation especially in developing countries. We present a case of 40-year-old In- dian man who had 3-month missed posterior dislocation of the right shoulder along with malunited fracture of the ana- tomical neck of the humerus. Open reduction and stabiliza- tion with modified McLaughlin procedure was performed. Rotational osteotomy of proximal humerus had to be per- formed as supplementary procedure to keep the humeral head stable in glenoid cavity during functional range of movements. The patient had excellent result of the shoulder at 3 years follow-up. Key words: Shoulder dislocation; Humerus; Osteotomy

  20. Locking plate versus nonsurgical treatment for proximal humeral fractures: better midterm outcome with nonsurgical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, R.J.; Thissen, L.G.; Teepen, J.C.; Kampen, A. van; Jaarsma, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since its introduction, there has been controversy about the use of locking plates in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. Have they really improved the functional outcome after a proximal humeral fracture or should nonsurgical treatment have a more prominent role? In order to

  1. Pathological phalanges in a camarasaurid sauropod dinosaur and implications on behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Tschopp

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Several types of pathological bony overgrowth are known from various dinosaur taxa but, except for stress fractures, are rarely reported from appendicular elements. Herein we describe pathological manual and pedal phalanges of a camarasaurid sauropod (SMA 0002, which show features rarely recognised in non-avian dinosaurs. They include lateral osteophytes and smoothing of phalangeal articular surfaces, a deep pit, proximal enthesophytes in pedal unguals, distal overgrowth associated with a fracture, and a knob-like overgrowth lateral to the distal condyles of a pedal phalanx. Their causes were assessed by means of visual examination, CT scans, and bone histology, where possible. The lateral osteophytes are interpreted as symptoms of osteoarthritis. The ossified tendon insertions in the unguals are most probably the result of prolonged, heavy use of the pedal claws, possibly for scratchdigging. The distal overgrowth is interpreted to have developed due to changed stress regimes, and to be the cause for the fracture. The deep pit represents most likely a case of osteochondrosis, whereas the knob-like overgrowth likely represents a post-traumatic phenomenon not previously reported in dinosaurs. The study confirms that a rigorous assessment of pathologies can yield information about behaviour in long-extinct animals.

  2. Physical therapy in the postoperative of proximal femur fracture in elderly. Literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro,Mariana Barquet; Alves,Débora Pinheiro Lédio; Mercadante, Marcelo Tomanik

    2013-01-01

    The proximal femoral fracture in the elderly is a serious public health problem. Surgical treatment of this fracture is used to reduce morbidity, together with postoperative physical therapy. The objective was to conduct a systematic review of physical therapy protocols in postoperative for fractures of the proximal femur in elderly. We selected randomized controlled trials in elderly in the past 10 years, in Portuguese and English. There were 14 articles in the literature. Physical therapy h...

  3. The Adequacy of Diagnosis and Treatment for Osteoporosis in Patients with Proximal Humeral Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae In; Choi, Jun Ha; Kim, Sae Hoon; Oh, Joo Han

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether physicians' practice was adequate for the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with proximal humeral fracture over the age of 50 years, which is one of major osteoporotic fractures. Methods A retrospective nation-wide cohort study was performed using data collected in 2010 by the Korean Health Insurance Review Agency. The incidences of fractures around the hip, spine, and proximal humerus in patients more than 50 year...

  4. The mechanical benefit of medial support screws in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Zeng, Langqing; Liu, Yanjie; Pan, Yao; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Changqing; Zeng, Bingfang; Chen, Yunfeng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical advantages of medial support screws (MSSs) in the locking proximal humeral plate for treating proximal humerus fractures. Thirty synthetic left humeri were randomly divided into 3 subgroups to establish two-part surgical neck fracture models of proximal humerus. All fractures were fixed with a locking proximal humerus plate. Group A was fixed with medial cortical support and no MSSs; Group B was fixed with 3 MSSs but without medial cortical support; Group C was fixed with neither medial cortical support nor MSSs. Axial compression, torsional stiffness, shear stiffness, and failure tests were performed. Constructs with medial support from cortical bone showed statistically higher axial and shear stiffness than other subgroups examined (Pproximal humerus was not supported by medial cortical bone, locking plating with medial support screws exhibited higher axial and torsional stiffness than locking plating without medial support screws (P ≤ 0.0207). Specimens with medial cortical bone failed primarily by fracture of the humeral shaft or humeral head. Specimens without medial cortical bone support failed primarily by significant plate bending at the fracture site followed by humeral head collapse or humeral head fracture. Anatomic reduction with medial cortical support was the stiffest construct after a simulated two-part fracture. Significant biomechanical benefits of MSSs in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures were identified. The reconstruction of the medial column support for proximal humerus fractures helps to enhance mechanical stability of the humeral head and prevent implant failure.

  5. Training improves agreement among doctors using the Neer system for proximal humeral fractures in a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review studies of observer agreement among doctors classifying proximal humeral fractures according to the Neer system. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A systematic review. We searched for observational studies in which doctors classified proximal humeral fractures according...

  6. Trends in epidemiology and patho-anatomical pattern of proximal humeral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrs, Christian; Stojicevic, Tanja; Tanja, Stojicevic

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Proximal humeral fractures are common and frequently associated with osteoporosis. Little is known about the association between the patho-anatomical fracture pattern of proximal humeral fractures and patient characteristics. The purpose of this six year longitudinal registry analysis...... of proximal humeral fractures was to study overall numbers, certain predefined pathoanatomical patterns and distribution compared with specific patient characteristics. METHODS: Data of patients treated between 2006 and 2011 in a country hospital that provides care >95 % of the city's hospitalised patients...... hundred and fifteen proximal humeral fractures (67% women/33% men; mean age 66 years, range 19-99) were analysed. During the study period, an overall increase of 42.5% was found: according to AO classification, 46% were type A, 22% type B and 32% type C. Based on the Neer classification, 86% were...

  7. [Clinical efficacies of different internal fixation materials in the treatment of senile proximal humerus fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junchuan; Di, Jun; Zhao, Changping; Yao, Shuangquan; Zhu, Lian; Wang, Bo; Ren, Dong

    2014-12-23

    To explore the clinical efficacies of different internal fixation materials in the treatment of senile proximal humerus fractures. A total of 284 hospitalized patients of proximal humerus fractures over 60 years of age cases from October 2009 to February 2012 were randomly divided into two groups of locking proximal humeral plate (LPHP) and PHILOS (n = 142 each). And the clinical efficacies of two groups were compared. For PHILOS and LPHP groups, the fracture healing periods were (11.64 ± 3.81) and (14.95 ± 3.95) weeks. And there was statistical significance (P 0.05). Both PHILOS and LPHP are effective in the treatment of senile proximal humeral fractures.However, the former is conducive to fracture healing and has shorter healing time and lowered postoperative pain.

  8. Axillary Artery Injury Associated with Proximal Humerus Fracture: A Report of 6 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinne M. Peters

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal humerus fractures are common, but associated injury of the axillary artery is uncommon. The majority of published blunt traumatic axillary artery injuries are associated with anterior glenohumeral dislocation; a few are associated with isolated proximal humerus fractures or fracture-dislocation. Experience within our institution demonstrates that axillary artery injury is often unrecognized on initial presentation owing to palpable peripheral pulses and the absence of ischemia and places the hand at risk of necrosis and amputation if there is prolonged ischemia and the forearm at risk of compartment syndrome after revascularization. Accurate physical examination in combination with a low threshold for Doppler examination or angiography can establish the diagnosis of axillary artery injury. We present 6 cases of axillary artery injury associated with proximal humerus fractures in order to highlight the potential for this vascular injury in the setting of a proximal humerus fracture.

  9. Proximal femoral periprosthetic fracture fixation with a hooked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The advent and increasing use of joint replacement for various pathologies has led to a new group of fractures- the periprosthetic fractures. The hip joint is no exception to this group, a fair share of these fractures do occur around the hip joint. The management of these fractures is complex and usually needs application of ...

  10. The rate of hip osteoarthritis in patients with proximal femoral fractures versus hip contusion

    OpenAIRE

    Robstad, B.; Frihagen, F.; Nordsletten, L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary We found no difference in the rate of radiological hip osteoarthritis in the injured hip when comparing 349 patients with proximal femoral fractures and 112 patients with hip contusion. There was, however, a tendency for more osteoarthritis in patients with trochanteric fractures than in patients with femoral neck fractures. Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporotic fractures are two age-related disorders associated with considerable morbidity. There is a clinical impression o...

  11. Management of proximal humeral fractures in the nineteenth century: an historical review of preradiographic sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of fractures of the proximal humerus have troubled patients and medical practitioners since antiquity. Preradiographic diagnosis relied on surface anatomy, pain localization, crepitus, and impaired function. During the nineteenth century, a more thorough understanding ...... of the pathoanatomy and pathophysiology of proximal humeral fractures was obtained, and new methods of reduction and bandaging were developed.......The diagnosis and treatment of fractures of the proximal humerus have troubled patients and medical practitioners since antiquity. Preradiographic diagnosis relied on surface anatomy, pain localization, crepitus, and impaired function. During the nineteenth century, a more thorough understanding...

  12. Surgical Management of 3 and 4-Part Proximal Humerus Fractures with Locking Plates in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Kovalak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Proximal humeral fractures are approximately 5% of all fractures and, %15-20 is displaced and unstable. By the introduction of locking plates there used to be a substantial rise in the osteosynthesis of the 3 and 4-part proximal humeral fractures. But there is still a lack of consensus for the optimal treatment of these complex fractures. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the functional outcomes and prognostic factors of 3 and 4-part proximal humerus fractures treated with locking plate osteosynthesis in elderly. Material and Method: 53 patients with displaced 3 and 4-part proximal humeral fractures treated with locking plate osteosynthesis between 2010 and 2015 were included. The fractures were classified according to Neer classification system. Outcomes were assessed by Constant-Murley scoring system (CMS, visual analog pain scale and plain radiographs. In reference to range of motion, forward elevation and abduction of the arm were measured.Results: No statistically significant differences found between the 3- part and 4- part fractures in CMS, forward elevation and, abduction (p>0.05. Pain was significantly higher in 4-part fractures (p=0.035. CMS, forward elevation, and abduction were inversely correlated with age and delay in surgery. There was statistical significance between the patients had complications and those not in terms of CMS, forward elevation and, abduction (p=0.029, p=0.017 and p=0.024. Discussion: Functional outcomes of locking plate fixation of proximal humerus fractures are associated with patient related factors, fracture pattern, surgeon and, the implant. When indications are carefully selected, locking plate osteosynthesis yield good outcomes in surgical treatment of 3 or 4-part proximal humerus fractures.

  13. The reliability and reproducibility of the Hertel classification for comminuted proximal humeral fractures compared with the Neer classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iordens, Gijs I. T.; Mahabier, Kiran C.; Buisman, Florian E.; Schep, Niels W. L.; Muradin, Galied S. R.; Beenen, Ludo F. M.; Patka, Peter; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; den Hartog, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The Neer classification is the most commonly used fracture classification system for proximal humeral fractures. Inter- and intra-observer agreement is limited, especially for comminuted fractures. A possibly more straightforward and reliable classification system is the Hertel classification. The

  14. The reliability and reproducibility of the Hertel classification for comminuted proximal humeral fractures compared with the Neer classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I.T. Iordens (Gijs); K.C. Mahabier (Kiran); F.E. Buisman (Florian); N.W.L. Schep (Niels); G.S. Muradin (Galied); L.F.M. Beenen (Ludo); P. Patka (Peter); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); D. den Hartog (Dennis)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract_Introduction_ The Neer classification is the most commonly used fracture classification system for proximal humeral fractures. Inter- and intra-observer agreement is limited, especially for comminuted fractures. A possibly more straightforward and reliable classification system is

  15. Inter- and intraobserver reliability of the MTM-classification for proximal humeral fractures: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrs, Christian; Schmal, Hagen; Lingenfelter, Erich; Rolauffs, Bernd; Weise, Kuno; Dietz, Klaus; Helwig, Peter

    2008-02-17

    A precise modular topographic-morphological (MTM) classification for proximal humeral fractures may address current classification problems. The classification was developed to evaluate whether a very detailed classification exceeding the analysis of fractured parts may be a valuable tool. Three observers classified plain radiographs of 22 fractures using both a simple version (fracture displacement, number of parts) and an extensive version (individual topographic fracture type and morphology) of the MTM classification. Kappa-statistics were used to determine reliability. An acceptable reliability was found for the simple version classifying fracture displacement and fractured main parts. Fair interobserver agreement was found for the extensive version with individual topographic fracture type and morphology. Although the MTM-classification covers a wide spectrum of fracture types, our results indicate that the precise topographic and morphological description is not delivering reproducible results. Therefore, simplicity in fracture classification may be more useful than extensive approaches, which are not adequately reliable to address current classification problems.

  16. [Fractures of the proximal interphalangeal joint: Diagnostic and operative therapy options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unglaub, F; Langer, M F; Hahn, P; Müller, L P; Ahrens, C; Spies, C K

    2016-02-01

    Joint fractures of the fingers often entail operative interventions in contrast to extra-articular fractures. These types of fracture are inclined to dislocate in addition to the actual fracture. The proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in particular often shows comminuted fractures due to the long leverage of the finger and a relatively small diameter of the joint. The clinical examination, X-ray diagnostics and if necessary computed tomography allow the classification into stable and unstable fractures. Unstable fractures must be treated by surgical reduction and fixation. A multitude of operative techniques are available for these mostly complicated fractures. The foremost goal is a stable osteosynthesis of the fracture with repositioning of the dislocation, which enables early physiotherapy in order to prevent tendon adhesion and contracture. This article presents the different types of PIP joint fractures, their specific surgical treatment and postoperative treatment regimens.

  17. The Bristol Hip View: Its Role in the Diagnosis and Surgical Planning and Occult Fracture Diagnosis for Proximal Femoral Fractures

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    J. Harding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate whether a modified radiographic view of the femoral neck improves the diagnosis of occult proximal femoral. Materials and Methods. Prospective study of patients presenting with clinically suspected proximal femoral fractures or who underwent traditional plain radiographic views and the Bristol hip view (a 30-degree angled projection. Six blinded independent observers assessed the images for presence of a fracture, anatomical level, and displacement. Results. 166 consecutive patients presenting with the clinical diagnosis of a proximal femoral fracture, of which 61 sustained a fracture. Six of these were deemed occult due to negative plain and had proven fractures on subsequent cross-sectional imaging. The Bristol hip view demonstrated five of these six fractures. It performed better than the traditional lateral hip view to identify the injury. The Bristol hip view predicted correctly the fracture type and displacement in all cases and missed only one of the occult fractures. Conclusion. The Bristol hip view is more sensitive and clearer than a lateral projection for patients. It adds useful diagnostic information and performs better than the traditional views in occult fractures. Its use may prevent the need for further cross sectional imaging and subsequent surgical delay.

  18. A scale-space curvature matching algorithm for the reconstruction of complex proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Lazaros; Székely, Gábor; Gerber, Christian; Fürnstahl, Philipp

    2018-01-01

    The optimal surgical treatment of complex fractures of the proximal humerus is controversial. It is proven that best results are obtained if an anatomical reduction of the fragments is achieved and, therefore, computer-assisted methods have been proposed for the reconstruction of the fractures. However, complex fractures of the proximal humerus are commonly accompanied with a relevant displacement of the fragments and, therefore, algorithms relying on the initial position of the fragments might fail. The state-of-the-art algorithm for complex fractures of the proximal humerus requires the acquisition of a CT scan of the (healthy) contralateral anatomy as a reconstruction template to address the displacement of the fragments. Pose-invariant fracture line based reconstruction algorithms have been applied successful for reassembling broken vessels in archaeology. Nevertheless, the extraction of the fracture lines and the necessary computation of their curvature are susceptible to noise and make the application of previous approaches difficult or even impossible for bone fractures close to the joints, where the cortical layer is thin. We present a novel scale-space representation of the curvature, permitting to calculate the correct alignment between bone fragments solely based on corresponding regions of the fracture lines. The fractures of the proximal humerus are automatically reconstructed based on iterative pairwise reduction of the fragments. The validation of the presented method was performed on twelve clinical cases, surgically treated after complex proximal humeral fracture, and by cadaver experiments. The accuracy of our approach was compared to the state-of-the-art algorithm for complex fractures of the proximal humerus. All reconstructions of the clinical cases resulted in an accurate approximation of the pre-traumatic anatomy. The accuracy of the reconstructed cadaver cases outperformed the current state-of-the-art algorithm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  19. Unusual proximal femur fracture in children treated with PHILOS plate and review of literature

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    Mukesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractures of the hip are uncommon in children with incidence is less than 1% in all paediatrics fracture. It requires careful attention because of the incidence of complications is high. There is no consensus over ideal treatment of each group, but there are different options for each group has been described in literature, we report a case of unusual proximal femur fracture in ten-year-old girl which is not described in literature in best of our knowledge. A 10 years old girl was brought to us with pain in right hip joint and inability to bear weight on right lower limb after road traffic accident (child was hit by a car while walking on the road. Evaluated and found to have fracture of proximal femur. fracture was fixed with long PHILOS plate, which united in eight weeks duration, implant was removed at 10 month. At present after 14 months, she is able to perform her routine activities comfortably. and her Harris hip score is 95. We propose to add this type of fracture as 5th type of Delbet's classification as the fracture pattern in my patient was not fitting in any group of Delbet's classification and it belongs to proximal femur group and anatomically this fracture pattern was next to type IV fracture. Uncommon fracture of hip in children can be expected, this type of fracture can be added as 5th type in Delbet's classification. Long term outcome and ideal treatment yet to be described.

  20. Surgeons agree more on treatment recommendations than on classification of proximal humeral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Frich, Lars Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons disagree considerably when classifying fractures of the proximal humerus. However, the clinical implications of low observer agreement remain unclear. The purpose of the study was to compare the agreement on Neer classification with the agreement on treatment recommendations....

  1. The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for proximal humeral fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, M.G.; Jayakumar, P.; King, J.D.; Guitton, T.G.; Doornberg, J.N.; Ring, D.; Poelhekke, L.M.S.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for fractures of the proximal humerus are debated. We hypothesized that there is no difference in treatment recommendations between surgeons shown radiographs alone and those shown radiographs and patient information.

  2. Locking plate osteosynthesis in displaced 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Frich, Lars H; Winther, Annika

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable uncertainty about the optimal treatment of displaced 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Within the last decade, locking plate technology has been considered a breakthrough in the treatment of these complex injuries.......There is considerable uncertainty about the optimal treatment of displaced 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Within the last decade, locking plate technology has been considered a breakthrough in the treatment of these complex injuries....

  3. The mechanical benefit of medial support screws in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures.

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    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical advantages of medial support screws (MSSs in the locking proximal humeral plate for treating proximal humerus fractures. METHODS: Thirty synthetic left humeri were randomly divided into 3 subgroups to establish two-part surgical neck fracture models of proximal humerus. All fractures were fixed with a locking proximal humerus plate. Group A was fixed with medial cortical support and no MSSs; Group B was fixed with 3 MSSs but without medial cortical support; Group C was fixed with neither medial cortical support nor MSSs. Axial compression, torsional stiffness, shear stiffness, and failure tests were performed. RESULTS: Constructs with medial support from cortical bone showed statistically higher axial and shear stiffness than other subgroups examined (P<0.0001. When the proximal humerus was not supported by medial cortical bone, locking plating with medial support screws exhibited higher axial and torsional stiffness than locking plating without medial support screws (P ≤ 0.0207. Specimens with medial cortical bone failed primarily by fracture of the humeral shaft or humeral head. Specimens without medial cortical bone support failed primarily by significant plate bending at the fracture site followed by humeral head collapse or humeral head fracture. CONCLUSIONS: Anatomic reduction with medial cortical support was the stiffest construct after a simulated two-part fracture. Significant biomechanical benefits of MSSs in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures were identified. The reconstruction of the medial column support for proximal humerus fractures helps to enhance mechanical stability of the humeral head and prevent implant failure.

  4. Double line sign: a helpful sonographic sign to detect occult fractures of the proximal humerus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.C.M.; Jager, G.J.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Blickman, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a new sonographic sign of bone fracture and to determine if it can be helpful in decreasing the number of missed fractures of the proximal humerus. Ultrasound (US) of the shoulder was performed in 57 consecutive patients with shoulder pain and/or disability

  5. Controversies in the intramedullary nailing of proximal and distal tibia fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejwani, Nirmal; Polonet, David; Wolinsky, Philip R

    2014-10-01

    Management of tibia fractures by internal fixation, particularly intramedullary nails, has become the standard for diaphyseal fractures. However, for metaphyseal fractures or those at the metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction, choice of fixation device and technique is controversial. For distal tibia fractures, nailing and plating techniques may be used, the primary goal of each being to achieve acceptable alignment with minimal complications. Different techniques for reduction of these fractures are available and can be applied with either fixation device. Overall outcomes appear to be nearly equivalent, with minor differences in complications. Proximal tibia fractures can be fixed using nailing, which is associated with deformity of the proximal short segment. A newer technique-suprapatellar nailing-may minimize these problems, and use of this method has been increasing in trauma centers. However, most of the data are still largely based on case series. Copyright 2014 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

  6. Open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures with use of the locking proximal humerus plate. Surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, G; Bayer, J; Hepp, P; Voigt, C; Oestern, H; Kääb, M; Luo, C; Plecko, M; Wendt, K; Köstler, W; Südkamp, N

    2010-03-01

    The treatment of unstable displaced proximal humeral fractures, especially in the elderly, remains controversial. The objective of the present prospective, multicenter, observational study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the complication rate after open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures with use of a locking proximal humeral plate. One hundred and eighty-seven patients (mean age, 62.9 +/- 15.7 years) with an acute proximal humeral fracture were managed with open reduction and internal fixation with a locking proximal humeral plate. At the three-month, six month,and one-year follow-up examinations, 165 (88%), 158 (84%), and 155 (83%) of the 187 patients were assessed with regard to pain, shoulder mobility, and strength. The Constant score was determined at each interval, and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score was determined for the injured and contralateral extremities at the time of the one-year follow-up. Between three months and one year, the mean range of motion and the mean Constant score for the injured shoulders improved substantially. Twelve months after surgery, the mean Constant score for the injured side was 70.6 +/- 13.7 points, corresponding to 85.1% +/- 14.0% of the score for the contralateral side. The mean DASH score at the time of the one-year follow-up was 15.2 +/- 16.8 points. Sixty-two complications were encountered in fifty-two (34%) of 155 patients at the time of the one-year follow-up. Twenty-five complications (40%) were related to incorrect surgical technique and were present at the end of the operative procedure. The most common complication, noted in twenty-one (14%) of 155 patients, was intraoperative screw perforation of the humeral head. Twenty-nine patients (19%) had an unplanned second operation within twelve months after the fracture. Surgical treatment of displaced proximal humeral fractures with use of the locking proximal humeral plate that was evaluated in the

  7. Management of the proximal tibia fractures by mini external fixation: A case series of 30 cases

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    Samar K Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of high velocity trauma is a challenging problem because of morbidity of trauma and sometime residual problems of failure of proper healing of fractures with the restriction of movements of knee, shortening, and added risk of compartment syndrome in the proximal tibia fracture. There is always risk of post-operative infection and infected non-union in extensive open surgical procedure and internal fixation. Hence, there is always look out for the middle path procedure for a solution to the above said problems with the added advantage of less hospital stay and early return to work by minimal invasive procedure and stabilization of fracture reduction by multiple K-wire fixation with a frame applied externally. Stabilization of fracture with reduced pain allows early movements of neighbouring joint knee and ankle; hence, reduces the chances of fracture diseases. With this we have been stimulated to take-up the study of managing the proximal tibia fracture by mini external fixator. Aim: The aim of this study was to manage proximal tibia fractures by mini external fixator and evaluate the results and efficacy of this method. Material and Method: A total of 30 patients having proximal tibial fractures admitted at our center between 2008 and 2010 were taken and the procedure carried out was closed manipulative reduction and stabilization with mini external fixator. All acute proximal tibia fractures including tibial plateau fractures above 17 years of age of either sex were included in the study. Fracture more than 3 weeks old were excluded from the study. Result: Out of 30 cases 13 were excellent, 14 cases good, and 3 showed fair. It was found that type 5 and 6 of Schatzker′s classification have lesser outcome type of fractures Conclusion: We have found that management of the proximal tibia fractures by mini external fixation method has a better outcome. Early mobilization of knee in the proximal tibia fractures after

  8. Fractures in the proximal humerus: functional outcome and evaluation of 70 patients treated in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjalestad, Tore; Strømsøe, Knut; Blücher, Judith; Tennøe, Bjørn

    2005-06-01

    Patients with proximal humeral fractures are mostly elderly. In addition to the proximal humeral fracture, they often have other injuries related to poor bone quality. The surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients with comminuted fractures is associated with several problems and a high frequency of complications. The aims of this study were to evaluate patients with a proximal humeral fracture treated in a hospital, assess the outcome of the fracture treatment, and decide whether surgical treatment of displaced proximal humeral fractures is superior to conservative treatment or not. Patients with fractures of the proximal part of the humerus treated in our hospital were followed during two different periods (14 and 10 months). The study in the first time period was retrospective in design, while in the second period the patients were followed prospectively. Seventy patients, (71% women) with a mean age of 71 years, were included in the study. A functional test was performed within 12-14 months after the injury using a modified Rowe shoulder score. Surgical treatment was performed in 15 patients (21%). Neither the surgical approach nor the implants used for osteosynthesis were standardized. Fifty-five patients (79%) were treated conservatively with a modified Velpeau bandage or a sling. The fractures were classified according to AO into type A (27%), type B (58%) and type C (14%). Osteoporotic risk factors were present in many of the patients, mainly characterized by other skeletal injuries than the proximal humeral fracture (43%). In the group of complex, displaced, non-impacted fractures B2, B3, C2, C3 included (20 fractures), the group treated conservatively had a mean Rowe score of 48/75 (64% of maximum score) and SD 16.8, while in the surgically treated group the mean score was 28/75 (38% of maximum score) and SD 8.1. The difference between the two treatments was significant, with a p-value of 0.01 in favour of the conservatively

  9. Inter- and intraobserver reliability of the MTM-classification for proximal humeral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrs, Christian; Schmal, Hagen; Lingenfelter, Erich

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A precise modular topographic-morphological (MTM) classification for proximal humeral fractures may address current classification problems. The classification was developed to evaluate whether a very detailed classification exceeding the analysis of fractured parts may be a valuable...... tool. METHODS: Three observers classified plain radiographs of 22 fractures using both a simple version (fracture displacement, number of parts) and an extensive version (individual topographic fracture type and morphology) of the MTM classification. Kappa-statistics were used to determine reliability....... RESULTS: An acceptable reliability was found for the simple version classifying fracture displacement and fractured main parts. Fair interobserver agreement was found for the extensive version with individual topographic fracture type and morphology. CONCLUSION: Although the MTM-classification covers...

  10. Identify fracture-critical regions inside the proximal femur using statistical parametric mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Kornak, John; Harris, Tamara; Keyak, Joyce; Li, Caixia; Lu, Ying; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Lang, Thomas

    2009-04-01

    We identified regions inside the proximal femur that are most strongly associated with hip fracture. Bone densitometry based on such fracture-critical regions showed improved power in discriminating fracture patients from controls. Hip fractures typically occur in lateral falls, with focal mechanical failure of the sub-volumes of tissue in which the applied stress exceeds the strength. In this study, we describe a new methodology to identify proximal femoral tissue elements with highest association with hip fracture. We hypothesize that bone mineral density (BMD) measured in such sub-volumes discriminates hip fracture risk better than BMD in standard anatomic regions such as the femoral neck and trochanter. We employed inter-subject registration to transform hip QCT images of 37 patients with hip fractures and 38 age-matched controls into a voxel-based statistical atlas. Within voxels, we performed t-tests between the two groups to identify the regions which differed most. We then randomly divided the 75 scans into a training set and a test set. From the training set, we derived a fracture-driven region of interest (ROI) based on association with fracture. In the test set, we measured BMD in this ROI to determine fracture discrimination efficacy using ROC analysis. Additionally, we compared the BMD distribution differences between the 29 patients with neck fractures and the 8 patients with trochanteric fractures. By evaluating fracture discrimination power based on ROC analysis, the fracture-driven ROI had an AUC (area under curve) of 0.92, while anatomic ROIs (including the entire proximal femur, the femoral neck, trochanter and their cortical and trabecular compartments) had AUC values between 0.78 and 0.87. We also observed that the neck fracture patients had lower BMD (p=0.014) in a small region near the femoral neck and the femoral head, and patients with trochanteric fractures had lower BMD in trochanteric regions such as in the internal calcar septum (p=0

  11. A Skeletal Traction Technique for Proximal Femur Fracture Management in an Austere Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidwell, David; Meghoo, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal traction is a useful technique for managing proximal femur fractures in austere environments where fracture stabilization for this injury is difficult. We present a technique and a construct appropriate for field use that facilitates patient evacuation, and we provide guidelines for the use of this technique by an advanced medical provider managing these injuries. The objectives of this article are to enable to reader to (1) recognize the role of skeletal traction in managing proximal femur fractures in an austere environment, (2) identify the key steps in placing transfemoral skeletal traction pins, and (3) identify options and requirements for building a traction construct in resource-limited environments. 2016.

  12. Closed fractures of the proximal tibia treated with a functional brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alberto; Sarmiento, Augusto; Latta, Loren L

    2003-12-01

    It generally is agreed that fractures of the proximal tibia, when treated with intramedullary nails, are more likely to present technical difficulties and to be associated with an increased rate of complications. This study reports on 108 closed fractures located in the proximal third of the tibia that were treated with functional braces. Nonunion occurred in 2.7% of the patients; the final displacement and shortening averaged 20% and 3.5 mm, respectively. Eighty-eight percent of the fractures healed with less than 6 degrees of angular deformity. It seems that functional braces for closed fractures of the tibia, located in its proximal third, are a viable therapeutic approach that offers satisfactory clinical and radiographic results in a high percentage of instances.

  13. Proximal Femoral Fracture in Hip Arthrodesis Treated with Double Reconstruction Plates

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    Shunsuke Asakawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare clinical case of a 90-year-old female who sustained a proximal femoral neck fracture following long-standing hip arthrodesis. Since the fracture occurred relatively proximally and involved the pelvis, double-plate fixation was chosen to achieve rigid fixation. The reconstruction plate was placed at the posterior and anterior columns individually through single vertical incision. She was treated successfully, and she attained preinjury activity level. Proximal femoral fractures in arthrodesed hips need to be recognized as a fracture between the pelvis and femur. Rotational stress from the trunk and lower extremity requires rigid fixation to minimize the increase of displacement and the risk for nonunion.

  14. Interobserver reliability of classification and characterization of proximal humeral fractures: a comparison of two and three-dimensional CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, Wendy E.; Guitton, Thierry G.; Warner, Jon J. P.; Ring, David; Melvanki, Parag; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Crist, Brett D.; Borris, Lars C.; Iyer, Vishwanath M.; Babst, Reto H.; Zura, Robert D.; van der Heide, Huub; Frihagen, Frede; McGraw, Iain; Schwab, Eckart; Thomas, George; Jubel, Axel; Kellam, James; Schmidt, Andrew; Lenzlinger, Philipp; Baumgaertel, Fred; Grosso, Elena; Mormino, Matt; Swiontkowski, Marc; Jeray, Kyle; Beingessner, Daphne; Bijlani, Neeraj; Prayson, Michael; Mica, Ladislav; Sonnabend, David; Drosdowech, Darren; Lopez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Willems, W. Jaap; Walter, Frank; Zalavras, Charalampos; Page, Richard S.; Wright, Thomas; Duncan, Scott; Gosens, Taco; Dyer, George S. M.; Garrigues, Grant; Hernandez, German Ricardo; Greenberg, Jeffrey A.; Dantuluri, Phani; Ortiz, Jose A.; Cassidy, Charles; Castillo, Alberto Pérez; Papandrea, Rick; Kakar, Sanjeev; Kronlage, Steve; Benson, Leon; Adams, Julie; Weiss, Lawrence; Ruggiero, Gustavo Mantovani; Pomerance, Jay; de Bedout, Ramon; Hofmeister, Eric; Richard, Marc J.; Suarez, Fabio; Wyrick, Theresa; Baskies, Michael; Hughes, Thomas; Wilson, Neil; Goslings, J. C.; Navin, Thakkar; Eng, Kevin; Wang, Qiugen; Choudhari, Pradeep; Broekhuyse, Henry; Jenkinson, Richard; Ponsen, K. J.; van Vugt, Arie B.; Elmans, Leon; Rhemrev, Steven J.; Kloen, Peter; Platz, Andreas; Brink, Peter R. G.; Varma, Rajat; Kawaguchi, Alan; Nepola, James V.; DeCoster, Thomas; Smith, Raymond Malcolm; Egol, Kenneth; Conflitti, Joseph M.; Barquet, Antonio; Pesantez, Rodrigo; Park, Jin-Young; Jiang, Chunyan; Richardson, Martin; Hall, Jeremy; Kontakis, George; Eygendaal, Denise; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Duralde, Xavier A.; Williams, Gerald; Endrizzi, Donald; Hattrup, Steven J.; Petersen, Steve; Checchia, Sergio L.; Spruijt, Sander; Fanuele, Jason C.; Baxamusa, Taizoon; Wilson, Chris; Sierra, Francisco Javier Aguilar; Boretto, Jorge; Chivers, Karel; Rubio, Jorge; Schandelmaier, Peter; Marsh, John L.; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Interobserver reliability for the classification of proximal humeral fractures is limited. The aim of this study was to test the null hypothesis that interobserver reliability of the AO classification of proximal humeral fractures, the preferred treatment, and fracture characteristics is the same

  15. Functional outcome of closed fractures of proximal humerus managed by Joshi′s external stabilizing system

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    Anil Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proximal humeral fractures account for 4-5% of all fractures; most of them involving elderly and osteoporotic people. 1 51% of such fractures are displaced. Two Fractures with minimal displacement, regardless of the number of fracture lines, can be treated with closed reduction and early mobilization, but anatomical reduction in displaced fractures is difficult to obtain and the incidence of pseudarthrosis is high 3-5. We evaluated the functional results of closed Neer′s 2- and 3-part proximal humerus fractures treated by Joshi′s external stabilizing system. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients with proximal humeral fractures were managed from 2008 to 2010 by Joshi′s stabilizing external fixation. They were 10 males and 6 females, with a mean age of 57.5 years. Based on Neer′s classification, there were eleven 3-part fractures and five 2-part fractures. The mechanism of injuries included seven road traffic accidents and nine fall. Shoulder mobilization exercises were started within 1 week after stabilization with JESS. External fixation was removed after the evidence of union (6-8 weeks. Pain was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS and shoulder range of motion was evaluated by Constant Scoring System. Followup was done at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks, and then at every 4 weeks. Results: Mean followup was of 20.5 months (range 9-30 months. Postoperative mean VAS score and Constant Score of patients was 2.1 (±0.73 and 78.1 (±9.61 at an average followup of 6 months. Mean duration for union was 6.5 (±1.18 weeks. One case of K-wire loosening and one case of pin tract infection were the complications noted. Conclusion: External fixation by JESS is an alternative option to treat Neer′s 2 and 3 part proximal humerus fractures with good results.

  16. Minimally invasive percutaneous plating of proximal humeral shaft fractures with the Proximal Humerus Internal Locking System (PHILOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Alexander; Thormann, Sebastian; Babst, Reto

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated our results after minimally invasive percutaneous plating of proximal humeral shaft fractures with the Proximal Humerus Internal Locking System (PHILOS, Synthes, Switzerland). Between 2005 and 2008, 15 patients with unilateral displaced proximal humeral shaft fractures were treated and followed up over a median period of 27 months (range, 12-38 months). The final follow-up included anteroposterior and lateral x-rays, range of shoulder motion, pain by visual analog scale (VAS), the Constant-Murley shoulder score, the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Elbow (DASH) score, and the Short Form 36 (SF36) assessment. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. No secondary fracture displacement or radial neuropathy was observed postoperatively. One patient had open reduction and internal fixation for pseudoarthrosis 16 months after the initial surgery. At the final follow-up, the median range of motion of the operated shoulder was flexion, 145°; extension, 45°; internal rotation, 40°; external rotation, 70°; and abduction, 135°. Median results on outcome assessments were VAS pain score, 0 points; Constant-Murley score, 74 points, representing 87.5% of the median Constant-Murley score of the unaffected shoulder; DASH score, 34 points, and the SF36, 83 points. Minimally invasive percutaneous plating with the PHILOS offers a valid option in the treatment of proximal humeral shaft fractures with comparable rates of nonunion and lower rates of radial neuropathy compared with open procedures. Furthermore, the results indicate that this method is associated with lower rates of wound infection and a shorter stay in the hospital for the patient. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON TREATMENT OF PROXIMAL HUMERUS FRACTURES IN ADULTS

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    Bhavani Prasad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment of proximal humerus has been subject of much controversy and confusion with diversity of opinion regarding the care of fractures of proximal end of humerus. The aim of this study was to review the outcome, results and complications of the operat ive procedure in a series of thirty patients. INTRODUCTION: Proximal humerus fractures are one of the commonest fractures occurring in the skeleton. They account for approximately 4 - 5% of the fracture attendance at the hospital . 1,2 They occur more commonly in elderly patients, after cancellous bone of the humeral neck has weakened by senility but these fracture are seen in patients of all ages & merge with epiphyseal separations. The most serious fractures and fracture dislocations are often seen in active, middle aged patients. These fractures can be extremely disabling and their management often demands experienced surgical skills and judgment . 2 Because of increasing incidence of high velocity trauma, complicated fracture pattern in proximal humerus are be coming increasingly common. It has been always engima of management because of numerous muscles attachment and paucity of space for fixing implant in fracture of proximal humerus. Voluminous literature is available on this topic and treatment pattern diffe rs very much. The preferred treatment varies depend on the patient’s age and bone quality, the expertise , surgical team and the patients expectations. Although a number of reports have described the outcome of treatment of proximal humeral fractures, compa rison of these fractures is hampered by inconsistence in fracture classification, treatment and evaluation method. The surgery should be carried out as soon as the patient’s general condition permits. A delay of several days makes reduction more difficult and a significant delay results in absorption of bone, making secure internal fixation impossible . 3 The object of the osteosynthesisis is to reduce the

  18. Subcapital femoral neck fracture after fixation of an intertrochanteric fracture with a proximal femoral nail: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Haruka; Matsuda, Keiji; Kim, Sungon; Maeda, Kouichi; Ikegami, Takashi; Kubota, Reiko; Nagayama, Masataka; Nozawa, Masahiko

    2009-12-01

    Subcapital femoral neck fractures are a rare complication after fixation of an intertrochanteric fracture with a proximal femoral nail. We report 2 such cases where the patients had severe osteoporosis, based on Singh's index and pathological findings. In one case there was a technical error leading to a tip-apex distance of more than 20 mm, but osteoporosis appeared to be a more significant cause than any technical problems.

  19. Elderly with proximal hip fracture present significantly lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D

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    Marcelo Teodoro Ezequiel Guerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To compare serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels, a serum marker of vitamin D3, between patients with and without proximal hip fracture. METHODS: This was a case-control study in which serum samples of 25(OHD were obtained from 110 proximal hip fracture inpatients and 231 control patients without fractures, all over 60 years of age. Levels of 25(OHD lower than or equal to 20 ng/mL were considered deficient; from 21 ng/mL to 29 ng/mL, insufficient; and above 30 ng/mL, sufficient. Sex, age, and ethnicity were considered for association with the study groups and 25(OHD levels. RESULTS: Patients with proximal hip fracture had significantly lower serum 25(OHD levels (21.07 ng/mL than controls (28.59 ng/mL; p = 0.000. Among patients with proximal hip fracture, 54.5% had deficient 25(OHD levels, 27.2% had insufficient levels, and only 18.2% had sufficient levels. In the control group, 30.3% of patients had deficient 25(OHD levels, 30.7% had insufficient levels, and 38.9% had sufficient levels. Female patients had decreased serum 25(OHD levels both in the fracture group and in the control group (19.50 ng/mL vs. 26.94 ng/mL; p = 0.000 when compared with male patients with and without fracture (25.67 ng/mL vs. 33.74 ng/mL; p = 0.017. Regarding age, there was a significant association between 25(OHD levels and risk of fracture only for the age groups 71-75 years and above 80 years. CONCLUSION: Patients with proximal hip fracture had significantly decreased serum 25(OHD levels when compared with the control group. Female patients had significantly lower serum 25(OHD levels in both groups.

  20. The amount of impaction and loss of reduction in osteoporotic proximal humeral fractures after surgical fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, S; Papalia, M

    2016-02-01

    After surgical fixation, osteoporotic proximal humeral fractures often show high impaction and loss of reduction. This study aims at assessing the amount of impaction and loss of reduction at a short and medium follow-up. We found an alarming percentage of cases showing these complications in the first postoperative months. This study seeks to quantify the amount of humeral head impaction and loss of reduction in a consecutive series of osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures treated with a locking plate. A series of displaced proximal humerus fractures were prospectively treated with minimally invasive reduction and ostheosynthesis using a locking plate. Diagnosis and classification of fractures were based on X-ray examination and CT scan. Proximal humerus cortical bone thickness (CBTAVG) was studied to assess osteoporosis. Amount of loss of reduction and head fragment impaction were noted at 3 and 18 months of follow-up. Constant score was calculated at 6 and 18 months of follow-up. Thirty-one osteoporotic fractures were studied. Most of the fractures (21, 67.7 %) had a CBTAVG of less than 4 mm. At 3 months of follow-up, 7 cases (22.5 %) had significant loss of reduction and the mean amount of impaction was 2.8 mm. At 18 months of follow-up, only 1 additional fracture showed loss of reduction and mean impaction was 3 mm (p proximal humerus fractures may present an important impaction and loss of reduction in the first 3 months after surgery even if treated with a rigid device and multiple head screws. Surgeons treating these osteoporotic fractures should be aware of these complications even when using a rigid device.

  1. 'Trampoline fracture' of the proximal tibia in children: report of 3 cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyeer, E; Geusens, E; Catry, F; Vanstraelen, L; Vanhoenacker, F

    2012-01-01

    We present three cases of fracture of the proximal tibia in young children who were jumping on a trampoline. The typical radiological findings and the underlying mechanism of trauma are discussed. The key radiological features are: a transverse hairline fracture of the upper tibia often accompanied by a buckle fracture of the lateral or medial tibial cortex, buckling of the anterior upper tibial cortex and anterior tilting of the epiphyseal plate. New types of injuries related to specific recreational activities are recognized. It is often helpful to associate a typical injury with a particular activity. Trampoline related injuries have increased dramatically over the last years. The most common lesions are fractures and ligamentous injuries, in particular a transverse fracture of the proximal tibia. However the radiological findings can be very subtle and easily overlooked. It is therefore important to be aware of the typical history and radiological findings.

  2. Interpretation of hip fracture patterns using areal bone mineral density in the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Hwee Weng Dennis; Sng, Weizhong Jonathan; Lim, Joel Louis Zongwei; Tan, Chuen Seng; Gan, Alfred Tau Liang; Ng, Jun Han Charles; Kagda, Fareed H Y

    2015-12-01

    Bone mineral density scans are currently interpreted based on an average score of the entire proximal femur. Improvements in technology now allow us to measure bone density in specific regions of the proximal femur. The study attempts to explain the pathophysiology of neck of femur (NOF) and intertrochanteric/basi-cervical (IT) fractures by correlating areal BMD (aBMD) scores with fracture patterns, and explore possible predictors for these fracture patterns. This is a single institution retrospective study on all patients who underwent hip surgeries from June 2010 to August 2012. A total of 106 patients (44 IT/basi-cervical, 62 NOF fractures) were studied. The data retrieved include patient characteristics and aBMD scores measured at different regions of the contralateral hip within 1 month of the injury. Demographic and clinical characteristic differences between IT and NOF fractures were analyzed using Fisher's Exact test and two-sample t test. Relationship between aBMD scores and fracture patterns was assessed using multivariable regression modeling. After adjusted multivariable analysis, T-Troc and T-inter scores were significantly lower in intertrochanteric/basi-cervical fractures compared to neck of femur fractures (P = 0.022 and P = 0.026, respectively). Both intertrochanteric/basi-cervical fractures (mean T.Tot -1.99) and neck of femur fractures (mean T.Tot -1.64) were not found to be associated with a mean T.tot less than -2.5. However, the mean aBMD scores were consistently less than -2.5 for both intertrochanteric/basi-cervical fractures and neck of femur fractures. Gender and calcium intake at the time of injury were associated with specific hip fracture patterns (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). Hip fracture patterns following low energy trauma may be influenced by the pattern of reduced bone density in different areas of the hip. Intertrochanteric/basi-cervical fractures were associated with significantly lower T-Troc and T-Inter scores

  3. Risk factors for proximal sesamoid bone fractures associated with exercise history and horseshoe characteristics in Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthenill, Lucy A; Stover, Susan M; Gardner, Ian A; Hill, Ashley E

    2007-07-01

    To assess individual and combined associations of high-speed exercise and horseshoe characteristics with risk of forelimb proximal sesamoid bone fractures and proximal sesamoid bone midbody fractures in Thoroughbred racehorses. 269 deceased Thoroughbred racehorses. A case-control study design was used to compare 121 horses with a fracture of at least 1 of 4 forelimb proximal sesamoid bones (75 horses had a midbody fracture) and 148 horses without a forelimb proximal sesamoid bone fracture. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate potential risk factors for association with proximal sesamoid bone fracture. Compared with horses that died without proximal sesamoid bone fractures, horses that died with proximal sesamoid bone fractures were more likely to be sexually intact males, spend more time in active trainingand racing, complete more events, train and race longer since their last layup, have higher exercise intensities during the 12 months prior to death, and have greater cumulative distances for their career. Horses with proximal sesamoid bone midbody fractures were more likely to be sexually intact males, train and race longer since their last layup, and have higher exercise intensities during the 12 months prior to death. Limitingexercise intensity and the continuous time spent in activity duringa horse's career may decrease the frequency of forelimb proximal sesamoid bone fractures in Thoroughbred horses.

  4. Influence of trabecular microstructure and cortical index on the complexity of proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhoff, Georg; Diederichs, Gerd; Tami, Andrea; Theopold, Jan; Josten, Christoph; Hepp, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Poor bone quality increases the susceptibility to fractures of the proximal humerus. It is unclear whether local trabecular and cortical measures influence the severity of fracture patterns. The goal of this study was to assess parameters of trabecular and cortical bone properties and to compare these parameters with the severity of fractures and biomechanical testing. Twenty patients with displaced proximal humeral fractures planned for osteosynthesis were included. Fractures were classified as either 2-part fractures or complex fractures. Bone after core drilling was harvested during surgery from the humeral head in each patient. Twenty bone cores obtained from nonpaired cadaver humeral heads served as nonfractured controls. Micro-CT (μCT) was performed and bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), connectivity density (CD), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp), and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed. The cortical index (CI) was determined from AP plain films. Biomechanical testing was done after μCT scanning by axially loading until failure, and ultimate strength and E modulus were recorded. BV/TV, BMD and CD showed moderate to strong correlations with biomechanical testing (r = 0.45-0.76, all p fracture groups and controls regarding μCT and biomechanical parameters. CI was not significantly different between the 2-part and complex fracture groups. In our study population local trabecular bone structure and cortical index could not predict the severity of proximal humeral fractures in the elderly. Complex fractures do not necessarily imply lower bone quality compared to simple fractures.

  5. proximal femoral periprosthetic fracture fixation with a hooked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    viii) The wound was closed over a drain. Adjuvant medical and supportive therapy included: (i) Prophylactic antibiotics- intraoperative followed by postop. for three days .... The hybrid fixation of this particular fracture with a locked hooking plate ...

  6. Emergency treatment of proximal femural fracture within 48h: The

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrino Ferrara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the main aspects of osteoporotic emergency fracture of the hip in the Umbria Region in the years 2006-2011. Methods: The study was conducted from January 1 of 2006 to December 31 of 2011, and included only patients over 49 years of age. Patients who did not habitually reside in the region were excluded. They were collected in each based on the following data: age, sex, place of residence (urban or rural, time of the year, fractured side, type of trauma, history of fracture contralateral and perioperative mortality. Results: From 2006 to 2011, a progressive increase in the number of femoral fracture admissions in regional hospitals was observed, equal to 4.73% per annum. The incidence went from 6.8 to 8.1 for 1.000 ultra-65th residents. The most affected age groups are those between 75-84 years and 85- 94 years. Conclusions: The epidemiology of osteoporotic hip fracture in the Umbria Region follows a pattern similar to that of other Italian regions. The in-hospital mortality of these patients is partly determined by age and number of complications they suffer during admission. The impact of economic resources on patients who break the osteoporotic hip justifies the implementation of programs for the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures.

  7. Angel-shaped phalanges in brachydactyly C: a case report, and speculation on pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castriota-Scanderbeg, Alessandro [Foundation ' ' Ospedale Card. G. Panico' ' , Department of Radiology, Tricase (Italy); Garaci, Francesco Giuseppe [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Rome (Italy); Beluffi, Giampiero [IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Department of Radiology, Section of Paediatric Radiology, Pavia (Italy)

    2005-05-01

    We describe a woman and her daughter affected by brachydactyly type C. The unusual feature in the child included the striking 'angel-shaped' appearance of the proximal phalanges of the index and middle fingers of one hand, whereas more typical triangular epiphyses with elongation of their radial side were present at the same location in the opposite hand. It is suggested that this peculiar phalangeal configuration occurs as a transitory event in early or mid childhood in phalanges that are marked by severe ossification delay, which is most prominent at the level of the primary ossification centre. (orig.)

