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Sample records for proximal joint motion

  1. Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise; Cerepani, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Finger dislocations are common injuries that are often managed by emergency nurse practitioners. A systematic physical examination following these injuries is imperative to avoid complications. Radiographic views, including the anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views, are imperative to evaluate these finger dislocations. A dorsal dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is the most common finger dislocation type often easily reduced. A volar PIP dislocation can often be difficult to reduce and may result in finger deformity. Finger dislocations should be reduced promptly. Referral to an orthopedic hand specialist is required if the dislocation is unable to be reduced or if the finger joint is unstable following reduction attempts.

  2. Silicone arthroplasty for chronic proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criner, Katherine T; Ilyas, Asif M

    2011-12-01

    Chronic dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint pose a significant treatment challenge. Chronically dislocated PIP joints can experience several changes to the articular cartilage including pressure necrosis, degeneration, and the development of secondary incongruence. Moreover, chronic dislocation allows the edema and hemorrhage from soft tissue trauma to develop into collateral ligament fibrosis and inelastic scar formation. Similarly, chronic dislocations associated with a fracture at the base of the middle phalanx can also experience changes in the form of joint incongruency, bony resorption, or malunion formation. Subsequently, these cumulative joint changes prohibit standard open reduction of the PIP joint and can cause significant loss of motion thereby demanding a different approach to restore motion and minimize pain. We propose the use of silicone arthroplasty in the management of chronic dislocations of the PIP joint.

  3. Bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibiofibular joint instability.

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    Morrison, Troy D; Shaer, James A; Little, Jill E

    2011-01-01

    Dislocation of the tibiofibular joint is rare and usually results from a traumatic event. Only 1 case of atraumatic proximal tibiofibular joint instability in a 14-year-old girl has been reported in the literature, however this condition might occur more frequently than once thought. A wide range of treatment options exist for tibiofibular dislocations. Currently, the first choice is a conservative approach, and when this fails, surgical means such as resection of the fibula head, arthrodesis, and reconstruction are considered. However, no consensus exists on the most effective treatment. This article reports a unique case of bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibia and fibular joint instability involving a 30-year-old man with a 20-year history of pain and laxity in the right knee. The patient had no trauma to his knees; he reported 2 immediate family members with similar complaints, which suggests that this case is likely congenital. After conservative approaches proved to be ineffective, the patient underwent capsular reconstruction using free autologous gracilis tendon. At 6-month postoperative follow-up, the patient was pain free with no locking and instability. He then underwent surgery on the left knee. At 1-year follow-up after the second surgery, the patient had no symptoms or restrictions in mobility. We provide an alternative surgical approach to arthrodesis and resection for the treatment of chronic proximal tibiofibular instability. In the treatment of chronic tibiofibular instability, we believe that reconstruction of the tibiofibular joint is a safe and effective choice. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Management of posttraumatic proximal interphalangeal joint contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshian, Shirzad; Jing, Shan Shan; Chikkamuniyappa, Chandrasekar; Kazemian, Gholam Hussein; Emami-Moghaddam-Tehrani, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    Chronic flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint presents a common yet challenging problem to hand surgeons. Over the years, multiple treatment modalities have been described for this problem, producing limited results. Nonoperative treatment using serial casting and splints should be tried before attempting open surgical release, which should be done in selected patients. The use of external fixation for treating PIP contracture has been encouraging and can be a useful alterative. This review provides an update on the current management of PIP joint contractures and presents a flowchart of treatment to aid decision making. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations in athletes.

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    Bindra, Randy R; Foster, Brian J

    2009-08-01

    Proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations are common athletic injuries. In dislocations and fracture dislocations, the most important treatment principle is congruent joint reduction and maintenance of stability. This article reviews the relevant anatomy, injury characteristics, and treatment options for proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations and fracture dislocations. Treatment methods discussed include closed reduction, percutaneous fixation, and open reduction.

  6. Sex Differences in Proximal Control of the Knee Joint

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    Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Ford, Kevin R.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Following the onset of maturation, female athletes have a significantly higher risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury compared with male athletes. While multiple sex differences in lower-extremity neuromuscular control and biomechanics have been identified as potential risk factors for ACL injury in females, the majority of these studies have focused specifically on the knee joint. However, increasing evidence in the literature indicates that lumbopelvic (core) control may have a large effect on knee-joint control and injury risk. This review examines the published evidence on the contributions of the trunk and hip to knee-joint control. Specifically, the sex differences in potential proximal controllers of the knee as risk factors for ACL injury are identified and discussed. Sex differences in trunk and hip biomechanics have been identified in all planes of motion (sagittal, coronal and transverse). Essentially, female athletes show greater lateral trunk displacement, altered trunk and hip flexion angles, greater ranges of trunk motion, and increased hip adduction and internal rotation during sport manoeuvres, compared with their male counterparts. These differences may increase the risk of ACL injury among female athletes. Prevention programmes targeted towards trunk and hip neuromuscular control may decrease the risk for ACL injuries. PMID:21688868

  7. Complications following dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelson, John J; Stern, Peter J; Abzug, Joshua M; Chang, James; Osterman, A Lee

    2014-01-01

    Dorsal fracture-dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint are challenging injuries to treat and are associated with many complications. The determination of stability is crucial to appropriate management. Stable injuries can usually be treated nonsurgically, whereas unstable injuries typically require surgical stabilization. Many surgical techniques have been used, including extension block pinning, volar plate arthroplasty, open reduction and internal fixation, external fixation, and hemihamate autografting. Because stiffness and flexion contracture are frequent complications, every effort should be made to initiate early motion while maintaining concentric reduction. Other complications include redislocation, chronic swelling, swan neck and coronal plane deformities, and pin tract infections. Assessing injury characteristics, including chronicity, the percentage of articular surface fractured, and the degree of comminution, and understanding complications will help in determining the most appropriate treatment. Chronic dislocations and those injuries in which painful arthritis develops can be successfully treated with salvage procedures, including arthroplasty and arthrodesis.

  8. Irreducible Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocation of the Fourth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dislocation of the interphalangeal joint of the toe is a very rare injury and there are only few published reports. Most of the cases reported are those of the hallucal interphalangeal joint. There are only very few reports of complex dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fourth toe in the world literature. Nigerian ...

  9. Stability of acute dorsal fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint: a biomechanical study.

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    Tyser, Andrew R; Tsai, Michael A; Parks, Brent G; Means, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    We performed a cadaveric biomechanical study to characterize proximal interphalangeal joint stability after an injury to different amounts of the volar articular base of the middle phalanx (intact, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% volar defects). Eighteen digits on 6 hands were tested through full proximal interphalangeal joint range of motion using computer-controlled flexion and extension via the digital tendons. We collected proximal interphalangeal joint kinematic cine data in a true lateral projection with mini-fluoroscopy. We measured the amount of dorsal middle phalanx translation in full proximal interphalangeal joint extension. As we cycled the joint from full flexion into extension, we recorded the angle at which subluxation occurred. No specimens with 20% volar bony defect subluxated. All specimens in the 60% and 80% groups subluxated at an average flexion angle of 67° (range, 10° to 90°) in the 60% group and at all degrees of flexion in the 80% group. In the 40% group, 28% of specimens demonstrated subluxation at an average flexion angle of 14° (range, 4° to 40°). Mean dorsal translation of the middle phalanx in relation to the proximal phalanx at full digital extension was 0.2 mm in the 20% group, 0.8 mm in the 40% group, 3.2 mm in the 60% group, and 3.1 mm in the 80% group. Simulated volar articular bony defects of 20% were stable, whereas those with 60% and 80% defects were unstable during digital motion. Stability in the 40% group was variable and appeared to be the threshold for stability. Knowledge of the typical amount of middle phalanx defect and degree of proximal interphalangeal joint extension that can lead to joint instability may improve management of mechanically important proximal interphalangeal joint fracture dislocations. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The leading joint hypothesis for spatial reaching arm motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambike, Satyajit; Schmiedeler, James P

    2013-02-01

    The leading joint hypothesis (LJH), developed for planar arm reaching, proposes that the interaction torques experienced by the proximal joint are low compared to the corresponding muscle torques. The human central nervous system could potentially ignore these interaction torques at the proximal (leading) joint with little effect on the wrist trajectory, simplifying joint-level control. This paper investigates the extension of the LJH to spatial reaching. In spatial motion, a number of terms in the governing equation (Euler's angular momentum balance) that vanish for planar movements are non-trivial, so their contributions to the joint torque must be classified as net, interaction or muscle torque. This paper applies definitions from the literature to these torque components to establish a general classification for all terms in Euler's equation. This classification is equally applicable to planar and spatial motion. Additionally, a rationale for excluding gravity torques from the torque analysis is provided. Subjects performed point-to-point reaching movements between targets whose locations ensured that the wrist paths lay in various portions of the arm's spatial workspace. Movement kinematics were recorded using electromagnetic sensors located on the subject's arm segments and thorax. The arm was modeled as a three-link kinematic chain with idealized spherical and revolute joints at the shoulder and elbow. Joint torque components were computed using inverse dynamics. Most movements were 'shoulder-led' in that the interaction torque impulse was significantly lower than the muscle torque impulse for the shoulder, but not the elbow. For the few elbow-led movements, the interaction impulse at the elbow was low, while that at the shoulder was high, and these typically involved large elbow and small shoulder displacements. These results support the LJH and extend it to spatial reaching motion.

  11. Proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations and treatment: an evolutionary process.

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    Joyce, Kenneth Michael; Joyce, Cormac Weekes; Conroy, Frank; Chan, Jeff; Buckley, Emily; Carroll, Sean Michael

    2014-07-01

    Proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) dislocations represent a significant proportion of hand clinic visits and typically require frequent follow-ups for clinical assessment, orthotic adjustments, and physiotherapy. There are a large number of treatment options available for PIPJ dislocations, yet no prospective or controlled studies have been carried out, largely due to the diversity of the various types of injuries. We retrospectively reviewed all the PIPJ dislocations in our institution over a five-year period and directly compared the different splinting techniques that we have used over this time frame. There were a total of 77 dislocations of the PIPJ (57 men and 20 women) that were included in our study. We found that our management has shifted gradually from complete immobilisation to controlled early mobilisation with figure-of-eight splints. Following treatment, the range of motion of the PIPJ in the figure-of-eight group was significantly greater than that in the other three methods (Ptreatment groups. The treatment of PIPJ dislocations has undergone a significant evolution in our experience. Early controlled mobilisation has become increasingly important, and therefore, splints have had to be adapted to allow for this. The figure-of-eight splint has yielded excellent results in our experience. It should be considered for all PIPJ dislocations, but careful patient selection is required to achieve optimum results.

  12. Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Dislocations and Treatment: An Evolutionary Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Michael Joyce

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ dislocations represent a significant proportion of hand clinic visits and typically require frequent follow-ups for clinical assessment, orthotic adjustments, and physiotherapy. There are a large number of treatment options available for PIPJ dislocations, yet no prospective or controlled studies have been carried out, largely due to the diversity of the various types of injuries. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all the PIPJ dislocations in our institution over a five-year period and directly compared the different splinting techniques that we have used over this time frame. Results There were a total of 77 dislocations of the PIPJ (57 men and 20 women that were included in our study. We found that our management has shifted gradually from complete immobilisation to controlled early mobilisation with figure-of-eight splints. Following treatment, the range of motion of the PIPJ in the figure-of-eight group was significantly greater than that in the other three methods (P<0.05 used. There were significantly fewer hospital visits in the figure-of-eight splint group than in the other treatment groups. Conclusions The treatment of PIPJ dislocations has undergone a significant evolution in our experience. Early controlled mobilisation has become increasingly important, and therefore, splints have had to be adapted to allow for this. The figure-of-eight splint has yielded excellent results in our experience. It should be considered for all PIPJ dislocations, but careful patient selection is required to achieve optimum results.

  13. Instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint associated with total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bédard, MD, FRCSC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, proximal tibiofibular joint instability has never been reported in a patient with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA. We present the case of a patient with anterolateral proximal tibiofibular joint instability associated with a complex primary TKA. In 2010, a male patient of 47 years was referred for TKA after posttraumatic osteoarthritis. The patient's history includes a fracture of the left lateral tibial plateau in 2008 and removal of osteosynthesis material in 2009. TKA with a lateral metal augment and intramedullary stem was performed in 2010. After TKA, instability of the left proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ was diagnosed. The patient underwent PTFJ arthrodesis and, at 5 years' follow-up, had no residual pain, with full range of motion. In this case, arthrodesis was the only possible surgical option because reconstruction surgeries require the establishment of bone tunnels in the tibia and fibula for the passage of a graft. Low bone quality and the use of an intramedullary stem with a metal augment in the tibia made any reconstruction technique unfeasible because the proximal tibia was obliterated. Although several PTFJ reconstruction techniques are available, they are difficult to apply to patients with a complex TKA.

  14. Unstable dorsal proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocations treated with extension-block pinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, David M; Weichbrodt, Matthew T; Huang, Chris; Hagberg, William C; Balk, Marshall L

    2015-03-01

    Unstable proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint fracture-dislocations, which can cause significant disability, can be treated with multiple techniques. Extension-block pinning (EBP) allows for early motion and is less technically demanding than alternative surgical treatments. In the study reported here, 12 patients with unstable dorsal PIP fracture-dislocations were treated with closed reduction of the PIP joint followed by percutaneous insertion of a Kirschner wire (K-wire) into the distal aspect of the proximal phalanx. For these patients, extent of articular surface involvement averaged 43% (range, 25%-75%). Active motion was initiated early after surgery, and the K-wire was removed a mean of 25 days after pinning. Radiographic reduction of joint dislocation was achieved and maintained for 11 of the 12 patients at a mean follow-up of 35.5 months. At follow-up, mean visual analog scale (VAS) score was 0.64 (scale, 0-10). Mean score on the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire was 5.7, suggesting minimal functional impairment. Mean PIP active motion was 84° (range, 50°-110°). Grip strength was equal between operative and contralateral hands. Patient satisfaction most closely correlated with low VAS and QuickDASH scores. One patient developed a malunion, which was treated with corrective osteotomy. EBP is a simple, safe, and reproducible technique for unstable PIP fracture-dislocations. This technique yields outcomes similar to those reported for more complex surgical procedures.

  15. Volar plating for unstable proximal interphalangeal joint dorsal fracture-dislocations.

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    Cheah, Andre E J; Tan, David M K; Chong, Alphonsus K S; Chew, Winston Y C

    2012-01-01

    To report our results of open reduction internal fixation with volar mini plate and screw fixation for unstable dorsal fracture dislocations (DFDs) of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint. We performed a retrospective review of 13 consecutive DFDs of the PIP joint treated with volar mini plate and screw fixation, measuring both clinical and radiological outcomes. The age range of our patients was 15 to 56 years (average, 33 y). Six injuries were related to work, 5 to sports, and 2 to motor vehicle accidents. Of the 13 DFDs, 6 were comminuted. Articular involvement ranged from 30% to 70% (average, 44%). The average time to surgery was 7 days (range, 0-23 d). Patients had follow-up of 12 to 60 months (average, 25 mo). Four patients had a postoperative course complicated by plate and screw removal at an average of 4 months later, either as part of a secondary procedure to improve range of motion or owing to patient request. All patients returned to their original occupation. Of the 13 patients, 11 were satisfied with the result, and 12 of 13 had either no or mild pain. All 13 DFDs united in good alignment but 3 showed degenerative changes. Average grip strength was 85% of the unaffected side, and average active PIP joint and distal interphalangeal joint motion arcs were 75° and 65°, respectively. Average Quick Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 4 (range, 0-9). All patients had non-tender swelling of the proximal interphalangeal joints but no signs of flexor tenosynovitis or infection. Fixation of unstable PIP joint DFDs via a volar approach is technically feasible with mini plates and screws. This treatment allows early active range of motion and provides good objective and subjective outcomes; however, noteworthy complications occurred in 39% of patients. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Representation of planar motion of complex joints by means of rolling pairs. Application to neck motion.

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    Page, Alvaro; de Rosario, Helios; Gálvez, José A; Mata, Vicente

    2011-02-24

    We propose to model planar movements between two human segments by means of rolling-without-slipping kinematic pairs. We compute the path traced by the instantaneous center of rotation (ICR) as seen from the proximal and distal segments, thus obtaining the fixed and moving centrodes, respectively. The joint motion is then represented by the rolling-without-slipping of one centrode on the other. The resulting joint kinematic model is based on the real movement and accounts for nonfixed axes of rotation; therefore it could improve current models based on revolute pairs in those cases where joint movement implies displacement of the ICR. Previous authors have used the ICR to characterize human joint motion, but they only considered the fixed centrode. Such an approach is not adequate for reproducing motion because the fixed centrode by itself does not convey information about body position. The combination of the fixed and moving centrodes gathers the kinematic information needed to reproduce the position and velocities of moving bodies. To illustrate our method, we applied it to the flexion-extension movement of the head relative to the thorax. The model provides a good estimation of motion both for position variables (mean R(pos)=0.995) and for velocities (mean R(vel)=0.958). This approach is more realistic than other models of neck motion based on revolute pairs, such as the dual-pivot model. The geometry of the centrodes can provide some information about the nature of the movement. For instance, the ascending and descending curves of the fixed centrode suggest a sequential movement of the cervical vertebrae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Invited Hand Article: Current Concepts in Treatment of Fracture-Dislocations of the Proximal Interphalangeal Joint

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    Haase, Steven C.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocations are common injuries that require expedient and attentive treatment for the best outcomes. Management can range from protective splinting and early mobilization to complex operations. In this review, the current concepts surrounding the managment of these injuries are reviewed. Methods A literature review was performed of all recent articles pertaining to proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocation, with specific focus on middle phalangeal base fractures. Where appropriate, older articles, or articles on closely related injury types were included for completeness. The methodology and outcomes of each study were analyzed. Results When small avulsion fractures are present, good results are routinely obtained with reduction and early mobilization of stable injuries. Strategies for management of the unstable dorsal fracture-dislocation have evolved over time. To provide early stability, a variety of techniques have evolved, including closed, percutaneous, external, and internal fixation methods. Although each of these techniques can be successful in skilled hands, none have been subjected to rigorous, prospective, comparative trials. Volar dislocations fare less well, with significant loss of motion in many studies. Pilon fractures represent the most complicated injuries, and return of normal motion is not expected. Conclusion The best outcomes can be achieved by (1) establishing enough stability to allow early motion, (2) restoring gliding joint motion rather than non-congruent motion, and (3) restoring the articular surface congruity when possible. Although the majority of literature on this topic consists of expert opinion and retrospective case series, the consensus appears to favor less invasive techniques whenever possible. PMID:25415092

  18. Perceptual atoms: proximal motion vector-structures and the perception of object motion in depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hershenson Maurice

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A framework is proposed for analyzing the perception of motion in depth produced by simple proximal motion patterns of two to four points. The framework includes input structure, perceptual system constraints, and a depth scaling mechanism. The input is relational stimulation described by two proximal dimensions, orientation and separation, that can change or remain constant over the course of a motion pattern. Combinations of change or no-change in these dimensions yield four basic patterns of proximal stimulation: parallel, circular, perspective, and parallax. These primary patterns initiate automatic processing mechanisms - a unity constraint that treats pairs of points as connected and a rigidity constraint that treats the connection as rigid. When the constraints are activated by perspective or parallax patterns, the rigid connection between the points also appears to move in depth. A scaling mechanism governs the degree to which the objects move in depth in order to maintain the perceived rigidity. Although this framework is sufficient to explain perceptions produced by three- and four-point motion patterns in most cases, some patterns require additional configurational factors to supplement the framework. Nevertheless, perceptual qualities such as shrinking, stretching, bending, and folding emerge from the application of the same processing constraints and depth scaling factors as those that produce the perception of rigid objects moving in depth.

  19. Dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint, do not miss it

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    van Wulfften Palthe, Alexander FY; Musters, Linda; Sonnega, Remko JA; van der Sluijs, Hans A

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 45-year-old woman with a right proximal tibiofibular dislocation she sustained after a fall during roller skating. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs confirmed the diagnosis; there were no other injuries. The dislocation was reduced by direct manipulation after intra-articular infiltration, in our emergency department. The patient was treated with a long, non-weight bearing leg cast for 1 week. After 4 weeks, she had no pain and a full range of motion of the knee. PMID:26628303

  20. Proximal tibiofibular joint: Rendezvous with a forgotten articulation

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    Amitav Sarma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ is a plane type synovial joint. The primary function of the PTFJ is dissipation of torsional stresses applied at the ankle and the lateral tibial bending moments besides a very significant tensile, rather than compressive weight bearing. Though rare, early diagnosis and treatment of the PTFJ dislocation are essential to prevent chronic joint instability and extensive surgical intervention to restore normal PTFJ biomechanics, ankle and knee function, especially in athletes prone to such injuries. PTFJ dislocations often remain undiagnosed in polytrauma scenario with ipsilateral tibial fracture due to the absence of specific signs and symptoms of PTFJ injury. Standard orthopedic textbooks generally describe no specific tests or radiological signs for assessment of the integrity of this joint. The aim of this paper was to review the relevant clinical anatomy, biomechanics and traumatic pathology of PTFJ with its effect on the knee emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis through a high index of suspicion. Dislocation of the joint may have serious implications for the knee joint stability since fibular collateral ligament and posterolateral ligament complex is attached to the upper end of the fibula. Any high energy knee injury with peroneal nerve palsy should immediately raise the suspicion of PTFJ dislocation especially if the mechanism of injury involved knee twisting in flexion beyond 80° and in such cases a comparative radiograph of the contralateral side should be performed. Wider clinical awareness can avoid both embarrassingly extensive surgeries due to diagnostic delays or unnecessary overtreatment due to misinformation on the part of the treating surgeon.

  1. Resection of the flexor digitorum superficialis for trigger finger with proximal interphalangeal joint positional contracture.

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    Favre, Yann; Kinnen, Louis

    2012-11-01

    Open release of the A1 pulley is a widely known procedure for the treatment of trigger finger. A subset of patients presents with both trigger finger and a positional contracture of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint. These patients usually have a long history of trigger finger or have already undergone a surgical release of the annular pulley. This study is a retrospective review of the outcomes of resection of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) for patients whose trigger finger was associated with a positional contracture of the PIP joint. Thirty-six patients (39 fingers) were treated by resection of the FDS after section of the A1 pulley. The mean age of the patients was 63 years (range, 45-90 y). Seven patients (19 %) had previously undergone an open release of the A1 pulley and had developed a positional contracture of the PIP joint 2 to 5 months afterward. We performed a retrospective review with a mean follow-up of 30 months (range, 12-60 mo). No patient was lost to follow-up. The active range of motion was recorded at the PIP joint before and after surgery. The mean preoperative positional contracture of the PIP joint was 24° (range, 15°-30°). The mean postoperative positional contracture of the PIP joint was 4° (range, 0°-10°). The most commonly affected digit was the middle finger (26 fingers, 67%). In 28 fingers (72%), full extension was achieved following only the surgical procedure. The remaining 11 fingers (28%) had a postoperative residual positional contracture (range, 5°-10°). However, all fingers achieved a full range of motion after physical therapy and an injection of betamethasone. All of the resected tendons had histological damage. This technique is a useful treatment for selected patients whose trigger finger is associated with a positional contracture. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In vivo analysis of trapeziometacarpal joint arthrokinematics during multi-directional thumb motions.

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    Su, Fong-Chin; Lin, Chien-Ju; Wang, Chien-Kuo; Chen, Guan-Po; Sun, Yung-Nien; Chuang, Alan K; Kuo, Li-Chieh

    2014-11-01

    The investigation of the joint arthrokinematics of the trapeziometacarpal joint is critical to comprehend the causative mechanism underlying this common form of osteoarthritis. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the arthrokinematics of the trapeziometacarpal joint during thumb postures in vivo. Fifteen healthy participants were enrolled in this study. Static computed tomography images of the 1st metacarpal bone and trapezium were taken at specific thumb postures during thumb flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, and circumduction motions. Images were analyzed to examine the joint gliding, expressed as displacement of the centroid of the articular surface of the 1st metacarpal bone, relative to the trapezium. The gliding ratio, defined as joint gliding in each direction normalized to the dimension of the trapezium joint surface in the given direction, was computed and compared between different thumb motions. The results indicate that thumb motions influenced joint gliding. The centroids of the articular surface of the 1st metacarpal bone were primarily located at the central and dorsal-radial regions while executing these motions. The maximum joint gliding of the 1st metacarpal bone occurred in the radial-ulnar direction when performing abduction-adduction, and in the dorsal-volar direction while performing flexion-extension and circumduction, with the gliding ratio values of 42.35%, 51.65%, and 51.85%, respectively. Activities that involved abduction-adduction in the trapeziometacarpal joint caused greater joint gliding in the ulnar-radial direction, while flexion-extension resulted in greater joint gliding in the dorsal-volar and distal-proximal directions. Understanding normal joint kinematics in vivo may provide insights into the possible mechanism leading to osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint, and help to improve the design of implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Wrist rhythm during wrist joint motion evaluated by dynamic radiography.

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    Kawashima, Hiroki; Tada, Kaoru; Suganuma, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Sanada, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that wrist joint motion involves a "wrist rhythm" similar to the scapulohumeral rhythm. Therefore, we used a flat-panel detector to evaluate the ratio of radiolunate and capitolunate joint motions during wrist joint motion by dynamic radiography. The subjects were 20 healthy men. Dynamic imaging of the wrist joint was performed during active exercise for a total of ten seconds. In this study, we defined the radiocarpal (RL angle) and midcarpal joint angle (CL angle) as the wrist joint angle in the obtained images and measured the variation of these angles. The average curve was plotted and regression lines calculated from the average curve. The ratio was calculated from the slopes of the regression lines of the RL CL angles. These findings indicated that the ratio of the RL and CL angle motions was approximately 1:4 during palmar flexion and approximately 2:1 during dorsiflexion.

  4. Hip joint range of motion improvements using three different interventions.

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    Moreside, Janice M; McGill, Stuart M

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 3 different exercise interventions plus a control group on passive hip range of motion (ROM). Previous research studies into the methods of improving passive hip mobility have focused on stretching protocols aimed specifically at the hip joint. The effect of core stabilization, motor training, and myofascial stretching techniques on hip mobility in a selected asymptomatic group with limited hip mobility is unclear. In this study, 24 young men with limited hip mobility (stretching, stretching with motor control exercises for the hip and trunk, core endurance with motor control exercises, and the control group. Six-week home exercise programs were individually prescribed based on the assigned group, hip ROM, movement patterns, and timed core endurance. Two-way analyses of variances were conducted to analyze the effect of group assignment on hip ROM improvements. Both stretching groups demonstrated significant improvements in hip ROM (p stretching also demonstrated a moderate increase in ROM but only significantly so in rotation. Average core endurance holding times improved 38-53%. These results indicate that stretches aimed at the myofascial components of the upper body, in addition to the hip joint, resulted in dramatic increases in hip ROM in a group of young men with limited hip mobility. Hip ROM also improved in the group that did no active stretching, highlighting the potential role of including stabilization or "proximal stiffening training" when rehabilitating the extremities.

  5. Modified hemihamate arthroplasty technique for treatment of acute proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocations.

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    Yang, Dae Suk; Lee, Sang Ki; Kim, Kap Jung; Choy, Won Sik

    2014-04-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 11 patients who underwent modified hemihamate arthroplasty for the treatment of comminuted dorsal fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint. This technique was used to minimize the potential risk of complications at the recipient site by volarly oblique osteotomy in the coronal plane at graft harvesting and anatomical repair of the detached flexor sheath. The average joint involvement of the fracture was 58.4%, and the mean duration of follow-up was 38 months. The active range of motion of the distal interphalangeal, PIP, and metacarpophalangeal joint was 80.4, 85.4, and 91.8 degrees, respectively. The mean disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand score was 4.8, and all patients achieved bony union at final follow-up. One patient showed radiographic signs of graft absorption, but this did not limit their daily activities. The modified hemihamate arthroplasty technique is safe and reliable and reduces the risk of iatrogenic damage when used to treat comminuted dorsal fracture-dislocations of the PIP joint.

  6. Disruption of the proximal tibiofibular joint in the setting of multi-ligament knee injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrino, Jack A. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, 4245 Roosevelt Way NE, Box 354755, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is a relatively uncommon condition when in isolation; however, instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is far more frequent in those presenting with a severe multi-ligament injury of the knee. If this joint is left unstable, repair of a co-existent injury of the posterolateral corner may fail, regardless of the proficiency of the technique. We present two patients with disruption of the proximal tibiofibular joint, including the MRI appearance, who initially presented to our hospital for management of significant polytrauma, as well as multi-ligament injury of the ipsilateral knee. (orig.)

  7. Development of a Mandibular Motion Simulator for Total Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Nukhet; Rohner, E. Carlos; Gateno, Jaime; Noble, Philip C.; Ismaily, Sabir K.; Teichgraeber, John F.; Xia, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a motion simulator capable of recreating and recording the full range of mandibular motions in a cadaveric preparation for an intact temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and after total joint replacement. Material and Methods A human cadaver head was used. Two sets of tracking balls were attached to the forehead and mandible, respectively. Computed tomographic (CT) scan was performed and 3-dimensional CT models of the skull were generated. The cadaver head was then dissected to attach the muscle activation cables and mounted onto the TMJ simulator. Realistic jaw motions were generated through the application of the following muscle forces: lateral pterygoid muscle, suprahyoid depressors (geniohyoid, mylohyoid, and digastric muscles), and elevator muscles. To simulate muscle contraction, cables were inserted into the mandible at the center area of each muscle's attachment. To provide a minimum mouth closing force at the initial position, the elevator muscles were combined at the anterior mandible. During mandibular movement, each motion was recorded using a high-resolution laser scanner. The right TMJ of the same head was reconstructed with a total TMJ prosthesis. The same forces were applied and the jaw motions were recorded again. CT scan was performed and 3-dimensional CT models of the skull with TMJ prosthesis were generated. Results Mandibular motions, before and after TMJ replacement, with and without lateral pterygoid muscle reattachment, were re-created in a cadaveric preparation. The laser-scanned data during the mandibular motion were used to drive 3-dimensional CT models. A movie for each mandibular motion was subsequently created for motion path analysis. Compared with mandibular motion before TMJ replacement, mandibular lateral and protrusive motions after TMJ replacement, with and without lateral pterygoid muscle reattachment, were greatly limited. The jaw motion recorded before total joint replacement was

  8. Human joint motion estimation for electromyography (EMG)-based dynamic motion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Hosoda, Ryo; Venture, Gentiane

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate a joint motion estimation method from Electromyography (EMG) signals during dynamic movement. In most EMG-based humanoid or prosthetics control systems, EMG features were directly or indirectly used to trigger intended motions. However, both physiological and nonphysiological factors can influence EMG characteristics during dynamic movements, resulting in subject-specific, non-stationary and crosstalk problems. Particularly, when motion velocity and/or joint torque are not constrained, joint motion estimation from EMG signals are more challenging. In this paper, we propose a joint motion estimation method based on muscle activation recorded from a pair of agonist and antagonist muscles of the joint. A linear state-space model with multi input single output is proposed to map the muscle activity to joint motion. An adaptive estimation method is proposed to train the model. The estimation performance is evaluated in performing a single elbow flexion-extension movement in two subjects. All the results in two subjects at two load levels indicate the feasibility and suitability of the proposed method in joint motion estimation. The estimation root-mean-square error is within 8.3% ∼ 10.6%, which is lower than that being reported in several previous studies. Moreover, this method is able to overcome subject-specific problem and compensate non-stationary EMG properties.

  9. [Complex fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint. A case report and focus on palmar proximal interphalangeal fractures-dislocations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, E; Thomsen, L; Hans-Moevi Akué, A; Falcone, M-O

    2013-10-01

    The palmar fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint of fingers is an uncommon injury. We report a complex form in a 16-year old teenager, associating a palmar fracture-dislocation and a fracture of the base of the middle phalanx with the dorsal fragment dislocated between the neck of the proximal phalange and the palmar plate. The management was surgical with open reduction and fixation of the fragments by K-wires and temporary PIP arthrorisis. The result at 6months of follow- up after removal of the wires and physiotherapy was satisfactory. The patient was painless with a range of motion of 115°. Clinically, the sagittal and frontal stability of the joint both in flexion and extension was maintained. Osseous healing was obtained on X-ray control. The patient went back to his usual activities. A focus on palmar fracture-dislocations of PIP joint is presented through incidence, mechanism and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Severe contracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint in Dupuytren's disease: does capsuloligamentous release improve outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyermann, K; Prommersberger, K J; Jacobs, C; Lanz, U B

    2004-06-01

    This prospective study assessed whether patients with severe proximal interphalangeal joint contracture (#10878;60 degrees ) due to Dupuytren's disease which persisted after fasciectomy alone benefited from an additional capsuloligamentous release. Forty-three patients with 43 severely contracted proximal interphalangeal joints underwent operative correction followed by a standardized postoperative rehabilitation programme. All were followed for 6 months. In 11 patients correction of the proximal interphalangeal joint to 20 degrees could not be achieved by fasciectomy alone, and an additional capsuloligamentous release was performed which effectively corrected all their residual flexion contractures. There were no statistically significant differences between the capsulotomy and the non-capsulotomy group with respect to the residual proximal interphalangeal joint contracture at the end of surgery, or at their last follow-up examination.