  8. Minimal Invasive Percutaneous Osteosynthesis for Elderly Valgus Impacted Proximal Humeral Fractures with the PHILOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about elderly valgus impacted proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment and clinical outcomes following minimal invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO with the proximal humeral internal locking system (PHILOS for the treatment of elderly valgus impacted proximal humeral fracture. Between May 2008 and May 2012, 27 patients (average age 67.3, range 61–74 with valgus impacted proximal humeral fractures were enrolled in the study. The patients were treated with MIPPO using PHILOS-plate through the anterolateral delta-splitting approach. Rehabilitation exercises were done gradually. The NEER score and Constant-Murley score were used to evaluate shoulder function. All the patients were followed up by routine radiological imaging and clinical examination. There were 15 cases of II-part greater tuberosity fractures, 10 cases of III-part greater tuberosity fractures, and 2 cases of IV-part fractures according to the NEER classification. The surgery was successful in all patients with an average follow-up of 20.8 (range: 11–34 months. The fractures united in an average of 7.2 (6–14 weeks without implant loosening. According to NEER score, there were 17 excellent, 7 satisfactory, 2 unsatisfactory, and 1 poor. The mean Constant-Murley score was 89.4±4.35. No complication including axillary nerve damage, postoperative nerve or vessel damage, infections, DVT, or death was observed. In conclusion, the MIPPO technique with the PHILOS through the anterolateral delta-splitting approach seems to be a safe and easy treatment for elderly valgus impacted proximal humeral fractures. A case-control study and longer follow-up time are needed.

  9. Acetabular Protrusio and Proximal Femur Fractures in Patients With Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehan, Samir K; Morakis, Emmanouil; Raggio, Cathleen L; Twomey, Kristin D; Green, Daniel W

    2015-09-01

    Osteogenesis imperfect (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by increased bone fragility, frequent fractures, and extremity deformities among other clinical findings. A frequent radiographic finding in OI patients is acetabular protrusio (AP). We hypothesized that AP incidence would be significant in OI patients and highest among type III OI patients, who have a more severe disease phenotype. In addition, we hypothesized that there would be a correlation between AP and proximal femur fracture incidence. We retrospectively reviewed radiographs and medical records of 49 patients with OI evaluated at our institution. Demographic information and modified Sillence classification were recorded. AP was diagnosed using previously published radiographic criteria using the center-edge angle of Wiberg, acetabulum relative to the iliopectineal line, teardrop figure relative to the ilioischial (Kohler) line, and acetabulum relative to the ilioischial (Kohler) line. Medical record and radiographs were reviewed for evidence of proximal femur or acetabulum fracture. Associations between OI type, AP, and fracture incidence were examined with χ or Fisher exact tests. In this series of 49 OI patients, the overall incidence of AP was 55.1% (27/49) with the highest incidence among patients with type III OI (70.6%). There was an increased incidence of proximal femur, and particularly femoral neck, fractures among patients with AP compared with patients with normal hip anatomy. Overall, patients with AP had a 30% increased risk for proximal femur and acetabulum fractures (P=0.03). AP is a common deformity in OI patients (55.1%) and particularly type III OI (70.6%). Patients with AP have an increased risk for proximal femur fractures and particularly femoral neck fractures. This novel finding adds to the growing body of literature on clinical implications of AP in OI patients. Level IV-Retrospective case series.

  10. A modified deltoid splitting approach with axillary nerve bundle mobilization for proximal humeral fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Ho; Lee, Young Ho; Choi, Ho Sung; Kim, Min Bom; Pyo, Sung Hee; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2017-11-01

    The deltopectoral and the deltoid splitting approach are commonly used for the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. While the deltopectoral approach requires massive soft tissue devascularization, the deltoid splitting approach needs an additional skipped incision to avoid axillary nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to describe a modified anterolateral deltoid splitting approach with axillary nerve bundle mobilization in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures and to assess its radiologic and clinical outcomes. Twenty-two consecutive patients with proximal humeral fractures were treated with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis by using a modified anterolateral deltoid splitting approach with axillary nerve bundle mobilization. The patients were divided into two groups: 10 patients of Neer type 2 or 3 fractures vs. 12 patients of Neer type 4 fractures. The mean age of the study population was 63.5 years (range: 30-80 years). Six patients had valgus impacted fractures, and nine had fractures with medial comminution. Fracture union was achieved in all cases. The mean time to union was 8.6 weeks (range: 6-12 weeks). Major complications, such as avascular necrosis of the humeral head and varus collapse at the fracture site, were not observed. No patients had clinically detectable sensory deficits in the axillary nerve distribution or paralysis of the anterior deltoid muscle. The mean neck-shaft angle at the final follow-up was 136.9° (range, 115°-159°). The mean visual analog score for patient satisfaction was 9.1 (range, 6-10), and the mean Neer scores were 93.5 (range, 84-100). There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to radiologic and clinical outcomes except Neer scores: 95.8 (range: 86-100) in Neer type 2 or 3 fractures and 91.7 (range: 84-99) in Neer type 4 fractures. The use of a modified anterolateral deltoid splitting approach with axillary nerve bundle mobilization in the treatment of proximal humeral

  11. Functional Outcome Of Proximal Humeral Fractures Treated With Philos Plate In Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliuddin, Akram Muhammad; Idrees, Zaki; Rahim Najjad, Muhammad Kazim; Ali Shah, Syed Amir

    2016-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures account for 4-5% of all fractures. Most fractures are minimally displaced and can be managed non-operatively in adults. Displaced and unstable fractures are difficult to manage and should be treated to achieve painless shoulder and full function. Our aim was to evaluate the functional outcome of proximal humerus fractures (Neers classification 2 part, 3 part and 4 part) treated with PHILOS (Proximal humeral internal locking system). We retrospectively reviewed 22 patients who had proximal humerus fractures treated with PHILOS plate from Jan 2012 to June 2013 conducted at Orthopaedic Department Liaquat National Hospital. Clinical outcome was measured using DASH (disability of arm, shoulder and hand) Score System. Radiological union was assessed by serial X rays. Two patients were lost to follow up. Mean age was 40 years (20-70). Mean follow up was 6 months. 4 patients had two-part fracture, 10 patients had three-part and 6 patients had four-part fracture. Radiological union was achieved in average 8.31 weeks (±1.37SD). Average DASH score in young patients was 15.14 (±1.91SD) and in elderly was 31.66 (±4.08SD). One case of implant failure was noted. Better results in younger patients were achieved as compared to elderly proved by DASH score. Increase in number of fracture parts and delay in treatment did not affect the outcome. Our study concluded that this implant provides stable fixation in younger patients with good quality bone sufficient to allow mobilization.

  12. Evaluation of percutaneous pinning in unstable proximal humeral fractures: A novel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishikant Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of unstable proximal humeral fractures has remained controversial since ages. Open reduction and internal fixation have resulted in devastating complications like stiffness of shoulder joint, avascular necrosis, infection, etc., We are presenting a novel method of percutaneous pinning of unstable proximal humeral fractures. All cases (32 were done closely without soft tissue stripping. All cases were followed-up for a period of 3 years; and results were assessed according to 100 point constant score. A total of 75% cases showed excellent to good results. To minimize the complications like pin site infection, loosening, neurovascular damage we used fixed pin site insertion technique, and threaded pins in osteoporotic patients. So percutaneous pinning is a safe and novel method of management of unstable proximal humeral fractures if certain principles are borne in mind before using it.

  13. Avascular necrosis in proximal humeral fractures in patients treated with operative fixation: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaming; Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Tao

    2014-04-27

    Proximal humeral fractures are common lesions of the elderly, but there are no established treatment guidelines. A surgical treatment for comminuted and displaced fractures of the proximal humerus was developed and is still evolving. The aim of this study was to perform a quantitative review to evaluate the risk of avascular necrosis (AVN) in patients with proximal humeral fractures who were treated by operative fixation compared with conservative treatment. We searched the PubMed, MEDLINE, Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (in Chinese), and Wanfang database (in Chinese) up to December 2013 to identify studies related to operative fixation and AVN in patients with proximal humeral fractures. Seven studies with a total of 291 patients (142 operative fixation cases and 149 conservative treatment cases) with proximal humeral fractures were considered in the meta-analysis. The overall meta-analysis showed no significant difference in the incidence of AVN between the two groups [odds ratio (OR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33-6.11, p = 0.64]. The subgroup meta-analysis by study design (retrospective/prospective), sample size (≤40/>40), and ethnicity (European/Asian) demonstrated similar results. However, the subgroup analysis by specific operative approach (plate fixation/tension band wiring fixation/others) indicated that plate fixation was associated with a higher rate of AVN than conservative treatment (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.76, p = 0.019). Plate fixation was associated with a higher risk of AVN development than conservative treatment in patients with proximal humeral fractures.

  14. Diagnosing displaced four-part fractures of the proximal humerus: a review of observer studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, S.; Bagger, J.; Sylvest, A.

    2008-01-01

    Displaced four-part fractures comprise 2-10 % of all proximal humeral fractures. The optimal treatment is unclear and randomised trials are needed. The conduct and interpretation of such trials is facilitated by a reproducible fracture classification. We aimed at quantifying observer agreement...... on the classification of displaced four-part fractures according to the Neer system. Published and unpublished data from five observer studies were reviewed. Observers agreed less on displaced four-part fractures than on the overall Neer classification. Mean kappa values for interobserver agreement ranged from 0.......16 to 0.48. Specialists agreed slightly more than fellows and residents. Advanced imaging modalities (CT and 3D CT) seemed to contribute more to classification of displaced four-part patterns than in less complex fracture patterns. Low observer agreement may challenge the clinical approach to displaced...

  15. Anatomical and biomechanical evaluation of an intramedullary nail for fractures of proximal humerus fractures based on tuberosity fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavert, Ph; Hatzidakis, A; Boileau, P

    2016-02-01

    For unstable proximal humerus fractures, both plates and nails may be recommended. We introduce an anterograde nail designed for the treatment of 3- and 4-parts proximal humerus fractures. The aim of this study is to compare the biomechanics of this nail versus a plate and then to analyze the relationships of the screws with the axillary nerve. Our working hypotheses are as follows: (1) this nail is biomechanically equal or better to the reference plate and (2) it does not endanger the axillary nerve. Biomechanical study: using 40 sawbones, a reproducible 4-part fracture was created and fixed first with an angle-stable plate for proximal humeral fracture, then fixed with the nail using 2 posterior screws. All specimens were mounted in a custom testing apparatus. Two trails were performed needing each time 5 "normal" and 5 "osteoporotic" bones. On 20 unpaired shoulders, a nail was inserted with all screws through a superior approach (deltoid split approach). Dissection of all shoulders was done to identify the axillary nerve. The distance between each screw and the axillary nerve or its branches was measured. The proximal humerus nail demonstrated higher values than locking plate for both stiffness and load to failure. The failure mode differs in function of the type of osteosynthesis. The lowest distance between a screw and the axillary nerve was 20.13 mm. We introduce a biomechanically efficient nail without increased neurological risks to improve the pullout strength of the screws to provide more secure fixation of proximal humeral fractures. Basic Science Study, Anatomic Cadaver Study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A new technique of closed intramedullary nailing in fractures of the proximal humerus with varus deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chelnokov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Varus displacement is common in fractures of the proximal humerus. Development of new low invasive surgical modalities providing anatomy restoration and non-traumatic fracture fixation is actual. Purpose of the study was development of the low invasive technique of closed interlocking nailing providing reduction of the typical varus displacement in fractures and posttraumatic deformities of the proximal humerus. Material and methods. A new technique of correction of the proximal humerus in fractures and posttraumatic deformities was applied in 12 patients - 7 with two-part fractures and 5 with posttraumatic varus deformities. The surgical technique includes application of a small wire circular external frame. Its proximal part is secured to the humeral head to reduce varus displacement along with connection to the distal part of the frame, and the reached alignment is fixed by an intramedullary nail. Results. In all 12 cases we succeeded to reduce the varus deformity. At 1 year follow-up healing was reached in 11 patients, and in one patient exchange compression nailing was performed. Constant score in 1 year was 76±17 after fracture treament, and 70±16 in posttraumatic deformities, which corresponeded to good results. Conclusion. The presented technique allows to reach 40-50° angular correction without open approach and significant soft tissue damage. The obtained results confirm efficacy of the new technique and pertinence of its use in patients with fractures and posttraumatic deformities of this localization. The introduced technique of closed nailing appears to be a promising approach in reconstructive surgery of the proximal humerus.

  17. [Proximal tibial fractures sustained during alpine skiing - incidence and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pätzold, R; Spiegl, U; Wurster, M; Augat, P; Gutsfeld, P; Gonschorek, O; Bühren, V

    2013-12-01

    Prior to introduction of carving skis, complex fractures of the proximal tibia were rarely seen. Recently these fractures are being seen more frequently in connection with alpine skiing. The aim of this study was to find out the incidence of proximal tibia fractures in alpine skiing and to identify possible risk factors. All patients with proximal tibia fractures related to alpine skiing in a large German ski resort were included. Fracture type, patient and skiing related factors were recorded. Incidence of fractures was determined by using the number of all registered skiers. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios for risk factors. Between 2007 and 2010 a total of 188 patients was treated for proximal tibia fractures caused by alpine skiing. Forty-three patients had a type-A injury, 96 patients a type-B injury, and 49 patients a type-C injury. The incidence of injury increased continuously, starting from 2.7 and climbing to 7.0 per 10⁵ skiing days. The risk factors compared to patients with type-A fractures, type-C fracture occurred in older (OR 0.93; 0.89 - 0.97) and heavier (OR 0.86; 0.74 - 0.99) individuals and were more likely on icy snow conditions (OR 0.22; 0.05 - 0.96), higher speed (OR 0.29; 0.09 - 0.97) and skiing skill (OR 0.35; 0.13 - 0.95). These was also seen in artificial and icy snow conditions (OR 0.25; 0.07 - 0.87) when compared to type-B fractures. The incidence of proximal tibia fractures related to skiing has increased over the past four years. Risk factors such as age, BMI, snow conditions, speed, and the skill of the skiers, were identified as causes contributing to complex fractures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Pre-operative traction for fractures of the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M J; Handoll, H H G

    2003-01-01

    Pre-operative traction following an acute hip fracture remains standard practice in some hospitals. To evaluate the effects of traction applied to the injured limb prior to surgery for a fractured hip. Different methods of applying traction (skin or skeletal) were considered. We searched the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group's specialised register (February 2003), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2003), MEDLINE (1966 to February 2003), EMBASE (1988 to 2003 Week 8), CINAHL (1982 to February 2003), the National Research Register Issue 1, 2003, conference proceedings and reference lists of articles. Date of most recent search: February 2003. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing either skin or skeletal traction with no traction, or skin with skeletal traction for patients with an acute hip fracture prior to surgery. Both reviewers independently assessed trial quality, using a nine item scale, and extracted data. Additional information was sought from all trialists. Wherever appropriate and possible, the data are presented graphically. Eight randomised trials, mainly of moderate quality, involving a total of 1349 predominantly elderly patients, were identified and included in the review. The inclusion in this review update of a newly available trial resulted in no important change in the results or conclusions. Seven trials compared traction with no traction. Although no data pooling was possible, overall these provided no evidence of benefit from traction, either in the relief of pain, ease of fracture reduction or quality of fracture reduction at time of surgery. One of these trials included both skin and skeletal traction groups. This trial and one other compared skeletal traction with skin traction and found no important differences between these two methods, although the initial application of skeletal traction was noted as being more painful and more costly. From the evidence available, the routine use of

  19. Proximal Tibial Epiphysis Fracture in a 13-Year-Old Male Athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis M. Stavrakakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractures of the proximal epiphysis of the tibia are rare, representing 0.5 to 3.0% of all epiphyseal injuries. These injuries can damage the popliteal vessels and their bifurcation, affecting the blood supply of the lower limb, as well as the nerves below the knee. Epiphyseal growth arrest is also a potential complication, leading to various angular deformities. We present a case of a 13-year-old male athlete with a posteriorly displaced Salter-Harris type II fracture of the proximal epiphysis of the left tibia who was treated conservatively with closed reduction and cast immobilization.

  20. Integrated remodeling-to-fracture finite element model of human proximal femur behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambli, Ridha; Lespessailles, Eric; Benhamou, Claude-Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop an integrated remodeling-to-fracture finite element model allowing for the combined simulation of (i) simulation of a human proximal femur remodeling under a given boundary conditions, (ii) followed by the simulation of its fracture behavior (force-displacement curve and fracture pattern) under quasi-static load. The combination of remodeling and fracture simulation into one unified model consists in considering that the femur properties resulting from the remodeling simulation correspond to the initial state for the fracture prediction. The remodeling model is based on phenomenological one based on a coupled strain and fatigue damage stimulus. The fracture model is based on continuum damage mechanics in order to predict the progressive fracturing process which allows to predict the fracture pattern and the complete force-displacement curve under quasi-static load. To prevent mesh-dependence that generally affects the damage propagation rate, regularization technique was applied in the current work. To investigate the potential of the proposed unified remodeling-to-fracture model, we performed remodeling simulations on a 3D proximal femur model for a duration of 365 days under five different daily loading conditions followed by a side fall fracture simulation reproducing previously published experimental tests (de Bakker et al. (2009), case C, male, 72 years old). We show here that the implementation of an integrated remodeling-to-fracture model provides more realistic prediction strategy to assess the bone remodeling effects on the fracture risk of bone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional and quality-of-life results of displaced and nondisplaced proximal humeral fractures treated conservatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, Carlos; Corrales, Monica; Vilà, Gemma; Santana, Fernando; Cáceres, Enrique

    2011-10-01

    Functional and quality-of-life outcomes of conservatively treated proximal humeral fractures. Prospective study. University orthopedic department at a hospital. Seventy consecutive patients between the ages of 60 and 85 years. Conservative treatment. Functional outcome measured according to the Constant score, quality of life assessed using EuroQol-5D, and fracture pattern analyzed with x-ray and computed tomography scan. : All fractures consolidated uneventfully with no loss of reduction in either group. Four-part fractures obtained the worst functional results (33.66) followed by three-part fractures (54.64) and finally two-part fractures (65.88 and 71). Mild pain was expected in three- and four-part fractures, whereas two-part fractures achieved near complete pain relief. Nondisplaced fractures obtained a final Constant score of 73.58 and displaced fractures a score of 59.41 with significant differences in all Constant score items with the exception of external rotation. Although patients older than 75 years scored lower (54.63) than those younger than 75 years (70.83), there was no difference in the quality-of-life perception. Conservative treatment of proximal humeral fractures in those patients older than age 75 years provides good pain relief with limited functional outcome. Despite limited functional outcome, this appears to have no effect on the quality-of-life perception in the population studied. Four-part fractures present the worst results and treatment options may need to be discussed with the patient to adjust treatment to patient expectations.

  2. Defining the fracture population in a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial: PROFHER and the Neer classification of proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoll, H H G; Brealey, S D; Jefferson, L; Keding, A; Brooksbank, A J; Johnstone, A J; Candal-Couto, J J; Rangan, A

    2016-10-01

    Accurate characterisation of fractures is essential in fracture management trials. However, this is often hampered by poor inter-observer agreement. This article describes the practicalities of defining the fracture population, based on the Neer classification, within a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial in which surgical treatment was compared with non-surgical treatment in adults with displaced fractures of the proximal humerus involving the surgical neck. The trial manual illustrated the Neer classification of proximal humeral fractures. However, in addition to surgical neck displacement, surgeons assessing patient eligibility reported on whether either or both of the tuberosities were involved. Anonymised electronic versions of baseline radiographs were sought for all 250 trial participants. A protocol, data collection tool and training presentation were developed and tested in a pilot study. These were then used in a formal assessment and classification of the trial fractures by two independent senior orthopaedic shoulder trauma surgeons. Two or more baseline radiographic views were obtained for each participant. The independent raters confirmed that all fractures would have been considered for surgery in contemporaneous practice. A full description of the fracture population based on the Neer classification was obtained. The agreement between the categorisation at baseline (tuberosity involvement) and Neer classification as assessed by the two raters was only fair (kappa 0.29). However, this disparity did not appear to affect trial findings, specifically in terms of influencing the effect of treatment on the primary outcome of the trial. A key reporting requirement, namely the description of the fracture population, was achieved within the context of a pragmatic multicentre randomised clinical trial. This article provides important guidance for researchers designing similar trials on fracture management.Cite this article: H. H. G. Handoll, S. D

  3. Humeral surface replacement for the sequelae of fractures of the proximal humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, G; Zeifang, F; Bruckner, T; Raiss, P; Rickert, M; Loew, M

    2010-10-01

    Fractures of the proximal humerus can lead to malalignment of the humeral head, necrosis and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. In such cases surface replacement might be a promising option. A total of 28 shoulders with glenohumeral arthritis subsequent to a fracture underwent surface replacement arthroplasty of the humeral head in patients with a mean age of 60 years (35 to 83). On the basis of the inclination of the impacted head, post-traumatic arthritis was divided into three types: type 1, an impacted fracture of the head in an anatomical position (seven cases); type 2, a valgus impacted fracture (13 cases); type 3, a varus impacted fracture (eight cases). The outcome was measured by means of the Constant score. According to the Boileau classification of the sequelae of fractures of the proximal humerus, all 28 patients had a final result of intra-capsular category 1. The mean Constant score for the 28 shoulders increased from 23.2 points (2 to 45) pre-operatively to 55.1 points (20 to 89) at a mean of 31 months (24 to 66) post-operatively. Valgus impacted fractures had significantly better results (p humeral shaft, such as peri-prosthetic fractures. Further surgery can be undertaken more easily as the bone stock is preserved.

  4. Double line sign: a helpful sonographic sign to detect occult fractures of the proximal humerus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M.; Jager, Gerrit J. [Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Waal malefijt, Maarten C. de [University Medical Center Nijmegen, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Blickman, Johan G. [University Medical Center Nijmegen, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    The aim of this study was to describe a new sonographic sign of bone fracture and to determine if it can be helpful in decreasing the number of missed fractures of the proximal humerus. Ultrasound (US) of the shoulder was performed in 57 consecutive patients with shoulder pain and/or disability following trauma. All cases were prospectively reviewed for the presence of a humeral fracture. Sonographic signs of fractures, with special emphasis on what was termed the 'double line sign' (DLS), were assessed. Plain radiography was considered the standard of reference and in equivocal cases magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-eight patients had a tuberosity complex fracture, which were all detected at US examination. Sonographic features of a fracture were periosteal elevation, corticol bone discontinuity, step-off deformity or a combination of these findings. This study showed that in 26 (93%) patients an additional sonographic feature, a DLS, could be demonstrated. The DLS is a helpful and probably reliable sonographic sign to indicate a humeral fracture. High-spatial-resolution US substantially increases the detection of fractures of the proximal humerus and should be considered as an alternative diagnostic tool prior to computed tomography (CT), MRI and arthroscopy in patients with persisting shoulder pain and/or disability following trauma. (orig.)

  5. Biomechanical Evaluation of the Effect of Intramedullary Fibular Graft in Proximal Humeral Fractures

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    Tugrul Bulut

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the biomechanical effect of intramedullary fibular grafts in two-part proximal humeral fracture models. We also investigated two different positions of an intramedullary fibular graft in terms of fracture stability. Material and Method: A total of 21 two-part humeral neck fracture models were randomly separated into 3 groups. All fracture models were fixed with anatomic locking plates and 3.5mm locking screws. An intramedullary fibular graft was placed parallel to the long axis of the humerus in group I and at an approximately 135 degree angle, so as to support the calcar and medial column of the humeral neck, in group II. No fibular graft was used in the control group. All models were tested with a uniaxial electromechanic device at 20 degrees abduction that mimics the primary axial loads and shear forces with early active abduction. Values of loading and stiffness were measured. Results: No statistically significant difference was found for loading and stiffness values between groups. Discussion: These results were interpreted to mean that the presence or positioning of a fibular graft makes no additional contribution to the stability of two-part proximal humeral neck fractures with an anatomically reduced medial column fixed by a locking plate and screws. In conclusion, it is not necessary to utilize an intramedullary fibular graft in proximal humerus fractures when anatomic reduction is obtained. An unaccompanied locking plate and screws are adequate for these cases. Although using a fibular graft in proximal humerus fractures is a popular technique, it should be reserved for unstable osteoporotic fractures in which the medial column cannot be reduced.

  6. Pelvic migration of the helical blade after treatment of transtrochanteric fracture using a proximal femoral nail

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    Pedro Luciano Teixeira Gomes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Proximal femoral nails with a helical blade are a new generation of implants used for treating transtrochanteric fractures. The blade design provides rotational and angular stability for the fracture. Despite greater biomechanical resistance, they sometimes present complications. In the literature, there are some reports of cases of perforation of the femoral head caused by helical blades. Here, a clinical case of medial migration of the helical blade through the femoral head and acetabulum into the pelvic cavity is presented.

  7. Early results for treatment of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus using Contours PHP (proximal humeral plate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazzo, Alessio; Cardile, Carlo; Brunelli, Luca; Ragni, Paolo; Clementi, Daniele

    2017-04-28

    The management of displaced 2- and 3-part fractures of the proximal humerus is controversial, both in younger and in elderly patients. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the functional results of the Contours Proximal Humerus Plate (OrthofixR, Bussolengo,Verona, Italy), for the treatment of displaced 2- and 3-part fractures of the proximal humerus. We retrospectively reviewed 55 patients with proximal humerus fractures, who underwent osteosynthesis with Contours Proximal Humerus Plate from December 2011 to March 2015. We had 21 patients with 2-part fractures and with an average age of 67.1 years and 34 patients with 3-part fractures, with average age of 63.6 years. The average union time was 3 months. The mean Constant score was 67 for 2-part fracture group and 64.9 for 3-part fracture group. The difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.18). The overall complication rate was 14.5 %. Six patients underwent additional surgery (10.9%). The most frequent major complication was secondary loss of reduction following varus collapse of the fracture (2 cases). In these patients, there was loss of medial hinge integrity due to impaction and osteoporosis. The placement of the main locking screw in the calcar area to provide inferomedial support is the rational of the Contours Proximal Humerus Plate. Osteosynthesis with Contours Proximal Humerus Plate is a safe system for treating displaced 2- and 3-part fractures of the proximal humerus, with good functional results and complication rates comparable to those reported in the literature.

  8. The impact of proximal femur geometry on fracture type--a comparison between cervical and trochanteric fractures with two parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panula, J; Sävelä, M; Jaatinen, P T; Aarnio, P; Kivelä, S-L

    2008-01-01

    Only a few studies have tested the ability of proximal femur geometry parameters to discriminate between cervical hip fractures and those of the trochanter. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the geometrical differences between these two fracture types by measuring the neck shaft angle (NSA) and the femoral neck axis length (FNAL). We also compared the distributions of these parameters and the distributions of fracture type by gender. A retrospective analysis was made in a population-based material of 428 hip fractures collected during a two-year period from 1999 to 2000 (323 women and 105 men aged 65 years or older). NSA and FNAL were manually measured from pelvic radiographs. No significant differences in NSA or FNAL were found between cervical and trochanteric hip fractures in women or in men. Men had significantly higher NSA and FNAL than women. Age was not related to these geometrical parameters. The distributions by fracture type were similar in both genders. The different pathogenesis of cervical and trochanteric hip fractures cannot be explained by NSA or FNAL. A standardized measurement setup is needed when evaluating the role of hip geometry in fracture patients.

  9. Inter- and intraobserver reliability of the MTM-classification for proximal humeral fractures: A prospective study

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    Dietz Klaus

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A precise modular topographic-morphological (MTM classification for proximal humeral fractures may address current classification problems. The classification was developed to evaluate whether a very detailed classification exceeding the analysis of fractured parts may be a valuable tool. Methods Three observers classified plain radiographs of 22 fractures using both a simple version (fracture displacement, number of parts and an extensive version (individual topographic fracture type and morphology of the MTM classification. Kappa-statistics were used to determine reliability. Results An acceptable reliability was found for the simple version classifying fracture displacement and fractured main parts. Fair interobserver agreement was found for the extensive version with individual topographic fracture type and morphology. Conclusion Although the MTM-classification covers a wide spectrum of fracture types, our results indicate that the precise topographic and morphological description is not delivering reproducible results. Therefore, simplicity in fracture classification may be more useful than extensive approaches, which are not adequately reliable to address current classification problems.

  10. Inter- and intraobserver reliability of the MTM-classification for proximal humeral fractures: A prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrs, Christian; Schmal, Hagen; Lingenfelter, Erich; Rolauffs, Bernd; Weise, Kuno; Dietz, Klaus; Helwig, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background A precise modular topographic-morphological (MTM) classification for proximal humeral fractures may address current classification problems. The classification was developed to evaluate whether a very detailed classification exceeding the analysis of fractured parts may be a valuable tool. Methods Three observers classified plain radiographs of 22 fractures using both a simple version (fracture displacement, number of parts) and an extensive version (individual topographic fracture type and morphology) of the MTM classification. Kappa-statistics were used to determine reliability. Results An acceptable reliability was found for the simple version classifying fracture displacement and fractured main parts. Fair interobserver agreement was found for the extensive version with individual topographic fracture type and morphology. Conclusion Although the MTM-classification covers a wide spectrum of fracture types, our results indicate that the precise topographic and morphological description is not delivering reproducible results. Therefore, simplicity in fracture classification may be more useful than extensive approaches, which are not adequately reliable to address current classification problems. PMID:18279527

  11. Osteoid Osteoma of Phalangeal Bone

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    Dennis S.N. Tsang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoid osteoma involving the phalanges of the fingers and toes are rare in the literature. We report two patients who were successfully treated with surgery. The first case was an 18-year-old male with osteoid osteoma of the left ring finger who presented with marked tenderness and swelling of the finger pulp of 2 years' duration. He underwent surgical excision with complete relief of the symptoms. No complications were observed over a follow-up period of 5 years. The second case was a 38-year-old male with painful enlargement and clubbing involving the distal phalanx of the right fourth toe which subsided gradually after surgical excision. No malignant change or recurrence was found and the patient remained free of symptoms 11 years after the operation. We conclude that complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice in small phalangeal bones where the tumors are readily accessible.

  12. The effect of the sagittal ridge angle on cartilage stress in the equine metacarpo-phalangeal (fetlock) joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liley, Helen; Davies, Helen; Firth, Elwyn; Besier, Thor; Fernandez, Justin

    2017-06-15

    Fatigue failure of bones of the metacarpo-phalangeal (fetlock, MCP) joint is common in thoroughbred racehorses. Stresses within the fetlock joint cartilages are affected by the morphology of the third metacarpal bone (MC3) and proximal phalangeal bone, and the steepness of the median sagittal ridge of MC3 is believed to be associated with fracture. This study investigated the influence of the steepness of the sagittal ridge on cartilage stress distribution using a finite element model of the joint. Changes to the steepness of the sagittal ridge were made by applying a parabolic function to the mesh, creating four different models with sagittal ridge angles ranging from 95° to 105°. In the fetlock joint of Thoroughbred racehorses, sagittal ridge angles of >100° were associated with higher Von Mises stresses in cartilage at the palmar aspect of the condylar groove than such stresses in joints with sagittal ridge angles of fetlock joint thus appears to play an important role in the magnitude and distribution of cartilage stresses, which, when acting on the underlying hard tissues of the articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone may play a role in the initiation of fatigue fracture in the third metacarpal bone.

  13. Anaesthesia for proximal femoral fracture in the UK: first report from the NHS Hip Fracture Anaesthesia Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S M; Griffiths, R; Holloway, J; Shannon, A

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this audit was to investigate process, personnel and anaesthetic factors in relation to mortality among patients with proximal femoral fractures. A questionnaire was used to record standardised data about 1195 patients with proximal femoral fracture admitted to 22 hospitals contributing to the Hip Fracture Anaesthesia Network over a 2-month winter period. Patients were demographically similar between hospitals (mean age 81 years, 73% female, median ASA grade 3). However, there was wide variation in time from admission to operation (24-108 h) and 30-day postoperative mortality (2-25%). Fifty percent of hospitals had a mean admission to operation time anaesthesia was administered to 49% of patients (by hospital, range = 0-82%), 51% received general anaesthesia and 19% of patients received peripheral nerve blockade. Consultants administered 61% of anaesthetics (17-100%). Wide national variations in current management of patients sustaining proximal femoral fracture reflect a lack of research evidence on which to base best practice guidance. Collaborative audits such as this provide a robust method of collecting such evidence.

  14. Is central skeleton bone quality a predictor of the severity of proximal humeral fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yeol; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Sang-Jin

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the correlation between bone attenuation around the shoulder joint assessed on conventional computed tomography (CT) and bone mineral density (BMD) based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) of the central skeleton and the correlation between the bone quality around the shoulder joint and the severity of the fracture pattern of the proximal humerus. A total of 200 patients with proximal humeral fracture who underwent preoperative 3-dimensional shoulder CT as well as DEXA within 3 months of the CT examination were included. Fracture types were divided into simple and comminuted fracture based on the Neer classification. After reliability testing, bone attenuation of the glenoid, three portions of the humeral head, and metaphysis was measured by placing a circular region of interest on the center of each bony region on CT images. Partial correlation analysis was used to assess the correlation between the bone quality around the shoulder joint on CT and the BMD on the central skeleton after adjusting for age and body mass index. Partial correlations between fracture classification and CT/DEXA results were also evaluated. Bone attenuation measurements of the glenoid and humeral head showed good to excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.623-0.998). Bone attenuation of the central portion of the humeral head on CT showed a significant correlation with the BMD of L1, L4, the femoral neck, and femoral trochanter (correlation coefficient, 0.269-0.431). Bone attenuation of other areas showed a lower correlation with BMD by DEXA. As the level of the Neer classification increased from a 2 to 4-part fracture, bone attenuation of the central humeral head decreased significantly (r=-0.150, p=0.034). However, the BMD on DEXA was not a predictive factor for comminuted fracture of the proximal humerus. DEXA examination of the central skeleton may not reflect the bone quality of the proximal humerus and

  15. Translation between the Neer- and the AO/OTA-classification for proximal humeral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Eckardt, Henrik; Audigé, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The reporting and interpretation of data from clinical trials of proximal humeral fractures are hampered by the use of two partly incommensurable fracture classification systems: the Neer classification and the AO/OTA classification. It remains difficult to interpret and generalize results......, to conduct prognostic studies, and to obtain consensus on treatment recommendations when concise definitions and a common 'fracture language' are lacking. Thus, we compared both classifications systems using primary data from large clinical studies to assess how thoroughly both systems conveyed clinically...

  16. Conservative treatment, plate fixation, or prosthesis for proximal humeral fracture. A prospective randomized study

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    Launonen Antti P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proximal humerus fracture is the third most common fracture type after hip and distal radius fracture in elderly patients. A comprehensive study by Palvanen et al. demonstrated an increase in the annual fracture rate of 13.7% per year over the past 33 years. Should this trend continue, the fracture rate would triple over the next three decades. The increasing incidence of low-energy fractures raises questions about the optimal treatment in terms of functional outcome, pain, and rehabilitation time, as well as the economical impact. Despite the high incidence and costs of proximal humerus fractures, there is currently no valid scientific evidence for the best treatment method. Several publications, including a Cochrane review outline the need for high-quality, well-designed randomized controlled trials. Methods/Design The study is a prospective, randomized, national multi-center trial. The hypothesis of the trial is that surgical treatment of displaced proximal humerus fractures achieves better functional outcome, pain relief, and patient satisfaction compared to conservative treatment. The trial is designed to compare conservative and surgical treatment of proximal humerus fractures in patients 60 years and older. The trial includes two strata. Stratum I compares surgical treatment with locking plates to conservative treatment for two-part fractures. Stratum II compares multi-fragmented fractures, including three- and four-part fractures. The aim of Stratum II is to compare conservative treatment, surgical treatment with the Philos locking plate, and hemiarthroplasty with an Epoca prosthesis. The primary outcome measure will be the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH score and the secondary outcome measures will be the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D value, OSS, Constant-Murley Score, VAS, and 15D. Recruiting time will be 3 years. The results will be analyzed after the 2-year follow-up period. Discussion This publication

  17. Closed reduction and percutaneous annulated screw fixation in the treatment of comminuted proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhe; Zheng, Lianhe; Yan, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Jian; Ma, Bao'an

    2017-01-01

    Displaced proximal humeral fractures remain a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcomes of patients with comminuted proximal humeral fractures treated with closed reduction and percutaneous screw fixation (CRPF). The authors retrospectively reviewed 38 cases of displaced proximal humeral fractures (2-, 3- or 4-part fractures according to the Neer classification) that were treated using the CRPF technique from May 2009 to April 2013. From this group 26 patients were followed up for a period ranging from 9 to 24 months (averaging 12.9 months) and evaluated for the functional and radiological outcomes by a series of standard questionnaires and measurements. The fractures in all 26 patients were healed within an average time of 14.6 weeks (ranging from 11 to 27 weeks), and the mean interval between the operation and fully functional activity was 18.6 weeks (ranging from 15 to 32 weeks). At the final follow-up visit, no patient showed shoulder instability; the mean range of abduction motion was 146.5° (ranging from 72° to 180°). For all patients, no statistically significant difference in the functional outcomes was observed between their 6-month and final follow-up visits; or in the radiological findings between their immediate post-operative and final follow-up examinations. The CRPF technique is a safe and effective therapeutic option for comminuted proximal humeral fractures. Good stability is obtained and aggressive impairment of the soft tissue and periosteum around the fracture is avoided, which allows for an early painless range of motion. The technique promotes bone healing, prevents ischemic osteonecrosis of the head of the humerus and leads to few complications.

  18. External fixation by Joshi′s external stabilizing system in cases of proximal humerus fractures in elderly subjects

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    Soumya Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fracture of the proximal humerus is a common and debilitating injury occurring mainly in elderly females and accounts for 4-5% of all adult fractures. Patients with displaced, unstable proximal humeral fractures may have improved outcomes if managed operatively. Objectives: To study the effect of using Joshi′s external stabilizing system (JESS for the management of fractures of proximal humerus in elderly. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in West Bengal on 28 subjects with proximal humerus fractures. As per Neer′s classification, 3- and 4-part fractures were included and prepared for JESS fixation. The results of the treatment were evaluated as per Neer′s criteria. Patients were followed up for 10 − 12 months. Results: Among 18 females and 10 males, 22 had 3-part fracture and 6 had 4-part fracture. Mean duration of JESS application was 10 weeks. Among patients with 3-part fractures 4 cases had excellent result, 12 had satisfactory result, 4 had unsatisfactory result and treatment failed in 2 cases. With 4-part fractures, 2 cases had unsatisfactory result and 4 cases were failures. Conclusion: JESS is an alternative option for the treatment of proximal humerus fractures, especially in elderly patients with osteoporosis, showing excellent to good results in cases of Neer′s type 3-part fracture.

  19. Open reduction and internal fixation of three and four-part fractures of the proximal part of the humerus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijgman, A. J.; Roolker, W.; Patt, T. W.; Raaymakers, E. L. F. B.; Marti, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Controversy persists concerning the preferred treatment of displaced fractures of the proximal part of the humerus. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the results of open reduction and internal fixation of three and four-part fractures of the proximal part of the humerus and

  20. Pathological fractures of the proximal femur due to solitary bone cyst: classification, methods of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miu, A

    2015-01-01

    Fractures are a very important issue in a child's orthopedic pathology. Neglected a good amount of time, being considered "not too serious", or "rare", having better and faster healing methods and not leaving sequels, like in the case of adults, a child's fractures remain an important chapter of traumatology in general. Because of the raising prevalence of child osteoarticular traumas, as well as new less invasive treatment methods, this theme is always to date. The paper analyzes particular cases of bone fractures that appeared due to minor traumas, on bones with a high brittleness, localized especially on the long bones. Although these fractures on a pathological bone can be seen at all levels of the human skeleton, this paper focuses on fractures located in the proximal third part of the femur. A group of children admitted in the Pediatric Orthopedic Department of "M.S. Curie" Hospital-Bucharest with this diagnostic, were analyzed between 2009 and 2013.

  1. A comparison of bone mineral density in osteoporotic fracture of the proximal femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

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    Lee, Jong Seok; Yoo, Beong Gyu [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keung Sik [Yonsei University Yong Dong Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-15

    There were some controversies about direct cause of hip fracture. We attempted to look at 40 osteoporotic proximal femur fractures in women over 50 years between March in 1999 and February in 2000. The bone density of the fracture group and the healthy 85 control group was measured by Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The result was compared using age matched paired T test. The results were as follows: The femoral neck fractures were 14 cases and the trochanteric fractures were 26 cases. Mean age at a fracture was 67.1 years in neck fracture group and 76.5 years in trochanteric fracture. In the control group, the bone density of both side of the proximal femur was measured and it showed statistically no difference between both sides in same person. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter (P<0.05) and lumbar spine (P<0.001) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral fracture group comparing with the control group. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter (P<0.05) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral neck fracture group comparing with the control group, but there was no statistical difference in lumbar spine comparing with the control group. The bone density of neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter and lumbar spine (P<0.001) was significantly reduced in the proximal femoral neck fracture group comparing with the control group. We concluded that the bone mineral densities (BMD) of proximal femur and lumbar spine had decreased in hip fractures but that the bone mineral density and T-score % of the proximal femur were statistically lower than that of the lumbar spine. We suggest that measuring the bone mineral density of the proximal femur may reflect the weakness of the proximal femur more precisely than measuring the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine.

  2. Primary Shoulder Arthroplasty Versus Conservative Treatment for Comminuted Proximal Humeral Fractures: A Systematic Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Haan (Jeroen); D. den Hartog (Dennis); N.W.L. Schep (Niels); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe objective was to identify whether arthroplasty or conservative treatment is the best available treatment for three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures by analyzing the outcome measure of the Constant score. We conducted an electronic search. The systematic review included 33

  3. The Effect of Two Factors on Interobserver Reliability for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, Jos J.; Kuntz, Michael T.; Guitton, Thierry G.; Ring, David

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether training observers and simplifying proximal humeral fracture classifications improve interobserver reliability among a large number of orthopaedic surgeons. One hundred eighty-five observers were randomized to receive training or no training in a

  4. The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for proximal humeral fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, Michiel G. J. S.; Jayakumar, Prakash; King, John D.; Guitton, Thierry G.; Doornberg, Job N.; Ring, David

    2015-01-01

    The factors influencing the decision making of operative treatment for fractures of the proximal humerus are debated. We hypothesized that there is no difference in treatment recommendations between surgeons shown radiographs alone and those shown radiographs and patient information. Secondarily, we

  5. Primary shoulder arthroplasty versus conservative treatment for comminuted proximal humeral fractures: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Dennis; de Haan, Jeroen; Schep, Niels W.; Tuinebreijer, Wim E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to identify whether arthroplasty or conservative treatment is the best available treatment for three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures by analyzing the outcome measure of the Constant score. We conducted an electronic search. The systematic review included 33 studies

  6. Fracture of the proximal extremity of the tibia after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio de Oliveira Carneiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare condition that has been little described in the literature: a fracture of the proximal extremity of the tibia after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using an autologous patellar bone-tendon graft. In this report, we discuss the factors that predisposed toward this episode, the treatment and the evolution of the case after the surgical treatment.

  7. Osteosynthesis of a periprosthetic fracture of the proximal femur with the distal femur LISS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnowski, Jan Robert; Holck, Kim

    2008-01-01

    In this case report, we show how it is possible to perform osteosynthesis using minimal invasive techniques instead of conventional methods. In this instance the osteosynthesis was performed on a patient in poor general condition who had presented a periprosthetic fracture of the proximal femur. ...

  8. TREATMENT OF INTRA-ATICULAR FRACTURES OF THE PROXIMAL SEGMENT OF THE TIBIA

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    V. V. Klyuchevsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of treatment of patients with intra-articular fractures of proximal segment of the tibia is presented. For improvement of diagnostics the body section radiography was used. Conservative methods were applied in 146 patients, surgical - in 202. The best results were achieved on application of dampening skeletal traction - 88,2%.

  9. Trends in the surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures – a nationwide 23-year study in Finland

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    Huttunen Tuomas T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proximal humeral fractures are common osteoporotic fractures. Most proximal humeral fractures are treated non-surgically, although surgical treatment has gained popularity. The purpose of this study was to determine changes in the surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures in Finland between 1987 and 2009. Methods The study covered the entire adult (>19 y population in Finland over the 23-year period from 1st of January 1987 to 31st of December 2009. We assessed the number and incidence of surgically treated proximal humeral fractures in each year of observation and recorded the type of surgery used. The cohort study was based on data from Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register. Results During the 23-year study period, a total of 10,560 surgical operations for proximal humeral fractures were performed in Finland. The overall incidence of these operations nearly quadrupled between 1987 and 2009. After the year 2002, the number of patients treated with plating increased. Conclusion An increase in the incidence of the surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures was seen in Finland in 1987–2009. Fracture plating became increasingly popular since 2002. As optimal indications for each surgical treatment modality in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures are not known, critical evaluation of each individual treatment method is needed.

  10. Reducing resource utilization during non-operative treatment of pediatric proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstein, A Z; Schade, A T; Howard, A W; Camp, M W

    2017-02-01

    The majority of proximal humeral fractures in the skeletally immature are treated non-operatively. Operative indications vary but are largely based on degree of displacement. Non-union is rare. Non-operatively treated fractures are typically monitored radiographically to assess healing. We hypothesize that the decision to treat fractures operatively is made at the time of first imaging and that follow-up X-rays do not lead to a change in management. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 239 patients treated for proximal humerus fractures over a 5-year period. There were 225 who were treated non-operatively. Records were reviewed for the number of clinic visits and radiographs, as well as any change to operative management based on follow-up X-rays. The primary outcome of the study was the proportion of proximal humerus fractures, initially treated non-operatively, for which displacement or angulation on follow-up radiographs led to a change to operative treatment. Secondary outcomes were the number of follow-up radiographs obtained after the initial diagnosis and initiation of non-operative treatment. Of the 225 patients that were initially managed non-operatively, only 1 patient required subsequent surgical management. This patient underwent a proximal humerus epiphysiodesis 365 days from injury after development of a partial growth arrest. The mean number of fracture clinic visits for patients managed non-operatively was 2.67 (±1.24). The mean number of radiology department visits and radiographs obtained was 3.57 (±1.44) and 8.36 (±3.89) respectively. No clinical or radiographic non-unions were identified in these patients. No patients suffered a refracture during the review period. This study shows that of the 239 uncomplicated pediatric proximal humerus fractures treated at our hospital over a 5-year period, only 1 had a change in treatment plan, from non-operative to operative, based on follow-up radiographs. These data suggest that non

  11. Use of tantalum cones in primary arthroplasty of acute proximal tibial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramanian, H; Kini, S G; Ang, K Y; Sathappan, S S

    2016-09-01

    Metaphyseal tantalum cones in primary total knee arthroplasty and their functional outcome is described using 3 case reports over 6 years. 3 knees in 3 elderly individuals (mean age of 70.4 years), with pre-existing osteoarthritis and complex proximal tibial fractures, were operated on. Ambulation with walking frame was achieved from post-operation day 1, with weight-bearing as tolerated. Mean range of motion was 122° and Mean Knee Society Score was 88. All showed improvement in pre-operative limb alignment. Radiological fracture union was achieved on an average of 3 months. All were independent ambulators and pain-free at the latest follow-up. Our case series shows that tantalum cones are associated with significant improvements in clinical scores, patient symptoms, range of movement, early weight-bearing and low rates of complications in complex proximal tibial fractures with poor bone stock.

  12. Revision after shoulder replacement for acute fracture of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Salomonsson, Björn; Jensen, Steen L

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose - For more than half a century, stemmed hemiarthroplasty (SHA) has been used in the treatment of comminuted and displaced fractures of the proximal humerus. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) has been increasingly popular in cases where it is difficult to obtain satisfactory...... fixation of the tuberosities. We report revision rates and reasons for revision after shoulder arthroplasty for acute fractures of the proximal humerus. Patients and methods - This study was based on a common dataset from the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA), which includes data reported...... to the national shoulder arthroplasty registries in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. We included 6,756 shoulder arthroplasties performed for acute fractures between 2004 and 2013. Results - There were 6,112 SHAs (90%) and 565 RSAs (8.4%). The cumulative arthroplasty survival rate after 5 years was 0.96 for both SHA...

  13. The Reliability of Classifications of Proximal Femoral Fractures with 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography: The New Concept of Comprehensive Classification

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    Hiroaki Kijima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of proximal femoral fracture classifications using 3DCT was evaluated, and a comprehensive “area classification” was developed. Eleven orthopedists (5–26 years from graduation classified 27 proximal femoral fractures at one hospital from June 2013 to July 2014 based on preoperative images. Various classifications were compared to “area classification.” In “area classification,” the proximal femur is divided into 4 areas with 3 boundary lines: Line-1 is the center of the neck, Line-2 is the border between the neck and the trochanteric zone, and Line-3 links the inferior borders of the greater and lesser trochanters. A fracture only in the first area was classified as a pure first area fracture; one in the first and second area was classified as a 1-2 type fracture. In the same way, fractures were classified as pure 2, 3-4, 1-2-3, and so on. “Area classification” reliability was highest when orthopedists with varying experience classified proximal femoral fractures using 3DCT. Other classifications cannot classify proximal femoral fractures if they exceed each classification’s particular zones. However, fractures that exceed the target zones are “dangerous” fractures. “Area classification” can classify such fractures, and it is therefore useful for selecting osteosynthesis methods.

  14. Treatment of proximal humeral fractures using anatomical locking plate: correlation of functional and radiographic results

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    Antonio Carlos Tenor Junior

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To correlate the functional outcomes and radiographic indices of proximal humerus fractures treated using an anatomical locking plate for the proximal humerus. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with fractures of the proximal humerus who had been treated using an anatomical locking plate were assessed after a mean follow-up of 27 months. These patients were assessed using the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA score and their range of motion was evaluated using the method of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons on the operated shoulder and comparative radiographs on both shoulders. The correlation between radiographic measurements and functional outcomes was established. RESULTS: We found that 64% of the results were good or excellent, according to the UCLA score, with the following means: elevation of 124°; lateral rotation of 44°; and medial rotation of thumb to T9. The type of fracture according to Neer's classification and the patient's age had significant correlations with the range of motion, such that the greater the number of parts in the fracture and the greater the patient's age were, the worse the results also were. Elevation and UCLA score were found to present associations with the anatomical neck-shaft angle in anteroposterior view; fractures fixed with varus deviations greater than 15° showed the worst results (p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: The variation in the neck-shaft angle measurements in anteroposterior view showed a significant correlation with the range of motion; varus deviations greater than 15° were not well tolerated. This parameter may be one of the predictors of functional results from proximal humerus fractures treated using a locking plate.