  11. The quantitative role of flexor sheath incision in correcting Dupuytren proximal interphalangeal joint contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazar, P E; Floyd, E W; Earp, B E

    2016-07-01

    Controversy exists regarding intra-operative treatment of residual proximal interphalangeal joint contractures after Dupuytren's fasciectomy. We test the hypothesis that a simple release of the digital flexor sheath can correct residual fixed flexion contracture after subtotal fasciectomy. We prospectively enrolled 19 patients (22 digits) with Dupuytren's contracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint. The average pre-operative extension deficit of the proximal interphalangeal joints was 58° (range 30-90). The flexion contracture of the joint was corrected to an average of 28° after fasciectomy. In most digits (20 of 21), subsequent incision of the flexor sheath further corrected the contracture by an average of 23°, resulting in correction to an average flexion contracture of 4.7° (range 0-40). Our results support that contracture of the tendon sheath is a contributor to Dupuytren's contracture of the joint and that sheath release is a simple, low morbidity addition to correct Dupuytren's contractures of the proximal interphalangeal joint. Additional release of the proximal interphalangeal joint after fasciectomy, after release of the flexor sheath, is not necessary in many patients. IV (Case Series, Therapeutic). © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint, do not miss it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wulfften Palthe, A.F.Y.; Musters, L.; Sonnega, R.J.A.; van der Sluijs, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 45-year-old woman with a right proximal tibiofibular dislocation she sustained after a fall during roller skating. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs confirmed the diagnosis; there were no other injuries. The dislocation was reduced by direct manipulation after

  13. Sacroiliac joint motion in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamoto, Yukitaka; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sakaura, Hironobu; Sugiura, Tsuyoshi; Fujimori, Takahito; Matsuo, Yohei; Kashii, Masafumi; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugamoto, Kazuomi

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Usually additional anchors into the ilium are necessary in long fusion to the sacrum for degenerative lumbar spine disorders (DLSDs), especially for adult spine deformity. Although the use of anchors is becoming quite common, surgeons must always keep in mind that the sacroiliac (SI) joint is mobile and they should be aware of the kinematic properties of the SI joint in patients with DLSDs, including adult spinal deformity. No previous study has clarified in vivo kinematic changes in the SI joint with respect to patient age, sex, or parturition status or the presence of DLSDs. The authors conducted a study to clarify the mobility and kinematic characteristics of the SI joint in patients with DLSDs in comparison with healthy volunteers by using in vivo 3D motion analysis with voxel-based registration, a highly accurate, noninvasive method. METHODS Thirteen healthy volunteers (the control group) and 20 patients with DLSDs (the DLSD group) underwent low-dose 3D CT of the lumbar spine and pelvis in 3 positions (neutral, maximal trunk flexion, and maximal trunk extension). SI joint motion was calculated by computer processing of the CT images (voxel-based registration). 3D motion of the SI joint was expressed as both 6 df by Euler angles and translations on the coordinate system and a helical axis of rotation. The correlation between joint motion and the cross-sectional area of the trunk muscles was also investigated. RESULTS SI joint motion during trunk flexion-extension was minute in healthy volunteers. The mean rotation angles during trunk flexion were 0.07° around the x axis, -0.02° around the y axis, and 0.16° around the z axis. The mean rotation angles during trunk extension were 0.38° around the x axis, -0.08° around the y axis, and 0.08° around the z axis. During trunk flexion-extension, the largest amount of motion occurred around the x axis. In patients with DLSDs, the mean rotation angles during trunk flexion were 0.57° around the x axis, 0.01

  14. Causes of prolapse and collapse of the proximal interphalangeal joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.H.M. van der Meulen (Jacques)

    1972-01-01

    textabstractAn understanding of abnormal finger motion depends on a basic knowledge of normal functional anatomy, which can be found in the contributions made by Eyler and Markee (1954), Kaplan (1953), Milford (1968), Stack (1962), Tubiana and Valeillin (1963). It is then possible to appreciate that

  15. Delayed treatment of unstable proximal interphalangeal joint fracture-dislocations with a dynamic external fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao Fang; Mi, Jing Yi; Rui, Yong Jun; Xue, Ming Yu; Chou, Jiandong; Tian, Jian; Chim, Harvey

    2015-10-01

    Fracture-dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) remain a challenging problem to treat. Although there are a number of papers describing the use of dynamic external fixators and force couples for treatment of unstable PIPJ fracture-dislocations acutely, the literature is scarce on delayed treatment of PIPJ fracture-dislocations, where malunion of the articular surface may theoretically compromise postoperative range of motion (ROM) at the PIPJ. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dynamic distraction external fixation (DDEF) for the delayed treatment of PIPJ fracture-dislocations at least 3 weeks after the inciting injury. Ten consecutive patients were treated with delayed DDEF between 2010 and 2013. Postoperative ROM at the PIPJ was measured. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire were administered to all patients postoperatively. Mean time from injury to surgery was 27.5 days. The mean follow-up period was 23.7 months (range 10-36). The mean active ROM at the PIPJ on final postoperative follow-up was 83.9° (range 52-100). None of the patients experienced pin-tract infections. Mean DASH score was 3.7+3.4 and mean Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire score was 97.3+3.0. All patients returned to work and resumed normal activities. Delayed treatment of unstable PIPJ fracture-dislocations with a DDEF is effective in restoring function to the PIPJ. Nascent malunion of the PIPJ articular surface does not compromise postoperative outcomes and the joint surface undergoes remodelling over time to restore a smooth and functional articular surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Supplementary arthrolysis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of fingers in surgical treatment of Dupuytren's contracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohendorff, B; Biber, F; Sauer, H; Ries, C; Spies, C; Franke, J

    2016-02-01

    Correction of residual flexion deformity of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint after excision of diseased connective tissue in Dupuytren's contracture by stepwise arthrolysis. Flexion deformity of the PIP joint of 20° or more after excision of the diseased connective tissue in Dupuytren's contracture. Joint deformities, osteoarthrosis, intrinsic muscle contracture, instability of the PIP joint. Arthrolysis of the PIP joint is performed by six consecutive steps: dissection of the remaining skin ligaments, opening the flexor tendon sheath by transverse incision at the distal end of the A2 pulley, dissection of the checkrein ligaments, dissection of the accessory collateral ligaments, releasing the palmar plate proximally, releasing the palmar plate up to its insertion at the middle phalanx base. Dorsal plaster of Paris with extended fingers and compressive dressing in the palm for 2 days, occupational/physical therapy, static and possible dynamic extension splint several weeks/months. A total of 31 fingers in 28 patients with Dupuytren's contracture were evaluated an average of 22 months after arthrolysis of the PIP joint. In all, 26 joints with an average recurrent flexion contracture of 29° were improved compared to the preoperative flexion contracture of 81°; 4 PIP joints with a recurrent flexion contracture averaging 60° were worse. In one patient, PIP flexion contracture of 90° was unchanged at follow-up although the joint could be extended intraoperatively to 10° of flexion.

  17. Action Recognition by Joint Spatial-Temporal Motion Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a method for human action recognition based on optical flow motion features extraction. Automatic spatial and temporal alignments are combined together in order to encourage the temporal consistence on each action by an enhanced dynamic time warping (DTW algorithm. At the same time, a fast method based on coarse-to-fine DTW constraint to improve computational performance without reducing accuracy is induced. The main contributions of this study include (1 a joint spatial-temporal multiresolution optical flow computation method which can keep encoding more informative motion information than recent proposed methods, (2 an enhanced DTW method to improve temporal consistence of motion in action recognition, and (3 coarse-to-fine DTW constraint on motion features pyramids to speed up recognition performance. Using this method, high recognition accuracy is achieved on different action databases like Weizmann database and KTH database.

  18. Estimation of Joint types and Joint Limits from Motion capture data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    2009-01-01

    It is time-consuming for an animator to explicitly model joint types and joint limits of articulated figures. In this paper we describe a simple and fast approach to automated joint estimation from motion capture data of articulated figures. Our method will make the joint modeling more efficient...... and less time consuming for the animator by providing a good starting estimate that can be fine-tuned or extended by the animator if she wishes, without restricting her artistic freedom. Our method is simple, easy to implement and specific for the types of articulated figures used in interactive animation...... such as computer games. Other work for joint limit modeling consider more complex and general purpose models. However, these are not immediately suitable for inverse kinematics skeletons used in interactive applications....

  19. Control of a wrist joint motion simulator: A phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Darshan S; Kedgley, Angela E

    2016-09-06

    The presence of muscle redundancy and co-activation of agonist-antagonist pairs in vivo makes the optimization of the load distribution between muscles in physiologic joint simulators vital. This optimization is usually achieved by employing different control strategies based on position and/or force feedback. A muscle activated physiologic wrist simulator was developed to test and iteratively refine such control strategies on a functional replica of a human arm. Motions of the wrist were recreated by applying tensile loads using electromechanical actuators. Load cells were used to monitor the force applied by each muscle and an optical motion capture system was used to track joint angles of the wrist in real-time. Four control strategies were evaluated based on their kinematic error, repeatability and ability to vary co-contraction. With kinematic errors of less than 1.5°, the ability to vary co-contraction, and without the need for predefined antagonistic forces or muscle force ratios, novel control strategies - hybrid control and cascade control - were preferred over standard control strategies - position control and force control. Muscle forces obtained from hybrid and cascade control corresponded well with in vivo EMG data and muscle force data from other wrist simulators in the literature. The decoupling of the wrist axes combined with the robustness of the control strategies resulted in complex motions, like dart thrower׳s motion and circumduction, being accurate and repeatable. Thus, two novel strategies with repeatable kinematics and physiologically relevant muscle forces are introduced for the control of joint simulators. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. A prospective randomized study of conservative versus surgical treatment of unstable palmar plate disruption in the proximal interphalangeal finger joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlinrud, Jens Christian; Petersen, Kirstin; Lauritsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of conservative versus operative treatment for unstable palmar plate disruption in the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint of the fingers with respect to preservation of joint stability, mobility, and pain. The study was conducted as a prospective...... do not recommend primary surgical repair of unstable isolated palmar plate lesions in the proximal interphalangeal joints of the 4 ulnar fingers. Type of study/level of evidence Therapeutic, Level II....

  1. [Fractures of the proximal interphalangeal joint: Diagnostic and operative therapy options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unglaub, F; Langer, M F; Hahn, P; Müller, L P; Ahrens, C; Spies, C K

    2016-02-01

    Joint fractures of the fingers often entail operative interventions in contrast to extra-articular fractures. These types of fracture are inclined to dislocate in addition to the actual fracture. The proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in particular often shows comminuted fractures due to the long leverage of the finger and a relatively small diameter of the joint. The clinical examination, X-ray diagnostics and if necessary computed tomography allow the classification into stable and unstable fractures. Unstable fractures must be treated by surgical reduction and fixation. A multitude of operative techniques are available for these mostly complicated fractures. The foremost goal is a stable osteosynthesis of the fracture with repositioning of the dislocation, which enables early physiotherapy in order to prevent tendon adhesion and contracture. This article presents the different types of PIP joint fractures, their specific surgical treatment and postoperative treatment regimens.

  2. Management of difficult intra-articular fractures or fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodaki, E; Xing, S G; Mailaender, P; Stang, F

    2015-01-01

    Intra-articular fractures or fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint are difficult clinically because the bone and soft tissue structures are small and intricate. Suboptimal treatment of intra-articular fractures typically leads to functional impairment of the hand. This article reviews the current methods of treatment, together with the senior author's experience in treating difficult proximal interphalangeal joint fractures and dislocations. Besides conservative treatments, surgical treatments include open or closed reduction with traditional Osteosynthesis, such as K-wires, screws or plates. Among recent developments are the percutaneous application of thin cannulated compression screws and novel dynamic external fixators. After a preferred minimally invasive treatment with stable reconstruction of the articular surface, sufficient aftercare is necessary to improve surgical outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Neurovascular Advancement Flap to Release Flexion Contracture of the Proximal Interphalangeal Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, James; Lin, Yu-Te

    2017-04-01

    Various methods have been described to surgically release posttraumatic flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint. Extension of the distal digit often creates a soft tissue defect on the volar aspect of the finger. Although various flaps and skin grafting have been utilized for coverage of this defect, they can be associated with morbidity. We present our experience with a volar neurovascular advancement flap to achieve soft tissue release in proximal interphalangeal joint flexion contracture. This advancement flap is designed to include both digital neurovascular bundles and eliminates the need for a secondary procedure as it allows primary closure of the subsequent defect. It is indicated for contracture lengthening of 10 to 14 mm. Surgical considerations of flap design are discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Are flexible flat feet associated with proximal joint problems in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, A; Dixon, P C; Stebbins, J; Zavatsky, A B; Theologis, T

    2016-03-01

    The role of flexible flat feet (FF) in the development of musculoskeletal symptoms at joints proximal to the ankle is unclear. We undertook an observational study to investigate the relationship between foot posture and the proximal joints in children. It was hypothesised that reduced arch height would be associated with proximal joint symptoms and altered gait kinematics and kinetics particularly in the transverse plane at the hip and knee. Ninety-five children between the ages of 8-15 were recruited into this ethically approved study. Foot posture was classified using the arch height index (AHI). The frequency of knee and hip/back pain was documented, and each child underwent three dimensional gait analysis. Reduced arch height was associated with increased odds of knee symptoms (p<0.01) and hip/back symptoms (p=0.01). A flat foot posture was also significantly associated with a reduction in the second peak of the vertical ground reaction force (p=0.03), which concomitantly affected late stance hip and knee moments. A reduced AHI was also associated with increased pelvic retraction and increased knee valgus in midstance. No kinematic and kinetic parameter associated with a flat foot posture related to increased proximal joint symptoms in the FF group. Children with a flatter foot posture are more likely to have pain or discomfort at the knee, hip and back; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs remain unclear. Treating FF without explicit understanding of how it relates to symptoms is difficult, and further work in this area is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radial collateral ligament injury of the little finger proximal interphalangeal joint in young pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hyun Sik; Cho, Hoyune Esther; Rhee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Jihyeong; Lee, Young Ho; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2014-08-01

    To report the features of radial collateral ligament injury of the little finger proximal interphalangeal joint in young piano players. Between 2005 and 2012, we treated 6 cases of radial collateral ligament injury of the little finger proximal interphalangeal joint in young piano players at a single referral center. We conducted a retrospective review of charts and radiographs and telephone-interviewed all patients at a mean follow-up of 33 months (range, 12-66 mo) to evaluate features of this injury. All patients were girls with a mean age of 10 years (range, 8-12 y), and all had injuries in their right hands. Patients had been playing piano for a mean 3.8 years (range, 3-5 y) and practicing for a mean 1.8 hours per day (range, 1-3 h). Pain was commonly aggravated when they played octaves or advanced pieces requiring extensive finger movements. All patients were playing on standard-size piano keyboards and had generalized hypermobility with a mean Beighton and Horan score of 6.3 (range, 5-9). Two patients had an ulnar deviation deformity of 10° and 15° each at the proximal interphalangeal joint whereas the others had no fixed joint deformity. Five patients showed improvement with conservative treatment, but 1 patient underwent surgery. In our practice, all piano-related radial collateral ligament injuries were in female preadolescents with evidence of generalized hypermobility; patients had been playing piano extensively, suggesting that the injury could have resulted from stress on the joint during piano playing. Future studies should further evaluate the efficacy of modifying keyboard size, techniques, and repertoires for piano lessons and of patient education for this type of injury. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Joint motion quality in vibroacoustic signal analysis for patients with patellofemoral joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bączkowicz, Dawid; Majorczyk, Edyta

    2014-12-12

    Chondromalacia, lateral patellar compression syndrome and osteoarthritis are common patellofemoral joint disorders leading to functional and/or structural disturbances in articular surfaces. The objective of the study was to evaluate their impact on joint motion quality via the vibroacoustic signal generated during joint movement analysis. Seventy-three patients (30 with chondromalacia, 21 with lateral patellar compression syndrome, and 22 with osteoarthritis) and 32 healthy controls were tested during flexion/extension knee motion for vibroacoustic signals using an acceleration sensor. Estimated parameters: variation of mean square (VMS), difference between mean of four maximum and mean of four minimum values (R4), power spectral density for frequency of 50-250 Hz (P1) and 250-450 Hz (P2) were analyzed. Vibroacoustic signals recorded for particular disorders were characterized by significantly higher values of parameters in comparison to the control group. Moreover, differences were found among the various types of patellofemoral joint disturbances. Chondromalacia and osteoarthritis groups showed differences in all parameters examined. In addition, osteoarthritis patients exhibited differences in VMS, P1 and P2 values in comparison to lateral patellar compression syndrome patients. However, only the value of R4 was found to differ between knees with lateral patellar compression syndrome and those with chondromalacia. Our results suggest that particular disorders are characterized by specific vibroacoustic patterns of waveforms as well as values of analyzed parameters.

  7. Predictors of Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Flexion Contracture After Homodigital Island Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Akito; Omokawa, Shohei; Iida, Akio; Kaji, Daisuke; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2015-11-01

    To identify independent predictors of postoperative proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contracture after direct-flow homodigital island flap transfer. Forty-four fingertip amputations in 39 patients treated with oblique triangular flaps were evaluated at a minimum of 1 year after surgery. Five variables were examined: patient age, injured finger, mechanism of injury, flap advancement distance, and time required for wound healing. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify the extent to which these variables affected the flexion contracture of the PIP joint. The average reduction in the passive extension angle of the PIP joint was 16° at final follow-up. Univariate analysis indicated significant correlations of PIP joint flexion contracture with age, injured finger, and time for wound healing, but no significant correlation with the distance the flap was advanced. Multivariate analysis indicated that the age and duration of wound healing were independent predictors of the flexion contracture of the PIP joint. Elderly people and cases with delayed wound healing are at risk for postoperative PIP joint contracture after homodigital flap transfer. Intervention with early hand therapy and orthotics may be useful in elderly patients with delayed wound healing. Prognostic II. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Determinants of National Funding in Trans-national Joint Research: Exploring the Proximity Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reale, E.; Spinello, A.; Zinilli, A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates -using an explorative approach, why policy makers at national level engage in transnational joint research activities and mobilize dedicated financial resources. The research question is: why policy makers (either Governments or Research Funding Organisations-RFOs) in EU28 countries invest in transnational joint research activities beyond the European Framework Programmes, and what are the determinants of different levels of funding engagement? The question is relevant to understand the reasons that generate the existing imbalances within European countries as to the participation in transnational research, which are likely to create peripheries within the ERA, thus undermining the process of European integration. We assume that proximity linked to cognitive, institutional and organizational dimensions can affect the policy decisions about the level of funding (real engagement) joint European research programmes, because the closeness or distance in these dimensions generate similarities that are likely to influence the possibility of decision makers to collaborate in the implementation of research programmes. The paper also explores the existence of any effect of geographical proximity, although it is not supposed to play a role in policy decisions about investment in transnational research programmes. (Author)

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Dorsal Proximal Synovial Plica of the Equine Metacarpo-/Metatarsophalangeal Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauspie, S; Vanderperren, K; Gielen, I; Pardon, B; Kromhout, K; Martens, A; Saunders, J H

    2016-02-01

    A synovial plica is present at the dorsoproximal aspect of the fetlock joint. The objective of this study was to describe the location of the synovial plica during induced hyperextension using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. For this study 20 cadaver limbs from five Warmblood horses were used. Measurements were made of the dorsal; palmar/plantar length and the thickness of the plica with the joint in a normal position. During induced hyperextension of the joint, the position of the plica was described; the dorsal angle of extension and angle of contact between the proximal phalanx (P1) and the condyle were measured. The dorsal length differed between front/hind limbs and between the medial/lateral aspect of the joint. The angle of contact between P1 and condyle differed between front/hind limbs; between the lateral and medial aspect of the joint and between different positions of the plica. Four different positions of the plica were observed: shortened with the tip curved towards palmar/plantar; projecting distally; projecting towards dorsal and projecting distally with the tip interposed between P1 and the condyle. During induced hyperextension, a close relation is present between the synovial plica, P1 and the condyle with a variable position of the plica; which is suggestive for a contact interface between P1 and the metacarpal/metatarsal bone. However the plica does not seem to act consistently as a cushioning surface. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Joint effects of genetic variants and residential proximity to pesticide applications on hypospadias risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Ma, Chen; Roberts, Eric; Kegley, Susan; English, Paul; Lammer, Edward J; Witte, John S; Shaw, Gary M

    2016-08-01

    We examined risks associated with joint exposure of gene variants and pesticides. Analyses included 189 cases and 390 male controls born from 1991 to 2003 in California's San Joaquin Valley. We used logistic regression to examine risks associated with joint exposures of gene variants and pesticides that our previous work identified as associated with hypospadias. Genetic variables were based on variants in DGKK, genes involved in sex steroid synthesis/metabolism, and genes involved in genital tubercle development. Pesticide exposure was based on residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications. Odds ratios (ORs) were highest among babies with joint exposures, who had two- to fourfold increased risks; for example, the OR was 3.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8-16.5) among subjects with the risk-associated DGKK haplotype and pesticide exposure; OR, 1.5 (95% CI, 0.7-3.1) among subjects with the haplotype and no pesticide exposure; and OR, 0.9 (95% CI, 0.5-1.6) among subjects without the haplotype but with pesticide exposure, relative to subjects with neither. However, results did not provide statistical evidence that these risks were significantly greater than expected on an additive scale, relative to risks associated with one exposure at a time. We observed elevated risks associated with joint exposures to selected pesticides and genetic variants but no statistical evidence for interaction. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:653-658, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Reliability of digital compass goniometer in knee joint range of motion measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaikwawongs, Nammond; Limpaphayom, Noppachart; Wilairatana, Vajara

    2009-04-01

    To compare the reliability of range of motion measurement in the knee joint using a digital compass goniometer combined with inclinometer with standard range of motion measurement from roentgenographic picture. Range of flexion and extension of the knee joint in volunteer participants was measured by the newly developed digital compass goniometer combined with inclinometer (DCG). The results were compared with range of knee joint motion obtained from standard roentgenographic picture by intraclass correlation coefficient. Range of motion of knee joint measured by DCG correlated very well with the data obtained from standard knee roentgenographic picture. The intraclass correlation coefficient equals 0.973. The digital compass goniometer was a reliable tool to measure knee joint range of motion in flexion and extension plane.

  12. Minimally invasive proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis using a locking compression plate and tissue engineering in horses: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-pil; Yamaga, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Nao; Yamada, Kazutaka; Haneda, Shingo; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the efficacy of 2 minimally invasive techniques for proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthrodesis in horses. The PIP joints of both forelimbs (n = 6) were stabilized with locking compression plates (LCP) using a minimally invasive technique (LCP technique). Subsequently, for 1 randomly selected PIP joint of each horse, surgical drilling (SurD) was performed and tissue engineering (TE) was applied (LCP/SurD/TE technique). Minimally invasive PIP joint arthrodesis with LCP demonstrated low postoperative infection rates. Gross and histological evaluations revealed considerable destruction of the articular cartilage in the LCP/SurD/TE-treated joints. In contrast, almost no destruction of the cartilage was observed in the LCP-treated joints. Our results suggest that the LCP technique alone is not sufficient for PIP joint arthrodesis and that the LCP/SurD/TE technique may be useful for PIP joint arthrodesis in horses. PMID:25392547

  13. In-vivo range of motion of the subtalar joint using computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beimers, Lijkele; Tuijthof, Gabriëlle Josephine Maria; Blankevoort, Leendert; Jonges, Remmet; Maas, Mario; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2008-01-01

    Understanding in vivo subtalar joint kinematics is important for evaluation of subtalar joint instability, the design of a subtalar prosthesis and for analysing surgical procedures of the ankle and hindfoot. No accurate data are available on the normal range of subtalar joint motion. The purpose of

  14. Near-field non-radial motion generation from underground chemical explosions in jointed granite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiev, Oleg; Ezzedine, Souheil; Hurley, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes analysis of non-radial ground motion generated by chemical explosions in a jointed rock formation during the Source Physics Experiment (SPE). Such motion makes it difficult to discriminate between various subsurface events such as explosions, implosions (i.e. mine collapse) and earthquakes. We apply 3-D numerical simulations to understand experimental data collected during the SPEs. The joints are modelled explicitly as compliant thin inclusions embedded into the rock mass. Mechanical properties of the rock and the joints as well as the joint spacing and orientation are inferred from experimental test data, and geophysical and geological characterization of the SPE site which is dominantly Climax Stock granitic outcrop. The role of various factors characterizing the joints such as joint spacing, frictional properties, orientation and persistence in generation of non-radial motion is addressed. The joints in granite at the SPE site are oriented in nearly orthogonal directions with two vertical sets dipping at 70-80 degrees with the same strike angle, one vertical set almost orthogonal to the first two and one shallow angle joint set dipping 15 degrees. In this study we establish the relationship between the joint orientation and azimuthal variations in the polarity of the observed shear motion. The majority of the shear motion is generated due to the effects of non-elastic sliding on the joints near the source, where the wave can create significant shear stress to overcome the cohesive forces at the joints. Near the surface the joints are less confined and are subject to sliding when the pressure waves are reflected. In the far field, where the cohesive forces on the joints cannot be overcome, additional shear motion can be generated due to elastic anisotropy of the rock mass given by preferred spatial orientations of compliant joints.

  15. Optical clearing of human skin for the enhancement of optical imaging of proximal interphalangeal joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, Ekaterina A.; Kolesnikov, Aleksandr S.; Zabarylo, Urszula; Minet, Olaf; Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2014-01-01

    We are proposing a new method for enhancement of optical imaging of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints in humans at skin using optical clearing technique. A set of illuminating laser diodes with the wavelengths 670, 820, and 904 nm were used as a light source. The laser diodes, monochromatic digital CCD camera and specific software allowed for detection of the finger joint image in a transillumination mode. The experiments were carried out in vivo with human fingers. Dehydrated glycerol and hand cream with urea (5%) were used as optical clearing agents (OCAs). The contrast of the obtained images was analyzed to determine the effect of the OCA. It was found that glycerol application to the human skin during 60 min caused the decrease of contrast in 1.4 folds for 670 nm and the increase of contrast in 1.5 and 1.7 folds for 820 nm and 904 nm, respectively. At the same time, the hand cream application to the human skin during 60 min caused the decrease of contrast in 1.1 folds for 670 nm and the increase of contrast in 1.3 and 1.1 folds for 820 nm and 904 nm, respectively. The results have shown that glycerol and the hand cream with 5% urea allow for obtaining of more distinct image of finger joint in the NIR. Obtained data can be used for development of optical diagnostic methods of rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. Arthroscopic surgery for osteochondral fractures of the proximal phalanx of the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal (fetlock) joints in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovich, J V; McIlwraith, C W

    1986-02-01

    Arthroscopic surgery for osteochondral fractures of the proximal phalanx was performed on 74 fetlock joints of 63 horses for a total of 87 fractures during a 2-year period. The medial dorsal proximal aspect of the proximal phalanx of the forelimbs was most commonly involved (59 fractures), followed by the lateral aspect (26 fractures), and 2 fractures occurred in the fetlock joint of the right hindlimb. At surgery, 82 fragments were removed and 5 fragments that had healed or were embedded in the joint capsule were not removed. Of the fragments removed, 15 were fixed firmly to the proximal phalanx, 63 were easily movable by arthroscopic instruments (but had soft tissue attachments to the proximal phalanx), and 4 were floating free within the joint. Arthroscopic surgery allowed excellent visualization and appreciation of the attachments of fragments and their stage of healing. Horses returned to full race training at an average of 11 1/2 weeks (range, 6 to 24 weeks). Thirty eight of 46 horses (82.6%) with adequate postoperative follow-up returned to athletic performance at least equal to that before fetlock injury.

  17. Employee customer orientation in manufacturing organizations: joint influences of customer proximity and the senior leadership team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hui; Subramony, Mahesh

    2008-03-01

    Pursuing a customer-focused strategy in manufacturing organizations requires employees across functions to embrace the importance of understanding customer needs and to align their everyday efforts with the goal of satisfying and retaining customers. Little prior research has examined what factors influence employee customer orientation in manufacturing settings. Drawing on the attraction-selection-attrition model, upper-echelons theory, and contingency theories of leadership, this study investigated the joint influences of functional roles' proximity to external customers and the senior leadership team's customer orientation on employee customer orientation. Hierarchical linear modeling results based on data obtained from 4,299 employees and 403 senior leaders from 42 facilities of a global manufacturer operating in 16 countries revealed that employees occupying customer-contact roles had the highest level of customer orientation, followed by employees occupying production roles, and then by those in support roles. In addition, there was a positive relationship between the senior leadership team's customer orientation and employee customer orientation for all 3 functional roles. The positive relationship between the senior leadership team and employee customer orientation was the strongest for employees in support roles, suggesting that lower levels of proximity to external customers may create a greater need for leadership in developing employees' customer-oriented attitudes. Copyright 2008 APA

  18. Comparative study on the effectiveness of corticosteroid injections between trigger fingers with and without proximal interphalangeal joint flexion contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, R; Sunagawa, T; Nakashima, Y; Kawanishi, Y; Masuda, T; Ochi, M

    2016-02-01

    Trigger fingers with proximal interphalangeal joint flexion contracture are suggested to have a poorer response to corticosteroid injection than those without contracture, though this has not been proven scientifically. We compared the clinical response to corticosteroid injection between trigger fingers with and without proximal interphalangeal joint contracture, and investigated the influence of the injection on the A1 pulley and flexor digitorum tendons using ultrasonography. One month after injection, pain was significantly reduced in the no contracture group, and 56% of trigger fingers with proximal interphalangeal joint contracture resolved. Before injection, relative thickening of the A1 pulley and flexor digitorum tendons, and a partial hypoechoic lesion of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon were observed in the contracture group. One month after injection, the thickening of the tendons and the A1 pulley was reduced, but the partial hypoechoic lesion was still observed in significant numbers. We have demonstrated that the presence of a proximal interphalangeal joint contracture was associated with a reduced clinical response to corticosteroid injection, and we suggest that the pathologic change in the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, represented by the partial hypoechoic lesion, contributed to corticosteroid injection resistance. IV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Goniometry of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints, Part II: placement prefereces, interrater reliability, and concurrent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, G N; VanDeven, K M; Phillips, E C; Ehretsman, R L

    2001-01-01

    The purposes of this repeated-measures single-case-design study were to describe goniometric placement preferences and their effect on the measurement of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints, to determine interrater reliability, and to determine concurrent validity. Thirty-nine therapists measured one patient dorsally and laterally with the DeVore and the 6" clear goniometers. No significant differences were found between the two goniometers used in the study. Comparison of the means of lateral and dorsal measurements revealed that the only joint associated with a significant difference was the contracted index proximal interphalangeal joint (p=0.0347). Preferences did affect the standard deviations and ranges but not the means of the measurements. Interrater reliability was high (ICC 2,1: 0.99 and 0.86). Clinical and radiographic measurements were markedly different from each other (paired-difference t-tests), leading to inconclusive concurrent validity.

  20. Cervical flexion and extension includes anti-directional cervical joint motion in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Lindstroem, René; Plocharski, Maciej; Østergaaard, Lasse Riis; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Anti-directional cervical joint motion has previously been demonstrated. However, quantitative studies of anti-directional and pro-directional cervical flexion and extension motions have not been published. This study aimed for a quantitative assessment of directional and anti-directional cervical joint motion in healthy subjects. An observational study was carried out. Eighteen healthy subjects comprised the study sample. Anti-directional and pro-directional cervical flexion and extension motion from each cervical joint in degrees were the outcome measures. Fluoroscopy videos of cervical flexion and extension motions (from neutral to end-range) were acquired from 18 healthy subjects. The videos were divided into 10% epochs of C0/C7 range of motion (ROM). The pro-directional and anti-directional motions in each 10% epoch were extracted, and the ratios of anti-directional motions with respect to the pro-directional motions (0%=no anti-directional movement) were calculated for joints and 10% epochs. The flexion and extension ROM for C0/C7 were 51.9°±9.3° and 57.2°±12.2°. The anti-directional motions of flexion and extension ROM constituted 42.8%±9.7% and 41.2%±8.2% of the respective pro-directional movements. For flexion, the first three joints (C0/C1, C1/C2, C2/C3) demonstrated larger ratios compared with the last three joints (C4/C5, C5/C6, C6/C7) (pflexion and extension motions showed larger C0/C1 ratio but smaller C5/C6 and C6/C7 ratios in extension (pflexion and extension motion. The anti-directional motion is approximately 40% of the pro-directional motion. The results document that large proportions of anti-directional cervical flexion and extension motions were normal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dissipation Effect in the Hunting Motion Stability of Wheel Set with Elastic Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Baldovin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The axle hunting is a coupled lateral and yaw self oscillatory motion which is largely determined by wheel–rail contact geometry. The stability of this motion is an important dynamic problem that determines the maximum operating speed of railway vehicle. To improve the stability performances, without increasing the rail-wheel interaction forces above safety limits, elastic joints and dissipative devices are used to connect the wheelset to the bogy frame. In this paper is studied the influence of passive linear and non-linear dissipative horizontal forces on the hunting motion stability of a wheelset with elastic joints.

  2. On the generation of tangential ground motion by underground explosions in jointed rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiev, Oleg; Ezzedine, Souheil; Antoun, Tarabay; Glenn, Lewis

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes computational studies of tangential ground motions generated by spherical explosions in a heavily jointed granite formation. Various factors affecting the shear wave generation are considered, including joint spacing, orientation and frictional properties. Simulations are performed both in 2-D for a single joint set to elucidate the basic response mechanisms, and in 3-D for multiple joint sets to realistically represent in situ conditions in a realistic geological setting. The joints are modelled explicitly using both contact elements and weakness planes in the material. Simulations are performed both deterministically and stochastically to quantify the effects of geological uncertainties on near field ground motions. The mechanical properties of the rock and the joints as well as the joint spacing and orientation are taken from experimental test data and geophysical logs corresponding to the Climax Stock granitic outcrop, which is the geological setting of the source physics experiment (SPE). Agreement between simulation results and near field wave motion data from SPE enables newfound understanding of the origin and extent of non-spherical motions associated with underground explosions in fractured geological media.