  15. Second generation locked plating for complex proximal humerus fractures in very elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaskar, Ashok S; Karthik B, Bhupesh; Tummala, Naveen C; Srinivasan, Parthasarathy; Gopalan, Hitesh

    2016-11-01

    Humeral head sacrificing procedures are more favored in elderly patients with complex proximal humerus fractures because of high incidence of failures and complications with osteosynthesis. The purpose of this study is to assess the outcome of second generation locked plating techniques in 3 and 4 part fractures in active elderly patients >70years with an emphasis on function and complications. 29 patients with displaced 3 and 4 part proximal humerus fractures were treated using the principles of second-generation proximal humerus locked plating. Fixed angle locked plating (PHILOS) using the anterolateral deltoid spilt approach augmented with traction cuff sutures was performed. Minimum of 7 locking head screws including 2 calcar screws were used. In cases with a comminuted medial calcar, an endosteal fibular strut was used. Subchondral metaphyseal bone voids were filled with injectable calcium phosphate cement. Radiological outcome (union, head - shaft angle, tuberosity reduction), functional outcome assessment (Constant and ASES scores) and complications (loss of reduction, nonunion and osteonecrosis) were assessed. The fracture united in 24 of the 26 patients available for follow up at a mean of 27 months (12-40 months). 3 patients developed complications that required arthroplasty (fixation failure in 2 patients and osteonecrosis in 1 patient). Follow up age adjusted Constant (63.1±11.9) and ASES scores (62.58±7.5) showed the extent of functional improvement post surgery. Patients with fractures having a non-comminuted medial calcar and valgus displacement of the humeral head had better functional scores and fewer complications. Osteosynthesis with second generation locked plating techniques provide satisfactory outcome in very elderly patients with complex proximal humerus fractures with minimal complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Short incomplete sagittal fractures of the proximal phalanx in ten horses not used for racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuemmerle, Jan M; Auer, Jörg A; Rademacher, Nathalie; Lischer, Christoph J; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula; Fürst, Anton E

    2008-02-01

    To describe short incomplete sagittal fractures of the proximal phalanx (type Ia P1 fractures) in horses not used for racing and report outcome. Retrospective study. Horses (n=10) with type Ia P1 fractures. Retrieved data of horses with type Ia P1 fractures were signalment, history and results of orthopedic examination. Radiographs were re-evaluated for position and length of the fracture line, presence of osteoarthritis or subchondral cystic lesions (SCL), periosteal new bone formation and subchondral sclerosis. Conservative treatment (n=4) included box confinement for 2 months followed by 1 month of hand walking. Surgical therapy (n=6) consisted of internal fixation by screws inserted in lag fashion in 5 horses. Concurrent SCL were debrided by curettage via a transcortical drilling approach. In 1 horse, only SCL curettage but not internal fixation was performed. Outcome was assessed on a clinical and radiographic follow-up examination in all horses. Mean follow-up time was 27 months (median, 13.5 months; range, 9 months to 9 years). All horses treated with internal fixation were sound at follow-up and had radiographic fracture healing. Of the 4 horses managed conservatively, 3 remained lame and only 1 horse had radiographic evidence of fracture healing. Catastrophic fracture propagation occurred in 2 horses not treated by internal fixation, 20 and 30 months after diagnosis, respectively. Horses with a type Ia P1 fracture treated surgically had a better outcome than those managed conservatively and lack of fracture healing seemingly increases the risk of later catastrophic fracture. Surgical repair of type Ia P1 fractures should be considered to optimize healing and return to athletic use.

  17. Associations of vitamin D deficiency with postoperative gait and mortality among patients with fractures of the proximal femur

    OpenAIRE

    Gumieiro, David Nicoletti [UNESP; Pereira,Gilberto José Cação; Minicucci, Marcos Ferreira [UNESP; Ricciardi, Carlos Eduardo Inácio; Damasceno, Erick Ribeiro; Funayama, Bruno Schiavoni [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether serum vitamin D concentration is associated with gait status and mortality among patients with fractures of the proximal femur, six months after suffering the fracture.METHODS: Consecutive patients aged ≥65 years with fractures of the proximal femur, who were admitted to the orthopedics and traumatology ward of our service between January and December 2011, were prospectively evaluated. Clinical, radiological, epidemiological and laboratory analyses were performed...

  18. Deltoid Tuberosity Index: A Simple Radiographic Tool to Assess Local Bone Quality in Proximal Humerus Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spross, Christian; Kaestle, Nicola; Benninger, Emanuel; Fornaro, Jürgen; Erhardt, Johannes; Zdravkovic, Vilijam; Jost, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    Osteoporosis may complicate surgical fixation and healing of proximal humerus fractures and should be assessed preoperatively. Peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT) and the Tingart measurement are helpful methods, but both have limitations in clinical use because of limited availability (pQCT) or fracture lines crossing the area of interest (Tingart measurement). The aim of our study was to introduce and validate a simple cortical index to assess the quality of bone in proximal humerus fractures using AP radiographs. We asked: (1) How do the deltoid tuberosity index and Tingart measurement correlate with each other, with patient age, and local bone mineral density (BMD) of the humeral head, measured by pQCT? (2) Which threshold values for the deltoid tuberosity index and Tingart measurement optimally discriminate poor local bone quality of the proximal humerus? (3) Are the deltoid tuberosity index and Tingart measurement clinically applicable and reproducible in patients with proximal humerus fractures? The deltoid tuberosity index was measured immediately above the upper end of the deltoid tuberosity. At this position, where the outer cortical borders become parallel, the deltoid tuberosity index equals the ratio between the outer cortical and inner endosteal diameter. In the first part of our study, we retrospectively measured the deltoid tuberosity index on 31 patients (16 women, 15 men; mean age, 65 years; range, 22-83 years) who were scheduled for elective surgery other than fracture repair. Inclusion criteria were available native pQCT scans, AP shoulder radiographs taken in internal rotation, and no previous shoulder surgery. The deltoid tuberosity index and the Tingart measurement were measured on the preoperative internal rotation AP radiograph. The second part of our study was performed by reviewing 40 radiographs of patients with proximal humerus fractures (31 women, nine men; median age, 65 years; range, 22-88 years). Interrater (two surgeons) and

  19. Florid reactive periostitis in the fifth phalange of a professional boxer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Yuji; Ohashi, Ryuji; Naito, Zenya; Nanno, Mitsuhiko; Takai, Shinro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Florid reactive periostitis is a rare, benign bone and chondrogenic lesion that develops most frequently in the phalanges of the hands. Although the definitive cause of florid reactive periostitis is unknown, the major inciting factor is generally considered to be trauma, including repetitive minor trauma. Patient concerns: We present a case of florid reactive periostitis affecting two contiguous phalangeal bones of the left fifth phalange of a 23-year-old male professional boxer. The patient had experienced chronic pain around the metacarpophalangeal joint of the left fifth phalange when punching with the left hand; this pain was improved but not resolved after conservative treatment. Interventions: Plain radiography of the fifth phalange revealed a bulging bone lesion on the volar side of the proximal phalanx and metacarpal of the left fifth phalange. Computed tomography also showed raised bony lesions on the volar side of these bones without bony destruction or intraregional calcification. Surgery was performed and histopathology revealed that the bone specimens comprised a mixture of fibrous connective tissue and relatively immature bone covered by bland osteoblasts. Diagnoses: These findings were suggestive of a benign bone formation process, and the lesion was diagnosed as florid reactive periostitis. Outcomes: The pain and tenderness in the left fifth phalange experienced during boxing had completely resolved by 6 months postoperatively, and 12 years postoperatively the patient had full range of motion and no recurrence of pain. Lessons: Traction force, such as those associated with “leading jabs,” may induce repetitive minor trauma and subsequent periosteal damage, resulting in the gradual development of bulging bone ridges on the volar surface of the proximal fifth phalange and metacarpus of the hand. PMID:28002343

  20. Florid reactive periostitis in the fifth phalange of a professional boxer: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Yuji; Ohashi, Ryuji; Naito, Zenya; Nanno, Mitsuhiko; Takai, Shinro

    2016-12-01

    Florid reactive periostitis is a rare, benign bone and chondrogenic lesion that develops most frequently in the phalanges of the hands. Although the definitive cause of florid reactive periostitis is unknown, the major inciting factor is generally considered to be trauma, including repetitive minor trauma. We present a case of florid reactive periostitis affecting two contiguous phalangeal bones of the left fifth phalange of a 23-year-old male professional boxer. The patient had experienced chronic pain around the metacarpophalangeal joint of the left fifth phalange when punching with the left hand; this pain was improved but not resolved after conservative treatment. Plain radiography of the fifth phalange revealed a bulging bone lesion on the volar side of the proximal phalanx and metacarpal of the left fifth phalange. Computed tomography also showed raised bony lesions on the volar side of these bones without bony destruction or intraregional calcification. Surgery was performed and histopathology revealed that the bone specimens comprised a mixture of fibrous connective tissue and relatively immature bone covered by bland osteoblasts. These findings were suggestive of a benign bone formation process, and the lesion was diagnosed as florid reactive periostitis. The pain and tenderness in the left fifth phalange experienced during boxing had completely resolved by 6 months postoperatively, and 12 years postoperatively the patient had full range of motion and no recurrence of pain. Traction force, such as those associated with "leading jabs," may induce repetitive minor trauma and subsequent periosteal damage, resulting in the gradual development of bulging bone ridges on the volar surface of the proximal fifth phalange and metacarpus of the hand.

  1. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty with glenoid bone grafting for anterior glenoid rim fracture associated with glenohumeral dislocation and proximal humerus fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, R; Brody, F; Castagna, A; Ceccarelli, E; Krishnan, S G

    2016-12-01

    Large fractures of the anterior glenoid rim can result in persisting instability and osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint When this fracture is associated with a glenohumeral dislocation and proximal humerus fracture could be a concern. The goal of this paper was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes and complications of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) and glenoid bone graft in cases with a significant anterior glenoid fracture associated with a proximal humerus fracture. RSA and step bone graft harvested from proximal humeral head could be a viable option in the treatment of this complex injury. Retrospective case series. Twenty-six patients underwent RSA and glenoid bone graft in a single stage procedure were evaluated at an average 32 months postoperatively. There were 18 women and 8 men with a mean age of 68.5 years (range 63-75 years). Reverse shoulder arthroplasty with a contoured glenoid bone graft placed underneath the baseplate using humeral head autograft was utilized in all cases. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with range of motion, Constant score and self-reported subjective outcome rated as excellent, good, fair or poor. Radiographic evaluation was performed to evaluate for baseplate displacement or loosening, bone graft union, resorption or collapse. At final follow-up, average active elevation was 135° (range 110°-145°), abduction 122° (range 60°-160°), and external rotation 30° (range 0 to 45°). The mean Constant score was 68.2 (range 54-83). The clinical results were rated as excellent by 15 patients, good by 9, and fair by 2. Radiographic evaluation showed the disc of cancellous bone graft healed without any signs of graft resorption or migration in all 26 cases. No reoperation was performed on any patient in this series. RSA with glenoid bone grafting produces satisfactory short-term outcomes with acceptable complication rates for treatment of patients greater than 60 years old with proximal humerus fractures

  2. "Floating arm" injury in a child with fractures of the proximal and distal parts of the humerus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güven Melih

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Simultaneous supracondylar humerus fracture and ipsilateral fracture of the proximal humerus in children is rare. Case presentation A 10-year-old Turkish boy with an extension type supracondylar humerus fracture and ipsilateral fracture at the proximal metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction of the humerus was treated by closed reduction and percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation. Closed reduction was performed using a Kirschner wire as a "joystick" to manipulate the humeral shaft after some swelling occurred around the elbow and shoulder. Conclusion The combination of fractures at the proximal and distal parts of the humerus can be termed as "floating arm" injury. Initial treatment of this unusual injury should be focused on the supracondylar humerus fracture. However, closed reduction can be difficult to perform with the swelling around the elbow and shoulder. A temporary Kirschner wire can be used as a "joystick" to fix and reduce the fracture.

  3. Age and Sex Features of Proximal Hip Geometry in Patients with its Intraarticular Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Grygorieva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature data, some parameters of the femoral bone (FB, namely the length of its axis, head-collum-diaphyseal angle, etc., are independent predictors of proximal femoral (PF fractures, but such studies among Ukrainian patients are absent. This article presents the literature data and the results of own research on the geometrical features of the FB in patients with intra-articular PF fractures. We have analyzed 100 survey (anteroposterior radiographs of the hip joint in patients aged 50–89 years (median age 70.98 ± 0.99 years. We observed 31 women and 39 men, who were hospitalized with intra-articular FB fractures, and 30 persons (16 women and 14 men without fractures. Assessment of hip geometry parameters was performed on the contralateral limb in relation to fracture. For the analysis, patients were divided into subgroups by gender and age. It was established the significant effect of the age on the parameters of PF geometry in men and women with intra-articular fractures, but not in patients without fractures. Also, we have found the significantly lower indices of the length of femoral axis, the base and the diameter of the head, «head — acetabulum» distance in men with intra-articular PF fractures compared to the parameters in persons without fractures, in the absence of significant differences in indices of women. Identified differences should be considered for both planning surgery after PF fracture and for predicting the risk of PF fractures in older age patients.

  4. The risk of cardiorespiratory deaths persists beyond 30 days after proximal femoral fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sameer K; Rushton, Stephen P; Shields, David W; Corsar, Kenneth G; Refaie, Ramsay; Gray, Andrew C; Deehan, David J

    2015-02-01

    30-day mortality is routinely used to assess proximal femoral fracture care, though patients might remain at risk for poor outcome for longer. This work has examined the survivorship out to one year of a consecutive series of patients admitted for proximal femoral fracture to a single institution. We wished to quantify the temporal impact of fracture upon mortality, and also the influence of patient age, gender, surgical delay and length of stay on mortality from both cardiorespiratory and non-cardiorespiratory causes. Data were analysed for 561 consecutive patients with 565 fragility type proximal femoral fractures treated surgically at our trauma unit. Dates and causes of death were obtained from death certificates and also linked to data from the Office of National Statistics. Mortality rates and causes were collated for two time periods: day 0-30, and day 31-365. Cumulative incidence analysis showed that mortality due to cardiorespiratory causes (pneumonia, myocardial infarction, cardiac failure) rose steeply to around 100 days after surgery and then flattened reaching approximately 12% by 1 year. Mortality from non-cardiorespiratory causes (kidney failure, stroke, sepsis etc.) was more progressive, but with a rate half of that of cardiorespiratory causes. Progressive modelling of mortality risks revealed that cardiorespiratory deaths were associated with advancing age and male gender (pphysiotherapy, respiratory exercises and other chest-protective measures from 31 to 100 days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. External fixation for the treatment of open fractures of the proximal humerus caused by firearms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Dragan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine patients with open fractures of the proximal humerus were treated using an external fixation device. All of them had grade III open fractures resulting from high-velocity missile and explosive injuries with massive foreign body contamination. Radial nerve injury was present in five and two multiply injuried patients with thoracic wall and abdominal viscera were present. There were no major arterial injuries. Chronic osteitis with fistula and sequestra developed in one. There were no nonunions and no refractures. Minor painless limitation of shoulder and elbow motion presented in all patient. Upper-third humeral open fractures due to firearms are a unique type of open fractures. They are usually highly comminuted therefore, stable fixation is difficult or impossible to achieve. On the other hand, the risk of infection is high following plate fixation. External fixation allows adequate management of the soft tissue wounds, provides stable bone fixation and allows early mobilization of the shoulder and elbow.

  6. The overlooked side of convulsion: bilateral posterior fracture and dislocation of proximal humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Mehmet; Yaman, Asli; Yigit, Eda; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet

    2016-05-01

    Injuries after an epileptic convulsion have been seen commonly such as burns, head injury and dislocation of the extremities. But fractures of the extremities due to convulsion are rare. External trauma mechanism is not necessary for extremity fractures. Muscle contractions can cause increased load on the skeleton and it can be complicated by dislocation andor fracture of extremities. Almost 1-4% of all the shoulder dislocations are posterior. In this case report we present a 32 year old male patient who had bilateral posterior fracture and dislocation of proximal humerus after convulsion. We would like to emphasize that it is so important to make systemic examination and evaluation of the patients who were admitted to emergency department after epileptic convulsion.

  7. Structural patterns of the proximal femur in relation to age and hip fracture risk in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Harnish, Roy; Saeed, Isra; Streeper, Timothy; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Amin, Shreyasee; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Therneau, Terry M.; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Melton, L. Joseph; Keyak, Joyce; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Khosla, Sundeep; Harris, Tamara B.; Lang, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal femur are the most devastating outcome of osteoporosis. It is generally understood that age-related changes in hip structure confer increased risk, but there have been few explicit comparisons of such changes in healthy subjects to those with hip fracture. In this study, we used quantitative computed tomography and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to identify three-dimensional internal structural patterns of the proximal femur associated with age and with incident hip fracture. A population-based cohort of 349 women representing a broad age range (21–97 years) were included in this study, along with a cohort of 222 older women (mean age 79±7 years) with (n=74) and without (n=148) incident hip fracture. Images were spatially normalized to a standardized space, and age- and fracture-specific morphometric features were identified based on statistical maps of shape features described as local changes of bone volume. Morphometric features were visualized as maps of local contractions and expansions, and significance was displayed as Student’s t-test statistical maps. Significant age-related changes included local expansions of regions low in volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and local contractions of regions high in vBMD. Some significant fracture-related features resembled an accentuated aging process, including local expansion of the superior aspect of the trabecular bone compartment in the femoral neck, with contraction of the adjoining cortical bone. However, other features were observed only in the comparison of hip fracture subjects with age-matched controls including focal contractions of the cortical bone at the superior aspect of the femoral neck, the lateral cortical bone just inferior to the greater trochanter, and the anterior intertrochanteric region. Results of this study support the idea that the spatial distribution of morphometric features is relevant to age-related changes in bone and independently to fracture risk. In

  8. Bilateral Simultaneous Avulsion Fractures of the Proximal Tibia in a 14-Year-Old Athlete with Vitamin-D Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Harb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractures involving the proximal tibial epiphysis are rare and form 0.5% of all epiphyseal injuries. The specific anatomical and developmental features of the proximal tibial epiphysis make it vulnerable to unique patterns of fractures. Vitamin-D plays a vital role in bone homeostasis and its deficiency has an impact on fracture risk and healing. We present the first ever reported case of simultaneous bilateral proximal tibial physeal fractures in an athlete with vitamin-D deficiency. Treatment consisted of plaster immobilisation, and the patient made a full recovery and returned to preinjury level of activities. We report this case for its uniqueness and as an educational review of the importance of the developmental anatomy of the proximal tibia. We review the literature and discuss how the stages of the growing physis determine the type of fracture sustained.

  9. Open reconstruction of complex proximal metadiaphyseal fragility fractures of the humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Isaac B; Farrell, Dana J; Evans, Andrew R; Siska, Peter A; Tarkin, Ivan S

    2014-03-01

    A proactive surgical and rehabilitation protocol was implemented to manage humeral fractures involving both the proximal end and shaft in an older patient population. Primary treatment goals were early return to function and reliable fracture union with minimal complications. From 2008 to 2012, 21 such operations were performed; 18 were considered "fragility" fractures based on mechanism, patient age, and evidence of osteopenia or osteoporosis. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) was employed using direct reduction and fixation with a long periarticular locking plate. Physiotherapy was commenced 2 weeks postoperatively. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire was used to assess functional outcome at a time point greater than 1 year postoperative. The study group consisted primarily of elderly females (83% with a median age of 69 years) whom sustained complex metadiaphyseal proximal humeral fractures after simple mechanical fall (78%). Uneventful union occurred in all cases. Local complications included 1 case of partial radial nerve palsy, which had resolved completely by 1 year. No cases of infection were identified. Long-term return to functionality was evident with a median DASH score of 12 (mean = 21, standard deviation = 20, n = 13). Seventy five percent of patients reported minimal or no pain (question [Q] 24), and 75% achieved return of overhead function (Q6, 12, and 15). Treatment of complex metadiaphyseal fragility fractures with anatomic reduction, fixed angle plating, and early physiotherapy returns the older patient to optimized functionality with minimal risk of complication. The DASH outcomes are equivalent to ORIF of isolated proximal humerus fractures and clinically indistinguishable from the general population.

  10. Open reduction and Internal Fixation of Displaced Proximal Humerus Fractures with AO Stainless Steel T-Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proximal humeral fractures are considered the last unsolved fractures in orthopaedics. The treatment is controversial and various operative modalities have been reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate functional outcome and complication rate after open reduction and internal fixation of displaced proximal humerus fractures by proximal humerus AO stainless steel Tplate. Twenty-five (25 patients with displaced proximal humerus fractures treated with proximal humerus T-plate between May 2005 and June 2008 were included in the study. Fractures were classified according to the Neer classification into displaced 2-part, 3-part, and 4-part fractures. Patients were followed-up for a minimum period of two years. Functional evaluation was done according to the Neer scoring system. Scores were compared with other studies in the literature using similar implant. Twenty patients had 2-part fracture, four had 3-part fracture, and one had 4-part fracture. Eighty-eight [88% (n = 22] patients had good to excellent result, eight [8% (n = 2] had fair, and four [4% (n = 1] had poor result. Difference in Neer’s score between 2-part and 3-part fractures was not significant. Complications encountered in this series were screw backout in 8% (n = 2, superficial infection in 12% (n= 3, and avascular necrosis in 4% (n = 1 of cases. We conclude that proximal humerus AO T- plate is a cheap and easily available implant, aspects which are particularly relevant in third world countries like India. It gives reliable fixation for 2-part and 3-part fractures. Its use in more complicated fracture patterns of 4-part fractures is not recommended.

  11. Timing of surgery for open reduction and internal fixation of displaced proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenbürger, Georg; Van Delden, Dustin; Helfen, Tobias; Haasters, Florian; Böcker, Wolfgang; Ockert, Ben

    2015-10-01

    Open reduction and internal fixation is one established method for treatment of displaced fractures of the proximal humerus. However, the timing of surgery and its effect on complications have not yet been investigated in the literature. Hence, aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of complication following locked plating of proximal humeral fractures when surgery was delayed in comparison to early intervention. Between February 2002 and November 2010, 497 patients with displaced proximal humeral fractures were treated by open reduction and locked plating. 329 patients were available for follow-up with a minimum of 12 months after surgery. Outcome analysis included radiographic evidence of loss of fixation (> 10° of secondary displacement), screw-cutout and avascular head necrosis. Outcomes were analyzed with regards to age, gender and fracture pattern and were compared between time intervals in which the primary surgery had been conducted; early intervention (5 days). Of 329 patients (68.4% women; median age at time of surgery: 69.9 years, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 68.2, 71.2) the median time between fracture incident and surgical intervention was 3.2 days (95%CI: 3.1, 3.3). Surgery was performed in a 2-part fracture at a median of 3.3 days (95%CI: 3.2, 3.4) after trauma, in a 3-part fracture after 3.3 days (95%CI: 3.1, 3.4), in a 4-part fracture 2.9 days (95%CI: 2.8, 3.0), in head split type fracture 2.2 days (95%CI: 2.0, 2.4) and in dislocation type fracture 0.8 days after trauma (95%CI: 0.7, 0.9, p = 0.40). Loss of fixation was observed in 12.8% (n = 42 patients), of which in 4.9% (n = 16) screw cutout was evident and in 6.8% of cases (n = 20) avascular head necrosis was diagnosed. Patients in which complication was observed were treated at median 2.5 days after trauma (95% CI, 1.8, 3.2), in comparison, patients without evidence of complications were treated at a median of 3.2 days (95% CI, 2.8-3.8, p = 0.35). The odds ratio regarding occurrence

  12. Operative treatment of proximal humeral fractures in children: Indications and results

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    Odehouri KTH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most children proximal humeral fractures are treated non-operatively with generally good results. This review discusses the indications of operative treatment and assesses the treatment results. Materials and Methods: The charts of 20 patients (14 girls; mean age: 12.3± 2.8 years; range: 7-16 years with proximal humeral fractures who were operated on at our institution were reviewed from 1992 to 2002. Results: There were five metaphyseal fractures and 15 physeal injuries which were angulated according to Neer-Horowitz score as grade III in four cases and grade IV in 16 cases with a mean angulation of 47.8±39.1 degrees (range: 6-148 degrees. Associated lesions comprised open fracture and head trauma in two cases each. Patients with associated injuries were operated on primarily and the 16 others by secondary intention. All but one were reduced via an anterior approach with internal fixation. They were assessed for clinical and radiological healing at a mean follow up of 3.6 years ranging from 1.2 to 7.8 years. Conclusion: Based on our study, surgical option is indicated for severely displaced and unstable fractures in older children and adolescents.

  13. Proximal tibia fracture in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury associated with robotic treadmill training.

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    Filippo, T R M; De Carvalho, M C L; Carvalho, L B; de Souza, D R; Imamura, M; Battistella, L R

    2015-12-01

    One case report of proximal tibia fracture in a patient with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) associated with robotic treadmill training. To raise the awareness that bone densitometry may be recommended before starting the robotic treadmill therapy, as well as the active vigilance of symptoms after therapy. Institute of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Lucy Montoro Institute for Rehabilitation, Hospital das Clínicas, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. The patient, female gender, with a fracture of vertebra T12 and arthrodesis from T9 to L1 (American Spinal Injury Association Classification (ASIA-C)). Training on Lokomat consisted of five 30-min weekly sessions, under the supervision of a qualified professional. At the beginning of the 19th session, the patient complained of pain in the anterior region of the left knee. Lokomat and any other body support therapy were discontinued. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidenced a transverse, oblique, metaphyseal proximal anterior and medial tibial fracture. Fractures are among the chronic complications of a SCI, affecting 34% and many times arising from minimal traumas. Lokomat resembles physiological walking, and more studies show its benefits. Many studies encourage the use of robotic devices for the rehabilitation of lower limbs, but there are still several unanswered questions. However, there are not enough studies to show whether there is a higher risk of fracture incidence in patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis who trained on the Lokomat.

  14. Using a statistical appearance model to predict the fracture load of the proximal femur

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    Schuler, Benedikt; Fritscher, Karl D.; Kuhn, Volker; Eckstein, Felix; Schubert, Rainer

    2009-02-01

    Nowadays clinical diagnostic techniques like e.g. dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry are used to quantify bone quality. However, bone mineral density alone is not sufficient to predict biomechanical properties like the fracture load for an individual patient. Therefore, the development of tools, which can assess the bone quality in order to predicting individual biomechanics of a bone, would mean a significant improvement for the prevention of fractures. In this paper an approach to predict the fracture load of proximal femora by using a statistical appearance model will be presented. For this purpose, 96 CT-datasets of anatomical specimen of human femora are used to create statistical models for the prediction of the individual fracture load. Calculating statistical appearance models in different regions of interest by using principal component analysis (PCA) makes it possible to use geometric as well as structural information about the proximal femur. By regressing the output of PCA against the individual fracture load of 96 femora multi-linear regression models using a leave-one-out cross validation scheme have been created. The resulting correlations are comparable to studies that partly use higher image resolutions.

  15. Diagnosis and serial sonography of a proximal fifth metatarsal stress fracture.

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    Battaglia, Patrick J; Kaeser, Martha A; Kettner, Norman W

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a fifth metatarsal stress fracture that was not detectable using conventional radiographs and was identified with diagnostic ultrasonography (US), confirmed with computed tomography, and followed through symptom resolution with US. A 68-year-old woman presented to a chiropractic teaching clinic for evaluation of right foot pain. Diagnostic US examination using an 8- to 15-MHz linear array transducer showed increased vascularity, periosteal elevation, and cortical disruption of the proximal diaphysis of the fifth metatarsal suggestive of a stress fracture. The patient was referred to an orthopedic specialist for comanagement. The patient was treated by an orthopedist who confirmed a stress fracture using computed tomography, and she was fit with a short-leg walking boot. Serial US images were obtained to document fracture healing and exclude complications. After 6 months, the patient was asymptomatic and had resumed all of her daily activities. We report a case of a proximal fifth metatarsal stress fracture that was visualized with US and followed through symptom resolution by serial examinations.

  16. Intrathoracic fracture-dislocation of the proximal humerus treated with rib fixation and shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Timothy; Parra, Michael; Shrock, Kevin

    2014-04-01

    Proximal fractures of the humerus resulting in intrathoracic displacement of the humeral head are rare, but cause serious pain and can lead to pulmonary and glenohumeral complications. Many treatment options exist, but there is still no literature regarding mortality and morbidity associated with rib fixation in concordance with treatment of the proximal humerus. This case describes a patient who was treated using a multi-team approach that involved shoulder arthroplasty with rib fixation, and which resulted in decreased pain and decreased narcotic use while improving the patient's pulmonary function.

  17. Correlation between classification and secondary screw penetration in proximal humeral fractures.

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    Qiuke Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the correlation between fracture classification and secondary screw penetration.We retrospectively identified 189 patients with displaced proximal humeral fractures treated by ORIF at our hospital between June 2006 and June 2013. All fractures were classified radiographically before surgery and follow-up for least 2 years after surgery was recommended. At each follow-up, radiographs were taken in three orthogonal views to evaluate secondary screw penetration.The study population consisted of 189 patients. Of these, 70 were male and 119 female, with a mean age of 59.1 years; the mean follow-up time was 28.5 months. Secondary screw penetration occurred in 26 patients. The risk of developing secondary screw penetration was 11.3-fold higher in four-part fractures than two-part fractures (P 0.05.Patients with four-part fractures, type C fractures and medial hinges disruption are vulnerable to secondary screw penetration. This allows additional precautions to be instituted and measures to be taken as needed.

  18. Fractures around a previous fixation of proximal femur. A simple solution to a complex problem.

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    Fernando Manuel Bidolegui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of hip fractures in the elderly growth with the increase in life expectancy. Therefore meet with a femur fractured, distal to a previously  implant fixation used in intertrochanteric femur fractures as dynamic hip screw or fixed angle plate, is not an uncommon scenario despite year mortality of hip fracture of 30 to 50%. Given this situation, we used a retrograde intramedullary nail associated with extracting screws percutaneously prior implant. We present 8 cases in patients with an average age of 85.6 years, 5 female and 3 male with a time from the proximal femur fixation to the  new fracture average 3.5 years. Will we track 36 months and we evaluated postoperative mobility and pain getting a consolidation of the fracture in all cases. We found this technique effective; capable of achieving stable fixation without adding morbidity due to the possibility of overlapping two implants decreasing the possibility of potential new interimplantes fracture.

  19. Correlation between classification and secondary screw penetration in proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuke; Zhu, Yu; Liu, Yifei; Wang, Lei; Chen, Yunfeng

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between fracture classification and secondary screw penetration. We retrospectively identified 189 patients with displaced proximal humeral fractures treated by ORIF at our hospital between June 2006 and June 2013. All fractures were classified radiographically before surgery and follow-up for least 2 years after surgery was recommended. At each follow-up, radiographs were taken in three orthogonal views to evaluate secondary screw penetration. The study population consisted of 189 patients. Of these, 70 were male and 119 female, with a mean age of 59.1 years; the mean follow-up time was 28.5 months. Secondary screw penetration occurred in 26 patients. The risk of developing secondary screw penetration was 11.3-fold higher in four-part fractures than two-part fractures (P penetration rate (P > 0.05). Patients with four-part fractures, type C fractures and medial hinges disruption are vulnerable to secondary screw penetration. This allows additional precautions to be instituted and measures to be taken as needed.

  20. Computed tomographic evaluation of the proximal femur: A predictive classification in displaced femoral neck fracture management

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    Narender Kumar Magu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral neck fracture is truly an enigma due to the high incidence of avascular necrosis and nonunion. Different methods have been described to determine the size of the femoral head fragment, as a small head has been said to be associated with poor outcome and nonunion due to inadequate implant purchase in the proximal fragment. These methods were two dimensional and were affected by radiography techniques, therefore did not determine true head size. Computed tomography (CT is an important option to measure true head size as images can be obtained in three dimensions. Henceforth, we subjected patients to CT scan of hip in cases with displaced fracture neck of femur. The study aims to define the term "small head or inadequate size femoral head" objectively for its prognostic significance. Materials and Methods: 70 cases of displaced femoral neck fractures underwent CT scan preoperatively for proximal femoral geometric measurements of both hips. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was done in all cases. Patients were treated with either intertrochanteric osteotomy or lag screw osteosynthesis based on the size of the head fragment on plain radiographs. Results: The average femoral head fragment volume was 57 cu cm (range 28.3-84.91 cu cm; standard deviation 14 cu cm. Proximal fragment volume of >43 cu cm was termed adequate size (type I and of ≤43 cu cm as small femoral head (type II. Fractures which united (n = 54 had a relatively large average head size (59 cu cm when compared to fractures that did not (n = 16, which had a small average head size (49 cu cm and this difference was statistically significant. In type I fractures union rate was comparable in both osteotomy and lag screw groups (P > 0.05. Lag screw fixation failed invariably, while osteotomy showed good results in type II fractures (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Computed tomography scan of the proximal femur is advisable for measuring true size of head fragment. An objective

  1. Staged minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis of proximal tibial fractures with acute compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Oh, Chang-Wug; Oh, Jong-Keon; Kyung, Hee-Soo; Park, Kyeong-Hyeon; Kim, Hee-June; Jung, Jae-Wook; Jung, Young-Soo

    2017-06-01

    High-energy proximal tibial fractures often accompany compartment syndrome and are usually treated by fasciotomy with external fixation followed by secondary plating. However, the initial soft tissue injury may affect bony union, the fasciotomy incision or external fixator pin sites may lead to postoperative wound infections, and the staged procedure itself may adversely affect lower limb function. We assess the results of staged minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) for proximal tibial fractures with acute compartment syndrome. Twenty-eight patients with proximal tibial fractures accompanied by acute compartment syndrome who underwent staged MIPO and had a minimum of 12 months follow-up were enrolled. According to the AO/OTA classification, 6 were 41-A, 15 were 41-C, 2 were 42-A and 5 were 42-C fractures; this included 6 cases of open fractures. Immediate fasciotomy was performed once compartment syndrome was diagnosed and stabilization of the fracture followed using external fixation. After the soft tissue condition normalized, internal conversion with MIPO was done on an average of 37 days (range, 9-158) after index trauma. At the time of internal conversion, the external fixator pin site grades were 0 in 3 cases, 1 in 12 cases, 2 in 10 cases and 3 in 3 cases, as described by Dahl. Radiographic assessment of bony union and alignment and a functional assessment using the Knee Society Score and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score were carried out. Twenty-six cases achieved primary bony union at an average of 18.5 weeks. Two cases of nonunion healed after autogenous bone grafting. The mean Knee Society Score and the AOFAS score were 95 and 95.3 respectively, at last follow-up. Complications included 1 case of osteomyelitis in a patient with a grade IIIC open fracture and 1 case of malunion caused by delayed MIPO due to poor wound conditions. Duration of external fixation and the external fixator pin site grade were not related to the

  2. Fractures of the Proximal Third Tibia Treated With Intramedullary Interlocking Nails and Blocking Screws

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    Zanaty Mohamed Al-Toukhy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Internal splintage of proximal metaphyseal tibial fractures has gained acceptance as a method of early stabilization of such injuries. Intramedullary nailing is a challenging procedure. This study tries to evaluate treatment outcomes of closed reduction and intramedullary nailing with the aid of blocking screws to maintain the reduction and stabilize theses injuries. METHOD: Thirty patients (23 males and 7 females with proximal metaphyseal tibial fractures were treated and followed from June 2010 and February 2014 (44 months with average 19 months. Age ranged between 23 to 55 years (average, 38 years. According to A.O. Classification 13 cases were Type A2.1, 9 cases were Type A2.1 (II, and 8 cases were Type A3.2. Seven cases were open fractures and according to Gustilo Anderson classification 4 cases were Grade (I, 3 cases were Grade (II. All cases were treated by interlocking intramedullary tibial nailing assisted by the use of blocking screws technique. RESULTS: The results had been evaluated through the following parameters: (pain, union, malunion, infection, range of motions, walking capacity, extension lag, knee stability and implant and technical failure. All cases had been united. Excellent alignment obtained in 27 fractures (90%. Knee and Ankle joints range of motions were equivalent to the unaffected side in 25 patients (82%. Two patients got superficial wound infection (2.7%. The final functional results were evaluated through modified Karlstrom-Olerud Score and we get: Excellent: 20 cases (66.7%, Good: 7 cases (23.3%, Satisfactory: 2 cases (6.7% and Poor: 1 case (3.3%. DISCUSSION: Intramedullary nailing of proximal tibial fracture is a load sharing procedure, sparing the extraosseous blood supply, avoiding additional soft-tissue dissection, thereby minimizing the risk of postoperative complications. Also, it reduces the length of hospital stay and costs, enables early mobilization and achieves satisfactory outcomes

  3. Outcomes of trochanteric femoral fractures treated with proximal femoral nail: an analysis of 100 consecutive cases

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    Korkmaz MF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Fatih Korkmaz,1 Mehmet Nuri Erdem,2 Zeliha Disli,3 Engin Burak Selcuk,4 Mustafa Karakaplan,1 Abdullah Gogus5 1Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey; 2Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Nisantasi University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Anesthesiology, Malatya Government Hospital, Malatya, Turkey; 4Department of Family Medicine, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey; 5Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: In this study, we aimed to report the results of a retrospective study carried out at our institute regarding cases of patients who had suffered proximal femoral fractures between January 2002 and February 2007, and who were treated with a proximal femoral nail. Materials and methods: One hundred consecutive cases were included in the study. A case documentation form was used to obtain intraoperative data including age, sex, mechanism of injury, type of fracture according to Association for Osteosynthesis/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF classification and the American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA physical status classification (ASA grade. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at the time of admission and at the 6th week; subsequent visits were organized on the 3rd month, 6th month, and 12th month, and in patients with longer follow-up and annually postoperatively. The Harris score of hip function was used, and any change in the position of the implants and the progress of the fracture union, which was determined radiologically, was noted. Results: The mean age of the patients was 77.66 years (range: 37–98 years, and the sex distribution was 32 males and 68 females. Seventy-three fractures were reduced by closed means, whereas 27 needed limited open reduction. The mean follow-up time for the study group was 31.3 months (range

  4. Fixation of a Proximal Humeral Fracture Using a Novel Intramedullary Cage Construct following a Failed Conservative Treatment

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    John Macy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A majority of proximal humeral fractures are preferably treated conservatively. However, surgical management may be beneficial in proximal humeral fractures with significant displacement or angulation. Unfortunately, the complication rates associated with current surgical procedures for fracture fixation, ORIF and IM devices, can be unacceptably high. A new technology, termed the PH Cage, addresses the technical limitations associated with current technologies available for fixation of proximal humeral fractures. It allows for intramedullary fixation of a PH fracture and provides direct load bearing support to the articular surface and buttresses the medial column during healing. We are presenting our first experience with the PH Cage for the fixation of a PH fracture, which had previously failed conservative management.

  5. Does a traction-internal rotation radiograph help to better evaluate fractures of the proximal femur?

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    Koval, Kenneth J; Oh, Chong K; Egol, Kenneth A

    2008-01-01

    The standard radiographic series for evaluation of a suspected hip fracture in most centers includes an anteroposterior (AP) radiograph of the pelvis, as well AP and cross-table lateral views of the hip. The natural femoral neck anteversion, as well as the fracture deformity, however, may make accurate fracture classification difficult. We have noted that inexperienced physicians sometimes misclassify hip fractures based on the initial radiographic series, which may lead to errors both in surgical planning and implant choice. At our institution, we routinely obtain a physician-assisted traction-internal rotation radiograph of the affected hip in all fractures of the proximal femur. The purpose of the current study was to examine the usefulness of the traction-internal rotation radiograph for the classification of hip fractures by junior residents in our department. Forty-seven sets of complete radiographs (AP pelvis, AP hip, cross-table lateral, traction- internal rotation views) of patients who sustained a proximal femur fracture were identified. Fifteen first year orthopaedic residents (PGY2) individually reviewed the cases and classified them as one of six possible choices: 1. nondisplaced femoral neck fracture, 2. displaced femoral neck fracture, 3. stable intertrochanteric fracture, 4. unstable intertrochanteric fracture, 5. intertrochanteric fracture with subtrochanteric extension, or 6. subtrochanteric fracture. Each fracture case was classified after first reviewing the standard hip series (AP pelvis, AP hip, and cross-table lateral). A traction-internal rotation radiograph was then added to each case, and any changes in the initial classification were noted. The resident's classification was then compared with those of the senior investigators (KJK, KAE), who used all four views for classification. Reviewing a traction-internal rotation radiograph led to a statistically significant increase in agreement between the resident and senior investigators

  6. Comparison between the spatial subchondral support plate and the proximal humeral locking plate in the treatment of unstable proximal humeral fractures.

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    Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Lei; Yang, Di; Yang, Peng; Ma, Jun; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Aimin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of the S3 (spatial subchondral support) humeral plate and to compare the clinical outcomes and complications after ORIF (open reduction and internal fixation) of proximal humeral fractures using either a S3 plate or a PHLP (proximal humeral locking plate). A total of 144 patients with displaced unstable proximal humeral fractures were treated with either a S3 plate or a PHLP. Each patient had a follow-up at least for one year. We retrospectively collected the data and compared the shoulder functional outcome as well as complications of these two methods. During the one-year follow-up, the average Constant scores gradually improved for both groups. Patients treated with use of an S3 plate had better functional results at three and six months (P fracture types (Neer classified) were not significantly different between the S3 and PHLP group (P > 0.05). The complication rate was comparable between the two groups (P > 0.05). The treatment using an S3 plate for displaced unstable proximal humeral fractures resulted in a good union rate and functional outcome, which is comparable to the PHLP treatment. The S3 humerus plate can be considered as an effective implant for ORIF of displaced unstable proximal humeral fractures.

  7. Axillary artery lesion secondary to fracturing of the proximal third of the humerus: case report

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    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lesions of the axillary artery are rare in patients with fracturing of the proximal third of the humerus and may have greatly varying clinical manifestations. They are responsible for 15% and 20% of upper-limb artery injuries and the commonest mechanism is a fall to the ground, which accounts for 79% of such injuries. In some cases, the signs only appear later on. It is important to bear this association in mind, so as to make an early diagnosis and avoid serious complications. We report on a case of traumatic injury of the axillary artery secondary to fracturing of the proximal third of the humerus in an 84-year-old patient, with late evolution of clinical signs of ischemia in the limb affected. The aim here was to discuss the diagnostic difficulties and treatment.

  8. A PALMAR FRACTURE-DISLOCATION OF THE PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT OF THE MIDDLE FINGER CAUSED BY BOWLING: A CASE REPORT

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    Masahiro Kurosaka

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available During bowling, a twenty year old man could not pull out his middle finger from the ball in release and injured his finger. X-ray revealed a palmar fracture- dislocation of the PIP joint. We manipulated the PIP joint, but a gap remained at the fracture site on the X-ray after reduction. Surgical treatment was performed with a screw. Postoperatively, the middle finger was fixed with a splint for two weeks, and then active range of motion exercises were started. One year after the operation, the fracture had healed with a congruous joint surface, and the patient had full range of motion in the middle finger with no difficulties in activities of daily living. The etiology of a palmar fracture-dislocation of the PIP joint is still controversial, but we suggested the mechanism of the fracture-dislocation was caused by a shearing force to the middle phalangeal base from a dorsal direction. The main cause of the current injury was the poor fit between the middle finger and the hole of the bowling ball. Bowling is a popular and safe sport, but we should be aware of unexpected hand injuries related to bowling which may occur, especially in players at a recreational level

  9. Primary hemiarthroplasty versus conservative treatment for comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus in the elderly (ProCon): a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Dennis; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Tuinebreijer, Wim E.; Polinder, Suzanne; van Beeck, Ed F.; Breederveld, Roelf S.; Bronkhorst, Maarten W. G. A.; Eerenberg, Jan Peter; Rhemrev, Steven; Roerdink, W. Herbert; Schraa, Gerrit; van der Vis, Harm M.; van Thiel, Thom P. H.; Patka, Peter; Nijs, Stefaan; Schep, Niels W. L.

    2010-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal humerus are associated with a profound temporary and sometimes permanent, impairment of function and quality of life. The treatment of comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus like selected three-or four-part fractures and split fractures of the humeral head is a

  10. Primary hemiarthroplasty versus conservative treatment for comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus in the elderly (ProCon): A Multicenter Randomized Controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. den Hartog (Dennis); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); S. Polinder (Suzanne); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); R.S. Breederveld (Roelf S.); M.W.G.A. Bronkhorst (Maarten); J.P. Eerenberg (Jan Peter); S. Rhemrev (Steven); W.H. Roerdink (Herbert); G. Schraa (Gerrit); H.M. van der Vis (Harm); T.P.H. Thiel (Tom); P. Patka (Peter); S. Nijs (Stefaan); N.W.L. Schep (Niels)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Fractures of the proximal humerus are associated with a profound temporary and sometimes permanent, impairment of function and quality of life. The treatment of comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus like selected three-or four-part fractures and split fractures of the

  11. Stress fracture of the proximal humeral epiphysis in an elite junior badminton player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, K T; Batt, M E

    1997-01-01

    An elite junior badminton player presented with a chronic painful dominant shoulder after an intense training course. An acute stress fracture to the proximal humeral epiphysis was found. Two-plane radiography will identify abnormalities of the growth plate but comparative films of the unaffected side may also be required to differentiate subtle changes. Rest with subsequent rehabilitation is the appropriate management of these injuries although ideally they should be subjected to primary prevention. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9298564

  12. The calcar screw in angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures - a case study

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    Simmen Hans-Peter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With new minimally-invasive approaches for angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures, the need for the placement of oblique inferomedial screws ('calcar screw' has increasingly been discussed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of calcar screws on secondary loss of reduction and on the occurrence of complications. Methods Patients with a proximal humeral fracture who underwent angular stable plate fixation between 01/2007 and 07/2009 were included. On AP views of the shoulder, the difference in height between humeral head and the proximal end of the plate were determined postoperatively and at follow-up. Additionally, the occurrence of complications was documented. Patients with calcar screws were assigned to group C+, patients without to group C-. Results Follow-up was possible in 60 patients (C+ 6.7 ± 5.6 M/C- 5.0 ± 2.8 M. Humeral head necrosis occurred in 6 (C+, 15.4% and 3 (C-, 14.3% cases. Cut-out of the proximal screws was observed in 3 (C+, 7.7% and 1 (C-, 4.8% cases. In each group, 1 patient showed delayed union. Implant failure or lesions of the axillary nerve were not observed. In 44 patients, true AP and Neer views were available to measure the head-plate distance. There was a significant loss of reduction in group C- (2.56 ± 2.65 mm compared to C+ (0.77 ± 1.44 mm; p = 0.01. Conclusions The placement of calcar screws in the angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures is associated with less secondary loss of reduction by providing inferomedial support. An increased risk for complications could not be shown.

  13. QCT of the proximal femur--which parameters should be measured to discriminate hip fracture?

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    Museyko, O; Bousson, V; Adams, J; Laredo, J -D; Engelke, K

    2016-03-01

    For quantitative computed tomography (QCT), most relevant variables to discriminate hip fractures were determined. A multivariate analysis showed that trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) of the trochanter with "cortical" thickness of the neck provided better fracture discrimination than total hip integral BMD. A slice-by-slice analysis of the neck or the inclusion of strength-based parameters did not improve fracture discrimination. For QCT of the proximal femur, a large variety of analysis parameters describing bone mineral density, geometry, or strength has been considered. However, in each given study, generally just a small subset was used. The aim of this study was to start with a comprehensive set and then select a best subset of QCT parameters for discrimination of subjects with and without acute osteoporotic hip fractures. The analysis was performed using the population of the European Femur Fracture (EFFECT) study (Bousson et al. J Bone Min Res: Off J Am Soc Bone Min Res 26:881-893, 2011). Fifty-six female control subjects (age 73.2 ± 9.3 years) were compared with 46 female patients (age 80.9 ± 11.1 years) with acute hip fractures. The QCT analysis software MIAF-Femur was used to virtually dissect the proximal femur and analyze more than 1000 parameters, predominantly in the femoral neck. A multivariate best-subset analysis was used to extract the parameters best discriminating hip fractures. All results were adjusted for age, height, and weight differences between the two groups. For the discrimination of all proximal hip fractures as well as for cervical fractures alone, the measurement of neck parameters suffices (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.84). Parameters characterizing bone strength are discriminators of hip fractures; however, in multivariate models, only "cortical" cross-sectional area in the neck center remained as a significant contributor. The combination of one BMD parameter, trabecular BMD of the trochanter, and one geometry

  14. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for open fractures of the proximal tibia.