  3. Analysis of the talocrural and subtalar joint motions in patients with medial tibial stress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Kei; Noh, Byungjoo; Fukano, Mako; Miyakawa, Shumpei; Hirose, Norikazu; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    The rearfoot motion during sports activities in patients with the medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the difference in kinematics of the rearfoot in MTSS patients (eight male soccer players) and control participants (eight male soccer players) during a forward step. Sixteen male soccer players, including eight players with MTSS, participated. Forward step trials were recorded with cineradiographic images obtained at a sampling rate of 60 Hz. Geometric bone models of the tibia and talus/calcaneus were created from computed tomography scans of the distal part of one lower limb. Following a combination of approaches, anatomical coordinate systems were embedded in each bone model. The talocrural joint motion (relative motion of the talus with respect to the tibia) and subtalar joint motion (relative motion of the calcaneus with respect to the talus) were examined. A significantly larger range of internal/external rotation and inversion/eversion motion was observed in the subtalar joint of MTSS patients compared to healthy controls (P angles during the forward step. Our results indicate that the range of subtalar joint motion is greater in patients with MTSS during the stance phase of the forward step. The kinematic results obtained of this study may have important clinical implications and add quantitative data to an in vivo database of MTSS patients.

  4. Computer-aided joint space analysis of the metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint: normative age-related and gender-specific data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeil, Alexander; Boettcher, Joachim; Seidl, Bettina E.; Heyne, Jens-Peter; Petrovitch, Alexander; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); Eidner, Torsten; Wolf, Gunter; Hein, Gert [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Department of Rheumatology and Osteology, Clinic of Internal Medicine III, Jena (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of the study was to provide reference data for computer-aided joint space analysis based on a semi-automated and computer-aided diagnostic system for the measurement of metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint widths; additionally, the determination of sex differences and the investigation of changes in joint width with age were evaluated. Eighty hundred and sixty-nine patients (351 female and 518 male) received radiographs of the hand for trauma and were screened for a host of conditions known to affect the joint spaces. All participants underwent measurements of joint space distances at the metacarpal-phalangeal articulation (JSD-MCP) from the thumb to the small finger and at the proximal-interphalangeal articulation (JSD-PIP) from the index finger to the small finger using computer-aided diagnosis technology with semi-automated edge detection. The study revealed an annual narrowing of the JSD of 0.6% for the JSD-MCP and for the JSD-PIP. Furthermore, the data demonstrated a notable age-related decrease in JSD, including an accentuated age-related joint space narrowing in women for both articulations. Additionally, males showed a significantly wider JSD-MCP (+11.1%) and JSD-PIP (+15.4%) compared with the female cohort in all age groups. Our data presented gender-specific and age-related normative reference values for computer-aided joint space analysis of the JSD-MCP and JSD-PIP that could be used to identify disease-related joint space narrowing, particularly in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis commonly involving the peripheral small hand joints. (orig.)

  5. Efficacy and safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum in the treatment of proximal interphalangeal joints in dupuytren contracture: combined analysis of 4 phase 3 clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalamente, Marie A; Hurst, Lawrence C; Benhaim, Prosper; Cohen, Brian M

    2015-05-01

    To examine the results of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contractures from 4 phase 3 clinical trials of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injection for Dupuytren contracture. Patients enrolled in Collagenase Option for Reduction of Dupuytren I/II and JOINT I/II with one or more PIP joint contractures (20° to 80°) received CCH 0.58 mg/0.20 mL or placebo (Collagenase Option for Reduction of Dupuytren I/II only) injected directly into a palpable cord. The percentage of PIP joints achieving clinical success (0° to 5° of full extension), clinical improvement (50% or more reduction in baseline contracture), and range of motion improvement at 30 days after the first and last CCH injections was assessed. The PIP joint contractures were classified into low (40° or less) and high (more than 40°) baseline severity. Adverse events were recorded. A total of 506 adults (mean age, 63 ± 10 y; 80% male) received 1,165 CCH injections in 644 PIP joint cords (mean, 1.6 injections/cord). Most patients (60%) received 1 injection, with 24%, 16%, and 1% receiving 2, 3, and 4 injections, respectively. Clinical success and clinical improvement occurred in 27% and 49% of PIP joints after one injection and in 34% and 58% after the last injection. Patients with lower baseline severity showed greater improvement and response was comparable between fingers, as were improvements in range of motion. Adverse events occurring in more than 10% of patients were peripheral edema (58%), contusion (38%), injection site hemorrhage (23%), injection site pain (21%), injection site swelling (16%), and tenderness (13%). This incidence was consistent with data reported in phase 3 trials. Two tendon ruptures occurred. No further ruptures occurred after a modified injection technique was adopted. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum was effective and well tolerated in the short term in patients with Dupuytren PIP joint contractures. Therapeutic II. Copyright © 2015 American Society for

  6. Motion correction improves image quality of dGEMRIC in finger joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miese, Falk; Kröpil, Patric; Ostendorf, Benedikt; Scherer, Axel; Buchbender, Christian; Quentin, Michael; Lanzman, Rotem S; Blondin, Dirk; Schneider, Matthias; Bittersohl, Bernd; Zilkens, Christoph; Jellus, Vladimir; Ch Mamisch, Tallal; Wittsack, Hans-Jörg

    2011-12-01

    To assess motion artifacts in dGEMRIC of finger joints and to evaluate the effectiveness of motion correction. In 40 subjects (26 patients with finger arthritis and 14 healthy volunteers) dGEMRIC of metacarpophalangeal joint II was performed. Imaging used a dual flip angle approach (TE 3.72 ms, TR 15 ms, flip angles 5° and 26°). Two sets of T1 maps were calculated for dGEMRIC analysis from the imaging data for each subject: one with and one without motion correction. To compare image quality, visual grading analysis and precision of dGEMRIC measurement of both dGEMRIC maps for each case were evaluated. Motion artifacts were present in 82% (33/40) of uncorrected dGEMRIC maps. Motion artifacts were graded as severe or as rendering evaluation impossible in 43% (17/40) of uncorrected dGEMRIC maps. Motion corrected maps showed significantly less motion artifacts (Pvolunteers and patients (P=.044), whereas uncorrected dGEMRIC was not (P=.234). Motion correction improves image quality, dGEMRIC measurement precision and diagnostic performance in dGEMRIC of finger joints. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hallux interphalangeal joint range of motion in feet with and without limited first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuera, Pedro V; Trujillo, Piedad; Güiza, Israel

    2012-01-01

    This work was designed to assess the degree of correlation between hallux interphalangeal joint and first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion and to compare the mobility of the hallux interphalangeal joint between participants with and without limited first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion (hallux limitus). Dorsiflexion of the hallux interphalangeal joint was measured in 60 normal feet and in 60 feet with hallux limitus to find correlations with first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion with the Spearman correlation coefficient and a simple linear regression equation. In addition, movement of the hallux interphalangeal joint was compared between normal and hallux limitus feet with the Mann-Whitney U test. Significant differences were found between the groups in mean ± SD interphalangeal joint dorsiflexion (control group: 1.17° ± 2.50° ; hallux limitus group: 10.65° ± 8.24° ; P dorsiflexion and hallux interphalangeal joint dorsiflexion (ρ = -0.766, P dorsiflexion = 27.17 - 0.381 × first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion. Hallux interphalangeal joint dorsiflexion was greater in feet with hallux limitus than in normal feet. There was a strong inverse correlation between first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion and hallux interphalangeal joint dorsiflexion.

  8. Wearable Stretch Sensors for Motion Measurement of the Wrist Joint Based on Dielectric Elastomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Motion capture of the human body potentially holds great significance for exoskeleton robots, human-computer interaction, sports analysis, rehabilitation research, and many other areas. Dielectric elastomer sensors (DESs are excellent candidates for wearable human motion capture systems because of their intrinsic characteristics of softness, light weight, and compliance. In this paper, DESs were applied to measure all component motions of the wrist joints. Five sensors were mounted to different positions on the wrist, and each one is for one component motion. To find the best position to mount the sensors, the distribution of the muscles is analyzed. Even so, the component motions and the deformation of the sensors are coupled; therefore, a decoupling method was developed. By the decoupling algorithm, all component motions can be measured with a precision of 5°, which meets the requirements of general motion capture systems.

  9. Wearable Stretch Sensors for Motion Measurement of the Wrist Joint Based on Dielectric Elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Li, Mingyu; Mei, Tao; McCoul, David; Qin, Shihao; Zhao, Zhanfeng; Zhao, Jianwen

    2017-11-23

    Motion capture of the human body potentially holds great significance for exoskeleton robots, human-computer interaction, sports analysis, rehabilitation research, and many other areas. Dielectric elastomer sensors (DESs) are excellent candidates for wearable human motion capture systems because of their intrinsic characteristics of softness, light weight, and compliance. In this paper, DESs were applied to measure all component motions of the wrist joints. Five sensors were mounted to different positions on the wrist, and each one is for one component motion. To find the best position to mount the sensors, the distribution of the muscles is analyzed. Even so, the component motions and the deformation of the sensors are coupled; therefore, a decoupling method was developed. By the decoupling algorithm, all component motions can be measured with a precision of 5°, which meets the requirements of general motion capture systems.

  10. Electrical Properties of PPy-Coated Conductive Fabrics for Human Joint Motion Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyong Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Body motion signals indicate several pathological features of the human body, and a wearable human motion monitoring system can respond to human joint motion signal in real time, thereby enabling the prevention and treatment of some diseases. Because conductive fabrics can be well integrated with the garment, they are ideal as a sensing element of wearable human motion monitoring systems. This study prepared polypyrrole conductive fabric by in situ polymerization, and the anisotropic property of the conductive fabric resistance, resistance–strain relationship, and the relationship between resistance and the human knee and elbow movements are discussed preliminarily.

  11. Biomechanical characteristics of hemi-hamate reconstruction versus volar plate arthroplasty in the treatment of dorsal fracture dislocations of the proximal interphalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyser, Andrew R; Tsai, Michael A; Parks, Brent G; Means, Kenneth R

    2015-02-01

    To compare stability and range of motion after hemi-hamate reconstruction versus volar plate arthroplasty in a biomechanical proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint fracture-dislocation model. Eighteen digits from 6 cadaver hands were tested. We created defects of 40%, 60%, and 80% in the palmar base of each digit's middle phalanx, simulating an acute PIP joint fracture-dislocation. Each defect scenario was reconstructed with a hemi-hamate arthroplasty followed by a volar plate arthroplasty. A computer-controlled mechanism was used to bring each digit's PIP joint from full extension to full flexion via the digital tendons in each testing state, and in the intact state. During each testing scenario we collected PIP joint cinedata in a true lateral projection using mini-fluoroscopy. A digital radiography program was used to measure the amount of middle phalanx dorsal translation (subluxation) in full PIP joint extension. We recorded the angle at which subluxation, if present, occurred during each testing scenario. Average dorsal displacement of the middle phalanx in relation to the proximal phalanx was 0.01 mm for the hemi-hamate reconstructed joints and -0.03 mm for the volar plate arthroplasty, compared with the intact state. Flexion contractures were noted in each of the specimens reconstructed with volar plate arthroplasty. Degree of contracture was directly correlated with defect size, averaging 20° for 40% defects, 35° for 60% defects, and 60° for 80% defects. We observed no flexion contractures in the hemi-hamate reconstructions. Surgeons can use both hemi-hamate and volar plate arthroplasty to restore PIP joint stability following a fracture dislocation with a large middle phalanx palmar base defect. Use of volar plate arthroplasty led to an increasing flexion contracture as the middle phalanx palmar base defect increased. Clinicians can use the information from this study to help with surgical decision-making and patient education. Copyright © 2015

  12. Accuracy and repeatability of joint angles measured using a single camera markerless motion capture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Anne; Ye, Mao; Shapiro, Robert; Yang, Ruigang; Noehren, Brian

    2014-01-22

    Markerless motion capture systems have developed in an effort to evaluate human movement in a natural setting. However, the accuracy and reliability of these systems remain understudied. Therefore, the goals of this study were to quantify the accuracy and repeatability of joint angles using a single camera markerless motion capture system and to compare the markerless system performance with that of a marker-based system. A jig was placed in multiple static postures with marker trajectories collected using a ten camera motion analysis system. Depth and color image data were simultaneously collected from a single Microsoft Kinect camera, which was subsequently used to calculate virtual marker trajectories. A digital inclinometer provided a measure of ground-truth for sagittal and frontal plane joint angles. Joint angles were calculated with marker data from both motion capture systems using successive body-fixed rotations. The sagittal and frontal plane joint angles calculated from the marker-based and markerless system agreed with inclinometer measurements by motion capture system to accurately measure lower extremity kinematics and provide a first step in using this technology to discern clinically relevant differences in the joint kinematics of patient populations. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. One-degree-of-freedom spherical model for the passive motion of the human ankle joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancisi, Nicola; Baldisserri, Benedetta; Parenti-Castelli, Vincenzo; Belvedere, Claudio; Leardini, Alberto

    2014-04-01

    Mathematical modelling of mobility at the human ankle joint is essential for prosthetics and orthotic design. The scope of this study is to show that the ankle joint passive motion can be represented by a one-degree-of-freedom spherical motion. Moreover, this motion is modelled by a one-degree-of-freedom spherical parallel mechanism model, and the optimal pivot-point position is determined. Passive motion and anatomical data were taken from in vitro experiments in nine lower limb specimens. For each of these, a spherical mechanism, including the tibiofibular and talocalcaneal segments connected by a spherical pair and by the calcaneofibular and tibiocalcaneal ligament links, was defined from the corresponding experimental kinematics and geometry. An iterative procedure was used to optimize the geometry of the model, able to predict original experimental motion. The results of the simulations showed a good replication of the original natural motion, despite the numerous model assumptions and simplifications, with mean differences between experiments and predictions smaller than 1.3 mm (average 0.33 mm) for the three joint position components and smaller than 0.7° (average 0.32°) for the two out-of-sagittal plane rotations, once plotted versus the full flexion arc. The relevant pivot-point position after model optimization was found within the tibial mortise, but not exactly in a central location. The present combined experimental and modelling analysis of passive motion at the human ankle joint shows that a one degree-of-freedom spherical mechanism predicts well what is observed in real joints, although its computational complexity is comparable to the standard hinge joint model.

  14. Joint framework for motion validity and estimation using block overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Michael; AlRegib, Ghassan; Altunbasak, Yucel

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a block-overlap-based validity metric for use as a measure of motion vector (MV) validity and to improve the quality of the motion field. In contrast to other validity metrics in the literature, the proposed metric is not sensitive to image features and does not require the use of neighboring MVs or manual thresholds. Using a hybrid de-interlacer, it is shown that the proposed metric outperforms other block-based validity metrics in the literature. To help regularize the ill-posed nature of motion estimation, the proposed validity metric is also used as a regularizer in an energy minimization framework to determine the optimal MV. Experimental results show that the proposed energy minimization framework outperforms several existing motion estimation methods in the literature in terms of MV and interpolation quality. For interpolation quality, our algorithm outperforms all other block-based methods as well as several complex optical flow methods. In addition, it is one of the fastest implementations at the time of this writing.

  15. Experimental observations on the human arm motion planning under an elbow joint constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyosang; Robson, Nina P; Langari, Reza; Buchanan, John J

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to define the governing strategies by which the human central nervous system (CNS) finds optimal solutions for an arm reaching motion, when an elbow joint is constrained. The compensated arm reaching motion under the joint kinematic constraint is observed by human experiments. We present an experimental protocol, where subjects perform point-to-point reaching tasks with a lightweight elbow brace to restrict the elbow kinematics with minimal effect on the arm dynamics. The human compensatory strategy is analyzed in terms of hand path kinematics (i.e. spatial and temporal characteristics) and the arm postural configuration. The spatial and temporal characteristics of hand path are approximated by the Euclidean geodesic curves and the well known bell-shaped smooth profile, respectively. Furthermore, the contribution of each joint degree-of-freedom (DOF) motion is discussed and its relation to the arm posture selection is elaborated.

  16. Annual Report on Radar Image Enhancement, Feature Extraction and Motion Compensation Using Joint Time-Frequency Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hao, Ling

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the scientific progress on the research grant "Radar Image Enhancement, Feature Extraction, and Motion Compensation Using Joint Time-Frequency Techniques" during the period 15...

  17. Development of an anatomical wrist joint coordinate system to quantify motion during functional tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, Howard J; Garg, Rohit; Kraszewski, Andrew; Lenhoff, Mark; Carter, Timothy; Backus, Sherry I; Wolff, Aviva; Syrkin, Grigory; Cheng, Richard; Wolfe, Scott W

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis based anatomical wrist joint coordinate system for measurement of in-vivo wrist kinematics. The convergent validity and reliability of the 3D motion analysis implementation was quantified and compared with manual and electrogoniometry techniques on 10 cadaveric specimens. Fluoroscopic measurements were used as the reference. The 3D motion analysis measurements (mean absolute difference [MAD] = 3.6°) were significantly less different (P goniometry (MAD = 5.7°) but not (P = .066, power = 0.45) electrogoniometry (MAD = 5.0°) compared with fluoroscopy. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC[2,1]) was highest for 3D motion analysis compared with manual and electrogoniometry, suggesting better reliability for this technique. To demonstrate the utility of this new wrist joint coordinate system, normative data from 10 healthy subjects was obtained while throwing a dart.

  18. Human Joint Articulation and Motion-Resistive Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    In quantitative gross biodynamic motion studies, cognizant of the high coat of conducting experimental research with human cadavers and/or...biplanar radiographs, Chao and. Morrey (19791 were able to accurately isolate the three-dimensional rotation of cadaver forearms under passive elbow...P02U4T(4o,’*Px00 ftF(W .Etlo -146 TO 110 13’ FOTO ’,FAEf,1 I 0.’I3’ IS EF1’ 110 CO1NTINUE R~ETURN ENDa 114 PROGR’AM INITLZ C mH1s PROGRAMI SPECIFIES

  19. The biomechanical effects of a deepened articular cavity during dynamic motion of the wrist joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Stefanie; Schmoelz, Werner; Arora, Rohit; Lutz, Martin

    2012-07-01

    A deepened articular cavity of the distal radius due to a metaphyseal comminution zone is associated with early osteoarthritis and reduced joint motion. As this deformity has not been investigated biomechanically, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a deepened articular cavity on contact biomechanics and motion range in a dynamic biomechanical setting. Six fresh frozen cadaver forearms were tested in a force controlled test bench during dynamic flexion and extension and intact mean contact pressure and contact area as well as range of motion were evaluated. Malunion was then simulated and intraarticular as well as motion data were obtained. Intact and malunion data were compared for the scaphoid and lunate facet and the total radial joint surface. Due to malunion simulation, cavity depth increased significantly. Motion decreased significantly to 54-69% when compared to the intact state. Malunion simulation led to a significant decrease of contact area in maximum extension for all locations (by ~50%). In maximum flexion and neutral position, contact area decrease was significant for the scaphoid fossa (by 51-54%) and the total radial joint surface (by 47-50%). Contact pressure showed a significant increase in maximum extension in the scaphoid fossa (by 129%). Already a small cavity increase led to significant alterations in contact biomechanics of the radiocarpal joint and to a significant range of motion decrease. This could be the biomechanical cause for degenerative changes after the investigated type of malunion. We think that restoration of the normal distal radius shape can minimize osteoarthritis risk post trauma and improve radiocarpal motion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analyzing the effects of human-aware motion planning on close-proximity human-robot collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasota, Przemyslaw A; Shah, Julie A

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this work was to examine human response to motion-level robot adaptation to determine its effect on team fluency, human satisfaction, and perceived safety and comfort. The evaluation of human response to adaptive robotic assistants has been limited, particularly in the realm of motion-level adaptation. The lack of true human-in-the-loop evaluation has made it impossible to determine whether such adaptation would lead to efficient and satisfying human-robot interaction. We conducted an experiment in which participants worked with a robot to perform a collaborative task. Participants worked with an adaptive robot incorporating human-aware motion planning and with a baseline robot using shortest-path motions. Team fluency was evaluated through a set of quantitative metrics, and human satisfaction and perceived safety and comfort were evaluated through questionnaires. When working with the adaptive robot, participants completed the task 5.57% faster, with 19.9% more concurrent motion, 2.96% less human idle time, 17.3% less robot idle time, and a 15.1% greater separation distance. Questionnaire responses indicated that participants felt safer and more comfortable when working with an adaptive robot and were more satisfied with it as a teammate than with the standard robot. People respond well to motion-level robot adaptation, and significant benefits can be achieved from its use in terms of both human-robot team fluency and human worker satisfaction. Our conclusion supports the development of technologies that could be used to implement human-aware motion planning in collaborative robots and the use of this technique for close-proximity human-robot collaboration.

  1. Analyzing the Effects of Human-Aware Motion Planning on Close-Proximity Human–Robot Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this work was to examine human response to motion-level robot adaptation to determine its effect on team fluency, human satisfaction, and perceived safety and comfort. Background: The evaluation of human response to adaptive robotic assistants has been limited, particularly in the realm of motion-level adaptation. The lack of true human-in-the-loop evaluation has made it impossible to determine whether such adaptation would lead to efficient and satisfying human–robot interaction. Method: We conducted an experiment in which participants worked with a robot to perform a collaborative task. Participants worked with an adaptive robot incorporating human-aware motion planning and with a baseline robot using shortest-path motions. Team fluency was evaluated through a set of quantitative metrics, and human satisfaction and perceived safety and comfort were evaluated through questionnaires. Results: When working with the adaptive robot, participants completed the task 5.57% faster, with 19.9% more concurrent motion, 2.96% less human idle time, 17.3% less robot idle time, and a 15.1% greater separation distance. Questionnaire responses indicated that participants felt safer and more comfortable when working with an adaptive robot and were more satisfied with it as a teammate than with the standard robot. Conclusion: People respond well to motion-level robot adaptation, and significant benefits can be achieved from its use in terms of both human–robot team fluency and human worker satisfaction. Application: Our conclusion supports the development of technologies that could be used to implement human-aware motion planning in collaborative robots and the use of this technique for close-proximity human–robot collaboration. PMID:25790568

  2. On the hypotheses that determine the definitions of glenohumeral joint motion: with resolution of Codman's pivotal paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, William J

    2012-12-01

    Current terminology of shoulder motion does not fully explain several well-known paradoxes. We developed a model of glenohumeral joint motion that describes shoulder motion more accurately and provides the ability for computer modeling of shoulder motion. All glenohumeral joint motions can be defined by the model, as well as resolving the problem of well-known paradoxes of shoulder motion. The group model was also extended to infinitesimal rotations of the glenohumeral joint. This model then becomes a description known in physics as Eulerian angles, the description of rotations of a rigid body. By use of this model, computer modeling of shoulder motion is possible, whereas it is shown that it is not in the current terminology. Several clinical situations are discussed and analyzed by the new model of shoulder motion. Among these are Codman's pivotal paradox and a paradox of shoulder motion described by Rowe. Both of these can be resolved mathematically using the group model of shoulder motion. Discussion centers on how the new model may affect therapy models for these motions. We conclude that a symmetric group model of motion centered at the glenohumeral joint may allow computer modeling of shoulder motion, allow resolution of several important paradoxes concerning shoulder motion, and have importance in therapeutic rehabilitation of shoulder problems. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Capturing Revolute Motion and Revolute Joint Parameters with Optical Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonya, C.

    2017-12-01

    Optical tracking of users and various technical systems are becoming more and more popular. It consists of analysing sequence of recorded images using video capturing devices and image processing algorithms. The returned data contains mainly point-clouds, coordinates of markers or coordinates of point of interest. These data can be used for retrieving information related to the geometry of the objects, but also to extract parameters for the analytical model of the system useful in a variety of computer aided engineering simulations. The parameter identification of joints deals with extraction of physical parameters (mainly geometric parameters) for the purpose of constructing accurate kinematic and dynamic models. The input data are the time-series of the marker’s position. The least square method was used for fitting the data into different geometrical shapes (ellipse, circle, plane) and for obtaining the position and orientation of revolute joins.

  4. A phase field method for joint denoising, edge detection, and motion estimation in image sequence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preusser, T.; Droske, M.; Garbe, C. S.; Telea, A.; Rumpf, M.

    2007-01-01

    The estimation of optical flow fields from image sequences is incorporated in a Mumford-Shah approach for image denoising and edge detection. Possibly noisy image sequences are considered as input and a piecewise smooth image intensity, a piecewise smooth motion field, and a joint discontinuity set

  5. A Variational Approach to Joint Denoising, Edge Detection and Motion Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Preusser, Tobias; Garbe, Christoph; Droske, Marc; Rumpf, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The estimation of optical flow fields from image sequences is incorporated in a Mumford–Shah approach for image denoising and edge detection. Possibly noisy image sequences are considered as input and a piecewise smooth image intensity, a piecewise smooth motion field, and a joint discontinuity set

  6. Intra-articular pressure profiles of the cadaveric equine fetlock joint in motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Gracca Macoris, D; Bertone, A

    2001-03-01

    The study of the influence of motion and initial intra-articular pressure (IAP) on intra-articular pressure profiles in equine cadaver metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints was undertaken as a prelude to in vivo studies. Eleven equine cadaver MTP joints were submitted to 2 motion frequencies of 5 and 10 cycles/min of flexion and extension, simulating the condition of lower and higher (double) rates of passive motion. These frequencies were applied and pressure profiles generated with initial normal intra-articular pressure (-5 mmHg) and subsequently 30 mmHg intra-articular pressure obtained by injection of previously harvested synovial fluid. The 4 trials performed were 1) normal IAP; 5 cyles/min; 2) normal IAP; 10 cycles/min; 3) IAP at 30 mmHg; 5 cycles/min and 4) IAP at 30 mmHg; 10 cycles/min. The range of joint motion applied (mean +/- s.e.) was 67.6+/-1.61 degrees with an excursion from 12.2+/-1.2 degrees in extension to 56.2+/-2.6 degrees in flexion. Mean pressure recorded in mmHg for the first and last min of each trial, respectively, were 1) -5.7+/-0.9 and -6.3+/-1.1; 2) -5.3+/-1.1 and -6.2+/-1.1; 3) 58.8+/-8.0 and 42.3+/-7.2; 4) 56.6+/-3.7 and 40.3+/-4.6. Statistical analyses showed a trend for difference between the values for the first and last minute in trial 3 (0.05>Pequine MTP joints which were frozen and then later thawed were found to have mostly negative baseline intra-articular pressures, as would be expected in living subjects. 2. Alternate pressure profiles of the dorsal and plantar pouch at baseline intra-articular pressure document the presence of pressure forces that would support 'back and forth' fluid movement between joint compartments. This should result in movement of joint fluid during motion, assisting in lubrication and nutrition of articular cartilage. 3. If joint pressure was initially greater than normal (30 mmHg), as occurs in diseased equine MTP joints, joint motion further increased joint capsule relaxation (compliance) and, therefore

  7. Upper limb joint motion of two different user groups during manual wheelchair propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seonhong; Kim, Seunghyeon; Son, Jongsang; Lee, Jinbok; Kim, Youngho

    2013-02-01

    Manual wheelchair users have a high risk of injury to the upper extremities. Recent studies have focused on kinematic and kinetic analyses of manual wheelchair propulsion in order to understand the physical demands on wheelchair users. The purpose of this study was to investigate upper limb joint motion by using a motion capture system and a dynamometer with two different groups of wheelchair users propelling their wheelchairs at different speeds under different load conditions. The variations in the contact time, release time, and linear velocity of the experienced group were all larger than they were in the novice group. The propulsion angles of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices under all conditions. The variances in the propulsion force (both radial and tangential) of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices. The shoulder joint moment had the largest variance with the conditions, followed by the wrist joint moment and the elbow joint moment. The variance of the maximum shoulder joint moment was over four times the variance of the maximum wrist joint moment and eight times the maximum elbow joint moment. The maximum joint moments increased significantly as the speed and load increased in both groups. Quick and significant manipulation ability based on environmental changes is considered an important factor in efficient propulsion. This efficiency was confirmed from the propulsion power results. Sophisticated strategies for efficient manual wheelchair propulsion could be understood by observation of the physical responses of each upper limb joint to changes in load and speed. We expect that the findings of this study will be utilized for designing a rehabilitation program to reduce injuries.

  8. Motion planning for redundant prismatic-jointed manipulators in the free-floating mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Dong; Baoyin, He-Xi; Ma, Xing-Rui

    2012-10-01

    This paper investigates the motion planning of redundant free-floating manipulators with seven prismatic joints. On the earth, prismatic-jointed manipulators could only position their end-effectors in a desired way. However, in space, the end-effectors of free-floating manipulators can achieve both the desired orientation and desired position due to the dynamical coupling between manipulator and satellite movement, which is formally expressed by linear and angular momentum conservation laws. In this study, a tractable algorithm particle swarm optimization combined with differential evolution (PSODE) is provided to deal with the motion planning of redundant free-floating prismatic-jointed manipulators, which could avoid the pseudo inverse of the Jacobian matrix. The polynomial functions, as argument in sine functions are used to specify the joint paths. The coefficients of the polynomials are optimized to achieve the desired end-effector orientation and position, and simultaneously minimize the unit-mass-kinetic energy using the redundancy. Relevant simulations prove that this method provides satisfactory smooth paths for redundant free-floating prismatic-jointed manipulators. This study could help to recognize the advantages of redundant prismatic-jointed space manipulators.

  9. Multilayer Joint Gait-Pose Manifolds for Human Gait Motion Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Meng; Fan, Guolian

    2015-11-01

    We present new multilayer joint gait-pose manifolds (multilayer JGPMs) for complex human gait motion modeling, where three latent variables are defined jointly in a low-dimensional manifold to represent a variety of body configurations. Specifically, the pose variable (along the pose manifold) denotes a specific stage in a walking cycle; the gait variable (along the gait manifold) represents different walking styles; and the linear scale variable characterizes the maximum stride in a walking cycle. We discuss two kinds of topological priors for coupling the pose and gait manifolds, i.e., cylindrical and toroidal, to examine their effectiveness and suitability for motion modeling. We resort to a topologically-constrained Gaussian process (GP) latent variable model to learn the multilayer JGPMs where two new techniques are introduced to facilitate model learning under limited training data. First is training data diversification that creates a set of simulated motion data with different strides. Second is the topology-aware local learning to speed up model learning by taking advantage of the local topological structure. The experimental results on the Carnegie Mellon University motion capture data demonstrate the advantages of our proposed multilayer models over several existing GP-based motion models in terms of the overall performance of human gait motion modeling.

  10. Comparison of Lower Limb Segments Kinematics in a Taekwondo Kick. An Approach to the Proximal to Distal Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevan Isaac

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In taekwondo, there is a lack of consensus about how the kick sequence occurs. The aim of this study was to analyse the peak velocity (resultant and value in each plane of lower limb segments (thigh, shank and foot, and the time to reach this peak velocity in the kicking lower limb during the execution of the roundhouse kick technique. Ten experienced taekwondo athletes (five males and five females; mean age of 25.3 ±5.1 years; mean experience of 12.9 ±5.3 years participated voluntarily in this study performing consecutive kicking trials to a target located at their sternum height. Measurements for the kinematic analysis were performed using two 3D force plates and an eight camera motion capture system. The results showed that the proximal segment reached a lower peak velocity (resultant and in each plane than distal segments (except the peak velocity in the frontal plane where the thigh and shank presented similar values, with the distal segment taking the longest to reach this peak velocity (p < 0.01. Also, at the instant every segment reached the peak velocity, the velocity of the distal segment was higher than the proximal one (p < 0.01. It provides evidence about the sequential movement of the kicking lower limb segments. In conclusion, during the roundhouse kick in taekwondo inter-segment motion seems to be based on a proximo-distal pattern.

  11. A PALMAR FRACTURE-DISLOCATION OF THE PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT OF THE MIDDLE FINGER CAUSED BY BOWLING: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kurosaka

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available During bowling, a twenty year old man could not pull out his middle finger from the ball in release and injured his finger. X-ray revealed a palmar fracture- dislocation of the PIP joint. We manipulated the PIP joint, but a gap remained at the fracture site on the X-ray after reduction. Surgical treatment was performed with a screw. Postoperatively, the middle finger was fixed with a splint for two weeks, and then active range of motion exercises were started. One year after the operation, the fracture had healed with a congruous joint surface, and the patient had full range of motion in the middle finger with no difficulties in activities of daily living. The etiology of a palmar fracture-dislocation of the PIP joint is still controversial, but we suggested the mechanism of the fracture-dislocation was caused by a shearing force to the middle phalangeal base from a dorsal direction. The main cause of the current injury was the poor fit between the middle finger and the hole of the bowling ball. Bowling is a popular and safe sport, but we should be aware of unexpected hand injuries related to bowling which may occur, especially in players at a recreational level

  12. Factors affecting the range of motion of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis who walk daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Nobumasa; Shoji, Morio; Kitagawa, Takashi; Terada, Shigeru

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Increased plantar pressure during walking is a risk factor for foot ulcers because of reduced range of motion at the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints. However, the range of motion in patients undergoing hemodialysis has not yet been determined. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the factors affecting the range of motion of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis who walk daily. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy feet of 35 patients receiving hemodialysis therapy were examined. Measurements included the passive range of motion of plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint, and flexion and extension of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. [Results] Hemodialysis duration was not associated with ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Diabetes duration was significantly associated with limited ankle joint mobility. Finally, blood hemoglobin levels, body mass index, and age were associated with first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion. [Conclusion] The present study identified age, diabetes, and decreased physical activity, but not hemodialysis duration, to be risk factors for limited joint mobility of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  13. Comparative study of joint range of motion in children between 7 and 12 years of age from different gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I.L. Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare active and passive joint range of motion in children in relation to gender and age. This study involved 103 children (43 boys and 60 girls categorized into two groups: G1 (7 to 9 years old and G2 (10 to 12 years old. The flexitest protocol, active and passive, and the SAPO® were used to evaluate joint range of motion. A paired t test was applied to compare active and passive joint range of motion and an independent t test (p < .05 was used to compare active and passive range of motion between gender and age. Results showed that the passive joint ranges of motion of the lower limbs are higher than active motion (p < .001. Girls presented greater passive ankle flexion than boys did (p = .002. Children between 7 and 12 years of age presented similar standards of joint range of motion of low limb. Significant differences were found between passive and active angular range of motion in the hip, knee and ankle. There were no differences between boys and girls in the joint range of motion as well as among age groups.

  14. Joint Motion Quality in Chondromalacia Progression Assessed by Vibroacoustic Signal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bączkowicz, Dawid; Majorczyk, Edyta

    2016-11-01

    Because of the specific biomechanical environment of the patellofemoral joint, chondral disorders, including chondromalacia, often are observed in this articulation. Chondromalacia via pathologic changes in cartilage may lead to qualitative impairment of knee joint motion. To determine the patellofemoral joint motion quality in particular chondromalacia stages and to compare with controls. Retrospective, comparative study. Voivodship hospitals, university biomechanical laboratory. A total of 89 knees with chondromalacia (25 with stage I; 30 with stage II and 34 with stage III) from 50 patients and 64 control healthy knees (from 32 individuals). Vibroacoustic signal pattern analysis of joint motion quality. For all knees vibroacoustic signals were recorded. Each obtained signal was described by variation of mean square, mean range (R4), and power spectral density for frequency of 50-250 Hz (P1) and 250-450 Hz (P2) parameters. Differences between healthy controls and all chondromalacic knees as well as chondromalacia patellae groups were observed as an increase of analyzed parameters (P vibroacoustic signals, and there seems to be a relationship between the level of signal amplitude as well as frequency and cartilage destruction from the superficial layer to the subchondral bone. IV. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Eccentric loading and range of knee joint motion effects on performance enhancement in vertical jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kieran A; Wallace, Eric S

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of variations in eccentric loading and knee joint range of motion on performance enhancement associated with the stretch-shortening cycle in vertical jumping. Seventeen male elite volleyball players performed three variations of the vertical jump which served as the research model: the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and drop jump from a height of 30 cm (DJ30). Knee joint angle (70 degrees and 90 degrees of flexion) at the commencement of the propulsive phase for each jump type was experimentally controlled, with the trunk kept as erect as possible. Force and motion data were recorded for each performance and used to compute a range of kinematic and kinetic variables, including hip, knee and ankle angles, angular velocities, work done, net joint moments and a number of temporal variables. The average of 12 trials for each participant was used in a series of repeated measures ANOVA's (jump xk nee, alpha=.05). From both knee joint angles, an increase in eccentric loading resulted in a significant increase in jump height (DJ30>CMJ>SJ; pjumping is dependent upon the interaction of the magnitude of eccentric loading and the range of motion used.

  16. Frequency-Domain Joint Motion and Disparity Estimation Using Steerable Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Alexiadis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of joint disparity and motion estimation from stereo image sequences is formulated in the spatiotemporal frequency domain, and a novel steerable filter-based approach is proposed. Our rationale behind coupling the two problems is that according to experimental evidence in the literature, the biological visual mechanisms for depth and motion are not independent of each other. Furthermore, our motivation to study the problem in the frequency domain and search for a filter-based solution is based on the fact that, according to early experimental studies, the biological visual mechanisms can be modelled based on frequency-domain or filter-based considerations, for both the perception of depth and the perception of motion. The proposed framework constitutes the first attempt to solve the joint estimation problem through a filter-based solution, based on frequency-domain considerations. Thus, the presented ideas provide a new direction of work and could be the basis for further developments. From an algorithmic point of view, we additionally extend state-of-the-art ideas from the disparity estimation literature to handle the joint disparity-motion estimation problem and formulate an algorithm that is evaluated through a number of experimental results. Comparisons with state-of-the-art-methods demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed approach.

  17. Knee joint secondary motion accuracy improved by quaternion-based optimizer with bony landmark constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongsheng; Zheng, Naiqaun Nigel

    2010-12-01

    Skin marker-based motion analysis has been widely used in biomechanical studies and clinical applications. Unfortunately, the accuracy of knee joint secondary motions is largely limited by the nonrigidity nature of human body segments. Numerous studies have investigated the characteristics of soft tissue movement. Utilizing these characteristics, we may improve the accuracy of knee joint motion measurement. An optimizer was developed by incorporating the soft tissue movement patterns at special bony landmarks into constraint functions. Bony landmark constraints were assigned to the skin markers at femur epicondyles, tibial plateau edges, and tibial tuberosity in a motion analysis algorithm by limiting their allowed position space relative to the underlying bone. The rotation matrix was represented by quaternion, and the constrained optimization problem was solved by Fletcher's version of the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization technique. The algorithm was validated by using motion data from both skin-based markers and bone-mounted markers attached to fresh cadavers. By comparing the results with the ground truth bone motion generated from the bone-mounted markers, the new algorithm had a significantly higher accuracy (root-mean-square (RMS) error: 0.7 ± 0.1 deg in axial rotation and 0.4 ± 0.1 deg in varus-valgus) in estimating the knee joint secondary rotations than algorithms without bony landmark constraints (RMS error: 1.7 ± 0.4 deg in axial rotation and 0.7 ± 0.1 deg in varus-valgus). Also, it predicts a more accurate medial-lateral translation (RMS error: 0.4 ± 0.1 mm) than the conventional techniques (RMS error: 1.2 ± 0.2 mm). The new algorithm, using bony landmark constrains, estimates more accurate secondary rotations and medial-lateral translation of the underlying bone.

  18. Subtalar joint position during gastrocnemius stretching and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Marie; Baer, Jennifer; Hovermale, Holley; Phouthavong, Phouvy

    2008-01-01

    Gastrocnemius stretching exercises often are prescribed as part of the treatment program for patients with overuse injuries associated with limited ankle dorsiflexion. However, little is known about how the position of the subtalar joint during gastrocnemius stretching affects ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM). To determine the effect of subtalar joint position during gastrocnemius stretching on ankle dorsiflexion ROM. This study was a 3-way mixed-model design. The 3 factors were subtalar joint position (supinated, pronated), lower extremity (experimental, control), and time (pretest, posttest). Lower extremity and time were the repeated measures. University research laboratory. Thirty-three healthy volunteers (29 women, 4 men). Participants performed a gastrocnemius stretching exercise 2 times daily for 3 weeks with the subtalar joint of the randomly assigned experimental side (dominant or nondominant) in the randomly assigned position (supination or pronation). The contralateral lower extremity served as the control. Before and after the 3-week gastrocnemius stretching program, we used goniometers to measure ankle dorsiflexion ROM in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing positions with the subtalar joint positioned in anatomic 0 degrees . Ankle dorsiflexion ROM measured in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing positions increased after the gastrocnemius stretching program (P = .034 and .003, respectively), but the increase in ROM did not differ based on subtalar joint position (P = .775 and .831, respectively). Subtalar joint position did not appear to influence gains in ankle dorsiflexion ROM after a gastrocnemius stretching program in healthy volunteers.

  19. Integration of Visual and Joint Information to Enable Linear Reaching Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Henry; Nasuto, Slawomir J.; Hayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2017-01-01

    A new dynamics-driven control law was developed for a robot arm, based on the feedback control law which uses the linear transformation directly from work space to joint space. This was validated using a simulation of a two-joint planar robot arm and an optimisation algorithm was used to find the optimum matrix to generate straight trajectories of the end-effector in the work space. We found that this linear matrix can be decomposed into the rotation matrix representing the orientation of the goal direction and the joint relation matrix (MJRM) representing the joint response to errors in the Cartesian work space. The decomposition of the linear matrix indicates the separation of path planning in terms of the direction of the reaching motion and the synergies of joint coordination. Once the MJRM is numerically obtained, the feedfoward planning of reaching direction allows us to provide asymptotically stable, linear trajectories in the entire work space through rotational transformation, completely avoiding the use of inverse kinematics. Our dynamics-driven control law suggests an interesting framework for interpreting human reaching motion control alternative to the dominant inverse method based explanations, avoiding expensive computation of the inverse kinematics and the point-to-point control along the desired trajectories.

  20. PROXIMITY DEGREE FOR SIMPLE AND MULTIPLE STRUCTURES OF THE EIGENVALUES: OVERSHOOT MINIMIZATION FOR FREE MOTION TRAJECTORIES OF APERIODIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Akunov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with steady aperiodic continuous system, state matrix of which has a real spectrum of the eigenvalues which absolute value is less than unity. The latest authors’ works show that for such absolute values and multiple structure of eigenvalues on the free motion trajectories of the system by norm of the state vector the significant overshoot is detected, alternated by monotonous motion toward a state of rest. In order to minimize the overshoot value, it is proposed to modify the structure of the eigenvalues, transforming it into a simple one. The result of structure modification is the following: initial eigenvalue and shifted along the real axis of the complex plane to the left by a fixed value relative to the adjacent eigenvalues; each of them has unit multiplicity. Such modification gives the possibility to form the estimation of the proximity degree of eigenvalues simple structure to the multiple one. Moreover, it can be defined in a relative form, which guarantees the reduction of the above overshoot for the free motion trajectory. Results of computer experiments illustrate the issues of the paper.

  1. Ratio of Range of Motion of the Ankle and Surrounding Joints After Total Ankle Replacement: A Radiographic Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Travis J; Hamid, Kamran S; Easley, Mark E; DeOrio, James K; Nunley, James A; Adams, Samuel B

    2017-04-05

    This study attempted to identify where motion occurs after total ankle replacement, the difference in range-of-motion contributions between fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing total ankle replacements, and the contribution of abnormal peritalar motion. We hypothesized that sagittal plane radiographic assessment would demonstrate that actual ankle motion through the prosthesis is less than the total arc of ankle motion that may be observed clinically secondary to contributions from adjacent joints. Patients underwent routine standardized weight-bearing maximum dorsiflexion and plantar flexion sagittal radiographs. Sagittal plane ankle and foot measurements were performed on each dorsiflexion and plantar flexion radiograph to determine the total arc of ankle motion, actual ankle motion through the prosthesis, motion through the subtalar and talonavicular joints, and midfoot motion. Motion radiographs were routinely made at 1 year postoperatively and at the time of the most recent follow-up. A minimum follow-up of 2 years was required of all patients. There were 197 patients who met the inclusion criteria (75 INBONE, 52 Salto Talaris, and 70 STAR prostheses). The mean time to the latest radiographs (and standard deviation) was 42.9 ± 18.8 months. The mean actual ankle motion through the prosthesis was 25.9° ± 12.2°, which was significantly less (p motion arc of 37.6° ± 12.0°. The motion of the ankle accounted for 68% of total range of motion, and motion of the peritalar joints accounted for 32%. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) among the 3 prostheses or when comparing fixed and mobile-bearing designs for both ranges of motion. This study demonstrates that actual ankle motion after total ankle replacement is approximately 12° less than the total arc of motion that might be observed clinically because of increased midfoot and subtalar motion. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  2. Robot-aided motion planning for knee joint rehabilitation with two robot-manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Y; Kim, Y; Obinata, G; Genda, E; Stefanov, D

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a simultaneous design method of motion and external force trajectories for knee joint rehabilitation based on the biomechanical analysis of the lower limb. In this method we assume to use two robots manipulators which provide forces and moments at shank and thigh. We developed a 7 degree of freedom musculoskeletal model of lower limb with 19 muscles. The valuation function of rehabilitation efficiency e has been maximized by Genetic Algorithm (GA) that refers to the musculoskeletal model and tunes motion trajectory of the robots and forces acting on the shank and thigh.

  3. Enhancing the smoothness of joint motion induced by functional electrical stimulation using co-activation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruppel Mirjana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The motor precision of today’s neuroprosthetic devices that use artificial generation of limb motion using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES is generally low. We investigate the adoption of natural co-activation strategies as present in antagonistic muscle pairs aiming to improve motor precision produced by FES. In a test in which artificial knee-joint movements were generated, we could improve the smoothness of FES-induced motion by 513% when applying co-activation during the phases in which torque production is switched between muscles – compared to no co-activation. We further demonstrated how the co-activation level influences the joint stiffness in a pendulum test.

  4. The influence of gastrocnemius stretching combined with joint mobilization on weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Soo-Yong; Kim, Jun-Seok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gastrocnemius stretching combined with talocrural joint mobilization on weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion. [Subjects] Eleven male subjects with bilateral limited ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion with knee extended participated in this study. [Methods] All subjects received talocrural joint mobilization while performing gastrocnemius stretching. Ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion was measured using an inclinometer under weight-bearing conditions before and immediately after intervention. A paired t-test was used to analyze the difference between weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion pre- and post-intervention. [Results] A significant increase in weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion was found post-intervention compared with pre-intervention. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that gastrocnemius stretching combined with joint mobilization is effective for increasing weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion.

  5. Models of Postural Control: Shared Variance in Joint and COM Motions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C Kilby

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the organization of the postural control system in human upright stance. To this aim the shared variance between joint and 3D total body center of mass (COM motions was analyzed using multivariate canonical correlation analysis (CCA. The CCA was performed as a function of established models of postural control that varied in their joint degrees of freedom (DOF, namely, an inverted pendulum ankle model (2DOF, ankle-hip model (4DOF, ankle-knee-hip model (5DOF, and ankle-knee-hip-neck model (7DOF. Healthy young adults performed various postural tasks (two-leg and one-leg quiet stances, voluntary AP and ML sway on a foam and rigid surface of support. Based on CCA model selection procedures, the amount of shared variance between joint and 3D COM motions and the cross-loading patterns we provide direct evidence of the contribution of multi-DOF postural control mechanisms to human balance. The direct model fitting of CCA showed that incrementing the DOFs in the model through to 7DOF was associated with progressively enhanced shared variance with COM motion. In the 7DOF model, the first canonical function revealed more active involvement of all joints during more challenging one leg stances and dynamic posture tasks. Furthermore, the shared variance was enhanced during the dynamic posture conditions, consistent with a reduction of dimension. This set of outcomes shows directly the degeneracy of multivariate joint regulation in postural control that is influenced by stance and surface of support conditions.

  6. Digital goniometric measurement of knee joint motion. Evaluation of usefulness for research settings and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleffken, Berry; van Breukelen, Gerard; Brink, Peter; van Mameren, Henk; Olde Damink, Steven

    2007-10-01

    An accurate and reproducible measurement method for joint motion is essential for classification of success or failure in therapeutic intervention. Digital goniometry is increasingly used as a method of classification for knee joint excursion. The reliability of goniometry however remains debatable. Aim of the study was to determine both intra- and inter-rater reproducibility in degrees, with an electronic digital inclinometer (EDI 320) for active and passive maximum flexion and active maximum extension of the knee joint and to determine the reproducibility of active and passive range of motion. A classical crossover design, with strict measurement protocol was used. Two raters measured 72 knee motions each, in 42 healthy subjects in four sessions. The smallest detectable difference (SDD) was calculated by using adjusted Bland and Altman plots for each knee excursion. No differences in joint excursions between the sexes were found. Passive maximum flexion showed larger excursions than active maximum flexion with additional higher levels of reproducibility. SDDs for inter-rater comparisons yielded: 0+/-3.9 degrees for active maximum extension, 0+/-7.4 degrees for active maximum flexion, 0+/-6.4 degrees for passive maximum flexion, 0+/-7.6 degrees for AROM and 0+/-5.4 degrees for PROM. Intra-rater SDDs showed increased reproducibility by 0.4-1.9 degrees. We conclude that interpretation of knee joint excursions in clinical settings is with these SDDs. Clinical and statistical differences in research settings within these SDDs are not a true difference but should be attributed to measurement error.

  7. Relationship between joint motion and acceleration during single-leg standing in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yota; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Nakazawa, Rie; Shirakura, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between acceleration and joint movement by synchronizing accelerometers and a three-dimensional motion analysis system, and to show the utility of an accelerometer as a postural control assessment tool. [Subjects and Methods] Head, lumbar, shank accelerations and various joint angles during single-leg standing were measured of 20 healthy males. Root mean squares of acceleration and joint angle were calculated. Fast Fourier transform analysis was performed for head, lumbar, and shank accelerations, and the median frequencies were calculated. Then, principal component analysis was performed for the median frequency of each acceleration. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was also used to examine the relationship between joint angle and acceleration. [Results] The score of the first principal component was highest for shank acceleration, while that of the second principal component was highest for lumbar and head accelerations. In multiple regression analysis, hip flexion/extension and adduction/abduction were identified as variables associated with head acceleration. [Conclusion] We were able to confirm the aggregation of acceleration into two components, which we interpreted as postural control strategies using primarily the ankle and hip joints. Furthermore, though multiple regression analysis, we were able to clarify the joint movement indicated by acceleration of each segment.

  8. Methods for Dynamic Characterization of the Major Muscles Activating the Lower Limb Joints in Cycling Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Navit; Wiener, Avi; Mizrahi, Joseph

    2014-09-23

    The functional activation, through electrical stimulation, of the lower limb consisting of several deficient muscles requires well-patterned and coordinated activation of these muscles. This study presents a method for characterizing the parameters of the major muscle groups controlling the ankle and knee joints in cycling motion, the latter having particular significance in the rehabilitation of locomotion. To lower mechanical indeterminacy in the joints the system is reduced by grouping the muscles acting in synergism. The joint torques were calculated by inverse dynamics methods from cycling motion data, including kinematics and foot/pedal reaction loads (forces, moments). The mechanical indeterminacy was resolved by applying optimization criteria and the individual muscle torques were parceled-out from the joint torques. System identification of the individual muscles, part of which being bi-articular, in this non-isometric condition was performed from the relationship between the evaluated force and the measured EMG of each the muscles, using both first and second order linear transfer functions. Feasibility of the presented method was demonstrated through the computation of the coefficients of the muscles involved and validating the results on the experimental data obtained from one subject.

  9. Methods for dynamic characterization of the major muscles activating the lower limb joints in cycling motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navit Roth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The functional activation, through electrical stimulation, of the lower limb consisting of several deficient muscles requires well-patterned and coordinated activation of these muscles. This study presents a method for characterizing the parameters of the major muscle groups controlling the ankle and knee joints in cycling motion, the latter having particular significance in the rehabilitation of locomotion. To lower mechanical indeterminacy in the joints the system is reduced by grouping the muscles acting in synergism. The joint torques were calculated by inverse dynamics methods from cycling motion data, including kinematics and foot/pedal reaction loads (forces, moments. The mechanical indeterminacy was resolved by applying optimization criteria and the individual muscle torques were parceled-out from the joint torques. System identification of the individual muscles, part of which being bi-articular, in this non-isometric condition was performed from the relationship between the evaluated force and the measured EMG of each the muscles, using both first and second order linear transfer functions. Feasibility of the presented method was demonstrated through the computation of the coefficients of the muscles involved and validating the results on the experimental data obtained from one subject.

  10. Methods for dynamic characterization of the major muscles activating the lower limb joints in cycling motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navit Roth

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The functional activation, through electrical stimulation, of the lower limb consisting of several deficient muscles requires well-patterned and coordinated activation of these muscles. This study presents a method for characterizing the parameters of the major muscle groups controlling the ankle and knee joints in cycling motion, the latter having particular significance in the rehabilitation of locomotion. To lower mechanical indeterminacy in the joints the system is reduced by grouping the muscles acting in synergism. The joint torques were calculated by inverse dynamics methods from cycling motion data, including kinematics and foot/pedal reaction loads (forces, moments. The mechanical indeterminacy was resolved by applying optimization criteria and the individual muscle torques were parceled-out from the joint torques. System identification of the individual muscles, part of which being bi-articular, in this non-isometric condition was performed from the relationship between the evaluated force and the measured EMG of each the muscles, using both first and second order linear transfer functions. Feasibility of the presented method was demonstrated through the computation of the coefficients of the muscles involved and validating the results on the experimental data obtained from one subject.

  11. Associations among exercise duration, lameness severity, and hip joint range of motion in Labrador Retrievers with hip dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Laura M; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate factors associated with lameness severity and hip joint range of motion in dogs with hip dysplasia and to assess the association between hip joint range of motion and degree of lameness. Prospective case series. 60 client-owned Labrador Retrievers with hip dysplasia. Owners completed a questionnaire regarding their dogs' daily exercise duration and type (i.e., low impact vs high impact) and lifestyle. Range of motion of affected hip joints was measured with a transparent plastic goniometer. The presence of subluxation or luxation of hip joints as a consequence of hip dysplasia and the size of the largest osteophytes or enthesophytes of hip joints on ventrodorsal radiographic images of the pelvis were recorded. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with lameness, loss of hip joint flexion, and loss of hip joint extension and to identify factors associated with the presence of large osteophytes. Exercise was associated with a decrease in the severity of lameness in dogs with hip dysplasia. The strength of this inverse relationship increased with longer exercise duration. Lameness was more severe in dogs with hip joint luxation than in dogs without luxation. Hip joint extension was 1° lower for each year of age, and osteophyte or enthesophyte size was 1 mm larger with each 3-year increase in age. Longer daily exercise duration was associated with lower lameness scores in dogs with hip dysplasia. Dogs with hip joint luxation secondary to hip dysplasia had higher lameness scores than did dogs without hip joint luxation.

  12. Influence of footwear and equipment on stride length and range of motion of ankle, knee and hip joint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schulze, Christoph; Lindner, Tobias; Woitge, Sandra; Schulz, Katharina; Finze, Susanne; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of the present study was to investigate by means of gait analysis how army-provided footwear and equipment influence the range of motion of hip, knee and ankle joints as well as stride length...

  13. The influence of gastrocnemius stretching combined with joint mobilization on weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, Min-Hyeok; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Soo-Yong; Kim, Jun-Seok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gastrocnemius stretching combined with talocrural joint mobilization on weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion passive range of motion. [Subjects...

  14. An estimation of knee and ankle joint angles during extension phase of standing up motion performed using an inertial sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    FANG JIN; TAKAYUKI NAGASAKI; CHIKAMUNE WADA

    2017-01-01

    [Abstract.] [Purpose] Motion capture system is difficult to use in daily life. The aim of this study was to propose an estimation model for knee and ankle joint angle measurements and locate body center of gravity (COG...

  15. An estimation of knee and ankle joint angles during extension phase of standing up motion performed using an inertial sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jin, Fang; Nagasaki, Takayuki; Wada, Chikamune

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Motion capture system is difficult to use in daily life. The aim of this study was to propose an estimation model for knee and ankle joint angle measurements and locate body center of gravity (COG...

  16. An estimation of knee and ankle joint angles during extension phase of standing up motion performed using an inertial sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Fang; Nagasaki, Takayuki; Wada, Chikamune

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Motion capture system is difficult to use in daily life. The aim of this study was to propose an estimation model for knee and ankle joint angle measurements and locate body center of gravity (COG) of the extension phase during standing-up motion. [Subjects and Methods] Seven healthy male volunteers were enrolled. An estimation model was proposed for the knee and ankle joint angle measurements by combining the angle and acceleration of the trunk, based on readings from the inertial ...

  17. Loads in the hip joint during physically demanding occupational tasks: A motion analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, Patrick Aljoscha; Glitsch, Ulrich; Augat, Peter

    2015-09-18

    Epidemiologic studies of osteoarthritis of the hip indicate a possible connection between work related activities and the pathogenesis of the disease. This study investigated the hip joint contact forces for physically demanding occupational tasks (lifting, carrying, transferring of a weight (mass: 25 kg, 40 kg and 50 kg); stair climbing without and with additional load of 25 kg; ladder climbing) and compared these with everyday activities (level gait, sitting down and getting up). The hip joint contact force was calculated with the human multibody simulation software AnyBody employing motion capture and ground reaction force measurements by force plates and an instrumented staircase and ladder. Although the results for 11 male test subjects showed individual variations, a general trend could be observed in regards of force curves' characteristics and maxima. The largest joint contact forces calculated were (637 ± 148)%-body weight for horizontal transfer of a 50 kg weight. For several of the occupational activities the computed hip joint contact forces were significantly larger compared to the investigated examples of activities of daily living. This study provides original data of simulated hip joint contact forces for physically demanding activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chondrocalcinosis of femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints in cadaveric specimens: a high-resolution CT imaging study of the calcification distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Touraine

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze calcium deposits by computed tomography (CT in femoro-tibial compartments and proximal tibio-fibular joints; to assess the relationship with CT-assessed osteoarthritis (OA. METHODS: 68 (34 pairs cadaveric knees (mean age of 84 were scanned at high resolution CT. Menisci and hyaline cartilage calcifications in the femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints were analyzed. OA was CT-assessed by the Kellgren and Lawrence score. Gross appearance of OA was evaluated on 29 left knees after dissection and India ink staining of tibial plateaus. RESULTS: In femoro-tibial joints, meniscal calcifications (MC and hyaline cartilage calcifications (HCC were detected in 23(34% and 14(21% knees respectively. Calcifications mainly involved the three meniscal segments and were mainly observed in all thirds of the femoro-tibial compartments. In proximal tibio-fibular joints, HCC were detected in 19(28% knees. The association HCC-MC in femoro-tibial joints and between calcifications in femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints was strong (p<0.0001. Femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular CT-assessed OA were respectively found in 23(34% and 19(28% knees. HCC were significantly associated with femoro-tibial OA (p = 0.04 while MC were not (p = 0.34. OA macroscopic evaluation showed a mean surface of cartilage lesions of 35% (range 0.13-0.55. No significant difference was demonstrated regarding the CT-detection of MC, HCC or CT-assessed OA. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report a strong association of chondrocalcinosis between femoro-tibial and tibio-fibular joints in addition to a strong association between MC and HCC in femoro-tibial compartments. No significant relationship between chondrocalcinosis and OA was demonstrated.

  19. Chondrocalcinosis of femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints in cadaveric specimens: a high-resolution CT imaging study of the calcification distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraine, Sébastien; Ea, Hang Korng; Bousson, Valérie; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Laouisset, Liess; Chappard, Christine; Lioté, Frédéric; Laredo, Jean-Denis

    2013-01-01

    To analyze calcium deposits by computed tomography (CT) in femoro-tibial compartments and proximal tibio-fibular joints; to assess the relationship with CT-assessed osteoarthritis (OA). 68 (34 pairs) cadaveric knees (mean age of 84) were scanned at high resolution CT. Menisci and hyaline cartilage calcifications in the femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints were analyzed. OA was CT-assessed by the Kellgren and Lawrence score. Gross appearance of OA was evaluated on 29 left knees after dissection and India ink staining of tibial plateaus. In femoro-tibial joints, meniscal calcifications (MC) and hyaline cartilage calcifications (HCC) were detected in 23(34%) and 14(21%) knees respectively. Calcifications mainly involved the three meniscal segments and were mainly observed in all thirds of the femoro-tibial compartments. In proximal tibio-fibular joints, HCC were detected in 19(28%) knees. The association HCC-MC in femoro-tibial joints and between calcifications in femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular joints was strong (p<0.0001). Femoro-tibial and proximal tibio-fibular CT-assessed OA were respectively found in 23(34%) and 19(28%) knees. HCC were significantly associated with femoro-tibial OA (p = 0.04) while MC were not (p = 0.34). OA macroscopic evaluation showed a mean surface of cartilage lesions of 35% (range 0.13-0.55). No significant difference was demonstrated regarding the CT-detection of MC, HCC or CT-assessed OA. This is the first study to report a strong association of chondrocalcinosis between femoro-tibial and tibio-fibular joints in addition to a strong association between MC and HCC in femoro-tibial compartments. No significant relationship between chondrocalcinosis and OA was demonstrated.

  20. Time dependent human hip joint lubrication for periodic motion with stochastic asymmetric density function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzcholski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with the calculation of the human hip joint parameters for periodic, stochastic unsteady, motion with asymmetric probability density function for gap height. The asymmetric density function indicates that the stochastic probabilities of gap height decreasing are different in comparison with the probabilities of the gap height increasing. The models of asymmetric density functions are considered on the grounds of experimental observations. Some methods are proposed for calculation of pressure distributions and load carrying capacities for unsteady stochastic conditions in a super thin layer of biological synovial fluid inside the slide biobearing gap limited by a spherical bone acetabulum. Numerical calculations are performed in Mathcad 12 Professional Program, by using the method of finite differences. This method assures stability of numerical solutions of partial differential equations and gives proper values of pressure and load carrying capacity forces occurring in human hip joints.

  1. Joint disparity and motion estimation using optical flow for multiview Distributed Video Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Raket, Lars Lau; Brites, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a video coding paradigm where the source statistics are exploited at the decoder based on the availability of Side Information (SI). In a monoview video codec, the SI is generated by exploiting the temporal redundancy of the video, through motion estimation and c...... flow. The proposed SI generation algorithm allows for RD improvements up to 10% (Bjøntegaard) in bit-rate savings, when compared with block-based SI generation algorithms leveraging temporal and inter-view redundancies....... and compensation techniques. In a multiview scenario, the correlation between views can also be exploited to further enhance the overall Rate-Distortion (RD) performance. Thus, to generate SI in a multiview distributed coding scenario, a joint disparity and motion estimation technique is proposed, based on optical...

  2. An estimation of knee and ankle joint angles during extension phase of standing up motion performed using an inertial sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fang; Nagasaki, Takayuki; Wada, Chikamune

    2017-07-01

    [Purpose] Motion capture system is difficult to use in daily life. The aim of this study was to propose an estimation model for knee and ankle joint angle measurements and locate body center of gravity (COG) of the extension phase during standing-up motion. [Subjects and Methods] Seven healthy male volunteers were enrolled. An estimation model was proposed for the knee and ankle joint angle measurements by combining the angle and acceleration of the trunk, based on readings from the inertial sensor attachment on the subject's chest, during the extension phase. Joint angles and COG position were compared to those obtained by a motion capture system. [Results] The joint angles and COG position demonstrated high correlation coefficients which represent strong correlation between the proposed model and the motion capture system. The proposed model could estimate the joint angle during extension phase, with a maximum error of 4.58 degrees, as well as COG position in the horizontal and vertical directions with maximum errors of 4.48 cm and 3.19 cm, respectively. [Conclusion] The proposed system could be used instead of motion capture system to estimate knee and ankle joint angles; however, the estimation of the COG position was insufficient because of lacked accuracy.

  3. A Comparison of Methods for Assessing Space Suit Joint Ranges of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchison, Lindsay T.

    2012-01-01

    Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program, NASA is attempting to use the vast collection of space suit mobility data from 50 years worth of space suit testing to build predictive analysis tools to aid in early architecture decisions for future missions and exploration programs. However, the design engineers must first understand if and how data generated by different methodologies can be compared directly and used in an essentially interchangeable manner. To address this question, the isolated joint range of motion data from two different test series were compared. Both data sets were generated from participants wearing the Mark III Space Suit Technology Demonstrator (MK-III), Waist Entry I-suit (WEI), and minimal clothing. Additionally the two tests shared a common test subject that allowed for within subject comparisons of the methods that greatly reduced the number of variables in play. The tests varied in their methodologies: the Space Suit Comparative Technologies Evaluation used 2-D photogrammetry to analyze isolated ranges of motion while the Constellation space suit benchmarking and requirements development used 3-D motion capture to evaluate both isolated and functional joint ranges of motion. The isolated data from both test series were compared graphically, as percent differences, and by simple statistical analysis. The results indicated that while the methods generate results that are statistically the same (significance level p= 0.01), the differences are significant enough in the practical sense to make direct comparisons ill advised. The concluding recommendations propose direction for how to bridge the data gaps and address future mobility data collection to allow for backward compatibility.