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    Kim, Joon-Woo; Oh, Chang-Wug; Jung, Won-Ju; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2012-12-01

    Relatively few studies have addressed plate osteosynthesis for open proximal tibial fractures by now. The purpose of this study was to assess the results of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) for open fractures of the proximal tibia. Thirty-four patients with an open proximal tibial fracture were treated by MIPO. Thirty of these, who followed for over 1 year, constituted the subject of this retrospective study. According to the AO Foundation and Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO-OTA) classification, there were 3 patients of type 41-C, 6 of type 42-A, 8 of type 42-B, and 13 of type 42-C. In terms of the Gustilo and Anderson's open fracture grading system, 11 patients were of grade I, 6 were of grade II, and 13 were of grade III (III-A, 6; III-B, 6; III-C, 1). After thorough debridement and wound cleansing, when necessary, a soft tissue flap was placed. Primary MIPO (simultaneous plate fixation with soft tissue procedures) was performed in 18 patients, and staged MIPO (temporary external fixation followed by soft tissue procedures and subsequent conversion to plate fixation after soft tissue healing) was performed in 12 patients. Results were assessed according to the achievement and time to union, complications (including infections), and function of the knee joint using Knee Society scores. Statistical analysis was performed to identify factors influencing results. Primary union was achieved by 24 of the 30 study subjects. Early bone grafting was performed in 6 cases with a massive initial bone defect expected to result in non-union. No patient had malalignment greater than 10°. The mean Knee Society score was 88.7 at final follow-up visits, 23 patients achieved an excellent result, and 7 a good result. There were 3 superficial and 5 deep infections, but none required early implant removal. Functional results were similar for primary and staged MIPO (p = 0.113). Fracture pattern (p = 0.089) and open fracture grade (p = 0.079) were not found to

  15. Outcomes evaluation of locking plate osteosynthesis in displaced fractures of the proximal humerus

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    Mauro Emilio Conforto Gracitell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate functional outcomes, radiographic findings and complications of proximal humeral fractures treated with locking plates and to determine prognostic factors for successful clinical outcomes. Methods: Forty patients undergoing internal fixation of fractures of the proximal humerus with the Philos(r plate were included in the study. The surgeries were performed between 2004 and 2011 and the patients underwent radiographic and clinical evaluation, by Constant -Murley and Dash score. Outcomes were analyzed by use of multivariate regression with several different variables. Results: Patients were on average of 61.8 ± 16.28 years, and most were female (70%. The Constant -Murley score was 72.03 ± 14.01 and Dash score was 24.96 ± 19.99. The postoperative radiographs showed a head-shaft angle of 135.43º± 11.82. Regression analysis showed that the patient's age and the Hertel classification influenced the Constant -Murley scale (p = 0.0049 and 0.012, respectively. Other prognostic criteria such as Neer and AO classification, head-shaft angle, the presence of metaphyseal comminution and extension of the humeral metaphyseal fragment showed no effect on prognosis. Complications occurred in four patients (10%. Conclusion: The fixation with the Philos(r plate provided good clinical and radiographic results in fractures of the proximal humerus, with a low complication rate. Patient's age and Hertel classification were defined as prognostic factors that led to worse functional outcomes.

  16. The Outcome in Early Cases of Treatment of Subtrochanteric Fractures with Proximal Femur Locking Compression Plate

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    U Gunadham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome in early treatment of subtrochanteric fractures with proximal femur locking compression plate (PF-LCP.The patients included in this study were those with subtrochanteric fractures (AO type 32A-C treated with PF-LCP (Synthes between Jan 2009 and Jun 2011. The patient characteristics and details of clinical conditions were obtained from records. Clinical and radiographic follow-ups were done at one, two, four and 6 months intervals, and at one year. The primary outcome studied included fracture union and functional ambulatory status. Twenty-six patients were included in the study, 19 of whom were male with a mean age of 42.4 years. Fourteen patients (53.9% had sustained AO type 32B fractures, the majority in motor vehicle accidents. Twenty-two fractures (84.6% achieved union, while sixpatients (23.1% had complications such as broken plate, varus collapse, and broken screw. Four patients (15.4% underwent a second operation. At the end of the follow-ups, 25 patients (96.2% were community ambulators. We conclude that PF-LCP is an effective alternative treatment for subtrochanteric fractures when properly performed.

  17. Development of a balanced experimental-computational approach to understanding the mechanics of proximal femur fractures.

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    Helgason, B; Gilchrist, S; Ariza, O; Chak, J D; Zheng, G; Widmer, R P; Ferguson, S J; Guy, P; Cripton, P A

    2014-06-01

    The majority of people who sustain hip fractures after a fall to the side would not have been identified using current screening techniques such as areal bone mineral density. Identifying them, however, is essential so that appropriate pharmacological or lifestyle interventions can be implemented. A protocol, demonstrated on a single specimen, is introduced, comprising the following components; in vitro biofidelic drop tower testing of a proximal femur; high-speed image analysis through digital image correlation; detailed accounting of the energy present during the drop tower test; organ level finite element simulations of the drop tower test; micro level finite element simulations of critical volumes of interest in the trabecular bone. Fracture in the femoral specimen initiated in the superior part of the neck. Measured fracture load was 3760N, compared to 4871N predicted based on the finite element analysis. Digital image correlation showed compressive surface strains as high as 7.1% prior to fracture. Voxel level results were consistent with high-speed video data and helped identify hidden local structural weaknesses. We found using a drop tower test protocol that a femoral neck fracture can be created with a fall velocity and energy representative of a sideways fall from standing. Additionally, we found that the nested explicit finite element method used allowed us to identify local structural weaknesses associated with femur fracture initiation. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Indications and limitations of the fixator TGF "Gex-Fix" in proximal end humeral fractures.

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    Parlato, A; D'Arienzo, A; Ferruzza, M; Galvano, N; D'Arienzo, M

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of fractures of the humerus has increased exponentially in recent years. The most used classifications for humerus fracture are morphological (Neer), biological (AO/ASIF) and descriptive (Hertel). The types of surgical treatment for humerus fracture include prosthetic replacement and synthesis using different devices, including the Tension Guide Fixator (TGF), Gex-Fix. External fixation for displaced proximal humeral fractures avoids dissection and soft tissue stripping and has been reported by some authors to be associated with higher union rates, a lower incidence of avascular necrosis, less scarring of the scapulohumeral interface, and faster rehabilitation compared with open reduction and internal fixation. Other authors have reported that external fixation does not ensure acceptable reduction and fracture stability, particularly in patients with osteoporosis. The external fixation technique involves the introduction of Steinmann's pin to keep manual reduction, the introduction of two K-wires in the humeral head, the removal of the Steinmann's pin, and the introduction of two fiches on the humeral shaft. Hub connectors are mounted on the wires and on the chips to connect the outer bar and tensioning system. A total of 84 patients aged 42-84 years with proximal end humeral fractures (66% had two-part fractures) were treated with Fixator TGF in this study from December 2007 to June 2012. The postoperative recovery was earlier and the active-assisted motion was less painful than has been reported with other surgical techniques. The TGF was removed without anaesthesia at the outpatient clinic at a mean of 7 weeks (range 5-8 weeks) after surgery, and there was no loss of reduction or secondary displacement after removal. These results, after five years of experience, confirm that the best indication for this fixator is two- or three-part fractures because the device enables early active mobilisation. The limitations of this fixator are evident in

  19. Computed tomographic evaluation of the proximal femur: A predictive classification in displaced femoral neck fracture management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magu, Narender Kumar; Magu, Sarita; Rohilla, Rajesh Kumar; Batra, Amit; Jaipuria, Abhishek; Singh, Amanpreet

    2014-09-01

    Femoral neck fracture is truly an enigma due to the high incidence of avascular necrosis and nonunion. Different methods have been described to determine the size of the femoral head fragment, as a small head has been said to be associated with poor outcome and nonunion due to inadequate implant purchase in the proximal fragment. These methods were two dimensional and were affected by radiography techniques, therefore did not determine true head size. Computed tomography (CT) is an important option to measure true head size as images can be obtained in three dimensions. Henceforth, we subjected patients to CT scan of hip in cases with displaced fracture neck of femur. The study aims to define the term small head or inadequate size femoral head" objectively for its prognostic significance. 70 cases of displaced femoral neck fractures underwent CT scan preoperatively for proximal femoral geometric measurements of both hips. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was done in all cases. Patients were treated with either intertrochanteric osteotomy or lag screw osteosynthesis based on the size of the head fragment on plain radiographs. The average femoral head fragment volume was 57 cu cm (range 28.3-84.91 cu cm; standard deviation 14 cu cm). Proximal fragment volume of >43 cu cm was termed adequate size (type I) and of ≤43 cu cm as small femoral head (type II). Fractures which united (n = 54) had a relatively large average head size (59 cu cm) when compared to fractures that did not (n = 16), which had a small average head size (49 cu cm) and this difference was statistically significant. In type I fractures union rate was comparable in both osteotomy and lag screw groups (P > 0.05). Lag screw fixation failed invariably, while osteotomy showed good results in type II fractures (P femoral head size (type I and type II) is proposed. Osteosynthesis should be the preferred method of treatment in type I and osteotomy or prosthetic replacement is the method of choice for

  20. The anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate: A significant radiological finding in young children with trampoline fractures

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    Stranzinger, Enno, E-mail: enno.stranzinger@insel.ch [University Hospital Bern, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Leidolt, Lars, E-mail: lars.leidolt@insel.ch [University Hospital Bern, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Eich, Georg, E-mail: georg.eich@ksa.ch [Cantonal Hospital Aarau, Pediatric Radiology, Tellstrasse, CH-5001 Aarau (Switzerland); Klimek, Peter Michael, E-mail: peter.klimek@ksa.ch [Cantonal Hospital Aarau, Pediatric Surgery, Tellstrasse, CH-5001 Aarau (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    Objective: Evaluation of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate in young children, which suffered a trampoline fracture in comparison with a normal population. Materials and methods: 62 children (31 females, 31 males) between 2 and 5 years of age (average 2 years 11 months, standard deviation 11 months) with radiographs in two views of the tibia were included in this retrospective study. 25 children with proximal tibia fractures were injured with a history of jumping on a trampoline. All other causes for tibia fractures were excluded. A normal age-mapped control cohort of 37 children was compared. These children had neither evidence of a trampoline related injury nor a fracture of the tibia. The anterior tilt angle of the epiphyseal plate of the tibia was defined as an angle between the proximal tibia physis and the distal tibia physis on a lateral view. Two radiologists evaluated all radiographs for fractures and measured the anterior tilt angle in consensus. An unpaired Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis (SPSS). Original reports were reviewed and compared with the radiological findings and follow-up radiographs. Results: In the normal control group, the average anterior tilt angle measured −3.2°, SD ± 2.8°. The children with trampoline fractures showed an anterior tilt of +4.4°, SD ± 2.9°. The difference was statistically significant, P < 0.0001. In 6 patients (24% of all patients with confirmed fractures) the original report missed to diagnose the proximal tibial fracture. Conclusion: Young children between 2 and 5 years of age are at risk for proximal tibia fractures while jumping on a trampoline. These fractures may be very subtle and difficult to detect on initial radiographs. Measurement of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate on lateral radiographs is supportive for interpreting correctly trampoline fractures.

  1. Trends and Variation in Incidence, Surgical Treatment, and Repeat Surgery of Proximal Humeral Fractures in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John-Erik; Leung, Brian C.; Spratt, Kevin F.; Koval, Ken J.; Weinstein, James D.; Goodman, David C.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The treatment of proximal humeral fractures in the elderly remains controversial. Options include nonoperative treatment, open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF), and hemiarthroplasty. Locking plate technology has expanded the indications for ORIF for certain fracture types in osteoporotic bone. This study was performed to characterize the incidence, treatment, and revision surgery of proximal humeral fractures according to geographic region both before (1999 to 2000) and after (2004 to 2005) the introduction of locking plates. Methods: We used a 20% sample of Medicare Part-B data and the Medicare denominator file for the years 1998 to 2006. Proximal humeral fractures were identified by Common Procedural Terminology codes for treatment, categorized as nonoperative, ORIF, or hemiarthroplasty. Geographic variation in treatment type was determined with use of 306 hospital referral regions. Odds ratios for revision surgery were calculated by the need for repeat surgery within one year of the index procedure. Rates were adjusted for age, sex, race, and comorbidities. Results: There were 14,774 proximal humeral fractures in the 20% sample from 1999 to 2000 (an estimated total of 73,870 fractures) and 16,138 fractures in the sample from 2004 to 2005 (an estimated total of 80,690 fractures). The overall age, sex, and race-adjusted incidence of proximal humeral fractures was unchanged from 1999 to 2005 (2.47 vs. 2.48 per 1000 Medicare beneficiaries; p = 0.992). However, the absolute rate of surgically managed proximal humeral fractures rose 3.2 percentage points from 12.5% to 15.7%, a relative increase of 25.6% (p fractures treated with ORIF was 28.5% (p fractures treated with hemiarthroplasty increased 19.6% (p proximal humeral fractures in the elderly did not change from 1999 to 2005, the rate of surgical treatment increased significantly. The marked regional variation in the rates of surgical treatment highlights the need for better consensus regarding

  2. Assessment of the individual fracture risk of the proximal femur by using statistical appearance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Benedikt; Fritscher, Karl D; Kuhn, Volker; Eckstein, Felix; Link, Thomas M; Schubert, Rainer

    2010-06-01

    Standard diagnostic techniques to quantify bone mineral density (BMD) include dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography. However, BMD alone is not sufficient to predict the fracture risk for an individual patient. Therefore, the development of tools, which can assess the bone quality in order to predict individual biomechanics of a bone, would mean a significant improvement for the prevention of fragility fractures. In this study, a new approach to predict the fracture risk of proximal femora using a statistical appearance model will be presented. 100 CT data sets of human femur cadaver specimens are used to create statistical appearance models for the prediction of the individual fracture load (FL). Calculating these models offers the possibility to use information about the inner structure of the proximal femur, as well as geometric properties of the femoral bone for FL prediction. By applying principal component analysis, statistical models have been calculated in different regions of interest. For each of these models, the individual model parameters for each single data set were calculated and used as predictor variables in a multilinear regression model. By this means, the best working region of interest for the prediction of FL was identified. The accuracy of the FL prediction was evaluated by using a leave-one-out cross validation scheme. Performance of DXA in predicting FL was used as a standard of comparison. The results of the evaluative tests demonstrate that significantly better results for FL prediction can be achieved by using the proposed model-based approach (R = 0.91) than using DXA-BMD (R = 0.81) for the prediction of fracture load. The results of the evaluation show that the presented model-based approach is very promising and also comparable to studies that partly used higher image resolutions for bone quality assessment and fracture risk prediction.

  3. Participation of osteoporosis in femoral neck fracture; Bone mineral measurement of proximal femur using quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Naoto (Gifu Prefectural Tajimi Hospital (Japan))

    1989-10-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was used to measure bone mineral contents of the proximal femur. First, 62 specimens of cancellous bones of the proximal femur obtained at operation were burnt for mineral determination after preoperative QCT measurement to evaluate the relationship between QCT values and ash weight. The findings indicated that QCT measurement of proximal femur was as useful as that of the lumbar spine. Next, 10 groups of 50 men and 50 women ranging in age from the 5th to the 9th decade were tested to define the control mean and range of QCT mineral content of proximal femur, to compare with 32 cases of femoral neck fracture. In women with femoral neck fracture, QCT values of the femoral neck were less than those of the same normal age group except for cases of medial fracture in the 9th decade. This measurement might provide an index for fracture risk. (author).

  4. Additive fiber-cerclages in proximal humeral fractures stabilized by locking plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurschler, Christof; Rech, Louise; Vosshenrich, Rolf; Lill, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose The effect of additive fiber-cerclages in proximal humeral fractures stabilized by locking plates on fracture stabilization and rotator cuff function is unclear. Here it was assessed in a human cadaver study. Methods 24 paired human shoulder specimens were harvested from median 77-year-old (range 66–85) female donors. An unstable 3-part fracture model with an intact rotator cuff was developed. 1 specimen of each pair received an additive fiber-cerclage of the rotator cuff after plate fixation, and the other one received a plate fixation without an additive fiber-cerclage. Force-controlled hydraulic cylinders were used to simulate physiological rotator cuff tension, while a robot-assisted shoulder simulator performed 4 relevant cases of load: (1) axial loading at 0°, (2) glenohumeral abduction at 60°, (3) internal rotation at 0° abduction, and (4) external rotation at 0° abduction, and imitated hanging arm weight during loading without affecting joint kinematics. A 3-dimensional real-time interfragmentary motion analysis was done in fracture gaps between the greater tuberosity and the head, as well as subcapital. The capacity of the rotator cuff to strain was analyzed with an optical system. Results Interfragmentary motion was similar between the groups with and without fiber-cerclages, in both fracture gaps and in any of the cases of load. Cerclages did not impair the capacity of the rotator cuff to strain. Interpretation Provided that unstable 3-part fractures are reduced and stabilized anatomically by a locking plate, additive fiber-cerclages do not reduce interfragmentary motion. Additive fiber-cerclages may be necessary in locking plate osteosyntheses of multiple-fractured greater tuberosities or lesser tuberosity fractures that cannot be fixed sufficiently by the plate. PMID:19562564

  5. Critical factors in cut-out complication after gamma nail treatment of proximal femoral fractures

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    Bojan Alicja J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common mechanical failure in the internal fixation of trochanteric hip fractures is the cut-out of the sliding screw through the femoral head. Several factors that influence this complication have been suggested, but there is no consensus as to the relative importance of each factor. The purpose of this study was to analyse the cut-out complication with respect to the following variables: patients’ age, fracture type, fracture reduction, implant positioning and implant design. Methods 3066 consecutive patients were treated for trochanteric fractures with Gamma Nails between 1990 and 2002 at the Centre de Traumatologie et de l`Orthopedie (CTO, Strasbourg, France. Cut-out complications were identified by reviewing all available case notes and radiographs. Subsequently, the data were analysed by a single reviewer (AJB with focus on the studied factors. Results Seventy-one cut-out complications were found (2.3% of the 3066 trochanteric fractures. Cut-out failure associated with avascular head necrosis, pathologic fracture, deep infection or secondary to prior failure of other implants were excluded from the study (14 cases. The remaining 57 cases (1.85 %, median age 82.6, 79% females were believed to have a biomechanical explanation for the cut-out failure. 41 patients had a basicervical or complex fracture type. A majority of cut-outs (43 hips, 75% had a combination of the critical factors studied; non-anatomical reduction, non-optimal lag screw position and the characteristic fracture pattern found. Conclusions The primary cut-out rate of 1.85% was low compared with the literature. A typical cut-out complication in our study is represented by an unstable fracture involving the trochanteric and cervical regions or the combination of both, non-anatomical reduction and non-optimal screw position. Surgeons confronted with proximal femoral fractures should carefully scrutinize preoperative radiographs to assess the

  6. Treatment of an open distal tibia fracture with segmental bone loss in combination with a closed proximal tibia fracture: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin; Yang, Kyu Hyun

    2012-08-01

    The treatment of open distal tibia fractures remains challenging, particularly when the fracture is infected and involves segmental bone loss. We report the case of a 38-year-old man who sustained an open distal tibiofibular fracture with segmental bone loss and a closed proximal tibial fracture. The fractures were initially fixed with a temporary external fixator. The open distal tibial fracture was infected, and the skin was covered after the wound became culture negative. The tibia was then internally transported with a ring external fixator; the closed fracture of the proximal tibia served as the corticotomy for internal transport without conventional corticotomy. After 5 cm internal transport, the docking site of the distal tibia was fixed with a locking plate and autogenous cancellous bone graft. Bone graft was also used to the distal tibiofibular space to achieve distal tibiofibular synostosis. We describe one treatment option for an infected open fracture of the distal tibia with segmental bone loss that is accompanied by a closed fracture of the proximal tibia. This method can treat two fractures simultaneously.

  7. Tuberosity healing after reverse shoulder arthroplasty for acute proximal humerus fractures: the "black and tan" technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaini, Nathan T; Everding, Nathan G; Levy, Jonathan C; Rosas, Sam

    2015-11-01

    Reverse shoulder arthroplasty has seen increased use for management of complex proximal humeral fractures in the elderly. Recent evidence has shown that tuberosity healing leads to improved active range of motion and functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to report on the radiographic and clinical outcomes of a consecutive series of patients having undergone reverse shoulder arthroplasty for fracture utilizing the "black and tan" method--a hybrid cementation-impaction grafting technique that uses autogenous cancellous bone graft to create an interface between the proximal cement mantle and the area of tuberosity repair. Twenty-five patients (average age, 77 years; range, 63-88 years) were included in the analysis with a mean follow-up of 17 months. All patients underwent reverse shoulder arthroplasty for a complex proximal humerus fracture using the black and tan technique. The tuberosity healing rate was 88%. At final follow-up, mean active elevation was 117° ± 23°, mean abduction was 86° ± 16°, and mean external rotation was 29° ± 18°. External rotation strength averaged 4.9 ± 0.2. The Simple Shoulder Test and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores averaged 7 and 76, respectively. The mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons total score was 71; visual analog scale score for pain, 2; and visual analog scale score for function, 7. Of the 25 patients, 21 (84%) rated their satisfaction with the surgery as excellent or good. The black and tan technique together with standard suture repair and an implant with features that support tuberosity repair results in a high tuberosity healing rate with restoration of external rotation after reverse shoulder arthroplasty for fracture. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy comparison of intramedullary nails, locking plates and conservative treatment for displaced proximal humeral fractures in the elderly

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    Ge W

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wei Ge,* Qi Sun,* Gen Li, Guanghua Lu, Ming Cai, ShaoHua Li Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The incidence of proximal humeral fractures is high in the elderly, and the superior management of these fractures remains a controversy. The study aims to compare clinical outcomes of intramedullary nails, locking plates and conservative treatment for the management of displaced proximal humeral fractures in the elderly. Patients and methods: In this prospective study, a total of 198 patients with 2- or 3-part proximal humeral fractures who received fixation of locking plates or intramedullary nails or conservative treatment were included. The primary outcome was the 24-month Constant–Murley score. The secondary outcomes included the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES scores, the visual analog scale (VAS pain scores, shoulder range of motion and complication rate. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the Constant–Murley scores and ASES scores among the plate group, the nail group and the conservative group for 2-part fractures. For 3-part fractures, Constant–Murley scores and ASES scores were lower in the conservative group compared with those in the plate group and the nail group. Besides, the conservative group showed a significantly lower external rotation during follow-ups. The complication rate was comparable among the plate group, the nail group and the conservative group for both 2-part and 3-part fractures. Conclusion: Similar satisfactory functional outcomes can be achieved with the locking plates, intramedullary nails or conservative treatment for 2-part proximal humeral fractures in the elderly. The advantages in functional outcomes favor locking plates and intramedullary nails in the management of 3-part proximal humeral fractures. Keywords

  9. Which parameters affect medium- to long-term results after angular stable plate fixation for proximal humeral fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrs, Christian; Kühle, Luise; Blumenstock, Gunnar; Stöckle, Ulrich; Rolauffs, Bernd; Freude, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Very little information on medium- to long-term results is available for surgically treated proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this prospective treatment study was to present long-term results after angular stable plate fixation of displaced proximal humeral fractures and to detect which specific patient- and fracture-related parameters affect the clinical outcome. We performed a prospective clinical and radiologic evaluation of 77 patients with a displaced proximal humeral fracture (28 Neer 2-part, 38 3-part, and 11 4-part fractures; 28 AO A fractures, 30 AO B fractures, and 19 AO C fractures) treated with angular stable plate fixation after a mean follow-up period of 96 months (range, 74-133 months). We assessed outcomes with the Constant, University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA), and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores and evaluated specific patient- and fracture-related parameters including complications. The mean Constant, University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA), and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores were 79, 31, and 12 points. Reasons for revisions were implant-related impingement (n = 13), screw perforation (n = 10), infection (n = 4), and secondary fracture displacement (n = 1). There was a significant association between worse score results and occurrence of secondary fracture displacement, screw perforation, residual bone deformities, and a rotator cuff defect at follow-up. Good medium- to long-term results after angular stable plate fixation of displaced proximal humeral fracture can be expected. A reconstruction within a range of 15° in both anteroposterior and axillary views and fracture displacement and screw perforation, and a less favorable long-term result. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stability of acute dorsal fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyser, Andrew R; Tsai, Michael A; Parks, Brent G; Means, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    We performed a cadaveric biomechanical study to characterize proximal interphalangeal joint stability after an injury to different amounts of the volar articular base of the middle phalanx (intact, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% volar defects). Eighteen digits on 6 hands were tested through full proximal interphalangeal joint range of motion using computer-controlled flexion and extension via the digital tendons. We collected proximal interphalangeal joint kinematic cine data in a true lateral projection with mini-fluoroscopy. We measured the amount of dorsal middle phalanx translation in full proximal interphalangeal joint extension. As we cycled the joint from full flexion into extension, we recorded the angle at which subluxation occurred. No specimens with 20% volar bony defect subluxated. All specimens in the 60% and 80% groups subluxated at an average flexion angle of 67° (range, 10° to 90°) in the 60% group and at all degrees of flexion in the 80% group. In the 40% group, 28% of specimens demonstrated subluxation at an average flexion angle of 14° (range, 4° to 40°). Mean dorsal translation of the middle phalanx in relation to the proximal phalanx at full digital extension was 0.2 mm in the 20% group, 0.8 mm in the 40% group, 3.2 mm in the 60% group, and 3.1 mm in the 80% group. Simulated volar articular bony defects of 20% were stable, whereas those with 60% and 80% defects were unstable during digital motion. Stability in the 40% group was variable and appeared to be the threshold for stability. Knowledge of the typical amount of middle phalanx defect and degree of proximal interphalangeal joint extension that can lead to joint instability may improve management of mechanically important proximal interphalangeal joint fracture dislocations. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fractures of the proximal femur: correlates of radiological evidence of osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Salil H.; Murphy, Kieran P. [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Radiology, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Fractures of the proximal femur are common sequelae of osteoporosis, and are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in elderly patients worldwide. Plain film radiographic assessment methods to assess for fracture risk may be of particular value. The authors present the results of biomechanical testing, radiographic imaging, and histologic exam of 20 embalmed human bone specimens, with implications for clinical correlation of radiologic findings. Authors assessed bone architecture using the Singh Index, using a blinded 3-rater system to reduce bias and measure intra-observer reliability. After loading to failure with ultimate tensile strength (UTS), bone specimens were assessed by fracture location type and by trabecular bone volume (TBV). Singh scoring was performed with Inter-Class Correlation of 0.80 (F=0.24, by ICC Portney Model 2). A statistically-significant difference among the UTS distributions was noted for UTS by Fracture Site (F=4.49, p=0.026, by ANOVA). No significant association of Singh Index with TBV, or TBV with UTS, was observed, although a trend toward greater UTS with higher Singh grade was observed. The authors propose that the Singh Index is a valuable and reliable indicator which may reflect structural integrity in trabecular bone. Fracture site along the femur is associated with tensile strength. The authors, in the light of these findings, address the promise and potential impact of prophylactic hip augmentation in populations at risk for femoral neck pathology. (orig.)

  12. Benefits and harms of locking plate osteosynthesis in intraarticular (OTA Type C) fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Rasmussen, Jeppe Vejlgaard; Frich, Lars Henrik

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Locking plate osteosynthesis of proximal humeral fractures are widely recommended and used, even in complex intraarticular fracture patterns such as AO/OTA Type C fractures. We systematically reviewed clinical studies assessing the benefits and harms of osteosynthesis with angle...... stable plates in AO/OTA Type C fractures of the proximal humerus. METHODS: We conducted an iterative search in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Cinahl, and PEDro in all languages from 1999 to November 2010. Eligible studies should study the outcome for Type C fractures after primary...... osteosynthesis with locking plate within two weeks of injury, and a follow-up period of six months or more. Patients should be evaluated with the Constant-Murley Score (CS). Two observers extracted data independently. RESULTS: Twelve studies and 282 Type C fractures were included. Results were categorised...

  13. Time to Surgery Is Associated with Thirty-Day and Ninety-Day Mortality After Proximal Femoral Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, Anne Marie; Gromov, Kirill; Palm, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    , pathological fractures, multiple fractures, and surgeries performed with implants not commonly used were excluded. End points were adjusted odds ratios for thirty-day and ninety-day mortality. RESULTS: For the 3517 surgeries included in this study, the median patient age was 82.0 years (range, fifty-one to 107......BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that undergoing surgery as soon as possible reduces early mortality in patients with a proximal femoral fracture. Our aim was to evaluate the association between surgical delay and early mortality in these patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis...... of prospectively collected data from the Danish Fracture Database and the Civil Registration System on patients who were fifty years of age or older and had undergone surgery for a proximal femoral fracture. Femoral head fracture (classified as OTA/AO 31C per the OTA/AO classification system), high-energy trauma...

  14. Type II Intertrochanteric Fractures: Proximal Femoral Nailing (PFN) Versus Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnes, Cyril; Sm, Shishir; Najimudeen, Syed

    2016-01-01

    Intertrochanteric fracture is one of the most common fractures of the hip especially in the elderly with osteoporotic bones, usually due to low-energy trauma like simple falls. Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) is still considered the gold standard for treating intertrochanteric fractures by many. Not many studies compare the DHS with Proximal femoral nail (PFN), in Type II intertrochanteric fractures (Boyd and Griffin classification). This study was done to compare the functional and radiological outcome of PFN with DHS in treatment of Type II intertrochanteric fractures. From October 2012 to March 2015, a prospective comparative study was done where 30 alternative cases of type II intertrochanteric fractures of hip were operated using PFN or DHS. Intraoperative complications were noted. Functional outcome was assessed using Harris Hip Score and radiological findings were compared at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The average age of the patients was 60 years. In our series we found that patients with DHS had increased intraoperative blood loss (159ml), longer duration of surgery (105min), and required longer time for mobilization while patients who underwent PFN had lower intraoperative blood loss (73ml), shorter duration of surgery (91min), and allowed early mobilization. The average limb shortening in DHS group was 9.33 mm as compared with PFN group which was only 4.72 mm. The patients treated with PFN started early ambulation as they had better Harris Hip Score in the early post-op period. At the end of 12th month, there was not much difference in the functional outcome between the two groups. PFN is better than DHS in type II intertrochanteric fractures in terms of decreased blood loss, reduced duration of surgery, early weight bearing and mobilization, reduced hospital stay, decreased risk of infection and decreased complications.

  15. [Treatment of unstable fractures of the proximal end of the humerus using elastic curved intramedullary wires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zifko, B; Zifko, B; Poigenfürst, J

    1987-04-01

    At the Accident Hospital Lorenz Böhler and the Accident Hospital Meidling in Vienna, 48 patients with proximal humeral fractures were treated by closed reduction, intramedullary fixation with elastic pins and immobilization for two weeks in a Velpeau type stockinette (Gilchrist) between February 1985 and February 1986. The pins have a diameter of 2 mm. At there lower end there is a 20 mm long elastic curve which is ment to anker the pin in the entry hole to the intramedullary cavity, preventing sliding out of the implant. At the upper end the last 20 mm of the wire are angulated for 15 degrees. AO-classification was used. 39 patients had surgical neck-fractures. There were 34 displaced fractures (AO-type A 2/2), six dislocation- and more segment fractures and three epiphyseal separations of the adductiontype. The functional results of 36 patients were evaluated according to Neer's table. 29 patients had more than 80 points, four patients had more than 70 points and three had poor results. Reason for poor results was in one case a fracture with dislocation of the greater tuberosity which should have been treated by open reduction and the age in a 82 year old patient, who had a poor functional result after twelve weeks of treatment despite good fracture healing. There were no problems with wound healing, infections, myositis ossificans or Sudeck disease. Closed reductions of unstable surgical neck fractures and intramedullary fixation causes least damage to the soft tissues of the shoulder, leading to early good functional results.

  16. Type II Intertrochanteric Fractures: Proximal Femoral Nailing (PFN Versus Dynamic Hip Screw(DHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Jonnes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intertrochanteric fracture is one of the most common fractures of the hip especially in the elderly with osteoporotic bones, usually due to low-energy trauma like simple falls. Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS is still considered the gold standard for treating intertrochanteric fractures by many. Not many studies compare the DHS with Proximal femoral nail (PFN, in Type II intertrochanteric fractures (Boyd and Griffin classification. This study was done to compare the functional and radiological outcome of PFN with DHS in treatment of Type II intertrochanteric fractures.   Methods: From October 2012 to March 2015, a prospective comparative study was done where 30 alternative cases of type II intertrochanteric fractures of hip were operated using PFN or DHS. Intraoperative complications were noted. Functional outcome was assessed using Harris Hip Score and radiological findings were compared at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Results: The average age of the patients was 60 years. In our series we found that patients with DHS had increased intraoperative blood loss (159ml, longer duration of surgery (105min, and required longer time for mobilization while patients who underwent PFN had lower intraoperative blood loss (73ml, shorter duration of surgery (91min, and allowed early mobilization. The average limb shortening in DHS group was 9.33 mm as compared with PFN group which was only 4.72 mm. The patients treated with PFN started early ambulation as they had better Harris Hip Score in the early post-op period. At the end of 12th month, there was not much difference in the functional outcome between the two groups. Conclusion: PFN is better than DHS in type II inter-trochanteric fractures in terms of decreased blood loss, reduced duration of surgery, early weight bearing and mobilization, reduced hospital stay, decreased risk of infection and decreased complications.

  17. Review of fixation techniques for the four-part fractured proximal humerus in hemiarthroplasty

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    Lorenzetti Silvio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The clinical outcome of hemiarthroplasty for proximal humeral fractures is not satisfactory. Secondary fragment dislocation may prevent bone integration; the primary stability by a fixation technique is therefore needed to accomplish tuberosity healing. Present technical comparison of surgical fixation techniques reveals the state-of-the-art approach and highlights promising techniques for enhanced stability. Method A classification of available fixation techniques for three- and four part fractures was done. The placement of sutures and cables was described on the basis of anatomical landmarks such as the rotator cuff tendon insertions, the bicipital groove and the surgical neck. Groups with similar properties were categorized. Results Materials used for fragment fixation include heavy braided sutures and/or metallic cables, which are passed through drilling holes in the bone fragments. The classification resulted in four distinct groups: A: both tuberosities and shaft are fixed together by one suture, B: single tuberosities are independently connected to the shaft and among each other, C: metallic cables are used in addition to the sutures and D: the fragments are connected by short stitches, close to the fragment borderlines. Conclusions A plurality of techniques for the reconstruction of a fractured proximal humerus is found. The categorisation into similar strategies provides a broad overview of present techniques and supports a further development of optimized techniques. Prospective studies are necessary to correlate the technique with the clinical outcome.

  18. Unstable dorsal proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocations treated with extension-block pinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, David M; Weichbrodt, Matthew T; Huang, Chris; Hagberg, William C; Balk, Marshall L

    2015-03-01

    Unstable proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint fracture-dislocations, which can cause significant disability, can be treated with multiple techniques. Extension-block pinning (EBP) allows for early motion and is less technically demanding than alternative surgical treatments. In the study reported here, 12 patients with unstable dorsal PIP fracture-dislocations were treated with closed reduction of the PIP joint followed by percutaneous insertion of a Kirschner wire (K-wire) into the distal aspect of the proximal phalanx. For these patients, extent of articular surface involvement averaged 43% (range, 25%-75%). Active motion was initiated early after surgery, and the K-wire was removed a mean of 25 days after pinning. Radiographic reduction of joint dislocation was achieved and maintained for 11 of the 12 patients at a mean follow-up of 35.5 months. At follow-up, mean visual analog scale (VAS) score was 0.64 (scale, 0-10). Mean score on the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire was 5.7, suggesting minimal functional impairment. Mean PIP active motion was 84° (range, 50°-110°). Grip strength was equal between operative and contralateral hands. Patient satisfaction most closely correlated with low VAS and QuickDASH scores. One patient developed a malunion, which was treated with corrective osteotomy. EBP is a simple, safe, and reproducible technique for unstable PIP fracture-dislocations. This technique yields outcomes similar to those reported for more complex surgical procedures.

  19. Base fractures of the fifth proximal phalanx can be treated conservatively with buddy taping and immediate mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Lars S; Jørring, Stig; Bernt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment of base fractures in the proximal phalanx depends on the fracture type, the degree of displacement and whether fracture reduction is stable or not. Internal fixation often leads to decreased mobility of the injured finger despite exact reduction of the fracture. Our...... treatment is focused upon function and to a lesser extent on exact reposition of the fractured fifth digit. Buddy taping was used after initial, closed reduction of the fracture allowing for immediate mobilisation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective follow-up study of 53 consecutive conservatively...... managed base fractures in 53 patients with a mean age of 39 years. All fractures were treated with buddy taping to the fourth digit and immediate mobilisation. RESULTS: The subjective outcome showed high overall satisfaction, and only four patients reported mild pain at rest or work. Malrotation was noted...

  20. A severely displaced metaphyseal fracture of the proximal humerus with dislocation of the shoulder in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JI Jonghun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Fracture of the proximal humerus metaphysis with coexistent dislocation of the shoulder in chil- dren is a rare injury. The injury often occurs as a consequence of high velocity trauma. Most fractures of the proximal humerus commonly associated with the epiphysis in children can be treated with closed reduction. We presented a case of 5-year-old girl who sustained this type of fracture- dislocation of the shoulder. Open reduction and internal fixation with multiple smooth K-wires was performed. At two years follow-up, the patient was pain free and regained full range of motion.

  1. Treatment of comminuted proximal humeral fractures using locking plate with strut allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hongeun; Park, Ki-Beom; Oh, Seungbae; Jeong, Jinyoung

    2017-05-01

    This study compared the radiologic outcome of fixation using locking plate only with fixation using locking plate with an endosteal strut allograft in the treatment of comminuted proximal humeral fracture. Among 52 patients with comminuted proximal humeral fracture, 32 patients underwent fixation with locking plate only, and 20 patients underwent fixation using locking plate with an endosteal strut allograft. The strut allograft was inserted into the intramedullary cavity of the humerus to support the humeral head and fixed with the locking plate. Immediate postoperative radiologic findings were compared with those of 6 months or more after the surgery, and loss of anatomic fixation was defined if the varus malalignment of neck-shaft angle (NSA) was more than 5° or if the change of humeral head height (HHH) was more than 3 mm. In the locking plate-only group, 22 of 32 patients (69%) showed the change in NSA of more than 5°, with an average of 10.2°. The HHH change in 20 patients (62.5%) was more than 3 mm, with an average of 4 mm. Among 20 patients who underwent locking plate with the endosteal strut allograft, the average NSA and HHH change was 3° and 1 mm, respectively. Varus malalignment was evident in 2 patients (10%). The HHH change was more than 3 mm in 1 patient (5%). Fixation using a locking plate with an endosteal strut allograft can be considered a reasonable option to maintain the anatomic reduction in elderly patients with comminuted proximal humeral fracture. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The prediction of cyclic proximal humerus fracture fixation failure by various bone density measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Peter; Grünwald, Leonard; Windolf, Markus

    2018-02-22

    Fixation of osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures has remained challenging, but may be improved by careful pre-operative planning. The aim of this study was to investigate how well the failure of locking plate fixation of osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures can be predicted by bone density measures assessed with currently available clinical imaging (realistic case) and a higher resolution and quality modality (theoretical best-case). Various density measures were correlated to experimentally assessed number of cycles to construct failure of plated unstable low-density proximal humerus fractures (N = 18). The influence of density evaluation technique was investigated by comparing local (peri-implant) versus global evaluation regions; HR-pQCT-based versus clinical QCT-based image data; ipsilateral versus contralateral side; and bone mineral content (BMC) versus bone mineral density (BMD). All investigated density measures were significantly correlated with the experimental cycles to failure. The best performing clinically feasible parameter was the QCT-based BMC of the contralateral articular cap region, providing significantly better correlation (R 2  = 0.53) compared to a previously proposed clinical density measure (R 2  = 0.30). BMC had consistently, but not significantly stronger correlations with failure than BMD. The overall best results were obtained with the ipsilateral HR-pQCT-based local BMC (R 2  = 0.74) that may be used for implant optimization. Strong correlations were found between the corresponding density measures of the two CT image sources, as well as between the two sides. Future studies should investigate if BMC of the contralateral articular cap region could provide improved prediction of clinical fixation failure compared to previously proposed measures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Screw depth sounding in proximal humerus fractures to avoid iatrogenic intra-articular penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengard, Matthew J; Gardner, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Unstable and displaced proximal humerus fractures remain a treatment challenge. The use of locked plates has improved construct stability, but complication rates remain high. Biomechanical studies have emphasized the importance of anchoring screws in the subchondral bone of the humeral head to improve implant stability. However, the spherical shape of the proximal humerus and the limited tactile sensation of its soft cancellous bone make determining accurate screw length difficult, and reported rates of intraoperative screw penetration are high. Iatrogenic screw penetration, even if recognized and corrected before leaving the operating room, may lead to late failure. We present a simple technique of quickly and safely determining screw length using a blunt-tipped Kirschner wire and instruments found in basic orthopaedic sets.

  4. Catastrophic cement reaction following cementation for megaprosthesis for proximal femoral fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Muhammad Nouman; Curtin, William; Callaghan, Michael Andrew; Murphy, Colin G

    2017-09-23

    Bone cement implantation syndrome (BCIS) is a well-described and potentially fatal complication of orthopaedic surgery involving pressurised bone cement. Although also described for certain spinal procedures, it is most commonly associated with cemented hip and knee arthroplasty and with cemented hemiarthroplasty following neck of femur fracture in particular.Donaldson et alproposed the definition of BCIS as a syndrome "characterized by hypoxia, hypotension or both and/or unexpected loss of consciousness occurring around the time of cementation, prosthesis insertion, reduction of the joint or, occasionally, limb tourniquet deflation in a patient undergoing cemented bone surgery". Other features include increased vascular resistance, cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest post cement use.We describe a case of a patient who suffered a catastrophic reaction to cement during surgery for a comminuted proximal femoral fracture. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Vascular Injury Accompanying Displaced Proximal Humeral Fractures: Two Cases and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Hofman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases in which displaced proximal humeral fractures are accompanied by vascular injury. These Injuries are very rare but severe and the accompanying vascular impairment can have great clinical consequences. Therefore, we try to emphasize on the importance of thorough and accurate diagnostics, because it is obligatory for early diagnosis and improving the eventual outcome of these injuries. The specific order in treatment (internal fixation first or vascular repair first depends on the severity of the accompanying vascular injury. The increasing use of endovascular procedures to treat vascular lesions is a very interesting development with several advantages, especially in elderly and multimorbid patients.

  6. Epidemiology of fractures of the proximal third of the femur in elderly patients ☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Daniachi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: This was an epidemiological study on fractures of the proximal third of the femur in elderly patients who were treated at a teaching hospital in the central region of São Paulo. METHODS: The subjects were patients over the age of 60 years who were attended over a 1-year period. A questionnaire seeking basic sociodemographic data and information on comorbidities presented and medications used was drawn up. The circumstances of the fractures and their characteristics, the treatment instituted and the intra-hospital mortality rate were evaluated. RESULTS: The 113 patients included in the study presented a mean age of 79 years. The ratio between the sexes was three women to each man. Only 30.4% of the patients reported having osteoporosis and only 0.9% had had treatment for the disease. Low-energy trauma was the cause of 92.9% of the fractures. Femoral neck fractures accounted for 42.5% of the fractures and trochanteric fractures, 57.5%. Five patients did not undergo operations; 39 underwent joint replacement; and 69 underwent osteosynthesis. The mean length of hospital stay was 13.5 days and the mean length of waiting time until surgery was 7 days. The intra-hospital mortality rate was 7.1%. CONCLUSION: The patients attended at this institution presented an epidemiological profile similar to what is found in the Brazilian literature. Chronic kidney failure is a significant factor with regard to intra-hospital mortality. Preventive measures such as early diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis and regular physical activity practices were not implemented.

  7. Humeral Tip-apex-distance as a Prognostic Marker for Proximal Humeral Fractures in 203 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Dominik; Himmelmann, Tobias; Dresing, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background: Humeral head fractures and their postoperative outcome remain a challenging problem in surgical daily routine. Predictive factors for loss of fixation are rare. Objective: Determination of predictive factors for the failure of osteosynthesis with the loss of fixation or migration of screws in humeral head fractures. Method: From 1995 to 2011, 408 patients with proximal humeral fractures [mean age 66.6 years, 50.9-82.3 years] and osteosynthesis were analyzed. Two hundred and three received open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) with the PHILOS® plate. The non-locking plate was used in 80, the locking plate in 16 and humeral head prosthesis in 26 patients, in addition to 23 patients undergoing other procedures. Intraoperative reduction that achieved an anatomical alignment of the medial aspect of the humerus (humeral calcar) was assessed in 94 patients by postoperative X-ray analysis. The loss of fixation was evaluated by a follow-up of three to five X-rays and measurement of the humeral tip-apex-distance (HTAD). Results: For stable fixed fractures with an intact calcar, percentual HTAD was significantly higher than for unstable fixed fractures (p=0.04). Morbidity, such as hypertension, orthopedic operations or diabetes, strongly influenced the HTAD, while postoperative passive motion treatment modestly affected the HTAD over time. Conclusion: The anatomic reconstruction of the calcar, leading to stable fixation of humeral head fractures, can significantly prevent an overproportioned decrease in the HTAD in postoperative X-rays and seems to be vital in multimorbid patients. Measurement of the HTAD over time delivers a tool for early detection of secondary loss of fixation. PMID:28567159

  8. The amount of humeral head impaction of proximal humeral fractures fixed with the Humerusblock device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Stefano; Moroder, Philipp; Arceri, Valerio; Postacchini, Roberto; Gumina, Stefano

    2014-07-01

    The Humerusblock is a minimally invasive device allowing fixation of proximal humeral fractures. A drawback of the device is possible K-wire perforation of the head with the need for early removal of the implant. We assessed the amount of humeral head impaction and its role in the postoperative varus/valgus deviation of the humeral head in fractures of the upper humerus treated with Humerusblock. Fractures were classified according to the Codman-Lego system. The length of the posteromedial metaphyseal extension and integrity of medial hinge were measured; metaphyseal comminution was assessed. Accuracy of fracture reduction was classified as excellent to poor. An original method of measurement of amount of postoperative impaction of the humeral head was developed. The impaction and varus/valgus inclination of the heads were measured comparing postoperative and three-month follow-up radiographs. Constant score and its relation to sintering was calculated at 12-month follow-up. Forty-three fractures were available for follow-up. The amount of humeral head impaction was 3.9 mm on average and was directly correlated with patient's age, sex, Codman-Lego classification, varus inclination and mataphyseal comminution. The postoperative cervico-diaphyseal angle was restored in 35 cases, with 81 % good results. The Humerusblock was removed in 41 % of cases because of K-wire perforation of the humeral head. A negative correlation was found between impaction and Constant score. The amount of humeral head impaction is related to patients' age, sex, and fracture patterns, being the most prone to compaction those with metaphyseal comminution. Humeral head impaction negatively affects final Constant score.

  9. Surgical Treatment of Undisplaced Femur Neck Fractures in Dementia Patients Using Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bong-Ju; Cho, Hong-Man; Min, Woong-Bae

    2015-09-01

    People with dementia have poor mobility and discharge outcomes following hip fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological results of internal fixation of undisplaced femur neck fractures (Garden types 1 and 2) by proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) in dementia patients. We studied retrospectively 19 patients with undisplaced femur neck fracture. All patients were over 70 years of age, walked independently with a cane or crutches and suffered moderate-to-severe dementia. Patients were treated with PFNA and followed-up for more than 2 years. Revision, loss of fixation, complications, and walking ability outcomes were measured. In walking-ability evaluation, patients showed an average decrease of just 0.2 points at the final follow-up. Walking ability was evaluated from before injury to 4 weeks after surgery and decreased by less than 0.5 points. Radiological bone union was achieved in 17 cases; the average time to bone union was 4.14 months (range, 2.5-7 months). Complications included non-union in two cases and femoral head avascular necrosis in one case of non-union. We found that for patients with osteoporotic bone tissues in their femoral heads or patients (e.g., those suffering dementia) for whom cooperating with medical workers for postoperative walking control or rehabilitation exercises is difficult, implanting a mechanically stable spiral blade for fixation of femoral neck fractures could facilitate walking after surgery.

  10. Isokinetic strength test and functional outcomes in proximal humeral fractures treated with a locking plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Cosimo; Verdano, Michele Arcangelo; Jacopetti, Marco; Romiti, Davide; Lunini, Enricomaria; Pellegrini, Andrea; Ceccarelli, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Despite the use of many shoulder outcome scales in subjects with rotator cuff pathology or instability symptoms, it can be problematic to select an instrumental evaluation in the shoulder trauma population. In this study we evaluated patients with proximal humeral fractures treated with internal fixation with a locking plate, analyzing the recovery of strength with an isokinetic test and its correlation with clinical and functional outcomes. We enrolled 46 individuals (17 men, 29 women). The evaluation included a structured interview, measurement of ROM, isokinetic strength test and Constant-Murley and QuickDASH scores. The isokinetic test was performed in flexion/extension and external/internal rotation of the operated shoulder in comparison with the contralateral side and concentric contractions in all movements. The parameter tested was peak torque. In the operated shoulder values we noticed a statistically significant correlation between the QuickDASH and Constant-Murley score. QuickDASH showed a significant correlation with flexion isokinetic strength, partial correlation with extension isokinetic values and no correlation with external/internal rotation values. In addition, we found a correlation between the Constant-Murley score and all the isokinetic strength parameters. Comparing the operated shoulder and the contralateral, in Neer type 2 fractures there was no significant difference in all the isokinetic peak torque values; in Neer type 3 and type 4, there was a significant statistical difference in both flexion peak torque values and no significant difference in the other movements. The isokinetic test can give objective data on strength recovery and could help the surgeon's clinical evaluation to assess the functional recovery of the operated shoulder over time. We believe that the isokinetic test and Constant-Murley score could act as a reference in the evaluation of post-surgical outcome of proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the type of fracture

  11. Efficacy comparison of intramedullary nails, locking plates and conservative treatment for displaced proximal humeral fractures in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Lu, Guanghua; Cai, Ming; Li, ShaoHua

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of proximal humeral fractures is high in the elderly, and the superior management of these fractures remains a controversy. The study aims to compare clinical outcomes of intramedullary nails, locking plates and conservative treatment for the management of displaced proximal humeral fractures in the elderly. Patients and methods In this prospective study, a total of 198 patients with 2- or 3-part proximal humeral fractures who received fixation of locking plates or intramedullary nails or conservative treatment were included. The primary outcome was the 24-month Constant–Murley score. The secondary outcomes included the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, the visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, shoulder range of motion and complication rate. Results There were no statistically significant differences in the Constant–Murley scores and ASES scores among the plate group, the nail group and the conservative group for 2-part fractures. For 3-part fractures, Constant–Murley scores and ASES scores were lower in the conservative group compared with those in the plate group and the nail group. Besides, the conservative group showed a significantly lower external rotation during follow-ups. The complication rate was comparable among the plate group, the nail group and the conservative group for both 2-part and 3-part fractures. Conclusion Similar satisfactory functional outcomes can be achieved with the locking plates, intramedullary nails or conservative treatment for 2-part proximal humeral fractures in the elderly. The advantages in functional outcomes favor locking plates and intramedullary nails in the management of 3-part proximal humeral fractures. PMID:29238180

  12. Interobserver reliability of classification and characterization of proximal humeral fractures: a comparison of two and three-dimensional CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Wendy E; Guitton, Thierry G; Warner, Jon J P; Ring, David

    2013-09-04

    Interobserver reliability for the classification of proximal humeral fractures is limited. The aim of this study was to test the null hypothesis that interobserver reliability of the AO classification of proximal humeral fractures, the preferred treatment, and fracture characteristics is the same for two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography (CT). Members of the Science of Variation Group--fully trained practicing orthopaedic and trauma surgeons from around the world--were randomized to evaluate radiographs and either 2-D CT or 3-D CT images of fifteen proximal humeral fractures via a web-based survey and respond to the following four questions: (1) Is the greater tuberosity displaced? (2) Is the humeral head split? (3) Is the arterial supply compromised? (4) Is the glenohumeral joint dislocated? They also classified the fracture according to the AO system and indicated their preferred treatment of the fracture (operative or nonoperative). Agreement among observers was assessed with use of the multirater kappa (κ) measure. Interobserver reliability of the AO classification, fracture characteristics, and preferred treatment generally ranged from "slight" to "fair." A few small but statistically significant differences were found. Observers randomized to the 2-D CT group had slightly but significantly better agreement on displacement of the greater tuberosity (κ = 0.35 compared with 0.30, p Proximal humeral fracture classifications may be helpful conceptually, but they have poor interobserver reliability even when 3-D rather than 2-D CT is utilized. This may contribute to the similarly poor interobserver reliability that was observed for selection of the treatment for proximal humeral fractures. The lack of a reliable classification confounds efforts to compare the outcomes of treatment methods among different clinical trials and reports.