  4. Decreased Temporomandibular Joint Range of Motion in a Model of Early Osteoarthritis in the Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sarah E; Tudares, Mauro A; Tashman, Scott; Almarza, Alejandro J

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of mandibular biomechanics could help with understanding the mechanisms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders (TMJDs), such as osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA), by investigating the effects of injury or disease on TMJ movement. The objective of the present study was to determine the functional kinematic implications of mild TMJ-OA degeneration caused by altered occlusion from unilateral splints in the rabbit. Altered occlusion of the TMJ was mechanically induced in rabbits by way of a unilateral molar dental splint (n = 3). TMJ motion was assessed using 3-dimensional (3D) skeletal kinematics twice, once before and once after 6 weeks of splint placement with the splints removed, after allowing 3 days of recovery. The relative motion of the condyle to the fossa and the distance between the incisors were tracked. An overall decrease in the range of joint movement was observed at the incisors and in the joint space between the condyle and fossa. The incisor movement decreased from 7.0 ± 0.5 mm to 6.2 ± 0.5 mm right to left, from 5.5 ± 2.2 mm to 4.6 ± 0.8 mm anterior to posterior, and from 13.3 ± 1.8 mm to 11.6 ± 1.4 mm superior to inferior (P TMJ-OA and determining when the symptoms become a chronic, irreversible problem. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Trunk-pelvis motion, joint loads, and muscle forces during walking with a transtibial amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Adam J; Petrella, Anthony J; Silverman, Anne K

    2015-03-01

    People with unilateral, transtibial amputation (TTA) have an increased prevalence of chronic low back pain (LBP) relative to able-bodied people. However, a definitive cause of increased LBP susceptibility has not been determined. The purpose of this work was to compare dynamic trunk-pelvis biomechanics between people with (n=6) and without (n=6) unilateral TTA during walking using a computational modeling approach. A generic, muscle-actuated whole body model was scaled to each participant, and experimental walking data were used in a static optimization framework to calculate trunk-pelvis motion, L4L5 joint contact forces, and muscle forces within the trunk-pelvis region. Results included several significant between-group differences in trunk-pelvis biomechanics during different phases of the gait cycle. Most significant was greater lateral bending toward the residual side during residual single-limb stance (p<0.01), concurrent with an elevated L4L5 joint contact force (p=0.02) and greater muscle force from the intact-side obliques (p<0.01) in people with TTA relative to able-bodied people. During both double-limb support phases, people with TTA also had a greater range of axial trunk rotation away from the leading limb, concurrent with greater ranges of muscle forces in the erector spinae and obliques. In addition, a greater range of force (p=0.03) in residual-side psoas was found during early residual limb swing in people with TTA. Repeated exposure to atypical motion and joint/muscle loading in people with TTA may contribute to the development of secondary musculoskeletal disorders, including chronic, mechanical LBP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Glenohumeral joint motion after subscapularis tendon repair: an analysis of cadaver shoulder models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Teiichi; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Izumi, Tomoki; Fujimiya, Mineko; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2014-05-23

    As for the surgical treatment of the rotator cuff tears, the subscapularis tendon tears have recently received much attention for the mini-open or arthroscopic repair. The results of surgical repair for the subscapularis tendon tear are satisfactory, but the range of external rotation is reported to be restricted after the repair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the range of glenohumeral joint motion after repairs of various sizes of subscapularis tendon tears. Using eight fresh frozen human cadaveric shoulders (mean age at death, 81.5 years), three sizes of subscapularis tendon tear (small, medium, and large) were made and then repaired. With the scapula fixed to the wooden jig, the end-range of glenohumeral motion was measured with passive movement applied through 1.0-Nm torque in the directions of scapular elevation, flexion, abduction, extension, horizontal abduction, and horizontal adduction. The passive end-ranges of external and internal rotation in various positions with rotational torque of 1.0 Nm were also measured. Differences in the ranges among the three type tears were analyzed. As tear size increased, range of glenohumeral motion in horizontal abduction after repair decreased gradually and was significantly decreased with the large size tear (P size in every glenohumeral position. The prominent decrease in external rotation (around 40° reduction from intact shoulders) was observed in shoulders after repair of large size tear at 30° to 60° of scapular elevation and abduction. As the size of the subscapularis tendon tear increased, the passive ranges of horizontal abduction and external rotation of the glenohumeral joint after repair decreased significantly. In shoulders with a subscapularis tendon tear, it is necessary to consider the reduction of external rotation depending on tear size.

  7. Effect of a collateral ligament sparing surgical approach on mechanical properties of equine proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Jose J; Lillich, James D; Beard, Warren L; Anderson, David E; Armbrust, Laura J; Frink, Elizabeth; Lease, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    To (1) compare the effect of a collateral ligament sparing surgical approach with an open surgical approach on mechanical properties of proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) arthrodesis, and (2) to determine the percentage of articular cartilage surface removed by transarticular (TA) drilling with different diameter drill bits. Randomized paired limb design. Cadaveric equine limbs (n=76). Cadaveric PIPJ were drilled using a 3.5, 4.5, or 5.5 mm drill bit at 80-84° to the dorsal plane to remove articular cartilage and subchondral bone from the distal articular surface of the proximal phalanx (P1) and the proximal articular surface of the middle phalanx (P2). Bone ends were photographed and the percentage of the projected surface area that was denuded of cartilage was measured. PIPJ arthrodesis constructs (3-hole dynamic compression plate [DCP], two 5.5 mm TA screws inserted in lag fashion, medial and lateral to the DCP; DCP-TA) were created using 2 surgical approaches in paired limbs. A conventional open approach was used in 1 limb and a collateral ligament sparing approach used in the other limb. Constructs were tested to failure in single-cycle 3-point dorsopalmar/plantar or lateromedial bending. Maximum load, yield load, and composite stiffness were compared between techniques. The 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 mm drill bits removed 24±4%, 35±5%, and 45±7% of total PIPJ articular cartilage surface, respectively. Constructs with the collateral ligament sparing approach had significantly greater mean yield load (11.3±2.8 versus 7.68±1.1 kN, P=.008) and mean maximum load (13.5±3.1 versus 10.1±1.94 kN, P=.02) under lateromedial bending. Under dorsopalmar/plantar bending there was no significant difference between surgical approaches. The collateral ligament sparing arthrodesis technique had a shorter surgical time (19±3 minutes) compared with the open technique (31±3 minutes). A collateral ligament sparing surgical approach to the PIPJ with removal of articular

  8. Factors contributing to the fatigue-related reduction in active dorsiflexion joint range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Arthur J; Rice, Charles L

    2013-05-01

    Reductions in active joint range of motion (ROM) are responsible for decreased work-generating capacity during fatiguing repetitive isotonic shortening contractions. Factors responsible for impairing the joint-angle-specific net torque developed during muscle shortening could include fatigue-induced torque loss, shortening-induced torque depression in the agonist muscle, and opposing passive tension of the antagonists, but these have not been systematically explored. Nine men (aged 25.8 ± 2.0 years) performed a maximal-effort fatiguing task that consisted of repetitive loaded shortening dorsiflexions through a 40° ankle joint ROM until active ROM decreased by 50%. Torque developed during contractile shortening, as well as passive opposing tension, was quantified before and after the reduction in active ROM. Before fatigue, and compared with maximum voluntary isometric contraction torque at the terminal ROM, shortening-induced torque depression in the agonist muscle and passive tension from the antagonists reduced net torque developed at the end of contractile shortening by ∼42% and ∼19%, respectively. After fatigue, a steepened ascending joint torque-angle relationship remained during contractile shortening, but neither muscle coactivation nor contractile slowing contributed to the fatigue-induced torque loss. Fatigue-induced torque loss, shortening-induced torque depression in the agonist, and passive tension in the antagonist greatly depressed net torque developed at the end of contractile shortening. These contributed to the fatigue-induced reduction in active ROM by impairing the ability of the dorsiflexors to generate sufficient torque to overcome the imposed load at the end of contractile shortening.

  9. Intravoxel incoherent motion magnetic resonance imaging of the knee joint in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, Fabian; Sauer, Alexander; Koestler, Herbert [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Holl-Wieden, Annette [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Paediatrics, Wuerzburg (Germany); Neubauer, Henning [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); University Hospital Ulm, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ulm (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    MRI of synovitis relies on use of a gadolinium-based contrast agent. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) visualises thickened synovium but is of limited use in the presence of joint effusion. To investigate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted MRI with intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) for diagnosing synovitis in the knee joint of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Twelve consecutive children with confirmed or suspected juvenile idiopathic arthritis (10 girls, median age 11 years) underwent MRI with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging and DWI at 1.5 T. Read-out segmented multi-shot DWI was acquired at b values of 0 s/mm{sup 2}, 200 s/mm{sup 2}, 400 s/mm{sup 2} and 800 s/mm{sup 2}. We calculated the IVIM parameters perfusion fraction (f) and tissue diffusion coefficient (D). Diffusion-weighted images at b=800 s/mm{sup 2}, f parameter maps and post-contrast T1-weighted images were retrospectively assessed by two independent readers for synovitis using the Juvenile Arthritis MRI Scoring system. Seven (58%) children showed synovial hypertrophy on contrast-enhanced imaging. Diagnostic ratings for synovitis on DWI and on f maps were fully consistent with contrast-enhanced imaging, the diagnostic reference. Two children had equivocal low-confidence assessments on DWI. Median f was 6.7±2.0% for synovitis, 2.1±1.2% for effusion, 5.0±1.0% for muscle and 10.6±5.7% for popliteal lymph nodes. Diagnostic confidence was higher based on f maps in three (25%) children and lower in one child (8%), as compared to DWI. DWI with IVIM reliably visualises synovitis of the knee joint. Perfusion fraction maps differentiate thickened synovium from joint effusion and hence increase diagnostic confidence. (orig.)

  10. Goniometry: is it a reliable tool to monitor passive joint range of motion in horses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljebrink, Y; Bergh, A

    2010-11-01

    Simple objective assessment tools are essential to monitor the clinical efficacy of therapeutic interventions used in equine orthopaedics and rehabilitation. In human medicine, goniometry is a validated tool to quantify restrictions in joint range of motion (ROM); however, the technique is not validated in horses. To validate 2 different goniometry techniques for the measurement of passive flexion of the fetlock, carpus and hock by examining; 1) the intra- and inter-tester reliability; 2) the differences between 2 goniometry techniques and 3) differences between standing and anaesthetised horses. The study is composed of three parts: 1) the intra- and inter-tester reliability was examined on 10 horses, where each horse was assessed by 5 pairs of testers measuring ROM with a universal goniometer; 2) the differences between 2 goniometry techniques were examined on 14 horses, each assessed by 2 investigators (either working in pairs with one investigator holding the limb and the other measuring the joint angle, or working individually at the same time holding and measuring); 3) on 6 horses, the differences between standing and anaesthetised horses were assessed by 2 investigators with the same techniques as described above. Nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon sign-rank) and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) were used for statistical analysis (P reliability was high to excellent (ICC 0.8-1) and the inter-tester reliability low to average (ICC 0.1-0.5); 2) significant differences in joint ROM were registered in carpus and hock when measuring in pairs compared to singly and 3) significant differences in joint ROM were registered measuring anaesthetised compared to standing horses. As shown in human studies, goniometry is a promising tool in documenting passive flexion of fetlock, carpus and hock, if used by the same investigator. However, additional studies are needed for further validation. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  11. Consistent accuracy in whole-body joint kinetics during gait using wearable inertial motion sensors and in-shoe pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurelbaatar, Tsolmonbaatar; Kim, Kyungsoo; Lee, SuKyoung; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2015-06-01

    To analyze human motion such as daily activities or sports outside of the laboratory, wearable motion analysis systems have been recently developed. In this study, the joint forces and moments in whole-body joints during gait were evaluated using a wearable motion analysis system consisting of an inertial motion measurement system and an in-shoe pressure sensor system. The magnitudes of the joint forces and the moments in nine joints (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, right shoulder, right elbow, right wrist, right hip, right knee, and right ankle) during gait were calculated using the wearable system and the conventional system, respectively, based on a standard inverse dynamics analysis. The averaged magnitudes of the joint forces and moments of five subjects were compared between the wearable and conventional systems in terms of the Pearson's correlation coefficient and the normalized root mean squared error to the maximum value from the conventional system. The results indicated that both the joint forces and joint moments in human whole body joints using wearable inertial motion sensors and in-shoe pressure sensors were feasible for normal motions with a low speed such as walking, although the lower extremity joints showed the strongest correlation and overall the joint moments were associated with relatively smaller correlation coefficients and larger normalized root mean squared errors in comparison with the joint forces. The portability and mobility of this wearable system can provide wide applicability in both clinical and sports motion analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic Evaluation of the Contact Characteristics and Three-Dimensional Motion for the Ankle Joint with Lateral Ligament Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Kensaku; Omori, Go; Terashima, Shojiro; Sakamoto, Makoto; Hara, Toshiaki

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the dynamic changes in contact pressure distribution and three-dimensional ankle joint motion before and after lateral ligament injuries. Five fresh and frozen intact cadaveric ankles were examined. Each ankle was mounted on a specially designed frame that preserved five degrees of freedom motion. The direct linear transformation technique was used to measure the three-dimensional ankle motion, and a pressure-sensitive conductive rubber sensor was inserted into the talocrural joint space to determine the contact pressure distribution. The contact area on the talus for intact ankle moved anteriorly and laterally with increasing dorsiflexion. An area of high pressure was observed in the medial aspect of the articular surface after the ligament was cut. Supination significantly increased after a combined anterior talofibular ligament (ATF) and calcaneofibular ligament (CF) were cut in comparison with after only an ATF was cut, and no significant differences were observed in motional properties under each experimental condition.

  13. LUBA: an assessment technique for postural loading on the upper body based on joint motion discomfort and maximum holding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, D; Karwowski, W

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents a technique for postural loading on the upper body assessment (LUBA). The proposed method is based on the new experimental data for composite index of perceived discomfort (ratio values) for a set of joint motions, including the hand, arm, neck and back, and the corresponding maximum holding times in static postures. Twenty male subjects participated in the experiment designed to measure perceived joint discomforts. The free modulus technique of the magnitude estimation method was employed to obtain subjects' discomforts for varying joint motions. The developed postural classification scheme was based on the angular deviation levels from the neutral position for each joint motion. These were divided into groups with the same degree of discomforts based on the statistical analysis. Each group was assigned a numerical discomfort score relative to the perceived discomfort value of elbow flexion, which exhibited the lowest level among all joint motions investigated in this study, and, therefore, was set as a reference point. The criteria for evaluating stresses of working postures were proposed based on the four distinct action categories, in order to enable practitioners to apply appropriate corrective actions. The proposed scheme can be used for evaluating and redesigning static working postures in industry.

  14. Blood, bugs, and motion - what do we really know in regard to total joint arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassner, Philip J; Slover, James D; Bosco, Joseph A; Zuckerman, Joseph D

    2011-01-01

    In total joint arthroplasty, it is often necessary to formulate decisions that are not clearly evidence-based. This review presents some current controversial topics in total joint arthroplasty, including preoperative autologous blood donation versus erythropoietin (EPO) usage, preoperative screening and treatment for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and the use of continuous passive motion (CPM) following total knee arthroplasty, providing an evidence-based guide for the treating orthopaedic surgeon. Our review shows that preoperative autologous blood donation is over utilized, with EPO being under utilized. Surgeons are encouraged to develop patient-specific strategies, which have been shown to decrease transfusion rates, reduce wasted autologous blood, and increase EPO use. Definitive conclusions regarding MRSA screening for orthopaedic patients cannot be drawn; but due to the significant cost and morbidity associated with a postoperative MRSA infection, we believe a screen and treat protocol should be considered for all patients being admitted to the hospital for elective or emergent surgery. Short-term (3 to 5 days) inpatient use of CPM is recommended at this time. It is low-cost, has minimal risk, and may be a factor in decreasing the length of stay, potentially leading to significant cost savings. However, no long-term benefits of CPM use have been established.

  15. Is self-massage an effective joint range-of-motion strategy? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Estêvão Rios; Cavanaugh, Mark Tyler; Frost, David Michael; Novaes, Jefferson da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Increases in joint range of motion may be beneficial in both improving performance and reducing the risk of injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate short-term changes in passive hip flexion (HF) and extension (HE) after foam rolling (FR) and roller massage (RM) durations of 60 and 120s. Ten recreationally active men (27.6 ± 2.4 years old; 164.8 ± 6.6 cm; 62.2 ± 8.0 kg; 24.2 ± 2.1 m(2)/kg) were recruited for this study. Subjects performed foam rolling (FR) and roller massage (RM) on the hamstrings for 60 (FR60 and RM60) and 120 (FR120 and RM120) seconds. Significant differences between FR120 and RM60 were observed in both HF (p affect range-of-motion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Smartphone and Universal Goniometer for Measurement of Elbow Joint Motions: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnoush, Behnam; Tavakoli, Nasim; Bazmi, Elham; Nateghi Fard, Fariborz; Pourgharib Shahi, Mohammad Hossein; Okazi, Arash; Mokhtari, Tahmineh

    2016-06-01

    Universal goniometer (UG) is commonly used as a standard method to evaluate range of motion (ROM) as part of joint motions. It has some restrictions, such as involvement of both hands of the physician, leads to instability of hands and error. Nowadays smartphones usage has been increasing due to its easy application. The study was designed to compare the smartphone inclinometer-based app and UG in evaluation of ROM of elbow. The maximum ROM of elbow in position of flexion and pronation and supination of forearm were examined in 60 healthy volunteers with UG and smartphone. Data were analyzed using SPSS (ver. 16) software and appropriate statistical tests were applied, such as paired t-test, ICC and Bland Altman curves. The results of this study showed high reliability and validity of smartphone in regarding UG with ICC > 0.95. The highest reliability for both methods was in elbow supination and the lowest was in the elbow flexion (0.84). Smartphones due to ease of access and usage for the physician and the patient, may be good alternatives for UG.

  17. Consumption of dried apple peel powder increases joint function and range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gitte S; Attridge, Victoria L; Benson, Kathleen F; Beaman, Joni L; Carter, Steve G; Ager, David

    2014-11-01

    The goal for this study was to evaluate the effects of consumption of dried apple peel powder (DAPP) on joint function and range of motion (ROM). Additional in vitro and clinical testing was performed to suggest specific mechanisms of action. An open-label clinical pilot study involved 12 healthy people with moderate loss of joint ROM and associated chronic pain. The subjects consumed 4.25 g DAPP daily for 12 weeks, with evaluations at baseline, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. ROM was evaluated at each visit using dual digital inclinometry. Pain scores were collected using Visual Analogue Scales. Blood draws enabled testing of serum antioxidant protective capacity using the cellular antioxidant protection (CAP-e) bioassay. Additional in vitro testing involved testing of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and lipoxygenase inhibition, cellular antioxidant protection by the CAP-e bioassay, and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells by flow cytometry. Twelve weeks of consumption of DAPP was associated with improved ROM. DAPP provided antioxidants that were available to enter into and protect cells from oxidative damage in vitro, and consumption of DAPP for 12 weeks was associated with a statistically significant improvement in serum antioxidant protective status. DAPP inhibited both COX-2 and lipoxygenase enzymes, and pretreatment of inflammatory PMN cells with DAPP before inflammatory stimulus resulted in reduced ROS formation. This suggests multifaceted anti-inflammatory properties of DAPP. Consumption of DAPP was associated with improved joint function and improved serum antioxidant protection status. The observed pain reduction may be associated with the improved antioxidant status and linked to the apple polyphenols' anti-inflammatory effects.

  18. The effect of a therapy protocol for increasing correction of severely contracted proximal interphalangeal joints caused by dupuytren disease and treated with collagenase injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirven, Terri M; Bachoura, Abdo; Jacoby, Sidney M; Culp, Randall W; Osterman, A Lee

    2013-04-01

    To determine the effect of a specific orthotic intervention and therapy protocol on proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contractures of greater than 40° caused by Dupuytren disease and treated with collagenase injections. All patients with PIP joints contracted at least 40° by Dupuytren disease were prospectively invited to participate in the study. Following standard collagenase injection and cord rupture by a hand surgeon, a certified hand therapist evaluated and treated each patient based on a defined treatment protocol that consisted of orthotic intervention to address residual PIP joint contracture. In addition, exercises were initiated emphasizing reverse blocking for PIP joint extension and distal interphalangeal joint flexion exercises with the PIP joint held in extension to lengthen a frequently shortened oblique retinacular ligament. Patients were assessed before injection, immediately after injection, and 1 and 4 weeks later. There were 22 fingers in 21 patients. The mean age at treatment was 63 years (range, 37-80 y). The mean baseline passive PIP joint contracture was 56° (range, 40° to 80°). At cord rupture, the mean PIP joint contracture became 22° (range, 0° to 55°). One week after cord rupture and therapy, the contracture decreased further to a mean of 12° (range, 0° to 36°). By 4 weeks, the mean contracture was 7° (range, 0° to 35°). The differences in PIP joint contracture were statistically significant at all time points except when comparing the means at 1 week and 4 weeks. The results represent an 88% improvement of the PIP joint contracture. In the short term, it appears that severe PIP joint contractures benefit from specific, postinjection orthotic intervention and targeted exercises. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Continuous Wavelet Transform Analysis of Surface Electromyography for Muscle Fatigue Assessment on the Elbow Joint Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwiyanto Triwiyanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying muscle fatigue plays an important role in preventing the risks associated with musculoskeletal disorders. The effect of elbow-joint angle on time-frequency parameters during a repetitive motion provides valuable information in finding the most accurate position of the angle causing muscle fatigue. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of muscle fatigue on the spectral and time-frequency domain parameters derived from electromyography (EMG signals using the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT. Four male participants were recruited to perform a repetitive motion (flexion and extension movements from a non-fatigue to fatigue condition. EMG signals were recorded from the biceps muscle. The recorded EMG signals were then analyzed offline using the complex Morlet wavelet. The time-frequency domain data were analyzed using the time-averaged wavelet spectrum (TAWS and the Scale-Average Wavelet Power (SAWP parameters. The spectral domain data were analyzed using the Instantaneous Mean Frequency (IMNF and the Instantaneous Mean Power Spectrum (IMNP parameters. The index of muscle fatigue was observed by calculating the increase of the IMNP and the decrease of the IMNF parameters. After performing a repetitive motion from non-fatigue to fatigue condition, the average of the IMNF value decreased by 15.69% and the average of the IMNP values increased by 84%, respectively. This study suggests that the reliable frequency band to detect muscle fatigue is 31.10-36.19Hz with linear regression parameters of 0.979mV^2Hz^(-1 and 0.0095mV^2Hz^(-1 for R^2 and slope, respectively.

  20. Role and reliability of passive joint motion assessment: Towards multivariable diagnostics and decision-making in manual therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Trijffel, E.

    2015-01-01

    Manual therapists strongly rely on passive intervertebral motion (PIVM) assessment for making decisions about spinal joint mobilisation and thrust manipulation in patients with neck or low-back pain. However, uncertainty exists about the use and the value of this physical examination procedure

  1. Determination of consistent patterns of range of motion in the ankle joint with a computed tomography stress-test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijthof, Gabriëlle Josephine Maria; Zengerink, Maartje; Beimers, Lijkele; Jonges, Remmet; Maas, Mario; van Dijk, Cornelis Niek; Blankevoort, Leendert

    2009-01-01

    Background: Measuring the range of motion of the ankle joint can assist in accurate diagnosis of ankle laxity. A computed tomography-based stress-test (3D CT stress-test) was used that determines the three-dimensional position and orientation of tibial, calcaneal and talar bones. The goal was to

  2. Adductor squeeze test values and hip joint range of motion in Gaelic football athletes with longstanding groin pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Fiona; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether differences exist in adductor squeeze test values and hip joint range of motion between athletes with longstanding groin pain and injury-free controls. Observational study with a case control design. Eighteen Gaelic football players with current longstanding groin pain and 18 matched injury-free controls were assessed on their performance of the adductor squeeze test. Adductor squeeze test values were quantified using a sphygmomanometer. A fluid-filled inclinometer was used to assess hip joint internal and external rotation range of motion. A bent knee fall-out test was also utilised to examine hip joint range of motion. A significant difference in adductor squeeze test values was observed between the control group (269 ± 25 mmHg) and longstanding groin pain group (202 ± 36 mmHg; pfootball players with longstanding groin pain exhibit decreased adductor squeeze test values and hip joint range of motion when compared to non-injured players. These findings have implications for assessment and rehabilitation practices, as well as return to play criteria. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does expert knowledge improve automatic probabilistic classification of gait joint motion patterns in children with cerebral palsy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinne De Laet

    Full Text Available This study aimed to improve the automatic probabilistic classification of joint motion gait patterns in children with cerebral palsy by using the expert knowledge available via a recently developed Delphi-consensus study. To this end, this study applied both Naïve Bayes and Logistic Regression classification with varying degrees of usage of the expert knowledge (expert-defined and discretized features. A database of 356 patients and 1719 gait trials was used to validate the classification performance of eleven joint motions.Two main hypotheses stated that: (1 Joint motion patterns in children with CP, obtained through a Delphi-consensus study, can be automatically classified following a probabilistic approach, with an accuracy similar to clinical expert classification, and (2 The inclusion of clinical expert knowledge in the selection of relevant gait features and the discretization of continuous features increases the performance of automatic probabilistic joint motion classification.This study provided objective evidence supporting the first hypothesis. Automatic probabilistic gait classification using the expert knowledge available from the Delphi-consensus study resulted in accuracy (91% similar to that obtained with two expert raters (90%, and higher accuracy than that obtained with non-expert raters (78%. Regarding the second hypothesis, this study demonstrated that the use of more advanced machine learning techniques such as automatic feature selection and discretization instead of expert-defined and discretized features can result in slightly higher joint motion classification performance. However, the increase in performance is limited and does not outweigh the additional computational cost and the higher risk of loss of clinical interpretability, which threatens the clinical acceptance and applicability.

  4. Assessment of congruence and impingement of the hip joint in professional ballet dancers: a motion capture study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Caecilia; Kolo, Frank C; Duthon, Victoria B; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia; Becker, Christoph D; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Menetrey, Jacques

    2011-03-01

    Early hip osteoarthritis in dancers could be explained by femoroacetabular impingements. However, there is a lack of validated noninvasive methods and dynamic studies to ascertain impingement during motion. Moreover, it is unknown whether the femoral head and acetabulum are congruent in typical dancing positions. The practice of some dancing movements could cause a loss of hip joint congruence and recurrent impingements, which could lead to early osteoarthritis. Descriptive laboratory study. Eleven pairs of female dancer's hips were motion captured with an optical tracking system while performing 6 different dancing movements. The resulting computed motions were applied to patient-specific hip joint 3-dimensional models based on magnetic resonance images. While visualizing the dancer's hip in motion, the authors detected impingements using computer-assisted techniques. The range of motion and congruence of the hip joint were also quantified in those 6 recorded dancing movements. The frequency of impingement and subluxation varied with the type of movement. Four dancing movements (développé à la seconde, grand écart facial, grand écart latéral, and grand plié) seem to induce significant stress in the hip joint, according to the observed high frequency of impingement and amount of subluxation. The femoroacetabular translations were high (range, 0.93 to 6.35 mm). For almost all movements, the computed zones of impingement were mainly located in the superior or posterosuperior quadrant of the acetabulum, which was relevant with respect to radiologically diagnosed damaged zones in the labrum. All dancers' hips were morphologically normal. Impingements and subluxations are frequently observed in typical ballet movements, causing cartilage hypercompression. These movements should be limited in frequency. The present study indicates that some dancing movements could damage the hip joint, which could lead to early osteoarthritis.

  5. Screw augmentation reduces motion at the bone-implant interface: a biomechanical study of locking plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, Benedikt; Seifert, Robert; Rosslenbroich, Steffen B; Theisen, Christina; Wähnert, Dirk; Raschke, Michael J; Weimann, Andre

    2015-12-01

    Shear forces at the bone-implant interface lead to a loss of reduction after locking plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of the study was to analyze the roles of medial support screws and screw augmentation in failure loads and motion at the bone-implant interface after locking plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures. Unstable 3-part fractures were simulated in 6 pairs of cadaveric humeri and were fixed with a DiPhos-H locking plate (Lima Corporate, Udine, Italy). An additional medial support screw was implanted in 1 humerus of every donor. The opposite humerus was stabilized with a medial support screw and additional bone cement augmentation of the 2 anteriorly directed head screws. Specimens were loaded in the varus bending position. Stiffness, failure loads, plate bending, and the motion at the bone-implant interface were evaluated using an optical motion capture system. The mean load to failure was 669 N (standard deviation [SD], 117 N) after fixation with medial support screws alone and 706 N (SD, 153 N) after additional head screw augmentation (P = .646). The initial stiffness was 453 N/mm (SD, 4.16 N/mm) and 461 N/mm (SD, 64.3 N/mm), respectively (P = .594). Plate bending did not differ between the 2 groups. However, motion at the bone-implant interface was significantly reduced after head screw augmentation (P < .05). The addition of bone cement to augment anteriorly directed head screws does not increase stiffness and failure loads but reduces motion at the bone-implant interface. Thus, the risk of secondary dislocation of the head fragment may be reduced. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasonography of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints in rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging, conventional radiography and clinical examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szkudlarek, Marcin; Klarlund, Mette; Narvestad, E.

    2006-01-01

    ultrasonography can provide information on signs of inflammation and destruction in RA finger joints that are not available with conventional radiography and clinical examination, and comparable to the information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The second to fifth metacarpophalangeal and proximal...... interphalangeal joints of 40 RA patients and 20 control persons were assessed with ultrasonography, clinical examination, radiography and MRI. With MRI as the reference method, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonography in detecting bone erosions in the finger joints were 0.59, 0.98 and 0.......96, respectively; they were 0.42, 0.99 and 0.95 for radiography. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonography, with signs of inflammation on T1-weighted MRI sequences as the reference method, were 0.70, 0.78 and 0.76, respectively; they were 0.40, 0.85 and 0.72 for the clinical examination...

  7. Reliability of knee joint range of motion and circumference measurements after total knee arthroplasty: does tester experience matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Two of the most utilized outcome measures to assess knee joint range of motion (ROM) and intra-articular effusion are goniometry and circumference, respectively. Neither goniometry nor circumference of the knee joint have been examined for both intra-tester and inter......-tester in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to determine the intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference in patients with TKA when administered by physiotherapists (testers) with different clinical experience. METHOD......: The design was an intra-tester, inter-tester and intra-day reliability study. Nineteen outpatients (10 females) having received a TKA were examined by an inexperienced and an experienced physiotherapist. Following a standardized protocol, active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were...

  8. A New Approach for Human Forearm Motion Assist by Actuated Artificial Joint-An Inner Skeleton Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Subrata Kumar; Kiguchi, Kazuo; Teramoto, Kenbu

    In order to help the physical activities of the elderly or physically disabled persons, we propose a new concept of a power-assist inner skeleton robot (i.e., actuated artificial joint) that is supposed to assist the human daily life motion from inside of the human body. This paper presents an implantable 2 degree of freedom (DOF) inner skeleton robot that is designed to assist human elbow flexion-extension motion and forearm supination-pronation motion for daily life activities. We have developed a prototype of the inner skeleton robot that is supposed to assist the motion from inside of the body and act as an actuated artificial joint. The proposed system is controlled based on the activation patterns of the electromyogram (EMG) signals of the user's muscles by applying fuzzy-neuro control method. A joint actuator with angular position sensor is designed for the inner skeleton robot and a T-Mechanism is proposed to keep the bone arrangement similar to the normal human articulation after the elbow arthroplasty. The effectiveness of the proposed system has been evaluated by experiment.

  9. Effect of an anterior-sloped brace joint on anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation: a motion analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, C H; Gan, W L; Lee, P V S; Goh, J C H

    2010-12-01

    Anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation are major biomechanical factors involved in anterior cruciate ligament injuries. This study sought to evaluate a brace prototype designed with an anterior-sloped joint, in terms of its efficacy in attenuating anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation during landing, using a motion analysis approach. Ten healthy male subjects performed single-leg landing tasks from a 0.6-m height with and without the brace prototype. Ground reaction force and kinematics data were obtained using a motion-capture system and force-plates. Anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation were determined based on tibial and femoral marker reference frames. Vertical and anterior-posterior ground reaction forces, hip, knee and ankle joint range-of-motions and angular velocities, anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation were compared between unbraced and braced conditions using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. We found no significant difference in peak vertical and anterior-posterior ground reaction forces (p=0.770 and p=0.332 respectively) between unbraced and braced conditions. Knee joint range-of-motion and angular velocity were lower (p=0.037 and p=0.038 respectively) for braced condition than unbraced condition. Anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation were reduced (p=0.027 and p=0.006 respectively) in braced condition, compared to unbraced condition. The anterior-sloped brace joint helps to attenuate anterior tibial translation and axial tibial rotation present in the knee joint during landing. It is necessary to test the brace prototype in a sporting population with realistic sports landing situations in order to assess its effectiveness in lowering anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Aquatic Exercise Therapy on Muscle Strength and Joint's Range of Motion in Hemophilia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Dehghadani, Mehdi; Ghias, Reza

    2013-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of a period of aquatic exercise therapy on muscle strength and joints range of motion in hemophilia patients. This was a semiexperimental, pretest, post-test study with a control group. This semi-experimental study comprised twenty men suffering moderate hemophilia were selected by convenience sampling method from patients of a referral hospital. They were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups of equal number. The hemophilia patients who were referred to Sayedo-Shohada Hospital enrolled in this study. Twenty men suffering moderate hemophilia were selected using convenience sampling method and then divided randomly into intervention and control groups (10 patients in each group). Subjects of aquatic exercise therapy group underwent activity in water in three sessions (45-60 minutes) per week for 8 weeks, while the control group was only under follow-up and during this period did not experience any effective physical activity. The patients' muscle strength and joint range of motion were evaluated through standard laboratory tools, using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex, Systems III) and a standard goniometer in the beginning and at end of the study. Finally, data was analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The strength of the muscles around the knee joint (to perform extension and flexion movements) increased significantly in the case group while the control group experienced a significant reduction of strength in left leg, but in right leg remarkable change was observed. Range of motion in all joints was improved in the case group, while the control group did not improve significantly. The results showed that aquatic exercise therapy can be a useful method to improve joints' strength and range of motion in hemophilia patients in order to improve their daily functioning and quality of life.

  11. The Joint Adaptive Kalman Filter (JAKF) for Vehicle Motion State Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Siwei; Liu, Yanheng; Wang, Jian; Deng, Weiwen; Oh, Heekuck

    2016-07-16

    This paper proposes a multi-sensory Joint Adaptive Kalman Filter (JAKF) through extending innovation-based adaptive estimation (IAE) to estimate the motion state of the moving vehicles ahead. JAKF views Lidar and Radar data as the source of the local filters, which aims to adaptively adjust the measurement noise variance-covariance (V-C) matrix 'R' and the system noise V-C matrix 'Q'. Then, the global filter uses R to calculate the information allocation factor 'β' for data fusion. Finally, the global filter completes optimal data fusion and feeds back to the local filters to improve the measurement accuracy of the local filters. Extensive simulation and experimental results show that the JAKF has better adaptive ability and fault tolerance. JAKF enables one to bridge the gap of the accuracy difference of various sensors to improve the integral filtering effectivity. If any sensor breaks down, the filtered results of JAKF still can maintain a stable convergence rate. Moreover, the JAKF outperforms the conventional Kalman filter (CKF) and the innovation-based adaptive Kalman filter (IAKF) with respect to the accuracy of displacement, velocity, and acceleration, respectively.

  12. The effects of kinesiology taping therapy on degenerative knee arthritis patients' pain, function, and joint range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwansub; Yi, Chae-Woo; Lee, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of kinesiology taping therapy on degenerative knee arthritis patients' pain, function, and joint range of motion. [Subjects] To conduct the experiment in the present study, 30 patients with degenerative knee arthritis were divided into a control group (the conservative treatment group) of 15 patients, who received conservative physical therapy, and an experimental group (the kinesiology taping group) of 15 patients, who received kinesiology taping therapy. [Methods] All patients received treatment three times per week for four weeks. The kinesiology taping group had elastic tapes applied to the hamstring muscles, anterior tibialis, quadriceps femoris, and gastrocnemius. The range of motion was measured using joint goniometers, pain was measured using visual analog scales, and functional evaluation was conducted using the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. [Results] In intragroup comparisons of the kinesiology taping group and the conservative treatment group, the visual analog scale and Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores significantly decreased, and the range of motion increased more than significantly. In intergroup comparisons, the kinesiology taping group showed significantly lower visual analog scale and Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores and significantly larger ranges of motion than the conservative treatment group. [Conclusion] Kinesiology taping therapy is considered to be an effective nonsurgical intervention method for pain relief, daily living activities, and range of motion of degenerative knee arthritis patients.

  13. The effects of kinesiology taping therapy on degenerative knee arthritis patients’ pain, function, and joint range of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwansub; Yi, Chae-Woo; Lee, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of kinesiology taping therapy on degenerative knee arthritis patients’ pain, function, and joint range of motion. [Subjects] To conduct the experiment in the present study, 30 patients with degenerative knee arthritis were divided into a control group (the conservative treatment group) of 15 patients, who received conservative physical therapy, and an experimental group (the kinesiology taping group) of 15 patients, who received kinesiology taping therapy. [Methods] All patients received treatment three times per week for four weeks. The kinesiology taping group had elastic tapes applied to the hamstring muscles, anterior tibialis, quadriceps femoris, and gastrocnemius. The range of motion was measured using joint goniometers, pain was measured using visual analog scales, and functional evaluation was conducted using the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. [Results] In intragroup comparisons of the kinesiology taping group and the conservative treatment group, the visual analog scale and Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores significantly decreased, and the range of motion increased more than significantly. In intergroup comparisons, the kinesiology taping group showed significantly lower visual analog scale and Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores and significantly larger ranges of motion than the conservative treatment group. [Conclusion] Kinesiology taping therapy is considered to be an effective nonsurgical intervention method for pain relief, daily living activities, and range of motion of degenerative knee arthritis patients. PMID:26957729

  14. Sagittal plane pelvis motion influences transverse plane motion of the femur: Kinematic coupling at the hip joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Jennifer J; Fukuda, Thiago Y; Powers, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that internal femur rotation can influence sagittal pelvis motion. This indicates that there may be kinematic "coupling" of these two segments. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether there is a consistent and predictable kinematic relationship between the pelvis and the femur. Sixteen healthy subjects (nine females, seven males) performed three trials of maximum anterior and posterior pelvis tilt at four different hip flexion angles (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°). Ordinary least squares regressions were used to calculate the ratio of transverse femur motion to sagittal pelvis motion using the mean kinematic curves during maximum anterior and posterior pelvis tilting. R(2) values were used to assess the strength of the kinematic relationship between these segments at each hip flexion angle. The ratios of transverse femur motion to sagittal pelvis motion were consistent across all hip flexion angles during anterior and posterior pelvis tilting (range 0.23-0.32; R(2) values greater than 0.97). On average, for every 5° of anterior pelvis tilt there was 1.2-1.6° of internal femur rotation and the converse was true for posterior pelvis tilt and external femur rotation. Our findings suggest that altered pelvis movement in the sagittal plane may influence transverse femur motion. The observed coupling behavior between the pelvis and femur may have implications for musculoskeletal conditions in which excessive internal femur rotation has been deemed contributory to symptoms (i.e. femoroacetabular impingement). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A computer-aided tracking and motion analysis with ultrasound (CAT & MAUS) system for the description of hip joint kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui; Mellon, Stephen; Monk, Paul; Murray, David; Noble, J Alison

    2016-11-01

    Investigation of joint kinematics contributes to developing a better understanding of musculoskeletal conditions. However, the most commonly used optoelectronic motion analysis systems cannot determine the movements of underlying bone landmarks with high accuracy because of soft tissue artefacts. The aim of this paper was to present a computer-aided measurement system to track the underlying bone anatomy in a 3D global coordinate frame and describe hip joint kinematics of ten healthy volunteers during gait. We have developed a measurement tool with an image-based computer-aided post-processing pipeline for automatic bone segmentation in ultrasound (US) images and a globally optimal 3D surface-to-surface registration method to quantify hip joint movements. The segmentation algorithm exploits US intensity profiles, including information about the integrated backscattering, acoustic shadows, and local phase features. A global optimization method is applied based on the traditional iterative closest point registration algorithm, which is robust to initialization. The International Society of Biomechanics recommended joint kinematics descriptor has been adapted to calculate the joint kinematics. The developed system prototype has been validated with a ball-joint femoral phantom and tested in vivo with 10 volunteers. The maximum Euclidean distance error of the automatic bone segmentation is less than 2 pixels (approximately 0.2 mm). The maximum absolute rotation angle error is less than [Formula: see text]. This computer-aided tracking and motion analysis with ultrasound (CAT & MAUS) system shows the feasibility of describing hip joint kinematics for clinical investigation and diagnosis using an image-based solution.

  16. Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Take the mystery out of motion. Our resource gives you everything you need to teach young scientists about motion. Students will learn about linear, accelerating, rotating and oscillating motion, and how these relate to everyday life - and even the solar system. Measuring and graphing motion is easy, and the concepts of speed, velocity and acceleration are clearly explained. Reading passages, comprehension questions, color mini posters and lots of hands-on activities all help teach and reinforce key concepts. Vocabulary and language are simplified in our resource to make them accessible to str

  17. Clinical evaluation of hip joint rotation range of motion in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdjian, P; Coulomb, R; Sanchez, T; Asencio, G

    2012-02-01

    Data on hip joint rotation range of motion (ROM) are rare; the methods of measurement vary and reproducibility has not been evaluated, in particular in relation to the subject's position (prone or supine, seated). Hip joint rotation ROM is symmetrical, and ROM is not modified by the patient's position when data is obtained. This series included 120 adults between 20 and 60 years old (71 women, 49 men), who had no hip, spine or lower extremity disorders. External (ER) and internal (IR) rotation ROM was obtained using a photographic method by two observers. Measurements were obtained with the patient in three positions: the dorsal decubitus (supine) (P1), and ventral decubitus (prone) (P2) with the hip in extension and seated with the hip in flexion (P3). Hip rotation ROM was P1: 68.1° (ER=38.5°; IR=29.6°); P2: 77.1°(ER=41.8°; IR=35.2°); P3: 78.5° (ER=78.5°; IR=37.9°) with no significant difference among the three positions. Interobserver reproducibility was satisfactory (concordance correlation coefficient (ccc) 0.7) and was comparable in the three positions with a ccc of 0.7072 (P1), 0.7426 (P2) and 0.7332 (P3), respectively. Hip rotation ROM balance was ER predominant in 47.5%, neutral in 39.5% and IR predominant in 13%. Hip rotation ROM balance was symmetric in both hips in 73 subjects (61%). Hip rotation ROM was reduced with age (P<0.0001), and was 4.7° less in men (P=0.0078), and in overweight subjects (P<0.0006). Our values are probably lower than those in the literature because of the difference in study population. In our series, age, BMI and gender seemed to be determining factors. Hip rotation ROM balance is usually ER predominant or neutral. Hip rotation ROM can be measured in the three positions with no significant difference, with satisfactory interobserver reproducibility for each. Diagnostic prospective study: level III. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of kinesiology taping therapy on degenerative knee arthritis patients? pain, function, and joint range of motion

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwansub; Yi, Chae-Woo; Lee, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of kinesiology taping therapy on degenerative knee arthritis patients? pain, function, and joint range of motion. [Subjects] To conduct the experiment in the present study, 30 patients with degenerative knee arthritis were divided into a control group (the conservative treatment group) of 15 patients, who received conservative physical therapy, and an experimental group (the kinesiology taping group) of 15 patients, who rec...

  19. Numerical Simulations of Underground Explosions: Effect of Joints Near the Source on Energy Coupling, Shear Motions and Gas Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoun, T.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Vorobiev, O.; Glenn, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    We have performed 3D high resolution simulations of underground explosions conducted recently in jointed rock outcrop as part of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE). The main goal is to understand the nature of the shear motions recorded in the near field at depth. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the genesis of shear motions: 1) sliding on the joints, 2) wave conversion at the material boundaries and 3) non sphericity of the source. We suggest yet another mechanism to be responsible for some shear wave generation when the cracks or joints are present in the rock mass containing the source and the explosive products find their way into the cracks. In order to investigate this mechanism, we have conducted several high resolution simulations of the source region using an Eulerian hydrodynamic code GEODYN. We explored the effect of joint orientations, number of family of fracture, energy deposition, joint aperture size, and joint spacing on the overall development of the source itself, sustained damage around the source and shear wave polarization and motions in the vicinity of the source. We have observed that waves interact with the joints and refraction and diffraction of the wave intensify the complexity of the wave field. It is worth noting that the fracture network topology has also dramatically been affected. It is expected that after the pressure has been released and the energy has been dissipated that source cavity may shrink to a different size but will sustain considerable irreversible damage which affect subsequent shots if they were to be conducted in the vicinity or at the same depth. Fracture network connectivity has drastically changed which will affect wave motions and flow of gases. To explore those effects, we have coupled STOTRAN code, which handles flow, mass and heat transport of fluids and gases in fractures and fractured porous media with the GEODYN code. We will present recent 2D and 3D simulations of typical settings for SPE

  20. Persistent motion loss after free joint mobilization in a rat model of post-traumatic elbow contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Chelsey L; Castile, Ryan M; Havlioglu, Necat; Chamberlain, Aaron M; Galatz, Leesa M; Lake, Spencer P

    2017-04-01

    Post-traumatic joint contracture (PTJC) in the elbow is a challenging clinical problem due to the anatomical and biomechanical complexity of the elbow joint. We previously established an animal model to study elbow PTJC, wherein surgically induced soft tissue damage, followed by 6 weeks of unilateral immobilization in Long-Evans rats, led to stiffened and contracted joints that exhibited features similar to the human condition. In this study, after 6 weeks of immobilization, we remobilized the animal (ie, external bandage removed and free cage activity) for an additional 6 weeks, after which the limbs were evaluated mechanically and histologically. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether this decreased joint motion would persist after 6 weeks of free mobilization (FM). After FM, flexion-extension demonstrated decreased total range of motion (ROM) and neutral zone length, and increased ROM midpoint for injured limbs compared with control and contralateral limbs. Specifically, after FM total ROM demonstrated a significant decrease of approximately 22% and 26% compared with control and contralateral limbs for injury I (anterior capsulotomy) and injury II (anterior capsulotomy with lateral collateral ligament transection), respectively. Histologic evaluation showed increased adhesion, fibrosis, and thickness of the capsule tissue in the injured limbs after FM compared with control and contralateral limbs, which is consistent with patterns previously reported in human tissue. Even with FM, injured limbs in this model demonstrate persistent joint motion loss and histologic results similar to the human condition. Future work will use this animal model to investigate the mechanisms responsible for PTJC and responses to therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of different non-articular proximal forearm orthoses (brace) widths in the wrist extensors muscle activity, range of motion and grip strength in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolino, Alexandre Márcio; Fonseca, Marisa de Cássia Registro; Leonardi, Naiara Tais; Barbosa, Rafael Inácio; Neves, Lais Mara Siqueira das; de Jesus Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto

    2016-06-30

    The purpose this study was perform a biomechanical evaluation to compare the influence of commercial models of different non-articular proximal forearm orthoses widths (2.5 cm, 5.5 cm, 7.5 cm and 12.0 cm) in the extensor muscle activation, range of motion and grip strength in healthy subjects. Was analyzed data from extensor carpi radialis, extensor carpi ulnares and extensor digitorum comunis using surface electromyography, simultaneous with a wrist electrogoniometer MiotecTM and a hydraulic dynamometer JamarTM. The sequence of tests with all the commercial orthoses models was randomized. Statistics analyses were performed by linear model with mixed effects. According to our findings the non-articular proximal forearm orthoses (2.5 cm - narrowest) positioned close to lateral epicondyle provided lesser muscle activation on extensor carpi radialis brevis/longus and extensor digitorum comunis, decreased wrist extension and grip strength during submaximal grip task (p< 0.01). A narrow non-articular proximal forearm orthosis positioned close to the lateral epicondyle might decrease the extensor muscle activation and therefore could reduce mechanical stress on its insertion, based on this sample. Clinical studies must be conducted to confirm these findings.

  2. Finite helical axis for the analysis of joint kinematics: comparison of an electromagnetic and an optical motion capture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescon, Corrado; Tettamanti, Andrea; Barbero, Marco; Gatti, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of joints kinematics is important in clinical practice and in research. Nowadays it is possible to evaluate the mobility of joints in vivo with different motion capture techniques available in the market. Optical systems use infrared cameras and reflective markers to evaluate body movements, while other systems use electromagnetic fields to detect position and orientation of sensors. The aim of this study was the evaluation of two motion capture systems based on different technologies (optical and electromagnetic) by comparing the distribution of finite helical axis (FHA) of rotation during controlled rotations of an object in different positions. The distribution of position and angle errors of the FHA were extracted by optical and electromagnetic system recordings during a controlled rotation of a low friction stool in different positions in a controlled environment. The optical motion capture system showed lower angle and position errors in the distribution of FHA while the electromagnetic system had higher errors that increased with increasing distance from the antenna. The optical system showed lower errors in the estimation of FHA that could make it preferable with respect to electromagnetic systems during joint kinematics.

  3. The limits of passive motion are variable between and unrelated within normal tibiofemoral joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Joshua D; Hull, Maury L; Howell, Stephen M

    2015-11-01

    Patient-to-patient differences should be accounted for in both clinical evaluations and computational models of knee laxity. Accordingly, the objectives were to determine how variable the laxities are between knees by determining the range of the internal-external (I-E), varus-valgus (V-V), anterior-posterior (A-P), and compression-distraction (C-D) limits of passive motion, and how related the laxities are within a knee by determining whether these limits are correlated with one another. The limits in I-E (± 3 Nm), V-V (± 5 Nm), A-P (± 45 N), and C-D (± 100 N) were measured in 10 normal human cadaveric knees at 0° to 120° flexion in 15° increments using a six degree-of-freedom load application system. The ranges from 15° to 120° flexion of the I-E limits were greater than 3.6°, of the A-P limits were greater than 1.8 mm, and of the varus limits were greater than 1.4°. The ranges from 30° to 120° flexion of the distraction limits were greater than 2.0 mm. Twenty-four of the 28 pair-wise comparisons between the limits had a correlation coefficient less than 0.65. These results demonstrate that a patient-specific approach, including all degrees of freedom of interest, is necessary during clinical evaluations of laxity and when creating and validating computational models of the tibiofemoral joint. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Joint correction for motion artifacts and off-resonance artifacts in multi-shot diffusion magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenchuan; Fang, Sheng; Guo, Hua

    2014-06-01

    Aiming at motion artifacts and off-resonance artifacts in multi-shot diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we proposed a joint correction method in this paper to correct the two kinds of artifacts simultaneously without additional acquisition of navigation data and field map. We utilized the proposed method using multi-shot variable density spiral sequence to acquire MRI data and used auto-focusing technique for image deblurring. We also used direct method or iterative method to correct motion induced phase errors in the process of deblurring. In vivo MRI experiments demonstrated that the proposed method could effectively suppress motion artifacts and off-resonance artifacts and achieve images with fine structures. In addition, the scan time was not increased in applying the proposed method.

  5. Motion Correction of Whole-Body PET Data with a Joint PET-MRI Registration Functional

    OpenAIRE

    Fieseler, M. (Michael); Gigengack, F. (Fabian); Jiang, X.; Schäfers, K.P.

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory motion is known to degrade image quality in PET imaging. The necessary acquisition time of several minutes per bed position will inevitably lead to a blurring effect due to organ motion. A lot of research has been done with regards to motion correction of PET data. As full-body PET-MRI became available recently, the anatomical data provided by MRI is a promising source of motion information. Current PET-MRI-based motion correction approaches, however, do not take into account the ...

  6. Reliability of knee joint range of motion and circumference measurements after total knee arthroplasty: does tester experience matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer; Olsen, Marie; Bandholm, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Two of the most utilized outcome measures to assess knee joint range of motion (ROM) and intra-articular effusion are goniometry and circumference, respectively. Neither goniometry nor circumference of the knee joint have been examined for both intra-tester and inter-tester in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to determine the intra-tester and inter-tester reliability of active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference in patients with TKA when administered by physiotherapists (testers) with different clinical experience. The design was an intra-tester, inter-tester and intra-day reliability study. Nineteen outpatients (10 females) having received a TKA were examined by an inexperienced and an experienced physiotherapist. Following a standardized protocol, active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were obtained using a universal goniometer and a tape measure, respectively. To establish reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(2,1)) and smallest real difference (SRD) were calculated. The knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were generally reliable (ICC > 0.8) within and between physiotherapists (except passive knee extension). Changes in knee joint ROM of more than 6.6 degrees and 10 degrees (except active knee flexion) and knee joint circumference of more than 1.0 cm and 1.63 cm represent a real clinical improvement (SRD) or deterioration for a single individual within and between physiotherapists, respectively. Generally, the experienced tester recorded larger knee joint ROM and lower circumference values than that of the inexperienced tester. In clinical practice, we suggest that repeated knee goniometric and circumferential measurements should be recorded by the same physiotherapist in individual patients with TKA. Tester experience appears not to influence the degree of reliability. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Change the Myofascial Pain and Range of Motion of the Temporomandibular Joint Following Kinesio Taping of Latent Myofascial Trigger Points in the Sternocleidomastoid Muscle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bae, Youngsook

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the changes in the myofascial pain and range of the motion of temporomandibular joint when Kinesio taping is applied to patients with latent myofascial...

  8. Importance of Patella, Quadriceps Forces, and Depthwise Cartilage Structure on Knee Joint Motion and Cartilage Response During Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, K S; Mononen, M E; Jurvelin, J S; Töyräs, J; Klodowski, A; Kulmala, J-P; Korhonen, R K

    2016-07-01

    In finite-element (FE) models of the knee joint, patella is often omitted. We investigated the importance of patella and quadriceps forces on the knee joint motion by creating an FE model of the subject's knee. In addition, depthwise strains and stresses in patellar cartilage with different tissue properties were determined. An FE model was created from subject's magnetic resonance images. Knee rotations, moments, and translational forces during gait were recorded in a motion laboratory and used as an input for the model. Three material models were implemented into the patellar cartilage: (1) homogeneous model, (2) inhomogeneous (arcadelike fibrils), and (3) random fibrils at the superficial zone, mimicking early stages of osteoarthritis (OA). Implementation of patella and quadriceps forces into the model substantially reduced the internal-external femoral rotations (versus without patella). The simulated rotations in the model with the patella matched the measured rotations at its best. In the inhomogeneous model, maximum principal stresses increased substantially in the middle zone of the cartilage. The early OA model showed increased compressive strains in the superficial and middle zones of the cartilage and decreased stresses and fibril strains especially in the middle zone. The results suggest that patella and quadriceps forces should be included in moment- and force-driven FE knee joint models. The results indicate that the middle zone has a major role in resisting shear forces in the patellar cartilage. Also, early degenerative changes in the collagen network substantially affect the cartilage depthwise response in the patella during walking.

  9. Test-retest reliability of an active range of motion test for the shoulder and hip joints by unskilled examiners using a manual goniometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze test-retest reliability of an active range of motion test using a manual goniometer by unskilled examiners. [Subjects and Methods] Active range of motion was measured in 30 students attending U university (4 males, 26 females). Range of motion during flexion and extension of the shoulder and hip joints were measured using a manual goniometer. [Results] Flexion and extension of the shoulder joint (ICC=0.906 and ICC=0.808) and (ICC=0.946 and ICC=0. 955) of the hip joint showed excellent reliabilities. [Conclusion] The active range of motion test using a manual goniometer showed very high test-retest reliability in unskilled examiners. When examiners are aware of the method of the test, an objective assessment can be conducted.

  10. Joint Command & Control Ship: Literature Survey on Motion Effects and Related Environmental Effects on Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-26

    Psychology. 1975; 66(1):61-68. 4. Eysenck MW. Effects of noise, activation level, and response dominance on retrieval from semantic memory . Journal... memories and past experiences with motion stimuli. (Figure 2). Characteristics of Provocative Motion In 1986, Lawther and Griffin30...Scopolamine has also been shown to impair vigilance and short-term memory .44 Golding, Strong, and Pethybridge45 reported that scopolamine (1.2 mg

  11. The use of a passive motion machine in the postoperative rehabilitation of Dupuytren's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, S P; Badalamente, M A; Hurst, L C; Dowd, A; Sewell, C S; Lehmann-Torres, J; Ferraro, M; Semon, B

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare the postoperative use of passive motion (PM) and standard hand therapy after surgical treatment of Dupuytren's disease for extent and rate of recovery of joint motion. Our data indicate that metacarpophalangeal joint contractures improved completely to a mean of 0 degrees, regardless of the postoperative protocol. Contractures at the proximal interphalangeal joint showed incomplete recovery in both study groups, with a mean residual contracture of 28 degrees for PM patients and 38 degrees for control patients. Contractures of the metacarpophalangeal-proximal interphalangeal joints in the same finger showed complete metacarpophalangeal joint recovery to a mean of 0 degrees but incomplete proximal interphalangeal joint recovery with a mean residual contracture of 30 degrees in PM patients and 22 degrees in control patients. We conclude that the use of a PM machine in the rehabilitation of Dupuytren's disease does not offer an advantage in the postoperative management of this condition.

  12. Effect of Arthroscopic Stabilization on In Vivo Glenohumeral Joint Motion and Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Anterior Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Cathryn D; Baumer, Timothy G; Mende, Veronica; Ramo, Nicole; Mehran, Nima; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Bey, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Glenohumeral joint (GHJ) dislocations are common, and the resulting shoulder instability is often treated with arthroscopic stabilization. These procedures result in favorable clinical outcomes, but abnormal GHJ motion may persist, which may place patients at risk for developing osteoarthritis. However, the effects of shoulder instability and arthroscopic stabilization on GHJ motion are not well understood. GHJ motion is significantly influenced by anterior instability and arthroscopic stabilization, but postsurgical measures of GHJ motion are not different from those of control subjects. Controlled laboratory study. In vivo GHJ motion was measured by applying a computed tomographic model-based tracking technique to biplane radiographic images acquired during an apprehension test in healthy control subjects (n = 11) and anterior instability patients (n = 11). Patients were tested before surgery and at 6 months after surgery. Control subjects were tested once. Shoulder strength, active range of motion (ROM), and the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability (WOSI) index were also measured. Before surgery, the humerus of the instability patients during the apprehension test was located significantly more anteriorly on the glenoid (7.9% of glenoid width; 2.1 mm) compared with that of the controls (P = .03), but arthroscopic stabilization moved this joint contact location posteriorly on the glenoid (4.7% of glenoid width; 1.1 mm; P = .03). After surgery, GHJ excursion during the apprehension test was significantly lower (14.7% of glenoid width; 3.6 mm) compared with presurgical values (19.4% of glenoid width; 4.7 mm; P = .01) and with that of the controls (22.4% of glenoid width; 5.7 mm; P = .01). The external and internal rotation strength of patients was significantly lower than that of the controls before surgery (P .17). External rotation ROM in patients was significantly lower than that in control subjects both before and after arthroscopic stabilization (P

  13. Knee joint contact mechanics during downhill gait and its relationship with varus/valgus motion and muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Voycheck, Carrie A; Gustafson, Jonathan A; Fitzgerald, G Kelley; Tashman, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate tibiofemoral joint contact point excursions and velocities during downhill gait and assess the relationship between tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee joint motion and lower extremity muscle weakness in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Dynamic stereo X-ray was used to quantify tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion during the loading response phase of downhill gait in 11 patients with knee OA and 11 control volunteers. Quantitative testing of the quadriceps and the hip abductor muscles was also performed. Patients with knee OA demonstrated larger medial/lateral joint contact point excursions (p knee OA compared to their control counterparts (p = 0.02). Additionally, patients with knee OA demonstrated significantly increased frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p knee OA were linearly associated with greater frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p knee OA may be related to compromised frontal-plane joint stability but not with deficits in muscle strength.

  14. Concurrent validity and reliability of two-dimensional video analysis of hip and knee joint motion during mechanical lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Beth S; Olson, Sharon L

    2011-10-01

    Movement patterns used during mechanical lifting are usually assessed subjectively by clinicians as a stoop or squat based on visual estimation of joint motion and position. Two-dimensional (2D) video analysis has the potential to objectively measure joint motion during a mechanical lifting task. This study investigated concurrent validity, intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability of 2D video analysis using Dartfish software for the measurement of sagittal plane angles at the hip and knee during mechanical lifting. Fifteen healthy female participants (mean age 27.1 ± 7.1 years) were recruited to perform mechanical lifting on 2 separate test days. Concurrent validity was determined by comparing 2D derived hip and knee flexion angles to goniometric measures. Intrarater and interrater reliability of the 2D kinematic procedures was determined by using examiners with varying experience in the use of Dartfish software. Between-day test-retest reliability of hip and knee 2D kinematics during mechanical lifting was assessed. Concurrent validity of 2D angle analysis using Dartfish software was supported by high correlations (Pearson r ≥ 0.95) and nonsignificant differences between 2D and goniometric measures of sagittal plane hip and knee motion. Both intrarater and interrater reliability values of hip and knee flexion angles were excellent (ICC ≥ 0.91). ICCs for test-retest reliability were 0.79 and 0.91 for hip and knee flexion, respectively. These findings and the ease of data capture using this system provide support for the clinical utility of 2D video analysis to provide objective measures of movement patterns at the hip and knee during a dynamic functional task.

  15. The intravoxel incoherent motion MRI of lateral pterygoid muscle: a quantitative analysis in patients with temporomandibular joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamsom, Supak; Nakamura, Shin; Sakamoto, Junichiro; Kotaki, Shinya; Tetsumura, Akemi; Kurabayashi, Tohru

    2017-07-01

    To quantitatively evaluate diffusion and perfusion status of lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) in patients with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) by intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging and to correlate with findings on temporomandibular joints (TMJs) by conventional MRI. 42 patients with TMD underwent MRI. To assess IVIM parameters, diffusion-weighted imaging was obtained by spin-echo-based single-shot echoplanar imaging. Regions of interest were created on all diffusion-weighted images of the superior belly of the lateral pterygoid (SLP) and inferior belly of the lateral pterygoid (ILP) at b-values 0-500 s mm-2. Then, IVIM parameters, diffusion (D) and perfusion (f) were calculated using biexponential fittings. The correlation of these values with conventional MRI findings on TMJs was investigated. For SLP, the f parameter in TMJs with anterior disc displacement without reduction was significantly higher than that in normal ones (p = 0.015). It was also significantly higher in TMJs with joint effusion than in those without (p = 0.016). On the other hand, for both SLP and ILP, the D parameter significantly increased in TMJs with osteoarthritis compared with those without (p = 0.015 and p = 0.022, respectively). Pathological changes of LPM in patients with TMD may be quantitatively evaluated by IVIM parameters.

  16. Peripheral nerve tension due to joint motion: A comparison between embalmed and unembalmed human bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); R. Stoeckart (Rob); A. Vleeming (Andry); C.J. Snijders (Chris); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); J.P. van Wingerden (J.)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractVarious joint positions of the upper extremity were used to study the tensile forces on the median nerve. To analyse the effect of embalmment, tensile forces were measured in situ in unembalmed and embalmed human bodies. A positive correlation was found between tensile force data from

  17. Motion coordination affects movement parameters in a joint pick-and-place task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula; Soutschek, Alexander; Schubö, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study examined influences of social context on movement parameters in a pick-and-place task. Participants’ motion trajectories were recorded while they performed sequences of natural movements either working side-by-side with a partner or alone. It was expected that movement parameters would...

  18. A prototype rehabilitation device with variable resistance and joint motion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shufang; Lu, Ke-Qian; Sun, J.Q.; Rudolph, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been widely reported to have positive rehabilitation effects for patients with neuromuscular and orthopaedic conditions. This paper presents the design of a versatile rehabilitation device in the form of a rotating joint arm mounted on the adjustable seat that provides passive resistance during strength training for muscles. The resistance is supplied by a magnetorheological damper. Intelligent controls are developed to produce resistance force based on the prescription of the therapist. The device provides both isometric and isokinetic strength training and is reconfigurable for several human joints. Special consideration has been given to the human–machine interaction in the adaptive control algorithms that can modify the behavior of the device to account for strength gains or muscle fatigue. PMID:16112598

  19. Accuracy of biplane x-ray imaging combined with model-based tracking for measuring in-vivo patellofemoral joint motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zauel Roger

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurately measuring in-vivo motion of the knee's patellofemoral (PF joint is challenging. Conventional measurement techniques have largely been unable to accurately measure three-dimensional, in-vivo motion of the patella during dynamic activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a new model-based technique for measuring PF joint motion. Methods To assess the accuracy of this technique, we implanted tantalum beads into the femur and patella of three cadaveric knee specimens and then recorded dynamic biplane radiographic images while manually flexing and extending the specimen. The position of the femur and patella were measured from the biplane images using both the model-based tracking system and a validated dynamic radiostereometric analysis (RSA technique. Model-based tracking was compared to dynamic RSA by computing measures of bias, precision, and overall dynamic accuracy of four clinically-relevant kinematic parameters (patellar shift, flexion, tilt, and rotation. Results The model-based tracking technique results were in excellent agreement with the RSA technique. Overall dynamic accuracy indicated errors of less than 0.395 mm for patellar shift, 0.875° for flexion, 0.863° for tilt, and 0.877° for rotation. Conclusion This model-based tracking technique is a non-invasive method for accurately measuring dynamic PF joint motion under in-vivo conditions. The technique is sufficiently accurate in measuring clinically relevant changes in PF joint motion following conservative or surgical treatment.

  20. Radiosynovectomy of Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Synovitis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Rhenium-188 Labeled Tin-colloid and Imaging with Single-photon Emission Computerized Tomography/Computed Tomography: A First Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajamani, Venkataraman; Krishnan, Boopathi; Mallia, Madhav; Kalarikal, Radhakrishnan; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease that is mainly characterized by the asymmetric erosive synovitis, particularly affecting peripheral joints. Radiation synovectomy or radiosynovectomy (RSV), also known as radiosynoviorthesis was first described in 1950's as an adjuvant treatment for RA. RSV is based on the irradiation of the joint synovium by the intra-articular administration of various β-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. As a generator-produced β-emitting radionuclide, the importance of rhenium-188 (Re-188) for radionuclide therapy is increasing rapidly. There are previous reports which used Re-188 tin colloid in knee joint synovitis, but use of Re-188 tin colloid in small joint is not yet reported. We describe the use of Re-188 tin colloid in a 45-year-old female who presented with right 4(th) proximal interphalangeal joint synovitis due to rheumatoid arthritis.

  1. The relationship between joint range of motion, muscular strength, and race time for sub-elite flat water kayakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Mark R; Burkett, Brendan

    2010-09-01

    Upper body strength and flexibility are common training activities in elite flat water kayaking yet the relationship between joint range of motion, muscular strength, and race time is unclear. The aim of this research was to firstly quantify the flexibility and strength of sub-elite kayakers and then determine the relationship of this data to performance race times. Twenty-nine national standard kayak paddlers were assessed for shoulder and pelvic flexibility, upper body strength, and performance time. The shoulder internal and external rotation range of movement for kayak paddlers was reduced in comparison to other populations. For the female paddlers significant (p0.70) were found between shoulder flexion range of movement, shoulder strength, and strength endurance. Strength scores for kayak paddlers are reported for the first time showing the Pull:Push strength ratio for male kayak paddlers was 129%, and for females 147%. The strength ratio was significantly different (pkayaking appears to reduce the ROM about the shoulder joint.