  13. Arthroscopic surgery for osteochondral fractures of the proximal phalanx of the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal (fetlock) joints in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovich, J V; McIlwraith, C W

    1986-02-01

    Arthroscopic surgery for osteochondral fractures of the proximal phalanx was performed on 74 fetlock joints of 63 horses for a total of 87 fractures during a 2-year period. The medial dorsal proximal aspect of the proximal phalanx of the forelimbs was most commonly involved (59 fractures), followed by the lateral aspect (26 fractures), and 2 fractures occurred in the fetlock joint of the right hindlimb. At surgery, 82 fragments were removed and 5 fragments that had healed or were embedded in the joint capsule were not removed. Of the fragments removed, 15 were fixed firmly to the proximal phalanx, 63 were easily movable by arthroscopic instruments (but had soft tissue attachments to the proximal phalanx), and 4 were floating free within the joint. Arthroscopic surgery allowed excellent visualization and appreciation of the attachments of fragments and their stage of healing. Horses returned to full race training at an average of 11 1/2 weeks (range, 6 to 24 weeks). Thirty eight of 46 horses (82.6%) with adequate postoperative follow-up returned to athletic performance at least equal to that before fetlock injury.

  14. [Proximal femoral intramedullary nail versus DHS plate for the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. A prospective analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, A; Ramos, T; Vilchez, F; Mendoza-Lemus, O; Peña, V; Cárdenas-Estrada, E; Acosta-Olivo, C

    2013-01-01

    To show that patients with intertrochanteric fractures treated with a proximal femoral nail have a better postoperative course than those treated with a DHS plate (dynamic hip screw). Patients with a Boyd & Griffin type II intertrochanteric fracture were randomly divided into two groups: a group of patients treated with a PFN and another one treated with a DHS plate. All patients were assessed at 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks using the Harris scale and the visual analog scale pre- and postoperatively, as well as the operative time, incision size, intraoperative bleeding, onset of partial and/or total weight bearing, healing time, time to attain prior physical activity level, and radiographic result. 32 patients met our criteria. The variables that had a significant reduction were: incision, operative time, postoperative pain according to the visual analog scale, onset of mobility, partial weight bearing and pain at 2 weeks. The proximal femoral nail has better short-term outcomes than the DHS plate; however, in the medium term both implants have the same outcomes.

  15. Lessons learned from treating patients with unstable multifragmentary fractures of the proximal humerus by minimal invasive plate osteosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyoung Keun; Cho, Dae Yeon; Choo, Suk Kyu; Park, Jong Woong; Park, Ki Chul; Lee, Jung Il

    2015-02-01

    The authors present clinical and radiographic results of minimal invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) for three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Twenty-six patients with three- or four-part proximal humeral fractures treated with the MIPO technique through the deltoid splitting approach were clinically and radiographically evaluated at a minimum of 12 months with an average of 20.1 months. The valgus-impacted type of three-part fracture was excluded to verify the results of the MIPO with unstable multifragmentary fractures of the proximal humerus. Twenty female patients and six male patients were included (mean age 67 years; range 18-90 years). No cases of nonunion were seen. The mean forward flexion, abduction, and external rotation were 145°, 119°, and 48°, respectively. The mean visual analog scale (VAS) for pain was 1.47 points. The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score was 14.5 points, and the mean UCLA score was 29.6 points. The mean neck-shaft angle was 134°. Twenty-three patients had adequate medial support, and three patients did not have adequate medial support on initial postoperative radiographs. Five shoulders (19 %) developed complicated results. Two cases of proximal malposition of the plate (7.7 %) and two intra-articular screw penetrations (7.7 %) were observed. One case of osteonecrosis of the humeral head was identified at the final follow-up (3.8 %). The MIPO technique provides reliable radiologic and functional outcomes for three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures. Our results might support the use of MIPO for treating unstable multi fragmentary fractures of proximal humerus such as three- or four-part fractures to decrease osteonecrosis of humeral head.

  16. Delayed treatment of unstable proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocations with a dynamic external fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao Fang; Mi, Jing Yi; Rui, Yong Jun; Xue, Ming Yu; Chou, Jiandong; Tian, Jian; Chim, Harvey

    2015-10-01

    Fracture-dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) remain a challenging problem to treat. Although there are a number of papers describing the use of dynamic external fixators and force couples for treatment of unstable PIPJ fracture-dislocations acutely, the literature is scarce on delayed treatment of PIPJ fracture-dislocations, where malunion of the articular surface may theoretically compromise postoperative range of motion (ROM) at the PIPJ. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dynamic distraction external fixation (DDEF) for the delayed treatment of PIPJ fracture-dislocations at least 3 weeks after the inciting injury. Ten consecutive patients were treated with delayed DDEF between 2010 and 2013. Postoperative ROM at the PIPJ was measured. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire were administered to all patients postoperatively. Mean time from injury to surgery was 27.5 days. The mean follow-up period was 23.7 months (range 10-36). The mean active ROM at the PIPJ on final postoperative follow-up was 83.9° (range 52-100). None of the patients experienced pin-tract infections. Mean DASH score was 3.7+3.4 and mean Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire score was 97.3+3.0. All patients returned to work and resumed normal activities. Delayed treatment of unstable PIPJ fracture-dislocations with a DDEF is effective in restoring function to the PIPJ. Nascent malunion of the PIPJ articular surface does not compromise postoperative outcomes and the joint surface undergoes remodelling over time to restore a smooth and functional articular surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cemented hemi-arthroplasty in proximal femoral fractures in elderly with severe osteoporosis: A case series

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    Rahul M Salunkhe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Inter-trochanteric fractures in osteoporotic bones which are grossly comminuted are highly unstable and difficult to treat. Conservative treatment with traction and prolonged immobilization lands up with many complications and often fatality. Rate of failure with internal fixation with dynamic hip screw has been found to be high, especially in osteoporotic bones. Revision osteo-synthesis is technically demanding and leads to complications. Aim: To assess the efficacy of cemented hemiarthroplasty in the management of proximal femoral fractures in elderly patients with severe osteoporosis. Settings and Design: A Case series of 50 cases. Materials and Methods: We divided these fractures into three groups and accordingly the prosthesis was used. Group 1- intact calcar and lesser trochanter non-communited-AMP type of bipolar prosthesis, Group 2- fracture of calcar - Thompson′s type of bipolar prosthesis with calcar reconstruction, Group 3- group 2 + instability of postero-medial wall-modular type bipolar prosthesis with lesser trochanter and calcar reconstruction. Greater trochanter, calcar, and lesser trochanter were reconstructed with encirclage, tension band wiring, fashioned bone graft, or bone cement collar accordingly. Results: In our study of 50 cases with mean age 79.57 years, 20 cases were type 1, 19 type 2, and 11 type 3 fractures. The average Harris hip score was 79. Excellent to fair results were obtained at follow-up in 46 (92% and in 4 (8% results were poor. The mean Harris hip score was 83 (good in Group- I, 79 (Fair in Group- II, and 72 (Fair in Group- III patients. Average hospital stay was 12.5 days. There were four cases of superficial operative site infection which were treated with short course of oral antibiotics. Four cases died of medical complications, earliest being 3 months, and latest being 18 months. No case of loosening of the prosthesis, break in the cement or sinking of prosthesis was seen.

  18. Consequences of Avulsion Fracture of the Proximal Phalanx Caused by a Technical Failure of Hallux Valgus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Uk; Lee, Kyung Tai; Jegal, Hyuk; Kim, Ki Chun; Choo, Ho Sik; Kweon, Heon Ju

    2016-01-01

    Several cases of avulsion fracture of the proximal phalanx of the big toe during the lateral capsular release procedure were observed. However, these fractures have not been reported as a complication of hallux valgus surgery. The purpose of the present study was to report the proximal phalanx base fracture as an unrecognized complication and to evaluate the clinical and radiographic consequences of this complication. We retrospectively reviewed 225 feet that had undergone hallux valgus surgery involving proximal chevron osteotomy and distal soft tissue release from May 2009 to December 2012. Of these 225 feet (198 patients), 12 (5.3%) developed proximal phalanx base fracture postoperatively. These patients were assigned to the fracture group. The remaining patients were assigned to the nonfracture group. Patients were followed to observe whether the fractures united and whether degenerative changes developed at the first metatarsophalangeal joint because of this fracture. The mean follow-up period was 36 (range 12 to 72) months. All the subjects in the fracture and nonfracture groups underwent weightbearing anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the foot at the initial presentation and final follow-up point. The 2 groups were compared with respect to the hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, range of motion, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score, satisfaction, and degenerative changes. No significant differences were found in age, follow-up period, hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score, satisfaction, and degenerative changes between the 2 groups. Ten (83.3%) of the 12 fractures healed, 2 (16.7% of the fractures, 0.89% of the operated feet) progressed to asymptomatic nonunion, and 3 (1.33%) developed first metatarsophalangeal joint degeneration. Avulsion fracture of the proximal phalanx of the big toe is an uncommon complication of

  19. Large metaphyseal volume hemiprostheses for complex fractures of the proximal humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucentese, Sandro F; Sutter, Reto; Wolfensperger, Fabian; Jost, Bernhard; Gerber, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Results of hemiarthroplasty after acute complex proximal humerus fractures are controversial. The main problem is the fixation and healing of the greater tuberosity (GT). To address this problem a hemiarthroplasty with a large metaphyseal volume was designed and introduced. Thirty hemiarthroplasties were implanted for acute, complex, proximal humeral fractures in 30 consecutive patients (average age: 63.3 years; range, 41-78). One patient was lost; 2 patients could only be interviewed telefonically. Two patients had to be revised because of secondary displacement of the GT within the first 2 postoperative years. The remaining 25 patients were assessed clinically, radiographically, and with computer tomography (CT) imaging after a mean of 25 months (range, 24-29). Greater tuberosity healed in situ in 23 patients. In 12 cases, CT documented severe resorption of GT without displacement of a measurable bone fragment and an intact clinical cuff function with a radiographically preserved acromio-humeral distance. The mean Constant score was 59 points (range, 26-81), the mean relative Constant score 75% (range, 31-100). The mean anterior elevation was 117° (range, 45-160). The mean subjective shoulder value was 70% (range, 25-98). In 4 cases (14%), tuberosity dislocation occurred which was associated with an increase of fatty infiltration and poor result. The 2-year results with a large metaphyseal volume fracture-prosthesis showed good to excellent results, with a failure rate of 14%. Substantial resorption of the greater tuberosity was frequent, but was not associated with functional incompetence of the rotator cuff. The overall results obtained justify its continued use. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Delirium in older people after proximal femoral fracture repair: role of a preoperative screening cognitive test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mézière, A; Paillaud, E; Belmin, J; Pariel, S; Herbaud, S; Canouï-Poitrine, F; Le Thuaut, A; Marty, J; Plaud, B

    2013-09-01

    Preoperative cognitive impairment has been identified as a major risk factor for postoperative delirium in older people. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a validated and rapid screening cognitive test - COgnitive Disorder EXamination (CODEX) - performed preoperatively before proximal femoral fracture repair, was associated with a risk of postoperative delirium. We performed an observational prospective cohort study in orthopedic surgery department of a French hospital. We included patients aged 70years or older undergoing proximal femoral fracture repair and who were free of known dementia and delirium at the preoperative phase. Before surgery, the anesthesiologist realized the CODEX based on three-word recall test, simplified clock drawing and if one of these tasks was abnormal, spatial orientation was assessed. Delirium was routinely sought on postoperative day 3 (D3) using the Confusion Assessment Method by the geriatrician. Among the 52 included patients, seven (13.5%) had delirium on D3. All seven patients were among the 25 patients with abnormal CODEX results. None of the 27 patients with normal CODEX results had postoperative delirium. Abnormal CODEX was significantly associated with the risk of postoperative delirium in univariate analysis and after adjustment for age (odds ratio [OR]: 13.33; 95% confidence interval, [95%CI]: 1.85±∞; P<0.003). Abnormal preoperative rapid screening test CODEX is independently associated with postoperative delirium in older people undergoing hip fracture surgery and free of known dementia. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. A Novel Closed Method to Retrieve Broken Teflon Tube During Intramedullary Nailing in Proximal Humeral Fracture

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    Yuk Fai Lau

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Broken medullary tubes have been used for intramedullary (IM nailing of femoral and tibial fractures. In these reported cases, fragments of the medullary tube were retrieved by opening the fracture sites or left in situ, which might jeopardize periosteal blood supply. We herein present the case of a 58-year-old woman who underwent IM nailing for proximal humeral fracture, which was complicated by breakage of the medullary tube intraoperatively. Different instruments including guide rods, straight forceps, and cement extract hook were used to retrieve the retained fragments from the medullary canal, but these attempts were unsuccessful. Finally, the fragments were successfully removed using an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL ENDOBUTTON depth gauge. This case highlights that medullary tubes can break during humeral IM nailing, which could be minimized by ensuring integrity of the medullary tube prior to surgery and disposing medullary tubes with more than 100 exposures. A novel method of using ACL ENDOBUTTON depth gauge to retrieve retained tube fragments is recommended because of its long and slim design.

  2. Treatment of acute proximal humeral fractures in children with modular exter nal fixator

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    Michele Bisaccia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the follow-up of the fractures treated by external fixator. Methods: A total of 31 children aged 6–15 years with proximal humeral fractures Grade IV according to Neer–Horowitz classification were treated. The medium follow-up was 24 months. Results: In all cases, a good stability of the fracture and a quick healing process were obtained. The mean time of follow-up was 24 months. The external fixation was removed after 6 weeks (5–8 weeks on average. Constant shoulder score was proposed to all patients and the average result was 97.5 (84–100. Conclusions: Advantages of the external fixation are rapid mobilization of the joint, low invasiveness, a single surgery and the possibility to correct any secondary displacement. It is important to underline that the positioning of external fixator should be implanted by expert surgeons and that the patients must cooperate during the entire process up to the time of the removal of the fixator.

  3. [Biomechanical study of percutaneous pinning as the treatment of proximal humerus fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-yan; Wang, Man-yi; Rong, Guo-wei

    2004-03-22

    To investigate the influence on fracture stability by different pin construct during percutaneous pinning for the treatment of proximal humerus fractures. Eighteen pairs (36) adult fresh-frozen humeri were match-paired and divided into 4 groups. Dual-energy bone density scan had been used in order to rule out the influence by different degrees of osteoporosis of the cadaver. Two-part surgical neck fracture model was carried out unanimously in all 36 humeri. Four terminal threaded pins (2.5 mm in diameter) were used in fixation for all specimen. Parallel type pinning (box type) were carried out in 2 groups and convergent type pinning (fan shape) in the other 2 groups. Instron5566 biomechanical tester was applied in determining both anti-shear and anti-torsion ultimate load of each specimen. There was no statistical difference between parallel pin construct and convergent construct in regard of anti-shear resistance (P = 0.73). But by mean of anti-torsion resistance, the parallel construct had significant advantage over the convergent construct (P = 0.04). According to our biomechanical data, parallel pin construct seems to have better torsional stability. We suggest that parallel pin fixation should be applied whenever possible. Convergent pin construct should be considered when parallel construct is not possible or the distance between pins are too small (< 1 cm).

  4. Modified hemihamate arthroplasty technique for treatment of acute proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dae Suk; Lee, Sang Ki; Kim, Kap Jung; Choy, Won Sik

    2014-04-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 11 patients who underwent modified hemihamate arthroplasty for the treatment of comminuted dorsal fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint. This technique was used to minimize the potential risk of complications at the recipient site by volarly oblique osteotomy in the coronal plane at graft harvesting and anatomical repair of the detached flexor sheath. The average joint involvement of the fracture was 58.4%, and the mean duration of follow-up was 38 months. The active range of motion of the distal interphalangeal, PIP, and metacarpophalangeal joint was 80.4, 85.4, and 91.8 degrees, respectively. The mean disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand score was 4.8, and all patients achieved bony union at final follow-up. One patient showed radiographic signs of graft absorption, but this did not limit their daily activities. The modified hemihamate arthroplasty technique is safe and reliable and reduces the risk of iatrogenic damage when used to treat comminuted dorsal fracture-dislocations of the PIP joint.

  5. [Early results of proximal femoral fractures treated with FENIX modular hemiarthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görski, Radosław; Górecki, Andrzej; Olszewski, Paweł; Biedrzycki, Jerzy; Skowronek, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses preliminary clinical results in patients with proximal femoral fractures treated with hemiarthroplasty using a FENIX implant. The study group comprised 41 subjects aged 69 to 97 (median age 82.3 year). The follow-up study provided data on 26 subjects (63.4%), among which 15 attended the check-up, 5 subjects refused to visit at the Department and 6 subjects were reported as deceased. Median follow-up period amounted to 6.8 month (1 to 22 months). General hospitalization-related complications occurred in 8 patients (19.5%). During hospitalization no deaths occurred, in the deceased group 3 patients died within 12 months after surgery, while another 3 died after the twelve-month postoperative period (median of 13.3%). According to Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score favorable long-term results were observed in 9 patients (59.9%), 13 patients regained the level of motor function similar to the functional ability prior to fracture. The need to postpone the surgery due to general health status and impaired pre-operative motor function are significant negative prognostic factors. The results obtained were compared with previous efficacy studies on femoral fracture treatment using an Austin-Moore implant. Functional ability and self-reliance was higher in the FENIX group. FENIX arthroplasty effectively helps patients regain self-reliance and motor function thanks to its modular characteristics and anatmoical construction.

  6. The effect of time-to-surgery on outcome in elderly patients with proximal femoral fractures

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    Trampisch Hans J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether reducing time-to-surgery for elderly patients suffering from hip fracture results in better outcomes remains subject to controversial debates. Methods As part of a prospective observational study conducted between January 2002 and September 2003 on hip-fracture patients from 268 acute-care hospitals all over Germany, we investigated the relationship of time-to-surgery with frequency of post-operative complications and one-year mortality in elderly patients (age ≥65 with isolated proximal femoral fracture (femoral neck fracture or pertrochanteric femoral fracture. Patients with short (≤12 h, medium (> 12 h to ≤36 h and long (> 36 h times-to-surgery, counting from the time of the fracture event, were compared for patient characteristics, operative procedures, post-operative complications and one-year mortality. Results Hospital data were available for 2916 hip-fracture patients (mean age (SD in years: 82.1 (7.4, median age: 82; 79.7% women. Comparison of groups with short (n = 802, medium (n = 1191 and long (n = 923 time-to-surgery revealed statistically significant differences in a few patient characteristics (age, American Society of Anesthesiologists ratings classification and type of admission and in operative procedures (total hip endoprosthesis, hemi-endoprosthetic implants, other osteosynthetic procedures. However, comparison of these same groups for frequency of postoperative complications revealed only some non-significant associations with certain complications such as post-operative bleeding requiring treatment (early surgery patients and urinary tract infections (delayed surgery patients. Both unadjusted rates of one-year all-cause mortality (between 18.1% and 20.5%, and the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR for time-to-surgery: 1.04; p = 0.55 showed no association between mortality and time-to-surgery. Conclusion Although this study found a trend toward more frequent post-operative complications

  7. Pierolapithecus and the functional morphology of Miocene ape hand phalanges: paleobiological and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almécija, Sergio; Alba, David M; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2009-09-01

    The partial skeleton of Pierolapithecus, which provides the oldest unequivocal evidence of orthogrady, together with the recently described phalanges from Paşalar most likely attributable to Griphopithecus, provide a unique opportunity for understanding the changes in hand anatomy during the pronogrady/orthogrady transition in hominoid evolution. In this paper, we describe the Pierolapithecus hand phalanges and compare their morphology and proportions with those of other Miocene apes in order to make paleobiological inferences about locomotor evolution. In particular, we investigate the orthograde/pronograde evolutionary transition in order to test whether the acquisition of vertical climbing and suspension were decoupled during evolution. Our results indicate that the manual phalanges of Miocene apes are much more similar to one another than to living apes. In particular, Miocene apes retain primitive features related to powerful-grasping palmigrady on the basal portion, the shaft, and the trochlea of the proximal phalanges. These features suggest that above-branch quadrupedalism, inherited from stem hominoids, constituted a significant component of the locomotor repertories of different hominoid lineages at least until the late Miocene. Nonetheless, despite their striking morphological similarities, several Miocene apes do significantly differ in phalangeal curvature and/or elongation. Hispanopithecus most clearly departs by displaying markedly-curved and elongated phalanges, similar to those in the most suspensory of the extant apes (hylobatids and orangutans). This feature agrees with several others that indicate orang-like suspensory capabilities. The remaining Miocene apes, on the contrary, display low to moderate phalangeal curvature, and short to moderately-elongated phalanges, which are indicative of the lack of suspensory adaptations. As such, the transition from a pronograde towards an orthograde body plan, as far as this particular anatomical region is

  8. A biomechanical comparison of Kirschner-wire fixation on fracture stability in Salter-Harris type I fractures of the proximal humeral physis in a porcine cadaveric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiawen; Wang, Tian; Lovric, Vedran; Johnson, Kenneth A; Walsh, William R

    2017-10-25

    The physis is the weakest component of immature long bones, and physeal fractures constitute about 30% of fractures in growing dogs. Fractures of the proximal humeral physis typically have a Salter Harris type I or II configuration. These fractures require accurate reduction and adequate stabilization to allow for any potential continued longitudinal bone growth, in conjunction with physeal fracture healing. Conventional internal fixation of these fractures involves insertion of two parallel Kirschner wires, although other methods described include tension band wiring, Rush pinning, and lag screws. However these recommendations are based on anecdotal evidence, and information about the biomechanical stability of physeal fracture repair is sparse. The unique anatomical structure of the epiphyseal-metaphyseal complex makes the gripping of the epiphysis for ex vivo biomechanical testing of physeal fracture repair very challenging. The objective of our study was to biomechanically assess the optimal number (three, two or one) of implanted Kirschner wires in a porcine Salter Harris I proximal humeral physeal fracture model, using motion analysis tracking of peri-fragmental retro-reflective markers while constructs were subjected to a constant axial compression and a sinusoidal torque of +/- 2 Nm at 0.5 Hz for 250 cycles. There were significant differences between the three constructs (three, two or one Kirschner wire repair) for gross angular displacement (p  0.33). Motion analysis tracking using peri-fragmental markers in this porcine model of physeal fracture repair found that the stability at the fracture site of one-pin fixation was significantly less than two-pin and three-pin fixation. Whether there was increased stabilization of these fractures with three-pin fixation compared to two-pin fixation was not conclusive in this porcine model.

  9. Proximal instrumented vertebral body chance fracture after pedicle screw instrumentation in a thoracic kyphosis patient with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaobang; Lieberman, Isador H

    2015-02-01

    We present a case of proximal vertebral body chance fracture after pedicle screw instrumentation and fusion in a 67-year-old woman with osteoporosis and thoracic kyphosis. To report the rare and unique complication of proximal vertebral body chance fracture after pedicle screw instrumentation and fusion in a kyphosis patient. Pedicle screw instrumentation has been associated with complications not limited to neurological or vascular injury, loss of curve correction, intraoperative pedicle fracture or loosening, dural laceration, deep infection, and pseudarthrosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports describing a chance-type fracture generated by a pedicle screw fixation at the proximal end of a construct. A 67-year-old woman suffered from progressive thoracic kyphosis and mid thoracic pain presented 2 weeks after pedicle screw instrumentation and correction. She developed a vertebral body fracture at the proximal end of the instrumentation construct. Surgical intervention, including removal of the screws in the fractured vertebrae and extension of the instrumented fusion across the cervicothoracic junction, effectively restored the physiological sagittal alignment. Postoperatively, at 12-month follow-up, the patient is doing exceptionally well with near-complete relief of back pain and an excellent maintenance of correction. Chance fracture in osteoporotic bone at the proximal end of a construct due to a pedicle screw is a rare complication but it may result in catastrophic consequences. Early recognition of this complication, reduction of the fraction-dislocation, and an extension of the instrumentation can be utilized for realignment and long-term stabilization.

  10. Clinical evaluation of a new custom offset shoulder prosthesis for treatment of complex fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Schmal, Hagen; Sudkamp, Norbert P

    2006-01-01

    A and only 33% in Group B. The least satisfying partial function was shoulder mobility in both groups. Radiographic evaluation did not correlate with the Constant Score. Patients secondarily treated with arthroplasty seem to have less chance to achieve a satisfying functional outcome compared to those......Primary hemiarthroplasty of the shoulder is an accepted procedure to treat complex proximal humeral fractures. The goal of this study was to assess the functional outcome in patients treated with hemiarthroplasty using a custom offset shoulder prosthesis, either for an acute four-part fracture...... of the proximal humerus or following failed primary treatment of a complex humeral fracture. Thirty seven patients were followed up for a mean of 17 months after shoulder replacement (Group A: four-part-fractures; n = 26, Group B: posttraumatic necrosis/non-union after failed primary treatment; n = 11...

  11. Sensitivity and specificity of CT- and MRI-scanning in evaluation of occult fracture of the proximal femur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haubro, M; Stougaard, C; Torfing, T

    2015-01-01

    and a resident in orthopaedic surgery. Sensitivity and specificity were estimated with MRI as the golden standard. Kappa value was used to assess level of agreement in both MRI and CT finding. RESULTS: 15 fractures of the proximal femur were found (7 intertrochanteric-, 3 femoral neck and 5 fractures......OBJECTIVE: To estimate sensitivity and specificity of CT and MRI examinations in patients with fractures of the proximal femur. To determine the interobserver agreement of the modalities among a senior consulting radiologist, a resident in radiology and a resident in orthopaedics surgery. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: 67 patients (27 males, 40 females, mean age 80.5) seen in the emergency room with hip pain after fall, inability to stand and a primary X-ray without fracture were evaluated with both CT and MRI. The images were analysed by a senior consulting musculoskeletal radiologist, a resident in radiology...

  12. [Osteosynthetic material breakage in patients treated with DHS for proximal femoral fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubina, M; Skoták, M; Krumpl, O; Míka, P; Letocha, J

    2012-03-01

    In the literature, there are only few articles about the metal breakage after the Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) osteosynthesis. We have evaluated our group of patients focusing on these specific complications. We have evaluated a group of 428 patients (321 female and 107 male subjects) who underwent a total of 456 135 degrees 1"-collar DHS osteosyntheses, for primary proximal femoral fractures. The patients were aged 82.3 years on average, the procedures were performed during 1996-2009. We focused on the ostesynthetic material breakage (K-wire, sliding screw, hip plate, cortical screws). The follow-up period was 2 years. Out of 16 DHS used for intracapsular femoral neck fractures, metal breakage was recorded in one case (6.25%)-(K-wire) and no reoperation was required. Out of a total of 436 DHS procedures performed for stable pertrochanteric fractures, metal breakage complications were recorded in 8 cases (1.8%)-(3 times K-wire, 3 times cortical screws, 2 times sliding screw), and reoperation was indicated in 4 cases (2 times sliding screw, 2 times cortical screws). Out of a total of 4 DHS procedures used for subtrochanteric fractures, osteosynthetic material breakage was recorded in two cases (50%)-(1 times K-wire, 1 times cortical screws) and no reoperation was required. No cases of hip plate breakage were recorded. Out of a total of all 456 DHS procedures metal breakage was recorded in 11 cases in total (2.4%), reoperation was required in 4 cases (0.9%). In the literature, the authors found only several articles related to the osteosynthetic material breakage after DHS surgery. Correct indication and operation technique can reduce occurence of this specific complication and the reoperation rates. In future, the authors plan to employ computer modelling methods and biomechanic analysis.

  13. The effect of proximal contour on marginal ridge fracture of Class II composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomans, B A C; Roeters, F J M; Opdam, N J M; Kuijs, R H

    2008-10-01

    To compare the marginal ridge fracture strength of Class II composite resin restorations placed with a straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity. In 60 artificial first molars standardized MO-preparations were ground. Two matrix systems were used: (1) A straight matrix (Standard Tofflemire Matrix, KerrHawe) in Tofflemire retainer (Produits Dentaire). (2) A contoured matrix (Standard matrix, Palodent, Dentsply). In both groups, a wooden wedge and separation ring (Composi-Tight Gold, GDS) were placed and the matrix was burnished against the adjacent tooth. Three composite resins together were used (Filtek Supreme: e-modulus 13.3 GPa (3M ESPE), Clearfil AP-X: 16.6 GPa (Kuraray) and Clearfil Majesty Posterior: 22.0 GPa (Kuraray)), resulting in six groups (n=10). Teeth were mounted into a MTS servo hydraulic testing machine (Mini Bionix II, MTS, USA) with stylus placed on the marginal ridge. Samples were loaded at a crosshead speed of 1.0mm/min until fracture occurred. Fracture resistance data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffé's post hoc test for multiple comparison of groups (p<0.05). Contoured proximal surfaces (365.5+/-87.6N) resulted in significant stronger marginal ridges compared to straight surfaces (290.5+/-64.2N) (p<0.001). Clearfil AP-X (378.1+/-94.63N) provided a higher resistance to fracture than Filtek Supreme (301.4+/-67.3N) (p=0.001) and Clearfil Majesty Posterior (304.5+/-70.6N) (p=0.002). No differences were found between Filtek Supreme and Clearfil Majesty Posterior (p=0.890). Within the limitations of this in vitro study it was shown that use of a contoured matrix results in a stronger marginal ridge of a Class II composite resin restoration.

  14. Intramedullary cortical bone strut improves the cyclic stability of osteoporotic proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chih-Kun; Tsai, Yi-Jung; Yen, Cheng-Yo; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Yang, Teng-Yao; Tu, Yuan-Kun

    2017-02-02

    Proximal humeral fractures treated with locking plate can fail due to varus collapse, especially in osteoporotic bone with medial cortex comminution. The use of an intramedullary strut together with locking plate fixation may strengthen fixation and provide additional medial support to prevent the varus malalignment. This study biomechanically investigates the influence of an intramedullary cortical bone strut on the cyclic stability of proximal humeral fractures stabilized by locking plate fixation in a cadaver model. Ten cadaveric humeri were divided into two groups statistically matched for bone density. Each specimen was osteotomized with 10 mm gap at the surgical neck. The non-augmented group stabilized with locking plate alone; in the augmented group, a locking plate was used combined with an intramedullary cortical bone strut. The strut was retrograded into the subchondral bone, and three humeral head screws were inserted into the strut to form a plate-screw-strut mechanism. The cyclic axial load was performed to 450 N for 6000 cycles and then loaded to failure. Construct stiffness, cyclic loading behavior and failure strength were analyzed to identify differences between groups. The augmented constructs were significantly stiffer than the non-augmented constructs during cycling. On average, the maximum displacements at 6000 cycles for non-augmented and augmented groups were 3.10 ± 0.75 mm and 1.7 ± 0.65 mm (p = 0.01), respectively. The mean peak-to-peak (inter cycle) displacement at 6000 cycles was about 2 times lower for the augmented group (1.36 ± 0.68 mm vs. 2.86 ± 0.51 mm). All specimens showed varus collapse combined with loss of screw fixation of the humeral head. The failure load of the augmented group was increased by 2.0 (SD = 0.41) times compared with the non-augmented group (p proximal humeral fractures fixed with a locked plate under cyclic loading, especially in bone with poor quality. This work is based

  15. Validity and sensitivity to change of the Patient Specific Functional Scale used during rehabilitation following proximal humeral fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannberg Bäckman, Sara; Stråt, Sara; Ahlström, Susanne; Brodin, Nina

    2016-01-01

    To describe content validity, concurrent validity, sensitivity to change, internal consistency and the outcome distribution of the Patient Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) in patients with proximal humeral fracture. Fifty-three patients with proximal humeral fracture treated conservatively or surgically with plate and screw or intramedullary nail were recruited 6 weeks (±1 week) post-trauma or post-surgery. The following assessments were used: the PSFS, patient global score, shoulder function assessment, grip strength and Western Ontario Osteoarthritis of the shoulder Index (WOOS), before start of (n = 53) and after (n = 22) 2-3 months of group rehabilitation. In total, 96% of the activities stated in the PSFS was classified in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health activity component and 62% were found in the WOOS. Correlations between measures were low. The PSFS was highly sensitive to change to a period of group rehabilitation. All questions of the PSFS contributed to the total score. Both floor and ceiling effects could be noted. The PSFS shows satisfying measurement properties and may be a useful complement in the evaluation of individual changes during a period of rehabilitation after proximal humeral fracture. The PSFS assesses on activity level in patients with proximal humeral fracture. The PSFS is sensitive to change for group rehabilitation after humeral fracture. The PSFS can be useful for goal-setting, motivating and individually tailoring rehabilitation activities. The PSFS should be used in addition to specific measures of body functions and general health.

  16. Indications for computed tomography (CT- diagnostics in proximal humeral fractures: a comparative study of plain radiography and computed tomography

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    Weise Kuno

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Precise indications for computed tomography (CT in proximal humeral fractures are not established. The purpose of this study was a comparison of conventional radiographic views with different CT reconstructions with 2 D and 3 D imaging to establish indications for additional CT diagnostics depending on the fractured parts. Methods In a prospective diagnostic study in two level 1 trauma centers, 44 patients with proximal humeral fractures were diagnosed with conventional X-rays (22 AP + axillary views, 22 AP + scapular Y-views and CT (multi-planar reconstruction (MPR and maximum intensity projection (MIP with 2 D and 3 D imaging. 3 observers assessed the technical image quality, the assessment of the relevant anatomical structures (2-sample-t-test and the percentage of the osseous overlap of the proximal humerus (Welch-test using a scoring system. The quality of the different diagnostic methods was assessed according to the number of fractured parts (Bonferroni-Holm adjustment. Results There was significantly more overlap of the fractured region on the scapular Y-views (mean 71.5%, range 45–90% than on axillary views (mean 56.2%, range 10.5–100%. CT-diagnostics allowed a significantly better assessment of the relevant structures than conventional diagnostics (p Conclusion Conventional X-rays with AP view and a high-quality axillary view are useful for primary diagnostics of the fracture and often but not always show a clear presentation of the relevant bony structures such as both tuberosities, the glenoid and humeral head. CT with thin slices technology and additional 3 D imaging provides always a clear presentation of the fractured region. Clinically, a CT should be performed – independently of the number of fractured parts – when the proximal humerus and the shoulder joint are not presented with sufficient X-ray-quality to establish a treatment plan.

  17. The anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate: a significant radiological finding in young children with trampoline fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranzinger, Enno; Leidolt, Lars; Eich, Georg; Klimek, Peter Michael

    2014-08-01

    Evaluation of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate in young children, which suffered a trampoline fracture in comparison with a normal population. 62 children (31 females, 31 males) between 2 and 5 years of age (average 2 years 11 months, standard deviation 11 months) with radiographs in two views of the tibia were included in this retrospective study. 25 children with proximal tibia fractures were injured with a history of jumping on a trampoline. All other causes for tibia fractures were excluded. A normal age-mapped control cohort of 37 children was compared. These children had neither evidence of a trampoline related injury nor a fracture of the tibia. The anterior tilt angle of the epiphyseal plate of the tibia was defined as an angle between the proximal tibia physis and the distal tibia physis on a lateral view. Two radiologists evaluated all radiographs for fractures and measured the anterior tilt angle in consensus. An unpaired Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis (SPSS). Original reports were reviewed and compared with the radiological findings and follow-up radiographs. In the normal control group, the average anterior tilt angle measured -3.2°, SD ± 2.8°. The children with trampoline fractures showed an anterior tilt of +4.4°, SD ± 2.9°. The difference was statistically significant, Ptrampoline. These fractures may be very subtle and difficult to detect on initial radiographs. Measurement of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate on lateral radiographs is supportive for interpreting correctly trampoline fractures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images and detection of a fracture in the proximal sesamoid bones of forelimbs obtained from cadavers of racing Thoroughbreds.

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    Anthenill, Lucy A; Stover, Susan M; Gardner, Ian A; Hill, Ashley E; Lee, Christina M; Anderson, Mark L; Barr, Bradd C; Read, Deryck H; Johnson, Bill J; Woods, Leslie W; Daft, Barbara M; Kinde, Hailu; Moore, Janet D; Farman, Cynthia A; Odani, Jenee S; Pesavento, Patricia A; Uzal, Francisco A; Case, James T; Ardans, Alex A

    2006-05-01

    To determine the distribution for limbs and bones in horses with fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones and relationships with findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images. Proximal sesamoid bones obtained from both forelimbs of cadavers of 328 racing Thoroughbreds. Osteophytes; large vascular channels; and fracture location, orientation, configuration, and margin distinctness were categorized by use of high-detail contact palmarodorsal radiographs. Distributions of findings were determined. Relationships between radiographic findings and fracture characteristics were examined by use of chi2 and logistic regression techniques. Fractures were detected in 136 (41.5%) horses. Biaxial fractures were evident in 109 (80%) horses with a fracture. Osteophytes and large vascular channels were evident in 266 (81%) and 325 (99%) horses, respectively. Medial bones typically had complete transverse or split transverse simple fractures, indistinct fracture margins, > 1 vascular channel that was > 1 mm in width, and osteophytes in abaxial wing and basilar middle or basilar abaxial locations. Lateral bones typically had an oblique fracture and distinct fracture margins. Odds of proximal sesamoid bone fracture were approximately 2 to 5 times higher in bones without radiographic evidence of osteophytes or large vascular channels, respectively. Biaxial fractures of proximal sesamoid bones were common in cadavers of racing Thoroughbreds. Differences between medial and lateral bones for characteristics associated with fracture may relate to differences in fracture pathogeneses for these bones. Osteophytes and vascular channels were common findings; however, fractures were less likely to occur in bones with these features.

  19. ESTÁNDARES MÉTRICOS Y VARIABILIDAD EN FALANGES PROXIMALES DE CAMÉLIDOS SUDAMÉRICANOS. SU IMPORTANCIA COMO CONJUNTO COMPARATIVO PARA INTERPRETACIONES EN ARQUEOLOGÍA / Metric standards and variability in South American camelids proximal phalanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés D. Izeta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las medidas obtenidas a partir de huesos del esqueleto apendicular de camélidos sudamericanos han sido utilizadas en los últimos años como insumo básico para interpretar distintos aspectos relacionados con su asignación especifica, manejo de rebaños y estrategias económicas, entre otros. La forma y el tamaño de los huesos han sido interpretados como el resultado de distintas fuerzas asociadas a distintos tipos de restricciones ambientales o modificaciones producto del manejo humano. Esto es de gran importancia a la hora de interpretar la historia de la relación humano-camélido, dado que el registro material obtenido en depósitos arqueológicos posee variados restos a través de los cuales se pueden reconstruir diversas situaciones ocurridas en el pasado, tanto a nivel de paleo-economías o paleoambientes. Gran parte de estas interpretaciones se han basado en escasas medidas de estándares moderno. Por ello, este trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar datos métricos obtenidos de individuos contemporáneos de camélidos sudamericanos y que han sido considerados relevantes para su uso como material comparativo. Con esto se intenta evaluar desde una mirada crítica el uso de estándares locales y no locales para la asignación específica de muestras arqueológicas. Con el fin de evaluar la variabilidad en la forma y el tamaño de las primeras falanges se aplica el Análisis de Componente Principal y de Conglomerados (UPGMA. Para ello se toman en cuenta diferencias de tamaño, forma y procedencia geográfica con el fin de observar el peso aportado por cada variable en la conformación de esta muestra. Como resultado se concluye que el uso de ambas técnicas más la procedencia geográfica de las muestras modernas permite una definición por especie de grano más fino.   Palabras clave: camélidos sudamericanos, osteometría, esqueleto postcraneal, falange proximal, variabilidad, estándares comparativos.   Abstract The measurements

  20. Are bi-axial proximal sesamoid bone fractures in the British Thoroughbred racehorse a bone fatigue related fracture? A histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, M; Hetzel, U; Parkin, T D H; Singer, E R

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether microfractures and alterations in the trabecular bone area are associated with catastrophic bi-axial proximal sesamoid bone fractures (PSBF). Proximal sesamoid bones (PSB) from 10 racehorses with PSBF and from 10 control racehorses without musculoskeletal injury were examined using the bulk basic fuchsin method. Bone histomorphometric and microfracture analysis was performed, and cases and controls compared using two-sample t-test, paired t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test. There was no significant difference in the microfracture density and the trabecular bone area between bones from case and control horses, and between fractured and non-fractured bones in case horses. Microfracture density was low in the areas of the PSB examined. Microfracture density was not significantly different between groups, indicating that propagation of micro-cracks is an unlikely predisposing pathologic alteration in PSBF in British racehorses. There was no significant difference in the bone surface area between groups, which one would expect if modelling, adaptation and an increase in bone density were associated with PSBF fracture in the case horses. Therefore, PSBF in the British racehorse does not appear to be associated with microfractures of the trabecular bone of the PSB. The PSB fractures might represent an acute monotonic fracture; however, the aetiology of the fractures remains unknown with additional research required.

  1. A prospective study to assess the surgical outcome in three- and four-part proximal humerus fracture with PHILOS plate

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    Mahantesh Y Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optimal surgical management of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures in osteoporotic patients is controversial, with many advocating prosthetic replacement of the humeral head. Proximal humerus interlocking osteosyntheses that maintain angular stability under load have been proposed as an alternative to hemiarthroplasty for the treatment of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures. Materials and Methods: The records showed 50 patients, with a mean age of 57.5 years. The Neer three-part proximal humeral fractures were 18 in number, and the four-part proximal humeral fractures were 32. All the patients were treated surgically between January 2008 and December 2010. All patients had a radiographic and clinical follow-up performed at one, three, and six months and at one year. The clinical outcomes were measured with the use of the Constant-Murley system. This study was based on level 1 of the evidence. Results: The mean Constant score (and standard deviation at the time of the final follow-up was better in the locked-plate group. The mean Constant score was 80 (range, 40 - 100. Complications with this fixation included osteonecrosis in one patient, malunion in one patient, Axillary nerve palsy in one patient, and impingement syndrome in one patient. Conclusions: The most important factor for a favorable outcome in three- and four-part fractures in the proximal end humerus gives an accurate anatomical reduction, which is achieved by locking plate osteosynthesis, with multiplanar screws. It is a safe and effective method, with minimal tissue damage, higher primary stability, and load transfer through the implant, which are important to avoid complications. The PHILOS Plate produces promising functional outcomes.

  2. Surgeons agree more on treatment recommendations than on classification of proximal humeral fractures

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    Brorson Stig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthopaedic surgeons disagree considerably when classifying fractures of the proximal humerus. However, the clinical implications of low observer agreement remain unclear. The purpose of the study was to compare the agreement on Neer classification with the agreement on treatment recommendations. Methods We conducted a multi-centre observer-study. Five experienced shoulder surgeons independently assessed a consecutive series of 193 radiographs at two occasions three months apart. All pairs of radiographs were classified according to Neer. Subsequently, the observers were asked to recommend one of three treatment modalities for each case: non-operative treatment, locking plate osteosynthesis, or hemiarthroplasty. Results At both classification rounds mean kappa-values for inter-observer agreement on treatment recommendations (0.48 and 0.52 were significantly higher than the agreement on Neer classification (0.33 and 0.36 (p  Conclusions We found a significantly higher agreement on treatment recommendations compared to agreement on fracture classification. The low observer agreement on the Neer classification reported in several observer studies may have less clinical importance than previously assumed. However, inter-observer agreement did not exceed moderate levels.

  3. Design-Optimization and Material Selection for a Proximal Radius Fracture-Fixation Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Xie, X.; Arakere, G.; Grujicic, A.; Wagner, D. W.; Vallejo, A.

    2010-11-01

    The problem of optimal size, shape, and placement of a proximal radius-fracture fixation-plate is addressed computationally using a combined finite-element/design-optimization procedure. To expand the set of physiological loading conditions experienced by the implant during normal everyday activities of the patient, beyond those typically covered by the pre-clinical implant-evaluation testing procedures, the case of a wheel-chair push exertion is considered. Toward that end, a musculoskeletal multi-body inverse-dynamics analysis is carried out of a human propelling a wheelchair. The results obtained are used as input to a finite-element structural analysis for evaluation of the maximum stress and fatigue life of the parametrically defined implant design. While optimizing the design of the radius-fracture fixation-plate, realistic functional requirements pertaining to the attainment of the required level of the devise safety factor and longevity/lifecycle were considered. It is argued that the type of analyses employed in the present work should be: (a) used to complement the standard experimental pre-clinical implant-evaluation tests (the tests which normally include a limited number of daily-living physiological loading conditions and which rely on single pass/fail outcomes/decisions with respect to a set of lower-bound implant-performance criteria) and (b) integrated early in the implant design and material/manufacturing-route selection process.

  4. Revision after shoulder replacement for acute fracture of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Salomonsson, Björn; Jensen, Steen L

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose - For more than half a century, stemmed hemiarthroplasty (SHA) has been used in the treatment of comminuted and displaced fractures of the proximal humerus. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) has been increasingly popular in cases where it is difficult to obtain satisfactory...... to the national shoulder arthroplasty registries in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. We included 6,756 shoulder arthroplasties performed for acute fractures between 2004 and 2013. Results - There were 6,112 SHAs (90%) and 565 RSAs (8.4%). The cumulative arthroplasty survival rate after 5 years was 0.96 for both SHA...... and RSA. The relative risk of revision of RSA was 1.4 (95% CI: 0.9-2.2) with SHA as reference. For both types of arthroplasty, the most common reason for revision was infection (SHA 0.8%, RSA 2.1%). The relative risk of revision due to infection was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.6-5.9) for RSA with SHA as reference...

  5. The role of reverse shoulder arthroplasty in management of proximal humerus fractures with fracture sequelae: a systematic review of the literature

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    James Holton

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fracture sequelae of the proximal humerus poses a complex management decision due to the frequent deformity and its consequences on the peri-articular soft tissues. These patients are frequently elderly with significant medical comorbidities. Due to the age of the patient there is frequently rotator cuff deficiency and therefore the reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA becomes the arthroplasty of choice. We have performed a systematic review of the literature and report nine studies presenting RSA for the treatment of fracture sequelae of the proximal humerus. It is clear that RSA can improve the range of movement and function following proximal humerus fracture sequelae. However, there is a risk of significant complications including dislocation (16.7%, infection (6.7%, intra-operative fracture (3% and neurological injury (2.6%. There is a need to invest in future prospective comparative studies and randomised trials to further test RSA in fracture sequelae patients. This will provide us with information regarding the longevity of different prosthesis, outcomes and costeffectiveness of treatment.

  6. Functional results following fractures of the proximal humerus. A controlled clinical study comparing two periods of immobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, B; Angermann, P; Larsen, T K

    1989-01-01

    In order to compare 1 and 3 weeks of immobilization following proximal humeral fractures a prospective controlled trial was performed in 85 patients. Clinical follow-up according to the Neer assessment system was done after 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. One week of immobilization resulted in a better...

  7. Intramedullary Pinning with Tension-Band Wiring for Surgical Neck Fractures Of the Proximal Humerus in Elderly Patients

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    Cheng-Chang Lu

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Most proximal humeral fractures in the elderly population are related to osteoporosis. Several methods have been proposed to treat surgical neck fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly people. This study investigates a new method of intramedullary pinning with tension-band wiring. From June 1998 to March 2001, 10 female patients with a mean age of 73.0 years and displaced two- or three-part surgical neck fractures of the proximal humerus were studied. Two intramedullary pins were used with tension-band wiring via a deltopectoral approach with minimum dissection. The mean follow-up was 20.6 months. Final outcome was evaluated using the constant score, visual analog scale (VAS score, questionnaire, and an outcome assessment form. The outcome was excellent in four patients, good in five, and fair in one. The mean Constant score was 80.8 and the VAS score was 83.0. There was no nonunion, avascular necrosis, deep infection, or pin migration. No patient needed further revision open reduction with internal fixation or prosthesis replacement. We therefore concluded that intramedullary pinning with tension-band wiring is a safe, reliable method, with few complications, for treating surgical neck fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly patients.