  2. Wireless wearable range-of-motion sensor system for upper and lower extremity joints: a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Yogaprakash; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Wangwei; Gao, Fan; Zhao, Ziyi; Li, Jingze; Hon, Benjamin; Tian-Ma Xu, Tim; Cheong, Angela; Koh, Karen; Ng, Yee-Sien; Chew, Effie; Koh, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Range-of-motion (ROM) assessment is a critical assessment tool during the rehabilitation process. The conventional approach uses the goniometer which remains the most reliable instrument but it is usually time-consuming and subject to both intra- and inter-therapist measurement errors. An automated wireless wearable sensor system for the measurement of ROM has previously been developed by the current authors. Presented is the correlation and accuracy of the automated wireless wearable sensor system against a goniometer in measuring ROM in the major joints of upper (UEs) and lower extremities (LEs) in 19 healthy subjects and 20 newly disabled inpatients through intra (same) subject comparison of ROM assessments between the sensor system against goniometer measurements by physical therapists. In healthy subjects, ROM measurements using the new sensor system were highly correlated with goniometry, with 95% of differences goniometry, with 95% of the differences being < 20° and 25° for most movements in the major joints of UE and LE, respectively. PMID:26609398

  3. Acute changes of hip joint range of motion using selected clinical stretching procedures: A randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Adam M; Hammer, Roger L; Lomond, Karen V; O'Connor, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Hip adductor flexibility and strength is an important component of athletic performance and many activities of daily living. Little research has been done on the acute effects of a single session of stretching on hip abduction range of motion (ROM). The aim of this study was to compare 3 clinical stretching procedures against passive static stretching and control on ROM and peak isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Using a randomized crossover study design, a total of 40 participants (20 male and 20 female) who had reduced hip adductor muscle length attended a familiarization session and 5 testing sessions on non-consecutive days. Following the warm-up and pre-intervention measures of ROM and MVC, participants were randomly assigned 1 of 3 clinical stretching procedures (modified lunge, multidirectional, and joint mobilization) or a static stretch or control condition. Post-intervention measures of ROM and MVC were taken immediately following completion of the assigned condition. An ANOVA using a repeated measure design with the change score was conducted. All interventions resulted in small but statistically significant (p stretching was greater than control (p = 0.031). These data suggest that a single session of stretching has only a minimal effect on acute changes of hip abduction ROM. Although hip abduction is a frontal plane motion, to effectively increase the extensibility of the structures that limit abduction, integrating multi-planar stretches may be indicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of walking surface on the range of motion of equine distal limb joints for rehabilitation purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Angulo, Jose L; Firshman, Anna M; Groschen, Donna M; Kieffer, Philip J; Trumble, Troy N

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three footing surfaces on the flexion/extension, and range of motion (ROM) of the carpus, tarsus and fetlocks in the horse. The percentage of stride spent in the stance phase of sound horses at the walk was also measured. Nine sound horses were walked on hard ground (HD), soft ground (SF) and a land treadmill (LT), and five complete gait cycles were recorded by a digital video camera. Retro-reflective markers were placed on the skin at four anatomical locations on the left fore and hind limbs, and data were analyzed using two-dimensional (2D) motion-analysis software. Maximal flexion/extension angles and range of motion were calculated for each joint, and the percentage of the stride spent in stance phase was determined for each stride. Maximal flexion of the tarsus and hind fetlock was greater on LT and SF compared to HD, while maximal flexion of the carpus was greater on LT compared to HD and SF. Maximal extension of the carpus was greater on HD compared to SF and LT, maximal extension of the tarsus was greater on HD and SF compared to LT, and maximal extension of the forelimb and hind limb fetlocks was greater on LT compared to HD and SF. The greatest overall ROM of the carpus and fetlocks was achieved on LT, while the greatest overall ROM of the tarsus was achieved on SF. The stance percentage of the stride for the hind limb was significantly different between all surfaces. In conclusion, walking surface influences flexion/extension of the carpus, tarsus and fetlocks in healthy horses, which should be considered when walking equine rehabilitation cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of a photography-based goniometry method for measuring joint range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonna, Davide; Zarkadas, Peter C; Fitzsimmons, James S; O'Driscoll, Shawn W

    2012-01-01

    A critical component of evaluating the outcomes after surgery to restore lost elbow motion is the range of motion (ROM) of the elbow. This study examined if digital photography-based goniometry is as accurate and reliable as clinical goniometry for measuring elbow ROM. Instrument validity and reliability for photography-based goniometry were evaluated for a consecutive series of 50 elbow contractures by 4 observers with different levels of elbow experience. Goniometric ROM measurements were taken with the elbows in full extension and full flexion directly in the clinic (once) and from digital photographs (twice in a blinded random manner). Instrument validity for photography-based goniometry was extremely high (intraclass correlation coefficient: extension = 0.98, flexion = 0.96). For extension and flexion measurements by the expert surgeon, systematic error was negligible (0° and 1°, respectively). Limits of agreement were 7° (95% confidence interval [CI], 5° to 9°) and -7° (95% CI, -5° to -9°) for extension and 8° (95% CI, 6° to 10°) and -7° (95% CI, -5° to -9°) for flexion. Interobserver reliability for photography-based goniometry was better than that for clinical goniometry. The least experienced observer's photographic goniometry measurements were closer to the reference measurements than the clinical goniometry measurements. Photography-based goniometry is accurate and reliable for measuring elbow ROM. The photography-based method relied less on observer expertise than clinical goniometry. This validates an objective measure of patient outcome without requiring doctor-patient contact at a tertiary care center, where most contracture surgeries are done. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Importance of proximal A2 and A4 pulleys to maintaining kinematics in the hand: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, James C; Sensinger, Jon; McNeal, David; Chow, Bettina; Amirouche, Farid; Gonzalez, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The A2 and A4 pulleys have been shown to be important in finger flexor tendon function. Other authors have suggested either reconstruction or venting of portions of these pulleys in an attempt to preserve finger function in certain clinical situations. This study examines the effects of partial incision of these pulleys on finger flexion kinematics and biomechanics. The index and ring fingers of 16 cadaveric hands were studied. The flexor digitorum profundus tendon was isolated and attached to a computer driven servo-motor. Micro-potentiometers measured flexion angles of the metacarpophalangeal, proximal inter-phalangeal and distal inter-phalangeal joints. Joint inertial torques were calculated making use of this experimental kinematic data. Proximal 50 % incisions of either the A2 or the A4 pulleys resulted in a statistically significant decrease in overall finger motion. This effect was greatest in the proximal inter-phalangeal joint, with a decrease in joint motion, as well as an earlier time to initiation of motion. These changes in finger motion were more pronounced with A2 pulley incision than they were with A4 pulley incision, but the changes were statistically significant in either case. No significant changes in joint inertial torques were shown. Our data provides evidence to the importance of the proximal portions of the A2 and A4 pulleys, and may support partial distal incision of these pulleys in certain clinical situations.

  7. Jointly reconstructing ground motion and resistivity for ERT-based slope stability monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Alistair; Wilkinson, Paul B.; Chambers, Jonathan E.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Adler, Andy

    2018-02-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is increasingly being used to investigate unstable slopes and monitor the hydrogeological processes within. But movement of electrodes or incorrect placement of electrodes with respect to an assumed model can introduce significant resistivity artefacts into the reconstruction. In this work, we demonstrate a joint resistivity and electrode movement reconstruction algorithm within an iterative Gauss-Newton framework. We apply this to ERT monitoring data from an active slow-moving landslide in the UK. Results show fewer resistivity artefacts and suggest that electrode movement and resistivity can be reconstructed at the same time under certain conditions. A new 2.5-D formulation for the electrode position Jacobian is developed and is shown to give accurate numerical solutions when compared to the adjoint method on 3-D models. On large finite element meshes, the calculation time of the newly developed approach was also proven to be orders of magnitude faster than the 3-D adjoint method and addressed modelling errors in the 2-D perturbation and adjoint electrode position Jacobian.

  8. 3D motion analysis of the wrist splint effect to wrist joint movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joong-Il; Park, Soo-Hee

    2017-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the degree of straightness of the wrist joint, depending on the use of a wrist splint while opening a bottle cap. Its results may provide data for later studies on preventing accidents at workplaces and improving efficiency. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty Male and Female in their twenties who did not have hand-related diseases, fractures, or history that included neurological impairments associated with the hand were selected as subjects of the study. Wrist splints were made to fit the hand and lower arm of each subject. Evaluation assignments were carried out without and with the splints after 10 minutes of rest. To analyze the wrist movement in opening the bottle cap, a three-dimensional movement analyzing system by Zebris was used. [Results] Wrist angle decreased while opening caps of four different diameters while wearing splints, but not when splints were not worn. This means that wearing a splint may aid weakened wrist muscles. [Conclusion] Future studies should be conducted among subjects with damaged wrist muscles and evaluate the subjects in actual workplaces to obtain more objective and more valid data.

  9. Effect of cessation and resumption of static hamstring muscle stretching on joint range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, R W; Kyle, B A; Moore, S A; Chleboun, G S

    2001-03-01

    Single group repeated measures. To determine the effects of cessation and resumption of a hamstring muscle stretching protocol on knee range of motion (ROM). It is generally accepted that stretching exercises result in an increase in ROM. The ability to maintain ROM once stretching has ceased and the ability to regain ROM after resumption of the stretching exercise is not well-known. Evaluated the effect of 6 weeks of static hamstring stretching, 4 weeks with cessation from stretching, and 6 weeks with resumption of stretching on knee ROM in 18 inactive college students (12 men, 6 women, mean age 21.0 years). The hamstring stretching consisted of 2 30-second stretches per day, 5 days per week. Knee ROM was measured before and after each of the above phases with an active knee extension test. Mean knee ROM increased after the initial stretching period (143+/-11 to 152+/-9 degrees), decreased to baseline following the cessation period (145+/-8 degrees) and again increased following the resumption of stretching but was not different from the initial gains (154+/-10 degrees). Unlike the stretch limb, the control limb ROM did not change over the 4 measurement times. There was no retention of knee ROM 4 weeks following a 6-week stretching protocol and a subsequent stretching period did not enhance the gain of knee ROM over the initial stretching period.

  10. A comparison of two warm-ups on joint range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedle, Barry B; Mann, Christie L

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a 5-minute treadmill activity at 70% maximum heart rate (MHR) and 5 to 6 minutes of ballistic stretching to a 5-minute treadmill activity at 60% of MHR and 5 to 6 minutes of static stretching. Thirty healthy college students, 7 men and 23 women, volunteered. Most volunteers were moderately active. All participants signed an informed consent. Participants received the aforementioned warm-ups in random order with 48 to 72 hours between warm-ups. The stretching exercises were a back stretch, a quadriceps stretch, and a hamstring stretch. Three trials for 30 seconds each were given. After each warm-up the participants performed the modified-modified Schober test for low back flexibility, active knee extension test for hamstring flexibility, and plantar flexion for ankle flexibility. There were no significant differences on any of the 3 range of motion (ROM) tests although the ankle ROM test was almost significantly greater (68.8 degrees ) after the warm-up with static stretching compared with 65.9 degrees after the warm-up with ballistic stretching. A more intense cardiovascular activity and ballistic stretching were similar to a less intense cardiovascular activity and static stretching on flexibility. If athletes perform a warm-up and static or ballistic stretching before their workouts, then they should continue to perform the warm-up and the stretching routine with which they are most familiar and comfortable.

  11. The measurement of in vivo joint angles during a squat using a single camera markerless motion capture system as compared to a marker based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Anne; Ye, Mao; Boggess, Grant; Shapiro, Robert; Yang, Ruigang; Noehren, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Markerless motion capture may have the potential to make motion capture technology widely clinically practical. However, the ability of a single markerless camera system to quantify clinically relevant, lower extremity joint angles has not been studied in vivo. Therefore, the goal of this study was to compare in vivo joint angles calculated using a marker-based motion capture system and a Microsoft Kinect during a squat. Fifteen individuals participated in the study: 8 male, 7 female, height 1.702±0.089m, mass 67.9±10.4kg, age 24±4 years, BMI 23.4±2.2kg/m(2). Marker trajectories and Kinect depth map data of the leg were collected while each subject performed a slow squat motion. Custom code was used to export virtual marker trajectories for the Kinect data. Each set of marker trajectories was utilized to calculate Cardan knee and hip angles. The patterns of motion were similar between systems with average absolute differences of 0.9 for both systems. The peak angles calculated by the marker-based and Kinect systems were largely correlated (r>0.55). These results suggest the data from the Kinect can be post processed in way that it may be a feasible markerless motion capture system that can be used in the clinic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 1980 Volvo award in clinical sciences. Assessment of patients with low-back pain by biplanar radiographic measurement of intervertebral motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, I A; Wilder, D G; Frymoyer, J W; Pope, M H

    1981-01-01

    Abnormalities of intervertebral joint motion including hypermobility, reduced mobility, torsional abnormality, and displacement of the center of rotation have been associated with degenerative change. However, measurement of these signs in plane X-ray films is handicapped by the three-dimensional motion and geometry of the spine. This study aimed to relate three-dimensional motion of the joints to their pathological state. We have used biplanar radiography to measure intervertebral motion during voluntary movements by patients with low back pain. Primary (or intentional) and coupled motions were measured by a refined technique, along with disc shear and facet joint motion. Abnormalities were found, especially in the "coupled" motions which were related to narrowed disc space, and to proximity to previous fusions. There was asymmetry of motion specific to joints with herniated nucleus pulposus.

  13. Reliability of functional and predictive methods to estimate the hip joint centre in human motion analysis in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, Hans; Hajek, Martin; Modenese, Luca; Saxby, David J; Lloyd, David G; Carty, Christopher P

    2017-03-01

    In human motion analysis predictive or functional methods are used to estimate the location of the hip joint centre (HJC). It has been shown that the Harrington regression equations (HRE) and geometric sphere fit (GSF) method are the most accurate predictive and functional methods, respectively. To date, the comparative reliability of both approaches has not been assessed. The aims of this study were to (1) compare the reliability of the HRE and the GSF methods, (2) analyse the impact of the number of thigh markers used in the GSF method on the reliability, (3) evaluate how alterations to the movements that comprise the functional trials impact HJC estimations using the GSF method, and (4) assess the influence of the initial guess in the GSF method on the HJC estimation. Fourteen healthy adults were tested on two occasions using a three-dimensional motion capturing system. Skin surface marker positions were acquired while participants performed quite stance, perturbed and non-perturbed functional trials, and walking trials. Results showed that the HRE were more reliable in locating the HJC than the GSF method. However, comparison of inter-session hip kinematics during gait did not show any significant difference between the approaches. Different initial guesses in the GSF method did not result in significant differences in the final HJC location. The GSF method was sensitive to the functional trial performance and therefore it is important to standardize the functional trial performance to ensure a repeatable estimate of the HJC when using the GSF method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON THE AMOUNT OF PERCEIVED PAIN, JOINT RANGE OF MOTION AND EDEMA AFTER DELAYED MUSCLE SORENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Karabalaeifar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed onset muscle soreness usually occurs after doing a new unusual physical activity, especially when, associated with repeated eccentric contractions and then it gradually disappears. There is not an extensive agreement in the case of treatment method of soreness signs quick reduction. This research was carried out with the aim of investigation caffeine consumption effect to find a good way in order to reduce the signs of delayed onset muscle soreness. In this semi-experimental with Double-blind design, 16 female volleyball player with an age average of 22.5+2.5 in 2 homogeneous 8 subject control and experimental group were studied. In this research, the effect of caffeine existing in coffee in 5 stages (24h before exercise, 12h before, immediately before exercise, after exercise and 12h after it and 1mg per 1kg of body weight on amount of perceived pain and range of motion of the joint and edema due to delay onset muscle soreness because of 50 jumps and lands of a 1 meter stage was investigated. The results showed that caffeine consumption has a meaningful effect on reduction of all the expressed signs after eccentric contractions. So it is recommended that physio thrapysts, doctors and athletes use this method to reduce delayed onset muscle soreness consequences after the injury.

  15. [Gait analysis after rotationplasty hip surgery for malignant tumor of the proximal femur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, D; Benedetti, M G; Catani, F; Berti, L; Capanna, R

    2004-10-01

    Rotationplasty of the hip joint is a special surgical technique used for the treatment of malignant tumors of the proximal part of the femur. We report a clinical case and gait analysis results before and after rehabilitation training. Evaluation of joint motion, kinetic moments, and the electromyographic findings enabled us to document progressive adaptation of muscle and joint function to their new role in the motor pattern, demonstrating the exceptional strength of rotationplasty. Active control of two fulcrums in the lower limb, the pseudo hip proximally and the pseudo knee intermedially, makes this type of operation extremely advantageous compared to the alternative of hip disarticulation or hemipelvectomy. Total absence of pain together with the preservation of articular and cutaneous proprioception are important advantages. Rotationplasty is an attractive alternative for treatment of malignant tumors of the proximal part of the femur.

  16. Using the American alligator and a repeated-measures design to place constraints on in vivo shoulder joint range of motion in dinosaurs and other fossil archosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Joel D; Hutson, Kelda N

    2013-01-15

    Using the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs (crocodylians and birds), recent work has reported that elbow joint range of motion (ROM) studies of fossil dinosaur forearms may be providing conservative underestimates of fully fleshed in vivo ROM. As humeral ROM occupies a more central role in forelimb movements, the placement of quantitative constraints on shoulder joint ROM could improve fossil reconstructions. Here, we investigated whether soft tissues affect the more mobile shoulder joint in the same manner in which they affect elbow joint ROM in an extant archosaur. This test involved separately and repeatedly measuring humeral ROM in Alligator mississippiensis as soft tissues were dissected away in stages to bare bone. Our data show that the ROMs of humeral flexion and extension, as well as abduction and adduction, both show a statistically significant increase as flesh is removed, but then decrease when the bones must be physically articulated and moved until they separate from one another and/or visible joint surfaces. A similar ROM pattern is inferred for humeral pronation and supination. All final skeletonized ROMs were less than initial fully fleshed ROMs. These results are consistent with previously reported elbow joint ROM patterns from the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs. Thus, studies that avoid separation of complementary articular surfaces may be providing fossil shoulder joint ROMs that underestimate in vivo ROM in dinosaurs, as well as other fossil archosaurs.

  17. [Motion Analysis of Lumbar Spine and Hip Joint on Sequential Radiographs Acquired with a Dynamic Flat-panel Detector (FPD) System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kosuke; Kawashima, Hiroki; Yoshioka, Katsuhito; Sanada, Shigeru

    2015-12-01

    To design an evaluation method for lumbar spine and hip joint function using dynamic radiography using a flat-panel detector (FPD) system. Sixteen healthy subjects (males; age range, 22-60 years; median, 27 years) and 9 patients (7 males and 2 females; age range, 67-85 years; median, 73 years) with L4 degenerative spondylolisthesis were examined using a dynamic FPD system (CANON Inc.). Sequential images were captured with the subjects in the standing position with maximal forward bending followed by backward bending for 10 s. The lateral lumbar radiographs were obtained at 2 frames/s (fps). The flexion-extension angles of L1 and S1 were measured on those images. The range of motion (ROM) of the lumbar joints was significantly larger in the healthy group (82.4 ± 8.7°) than in the disease group (50.4 ± 8.5°; pdisease group (53.1 ± 17.6°; pdisease group, hip joint movements tended to be completed earlier compared with those in the healthy group. In the disease group, the loss of lumbar flexibility was compensated by an increase in hip joint motion due to the lumbar disease. The dynamic FPD system is a convenient imaging modality for the diagnosis of lumbar diseases through the assessment of locomotive function in the lumbar spine and hip joints.

  18. Effect of task specific training and wrist-fingers extension splint on hand joints range of motion and function after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallaf, Mohamed E; Ameer, Mariam A; Fayed, Eman E

    2017-01-01

    Most stroke patients experience hand impairments that can result in persistent limitations in daily activities. This study aimed at estimating the immediate and retention effects of task specific training and wrist/fingers extension splint on hand joints range of motion and function after stroke. Twenty-four right handed patients with first ever stroke represented the sample of the study. The participants were randomly assigned into two equal groups. The study group received task specific exercises five times a week for an hour concurrently with wrist/fingers extension splint which was used two hours for each three hours (day and night) excluding exercises and sleeping hours for 16 weeks. The control group received traditional passive stretch and range of motion exercises. Manual dexterity and upper limb function were assessed by nine holes peg test and Fugl-Meyer upper extremity and hand. Goniometry was used for measuring wrist, metacarpophalangeal, thumb carpometacarpal joints active range of motion. Significant improvements were observed in nine holes peg test, Fugl-Meyer upper extremity and hand scores and ranges of motion at post-intervention and follow-up compared to pre-intervention at P≤0.05. The results of this study provide an evidence that task specific training and wrist/fingers extension splint are effective in improving fingers dexterity, upper extremity function and wrist/hand range of motion.

  19. Joint inversion of teleseismic and strong motion data for the rupture process of the 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Kazuki; Hikima, Kazuhito; Yokota, Yusuke; Wang, Zifa

    2010-05-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake, that is the largest and deadliest earthquake of the world for 2008, occurred on May 12, 2008 (local time). We first obtained teleseismic data observed at stations of FDSN from IRIS DMC, and carried out preliminary point sources analyses of them using the algorithm of Kikuchi and Kanamori (1991). The results of these analyses and aftershock distribution by USGS indicate low-angle dip slips in the southern half and high-angle strike slips in the northern half. Some surface fault investigations (e.g., Hao et al., 2009) suggest two parallel fault traces in the southern half, but only the one closer to the Sichuan basin should be related to the source fault of the earthquake, because the other cannot be of low angle. Accordingly, we defined a fault system consisting of two single-trace segments. The strike and dip angles for the southern and northern segments are respectively given to be (228, 35) and (232, 65) based on the results of the point source analyses. We next used strong motion data observed by the Institute of Engineering Mechanics of the China Earthquake Administration, and then carried out a joint finite source inversion of them and the teleseismic data mentioned above. We adopted the Green's functions of Kohketsu (1985) and Kikuchi and Kanamori (1991). We also used the inverse algorithm of Yoshida et al. (1996) with the revisions of Hikima and Koketsu (2005), and the location of the hypocenter determined by USGS (103.33E, 30.99N, depth 12 km) as a rupture initiation point. The resultant slip distribution indicates the first asperity with the largest reverse-faulting slip of about 7 m and the second asperity with a strike slip of about 3 m to be located in the southern and northern segments, respectively. The total seismic moment is 1.0 x 10**21 Nm, which corresponds to a moment magnitude (Mw) of 7.9. Significant slips appear in a 250 km long region (10,000 km**2) of the source fault, and these length and area are close

  20. Heterotopic Vascularized Joint Transfer in Mutilating Hand Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Nai-Jen; Chang, Johnny T; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Hung; Lin, Chih-Hung; Lin, Yu-Te

    2016-03-01

    In cases of mutilating hand injuries, the primary goal is recovery of prehensile function. This is particularly true in the case of joints, which are extremely difficult to replace or reconstruct adequately when damaged. Heterotopic vascularized joint transfer is indicated when salvageable joints are available for transfer to a more functionally optimal position on the hand. Seven cases of mutilating hand injuries treated with heterotopic vascularized joint transfers from 2003 to 2012 were retrospectively identified. All patients sustained severe metacarpophalangeal joint (MPJ) or proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) damage that threatened recovery of optimal hand function. All patients were men, with an average age of 34.7 years. Operative, perioperative, and postoperative details including final active range of motion were collected and analyzed. Seven joints were taken from nonsalvageable amputated digits: 4 from the amputated parts, and 3 from the proximal stumps. Five joints were transferred as free flaps requiring microvascular anastomosis, and 2 were transferred on neurovascular pedicles. One joint was lost due to vasospasm. Average active range of motion was 68.3° for homojoint transfers (MPJ to MPJ, PIPJ to PIPJ), and 35° for heterojoint transfers. All but 1 patient were able to achieve tripod pinch; the remaining patient achieved only side-to-side pinch. Heterotopic vascularized joint transfer is a useful technique to consider in cases of mutilating hand injuries. Improved recovery of prehensile function can be achieved with thoughtful design and execution, followed by proper patient education and rehabilitation.

  1. Effect on Spasticity After Performance of Dynamic-Repeated-Passive Ankle Joint Motion Exercise in Chronic Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Li Wu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Spasticity associated with abnormal muscle tone is a common motor disorder following stroke, and the spastic ankle may affect ambulatory function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of dynamic-repeated-passive ankle movements with weight loading on ambulatory function and spastic hypertonia of chronic stroke patients. In this study, 12 chronic stroke patients with ankle spasticity and inefficient ambulatory ability were enrolled. Stretching of the plantar-flexors of the ankle in the standing position for 15 minutes was performed passively by a constant-speed and electrically powered device. The following evaluations were done before and immediately after the dynamic-repeated-passive ankle movements. Spastic hypertonia was assessed by the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS; range, 0–4, Achilles tendon reflexes test (DTR; range, 0–4, and ankle clonus (range, 0–5. Improvement in ambulatory ability was determined by the timed up-and-go test (TUG, the 10-minute walking test, and cadence (steps/minute. In addition, subjective experience of the influence of ankle spasticity on ambulation was scored by visual analog scale (VAS. Subjective satisfaction with the therapeutic effect of spasticity reduction was evaluated by a five-point questionnaire (1 = very poor, 2 = poor, 3 = acceptable, 4 = good, 5 = very good. By comparison of the results before and after intervention, these 12 chronic stroke patients presented significant reduction in MAS and VAS for ankle spasticity, the time for TUG and 10-minute walking speed (p < 0.01. The cadence also increased significantly (p < 0.05. In addition, subjective satisfaction with the short-term therapeutic effect was mainly good (ranging from acceptable to very good. In conclusion, 15 minutes of dynamic-repeated-passive ankle joint motion exercise with weight loading in the standing position by this simple constant-speed machine is effective in reducing ankle spasticity and improving

  2. Prevalence of shoulder pain in Swedish flatwater kayakers and its relation to range of motion and scapula stability of the shoulder joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anette; Svantesson, Ulla; Tannerstedt, Jörgen; Alricsson, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the incidence of injuries in kayakers. The aim was to study the prevalence of shoulder pain in competitive flatwater kayakers and to evaluate any differences in range of motion or scapula stability of the shoulder joint among kayakers with or without the history of shoulder pain. Thirty-one kayakers were participated in the study, and a questionnaire including background data was used. Shoulder range of motion was measured with a goniometer, and the participants were observed for scapula dyskinesis in flexion and abduction. Of the participating kayakers, 54.8% (n = 17) had experienced shoulder pain. Kayakers who had experienced shoulder pain showed a significantly lower degree of internal rotational range of motion versus kayakers with no reported shoulder pain, with a mean degree of internal rotation in the right shoulder 49.3 vs. 60.0 (P = 0.017) and the left shoulder 51.9 vs. 66.0 (P = 0.000). Kayakers who had experienced shoulder pain were also observed with a scapular dyskinesis (n = 15 of 17 kayakers) to a significantly higher degree (P = 0.001) than kayakers with no reported shoulder pain. Findings suggest that screening for scapular dyskinesis and testing for rotational range of motion in the shoulder joint is essential in order to treat and maybe prevent shoulder pain in kayakers.

  3. Modelling of the joint motion of nonisothermal liquid film and gas flow in a microchannel: numerical simulation of full Navier-Stokes equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Vladimir V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New full-statement 3D mathematical model of joint motion of thin liquid film and gas in a microchannel at local heating developed by taking into account the heat transfer by flows, evaporation and condensation, as well as the heat transfer at the gas-liquid interface is derived. The model is based on the full system of the Navier-Stokes equations, taking into account the convective terms of motion equations in the phases. Comparison of the numerical results obtained using the model based on the full Navier-Stokes equations and using the simplified model developed in the framework of the thin layer approximation has been performed. The comparison shows that at low Reynolds numbers, simplified model well describes all the main characteristics of the gas and liquid motion. With the gas Reynolds numbers significant increase difference between numerical results starts to grow.

  4. Effects of ankle joint mobilization with movement and weight-bearing exercise on knee strength, ankle range of motion, and gait velocity in patients with stroke: a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    An, Chang-Man; Won, Jong-Im

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ankle joint mobilization with movement on knee strength, ankle range of motion, and gait velocity, compared with weight-bearing exercise in stroke patients...

  5. The intercarpal ligaments of the equine midcarpal joint, Part 2: The role of the palmar intercarpal ligaments in the restraint of dorsal displacement of the proximal row of carpal bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, R C; Rose, R J

    1997-01-01

    To determine the relative contributions of the palmar intercarpal ligaments in the midcarpal joint to the restraint of dorsal displacement of the proximal row of carpal bones. A biomechanical study of cadaver equine carpi. Eight equine forelimbs from six thoroughbred horses. With joints in full extension, the radius was dorsally displaced while midcarpal joint displacement was measured. The restraining force at a joint displacement of 1.5 mm was determined from the load-displacement curve. A ligament or pair of ligaments was then cut and the testing procedure repeated. Their contribution to restraining force was calculated as the percentage change in restraining force after the ligament was sectioned. Relative cross-sectional areas of the ligaments tested were measured at the level of the midcarpal joint. The collateral ligaments were the major contributors to the restraint of dorsal displacement (P ligaments contributed a greater proportion than the palmar carpal ligament (PCL) (P ligaments, 14.5 +/- 1.4 for the PCL, and 22.7 +/- 2.2 for the palmar intercarpal ligaments. Mean cross-sectional area expressed as a percentage (+/-SEM) of the total ligamentous area were 9.0 +/- 0.3 for the palmar intercarpal ligaments, 27.1 +/- 3.0 for the PCL, and 63.8 +/- 2.8 for the collateral ligaments. Despite the small size of the palmar intercarpal ligaments, they play an important role in the restraint of dorsal displacement of the proximal row of carpal bones. Interpretation, as well as prevention and treatment of intercarpal ligament tearing requires an understanding of their function.

  6. Correlations among visual analogue scale, neck disability index, shoulder joint range of motion, and muscle strength in young women with forward head posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Jun; Kim, Won Hyo; Kim, Seong Gil

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the correlation between the neck disability index (NDI) and visual analogue scale (VAS), which are indicators of neck pain, shoulder joint range of motion (ROM), and muscle strength in women with a slight forward head posture. This study was carried out on 42 female college students attending Uiduk University in Gyeongju, Korea. The neck pain and disability index for each subject was measured using VAS and NDI, respectively. Two physiotherapists measured the shoulder joint ROM and muscle strengths of the subjects using a goniometer and a dynamometer, respectively. External rotation, internal rotation, and abduction of the shoulder joint were measured for each subject. A significant negative correlation between neck pain and shoulder joint ROM in external rotation and the muscle strength of the shoulder joint in abduction was found in the subjects. In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between ROM in external rotation and muscle strength in abduction. This study showed a significant negative correlation between neck pain and ROM in external rotation as well as between neck pain and the muscle strength in abduction.

  7. No difference between two types of exercise after proximal phalangeal fracture fixation: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lauren; Crosbie, Jack; Wajon, Anne; Ada, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Are 6 weeks of synergistic wrist and finger exercises with the metacarpophalangeal joint constrained in an orthosis (constrained exercises) more effective than traditional finger exercises with the metacarpophalangeal joint unconstrained (unconstrained exercises) after open reduction and internal fixation of a proximal phalangeal fracture in terms of impairment, activity limitation and participation restriction at 6 and 12 weeks? Randomised, parallel-group trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinded outcome assessors. Sixty-six participants within 1 week of open reduction and internal fixation of proximal phalangeal fractures. The experimental group carried out 6 weeks of synergistic wrist and finger exercises with the metacarpophalangeal joint constrained, whilst the control group carried out finger exercises with the metacarpophalangeal joint unconstrained, as part of a comprehensive rehabilitation program. The primary outcomes were: active proximal interphalangeal joint extension of the injured finger, total active range of motion, and strength. Secondary outcomes were: pain, difficulty with specific hand activity and difficulty with usual hand activity. A blinded assessor measured outcomes at Weeks 1, 6 and 12. By Week 6, there were no significant between-group differences in improvement for: active proximal interphalangeal joint extension (MD 2 deg, 95% CI -3 to 7); total active finger range of motion (MD 0 deg, 95% CI -21 to 22); strength (MD -2kg, 95% CI -8 to 4); pain (MD 1/50, 95% CI -3 to 5); difficulty with specific hand activity (MD 2/60, 95% CI -3 to 8); or difficulty with usual hand activity (MD 0/40, 95% CI -4 to 3). By Week 12, there were also no significant between-group differences in any outcome. Constrained and unconstrained exercises has similar effects after open reduction and internal fixation of proximal phalangeal fracture. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12610000294055). Copyright © 2016

  8. Protocol optimization of sacroiliac joint MR Imaging at 3 Tesla: Impact of coil design and motion resistant sequences on image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim Teixeira, P A; Bravetti, M; Hossu, G; Lecocq, S; Petit, D; Loeuille, D; Blum, A

    2017-07-21

    To evaluate the impact of coil design and motion-resistant sequences on the quality of sacroiliac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination in patients with spondyloarthropathy. One hundred and twenty-one patients with suspected sacroiliitis and referred for MRI of the sacroiliac joints were retrospectively evaluated with MRI at 3-Tesla. There were 78 women and 43 men with a mean age of 36.7±11.5 (SD) years (range: 15.8-78.4 years). Conventional and motion-resistant fat-saturated fast-spin echo T2-weighted sequences were performed with two different coils. Image quality was subjectively evaluated by two independent readers (R1 and R2) using a four-point scale. Confidence in the identification of bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) was also evaluated subjectively using a three-point scale. Phased array body coil yielded improved image quality compared to surface coil (14.1 to 30.4% for R1 and 14.6 to 25.7% for R2; Pbody coil with motion-resistant T2-weighted sequence (kappa 0.990). The smallest number of indeterminate BMEP zones was seen on MRI set acquired with the phased-array body coil and motion-resistant T2-weighted sequence. Phased array body coil and motion-resistant T2-weighted sequences perform better than surface coil and conventional T2-weighted sequences for the evaluation of sacroiliac joints, increasing confidence in the identification of BMEP. Copyright © 2017 Editions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF EARLY STRETCHING EXERCISES FOR RANGE OF MOTION IN THE SHOULDER JOINT AND QUALITY OF FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY IN PATIENTS WITH BURNS - A RANDOMIZED CONTROL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara D. Perer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated the effects of an early stretching exercises programme on the range of motion of the shoulder joint and functional recovery in patients with burns. Methods: A randomized controlled study was conducted. Patients from 15 to 55 years of age with a total burn injury surface area (TBSA of 10% to 45% involving the shoulder joint including axilla were eligible. Participants were randomized into two groups; intervention and a usual care control group, with 110 patients in each group. A standardized protocol was used in the management of intervention group for 14 days. The control group was subjected to usual protocol currently used. The range of Motion (ROM was measured, and Functional recovery (FR was assessed with the Quick DASH questionnaire and the Abduction Ladder. Data were obtained before and after the intervention phase and at 3, 6 and 12 months of post-burn period. Results: The mean (SD age of intervention group and control group were 29.76 [9.81] and 30.31 [9.45] respectively. The mean (SD TBSA% of intervention group and control group was 26.15[9.45] and 24.60[9.56] respectively. There is a significant beneficial difference (p=<0.0001 in ROM and FR between the intervention group and the control group. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that an early sustained stretching exercise regime significantly improved the ROM and functional recovery of the shoulder joint after a severe burn involving the axilla.