  8. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in proximal humeral fractures: one-year results of a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falez, Francesco; Papalia, Matteo; Greco, Alessandro; Teti, Antonio; Favetti, Fabio; Panegrossi, Gabriele; Casella, Filippo; Necozione, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this multicentric study was to evaluate results of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) for proximal humeral fractures in terms of postoperative shoulder function, radiological outcome and number of complications. A consecutive series of 76 patients with proximal humeral fractures were treated with locking plate using a minimally invasive antero-lateral approach in two orthopaedic departments. Functional results with Constant score and radiographic evaluation were available for 74 patients at one-year follow up. The patients achieved a mean Constant score of 71 (range 28-100). Each functional result was evaluated also for both centres without significant differences. Significant statistical differences were only found for younger patients with better results (p proximal plate positioning (9.5%). Primary screws perforation (2.7%), secondary perforation due to cut-out (1.4%), avascular necrosis (AVN) of humeral head (1.4%), partial resorption of greater tuberosity (2.7%), secondary dislocation of the greater tuberosity (2.7%) and stiffness (2.7%) were the other complications observed. The MIPO technique for proximal humeral fractures was safe and reproducible for most common patterns of fracture. Major complication rate was apparently low due to a soft tissue sparing, deltoid muscle and circumflex vessels, with easy access of the bar area to correct positioning of the plate.

  9. Fractures and fracture-dislocations of the proximal humerus: A retrospective analysis of 82 cases treated with the Philos(®) locking plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmo, Rocco; Guerra, Giovanni; Guerra, Luigi

    2014-12-01

    To present the experience in a single institution of the management of 82 consecutive fractures and fracture-dislocations of the proximal humerus treated with the Proximal Humeral Internal Locking System (Philos(®)) plate. A total of 81 patients with 82 proximal humerus fractures (one patient had bilateral fracture) were treated at our institution with open reduction and internal fixation with Philos(®) plate from January 2008 to December 2012 and the clinico-radiological outcome was analysed. Twelve of these patients also had a dislocation of the proximal humerus. According to the Neer classification, there were seven two-part fractures, 40 three-part fractures and 35 four-part fractures. All patients received a similar physical therapy programme following internal fixation. Mean final follow-up was 32 months. Functional outcome was evaluated for each patient using the Constant-Murley score; radiographic evaluation was also conducted and complications were recorded. At the end of the follow-up period, the mean Constant-Murley score for the injured side was 75 points (range 42-92); results were graded as excellent for eight patients, good for 52, moderate for 17 and poor for five. Twenty-three patients (28%) had complications during the follow-up period. Reoperation was required in 12 patients. Complications included avascular necrosis of the humeral head in 10 patients (12%), varus positioning of the head in four patients (4.8%), impingement syndrome in three patients (3.6%), secondary screw perforation in three patients (3.6%), non-union of the fracture in two patients (2.4%) and infection in one patient (1.2%). Open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures with the Philos(®) plate was associated with good clinical outcomes provided the correct surgical technique was used. To better evaluate the real incidence of complications, it is important to follow patients for more than one year after surgery as some complications may arise after

  10. [Epidemiology, treatment and results of proximal humeral fractures: experience of a district hospital in a sports- and tourism area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderegger, J; Simmen, H-P

    2003-02-01

    The epidemiology, therapy and results of proximal humeral fractures in a touristic area were investigated and our concept for treatment presented. Between 1.1.1999 and 30.04.2000 adult patients with proximal humeral fractures were included, the fractures classified (Codman/Neer and AO) and results determined after an average of 9 months. 62 adults were treated. 59 (95 %) had an accident during leisure time, mainly skiing accidents (52 %). 7 patients (11 %) had an associated luxation of the shoulder. 51 (82 %) were treated conservatively, 11 (18 %) operatively with a T-plate. The conservatively treated had to wear a Gilchrist-cast for an average of 29 (operatively 13) days, started passive movement after 20 (operatively 9) days, and active movement after 44 (operatively 45) days. The 32 employed (52 %) were not able to work for 46 days on average. Overall, 52 patients (84 %) were totally or mostly satisfied with the result. 5 among the 13 patients (38.5 %) with 3- or 4-part-fractures, and 4 among the 11 operated patients (36.4 %) were not satisfied with the result. Proximal humeral fractures are common skiing injuries, they need a long and intensive treatment and are economically expensive. The Codman/Neer and AO-classifications are equal. The results for simple, mainly conservatively treated fractures (Codman/Neer 1, 2A, 2-part) are good. Complex, mainly operatively treated fractures (Codman/Neer 3- and 4-part) have a much poorer prognosis. Diagnostically the computed tomography with 3-D-reconstruction is recommended for a better representation of the fracture and a safer choice of the therapeutical strategy.

  11. [Retrograde intramedullary nailing in proximal fracture of the humerus in the elderly patient. Results of a minimally invasive management concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, R; Khodadadyan, C; Raschke, M; Melcher, I; Maitino, P D; Haas, N P

    1998-01-01

    Retrograde intramedullary fixation of proximal humerus fractures with flexible wires was evaluated in a prospectively documented study. Seventy-four fractures in 73 patients with unstable proximal humerus shaft or neck fractures were fixed with 3-11 flexible intramedullary wires. The age of the patients averaged 72 years (42 females, 31 males). In nine fractures additional implants (screws, cerclages) were used to fix dislocated fragments through an anterior approach to the shoulder. Complications associated with the procedure especially in osteoporotic bone were secondary loss of reduction (16%) and wire migration (21%) which lead to revision surgery in 14% of patients within 6 weeks. A minimum follow-up of 12 months (average 16.5 months) could be obtained in 61 patients (84%). According to the Neer- and Constant-scores 60% showed good or excellent results, 30% had a satisfactory and 10% had an unsatisfactory or poor result.--Retrograde intramedullary, flexible wire fixation can provide an overall satisfactory outcome in unstable proximal humerus fractures of the elderly. However, the high incidence of secondary wire dislocations especially in marked osteoporosis appears to be an unsolved problem of this treatment modality.

  12. [Case-control study on suture-assisted locking plate for the treatment of proximal humeral fractures in elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhang-sheng; Huang, Jie-miao; Zhuang, Xun-rong; Chen, Shou-bo; Wu, Shi-qiang; Yao, Xue-dong; Ye, Hui

    2014-12-01

    To explore clinical effects of suturing-assisted locking plate in treating elderly proximal humeral fractures. From January 2005 to January 2013, 55 elderly patients with three- and four-part fractures of proximal humeral fractures were divided into treatment group and control group. In treatment group, there were 31 patients including 12 males, and 19 females aged from 65 to 85 with an average of (74.00±5.42) years old, and treated with suturing-assisted locking plates; 19 patients were Neer 3-part fractures, and 12 patients were Neer 4-part fractures of proximal humerus; 23 patients were suffered from low-energy injuries and 8 patients were caused by high-energy injuries. In control group, there were 24 patients including 7 males, and 17 females aged from 65 to 85 with an average of (72.79±5.34) years old, and treated with locking plates; 16 patients were Neer 3-part fractures, and 8 patients were Neer 4-part fractures of proximal humerus; 17 patients were suffered from low-energy injuries and 7 patients were caused by high-energy injuries. Operative time, blood loss during operation, and bone healing time between two groups were observed and compared. Postoperative Neer scoring were used to evaluate recovery of shoulder joint function. All patients were followed up from 6 to 24 months with an average of 16.1 months. In treatment group, blood loss was (495.806±143.150) ml, function of Neer scoring was 22.645±2.443, range of action was 18.194±2.613, anatomy was 7.935±1.504 and total score of Neer scoring was 77.161±8.335; while in control group, blood loss was (641.667±169.851) ml, function of Neer scoring was 13.958±1.989, range of action was 13.083±2.165, anatomy was 5.500±1.978 and total score of Neer scoring was 58.792±7.313. There were sigificant difference between two groups in these indexes. Suturing-assisted locking plate for the treatment of proximal humerus fractures in elderly, has advantages of less blood loss, simple fracture reduction and

  13. Open Reduction and Internal Fixation (ORIF) of Complex 3- and 4-Part Fractures of the Proximal Humerus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Brian; Le, Toan; Lee, Thomas; Wyrick, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Treatment of complex fracture patterns of the proximal humerus continues to be a challenging and controversial clinical scenario. The aim of this study was to report on the outcomes of complex displaced 3- and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus treated with locked plating and compare the functional results of patients on the basis of age at time of injury. Methods: A retrospective review was completed to identify patients whom had sustained a 3- or 4-part fracture of the proximal humerus (Neer classification), treated surgically with locked compression plating. Patients were recruited for a final follow-up, with clinical (Constant and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, Hand [DASH] scores) and radiographic outcome analysis. Results were compared (t test and Wilcoxon test) with fracture type (3- vs 4-part) and patient age at time of fracture (65years) as the primary outcome measure. The presence or absence of a complication and presence or absence of a concomitant osseous injury at the time of presentation were evaluated as secondary outcome measures, in regard to overall functional results of the treatment in question. Complications were defined as posttraumatic osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis of the humeral head, and screw cutout with chondrolysis. The null hypothesis being that age of the patient at the time of injury would not greatly affect functional outcome measurements. Results: Forty-five fractures were identified in 45 patients, with 31 three-part fractures and 14 four-part fractures, and 17 patients were available for final follow-up (9 three-part and 8 four-part). Twelve patients were identified as under the age of 65 years and were compared with 5 patients who were identified as older than 65 years of age. The relative Constant score, at final follow-up, for those under the age of 65 was 88.58, while the score for those above the age of 65 was 82.5. In a similar fashion, the DASH score for those younger than 65 was 11.67, while the

  14. Relationship between the functional outcomes and radiological results of conservatively treated displaced proximal humerus fractures in the elderly: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Kerem Canbora; Ozkan Kose; Atilla Polat; Levent Konukoglu; Mucahit Gorgec

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate the relationship between the functional outcome and the radiographic results of conservatively treated two-, three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures in patients aged over 65 years. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 29 prospectively followed cases aged over 65 years who presented with displaced proximal humerus fracture between 2009 and 2011. The fractures were classified according to the Neer classification ...

  15. Quantitative ultrasound at the hand phalanges in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanowski, Marek; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech; Adamczyk, Piotr; Daroszewski, Jacek

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was assessment of skeletal status using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at hand phalanges in patients with acromegaly. A group of 38 patients with acromegaly (27 women and 11 men) with a mean age of 57.21 +/- 9.85 years was compared with a control group of 44 men and 108 women matched for gender, age and body size. Amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS) at hand phalanges had lower values in patients with acromegaly than in controls, both in the entire group and in men and women, respectively. The positive correlation between Ad-SoS and height and the negative one between Ad-SoS and age was found in the entire group of patients with acromegaly. No correlations between Ad-SoS and time from diagnosis or duration of the symptoms were found. Age affected Ad-SoS significantly less in the entire patient group than in controls. Similarly, in women, age and body mass affected Ad-SoS less than in controls. A stepwise multiple regression analysis carried out in the patient group identified age as the only factor significantly influencing negatively the Ad-SoS value (regression equation: Ad-SoS (m/s) = 2124 m/s - 3.26 x age (years) [r2= 0.26, standard error of estimate = 55.1, p < 0.01]). In conclusion, our data demonstrate that, in patients with acromegaly, skeletal status assessed by QUS was affected. This could reflect the worsening of the mechanical properties of bones studied and the increased risk of fractures in other sites of the skeleton. The changes observed were not related to acromegaly-associated hypogonadism. Further studies to assess the role of QUS in acromegaly are necessary and fracture prevalence and risk ought to be established.

  16. Hardness map of human meta tarsals and phalanges of toes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manarvi, Irfan

    2016-08-01

    Predicting location of fracture in human bones has been a keen area of research for the past few decades. A variety of tests for hardness, deformation and strain field measurement have been conducted in the past; but considered insufficient due to various limitations. Researchers therefore have proposed further studies due to inaccuracies in measurement methods, testing machines and experimental errors. Advancement and availability of hardware, measuring instrumentation and testing machines can now provide remedies to these limitations. Human foot is a critical part of body exposed to various forces throughout its life. A number of products are developed for using over it for protection and care. Which many times do not provide sufficient protection and may itself become a source of stress due to non-consideration of the delicacy of bones in the feet. A continuous strain or overloading on feet may occur resulting to discomfort and even fracture. Not knowing how the hardness is spread all over the Meta tarsals and phalanges is one of major contributory factor for unsatisfactory design of foot protection products. This paper provides a complete hardness distribution map developed by experimental testing of all the Meta tarsals and Phalanges of toes for a typical human foot. The bones were taken from two left feet of a 40 and 42 year old male cadaver. These were dehydrated prior to measurements of hardness using Leeb hardness testing method. Hardness was measured around the circumference of a bone as well as along its length. Hardness values can be related to tensile strength of the bones to predict possible values of stress that could be borne by these bones. Results may also be used for design and developing various accessories for human feet health care and comfort.

  17. Thumb proximal phalanx reconstruction with nonvascularized corticocancellous olecranon bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Maximillian

    2015-01-01

    Large segmental bone defects of the phalanges reportedly have been treated with free vascularized grafts from the hand, foot, or knee, or with nonvascularized grafts from the iliac crest. A nonvascularized structural corticocancellous graft from a local site would be advantageous. The olecranon has been used as a source of both cancellous and corticocancellous graft. The authors describe a unique case of the use of nonvascularized corticocancellous olecranon bone graft for structural purposes in a mutilating thumb injury. The patient injured the left thumb with a miter saw, resulting in a large degloving wound over a severely comminuted fracture of the proximal phalanx, with segmental bone loss between a base fragment and displaced condylar fragments. Provisional pin fixation was performed at the time of initial emergent irrigation and debridement, along with repairs of the extensor pollicis longus, radial digital nerve, and dorsal digital nerve. This was followed 3 weeks later by non-vascularized corticocancellous bone grafting from the olecranon to the proximal phalanx under regional anesthesia. The thumb was mobilized at 11 weeks, and solid union was radiographically confirmed at 6 months. The patient achieved moderate active range of motion and was able to return to work as a physical therapist. The elbow healed uneventfully and without pain or fracture at the donor site. This case shows that robust structural bone graft for the phalanges may be obtained from the nearby olecranon, under regional anesthesia, without microsurgery, and with potential advantages over the iliac crest. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Failed Surgical Management of Acute Proximal Fifth Metatarsal (Jones) Fractures: A Retrospective Case Series and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Jaymes D; Berlet, Gregory C; Philbin, Terrence M; Jones, Grant; Kaeding, Christopher C; Peterson, Kyle S

    2015-12-01

    Nonunion, delayed union, and refracture after operative treatment of acute proximal fifth metatarsal fractures in athletes is uncommon. This study was a failure analysis of operatively managed acute proximal fifth metatarsal fractures in healthy athletes. We identified 149 patients who underwent operative treatment for fifth metatarsal fractures. Inclusion criteria isolated skeletally mature, athletic patients under the age of 40 with a minimum of 1-year follow-up. Patients were excluded with tuberosity fractures, fractures distal to the proximal metaphyseal-diaphyseal region of the fifth metatarsal, multiple fractures or operative procedures, fractures initially treated conservatively, and medical comorbidities/risk factors for nonunion. Fifty-five patients met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Four (7.3%) patients required a secondary operative procedure due to refracture. The average time to refracture was 8 months. All refractures were associated with bent screws and occurred in male patients who participated in professional basketball, professional volleyball, and college football. The average time for release to progressive weight-bearing was 6 weeks. Three patients were revised to a bigger size screw and went on to union. One patient was revised to the same-sized screw and required a second revision surgery for nonunion. All failures were refractures in competitive athletes who were initially treated with small diameter solid or cannulated stainless steel screws. The failures were not associated with early postoperative weight-bearing protocol. Maximizing initial fixation stiffness may decrease the late failure rate in competitive athletes. More clinical studies are needed to better understand risk factors for failure after screw fixation in the competitive, athletic population. Prognostic, Level IV: Case series. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. The bicipital groove as a landmark for reconstruction of complex proximal humeral fractures with hybrid double plate osteosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theopold, Jan; Marquaß, Bastian; Fakler, Johannes; Steinke, Hanno; Josten, Christoph; Hepp, Pierre

    2016-03-12

    Complex proximal humerus fractures with metaphyseal comminution remain challenging regarding reduction and stability. In most fracture patterns the hard bone of the bicipital groove remains intact. In this case series, we describe a novel technique of hybrid double plate osteosynthesis of complex proximal humerus fractures with metaphyseal comminution. In randomly chosen shoulder specimens and synthetic bones, pilot studies for evaluation of the feasibility of the technique were performed. Between 4/2010 and 1/2012 10 patients underwent hybrid double plate osteosynthesis. Seven patients (4 male, 3 female, mean age was 50 years (range 27-73)) were available for retrospective analysis. Based on plain radiographs (anterior-posterior and axial view), the fractures were classified according to the Orthopaedic Trauma Association classification (OTA) and by descriptive means (head-split variant (HS), diaphyseal extension or comminution (DE)). Follow-up radiographs demonstrated complete fracture healing in six patients and one incomplete avascular necrosis. None of the patients sustained loss of reduction. Three patients where reoperated. The medium, not adapted, Constant score was 80 Points (58-94). Patients subjective satisfaction was graded mean 3 (range: 0-6) in the visual analog scoring system (VAS). The technique of hybrid double plate osteosynthesis using the bicipital groove as anatomic landmark may re-establish shoulder function after complex proximal humerus fractures in two dimensions. Firstly the anatomy is restored due to a proper reduction based on intraoperative landmarks. Secondly additional support by the second plate may provide a higher stability in complex fractures with metaphyseal comminution.

  20. [DIGITAL DESIGN OF STANDARD PARTS DATABASE FOR PROXIMAL TIBIA FRACTURES TREATED WITH PLATING VIA THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuanhuang; Zhang, Guodong; Lin, Haibin; Lu, Jianjun; Huang, Wenhua; Yu, Zhengxi; Chen, Xu; Wu, Xianwei; Wu, Changfu

    2015-06-01

    To explore the method and feasibility of digital internal fixation for proximal tibia fractures using standard parts database and three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. Ten adult lower extremity specimens were selected to take continuously thin-layer scanning. After Dicom image was imported into the Mimics software, the model of Schatzker II-VI types proximal tibia fracture was established, 2 cases each type. The virtual internal fixation was performed with plate and screw from standard parts database. The pilot hole of the navigation module design was printed by 3D printing technique. The plate and screw were inserted by the navigation module. X-ray film and CT were taken postoperatively to observe the position. Thirty patients with proximal tibia fracture underwent digital internal fixation using standard parts database and 3D printing technology (study group), and another 30 patients underwent traditional open reduction and internal fixation (control group). There was no significant difference in sex, age, side, causes, fracture classification, associated injury, and course of disease between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The preparative time, incision length, fracture healing time, operation time, and intraoperative blood loss were recorded. Follow up of imaging evaluation, clinical efficacy was evaluated by MacNab criteria. The navigation models were designed to fit the bony structure of proximal tibia and to guide implant insertion. The parameters of orientation, length, diameter, and angle were consistent with the preoperative plan. No statistically significant difference was found in the preparative times of pre-operation between 2 groups (t = 1.393, P = 0.169). The incision length, wound healing time, blood loss, operation time, and the cost of treatment in study group were significantly less than those in control group (P fracture healing time of study group was significantly shorter than that of control group (t = 4.070, P = 0.000). At 12 months

  1. Volar plating for unstable proximal interphalangeal joint dorsal fracture-dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Andre E J; Tan, David M K; Chong, Alphonsus K S; Chew, Winston Y C

    2012-01-01

    To report our results of open reduction internal fixation with volar mini plate and screw fixation for unstable dorsal fracture dislocations (DFDs) of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint. We performed a retrospective review of 13 consecutive DFDs of the PIP joint treated with volar mini plate and screw fixation, measuring both clinical and radiological outcomes. The age range of our patients was 15 to 56 years (average, 33 y). Six injuries were related to work, 5 to sports, and 2 to motor vehicle accidents. Of the 13 DFDs, 6 were comminuted. Articular involvement ranged from 30% to 70% (average, 44%). The average time to surgery was 7 days (range, 0-23 d). Patients had follow-up of 12 to 60 months (average, 25 mo). Four patients had a postoperative course complicated by plate and screw removal at an average of 4 months later, either as part of a secondary procedure to improve range of motion or owing to patient request. All patients returned to their original occupation. Of the 13 patients, 11 were satisfied with the result, and 12 of 13 had either no or mild pain. All 13 DFDs united in good alignment but 3 showed degenerative changes. Average grip strength was 85% of the unaffected side, and average active PIP joint and distal interphalangeal joint motion arcs were 75° and 65°, respectively. Average Quick Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 4 (range, 0-9). All patients had non-tender swelling of the proximal interphalangeal joints but no signs of flexor tenosynovitis or infection. Fixation of unstable PIP joint DFDs via a volar approach is technically feasible with mini plates and screws. This treatment allows early active range of motion and provides good objective and subjective outcomes; however, noteworthy complications occurred in 39% of patients. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Percutaneous Cementoplasty with and Without Interventional Internal Fixation for Impending Malignant Pathological Fracture of the Proximal Femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Qing-Hua, E-mail: ddqinghua-tian@163.com; He, Cheng-Jian, E-mail: tianhechengjian@163.com; Wu, Chun-Gen, E-mail: 649514608@qq.com; Li, Yong-Dong, E-mail: tianliyongdong@163.com; Gu, Yi-Feng, E-mail: tianyifenggu@163.com; Wang, Tao, E-mail: tianandwangtao@163.com; Xiao, Quan-Ping, E-mail: tianxiaoquanping@163.com; Li, Ming-Hua, E-mail: tianminghuali@163.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (China)

    2016-01-15

    PurposeTo compare the efficacy of percutaneous cementoplasty (PCP) with and without interventional internal fixation (IIF) on malignant impending pathological fracture of proximal femur.MethodsA total of 40 patients with malignant impending pathological fracture of proximal femur were selected for PCP and IIF (n = 19, group A) or PCP alone (n = 21, group B) in this non-randomized prospective study. Bone puncture needles were inserted into the proximal femur, followed by sequential installation of the modified trocar inner needles through the puncture needle sheath. Then, 15–45 ml cement was injected into the femur lesion.ResultsThe overall excellent and good pain relief rate during follow-ups were significantly higher in group A than that in group B (89 vs. 57 %, P = 0.034). The average change of VAS, ODI, KPS, and EFES in group A were significantly higher than those in group B at 1-, 3-, 6-month, 1-year (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, The stability of the treated femur was significantly higher in group A than that in group B (P < 0.05).ConclusionPCP and IIF were not only a safe and effective procedure, but resulted in greater pain relief, bone consolidation, and also reduced the risk of fracture than the currently recommended approach of PCP done on malignant proximal femoral tumor.

  3. The risk assessment of pathological fracture in the proximal femur using a CT-based finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yusuke; Matsuo, Kosuke; Nezu, Yutaka; Kamiishi, Takayuki; Inaba, Yutaka; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2017-09-01

    Patients who have lytic bone lesions in their proximal femurs are at risk for pathological fracture. Lesions with high fracture risk are surgically treated using prophylactic osteosynthesis, whereas low-risk lesions are treated conservatively. However, it is difficult to discriminate between high- and low-risk lesions based on clinical and radiographic findings. The computed tomography (CT)-based finite element (FE) models are useful for predicting the fracture load on proximal femoral lytic lesions. FE models were constructed from the quantitative CT scans of the femurs using software that created individual bone shapes and density distributions. Three independent observers measured the lesion size, Mirels' score, and thickness of the proximal femur along the horizontal plane. The predictive risk values of the proximal femur measured using the CT-based FE analysis were statistically compared. The patients were divided into two groups (high and low risk). The mean fracture load was significantly higher in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group (5395 ± 525 N, 2622 ± 364 N, respectively, p = 0.0003). No significant differences in age, body weight, lesion size or Mirels' score were observed between groups. However, the thickness of the medial cortex in the high-risk group according to the FE analysis was significantly thinner than that in the low-risk group. Furthermore, the medial cortex thickness was positively correlated with the predicted fracture load. An optimal cut-off value of 3.67 mm for the thickness of the inner cortex resulted in 100% sensitivity and 75.1% specificity values for classifying the patients based on their fracture risk. Our findings indicate that the FE method is useful for the prediction of the pathological fracture. This method shows a versatile potential for the prediction of pathological fracture and might aid in judging the optimal treatment to prevent fracture. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association

  4. Long Term Results of PHILOS Plating and Percutaneous K-Wire Fixation in Proximal Humerus Fractures in The Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Jaura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of a study on the long term results of PHILOS plating and percutaneous K-wire fixation in a prospective series of proximal humerus fractures in elderly patients. We reviewed a total of 60 patients with proximal humerus fractures in 30 patients (Group 1, who were treated by open reduction and internal fixation with Proximal Humeral Internal Locking System (PHILOS plate and 30 patients (Group 2 who were treated with percutaneous K-wire fixation. Functional outcome was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale(VAS and Constant-Murley Score. Mean Constant-Murley score was 84.6 points (range: 61-100 in Group 1 and - 76.4 points(range:56-100 in Group 2 at final follow up. Values varied depending upon the fracture type with worst in 4-part fractures. Mean VAS Score was 2.6(range:0-10 in Group 1 and 3.8(range:0-10 in Group 2. We obtained satisfactory results in both the groups, with each procedure having its advantages and shortcomings. We found that PHILOS plate fixation provided stable fixation with minimal implant problems and enabled early range-of motion exercises to achieve acceptable functional results. Fixation with percutaneous K-wires presented an efficient treatment option with the advantages of minimal invasiveness and soft tissue dissection.

  5. Late Prosthetic Shoulder Hemiarthroplasty after Failed Management of Complex Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panagopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to report our experience with shoulder hemiarthroplasty in the context of old trauma. Methods. 33 patients with failed treatment for a complex proximal humeral fracture underwent prosthetic hemiarthroplasty. There were 15 men and 18 women with a mean age of 58.1 years. The average period from initial treatment was 14.9 months. Sequelae included 11 malunions, 4 nonunions, 15 cases with avascular necrosis (AVN and 3 neglected posterior locked dislocations. Follow up investigation included radiological assessment and clinical evaluation using the Constant score and a visual analogue pain scale. Results. After a mean follow up of 82.5 months the median Constant score was 75.7 points, improved by 60% in comparison to preoperative values. Greater tuberosity displacement, large cuff tears and severe malunion were the factors most affected outcome. No cases of stem loosening or severe migration were noted. 60% of the patients were able to do activities up to shoulder level compared with 24% before reconstruction. Conclusions. Late shoulder hemiarthroplasty is technically difficult and the results are inferior to those reported for acute humeral head replacement, nonetheless remains a satisfactory reconstructive option when primary treatment fails.

  6. Medial Calcar Support and Radiographic Outcomes of Plate Fixation for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jie Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plate fixation remains one of the most popular surgical procedures for treating proximal humeral fractures (PHFx; however, substantial rates of complications have been reported in the literature. The objectives of the study were to examine how medial calcar support (MCS affects the radiographic outcomes and to determine the prognostic factors predicting treatment failure. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 89 adult patients who had PHFx and were treated with plate fixation at our institution in 2007–2011. The enrolled patients were separated into two groups according to disruption of medial calcar. Our results revealed an increased rate of poor radiographic outcomes in patients with disrupted medial calcar. Osteonecrosis of the humeral head and redisplacement were the two radiographic outcomes which had a positive causality with disruption of medial calcar (P=0.008 and 0.050, resp.. Deficient medial calcar, inadequate reduction, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and chronic liver disease were all significant predictors for the development of osteonecrosis in patients after PHFx surgery. Inadequate reduction was also a predictor for redisplacement. We confirmed that the restoration of medial calcar as well as comorbid conditions plays key roles in treatment of patients having PHFx with disrupted medial calcar.

  7. Minimally invasive polyaxial locking plate osteosynthesis for 3-4 part proximal humeral fractures: our institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Héctor J; Mingo, Juan; Torres, Miguel; Alvarez-Ramos, Aranzazú; Martín-Ferrero, Miguel A

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the surgical technique of fixation of 3-4 part proximal humeral fractures with polyaxial locking plates utilising a minimally invasive approach and to evaluate the accuracy of reduction and stability of fixation. We retrospectively reviewed 90 patients. Fractures were classified according to the Neer classification system. Different radiological parameters were measured to assess the quality of reduction and the stability of fixation. Complications and clinical outcomes were evaluated after one year of minimum follow up. There were 76 women and 14 men, with a mean age of 67.4years ±13 (range, 29-85). There were 60 3-part and 30 4-part fractures. Frozen cancellous allograft was used in 30 cases (33.3%). All fractures progressed to union and at one year follow up, the mean Constant score was 79.6±12(range, 62-100). Mean forward flexion, abduction, external rotation and internal rotation were 155°, 148°, 39° and vertebra Dorsal 8, respectively. Complications were noted in seven patients while the postoperative "head-diaphysis angle", "greater tuberosity height" and "medial metaphysis reconstruction" were close to the anatomical parameters; no significant differences were noted at one year radiological follow up. Reliable and stable fixation can be expected with the use of polyaxial locking plate through a minimally invasive approach for the treatment of 3-4 part proximal humeral fractures. Satisfactory functional results for this procedure can be obtained. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Uncommon Floating Knee in a Teenager: A Case Report of Ipsilateral Physeal Fractures in Distal Femur and Proximal Tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Youssef; Hassini, Lassaad; Fekih, Aymen; Aloui, Issam; Abid, Abderrazek

    2017-01-01

    The concomitance of ipsilateral physeal fractures of the distal femur and the proximal tibia is an extremely scarce entity. It is conceptually similar to floating knee in pediatric population. One case with this injury is reported in a 16-year-old teenager. He was treated surgically by close reduction and internal fixation. The diagnosis of the tibial fracture was initially missed and the fracture was seen on the post-operative radiographs. Orthopedic treatment was made for this injury. 2 years after, no angular deformity neither shortening of the limb were found. These rare injuries could have serious immediate and remote complication with a considerable functional impact. The diagnosis of proximal tibia physeal fracture could be missed in the context of a concomitant more impressive distal femur fracture. The possibility of a combination of these two injuries should then be kept in mind. Anatomic reduction should be made as soon as possible using a gentle technique and attention should be given to the diagnosis of the neurovascular complications.

  9. Recurrent Proximal Femur Fractures in a Teenager With Osteogenesis Imperfecta on Continuous Bisphosphonate Therapy: Are We Overtreating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanwala, Rashida F; Sanghrajka, Anish; Bishop, Nicholas J; Högler, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Long-term bisphosphonate (BP) therapy in adults with osteoporosis is associated with atypical femoral fractures, caused by increased material bone density and prolonged suppression of bone remodeling which may reduce fracture toughness. In children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), long-term intravenous BP therapy improves bone structure and mass without further increasing the already hypermineralized bone matrix, and is generally regarded as safe. Here we report a teenage girl with OI type IV, who was started on cyclical intravenous pamidronate therapy at age 6 years because of recurrent fractures. Transiliac bone biopsy revealed classical structural features of OI but unusually low bone resorption surfaces. She made substantial improvements in functional ability, bone mass, and fracture rate. However, after 5 years of pamidronate therapy she started to develop recurrent, bilateral, nontraumatic, and proximal femur fractures, which satisfied the case definition for atypical femur fractures. Some fractures were preceded by periosteal reactions and prodromal pain. Pamidronate was discontinued after 7 years of therapy, following which she sustained two further nontraumatic femur fractures, and continued to show delayed tibial osteotomy healing. Despite rodding surgery, and very much in contrast to her affected, untreated, and normally mobile mother, she remains wheelchair-dependent. The case of this girl raises questions about the long-term safety of BP therapy in some children, in particular about the risk of oversuppressed bone remodeling with the potential for microcrack accumulation, delayed healing, and increased stiffness. The principal concern is whether there is point at which benefit from BP therapy could turn into harm, where fracture risk increases again. This case should stimulate debate whether current adult atypical femoral fracture guidance should apply to children, and whether low-frequency, low-dose cyclical, intermittent, or oral treatment

  10. Quantitative bone ultrasound at phalanges and calcaneus in osteoporotic postmenopausal women: influence of age and measurement site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camozzi, Valentina; De Terlizzi, Francesca; Zangari, Monica; Luisetto, Giovanni

    2007-07-01

    Phalangeal and calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements were tested in a postmenopausal osteoporotic population of a wide age range to assess their ability to identify subjects with vertebral fractures in a population of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. A group of 127 osteoporotic women aged from 50 to 85 y, who had been postmenopausal for at least 5 y, were enrolled. All subjects underwent phalangeal and calcaneal QUS measurements, femoral neck and lumbar spine dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements and lateral thoracic and lumbar spine radiography. Osteoporosis was defined on the basis of femoral neck or lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) T-score lower than -2.5 SD or of the presence of one or more vertebral atraumatic fractures, independently of BMD values. Fifty-two women had one or more vertebral fractures, while the remaining 75 had no evidence of previous fracture. Both QUS techniques were able to discriminate between fractured and nonfractured subjects in the whole group (p or = 70 y (n = 84) were considered separately, phalangeal QUS and lumbar spine BMD were able to discriminate vertebral fractures in the younger group (p < 0.05), whereas calcaneal QUS was able to discriminate vertebral fractures in the older one (p < 0.05). The results of this study raise an issue of the optimal use of different QUS techniques and different skeletal sites in the management of osteoporosis in early or late postmenopausal life.

  11. Quantitative local topological texture properties obtained from radiographs of the proximal femur in patients with pertrochanteric and transcervical hip fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, H. F.; Lutz, J.; Koerner, M.; Notohamiprodjo, M.; Reiser, M.

    2009-02-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis and associated fractures becomes an increasingly relevant issue for the public health institutions of industrialized nations. Fractures of the hip represent the worst complication of osteoporosis with a significantly elevated rate of mortality. Prediction of fracture risk is a major focus of osteoporosis research and, over the years, has been approched from different angles. There exist two distinct subtypes of transcervical and pertrochanteric hip fracture that can be distinguished on the basis of the anatomical location of the injury. While the epidemiology of hip fractures has been well described, typically, little or no distinction is made between the subtypes. The object of this study was to determine whether local topological texture properties based on the Minkowski Functionals (MF) obtained from standard radiographs of the proximal femur in patients with hip fracture can be used to differentiate between the two types of fracture pattern. The texture features were extracted from standardized regions of interest (femoral head, neck, and pertrochanteric region) in clinical radiographs of the hip obtained from 90 post-menopausal women (69.8 +/- 7.9 yrs). 30 of the women had sustained pertrochanteric fractures, 30 had transcervical hip fractures and 30 were age-matched controls. We determined an optimized topological parameter MF2Dloc using an integrative filtering procedure based on a sliding-windows algorithm. Statistical relationship between the fracture type (pertrochanteric/transcervical) and the value of MF2Dloc was assessed by receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. Depending on the anatomical location of the region of interest for texture analysis correct classification of tanscervial and pertrochanteric fractures ranged from AUC = 0.79 to 0.98. In conclusion, quantitative texture properties of trabecular bone extracted from radiographs of the hip can be used to identify patients with hip fracture and to distinguish

  12. Comparison of two different locking plates for two-, three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures--results of an international multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Gerhard; Hirschmüller, Anja; Audige, Laurent; Lambert, Simon; Hertel, Ralf; Südkamp, Norbert P

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the functional outcome, quality of restoration, and complication rate after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of displaced or unstable 2-, 3- and 4-part humeral fractures using two different locking plates. The data used in this analysis was prospectively collected in two large multicentre studies in 15 European Level 1 trauma centres. A total of 318 patients with proximal humeral fractures were treated with ORIF using either the locking proximal humerus plate (LPHP) or proximal humeral internal locking system (PHILOS). Outcome measurements included Constant and Neer scores, evaluation of local pain at the fracture site and complications, and radiographic assessment at one year. At one year, the mean Constant scores (relative to the contralateral shoulder) improved significantly for both groups and were above 80% for 2-, 3-, and 4-part fractures. A significantly shorter surgical time, less pain at the fracture site, and better functional outcome was achieved by PHILOS-treated patients with 2-part fractures throughout the one-year follow-up month and with 3-part fractures at three months (p fractures, and no difference in the complication rates (p > 0.05). PHILOS and LPHP can be considered as useful implants for ORIF of displaced and unstable proximal humeral fractures. There was a slight advantage of the PHILOS system with regard to operative time and functional outcome, especially for the treatment of 2- and 3-part fractures.

  13. Role of Provisional Fixation of Fracture Fragments By Steinmann-Pin and Technical Tips in Proximal Femoral Nailing for Intertrochanteric Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mohit J; Mavani, Kinjal J; Patel, Dhaval

    2017-06-01

    Proximal Femoral Nailing (PFN) in Intertrochanteric Fractures (IF) is becoming the choice of implant due to better biomechanics and prevention of varus collapse associated with Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS). Technical difficulties and implant related complications are yet to be addressed. To understand the technical difficulties involved in PFN and role of provisional fixation of fracture by Steinmann-pin. In this study, 55 patients presented to a tertiary trauma center in India with trochanteric fractures from April 2010 to March 2012 were included and treated with PFN. All patients were followed-up for two years and final outcome assessment included shortening, neck shaft angle and Harris Hip Score was done. In all except one, neck shaft angle greater than 130° was achieved and also maintained in the final follow up (Mean 131.1°). All fractures were united with mean shortening of 3.6 mm and average Harris Hip Score of 91 after two years. There were five complications which included one shortening, two varus collapses, one backed out screws and one reverse Z effect. Though PFN is technically challenging, with proper technique, gives excellent results with negligible varus collapse even in unstable fractures. Three most important technical aspects are achieving good non-varus reduction, inserting nail correctly and accurate placement of lag screws. The technique of provisional fixation of fracture fragments by Steinmann-pin significantly helps in achieving these and reduces the risk of implant failure.

  14. Biomechanical effects of calcar screws and bone block augmentation on medial support in locked plating of proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katthagen, Jan Christoph; Schwarze, Michael; Meyer-Kobbe, Josefin; Voigt, Christine; Hurschler, Christof; Lill, Helmut

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of medial fracture gap augmentation in locked plating of an unstable 2-part proximal humeral fracture with calcar screws and insertion of a corticocancellous bone block. Furthermore the mechanical behavior of dynamic locking screws in the non-parallel arrangement of a proximal humeral plate was of interest. Thirty-two fresh frozen humeri were randomized in four equal groups. An unstable 2-part fracture was fixed by locked plating in all specimens. The basic screw setup was supplemented by additional calcar screws in one group. Humeral head screws were replaced by dynamic locking screws in a second group. The third group featured an additional corticocancellous femoral head allograft. Assessment of stiffness was followed by cyclic loading and load to failure tests. Resulting stiffness, fracture gap deflection and ultimate load were compared utilizing Bonferroni corrected t-test for independent samples. The mechanical effect of additional calcar screws was non-significant as compared to the basic screw configuration whereas bone block insertion significantly increased construct stiffness and failure load. The use of dynamic locking screws did not significantly reduce construct stiffness when compared to conventional locking screws. Additional calcar screws alone did not improve the initial biomechanical properties of an unstable 2-part proximal humeral fracture model. However bone block augmentation appeared to be a reliable alternative of additional bony support by raising stiffness and failure load. Dynamic locking screws did not show their expected dynamic component when used in a non-parallel arrangement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures: analysis of the results of 55 cases treated with PHILOS plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattoretto, D; Borgo, A; Iacobellis, C

    2016-08-01

    Complex proximal humerus fractures are often difficult to treat. Their frequency is high, especially in the elderly, and their treatment is still controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and radiological results achieved by patients with complex proximal humerus fractures, treated with PHILOS plate only. A cohort of 55 patients was selected. The mean age was 63.4 (range 33-89), while the mean follow-up time was 21.5 months (range 6-75). Clinical outcome was evaluated with the "Constant-Murley shoulder score." All the informations about the presence of complications were gathered, and radiological images were used to calculate the head-shaft angle. The overall mean Constant score was 61.93 ± 18.59, the Individual CS was 70 ± 20 % and the Relative CS was 83 ± 23 %. No significant differences were found between fractures Neer 3 and Neer 4 and between the surgical approaches (delta-split vs. delto-pectoral). Six patients had a fracture with dislocation, seven patients (12.7 %) had complications while in four patients a head-shaft angle beyond the normal range was found. Osteosynthesis with PHILOS plate is stable in the greater part of the cases, and it allows an earlier rehabilitation and so a good functional result, which could be compromised by a prolonged immobilization. Therefore, PHILOS plate is a good option for the treatment of complex proximal humerus fractures.

  16. Valgus sliding subtrochanteric osteotomy for neglected fractures of the proximal femur; surgical technique and a retrospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaskar, Ashok S; Chowdary, Naveen T

    2013-03-15

    Conventional technique of valgus osteotomy of the proximal femur involves removal of a partial or full thickness lateral based wedge from the peritrochanteric region. The purpose of this article is to describe a novel technique of valgus subtrochanteric osteotomy for proximal femur nonunion. 11 patients with proximal femur nonunions {intracapsular fractures--7, extracapsular fractures--4} were treated using a new technique of sliding subtrochanteric osteotomy and DHS fixation. Outcomes analysed include radiological outcome in terms of improvement in Pauwel's angle, neck-shaft angle and evidence of radiological union at the nonunion site and osteotomy site. Other outcomes analysed include, measurement of limb length discrepancy and functional outcome assessment with Oxford hip score. Union at the nonunion site and the osteotomy site was achieved in all patients. There were significant improvements in the postoperative Pauwel's angle, neck shaft angle and Oxford hip score. Limb length discrepancy improved to less than 1 cm in all patients. There was no x ray evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head at one year follow-up. The sliding osteotomy technique is simple, does not need extensive pre operative planning or removal of bone from the proximal femur.

  17. Minimally Invasive Treatment of Displaced Proximal Humeral Fractures in Patients Older Than 70 Years Using the Humerusblock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bogner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures (PHF in osteoporotic bone of elderly patients is challenging. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome after percutaneous reduction and internal fixation of osteoporotic PHF in geriatric patients using the semirigid Humerusblock device. Methods. In the study period from 2005 to 2010, 129 patients older than 70 years were enrolled in the study. After a mean follow-up of 23 months, a physical examination, using the Constant-Murley score and the VAS pain scale, was performed. Furthermore radiographs were taken to detect signs of malunion, nonunion, and avascular necrosis. Results. The recorded Constant-Murley score was 67.7 points (87.7% of the noninjured arm for two-part fractures, 67.9 points (90.8% for three-part fractures, and 43.0 points (56.7% for four-part fractures. In ten shoulders (7.8% loss of reduction and in four shoulders (3.1% nonunion were the reason for revision surgery. Avascular humeral head necrosis developed in eight patients (6.2%. Conclusions. In two- and three-part fractures postoperative results are promising. Sufficient ability for the activities of daily living was achieved. In four-part fractures the functional results were less satisfying regarding function and pain with a high postoperative complication rate. In those patients other treatment strategies should be considered. Study design. Therapeutic retrospective case series (evidence-based medicine (EBM level IV.

  18. Minimally Invasive Treatment of Displaced Proximal Humeral Fractures in Patients Older Than 70 Years Using the Humerusblock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Robert; Ortmaier, Reinhold; Moroder, Philipp; Karpik, Stefanie; Wutte, Christof; Lederer, Stefan; Auffarth, Alexander; Resch, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures (PHF) in osteoporotic bone of elderly patients is challenging. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome after percutaneous reduction and internal fixation of osteoporotic PHF in geriatric patients using the semirigid Humerusblock device. Methods. In the study period from 2005 to 2010, 129 patients older than 70 years were enrolled in the study. After a mean follow-up of 23 months, a physical examination, using the Constant-Murley score and the VAS pain scale, was performed. Furthermore radiographs were taken to detect signs of malunion, nonunion, and avascular necrosis. Results. The recorded Constant-Murley score was 67.7 points (87.7% of the noninjured arm) for two-part fractures, 67.9 points (90.8%) for three-part fractures, and 43.0 points (56.7%) for four-part fractures. In ten shoulders (7.8%) loss of reduction and in four shoulders (3.1%) nonunion were the reason for revision surgery. Avascular humeral head necrosis developed in eight patients (6.2%). Conclusions. In two- and three-part fractures postoperative results are promising. Sufficient ability for the activities of daily living was achieved. In four-part fractures the functional results were less satisfying regarding function and pain with a high postoperative complication rate. In those patients other treatment strategies should be considered. Study design. Therapeutic retrospective case series (evidence-based medicine (EBM) level IV).

  19. A Prospective Study to Evaluate the Management of Sub-trochanteric Femur Fractures with Long Proximal Femoral Nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sub-trochanteric fractures of the femur remains one of the most challenging fractures faced by orthopaedic surgeons. This study was done to analyse the management and complications of sub-trochanteric fractures using long proximal femoral nail (PFN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study of 50 patients with sub-trochanteric fractures of femur who were treated with long PFN at a tertiary care center from July 2012 to June 2016. The fractures were classified according to Seinsheimer classification. All patients were assessed functionally by Harris Hip Score. RESULTS: Average duration of union was 17.08 weeks (range 13 to 32 weeks, union was achieved in 92% cases. Closed reduction was achieved in 68% cases and open reduction was required in 32% cases. Various intraoperative complications were seen in 12% and delayed complications in 26% of cases. Good anatomical results were achieved in 86% of cases and 14% were fair. As per Harris Hip score, excellent results were noted in 28% cases, good in 56% cases and fair in 16% cases. CONCLUSION: The long PFN is a reliable implant for sub-trochanteric femur fractures, with high rate of bone union and minimal soft tissue damage. Intramedullary fixation has biological and biomechanical advantages, but the surgery is technically demanding.

  20. [EFFECT OF DIFFERENT NECK-SHAFT ANGLE ON EFFICACY IN TREATMENT OF PROXIMAL HUMERAL FRACTURES WITH LOCKING PLATE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linwei

    2015-06-01

    To observe the influence of different humeral neck-shaft angle on the efficacy in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures with locking plate. A total of 106 patients with proximal humeral fractures were treated by locking plate between March 2009 and March 2013, and the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Of 106 cases, 58 were male and 48 were female, aged from 26 to 71 years (mean, 52.3 years). The causes were traffic accident injury in 54 cases, falling injury from height in 23 cases, falling injury in 21 cases, and others in 8 cases. According to the Neer classification, there were 32 cases of two-part fractures, 65 cases of three-part fractures, and 9 cases of four-part fractures. The time from injury to operation was 1-7 days (mean, 2.7 days). According to neck-shaft angle by X-ray measurements at 1-3 days after operation, the patients were divided into 3 groups: valgus group (> 145°), normal group (126-145°), and varus group (humeral neck-shaft angle, there were 10 cases in valgus group, 75 cases in normal group, and 21 cases in varus group. There was no significant difference in general clinical data among 3 groups (P > 0.05). The patients were followed up 6-12 months. The X-ray results showed fracture healing, and no significant difference was found in fracture healing time among 3 groups (P>0.05). After 6 months, the varus angle of femoral head and visual analogue scale (VAS) score of normal group were significantly lower than those of valgus group and varus group (P 0.05). The complication rate was 28.57% (6/21) in varus group, was 10.67% (8/75) in normal group, and was 20.00% (2/10) in valgus group, showing no significant difference among 3 groups (χ2 = 4.31, P = 0.12). Reconstruction of normal neck-shaft angle is the key to good shoulder function and clinical efficacy in the treatment of proximal humeral fracture.

  1. Technique of Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Comminuted Proximal Humerus Fractures With Allograft Femoral Head Metaphyseal Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Stephen A; Makani, Amun; Stadecker, Monica J; Warner, Jon J P

    2015-10-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are common injuries that can require operative treatment. Different operative techniques are available, but the hallmark of fixation for 3- and 4-part fractures is a locking-plate-and-screw construct. Despite advances in this technology, obtaining anatomical reduction and fracture union can be difficult, and complications (eg, need for revision) are not uncommon. These issues can be addressed by augmenting the fixation with an endosteally placed fibular allograft. Although biomechanical and clinical results have been good, the technique can lead to difficulties in future revision to arthroplasty, a common consequence of failed open reduction and internal fixation. The technique described, an alternative to placing a long endosteal bone graft, uses a trapezoidal, individually sized pedestal of allograft femoral head to facilitate the reduction and healing of the humeral head and tuberosity fragments in a displaced 3- or 4-part fracture of the proximal humerus. It can be easily incorporated with any plate-and-screw construct and does not necessitate placing more than 1 cm of bone into the humeral intramedullary canal, limiting the negative effects on any future revision to arthroplasty.

  2. Surgical vs nonsurgical treatment of adults with displaced fractures of the proximal humerus: the PROFHER randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Amar; Handoll, Helen; Brealey, Stephen; Jefferson, Laura; Keding, Ada; Martin, Belen Corbacho; Goodchild, Lorna; Chuang, Ling-Hsiang; Hewitt, Catherine; Torgerson, David

    2015-03-10

    The need for surgery for the majority of patients with displaced proximal humeral fractures is unclear, but its use is increasing. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of surgical vs nonsurgical treatment for adults with displaced fractures of the proximal humerus involving the surgical neck. A pragmatic, multicenter, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial, the Proximal Fracture of the Humerus Evaluation by Randomization (PROFHER) trial, recruited 250 patients aged 16 years or older (mean age, 66 years [range, 24-92 years]; 192 [77%] were female; and 249 [99.6%] were white) who presented at the orthopedic departments of 32 acute UK National Health Service hospitals between September 2008 and April 2011 within 3 weeks after sustaining a displaced fracture of the proximal humerus involving the surgical neck. Patients were followed up for 2 years (up to April 2013) and 215 had complete follow-up data. The data for 231 patients (114 in surgical group and 117 in nonsurgical group) were included in the primary analysis. Fracture fixation or humeral head replacement were performed by surgeons experienced in these techniques. Nonsurgical treatment was sling immobilization. Standardized outpatient and community-based rehabilitation was provided to both groups. Primary outcome was the Oxford Shoulder Score (range, 0-48; higher scores indicate better outcomes) assessed during a 2-year period, with assessment and data collection at 6, 12, and 24 months. Sample size was based on a minimal clinically important difference of 5 points for the Oxford Shoulder Score. Secondary outcomes were the Short-Form 12 (SF-12), complications, subsequent therapy, and mortality. There was no significant mean treatment group difference in the Oxford Shoulder Score averaged over 2 years (39.07 points for the surgical group vs 38.32 points for the nonsurgical group; difference of 0.75 points [95% CI, -1.33 to 2.84 points]; P = .48) or at individual time points. There were also no

  3. A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH IN THE TREATMENT OF FRACTURES OF THE PROXIMAL FEMUR ON THE BACKGROUND OF SENILE OSTEOPOROSIS

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    N. V. Zagorodniy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of published data on the problem of osteoporosis in patients older than 75 years who have had fractures of the proximal femur. We used descriptive and analytical methods. Search publications have done in accessible to free search databases. Based on our analysis, it was found: the majority of researchers in Russia and abroad are united in the opinion that this issue requires a multidisciplinary approach; surgical treatment should be initiated as early as possible after the onset of fracture, before the complications from side of the internal organs; patients with fractures on the background of senile osteoporosis should receive drugs that affect to the quantitative and qualitative components of bone.

  4. Additive fiber-cerclages in proximal humeral fractures stabilized by locking plates: no effect on fracture stabilization and rotator cuff function in human shoulder specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christine; Hurschler, Christof; Rechi, Louise; Vosshenrich, Rolf; Lill, Helmut

    2009-08-01

    The effect of additive fiber-cerclages in proximal humeral fractures stabilized by locking plates on fracture stabilization and rotator cuff function is unclear. Here it was assessed in a human cadaver study. 24 paired human shoulder specimens were harvested from median 77-year-old (range 66-85) female donors. An unstable 3-part fracture model with an intact rotator cuff was developed. 1 specimen of each pair received an additive fiber-cerclage of the rotator cuff after plate fixation, and the other one received a plate fixation without an additive fiber-cerclage. Force-controlled hydraulic cylinders were used to simulate physiological rotator cuff tension, while a robot-assisted shoulder simulator performed 4 relevant cases of load: (1) axial loading at 0 degrees, (2) glenohumeral abduction at 60 degrees, (3) internal rotation at 0 degrees abduction, and (4) external rotation at 0 degrees abduction, and imitated hanging arm weight during loading without affecting joint kinematics. A 3-dimensional real-time interfragmentary motion analysis was done in fracture gaps between the greater tuberosity and the head, as well as subcapital. The capacity of the rotator cuff to strain was analyzed with an optical system. Interfragmentary motion was similar between the groups with and without fiber-cerclages, in both fracture gaps and in any of the cases of load. Cerclages did not impair the capacity of the rotator cuff to strain. INTERPRETATION; Provided that unstable 3-part fractures are reduced and stabilized anatomically by a locking plate, additive fiber-cerclages do not reduce interfragmentary motion. Additive fiber-cerclages may be necessary in locking plate osteosyntheses of multiple-fractured greater tuberosities or lesser tuberosity fractures that cannot be fixed sufficiently by the plate.

  5. Distribution of bone density in the proximal femur and its association with hip fracture risk in older men: the osteoporotic fractures in men (MrOS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lang; Burton, Annabel C; Bradburn, Mike; Nielson, Carrie M; Orwoll, Eric S; Eastell, Richard

    2012-11-01

    This prospective case-cohort study aimed to map the distribution of bone density in the proximal femur and examine its association with hip fracture. We analyzed baseline quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans in 250 men aged 65 years or older, which comprised a randomly-selected subcohort of 210 men and 40 cases of first hip fracture during a mean follow-up period of 5.5 years. We quantified cortical, trabecular, and integral volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and cortical thickness (CtTh) in four quadrants of cross-sections along the length of the femoral neck (FN), intertrochanter (IT), and trochanter (TR). In most quadrants, vBMDs and CtTh were significantly (p fracture, we merged the two quadrants in the medial and lateral aspects of the FN, IT, and TR. At most sites, QCT measurements were associated significantly (p fracture, the hazard ratio (HR) adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), and clinical site for a 1-SD decrease ranged between 2.28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44-3.63) to 6.91 (95% CI, 3.11-15.53). After additional adjustment for total hip (TH) areal BMD (aBMD), trabecular vBMDs at the FN, TR, and TH were still associated with hip fracture significantly (p fracture significantly (p > 0.05) better than TH aBMD. With an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.901 (95% CI, 0.852-0.950), the regression model combining TH aBMD, age, and trabecular vBMD predicted hip fracture significantly (p fracture risk and highlight trabecular vBMD at the FN and TR as an independent risk factor. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  6. Factors affecting ambulatory ability in patients aged 90 years and older following proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ryoko; Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Mataki, Yuki; Tokeji, Kayo; Wadano, Yasuyoshi

    2017-11-01

    Objectives: To investigate the details of patients' status on admission and at discharge at our hospital, to compare the ambulatory group and non-ambulatory group at discharge, and to assess the factors associated with ambulatory ability at discharge in patients aged ≥ 90 years with proximal femoral fractures (PFFs). Patients/Materials and Methods: Twenty patients admitted to our hospital for rehabilitation after surgery for a PFF were evaluated retrospectively. The rate of regaining ambulatory ability, presence of dementia, body mass index, serum albumin level, hemoglobin level, lymphocyte count, and functional independence measure (FIM) were assessed on admission and at discharge. Relationships between patients' ambulatory ability and ambulatory parameters were compared between the ambulatory and non-ambulatory groups. Results: The rate of regaining ambulatory ability was 55% at discharge. The serum albumin level at discharge was significantly higher in the ambulatory group than that in the non-ambulatory group. More patients had dementia on admission in the non-ambulatory group than in the ambulatory group. On admission, scores for the cognitive items of the FIM ("expression" and "memory") were significantly higher in the ambulatory group than those in the non-ambulatory group. Conclusions: The rate of ambulatory ability at discharge was 55% in those with a PFF, who were aged ≥ 90 years. The presence of dementia on admission and serum albumin level at discharge were factors related to ambulatory ability. It is very important to use a general rehabilitation protocol that takes cognitive function and nourishment into account, in addition to the physical aspect.

  7. Factors affecting ambulatory ability in patients aged 90 years and older following proximal femoral fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ryoko; Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Mataki, Yuki; Tokeji, Kayo; Wadano, Yasuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the details of patients’ status on admission and at discharge at our hospital, to compare the ambulatory group and non-ambulatory group at discharge, and to assess the factors associated with ambulatory ability at discharge in patients aged ≥ 90 years with proximal femoral fractures (PFFs). Patients/Materials and Methods: Twenty patients admitted to our hospital for rehabilitation after surgery for a PFF were evaluated retrospectively. The rate of regaining ambulatory ability, presence of dementia, body mass index, serum albumin level, hemoglobin level, lymphocyte count, and functional independence measure (FIM) were assessed on admission and at discharge. Relationships between patients’ ambulatory ability and ambulatory parameters were compared between the ambulatory and non-ambulatory groups. Results: The rate of regaining ambulatory ability was 55% at discharge. The serum albumin level at discharge was significantly higher in the ambulatory group than that in the non-ambulatory group. More patients had dementia on admission in the non-ambulatory group than in the ambulatory group. On admission, scores for the cognitive items of the FIM (“expression” and “memory”) were significantly higher in the ambulatory group than those in the non-ambulatory group. Conclusions: The rate of ambulatory ability at discharge was 55% in those with a PFF, who were aged ≥ 90 years. The presence of dementia on admission and serum albumin level at discharge were factors related to ambulatory ability. It is very important to use a general rehabilitation protocol that takes cognitive function and nourishment into account, in addition to the physical aspect.

  8. Type II Intertrochanteric Fractures: Proximal Femoral Nailing (PFN) Versus Dynamic Hip Screw(DHS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cyril Jonnes; Shishir Suranigi; Syed Najimudeen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intertrochanteric fracture is one of the most common fractures of the hip especially in the elderly with osteoporotic bones, usually due to low-energy trauma like simple falls. Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS...

  9. Proximal femoral nail antirotation versus hemiarthroplasty in the treatment of senile intertrochanteric fractures: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangping Luo

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings indicate that PFNA has obvious advantages over hemiarthroplasty in the treatment of senile intertrochanteric fractures. Hemiarthroplasty in treating these fractures is associated with greater surgical trauma and higher incidence of postoperative medical complications.

  10. Association between passive smoking in adulthood and phalangeal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, T; Bech, M; Curtis, T

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates an association between phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) and self-reported passive smoking using data on 15,038 persons (aged 18-95 years), who underwent a BMD scan in the Danish KRAM study. BMD was significantly lower in persons exposed to long-term passive smoking...... in their home during adulthood. INTRODUCTION: Smoking is associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. This study aimed to investigate a possible association between BMD at the phalangeal bones and self-reported passive smoking. METHODS: The study included...... and body fat percentage were measured and 96.7% (n = 15,038) of the participants answered a self-reported questionnaire with information on passive smoking, other lifestyle factors, education, etc. The association between passive smoking and BMD was examined using multiple linear regression analysis...

  11. [Geriatric Proximal Femoral Fracture and Urinary Tract Infection - Considerations for Perioperative Infection Prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, A; Reimers, N; Hecht, A; Langenhan, R

    2016-10-01

    Background: Perioperative infection prophylaxis with cephalosporins is standard in surgical treatment of proximal femoral fractures (PFF). Geriatric patients (pat.) are at risk of chronic infections and the bacteria from these can lead to unknown hygienic problems in an early operation. We therefore characterised the colonisation of the urinary tract in pat. (≥ 65 years) with PFF and observed bacterial development in deep wound infections over a period of 10 years. The aim was to discover gaps in perioperative infection prophylaxis. Patients and Methods: Between September 2013 and November 2015, colonisation of the urinary tract and microbial resistance were investigated on admission of all pat. (≥ 65 years) with the diagnosis of PFF (n = 351; f/m 263/88; median age [∅] 83.57 [65-100] years). Between 2005 and 2014, 2161 pat. with a PFF were operated in our clinic (f/m 1623/538; ∅ 82.35 [65-101] years). 991 pat. (∅ 81.84 [65-101] years) with femoral neck fracture [FNF] were treated with endoprosthesis/osteosynthesis, 1170 pat. (∅ 82,78 [65-101] years) with per-/subtrochanteric fracture [PTF] were treated with osteosynthesis. In a retrospective data analysis, deep wound infections, microbiological composition and changes in microbial resistances over time were identified. Results: Bacteriuria (BU) was detected in the urine sediment of 35.61 % (n = 125) of our pat. In 47.2 % of these pat., BU was accompanied by laboratory signs of manifest urinary tract infection. In 10.4 % of these pat., colonisation of the urinary tract with multi-resistant pathogens was detected; 26.4 % were resistant to cefuroxime. The rate of deep infections in pat. with endoprosthesis/osteosynthesis in FNF was 2.8 % (n = 28; f/m 19/9; ∅ 81.35 [67-92] years), with osteosynthesis in PTF 1,1 % (n = 14; f/m 10/4; ∅ 81.0 [70-91] years). A comparison of the periods 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 showed a shift in the spectrum of pathogens from cephalosporin

  12. Low Osteoporosis Treatment Initiation Rate in Women after Distal Forearm or Proximal Humerus Fracture: A Healthcare Database Nested Cohort Study.

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    Marie Viprey

    Full Text Available Treatment initiation rates following fragility fractures have often been reported to be low and in recent years numerous programs have been implemented worldwide to increase them. This study aimed at describing osteoporosis (OP treatment initiation in a representative sample of women who were hospitalized for a distal forearm fracture (DFF or proximal humerus fracture (PHF in 2009-2011 in France. The data source was a nationwide sample of 600,000 individuals, extracted from the French National Insurance Healthcare System database. All women aged 50 years and older who were hospitalized for a DFF or PHF between 2009 and 2011 and who had not received any OP treatment in the preceding 12 months were included in a retrospective cohort study. OP treatments initiated during the year following the fracture were analyzed. From 2009 to 2011, 729 women were hospitalized for a DFF or a PHF and 284 were on OP treatment at the time of the fracture occurrence. Among the 445 women who had no prevalent OP treatment, 131 (29.4% received supplementation treatment only (vitamin D and/or calcium and 42 (9.4% received a pharmacologic OP treatment in the year following their fracture. Pharmacological OP treatments included bisphosphonates (n = 21, strontium ranelate (n = 14, hormone replacement therapy (n = 4, or raloxifene (n = 3. General practitioners prescribed 75% of initial OP treatments. Despite the guidelines published in 2006 and the numerous initiatives to promote post-fracture OP treatment, OP treatment initiation rate in women who were hospitalized for a fragility fracture remained low in 2009-2011 in France.

  13. Displaced 3- and 4-part proximal humeral fractures: Evaluation and management with an intramedullary nail within 48 h, in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Nobile

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: The nail utilized is provided with locking and multiplanar proximal screws and could be applied through a mini-invasive anterolateral approach. This enables the reduction of the fracture fragments, while preserving vascularization of the scapulo-humeral joint. Our results confirm that the indication of endomedullary nail could be extended to the treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures with 3 and 4 fragments (level of evidence IV, according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine Levels of Evidence Working Group.

  14. PEEK versus titanium locking plates for proximal humerus fracture fixation: a comparative biomechanical study in two- and three-part fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, Benedikt; Seifert, Robert; Theisen, Christina; Gehweiler, Dominic; Wähnert, Dirk; Schulze, Martin; Raschke, Michael J; Weimann, Andre

    2017-01-01

    The high rigidity of metal implants may be a cause of failure after fixation of proximal humerus fractures. Carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) plates with a modulus similar to human cortical bone may help to overcome this problem. The present study assesses the biomechanical behavior of a PEEK plate compared with a titanium locking plate. Unstable two- and three-part fractures were simulated in 12 pairs of cadaveric humeri and were fixed with either a PEEK or a titanium locking plate using a pairwise comparison. With an optical motion capture system, the stiffness, failure load, plate bending, and the relative motion at the bone-implant interface and at the fracture site were evaluated. The mean load to failure for two- and three-part fracture fixations was, respectively, 191 N (range 102-356 N) and 142 N (range 102-169 N) in the PEEK plate group compared with 286 N (range 191-395 N) and 258 N (range 155-366 N) in the titanium locking plate group. The PEEK plate showed significantly more bending in both the two- and three-part fractures (p PEEK plate showed lower fixation strength and increased motion at the bone-implant interface compared with a titanium locking plate.

  15. Phalangeal quantitative ultrasound and metabolic control in pre-menopausal women with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, A; Morabito, N; Di Vieste, G; Pintaudi, B; Cucinotta, D; Lasco, A; Di Benedetto, A

    2013-05-01

    Several studies have reported increased fracture risk in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) provides information on the structure and elastic properties of bone, which are important determinants of fracture risk, along with bone mineral density. To study phalangeal sites by QUS, examine bone turnover markers and analyze association between these factors with metabolic control in a population of pre-menopausal women with T1DM. Thirty-five T1DM pre-menopausal women (mean age 34.5 ± 6.8 yr) attending the Diabetic Outpatients Clinic in the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Messina, were consecutively enrolled and divided into two groups, taking into account the mean value of glycated hemoglobin in the last three years. Twenty healthy age-matched women served as controls. Phalangeal ultrasound measurements [Amplitude Dependent Speed of Sound (AD-SoS), Ultrasound Bone Profile Index (UBPI), TScore, Z-Score] were performed using a DBM Sonic Bone Profiler. Osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline served as markers of bone formation and bone resorption, respectively. T1DM women with poor metabolic control showed lower phalangeal QUS values compared to healthy controls (pmetabolic control (pmetabolic control and healthy controls. Lower bone formation and increased bone resorption, although not statistically significant, were observed in patients with poor metabolic control in comparison to patients with good metabolic control. Poor metabolic control may worsen the quality of bone in T1DM. Phalangeal QUS could be considered as a tool to screen T1DM women for osteoporosis in pre-menopausal age.

  16. A comprehensive update on current fixation options for two-part proximal humerus fractures: a biomechanical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Richard S; Dziadosz, Daniel; Porter, David A; Frank, Matthew A; Smith, Wade R; Liporace, Frank A

    2014-03-01

    Recent advancements in implant technology offer updated options for surgical management that have been rapidly adopted into clinical practice. The objective of this study is to biomechanically test and compare the current fixation options available for surgical fixation of two-part proximal humerus fractures and establish load to failure and stiffness values. Sixteen match-paired (32 total) fresh-frozen, cadaveric specimens were randomized to receive 1 of 4 fixation constructs following creation of an AO/OTA Type 11A3 (two-part) proximal humerus fractures. Fixation constructs tested consisted of 3.5 mm fixed angle plate (3.5-FAP), 4.5 mm fixed angle plate (4.5-FAP), humeral intramedullary nail (IMN), and a humeral intramedullary nail with a fixed angle blade (IMN-FAB). Specimen bone density was measured to ensure no adequate, non-osteoporotic bone. Constructs were tested for stiffness and ultimate load to failure and compared via one-way ANOVA analysis with subsequent post hoc Tukey HSD multiple group comparison statistical analysis. The IMN-FAB construct was significantly stiffer than the 3.5-FAP construct (123.8 vs. 23.9, pproximal humerus fracture exhibited that the stiffest and highest load to failure construct was the IMN-FAB followed by the IMN, 3.5-FAP and then the 4.5-FAP constructs. However, prospective clinical trials with longer-term follow-up are required for definitive assessment of the ideal fixation construct for surgical management of two-part proximal humerus fractures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Advantage of minimally invasive lateral approach relative to conventional deltopectoral approach for treatment of proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuan; Liu, Peng-cheng; Liu, Run; Wu, Xing

    2015-02-15

    Despite the wide application of open reduction and internal fixation with locking plates for the treatment of proximal humeral fractures, the surgical invasive approach remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the pros and cons of the minimally invasive lateral approach for the treatment of proximal humeral fracture (PHF) in comparison with the deltopectoral approach. All patients who sustained a PHF and received open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) surgery with locking plate through either minimally invasive subacromial approach or conventional deltopectoral approach between January 2008 and February 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into the conventional group and min-group according to the surgical incision. Surgery-related information, postoperative radiography, complications, and shoulder functional measurement scores in a 2-year follow-up were collected and evaluated. Ninety-one patients meeting the inclusion criteria were included in this study. We observed a significant difference in both surgery time (81.8±18.3 vs. 91.0±18.4) (p=0.021) and blood loss (172±54.2 vs. 205±73.6) (p=0.016) between the min-group and conventional group. Compared to the conventional group, the min-group had significantly better Constant-Murley score and DASH score at early follow-up (pfractures, was observed in the min-group, the conventional group obtained better movement in the 4-part fractures. The minimally invasive lateral approach is the optimal alternative for the treatment of Neer's type 2 and 3 proximal humerus fractures.

  18. Nonoperative management versus reverse shoulder arthroplasty for treatment of 3- and 4-part proximal humeral fractures in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Troy A; Granade, Charles M; Hunt, Quinn; Griscom, James T; Adams, Kyle J; Momaya, Amit M; Kwapisz, Adam; Kissenberth, Michael J; Tolan, Stefan J; Hawkins, Richard J; Tokish, John M

    2017-06-01

    The treatment of 3- and 4-part proximal humeral fractures in the older adult is controversial. No study has directly compared reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) with nonoperative treatment for these fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and patient-reported outcomes between RSA and nonoperative treatment groups. A retrospective review was performed on all 3- and 4-part proximal humeral fractures treated with either RSA or nonoperative treatment with minimum 1-year follow-up. All patients in the nonoperative cohort were offered RSA but declined. Objective patient data were obtained from medical records. Patient-reported outcomes including visual analog scale score, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score, Penn Shoulder Score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, resiliency score, and Veterans Rand-12 scores were obtained at follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed by use of the Student t test for continuous variables and χ2 analysis for nonparametric data. We analyzed 19 nonoperative and 20 RSA patients with a mean follow-up period greater than 2 years (29 months in nonoperative group and 53 months in RSA group). There were no differences in range of motion between groups (forward elevation, 120° vs 119° [P = .87]; external rotation, 23° vs 31° [P = .06]). No differences between the nonoperative and RSA groups were noted for any patient-reported outcomes. Among patients receiving RSA, there was no difference in outcomes in those undergoing surgery less than 30 days after injury versus those receiving delayed RSA. This study suggests that there are minimal benefits of RSA over nonoperative treatment for 3- and 4-part proximal humeral fractures in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Arthroplasty for the surgical management of complex proximal humerus fractures in the elderly: a cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Schairer, William W; McCormick, Frank; Dines, David M; Craig, Edward V; Gulotta, Lawrence V

    2016-05-01

    Shoulder hemiarthroplasty (HA) has been the standard treatment for complex proximal humerus fractures in the elderly requiring surgery but not amenable to fixation. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) has also emerged as a costly albeit highly effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of nonoperative fracture care, HA, and RTSA for complex proximal humerus fractures from the perspective of both U.S. payors and hospitals. A Markov model was constructed for the treatment alternatives. Costs were expressed in 2013 U.S. dollars and effectiveness in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The principal outcome measure was incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate model assumptions. In the base case, from the payor perspective, RTSA was associated with an ICER of $8100/QALY; HA was eliminated from payor analysis as a cost-ineffective strategy. From the hospital perspective, however, HA was not cost-ineffective and the ICER for HA was $36,700/QALY, with RTSA providing incremental effectiveness at $57,400/QALY. RTSA was the optimal strategy in 61% and 54% of payor and hospital probabilistic sensitivity analyses, respectively. The preferred strategy was dependent on associated QALY gains, primary RTSA cost, and failure rates for RTSA. RTSA can be a cost-effective intervention in the surgical treatment of complex proximal humerus fractures. HA can also be a cost-effective intervention, depending on the cost perspective (cost-ineffective for payor but cost-effective for the hospital). This analysis highlights the opportunities for increased cost-sharing strategies to alleviate the cost burden on hospitals. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Trampoline fracture of the proximal tibial metaphysis in children may not progress into valgus: a report of seven cases and a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakel, R

    2012-06-01

    Fracture of the proximal tibial metaphysis in children is a rare injury but notorious for carrying the risk of subsequent valgus deformity of the tibia. Trampoline-caused fracture of the proximal tibial metaphysis in children may not progress into valgus. We followed up six children who collectively sustained seven fractures of the proximal tibial metaphysis while trampolining with other heavier and/or older children. Initial and follow-up x-rays were reviewed by an orthopaedic surgeons and two radiologists. None of the patients developed valgus deformity with follow-up. Trampoline is associated with a specific type of injury to the proximal tibia when children are trampolining with other heavier children even without falling off the trampoline. This fracture is linear and complete, often non-displaced. Unlike "other" proximal tibial metaphyseal fractures, trampoline-associated proximal tibial metaphysical fracture in children is not associated with a risk of subsequent valgus deformity. Level 4. case series. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Features of Three- and Four-Part Proximal Humeral Fractures and Outcome of Internal Fixation Using the Philos® Locking Plate

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    Ali Sadighi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proximal humeral fractures are among common types of fractures and remain a challenging issue for surgical management. This study aimed to assess the clinical outcomes and complication rates of three- vs. four-part proximal humeral fractures, treated with internal fixation using the Philos® plate. Material and Methods: In this cohort study, a total of 30 consecutive patients with three-part or four-part proximal humeral fractures based on the Neer classification were included. Surgical treatment was performed with open reduction and internal fixation using the Philos® plate. The constant score was evaluated 6 months later in follow-up. The P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Four-part fractures were mainly caused by trauma from above, while insults of opposite direction were responsible for more than half of 3 part fractures (P=0.01. Open fractures were only observed in patients with a four-part fracture (P=0.018. No significant differences were noticed regarding gender, cause, and side of the fracture. The presence of other fractures, fracture of the implant, reduction loss, avascular necrosis (AVN of humerus head, rotator cuff injury, and revision surgery were significantly higher in patients with four-part fractures. The mean constant score was 81.40±11.61 and 65.09±16.09 for three-part and four-part fractures, respectively (P=0.006. Conclusion: Open reduction and internal fixation with Philos® plate yield acceptable results in both types of fractures, however, the prognosis of this intervention is poorer four-part fractures.

  2. Stress fracture of the second proximal phalanx of the foot in teenage athletes: Unrecognized location of stress fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yamaguchi

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Although a rare injury, it is important that clinicians be aware of this type of stress fracture, as a timely diagnosis can avoid the need for surgical treatment and allow an early return to play.

  3. Evolução funcional nas fraturas da extremidade proximal do fêmur Functional evolution of proximal femoral end fractures

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    Murilo Antônio Rocha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar a evolução da capacidade funcional e do escore fisiológico em pacientes com fraturas da extremidade proximal do fêmur, assim como comparar os resultados finais do tratamento instituído com as diversas variáveis pré-fratura. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo com pacientes acima de 40 anos e diagnóstico de fratura do fêmur proximal. Os pacientes foram submetidos à aplicação de um protocolo pré-estabelecido e acompanhados ambulatorialmente por um período de um ano. RESULTADOS: foram acompanhados 68 pacientes (27 homens e 41 mulheres com idade média de 75,84 anos. O tratamento cirúrgico foi instituído em 83,82% dos casos. O escore fisiológico inicial médio foi de 17,16 pontos, sendo o valor de 17,58 pontos nos pacientes operados e 9,27 pontos naqueles submetidos a tratamento conservador. A mortalidade verificada em um ano após a fratura foi de 36,76%. A capacidade deambulatória sem auxílio foi readquirida em 32,56% dos pacientes. 25,58% dos casos, cujo escore fisiológico inicial médio foi inferior à média geral, não deambularam após o seguimento de um ano. 27,90% dos pacientes previamente independentes passaram a necessitar de cuidados de familiares e/ou do serviço social. CONCLUSÃO: o fator de maior influência no resultado final foi o escore fisiológico inicial.OBJECTIVES: To assess the functional capacity evolution and the physiologic score in patients with proximal femoral end fractures, as well as to compare the final results of the treatment provided to the several pre-fracture variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study with patients over 40 years old diagnosed with proximal femoral fracture. The patients were submitted to a pre-established protocol and followed up on an outpatient basis for a period of one year. RESULTS: 68 patients were assessed (27 men and 41 women, with a mean age of 75,84 years. 83,82% were submitted to surgical treatment. The early mean physiologic

  4. Catastrophic biaxial proximal sesamoid bone fractures in UK Thoroughbred races (1999-2004): horse characteristics and racing history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, M; Parkin, T D H; Singer, E R

    2010-07-01

    Catastrophic biaxial proximal sesamoid bone fractures (PSBF) have not yet been described in detail in the UK racing population. To determine the incidence and relative risk (RR) of PSBF in different types of racing in the UK; and to describe horse-level characteristics and racing histories of horses sustaining these injuries. Distal limbs were collected from all racehorses suffering catastrophic fractures during racing at all 59 racecourses in the UK, in a prospective study from February 1999 to December 2004. Post mortem investigation identified the anatomical location and type of fracture. Horse, racing history, race and racecourse details were obtained. Characteristics of the horses that sustained PSBF were described. The incidence and RR of PSBF in the different types of racing in the UK were calculated. Thirty-one horses suffered PSBF during the study period. The incidence of PSBF in all types of race was 0.63 per 10,000 starts (31/494,744). The incidence was highest in flat races on all weather surfaces (1.63 per 10,000 starts: 12/73,467; RR = 4.4 when compared to turf flat racing). Affected horses had an average age of 5.6 years and had started a mean of 28 races at the time of fracture. There is a strong association between type of racing surface and PSBF. Horses competing in flat races on all weather surfaces have an increased risk of PSBF. These fractures appear to happen in experienced horses with several starts, with few fractures occurring within the first season of racing. Further research should focus on identification of underlying pathology of these fractures. Epidemiological studies aimed at the identification of risk factors for PSBF in the UK racing population would require a large number of cases acquired over many years given the relatively low incidence of PSBF.

  5. Implant-related Fractures in Children With Proximal Femoral Osteotomy: Blade Plate Versus Screw-side Plate Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Thompson, John M; Brooks, Jaysson T; Ain, Michael C; Sponseller, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Implant design may affect risk of fracture, especially in the proximal femur, which has been shown to have the highest risk of implant-related fracture (IRF). Blade plate (BPL) and screw-side plate (SSP) implants are used to stabilize proximal femoral osteotomies (PFOs). Our goal was to compare BPL and SSP constructs with regard to the rate, location, and timing of IRF in children undergoing PFOs. We retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiographic records from 1 pediatric orthopaedic practice from 1995 through 2010. We identified 734 children 18 years or younger who underwent PFO with a BPL (480 patients) or an SSP (254 patients). Manufacture and style of implants were consistent throughout this period. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of mean age, sex, race, or diagnosis. The 2 groups were compared with respect to the rate, location, and timing of IRF. The t, Z, χ, and Fisher exact tests were used to analyze the data (statistical significance, Ptimes to fracture were 3.8±2.9 and 2.4±2.3 years (P=0.39) in the BPL and SSP groups, respectively. The risk of IRF in children after PFO is substantial. Despite differences in design, there was no significant difference between BPL and SSP implants with respect to IRF risk. Level III.

  6. Proximal Femoral Nail versus Dynamic Hip Screw Fixation for Trochanteric Fractures: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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    Xiao Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to find out whether the proximal femoral nail was better than the dynamic hip screw in the treatment of trochanteric fractures with respect to operation time, blood transfusion, hospital stay, wound complications, number of reoperation, and mortality rate. Methods. All randomized controlled trials comparing proximal femoral nail and dynamic hip screw in the treatment of trochanteric fractures were included. Articles and conference data were extracted by two authors independently. Data was analyzed using RevMan 5.1 version. Eight trials involving 1348 fractures were retrieved. Results. Compared with DHS fixation, PFN fixation had similar operation time (95% CI: −15.28–2.40, P=0.15. Blood loss and transfusion during perioperative time were also comparable between the two fixations (95% CI: −301.39–28.11, P=0.10; 95% CI: −356.02–107.20, P=0.29, resp.. Outcomes of hospital stay (95% CI: −0.62–1.01, P=0.64, wound complication (95% CI: 0.66–1.67, P=0.82, mortality (95% CI: 0.83–1.30, P=0.72, and reoperation (95% CI: 0.61–1.54, P=0.90 were all similar between the two groups. Conclusion. PFN fixation shows the same effectiveness as DHS fixation in the parameters measured.

  7. [Treatment of proximal humeral fractures by reverse shoulder arthroplasty: mid-term evaluation of functional results and Notching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Elena, J; de la Red-Gallego, M Á; Garcés-Zarzalejo, C; Pascual-Carra, M A; Pérez-Aguilar, M D; Rodríguez-López, T; Alfonso-Fernández, A; Pérez-Núñez, M I

    2015-01-01

    An analysis was made on relationship between Notching and functional and radiographic parameters after treatment of acute proximal humeral fractures with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. A retrospective evaluation was performed on 37 patients with acute proximal humeral fracture treated by reversed shoulder arthroplasty. The mean follow-up was 24 months. Range of motion, intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Nerot's classification was used to evaluate Notching. Patient satisfaction was evaluated with the Constant Score (CS). Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between Notching and glenosphere position, or functional outcomes. Mean range of elevation, abduction, external and internal rotation were 106.22°, 104.46°, 46.08° and 40.27°, respectively. Mean CS was 63. Notching was present at 12 months in 29% of patients. Statistical analysis showed significance differences between age and CS, age and notching development, and tilt with notching. No statistical significance differences were found between elevation, abduction, internal and external rotation and CS either with scapular or glenosphere-neck angle. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty is a valuable option for acute humeral fractures in patients with osteoporosis and cuff-tear arthropathy. It leads to early pain relief and shoulder motion. Nevertheless, it is not exempt from complications, and long-term studies are needed to determine the importance of notching. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Critical factors in cut-out complication after gamma nail treatment of proximal femoral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Bojan Alicja J; Beimel Claudia; Taglang Gilbert; Collin David; Ekholm Carl; Jönsson Anders

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The most common mechanical failure in the internal fixation of trochanteric hip fractures is the cut-out of the sliding screw through the femoral head. Several factors that influence this complication have been suggested, but there is no consensus as to the relative importance of each factor. The purpose of this study was to analyse the cut-out complication with respect to the following variables: patients’ age, fracture type, fracture reduction, implant positioning and im...

  9. A Gustilo Type 3B Open Tibial Fracture Treated with a Proximal Flexor Hallucis Longus Flap: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Arai, Masayuki; Sato, Kaoru; Kanzaki, Koji

    2017-01-01

    In the treatment of Gustilo Type 3B open tibial fractures, it is important to perform soft tissue reconstruction and bone reconstruction simultaneously. Gastrocnemius muscle and soleus muscle flaps are generally used as rotational flaps for the tibia. The distal third of the tibia can often not be covered with the gastrocnemius muscle and soleus muscle flaps. Treatment distal to the distal third of the tibia is difficult because fewer flap options are available. In the present report, we describe our experience with a Gustilo Type 3B open tibial fracture treated by gastrocnemius muscle and soleus muscle flaps, along with an additional proximally based flexor hallucis longus flap, which is a rare procedure. The participant was a 17-year-old male who injured his left tibia in a motorcycle traffic accident. Physical examination revealed a wound of 13 cm × 7 cm extending from the medial lower leg to the posterior aspect, with extensive skin loss. There was no nerve or vascular injury. The tibia was exposed, with detachment of the periosteum. The radiograph revealed a tibial shaft fracture. The AO/OTA classification was 42-A3.3, and it was classified as a Gustilo-Anderson Type 3B fracture. Gastrocnemius muscle and soleus muscle flaps were lifted in the area of the soft-tissue defect and then, placed over the tibia. Despite this, the distal portion of the tibia remained uncovered. Therefore, a flexor hallucis longus flap was lifted and placed over the distal portion of the tibia. On day 7 after the injury, the external fixation device was removed and the tibial shaft was fixated with two Ender nails (4.5 mm in diameter). The clinical course was satisfactory, and the skin graft and flap were successful. Bone union was achieved without infection, and the resulting range of motion was normal. For the treatment of Gustilo-Anderson Type 3B open tibial fractures, early treatment of the soft-tissue defect is vital. We surgically treated a Gustilo-Anderson Type 3B open tibial

  10. Use of intra-medullary stacked nailing in the reduction of proximal plastic deformity in a pediatric Monteggia fracture: a case report

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    Huntley James S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In a Monteggia fracture dislocation, it is important to reduce the ulnar fracture completely. Extensive plastic deformation of the proximal ulna may make reduction by closed manipulation impossible. Case presentation We report the case of a four-year-old Caucasian boy in whom the plastic deformation of the proximal ulna was reduced, and this reduction was maintained, using intra-medullary stacked nailing. Conclusion The technique of stacked nailing is a useful addition to the armamentarium in the management of the potentially awkward Monteggia fracture.

  11. Estudo da mortalidade na fratura do fêmur proximal em idosos Study of the proximal femoral fractures mortatlity in elderly patients

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    Marcos Hideyo Sakaki

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo de revisão sobre a mortalidade na fratura do fêmur proximal em idosos com base nas publicações mais relevantes do período de 1998 a 2002. Foram incluídos 25 artigos relacionados ao assunto, selecionados com base nos bancos de dados Medline e Cochrane, totalizando 24.062 pacientes com mais de 60 anos de idade, que tiveram fratura do fêmur proximal. Quatorze estudos foram prospectivos, oito retrospectivos e três revisões sistemáticas. As taxas médias de mortalidade foram de 5,5% durante a internação hospitalar, 4,7% ao fim de um mês de seguimento, 11,9% com três meses, 10,8% com seis meses, 19,2% com um ano e 24,9% com dois anos. Foram identificados quatro fatores intimamente relacionados com uma maior mortalidade nestes pacientes: idade avançada, grande número de doenças associadas, sexo masculino e presença de deficiências cognitivas. Outros fatores mostraram uma fraca correlação com a mortalidade como capacidade deambulatória prévia, índice de risco anestésico da Sociedade Americana de Anestesia (ASA, anemia, hipoalbuminemia, linfopenia e existência de AVC prévio. Os fatores como tempo prévio à cirurgia, tipo de anestesia utilizada e tipo de osteossíntese empregada não mostraram ter interferência.A revision study was performed on the proximal femoral fractures mortality in elderly patients, based on the most relevant publications during the 1998 to 2002 period. Twenty-five articles related to the subject were included, selected from the Medline and Cochrane databases, totaling 24.062 patients over the age of 60 years, with fracture of the proximal femur. There were 14 prospective trials, 8 retrospective and 3 were systematic reviews. The mean in-hospital mortality was 5,5%, 1-month mortality 4,7%, 3-months 11,9%, 6-months 10,8%, 1-year 19,2% and 2-years 24,9%. Four factors were identified in these patients closely related with a larger number of deaths: advanced age, polymorbidity, male

  12. Quantitative ultrasound assessment in children with fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalamon, Johannes; Singer, Georg; Schwantzer, Gerold; Nietosvaara, Yrjänä

    2004-08-01

    BMD of children with fractures was compared with healthy controls using QUS. We found significantly lower SOS values in children suffering from fractures. None of the studied environmental factors could explain the difference in BMD measurements. The aims of this study were to compare the results of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in children with fractures with the respective values in children without fractures and to identify possible environmental factors influencing speed of sound (SOS) in our study cohort. BMD was measured by QUS in 50 children who had sustained an acute fracture and in 154 healthy children as controls. SOS values were obtained from the proximal phalanges of the last four fingers of the dominant hand. Nutritional habits and activity level of the children were documented by a standardized questionnaire. Children with fractures had a significantly lower SOS compared with children without a history of fractures. This difference in SOS could not be explained by differences in diet, body mass index, or physical activity. Previous studies have suggested that low BMD levels might contribute to an increased prevalence of fractures in patients with systemic diseases. Our study showed that, in an otherwise healthy pediatric population, the SOS values are lower in children with fractures compared with healthy controls. Despite statistical significance, the biological impact of the results remains unclear. The difference in SOS values could not be explained by any of the studied environmental factors.

  13. Surgical treatment with an angular stable plate for complex displaced proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjalestad, Tore; Hole, Margrethe Ø; Hovden, Inger Anette Hynås; Blücher, Judith; Strømsøe, Knut

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate functional outcome, patient self-assessment, and radiographic outcome at 1 year in displaced three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures (OTA group 11-B2 and 11-C2). Randomized controlled trial. Academic medical center. Fifty patients aged 60 years or older with displaced three- or four-part proximal humeral fractures and no previous shoulder injuries were randomized either to surgical treatment or to conservative closed treatment. Twenty-five patients were included in each group. Forty-eight patients completed 12-month follow-up. Two surgical patients died within 3 months. The surgically treated group had a standardized surgical treatment with open reduction and internal fixation using an angular stable plate and cerclages. Instructed physical therapy started the third postoperative day. The conservative treatment group had a standardized nonoperative treatment that included closed reduction if displacement between the head and metaphyseal shaft fragment exceeded 50% of the diaphyseal diameter. Physical therapy started on the fifteenth postoperative day. The main outcome was the mean difference in Constant score between the injured and noninjured shoulder at 12 months. The secondary outcomes were patient self-assessment (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score) and radiographic ratings at 12 months. At 12 months, mean Constant scores favored conservative treatment by 2.4 points (nonsignificant; P = 0.62). There was no significant difference in mean patient self-assessment. However, radiographic outcomes were significantly better for surgically treated patients. There is no evidence of a difference in functional outcome at 1-year follow-up between surgical treatment and conservative treatment of displaced proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients.

  14. Treatment of comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly patients with the Delta III reverse shoulder prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michael; Juschka, Miriam; Hinkenjann, Bernd; Scherger, Bernhard; Ostermann, Peter A W

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate clinical and radiologic results after implantation of the Delta III reverse shoulder prosthesis in elderly patients with comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus. Prospective, single-center-based cohort study. Level II Trauma Center. Patients undergoing insertion of Delta III reverse shoulder prosthesis for the treatment of comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus between July 2002 and December 2004. Surgery with the Delta III reverse shoulder prosthesis through a juxta-acromial approach. Duration of surgery, x-ray evaluation by Nerot's Score, complications, and functional outcome based on the Constant Score, the modified American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Score, the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score, and the 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) Score. Twenty patients (14 females, 6 males) with a mean age of 74.85 +/- 5.73 years were included into the study followed up for 33.29 +/- 9.6 months. The average range of motion was for abduction 112.5 +/- 38.19 degrees and for anterior elevation 122.67 +/- 32.84 degrees. The mean Constant Score was 67.85 +/- 13.56. The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score was 46.85 +/- 15.68, and the mean modified American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Score was 68 +/- 11.83. The Physical Component Scale of the SF-36 was 38 +/- 11.94. The Mental Component Scale of the SF-36 score was 52.59 +/- 10.92. Operations were performed 10.05 +/- 8.78 days (3-41) after trauma, and the average operation time was 75.7 +/- 18.11 minutes. The good functional outcome and the short intervention time in our present study and not needing a sufficient rotator cuff for implementation purposes suggest the use of the Delta III reverse shoulder prosthesis as a treatment option for elderly patients with comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus.

  15. Influence of Lateral Muscle Loading in the Proximal Femur after Fracture Stabilization with a Trochanteric Gamma Nail (TGN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Mahaisavariya, Banchong; Suwanprateeb, Jintamai; Bohez, Erik; Vander Sloten, Jos

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of lateral muscle loading on the stress/strain distributions of the trochanteric Gamma nail (TGN) fixation within the healed, trochanteric and subtrochanteric femoral fractures by means of a finite element method. The effect of three muscle groups, the abductors (ABD), the vastus lateralis (VL) and the iliotibial band (ITB), were investigated. The analytical results showed that addition of lateral muscle forces, iliotibial band and vastus lateralis, produced compensation of forces and reduction of bending moments in the bone and in the trochanteric Gamma nail especially in the lateral aspect. The iliotibial band produced a higher impact as compared to the vastus lateralis. Therefore in the finite element analysis of the proximal femur with the trochanteric Gamma nail fracture fixation should include the lateral muscle forces to simulate load condition with maximal physiological relevance to the closed nailing technique.

  16. INTERTAN nail versus proximal femoral nail antirotation-Asia for intertrochanteric femur fractures in elderly patients with primary osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hui; Zeng, Xianshang; Zhang, Nan; Zeng, Dan; Xu, Ping; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Deng; Yu, Weiguang; Zhang, Xinchao

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the long-term functional and radiographic outcomes of the proximal femoral nail antirotation-Asia (PFNA-II) and INTERTAN nail (IT) in the management of intertrochanteric femoral fractures (IFFs) (AO/OTA Type 31A1.1-A2.3) in elderly patients with primary osteoporosis. Methods A retrospective comparative study was performed in our institution. From January 2009 to March 2012, 243 patients with osteoporosis (243 hips) with IFFs (AO/OTA Type 3.1A1.1-A2.3) underwent repair wi...

  17. Protocol for the ProFHER (PROximal Fracture of the Humerus: Evaluation by Randomisation trial: a pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial of surgical versus non-surgical treatment for proximal fracture of the humerus in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maffulli Nicola

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proximal humeral fractures, which occur mainly in older adults, account for approximately 4 to 5% of all fractures. Approximately 40% of these fractures are displaced fractures involving the surgical neck. Management of this group of fractures is often challenging and the outcome is frequently unsatisfactory. In particular it is not clear whether surgery gives better outcomes than non-surgical management. Currently there is much variation in the use of surgery and a lack of good quality evidence to inform this decision. Methods/Design We aim to undertake a pragmatic UK-based multi-centre randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of surgical versus standard non-surgical treatment for adults with an acute closed displaced fracture of the proximal humerus with involvement of the surgical neck. The choice of surgical intervention is left to the surgeon, who must use techniques that they are fully experienced with. This will avoid 'learning curve' problems. We will promote good standards of non-surgical care, similarly insisting on care-provider competence, and emphasize the need for comparable provision of rehabilitation for both groups of patients. We aim to recruit 250 patients from a minimum of 18 NHS trauma centres throughout the UK. These patients will be followed-up for 2 years. The primary outcome is the Oxford Shoulder Score, which will be collected via questionnaires completed by the trial participants at 6, 12 and 24 months. This is a 12-item condition-specific questionnaire providing a total score based on the person's subjective assessment of pain and activities of daily living impairment. We will also collect data for other outcomes, including general health measures and complications, and for an economic evaluation. Additionally, we plan a systematic collection of reasons for non-inclusion of eligible patients who were not recruited into the trial, and their baseline

  18. Influence of plate material and screw design on stiffness and ultimate load of locked plating in osteoporotic proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katthagen, Jan Christoph; Schwarze, Michael; Warnhoff, Mara; Voigt, Christine; Hurschler, Christof; Lill, Helmut

    2016-03-01

    The main purpose was to compare the biomechanical properties of a carbon-fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CF-PEEK) composite locking plate with pre-existing data of a titanium-alloy plate when used for fixation of an unstable 2-part fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus. The secondary purpose was to compare the mechanical behaviour of locking bolts and conventional locking cancellous screws. 7 pairs of fresh frozen human humeri were allocated to two equal groups. All specimens were fixed with the CF-PEEK plate. Cancellous screws (PEEK/screw) were compared to locking bolts (PEEK/bolt) for humeral head fixation. Stiffness, fracture gap deflection and ultimate load as well as load before screw perforation of the articular surface were assessed. Results were compared between groups and with pre-existing biomechanical data of a titanium-alloy plate. The CF-PEEK plate featured significantly lower stiffness compared to the titanium-alloy plate (P0.05). The CF-PEEK plate has more elastic properties and significantly increases movement at the fracture site of an unstable proximal humeral fracture model compared to the commonly used titanium-alloy plate. The screw design however does neither affect the constructs primary mechanical behaviour in the constellation tested nor the load before screw perforation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of unstable proximal interphalangeal joint fractures with hemi-hamate osteochondral autografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnier, M; Awada, T; Marin Braun, F; Rostoucher, P; Ninou, M; Erhard, L

    2017-02-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the clinical and radiological results after hemi-hamate resurfacing arthroplasty in patients with acute or chronic unstable fractures of the base of the middle phalanx and to describe technical features that can facilitate the surgical procedure. Hemi-hamate arthroplasties were done in 19 patients (mean age 39 years) with an isolated fracture at the base of the middle phalanx that involved more than 40% of the articular surface. We assessed ten chronic cases (treated >6 weeks after fracture) and nine acute ones (partial graft lysis. IV.

  20. Effect of osteosynthesis, primary hemiarthroplasty, and non-surgical management for displaced four-part fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Frich, Lars Henrik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fractures of the proximal humerus are common injuries and account for 4-5 percent of all fractures, second only to hip and wrist fractures. The incidence is positively correlated with age and osteoporosis, and is likely to increase. Displaced four-part fractures are among the most...... severe injuries, accounting for 2-10 percent of proximal humeral fractures. The optimal intervention is disputed. Two previous randomised trials were very small and involved a noticeable risk of bias, and systematic reviews consequently conclude that there is inadequate basis for evidence-based treatment...... will be followed at least one year. The primary outcomes will be the overall score on the Constant Disability Scale, and its pain subscale, measured at 12 months. A blinded physiotherapist will carry out the assessments. Other secondary outcomes are Oxford Shoulder Score, and general health status (Short Form-36)....

  1. Forecasting Proximal Femur and Wrist Fracture Caused by a Fall to the Side during Space Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Myers, Jerry G.; Sulkowski, C.; Ruehl, K.; Licata, A.

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of bone fracture in space is a concern due to the negative impact it could have on a mission. The Bone Fracture Risk Module (BFxRM) developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center is a statistical simulation that quantifies the probability of bone fracture at specific skeletal locations for particular activities or events during space exploration missions. This paper reports fracture probability predictions for the proximal femur and wrist resulting from a fall to the side during an extravehicular activity (EVA) on specific days of lunar and Martian exploration missions. The risk of fracture at the proximal femur on any given day of the mission is small and fairly constant, although it is slightly greater towards the end of the mission, due to a reduction in proximal femur bone mineral density (BMD). The risk of wrist fracture is greater than the risk of hip fracture and there is an increased risk on Mars since it has a higher gravitational environment than the moon. The BFxRM can be used to help manage the risk of bone fracture in space as an engineering tool that is used during mission operation and resource planning.

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN PROXIMAL FEMORAL NAILING AND DYNAMIC HIP SCREW IN THE MANAGEMENT OF INTERTROCHANTERIC FRACTURES OF FEMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penugonda Ravi Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To determine the rate of union, complications, operative risks and functional outcomes in intertrochanteric fractures treated with DHS and PFN , To compare the results obtained and To compare the effectiveness of DHS and PFN in treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. RESULTS : In the present series of 24 cases of Intertrochanteric fractures were treated by proximal femoral nailing and dynamic hip screw, 12 cases in each. Out of 24 there were 13 male and 11 female. Minimum age was 36 years, maximum age 76 years with mean age of 59.25 years. Slip and fall accounted for 75% of cases. BOYD and GRIFFIN type II fracture accounted for 58.3% of cases. Mean duration of hospital stay was 26 days in both PFN and DHS groups. Length of incision was small 5 - 6cm in PFN group compared to 10 - 12cm in DHS group. Mean external blood loss 150ml in PFN group and 315 ml in DHS group. Mean time for full weight bearing was 11.5 weeks for PFN group and 14.3 weeks for DHS group. Radiological union was 12.3 weeks in PFN group and 15.5 weeks in DHS group. Good to excellent results were seen in 91.7% of cases in PFN group and 75% in DHS group. CONCLUSION : From the study, we consider PFN as better alternative to DHS in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures but is technically difficult procedure and requires more expertise compared to DHS.As learning curve of PFN procedure is steep, with experience gained from each case operative time, radiation exposure and intraoperative complications can be reduced in each case of PFN

  3. Difference between radiological and functional outcome with deltoid-splitting approach versus deltopectoral approach for the management of proximal humeral fractures with philos plate

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    Shah Waliullah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proximal humeral fractures are one of the common fractures of upper extremity. Good results by various studies have been reported for proximal humeral locking plate (PHILOS fixation in proximal humeral fractures. We want to evaluate whether it is only the implant which has given good results or different surgical approach utilized for fixation of plate also affects result. Materials and Methods: A total of 57 patients with proximal humeral fractures were divided in two groups, in Group A, patient′s classical deltopectoral approach utilized, while in Group B deltoid-splitting approach was used. All patients were managed by PHILOS plate fixation. Cases were followed up clinically as well as radiologically at 4-6 weeks after operation and thereafter at 10-12 weeks and then at 6 monthly for long-term complications. Functional outcomes of patient were accessed in terms Constant Scoring System, while radiological evaluation was done by taking x-rays to access quality of reduction and union of fracture. Results: All patients were followed for a minimum of 18 months. In Group B, reduction of tuberosities was better in 3 part and 4 part fractures. Mean Constant score in Group A at the end of 3 months was 56, while in Group B it was 62 and statistically significant (P = 0.02. At the end of 18 months, mean Constant score in Group A was 79, while in Group B it was 81 and statistically insignificant (P = 0.72. One patient in Group B showed axillary nerve paresis in postoperative period and recovered at the end of 3 months. Conclusion: We recommend that deltoid-splitting approach can be used in 3 part and 4 part complex proximal humeral fractures and in posterior fracture dislocation shoulder, which are difficult to approach with deltopectoral approach; however, care should be taken while inserting calcar screw in PHILOS plate fixation to avoid iatrogenic axillary nerve injury.

  4. Clinical and radiological outcomes of unstable proximal humeral fractures treated with a locking plate and fibular strut allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Karnav; Jeong, Jae-Jung; Park, Sang-Eun; Kim, Weon-Yoo; Min, Hyung-Ki; Kim, Ju-Yeong; Ji, Jong-Hun

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of unstable proximal humeral fractures (PHFs) treated with a locking plate and fibular strut allograft. This study included 36 patients [7 men, 29 women; mean age, 68 years (range, 22-94 years)] with unstable PHFs with medial column disruption. All patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using a locking plate and fibular strut allograft. Post-operative assessment included clinical outcomes, shoulder range of motion, radiographic examination, and any complications. Post-operative radiological assessment including the humerus neck-shaft angle (NSA) and the humeral head height was performed. At the mean two year follow-up visit, the mean American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) scores were 77 and 28, respectively. According to the UCLA rating scale, the result was excellent in six, good in 20, fair in six, and poor in four cases. According to the Paavolainen method, 31 patients had good results with an NSA of 130 ± 10°; three patients showed fair results with an NSA of 100-120°, and two patients experienced a poor result with an NSA of humeral head height, the mean loss of reduction was measured as 1.6 mm (from 10.8 or 9.2 mm). Varus collapse and avascular necrosis of the humeral head was noted in two patients for each condition. For unstable proximal humerus fractures, particularly in elderly patients with severe osteoporosis or in younger patients with a four-part fracture, locking plate fixation with a fibular strut allograft provided rigid medial support and showed satisfactory clinical and radiological outcomes.

  5. [Proximal humeral fractures in the elderly : Quality of life, clinical results and institutionalization following primary reverse fracture arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschin, D; Stangl, R

    2016-12-01

    Treatment of humeral head fractures in the elderly remains a challenge. Within the framework of demographic change the incidence as well as the direct and indirect consequences of injuries will rise. The analysis of an optimal treatment should include functional parameters as well as global health parameters, e.g. quality of life. The aim of this study was the evaluation of functional outcome, institutionalization (necessity of placement in a residential care home for the elderly, even if temporary), the influence of cognitive deficits, quality of life and the pattern of complications after primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The study included a total of 34 patients (mean age 79.8 ± 6.7 years, 29 female) after implantation of a reversed modular fracture arthroplasty. The mean follow-up was 23 ± 10.6 months). The functional Constant-Murley score (CS), radiology results as well as the extent of institutionalization and quality of life as measured by the EQ-5D questionnaire were collated. The clinical examination showed good results in the CS (54 points, SD ± 9). In comparison to the age and gender-related CS according to Gerber the patient scores amounted to 78.9 %. The comparison of patients with and without cognitive deficits did not show any differences (53 vs. 54 points, p = 0.6525). The rate of institutionalization after treatment of humeral head fractures by reversed fracture arthroplasty was 2.94 %. The quality of life measured with EQ-5D showed a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of 0.801. The rate of complications was 2.94 % involving an incomplete lesion of the radial nerve which was in regression. The results of this study showed good to moderate functional results, very low rates of complications and institutionalization and very good results according to the HRQoL. In comparison to conservative treatment or plate osteosynthesis, better results were achieved in this study with respect to HRQoL.

  6. Simple radiographic assessment of bone quality is associated with loss of surgical fixation in patients with proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ashley W; Selvaratnam, Veenesh; Pydah, Satya K; Nixon, Matthew F

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to determine if the ratio of cortical thickness to shaft diameter of the humerus, as measured on a simple anterior-posterior shoulder radiograph, is associated with surgical fixation failure. 64 consecutive fractures in 63 patients (mean age 66.1 years, range 35-90) operated with surgical fixation between March 2011 and July 2014 using PERI-LOC locking plate and screws (Smith and Nephew, UK) were identified. Predictors of bone quality were measured from preoperative radiographs, including ratio of the medial cortex to shaft diameter (medial cortical ratio, MCR). Loss of fixation (displacement, screw cut out, or change in neck-shaft angle >4 degrees) was determined on follow-up radiographs. Loss of fixation occurred in 14 patients (21.9%) during the follow up. Patients were older in the failure group 72.8 vs. 64.2 years (p=0.007). The MCR was significantly lower in patients with failed fixation 0.170 vs 0.202, p=0.019. Loss of fixation is three times more likely in patients with a MCR fracture parts led to increased failure rate (p=0.0005). Medial cortex ratio is significantly associated with loss of surgical fixation and may prove to be a useful adjunct for clinical decision making in patients with proximal humeral fractures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Study of Inflammatory/Necrosis Biomarkers in the Fracture of the Femur Treated with Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation

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    Mariapaola Marino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pertrochanteric fractures are common injuries in adults and source of morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Different surgical techniques were recommended for their treatment but undoubtedly they add an additional inflammatory trauma along the fracture itself. Many attempts to quantify the degree of approach-related trauma are carried out through measurements of systemic inflammatory parameters. In this study we prospectively analyzed laboratory data of 20 patients over eighty with pertrochanteric fracture of the femur treated with proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA. This is an excellent device for osteosynthesis because it can be easily and quickly inserted by a mini-incision providing stable fixation and early full mobilization. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, and plasma creatin kinase (CK were evaluated 1 hour preoperatively and 24 hours postoperatively. Our results show that PFNA did not induce significant increments in serum levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6; CRP was elevated preoperatively in correlation with waiting time for surgery; CRP and CK showed a significant increment in the first postoperatory day; CK increment was correlated with surgical time length. We conclude that, for the markers we analyzed, PFNA shows a low biomechanical-inflammatory profile that represents an advantage over other techniques.

  8. Least Possible Fixation Techniques of 4-Part Valgus Impacted Fractures of the Proximal Humerus: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Andreas; Tatani, Irini; Ntourantonis, Dimitrios; Seferlis, Ioannis; Kouzelis, Antonis; Tyllianakis, Minos

    2016-01-01

    The valgus-impacted (VI) 4-part fractures are a subset of fractures of the proximal humerus with a unique anatomic configuration characterized by a relatively lower incidence of avascular necrosis after operative intervention. We systematically reviewed clinical studies assessing the benefits and harms of least possible fixation techniques (LPFT) for this unique fracture type. Such information would be potentially helpful in developing an evidence-based approach in the management of these complex injuries. We performed analytic searches of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library, restricting it to the years 1991-2014. Included studies had to describe outcomes and complications after primary osteosynthesis with any type of LPFT apart from plate-screws and intramedullary nailing. Eligibility criteria were also included English language, more than 5 cases, minimum follow up of one year and report of clinical outcome using at least one relevant score (Constant, Neer or ASES). Based on 292 database hits we identified 12 eligible studies including 190 four-part valgus impacted fractures in 188 patients. All eligible studies were case series composed of min 8 to max 45 patients per study. The gender distribution was 60% (112) female and 40% (76) male. The average age of the patients at the time of injury was 54.5 years. In 8/12 studies an open reduction was used for fracture fixation using different surgical techniques including KW, cerclage wires, cannulated screws and osteosutures. Closed reduction and percutaneous fixation was used in 4 studies. Mean follow-up time ranged from 24 to 69 months. A good functional outcome (constant score >80) was reported in 9/12 studies. The most common complication was avascular necrosis of the humeral head with an overall incidence of 11% (range, 0-26.3%). Total avascular necrosis (AVN) was found in 15/188 patients (7.9%) and was more common in percutaneous techniques and partial AVN in 6/188 (3

  9. Least possible fixation techniques of 4-part valgus impacted fractures of the proximal humerus: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Panagopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The valgus-impacted (VI 4-part fractures are a subset of fractures of the proximal humerus with a unique anatomic configuration characterized by a relatively lower incidence of avascular necrosis after operative intervention. We systematically reviewed clinical studies assessing the benefits and harms of least possible fixation techniques (LPFT for this unique fracture type. Such information would be potentially helpful in developing an evidence-based approach in the management of these complex injuries. We performed analytic searches of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library, restricting it to the years 1991-2014. Included studies had to describe outcomes and complications after primary osteosynthesis with any type of LPFT apart from plate-screws and intramedullary nailing. Eligibility criteria were also included English language, more than 5 cases, minimum follow up of one year and report of clinical outcome using at least one relevant score (Constant, Neer or ASES. Based on 292 database hits we identified 12 eligible studies including 190 four-part valgus impacted fractures in 188 patients. All eligible studies were case series composed of min 8 to max 45 patients per study. The gender distribution was 60% (112 female and 40% (76 male. The average age of the patients at the time of injury was 54.5 years. In 8/12 studies an open reduction was used for fracture fixation using different surgical techniques including KW, cerclage wires, cannulated screws and osteosutures. Closed reduction and percutaneous fixation was used in 4 studies. Mean follow-up time ranged from 24 to 69 months. A good functional outcome (constant score >80 was reported in 9/12 studies. The most common complication was avascular necrosis of the humeral head with an overall incidence of 11% (range, 0-26.3%. Total avascular necrosis (AVN was found in 15/188 patients (7.9% and was more common in percutaneous techniques and partial AVN in 6

  10. Pre-operative traction for fractures of the proximal femur in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M J; Handoll, H H G

    2006-07-19

    Following a hip fracture, traction may be applied to the injured limb before surgery. To evaluate the effects of traction applied to the injured limb prior to surgery for a fractured hip. Different methods of applying traction (skin or skeletal) were considered. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (March 2006), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2006), MEDLINE (1966 to March 2006), EMBASE (1988 to 2006 Week 11), CINAHL (1982 to March 2006), the UK National Research Register (Issue 1, 2006), conference proceedings and reference lists of articles. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing either skin or skeletal traction with no traction, or skin with skeletal traction for patients with an acute hip fracture prior to surgery. Both authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Additional information was sought from all trialists. Wherever appropriate and possible, data were pooled. Ten randomised trials, mainly of moderate quality, involving a total of 1546 predominantly elderly patients with hip fractures, were identified and included in the review. Nine trials compared traction with no traction. Although limited data pooling was possible, overall this provided no evidence of benefit from traction, either in the relief of pain before surgery or ease of fracture reduction or quality of fracture reduction at time of surgery. One of these trials included both skin and skeletal traction groups. This trial and one other compared skeletal traction with skin traction and found no important differences between these two methods, although the initial application of skeletal traction was noted as being more painful and more costly. From the evidence available, the routine use of traction (either skin or skeletal) prior to surgery for a hip fracture does not appear to have any benefit. However, the evidence is also insufficient to rule out the potential

  11. Lacking evidence for performance of implants used for proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, Anne Marie; Palm, Henrik; Malchau, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    femoral fractures (PFF) in Denmark. METHOD: PubMed was searched for clinical studies on primary PFF with follow-up ≥12 months, reporting implant-related failure and evaluating one of following: DHS, CHS, HipLoc, Gamma3, IMHS, InterTan, PFN, PFNA or PTN. LIMITS: English language and publication date after...

  12. The effect of proximal contour on marginal ridge fracture of Class II composite resin restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Kuijs, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the marginal ridge fracture strength of Class II composite resin restorations placed with a straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity. METHODS: In 60 artificial first molars standardized MO-preparations were ground. Two

  13. Treatment of complex acute proximal humerus fractures using hemiarthroplasty Tratamento das fraturas complexas agudas da extremidade proximal do úmero com o uso de hemiartroplastia

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    Bruno Lobo Brandão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the clinical and radiological results of hemiarthroplasty for treatment of complex proximal humerus fractures. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients were included, with follow-up of 12 to 62 months. Mean age was 65 years (44 to 88, and 47 patients were female (70%. Clinical assessment was performed using the University of California Los Angeles score (UCLA and measurement of range of motion (ROM according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons criteria. A standardized radiological evaluation was conducted, with special attention to healing and position of tuberosities. Patients were divided into two groups: A (anatomical healing of tuberosities and B (without anatomical healing of tuberosities. Statistical analyses were performed using the t test. Level of significance was set at p OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados funcionais e radiográficos dos pacientes submetidos à hemiartroplastia para tratamento das fraturas complexas da extremidade proximal do úmero. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 67 pacientes, com seguimento que variou entre 12 e 62 meses. A média de idade foi de 65 anos (44 a 88 e 47 pacientes eram do sexo feminino (70%. Os pacientes foram avaliados clinicamente por meio da avaliação da amplitude de movimentos (ADM e do escore funcional da University of California Los Angeles (UCLA. A avaliação radiográfica foi feita de forma padronizada com divisão dos pacientes em dois grupos: A (consolidação do tubérculo maior em posição anatômica e B (ausência de consolidação anatômica do tubérculo maior. Na análise estatística consideramos significativos os achados com p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: A pontuação média do UCLA foi de 26 pontos, com média de oito pontos para dor e 64 pacientes satisfeitos subjetivamente (96%. Na avaliação da amplitude de movimento (ADM ativa encontramos uma média de 104º de flexão anterior e 36º de rotação lateral. No grupo A, com 33 pacientes, encontramos uma média de 122º de

  14. Outcomes of non-arthroplasty surgical treatment of proximal humeral head fractures

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    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the outcomes of patients with humeral head fractures treated by reduction and osteosynthesis. METHOD: A total of 53 shoulders (52 patients with humeral head fractures were operated between October 1996 and December 2009. Patients previously treated with primary arthroplasty and/or those who had less than two years follow-up were excluded. A total of 34 shoulders of 34 patients were therefore reassessed. In the sample studied, 23 patients were male and mean age was 47 years. Cases were assessed based on the UCLA score. RESULTS: Mean post-operative follow-up was 50 months. Twelve patients evolved with excellent outcome, seven good, five regular, and ten with poor outcome (55.8% satisfactory and 44.2% unsatisfactory outcomes. Mean UCLA score was 26 points. Mean post-operative range of motion measurements was 117° elevation, 36° LR and L1 MR. At the immediate post-operative radiography, anatomic reduction was evident in 17 patients (50%. Necrosis was detected in 18 patients, six Grade II and 12 Grade III cases. Female gender and anatomically reduced fractures were statistically better at UCLA scale (p = 0.01 and p = 0.0001 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Female patients had a higher mean UCLA score than male patients (p = 0.01. Anatomically reduced fractures had higher UCLA scores (p = 0.0001 and lower necrosis rate (p = 0.0001. Reconstruction of humeral head fractures had a satisfactory outcome in 55.8% of cases and should be indicated in young and active patients.

  15. Outcomes of non-arthroplasty surgical treatment of proximal humeral head fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Santos, Pedro Doneux; Sella, Guilherme do Val; Duarte, Denis Cabral; Giunta, Giovanni Di; Checchia, Sergio Luiz

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the outcomes of patients with humeral head fractures treated by reduction and osteosynthesis. A total of 53 shoulders (52 patients) with humeral head fractures were operated between October 1996 and December 2009. Patients previously treated with primary arthroplasty and/or those who had less than two years follow-up were excluded. A total of 34 shoulders of 34 patients were therefore reassessed. In the sample studied, 23 patients were male and mean age was 47 years. Cases were assessed based on the UCLA score. Mean post-operative follow-up was 50 months. Twelve patients evolved with excellent outcome, seven good, five regular, and ten with poor outcome (55.8% satisfactory and 44.2% unsatisfactory outcomes). Mean UCLA score was 26 points. Mean post-operative range of motion measurements was 117° elevation, 36° LR and L1 MR. At the immediate post-operative radiography, anatomic reduction was evident in 17 patients (50%). Necrosis was detected in 18 patients, six Grade II and 12 Grade III cases. Female gender and anatomically reduced fractures were statistically better at UCLA scale (p = 0.01 and p = 0.0001 respectively). Female patients had a higher mean UCLA score than male patients (p = 0.01). Anatomically reduced fractures had higher UCLA scores (p = 0.0001) and lower necrosis rate (p = 0.0001). Reconstruction of humeral head fractures had a satisfactory outcome in 55.8% of cases and should be indicated in young and active patients.

  16. Morphometric study of the human metatarsals and phalanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Ali; Uslu, Mustafa; Aydinlioglu, Atif; Harman, Mustafa; Akpinar, Fuat

    2007-03-01

    Mathematical relation between metatarsals and between phalanges in terms of their lengths and widths in themselves is considered to be significant with respect to its functional and aesthetic roles. The objective of this study is to conduct measurements for determining lengths and widths of metatarsals and phalanges on the foot radiographs and to determine possible mathematical correlations between metatarsals themselves and between phalanges themselves in terms of their lengths and widths. Anteroposterior right and left foot radiographs were taken from 100 volunteers (50 men and 50 women). Lengths and widths of the metatarsals and phalanges were measured in millimeter on radiographs. The mean, minimum and maximum values, and standard deviations of each bone's length and width were studied and data were put into formulation. The results were evaluated by Regression statistical test, and the relation between metatarsals and between phalanges in terms of their lengths and widths was studied. As a result of the measurements, we found fixed proportions between metatarsals in themselves and between phalanges in themselves in terms of their lengths and widths. Knowing these morphometric relations may be useful for performing any surgical procedures designed to manage any defects or imperfections of the foot, chief among them is shortness.

  17. RESULTS OF PROXIMAL HUMERUS FRACTURE TREATED WITH LOCK PLATE THROUGH A DELTOPECTORAL VERSUS AN ANTEROLATERAL DELTOID-SPLITTING APPROACH

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    Gautam Choudhury

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Proximal humerus fractures account for 4-5% of all fractures with a prevalence of 70 per 100,000, raising to 405 per 100,000 in population aged over 70 years. Current study was performed to evaluate the results of displaced proximal humeral fractures after locking plate osteosynthesis through deltopectoral and Deltoid-splitting approach, and to find out whether the type of surgical approach has any influence on functional outcome and complication. MATERIAL & METHODS The study was done from July 2014 to June 2016 and 46 skeletally mature patients were selected and randomised into group A (Deltopectoral and group B (Deltoid splitting after taking informed consent, Fracture-dislocation. Out of 23 patients in Group A, 1 patient did not turn for followup. Whereas, out of 23 patients in Group B, 2 did not turn for followup. The functional outcome analysis was done using CMS Scores and Pain (VAS Score along with other variables such as amount of blood loss, operation time, union time were measured and compared between the study Groups. Statistical Analysis was done with the help of Paired 't' test for intra-group analysis and Unpaired 't' test for analysis between the two groups. The categorical data were analysed with the help of Fisher Exact Test. RESULTS The average duration of Hospital stay, injury treatment interval, mean operating time were similar for both the Groups. Blood loss with Deltopectoral approach was more (192.18 mL in Group A and 174.29 mL in Group B. All patients achieved successful union in average 11.49 weeks. Mean CMS Scores and Pain (VAS Scores difference between the Groups, were found to be statistically significant at 6 weeks and 12 weeks, but statistically insignificant at 6 months. CONCLUSION From the study, we found that the functional results in terms of improvement in pain and mean Constant Murley Scores, were significantly better at 6 weeks and 12 weeks with Deltoid Splitting approach when compared with

  18. Is loss of fixation following locked plating of proximal humeral fractures related to the number of screws and their positions in the humeral head?

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    Mohammad Maddah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between the chosen position of screws and the complications observed in patients who underwent locked plating of proximal humeral fractures. We evaluated radiographs of 367 patients treated by locked-plating for proximal humeral fractures. Radiographs were taken at one day, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after surgery, and were analyzed for secondary fracture displacement, loss of fixation, cutting out of screws and necrosis of the humeral head. Secondary loss of fixation occurred in 58 cases (15.8% and among those cutting out of screws was observed in 25 cases (6.8%. In cases of secondary loss of fixation a mean of 6.7 screws were used to fix the fracture (vs 6.6, P=0.425. There was neither significant correlation between position of screws and the occurrence of postoperative loss of fixation in Spearman correlation nor relationship from backward logistic regression analysis. Loss of fixation following locked plating of proximal humeral fractures does not relate to the number of screws and their positions in the humeral head. In consequence, anatomic fracture reduction and restoration of the humeral head-shaft angle are still important factors and should not be disregarded.

  19. Proximal base stress fracture of the second metatarsal in a Highland dancer.

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    Watson, Hannah Isabella; O'Donnell, Barry; Hopper, Graeme Philip; Chang, Winston

    2013-06-26

    A 15-year-old female Highland dancer presented to the accident and emergency department with an ankle inversion injury on a background of several weeks of pain in the right foot. A radiograph of the right foot demonstrated a stress fracture at the base of the second metatarsal. She was treated conservatively with a below knee removable supportive walking boot with a rocker bottom sole. She re-presented to the accident and emergency department 3 weeks later with pins and needles in the right foot; she was given crutches to use along side the supportive walking boot. Radiographs 12 weeks after the first presentation showed healing of the stress fracture. The patient was now asymptomatic of the injury. She was unable to fully train for 12 weeks due to the injury. Conservative management was successful in this patient.

  20. [Our view on the problem of treating patients with fractures of the proximal segment of the femur].

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    Ternovoi, N K; Samokhin, A V; Grebennikov, K A

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate and analyze causes of difficulties encountered in dealing with fractures of the proximal segment of the femur and to set out our idea of solving these problems. An analysis is performed of classifications, an assessment is given of studying the adequate choice of a treatment modality, an attempt is made at formulating a doctrine of delivering qualified and specialized emergency medical service to those persons having been disabled for work, which could take account of all aspects of the injury under study. Indications for hemiarthroplasty are outlined, with the policy of primary sparing the joint elements by atraumatic osteosynthesis techniques being chosen in preference to any other policy.

  1. Double plating in Vancouver type B1 periprosthetic proximal femur fractures: A biomechanical study.

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    Wähnert, Dirk; Grüneweller, Niklas; Gehweiler, Dominic; Brunn, Benjamin; Raschke, Michael J; Stange, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Periprosthetic hip fractures are an increasing problem in modern orthopedic and trauma surgery. Many options for the operative treatment are available to the surgeon ranging from modern variable angular systems to standard plates, screws, and cerclages. However, there is no gold standard and therefore, the aim of this study, was to investigate the biomechanical characteristics of double plating versus a lateral standard plate in a Vancouver B1 fracture model. Ten 4th generation composite femora were used to implant cementless total hip prosthesis and create Vancouver B1 periprosthetic fractures. Afterwards, the osteotomies were fixed using the locking compression plate in combination with the locking attachment plate (LCP, LAP, DePuy Synthes, Solothurn, Switzerland)-group I. Group II additionally achieved a 5-hole 4.5/5.0 mm LCP anteriorly. Each construct was cyclically loaded to failure in axial compression. Axial construct stiffness was 50.87 N/mm (SD 1.61) for group I compared to 738.68 N/mm (SD 94.8) for group II, this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.016). The number of cycles to failure was also significant higher for group II (2,375 vs. 13,000 cycles; p = 0.016). Double plating can significantly increase construct stiffness and stability, and thus, is an option in the treatment of complex periprosthetic fractures, in revision surgery and for patients with the inability to partial weight bear. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:234-239, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Anatomia radiográfica da região proximal do fêmur: correlação com a ocorrência de fraturas Radiographic anatomy of the proximal femur: correlation with the occurrence of fractures

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    Robinson Esteves Santos Pires

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se existe correlação entre parâmetros radiográficos da anatomia da região proximal do fêmur e a ocorrência de fraturas. MÉTODOS: Trezentas e cinco radiografias digitais da bacia foram analisadas na incidência ântero-posterior. Destas radiografias, vinte e sete apresentavam fratura do colo femoral ou transtrocantérica. Os parâmetros anatômicos analisados foram: Largura do colo femoral (LCF, comprimento do colo femoral (CCF, comprimento do eixo femoral (CEF, ângulo cérvico-diafisário (ACD, distância entre as lágrimas acetabulares (DLA e a distância grande trocânter- sínfise púbica (DGTSP.Foram analisadas, comparativamente, as radiografias com e sem fratura da região proximal do fêmur, para verificar se existem parâmetros radiográficos que estão associados com maior probabilidade de ocorrência de fratura do colo femoral ou transtrocantérica. RESULTADOS: Não foi encontrada diferença entre os parâmetros anatômicos dos grupos com e sem fratura na região proximal do fêmur. CONCLUSÃO: Não foi encontrada nenhuma associação entre alterações anatômicas na região proximal do fêmur e maior susceptibilidade à ocorrência de fraturas. Nível de evidência IV, Estudo Transversal.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between radiographic parameters of the proximal femur anatomy and fractures. METHODS: Three hundred and five digital x-rays of the pelvis were analyzed in the anteroposterior view. Of these x-rays, twenty-seven showed femoral neck or transtrochanteric fractures. The anatomical parameters analyzed were: femoral neck width (FNW, femoral neck length (FNL, femoral axis length (FAL, cervicodiaphyseal angle (CDA, acetabular tear-drop distance (ATD and great trochanter-pubic symphysis distance (GTPSD. The analysis was performed by comparing the results of the x-rays with and without proximal femoral fracture, to establish a correlation between them. RESULTS: No differences were found between

  3. Trends in incidence of proximal humerus fractures, surgical procedures and outcomes among elderly hospitalized patients with and without type 2 diabetes in Spain (2001-2013).

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    Martinez-Huedo, Maria Angeles; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Mora-Zamorano, Eduardo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Villanueva-Martinez, Manuel; Lopez-de-Andres, Ana

    2017-12-11

    Several studies have reported that diabetic persons have an increased risk for fractures than non-diabetes patients. The association between proximal humerus fractures and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unclear and some studies point to insulin treatment, hypoglycaemic episodes consequently to inadequate control of diabetes or, more recently, to an alteration of trabecular bone. We examined trends in the incidence of proximal humerus fractures, surgical procedures and outcomes among hospitalized patients aged ≥65 years, with and without T2DM in Spain, 2001-2013. This retrospective, observational study was conducted using the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database to select all hospital admissions with proximal humerus fracture. We calculated incidences overall and stratified by diabetes status, year and sex. We analyzed surgical procedures, comorbidities, length of stay, in-hospital complications and in-hospital mortality. We identified 43,872 patients with proximal humerus fracture (18.3% had a T2DM diagnosis). Age-adjusted incidence rates elevated steadily over the study period for men and women with and without T2DM, independently of diabetes status, although we found a stable trend in the later years. Patients with T2DM had lower relative risk of proximal humeral fracture incidence: 0.87 (95%IC 0.82-0.93) for men and 0.97 (95%IC 0.95-1.00) for women. In-hospital complications were 4.0% of diabetic men vs. 2.6% in non-diabetic (p fracture with internal fixation and arthroplasty is increasing overtime and closed reduction with internal fixation is decreasing. Presence of T2DM in women was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (OR 1.67; 95%CI 1.29-2.15). Comorbidities, in-hospital complications and older age were predictors of higher in-hospital mortality in both sexes. The incidence of proximal humerus fractures seems to be increasing in Spain. The incidence is lower among men with than without T2DM. T2DM is associated to higher in

  4. Immediate intensive mobilization compared with immediate conventional mobilization for the impacted osteoporotic conservatively treated proximal humeral fracture: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Carbone, S; Razzano, C; Albino, P; Mezzoprete, R

    2017-12-01

    To select in a 2-year survey of proximal humerus fractures accessing the emergency department, a population of osteoporotic stable impacted fractures and to randomize them into two groups, one with an immediate intensive mobilization program and the other with an immediate conventional mobilization program. In emergency department, patients with clinical signs of shoulder girdle fracture were submitted to standard X-ray examination and CT scan. Patients with stable (absence of metaphyseal comminution or fifth fragment) osteoporotic (cortical bone thickness lower than 6 mm) impacted (Is any part of metaphysis or head impacted into the shaft? YES/NO) proximal humerus fractures were selected for randomization in one of the two groups. Group 1: early intensive mobilization; Group 2: early conventional mobilization. Functional and radiographic assessment was recorded at 3, 6 and 12 months of follow-up. In the considered period, 120 patients were affected by a stable impacted osteoporotic proximal humerus fracture. At the final follow-up, 36 patients in group 1 and 39 patients in group 2 were available for statistical analysis. Functional and radiographic scores were comparable, with a trend of significance in favor of group 2. No fracture in any of the group showed significant loss of reduction respect to 6 months of follow-up. 4 (10%) and 1 (2.5%) patients in groups 1 and 2 were not compliant with the rehabilitation program (p = 0.037). This randomized controlled trial showed that impacted osteoporotic proximal humerus fractures can be managed non-operatively with an early conventional rehabilitation program composed by 10 sessions of passive motion twice a week, followed by recovery of active range of motion for further 10 sessions thrice a week, while no advantage is given by a more aggressive rehabilitation regimen. Self-assisted exercises should be explained to patients to maximize the effects of the assisted program. Level 1, randomized controlled double

  5. The effect of calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation on the healing of the proximal humerus fracture: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1) quantify the healing process of the human osteoporotic proximal humerus fracture (PHF) expressed in terms of callus formation over the fracture region using BMD scanning, and (2) quantify the impact of medical intervention with vitamin D3 and calcium...... demonstrated that it is possible to quantify callus formation of the PHF with sufficiently high precision to demonstrate the positive influence of vitamin D3 and calcium over the first 6 weeks after fracture. Whether this results in more stable fractures, extends to other fracture types, or applies to other...... scan, WHO criteria), and not taking any drugs related to bone formation, including calcium or vitamin D supplementation, were randomly assigned to either oral 800 IU vitamin D3 plus 1 g calcium or placebo, in a double-blind prospective study. We measured biochemical, radiographic, and bone mineral...

  6. Mid-term results of a less-invasive locking plate fixation method for proximal humeral fractures: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockmann, Benjamin; Buecking, Benjamin; Franz, Daniel; Zettl, Ralph; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Mohr, Juliane

    2015-07-04

    The optimal treatment for proximal humeral fractures remains under debate. In this article, we report the mid-term results of patients who underwent the less-invasive implantation of a polyaxial locking plate for displaced proximal humeral fractures. This study included patients who were treated with a polyaxial locking plate via an anterolateral deltoid split approach from May 2008 to December 2011. We evaluated outcome parameters after a minimum follow-up period of 2.5 years (median 4.5 years, follow-up rate 62 %) including the age- and gender-dependent Constant score, the activities of daily living score, and the visual analog scale for both pain and subjective shoulder function. Of the 140 patients who underwent surgery, 114 were included in the follow-up and 71 completed the questionnaire. Fifteen patients (21 %) exhibited 2-fragment fractures, and 56 patients (79 %) exhibited 3- and 4-part fractures. The Constant score improved significantly (4.5 years: 70 ± 21, p fracture levels (before trauma: 27 ± 5, 4.5 years: 20 ± 8, p fracture morphology or gender. Although the less-invasive surgical procedure is a feasible treatment option in proximal humeral fractures with acceptable complications and considerable improvement during the first six months, a lengthy recovery time is required. The majority of our patients did not become pain-free or reach pre-fracture activity levels.

  7. Avaliação funcional retrospectiva de pacientes com fratura proximal de úmero fixada com placa com parafusos de ângulo fixo para região proximal no úmero Retrospective functional assessment of patients with humerus proximal fractures internally fixed with a fixed-angle plate for proximal humerus area

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    Rafael Inácio Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As fraturas do úmero proximal são lesões comuns, levando seus pacientes a importantes limitações funcionais além de algumas complicações. Atualmente existem algumas opções de tratamentos cirúrgicos visando à melhor estabilização da lesão através de técnicas de ostessíntese, dependendo do grau de gravidade da lesão. Dentre eles, tem-se utilizado a placa com parafusos de ângulo fixo para região proximal do úmero, a qual possui o intuito de preservar a integridade biológica da cabeça umeral associada à redução anatômica segura utilizando múltiplos parafusos de fixação com estabilidade angular, permitindo assim a mobilização precoce do membro fraturado. Foram estudados retrospectivamente 11 pacientes com fratura proximal do úmero, tratados com esse modelo de placa entre os anos de 2004 e 2005. Na avaliação funcional foram utilizados o questionário de Constant e o índice DASH. Os resultados sugerem o aparecimento de perda funcional residual no membro superior após esse tipo de trauma, apesar da fixação estável e o tratamento fisioterapêutico.Proximal humeral fractures are common injuries leading to severe functional restrictions and complications for patients. Today, there are several surgical alternatives aimed at achieving better injury stabilization by means of osteosynthesis techniques, depending on injury severity. One of these is the fixed-angle plate fixation of the proximal humerus. This bone fixation system is intended to preserve the biologic integrity of the humeral head associated with a safe anatomical reduction, employing several fixating screws with angle stability, thereby allowing an early mobilization of the fractured limb. Eleven patients with proximal humeral fractures treated with the method of fixed-angle plate fixation of the proximal humerus in the period of 2004 to 2005 were retrospectively studied. The patients were subjected to the Constant questionnaire and the DASH index for

  8. Operative treatment of 2-part surgical neck fractures of the proximal humerus (AO 11-A3) in the elderly: Cement augmented locking plate Philos™ vs. proximal humerus nail MultiLoc®.

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    Helfen, Tobias; Siebenbürger, Georg; Mayer, Marcel; Böcker, Wolfgang; Ockert, Ben; Haasters, Florian

    2016-10-28

    Proximal humeral fractures are with an incidence of 4-5 % the third most common fractures in the elderly. In 20 % of humeral fractures there is an indication for surgical treatment according to the modified Neer-Criteria. A secondary varus dislocation of the head fragment and cutting-out are the most common complications of angle stable locking plates in AO11-A3 fractures of the elderly. One possibility to increase the stability of the screw-bone-interface is the cement augmentation of the screw tips. A second is the use of a multiplanar angle stablentramedullary nail that might provide better biomechanical properties after fixation of 2-part-fractures. A comparison of these two treatment options augmented locking plate versus multiplanar angle stable locking nail in 2-part surgical neck fractures of the proximal humerus has not been carried out up to now. Forty patients (female/male, ≥60 years or female postmenopausal) with a 2-part-fracture of the proximal humerus (AO type 11-A3) will be randomized to either to augmented plate fixation group (PhilosAugment) or to multiplanar intramedullary nail group (MultiLoc). Outcome parameters are Disabilities of the Shoulder, Arm and Hand-Score (DASH) Constant Score (CS), American Shoulder and Elbow Score (ASES), Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), Range of motion (ROM) and Short Form 36 (SF-36) after 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 12 and 24 months. Because of the lack of clinical studies that compare cement augmented locking plates with multiplanar humeral nail systems after 2-part surgical neck fractures of the proximal humerus, the decision of surgical method currently depends only on surgeons preference. Because only a randomized clinical trial (RCT) can sufficiently answer the question if one treatment option provides advantages compared to the other method we are planning to perform a RCT. Clinical Trial ( NCT02609906 ), November 18, 2015, registered retrospectively.

  9. Cerclage wiring technique after proximal femoral fracture in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishkin, Z; Han, S M; Ziv, I

    1999-01-01

    Cerclage wires have been used to stabilize proximal femoral cracks after stem insertion in cementless total hip arthroplasty. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal number and orientation of cerclage wires necessary to prevent stem subsidence and crack propagation. The crack was stabilized by 1, 2, or 3 wires placed either normal to the femoral neck axis or normal to the crack. The femora were compressed to 2,670 N while measuring crack opening and stem subsidence. Wires placed normal to the crack allowed less stem subsidence by 3.17 mm and less crack opening by 1.55 mm compared with wires placed normal to the neck. The addition of multiple wires reduced subsidence by 50% and reduced crack opening to <1 mm. Medial and anterior calcar cracks are best stabilized by at least 2 cerclage wires that are placed normal to the crack.

  10. Primary hemiarthroplasty versus conservative treatment for comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus in the elderly (ProCon: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled trial

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    Van der Vis Harm M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the proximal humerus are associated with a profound temporary and sometimes permanent, impairment of function and quality of life. The treatment of comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus like selected three-or four-part fractures and split fractures of the humeral head is a demanding and unresolved problem, especially in the elderly. Locking plates appear to offer improved fixation; however, screw cut-out rates ranges due to fracture collapse are high. As this may lead to higher rates of revision surgery, it may be preferable to treat comminuted fractures in the elderly primarily with a prosthesis or non-operatively. Results from case series and a small-sample randomized controlled trial (RCT suggest improved function and less pain after primary hemiarthroplasty (HA; however these studies had some limitations and a RCT is needed. The primary aim of this study is to compare the Constant scores (reflecting functional outcome and pain at one year after primary HA versus non-operative treatment in elderly patients who sustained a comminuted proximal humeral fracture. Secondary aims include effects on functional outcome, pain, complications, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design A prospective, multi-center RCT will be conducted in nine centers in the Netherlands and Belgium. Eighty patients over 65 years of age, who have sustained a three-or four part, or split head proximal humeral fracture will be randomized between primary hemiarthroplasty and conservative treatment. The primary outcome is the Constant score, which indicates pain and function. Secondary outcomes include the Disability of the Arm and Shoulder (DASH score, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for pain, radiographic healing, health-related quality of life (Short-form-36, EuroQol-5D and healthcare consumption. Cost-effectiveness ratios will be determined for both trial arms. Outcome will be monitored at regular intervals over the

  11. Internal fixation versus nonoperative treatment for displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

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    Yongchuan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A few studies focused on open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients have been published, all of whom had a low number of patients. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs, we aimed to assess the effect of ORIF or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients on the clinical outcomes and re-evaluate of the potential benefits of conservative treatment. METHODS: We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomized controlled trials comparing ORIF and nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients. Our outcome measures were the Constant scores. RESULTS: Three randomized controlled trials with a total of 130 patients were identified and analyzed. The overall results based on fixed-effect model did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures (WMD -0.51, 95% CI: -7.25 to 6.22, P = 0.88, I(2 = 0%. CONCLUSIONS: Although our meta-analysis did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures, this result must be considered in the context of variable patient demographics. Only a limited recommendation can be made based on current data. Considering the limitations of included studies, a large, well designed trial that incorporates the evaluation of clinically relevant outcomes in participants with different underlying risks of shoulder function is required to more adequately assess the role for ORIF or

  12. The importance of early rehabilitation in proximal humeral fracture: A clinical trial of efficacy and safety of a new endomedullary nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caforio, Marco; Maniscalco, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the surgical treatment in proximal humeral fractures is to maintain bone alignment facilitating an early shoulder mobilization. This can be obtained with the use of an endomedullary nail with specific characteristics: a proximal angular multiplanar stability and the possibility to place proximal screws in the calcar region. The objective of this randomized controlled trial is to investigate the effects of an early rehabilitation program in 3-part proximal humeral fractures treated with endomedullary nailing. 126 patients treated with the Diphos Proximal Humeral Nail (PHN), followed with an Intensive Rehabilitation Program (IRP) started in the second postoperative day, were compared to 62 patients with a Standard Rehabilitation Program (SRP) where shoulder mobilization started after 3 weeks. The age of patients was under 65 years. Main Outcome measures were improvement of shoulder function based on Constant Score and quality of life on DASH questionnaire at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Safety outcome was no loss of radiological reduction at any follow-up control. A difference considered statistically significant (95% confidence interval) was demonstrated by Constant scores at 3 and 6 months and by DASH questionnaire scores at 1 month after surgery between IRP and SRP groups, however without loss of radiological reduction and maintaining the full fracture healing at the same mean period of 1,8 ± 0,7 months. This experience allows to highlight essential features of this new kind of endomedullary humeral nail, by its mechanical properties, in proximal humeral fractures in order to permit an early rehabilitation without creating displaced or consolidation delay. III, randomized clinical-case-control study.

  13. Open Reduction and Internal Fixation (ORIF) of Complex 3- and 4-Part Fractures of the Proximal Humerus: Does Age Really Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Brian; Le, Toan; Lee, Thomas; Wyrick, John

    2012-03-01

    Treatment of complex fracture patterns of the proximal humerus continues to be a challenging and controversial clinical scenario. The aim of this study was to report on the outcomes of complex displaced 3- and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus treated with locked plating and compare the functional results of patients on the basis of age at time of injury. A retrospective review was completed to identify patients whom had sustained a 3- or 4-part fracture of the proximal humerus (Neer classification), treated surgically with locked compression plating. Patients were recruited for a final follow-up, with clinical (Constant and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, Hand [DASH] scores) and radiographic outcome analysis. Results were compared (t test and Wilcoxon test) with fracture type (3- vs 4-part) and patient age at time of fracture (65years) as the primary outcome measure. The presence or absence of a complication and presence or absence of a concomitant osseous injury at the time of presentation were evaluated as secondary outcome measures, in regard to overall functional results of the treatment in question. Complications were defined as posttraumatic osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis of the humeral head, and screw cutout with chondrolysis. The null hypothesis being that age of the patient at the time of injury would not greatly affect functional outcome measurements. Forty-five fractures were identified in 45 patients, with 31 three-part fractures and 14 four-part fractures, and 17 patients were available for final follow-up (9 three-part and 8 four-part). Twelve patients were identified as under the age of 65 years and were compared with 5 patients who were identified as older than 65 years of age. The relative Constant score, at final follow-up, for those under the age of 65 was 88.58, while the score for those above the age of 65 was 82.5. In a similar fashion, the DASH score for those younger than 65 was 11.67, while the score for those older than 65

  14. Three-dimensional analyses of proximal humeral fractures using computed tomography with multiplanar reconstruction: early stability of fixation after osteosynthesis in relation to preoperative bone quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Koki; Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamashita, Akihisa; Harada, Takashi; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Shirasawa, Kenzo

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the bone quality of the humeral head measured by CT multiplanar reconstruction images (MPR) and the stability of nail or plate fixation and to compare the clinical outcomes of these procedures in patients with proximal humeral fractures. Thirty-six consecutive patients (nail group: n = 18, plate group: n = 18) were investigated. In nail group, 14 cases were classified as two-part fractures, three cases were classified as three-part fractures and one case was classified as four-part fractures. In plate group, three cases were classified as two-part fractures, nine cases were classified as three-part fractures and six cases were classified as four-part fractures. Both clinical and radiological outcomes were assessed. In addition, the percentage of trabecular bone volume of the humeral head was calculated using preoperative CT-MPR images. Three patients in the nail group underwent reoperation. In contrast, no patients in the plate group underwent reoperation. In nail group, six of 18 (33%) patients demonstrated poor results (three underwent reoperation, and three had varus displacements >10º) and had bone volume percentages (axial image) that were significantly lower than those observed in the patients with good results. The cutoff point of trabecular bone volume required to obtain satisfactory results after surgical treatment using intramedullary nail was 78%. The results of this study suggest that the bone volume of the humeral head calculated using CT-MPR images provides useful information, in addition to the type of fracture, when selecting fixation devices for osteosynthesis of proximal humeral fracture.

  15. Fratura epifisiolise da extremidade proximal do úmero com luxação intratorácica: relato de caso Epiphysiolysis fracture of the proximal end of the humerus with intrathoracic dislocation: a case report

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    Jaime Guiotti Filho

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A fratura da extremidade proximal do úmero com luxação intratorácica foi relatada em 1949 por West, em que a fratura era, somente, do tubérculo maior. Desde então, poucos casos foram relatados na literatura, a maioria constituída por pessoas idosas, prevalecendo como indicação terapêutica artroplastia parcial. Os autores relatam o caso de um adolescente de 14 anos de idade, sexo masculino, que apresentou fratura epifisiolise da extremidade proximal do úmero com luxação intratorácica em decorrência de acidente ciclístico e que foi submetido a tratamento cirúrgico com redução, osteossíntese e reinserção do manguito rotador. A recuperação da cabeça do úmero totalmente desvitalizada e o acompanhamento do processo de necrose e revas cularização durante seis anos, em paciente adolescente, parece não terem sido previamente relatados.Fracture of the proximal end of the humerus with intrathoracic dislocation was reported in 1949 by West, and the fracture was only a fracture of the greater tubercle. Few cases have since been published, and most of them in elderly individuals, partial arthroplasty prevailing as the therapy indication. The authors report the case of a 14 year old boy who presented with an epiphysiolysis fracture of the proximal end of the humerus with intrathoracic dislocation resulting from a bicycle accident. The boy was submitted to surgical treatment with reduction, osteosynthesis, and reinsertion of the rotator cuff. The totally devitalized humeral head recovery and the monitoring of the necrosis and revascularization process for a period of six years in a teenager patient seems to have never been reported before.

  16. The impact of antegrade intramedullary nailing start site using the SIGN nail in proximal femoral fractures: A prospective cohort study.

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    Mustafa Diab, Mohamed; Wu, Hao-Hua; Eliezer, Edmund; Haonga, Billy; Morshed, Saam; Shearer, David W

    2017-11-18

    In many low and middle-income countries (LMICs) SIGN nail is commonly used for antegrade femoral intramedullary (IM) nailing, using a start site either at the tip of the greater trochanter or piriformis fossa. While a correct start site is considered an essential technical step; few studies have evaluated the impact of using an erroneous start site. This is particularly relevant in settings with limited access to fluoroscopy to aid in creating a nail entry point. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of antegrade SIGN IM nailing start site on radiographic alignment and health-related quality of life. In this prospective cohort study, adult patients with proximal femur fractures (OTA 32, subtrochanteric zone) treated with antegrade IM SIGN nail at Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute (MOI), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were enrolled. Start site was determined on the immediate postoperative X-ray and was graded on a continuous scale based on distance of the IM nail center from the greater trochanteric tip. The primary outcome measurement was coronal alignment on the post-operative x-ray. The secondary outcomes were reoperation rates, RUST scores and EQ5D scores at one year follow-up. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled. 50 of them (63.3%) had complete data at 1year and were included in the final data analysis. Of the fifty patients, nine (18%) had IM nails placed laterally, 26 (52%) medially and 15 (30%) directly over the tip of the greater trochanter. Compared to a start site at the tip or medial to the greater trochanter, a lateral start site was 9 times more likely to result in a varus malalignment (95% CI: 1.42-57.70, p=0.021). Lateral start site was associated with varus malalignment. Although lateral start site was not significantly associated with reoperation, varus deformity was associated with higher reoperation rates. Surgeons should consider avoiding a start site lateral to the tip of the greater trochanter or allow the nail to rotate to avoid

  17. INTERTAN nail versus proximal femoral nail antirotation-Asia for intertrochanteric femur fractures in elderly patients with primary osteoporosis.

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    Zhang, Hui; Zeng, Xianshang; Zhang, Nan; Zeng, Dan; Xu, Ping; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Deng; Yu, Weiguang; Zhang, Xinchao

    2017-08-01

    Objectives To compare the long-term functional and radiographic outcomes of the proximal femoral nail antirotation-Asia (PFNA-II) and INTERTAN nail (IT) in the management of intertrochanteric femoral fractures (IFFs) (AO/OTA Type 31A1.1-A2.3) in elderly patients with primary osteoporosis. Methods A retrospective comparative study was performed in our institution. From January 2009 to March 2012, 243 patients with osteoporosis (243 hips) with IFFs (AO/OTA Type 3.1A1.1-A2.3) underwent repair with either a PFNA-II or IT. Follow-up assessments were performed 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively and every year thereafter. All implant position changes were noted. Patient-related functional outcomes were evaluated based on the Harris hip score. Results In total, 174 patients with osteoporosis (IT, n = 86; PFNA-II, n = 88) were evaluated during a mean follow-up period of 40 months (range, 38-60 months). An increased risk of femoral shaft fracture after implant removal was observed at month 9 of follow-up in 0.0% and 4.4% of the IT and PFNA-II groups, respectively. This difference remained over time with rates of 1.1% and 6.8%, respectively, at the last follow-up. Conclusion The IT nail appears to be a reliable implant in the management of IFFs (AO/OTA Type 3.1A1.1-A2.3) in elderly patients with primary osteoporosis.

  18. Biomechanical comparison of tibial nail stability in a proximal third fracture: do screw quantity and locked, interlocking screws make a difference?

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    Freeman, Andrew L; Craig, Matthew R; Schmidt, Andrew H

    2011-06-01

    This study compared the fatigue life of nailed proximal third tibial fractures stabilized with either three or four proximal screws using commercially available nails with both locked (through threaded holes or end caps) and nonlocked proximal interlocking screw configurations. Eight paired and two independent tibiae of known bone mineral density were acquired, divided into three groups, and implanted with three different commercially available nails (n = 6/group). Nails were all 10 mm in diameter and individually sized for length. Individual tibiae from a given pair received different nails. Based on nail design, Nail A received four proximal screws (three that lock into the nail), whereas Nails B and C each received three proximal nonlocking screws. Standard end caps were used with all nails. As a result of its design, in Nail B, the most proximal interlocking screw was "locked" by the nail end cap. All nails used two distal screws. After implantation, an unstable proximal third fracture was created and specimens were tested with combined axial and torsional loads of 40 to 400 N and 0.11 to 1.1 Nm for 500,000 cycles or until failure. The fatigue life of Group A was significantly greater than either Groups B or C (P < 0.001 in both cases) with a mean cycle to failure of 392,977 versus 86,476 and 64,595 cycles for Nails B and C, respectively. Fatigue life of Group A was greater or equivalent to all contralateral tibiae; Group B outlasted all contralateral Group C limbs and the Group C constructs did not outlast any contralateral limbs. Bone mineral density correlated positively and significantly with fatigue life across all three groups (P < 0.001). In this study, proximal segment stability was improved with a greater quantity of screws and with locked interlocking screws.

  19. The incidence of fracture of the proximal femur in two million Canadians from 1972 to 1984. Projections for Canada in the year 2006.

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