  10. Relationship Between the Range of Motion and Isometric Strength of Elbow and Shoulder Joints and Ball Velocity in Women Team Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwesig, René; Hermassi, Souhail; Wagner, Herbert; Fischer, David; Fieseler, Georg; Molitor, Thomas; Delank, Karl-Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Schwesig, R, Hermassi, S, Wagner, H, Fischer, D, Fieseler, G, Molitor, T, and Delank, K-S. Relationship between the range of motion and isometric strength of elbow and shoulder joints and ball velocity in women team handball players. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3428-3435, 2016-The aims of this study were to investigate relationships between isometric strength and range of motion (ROM) of shoulder and elbow joints and compare 2 different team handball throwing techniques in women team handball. Twenty highly experienced women team handball players (age: 20.7 ± 2.9 years; body mass: 68.4 ± 6.0 kg; and height: 1.74 ± 0.06 m) participated in this study. The isometric strength (hand-held dynamometer) and ROM (goniometer) of shoulder and elbow joints were measured at the beginning of the preseasonal training. After clinical examination, the subjects performed 3 standing throws with run-up (10 m) and 3 jump throws over a hurdle (0.20 m). The mean ball velocity was calculated from 3 attempts and measured using a radar gun. The results showed that the ball velocity of the standing throw with run-up (vST) was significantly higher than that of the jump throw (vJT) (25.5 ± 1.56 vs. 23.2 ± 1.31 m·s; p handball players.

  11. Proximal Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  12. Effects of Low-Impact Dance on Blood Biochemistry, Bone Mineral Density, the Joint Range of Motion of Lower Extremities, Knee Extension Torque, and Fall in Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui Ying; Tu, Jui Hung; Hsu, Chin Hsing; Tsao, Te Hung

    2016-01-01

    The effect of low-impact dance on blood metabolites, the joint range of motion (ROM) of the lower extremities, knee extension torque, bone mass density (BMD), the number of falls, and the confidence to perform daily activities (Modified Falls Efficacy Scale [MFES]) was examined in older sedentary women (age: 59 ± 4 years) before and after a 16-week intervention. Results showed that the average score for the MFES, some parameters of blood chemistry, and joint ROM were significantly improved after low-impact intervention. In addition to improvements in blood lipids and body fat percentages, the increases shown in the parameters regarding the lower extremities may contribute to confidence in performing common daily activities in older women, although the number of falls did not significantly differ between the two groups during the 16-week period.

  13. Human Simulated Intelligent Control with Double-Direction Dead-Zone Compensation for Joint Motion Control of a Large-Sized Boom System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongsheng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint motion control of a 52-meter-long five-boom system driven by proportional hydraulic system is developed. It has been considered difficult due to strong nonlinearities and parametric uncertainties, the effect of which increases with the size of booms. A human simulated intelligent control scheme is developed to improve control performance by modifying control mode and control parameters. In addition, considering the negative effects caused by frequent and redundant reverse actions of the proportional valve, a double-direction compensation scheme is proposed to deal with the dead-zone nonlinearity of proportional valve. Sinusoidal motions are implemented on a real boom system. The results indicate that HSIC controller can improve control accuracy, and dead-zone nonlinearity is effectively compensated by proposed compensation scheme without introducing frequent reverse actions of proportional valve.

  14. Ankle joint range of motion measurements in spastic cerebral palsy children: intraobserver and interobserver reliability and reproducibility of goniometry and visual estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Nanni J; Leroy, Nathalie; Doneux, Carole

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intra- and interobserver reliability and reproducibility of goniometry and visual estimation of ankle joint range of motion measurements in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Forty-six ankles of 24 spastic cerebral palsy children were measured under a strict protocol. The global mean measurement error was 5 degrees (SD, 5 degrees) for intra- and interobserver measurements and 3 degrees (SD, 3 degrees) for goniometry versus visual estimation. Statistical analysis showed a high reliability for intra- and interobserver measurements (r>0.75), between visual estimation and goniometry (correlation coefficient, r>0.967; concordance coefficient, r>0.957). Both visual estimation and goniometry ankle range-of-motion measurements are reliable and reproducible in spastic cerebral palsy children if a strict but simple protocol is applied.

  15. Evaluating the Effects of local Injections of Bupivacaine and Triamcinolone Acetate on Shoulder Joint Pain and Restricted Range of Motion Following Cerebrovascular Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadollah Saadat Niaki M.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shoulder pain is a common complication of cerebrovascular accidents. This study was conducted to assess the effects of local injections of bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetate on shoulder joint pain and on restricted range of motion following brain events. Methods: This single-blind clinical trial study included 35 patients with chronic shoulder pain (the controls and 35 patients with chronic shoulder pain due to brain events (the case group. The study was done at Imam Hossein Hospital & Gandhi Day Clinic during the year 2008-2010. The patients in the two groups received bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetate for subacromial bursa injection and suprascapular nerve block by following the protocol described by Dangoisse et al. The patients were followed up for 12 weeks and they were evaluated for pain and range of motion 1, 6, and 12 weeks after the injections.Results: The mean age of the patients was 60.9±9.07 years. Statistically significant improvements in pain score (P=0.001 and shoulder joint range of motion (P=0.001 were observed in patients with chronic shoulder pain versus patients with brain events 12 weeks after suprascapulare nerve block and subacromial bours injections by bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetate.Conclusion: Suprascapular nerve block and subacromial bursa injections of bupivacaine and triamcinolone acetate is a safe and efficacious treatment for the treatment of chronic shoulder pain and restricted range of motion but it is not efficacious or of significant value for the treatment of shoulder pain in patients with brain events.

  16. Roller-massager application to the quadriceps and knee-joint range of motion and neuromuscular efficiency during a lunge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bradbury-Squires, David J; Noftall, Jennifer C; Sullivan, Kathleen M; Behm, David G; Power, Kevin E; Button, Duane C

    2015-01-01

    ...) and muscular performance. However, research demonstrating such effects is lacking. To determine the effects of applying a roller massager for 20 and 60 seconds on knee-joint ROM and dynamic muscular performance...

  17. Medial gastrocnemius muscle stiffness cannot explain the increased ankle joint range of motion following passive stretching in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkman, Barbara M; Bar-On, Lynn; Cenni, Francesco; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Bass, Alfie; Holmes, Gill; Desloovere, Kaat; Barton, Gabor J; O'Brien, Thomas D

    2017-12-26

    What is the central question of this study? Can the increased range of motion seen acutely after stretching in children with cerebral palsy be explained by changes in the stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius fascicles? What is the main finding and its importance? We show, for the first time, that passive muscle and tendon properties are not changed acutely after a single bout of stretching in children with cerebral palsy and, therefore, do not contribute to the increase in range of motion. This contradicts common belief and what happens in healthy adults. Stretching is often used to increase or maintain the joint range of motion (ROM) in children with cerebral palsy (CP), but the effectiveness of these interventions is limited. Therefore, our aim was to determine the acute changes in muscle-tendon lengthening properties that contribute to increased ROM after a bout of stretching in children with CP. Eleven children with spastic CP [age 12.1 (3 SD) years, 5/6 hemiplegia/diplegia, 7/4 gross motor function classification system level I/II] participated. Each child received three sets of five × 20 s passive, manual static dorsiflexion stretches separated by 30 s rest, with 60 s rest between sets. Before and immediately after stretching, ultrasound was used to measure medial gastrocnemius fascicle lengthening continuously over the full ROM and an individual common ROM pre- to post-stretching. Simultaneously, three-dimensional motion of two marker clusters on the shank and the foot was captured to calculate ankle angle, and ankle joint torque was calculated from manually applied torques and forces on a six degrees-of-freedom load cell. After stretching, the ROM was increased [by 9.9 (12.0) deg, P = 0.005]. Over a ROM common to both pre- and post-measurements, there were no changes in fascicle lengthening or torque. The maximal ankle joint torque tolerated by the participants increased [by 2.9 (2.4) N m, P = 0.003], and at this highest passive torque the

  18. The Effect of 2 Forms of Talocrural Joint Traction on Dorsiflexion Range of Motion and Postural Control in Those With Chronic Ankle Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powden, Cameron J; Hogan, Kathleen K; Wikstrom, Erik A; Hoch, Matthew C

    2017-05-01

    Talocrural joint mobilizations are commonly used to address deficits associated with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Examine the immediate effects of talocrural joint traction in those with CAI. Blinded, crossover. Laboratory. Twenty adults (14 females; age = 23.80 ± 4.02 y; height = 169.55 ± 12.38 cm; weight = 78.34 ± 16.32 kg) with self-reported CAI participated. Inclusion criteria consisted of a history of ≥1 ankle sprain, ≥2 episodes of giving way in the previous 3 mo, answering "yes" to ≥4 questions on the Ankle Instability Instrument, and ≤24 on the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Subjects participated in 3 sessions in which they received a single treatment session of sustained traction (ST), oscillatory traction (OT), or a sham condition in a randomized order. Interventions consisted of four 30-s sets of traction with 1 min of rest between sets. During ST and OT, the talus was distracted distally from the ankle mortise to the end-range of accessory motion. ST consisted of continuous distraction and OT involved 1-s oscillations between the mid and end-range of accessory motion. The sham condition consisted of physical contact without force application. Preintervention and postintervention measurements of weight-bearing dorsiflexion, dynamic balance, and static single-limb balance were collected. The independent variable was treatment (ST, OT, sham). The dependent variables included pre-to-posttreatment change scores for the WBLT (cm), normalized SEBTAR (%), and time-to-boundary (TTB) variables(s). Separate 1-way ANOVAs examined differences between treatments for each dependent variable. Alpha was set a priori at P dorsiflexion range of motion or postural control in individuals with CAI. Future research should investigate the effects of repeated talocrural traction treatments and the effects of this technique when combined with other manual therapies.

  19. Effect of Bankart repair on the loss of range of motion and the instability of the shoulder joint for recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibano, Koji; Koishi, Hayato; Futai, Kazuma; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sugamoto, Kazuomi

    2014-06-01

    Bankart repair postoperative complications include loss of shoulder motion and shoulder instability. The primary reason that postoperative complications develop may be excessive imbrication of the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament (AIGHL) or inadequate repair position. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the influence of inadequate repair by computer simulation for a normal shoulder joint. Magnetic resonance images of 10 normal shoulder joints were acquired for 7 positions every 30° from the maximum internal rotation to the maximum external rotation with the arm abducted at 90°. The shortest 3-dimensional path of the AIGHL in each rotational orientation was calculated. We used computer simulations to anticipate the loss of motion and instability by changing the AIGHL length and insertion sites on the glenoid. The AIGHL length measured 50 ± 5 mm at the maximum external shoulder rotation. AIGHL shortening by 3, 6, and 9 mm made the angle of maximum external rotation 80°, 68°, and 54°, respectively. A superior deviation of 3, 6, and 9 mm on the glenoid insertion resulted in a maximum external rotation angle of 85°, 79°, and 77°. An inferior deviation of 3, 6, and 9 mm produced humeral head translation of 1.7, 2.9, and 3.6 mm. Simulation of both excessive imbrication and deviation of the insertion position led to quantitative prediction of the resulting loss of motion and instability. These findings will be useful for anticipating complications after Bankart repair. Basic science study, computer modeling, imaging. Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  20. THE EFFECTS OF SELF-MYOFASCIAL RELEASE USING A FOAM ROLL OR ROLLER MASSAGER ON JOINT RANGE OF MOTION, MUSCLE RECOVERY, AND PERFORMANCE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Scott W; Kolber, Morey J; Cain, Matt; Lee, Matt

    2015-11-01

    Self-myofascial release (SMR) is a popular intervention used to enhance a client's myofascial mobility. Common tools include the foam roll and roller massager. Often these tools are used as part of a comprehensive program and are often recommended to the client to purchase and use at home. Currently, there are no systematic reviews that have appraised the effects of these tools on joint range of motion, muscle recovery, and performance. The purpose of this review was to critically appraise the current evidence and answer the following questions: (1) Does self-myofascial release with a foam roll or roller-massager improve joint range of motion (ROM) without effecting muscle performance? (2) After an intense bout of exercise, does self-myofascial release with a foam roller or roller-massager enhance post exercise muscle recovery and reduce delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS)? (3) Does self-myofascial release with a foam roll or roller-massager prior to activity affect muscle performance? A search strategy was conducted, prior to April 2015, which included electronic databases and known journals. Included studies met the following criteria: 1) Peer reviewed, english language publications 2) Investigations that measured the effects of SMR using a foam roll or roller massager on joint ROM, acute muscle soreness, DOMS, and muscle performance 3) Investigations that compared an intervention program using a foam roll or roller massager to a control group 4) Investigations that compared two intervention programs using a foam roll or roller massager. The quality of manuscripts was assessed using the PEDro scale. A total of 14 articles met the inclusion criteria. SMR with a foam roll or roller massager appears to have short-term effects on increasing joint ROM without negatively affecting muscle performance and may help attenuate decrements in muscle performance and DOMS after intense exercise. Short bouts of SMR prior to exercise do not appear to effect muscle performance

  1. Support of Joint Function, Range of Motion, and Physical Activity Levels by Consumption of a Water-Soluble Egg Membrane Hydrolyzate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gitte S; Lenninger, Miki R; Beaman, Joni L; Taylor, Robert; Benson, Kathleen F

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of consumption of hydrolyzed water-soluble egg membrane (WSEM) on joint function in an otherwise healthy population experiencing chronic pain. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study included two 4-week periods of placebo and WSEM consumption, separated by a 4-week washout period. Twenty-five study participants were randomized to either the "placebo-first" or "WSEM first" sequence in the crossover trial, and 22 participants completed the study requirements. Range of motion (ROM) was assessed using digital inclinometry for joints associated with vertical weight bearing from neck to knees and for shoulders. Pain at rest and when physically active was scored for the same anatomical areas using visual analog scales (VAS). Physical functioning was tracked using questionnaires with VAS. Consumption of WSEM was associated with improved ROM for neck, spine, hips, and knees, with ROM for the neck and right knee being significantly improved during WSEM consumption compared to placebo (P consumption (P consumption (P functioning as part of daily living improved. Subgroup analysis showed rapid improvement of lower back pain after 5 days of WSEM consumption compared to placebo consumption (P consumption of 450 mg WSEM was associated with improved joint function, comfort during daily activities, and increased physical activity.

  2. Three-dimensional analysis of foot motion after uphill walking with mobilization with movement using tape applied to the talocrural joint in women with limited ankle dorsiflexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji-yeon; Oh, Jae-seop; An, Duk-hyun

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies that investigated mobilization with movement (MWM) treatment assessed only improvements in passive range of motion (ROM). No information is currently available regarding the efficacy of modified MWM by application of tape. Therefore, we investigated the effect of uphill walking with modified MWM using tape applied to the talocrural joint (uphill walking with MWM taping) in women with limited ankle dorsiflexion. Twelve feet of 12 women with ankle dorsiflexion motion analysis system was used to examine dynamic foot kinematics, and statistical significance was determined by 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. After uphill walking with MWM taping, peak hindfoot dorsiflexion relative to the tibia was significantly greater than that before exercise and after uphill walking. Furthermore, peak forefoot plantarflexion relative to the hindfoot, peak hindfoot plantarflexion relative to the tibia, and backward tilt of the tibia were greater than those before exercise. Uphill walking with MWM taping resulted in an immediate alteration in foot motion during walking, increasing hindfoot dorsiflexion in particular. Further studies are needed to investigate the long-term effects of uphill walking with MWM taping and its potential use in rehabilitation training. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of equine proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis techniques: an axial positioned dynamic compression plate and two abaxial transarticular cortical screws inserted in lag fashion versus three parallel transarticular cortical screws inserted in lag fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sod, Gary A; Riggs, Laura M; Mitchell, Colin F; Hubert, Jeremy D; Martin, George S

    2010-01-01

    To compare in vitro monotonic biomechanical properties of an axial 3-hole, 4.5 mm narrow dynamic compression plate (DCP) using 5.5 mm cortical screws in conjunction with 2 abaxial transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion (DCP-TLS) with 3 parallel transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion (3-TLS) for the equine proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthrodesis. Paired in vitro biomechanical testing of 2 methods of stabilizing cadaveric adult equine forelimb PIP joints. Cadaveric adult equine forelimbs (n=15 pairs). For each forelimb pair, 1 PIP joint was stabilized with an axial 3-hole narrow DCP (4.5 mm) using 5.5 mm cortical screws in conjunction with 2 abaxial transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion and 1 with 3 parallel transarticular 5.5 mm cortical screws inserted in lag fashion. Five matching pairs of constructs were tested in single cycle to failure under axial compression, 5 construct pairs were tested for cyclic fatigue under axial compression, and 5 construct pairs were tested in single cycle to failure under torsional loading. Mean values for each fixation method were compared using a paired t-test within each group with statistical significance set at P<.05. Mean yield load, yield stiffness, and failure load under axial compression and torsion, single cycle to failure, of the DCP-TLS fixation were significantly greater than those of the 3-TLS fixation. Mean cycles to failure in axial compression of the DCP-TLS fixation was significantly greater than that of the 3-TLS fixation. The DCP-TLS was superior to the 3-TLS in resisting the static overload forces and in resisting cyclic fatigue. The results of this in vitro study may provide information to aid in the selection of a treatment modality for arthrodesis of the equine PIP joint.

  4. Alloplasty of the humeral joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Andrzej; Struzik, Sławomir

    2003-02-28

    Background. Since 1980's, shoulder arthroplasty has become more oftenly performed procedure, and for severe comminuted fractures of proximal humerus (fou r- fragmented fractures, according to Neer's classification) has become first - line therapeutic option. At the beginnig of 90's, contemporary prinicples of shoulder arthroplasty were introduced. It is assumed that 4 mechanical parameters, i.e. range of motion, joint stability, strengh and smoothness of prosthesis components contribute to shoulder function, and we sholud reach toward their reconstruction during surgical procedure. Material and Methods. In our Department from 1995 to1999 we performed 14 shoulder hemiarthroplasties using Bio-Modular prosthesis (12 women and 2 men). Patients' age ranged from 41 to 75 years (average 61.8 years). Indications included: acute comminuted proximal humerus fractures, proximal humerus malunions, and either degenerative arthritis or rheumatoid arthrits of the shoulder. Aftertreatment consisted of passive motions introduced on the first day after an operation, followed by assisted active excercises 4- 6 weeks later, and motions against resistance, allowed 2 months postoperatively. Results. The outcomes were evaluated three years after surgery, and were measured as the score in the Constant scale and as subjective patients' assesments. Improvement was seen as an increase from average 28.3 preoperative Constant score, to 60.3 postoperatively. Subjectively, excellent outcome was reported by 4 patients, good - by 7, and fair by 2 patients. Conclusions. Our experience shows that whereas indications to shoulder artrhroplasty are not frequent in cases of fractures or orthopedic conditions of the affected region, in properly selected group of patients this procedure is effective treatment option, alleviating pain and allowing for regaining well - functioning joint, but long-lasting, at leats one-year long rehabilitation programm after surgery is mandatory.

  5. Development and verification of a protocol to quantify hip joint kinematics: an evaluation of ice hockey goaltender pads on hip motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayne, Ryan J; Kelleher, Leila K; Wegscheider, Peter K; Dickey, James P

    2015-09-01

    The butterfly save technique is commonly used by ice hockey goaltenders and has recently been identified as a potential mechanism for hip joint injuries due to the extreme body positions involved. Unfortunately, commonly used kinematic marker sets that determine these body positions are heavily influenced by skin motion artifact and are obscured by protective equipment, making it difficult to obtain reliable measures of hip motion. To create a new kinematic protocol that could be used when protective equipment prevents typical marker placements and to use this protocol to quantify hip kinematics and butterfly performance in 4 different goalie pad conditions. Controlled laboratory study. A new marker set consisting of marker clusters attached to the lateral thigh and posterior leg was developed. This marker set was verified by evaluating the root mean square (RMS) difference between the developed testing marker set and the calibrated anatomic systems technique marker set during passive range of motion (ROM) tests. The testing marker set was then used in a repeated-measures study in which 12 junior goaltenders performed 5 butterfly movements on synthetic ice, in 4 different goalie pad conditions (control, flexible-wide leg channel, flexible-tight leg channel, and stiff-wide leg channel). The grouped RMS differences and SDs calculated during verification were 1.43° ± 0.41°, 1.0° ± 0.39°, and 3.32° ± 1.32° for hip flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, and internal-external rotation, respectively. There was no significant main effect of goal pad condition on the peak amount of hip internal rotation; however, there was a significant main effect of goal pad condition on the butterfly width (P = .022). Post hoc comparisons revealed that the butterfly width was significantly smaller in the control pad condition compared with the flexible-tight pad condition (P = .03). The new marker set enabled measurements of hip joint kinematics while subjects are wearing

  6. Multiple intramedullary nailing of proximal phalangeal fractures of hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patankar Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proximal phalangeal fractures are commonly encountered fractures in the hand. Majority of them are stable and can be treated by non-operative means. However, unstable fractures i.e. those with shortening, displacement, angulation, rotational deformity or segmental fractures need surgical intervention. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the functional outcome after surgical stabilization of these fractures with joint-sparing multiple intramedullary nailing technique. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with 35 isolated unstable proximal phalangeal shaft fractures of hand were managed by surgical stabilization with multiple intramedullary nailing technique. Fractures of the thumb were excluded. All the patients were followed up for a minimum of six months. They were assessed radiologically and clinically. The clinical evaluation was based on two criteria. 1. total active range of motion for digital functional assessment as suggested by the American Society for Surgery of Hand and 2. grip strength. Results: All the patients showed radiological union at six weeks. The overall results were excellent in all the patients. Adventitious bursitis was observed at the point of insertion of nails in one patient. Conclusion: Joint-sparing multiple intramedullary nailing of unstable proximal phalangeal fractures of hand provides satisfactory results with good functional outcome and fewer complications.

  7. Use of the flexion test of the distal forelimb in the sound horse: repeatability and effect of age, gender, weight, height and fetlock joint range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschers, E; van Weeren, P R

    2001-09-01

    The flexion test of the distal limb is a commonly used clinical tool in both lame and sound horses. In the latter use it is given some predictive value. In recent studies it has been shown that examiner-related factors (force, time) may strongly influence the outcome of the test. In the present study, the possible influences of a number of horse-related factors and short- and long-term repeatability were investigated. Flexion tests were performed by the same researcher in 100 clinically sound horses under standardized conditions. The outcome of the test was scored on a 9-point semiquantitative scale. The maximum flexion angles of the fetlock joints were measured and the range of motion (ROM) of the fetlock joint was calculated. In the second part of the study, flexion tests were repeated, at intervals of 10 min, 30 min, 48 h and 6 months in 23 horses to assess repeatability. Over 60% of the 100 sound horses had a positive flexion test. Of these, about 50% showed a slight lameness, 35% a mild lameness, and 15% a distinct lameness. There was no influence of weight, height or ROM on the score of the flexion test. The outcome of the flexion test increased significantly with age and was significantly higher in mares than in geldings. When repeating the flexion test with short intervals of 10 and 30 min, the score increased significantly after the second test. Repeated flexion after 48 h did not result in a significantly different outcome. Over a 6-month period, the outcome of the test decreased significantly and the ROM increased significantly. It is concluded that most clinically sound horses have a (slightly) positive flexion test of the distal limb. This and the lack of long-term consistency of the test cast doubt on the presumption that a positive flexion test may be an indication for subclinical joint disorders and question the possible value of the test as a predictor of future joint-related problems. There exists a wide individual variation in ROM of the fetlock

  8. Use of pulsed shortwave diathermy and joint mobilization to increase ankle range of motion in the presence of surgical implanted metal: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiger, Cindy; Draper, David O

    2006-09-01

    Case series. Traditionally, all forms of diathermy have been contraindicated over metal implants. There is a lack of research-based evidence for harm regarding the use of pulsed shortwave diathermy (PSWD) over orthopedic metal implants. Because PSWD is an effective modality for deep heating, we investigated whether ankle range of motion (ROM) could improve with the cautious use of PSWD and joint mobilizations, despite orthopedic metal implants being in the treatment field. Four subjects presented with decreased ankle ROM due to extensive fractures from traumatic injuries. All subjects were postsurgical, with several internal fixation devices. Subjects previously received rehabilitation therapy involving joint mobilizations, therapeutic exercises, moist heat, and ice, but continued to lack 15 degrees to 23 degrees of ankle dorsiflexion. The Human Subjects Review Board of Brigham Young University approved the methods of this case series. Subjects gave written informed consent. Initial dorsiflexion active ROM for each patient was -3 degrees, 0 degrees, 8 degrees, and 5 degrees, respectively. Treatment regime consisted of PSWD to the ankle for 20 minutes at 27.12 MHz, 800 pps, 400 microseconds (48 W). Immediately after PSWD, mobilizations were administered to the joints of the ankle and foot. Ice was applied posttreatment. Dorsiflexion improved 15 degrees, 15 degrees, 10 degrees, and 14 degrees, respectively, after 8 or 13 visits. All patients returned to normal activities with functional ROM in all planes. Follow-up 4 to 6 weeks later indicated that the subjects maintained 78% to 100% of their dorsiflexion. No discomfort, pain, or burning was reported during or after treatment. No negative effects were reported during the short-term follow-up. When applied with appropriate caution, we propose PSWD (48 W) may be an appropriate adjunct to joint mobilizations to increase ROM in peripheral joints, despite implanted metal. We continue to advise caution when applying

  9. Is the Kinect system suitable for evaluation of the hip joint range of motion and as a screening tool for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Matthias; Mußhoff, Dennis; von Schulze Pellengahr, Christoph; Willburger, Roland; Hagen, Marco; Ficklscherer, Andreas; von Engelhardt, Lars Victor; Ackermann, Ole; Lahner, Nina; Vetter, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    In the clinical evaluation of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), there is a lack of quantitative, reliable and informative assessment methods for the overall functional capability of an individual. We compared clinical and radiological measurements of the hip joint with a new methodology based on the concept of 3-dimensional reachable workspace using Microsoft Kinect. We assessed the correlation between the alpha angle of Nötzli on full-length radiographs and the clinical internal rotation. We evaluated the accuracy of joint positions and angles of the hip between the Kinect system and clinical examination including range of motion (ROM). The results of our clinical trial with 24 study participants showed a significant difference between normal internal rotation (> 21°) and reduced internal rotation (⩽ 21°) in comparison to the radiological alpha angle of Nötzli (P=0.026). The acquired reachable Kinect data demonstrated a moderate agreement between the Kinect and clinical examination (correlation coefficients between 0.230 and 0.375). The findings suggest that a higher grade alpha angle of Nötzli accompanies reduced clinical internal rotation. The Kinect system provides reliable results of hip ROM. However, further test series must be performed for the application of Kinect in the clinical evaluation of FAI.

  10. The Effect of Ratio of Contraction to Relaxation Durations in PNF Exercises on the Muscle Strength and Range of Motion of Hip Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rashedi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of ratios of contraction- Relaxation on the muscle strength and range of motion of hip joint in PNF exercises. Methods: Thirty nine nonathletic male students (Mean±SD; age, 13±1.2 years; body mass, 55±9.8 kg were assigned .Three groups designated as I, II and III groups. The ratios of contraction to relaxation periods for groups were 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Training program included three sessions per week (CR-PNF for 6 weeks. Measurements of hip extensors muscles stretch and strength were performed at the beginning and at the end of training using an inclinometer (during leg raise test and dynamometer. Data were analyzed using dependent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA. Results: The results of the present study showed significant increases in hip extensor muscles flexibility and strength for three groups. This increase the in the strength in group I equaled 6 kg, in group II 4 kg and in group III 7 kg. The amount of increase in the hip extensor muscles flexibility in group I, II and II were 15, 8 and 12 degrees, respectively. The increase in these two variables was significant and similar in all three groups. Conclusion: Different contraction to relaxation ratio normally, 0.5, 1 and 2, did not show any meaningful differences on hip extensor muscular strength and hip range of motion.

  11. Characteristics of functional impairment in patients with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis based on range of motion of joints: Baseline data from a multicenter prospective observational cohort study to evaluate the effectiveness of joint surgery in the treat-to-target era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Toshihisa; Ishikawa, Hajime; Tanaka, Sakae; Haga, Nobuhiko; Nishida, Keiichiro; Yukioka, Masao; Hashimoto, Jun; Miyahara, Hisaaki; Niki, Yasuo; Kimura, Tomoatsu; Oda, Hiromi; Asai, Shuji; Funahashi, Koji; Kojima, Masayo; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-07-25

    To explore the characteristics of functional impairment in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) based on the range of motion (ROM) of joints in a prospective observational study of RA patients undergoing joint surgery. We collected data on demographics, Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI), and the ROM of large joints including the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle. Associations between the ROM of each joint and disability in the eight HAQ-DI categories were determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and logistic regression analyses. ROM cut-off values of each joint for the absence of disability in each HAQ-DI category were determined using ROC curves. A total of 460 patients were enrolled and analyzed in this study. Based on ROC analysis, the ROM of each joint was significantly associated with disability in each category. After adjusting for disease activity, age, and sex, shoulder abduction had the highest independent impact on disability in activity [cut-off: 139 degrees (OR: 5.26)], elbow flexion-extension in dressing [121 degrees (OR: 2.22)], wrist flexion-extension in reach [86 degrees (OR: 2.71)], hip flexion-extension in walking [126 degrees (OR: 3.42)], and knee flexion-extension in walking [134 degrees (OR: 2.97)]. Limited ROM of multiple joints was significantly associated with functional impairment in patients with long-standing RA. Motion in daily activity involves multiple joints, and at least two joints were independently involved in disability.

  12. Pulsed shortwave diathermy and joint mobilizations for achieving normal elbow range of motion after injury or surgery with implanted metal: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, David O

    2014-01-01

    Regaining full, active range of motion (ROM) after trauma to the elbow is difficult. To report the cases of 6 patients who lacked full ROM in the elbow because of trauma. The treatment regimen was thermal pulsed shortwave diathermy and joint mobilizations. Case series. University therapeutic modalities laboratory. Six patients (5 women [83%], 1 man [17%]) lacked a mean active ROM of 24.5° of extension approximately 4.8 years after trauma or surgery. Treatment consisted of 20 minutes of pulsed shortwave diathermy at 800 pulses per second for 400 microseconds (40-48 W average power, 150 W peak power) applied to the cubital fossa, immediately followed by 7 to 8 minutes of joint mobilizations. After posttreatment ROM was recorded, ice was applied to the area for about 30 minutes. Changes in extension active ROM were assessed before and after each treatment. Once the patient achieved full, active ROM or failed to improve on 2 consecutive visits, he or she was discharged from the study. By the fifth treatment, 4 participants (67%) achieved normal extension active ROM, and 2 of the 4 (50%) exceeded the norm. Five participants (83%) returned to normal activities and full use of their elbows. One month later, the 5 participants had maintained, on average, (mean ± SD) 92% ± 6% of their final measurements. A combination of thermal pulsed shortwave diathermy and joint mobilizations was effective in restoring active ROM of elbow extension in 5 of the 6 patients (83%) who lacked full ROM after injury or surgery.

  13. Passive Muscle-Tendon Unit Gearing is Joint Dependent in Human Medial Gastrocnemius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F Hodson-Tole

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscles change length and develop force both passively and actively. Gearing allows muscle fibre length changes to be uncoupled from those of the whole muscle-tendon unit. During active contractions this process allows muscles to operate at mechanically favorable conditions for power or economical force production. Here we ask whether gearing is constant in passive muscle; determining the relationship between fascicle and muscle-tendon unit length change in the bi-articular medial gastrocnemius and investigating the influence of whether motion occurs at the knee or ankle joint. Specifically, the same muscle-tendon unit length changes were elicited by rotating either the ankle or knee joint whilst simultaneously measuring fascicle lengths in proximal and distal muscle regions using B-mode ultrasound. In both the proximal and distal muscle region, passive gearing values differed depending on whether ankle or knee motion occurred. Fascicle length changes were greater with ankle motion, likely reflecting anatomical differences in proximal and distal passive tendinous tissues, as well as shape changes of the adjacent mono-articular soleus. This suggests that there is joint-dependent dissociation between the mechanical behaviour of muscle fibres and the muscle-tendon unit during passive joint motions that may be important to consider when developing accurate models of bi-articular muscles.

  14. In Vivo Contact Characteristics of Distal Radioulnar Joint With Malunited Distal Radius During Wrist Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shu Guo; Chen, Yan Rong; Xie, Ren Guo; Tang, Jin Bo

    2015-11-01

    To determine whether distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) contact characteristics were altered in patients with malunited distal radius fractures. We obtained computed tomography scans at 5 positions of both wrists of 6 patients who had unilateral malunited distal radius fractures with dorsal angulation from 10° to 20° and ulnar variance less than 3 mm. We reconstructed 3-dimensional images and mapped contact regions of DRUJ by calculating the shortest distance between the 2 opposing bones. The contact areas of the DRUJ were measured and the contact region centers were calculated and analyzed. The values of the malunited side were compared with those of the contralateral uninjured side. In the uninjured wrist, the contact areas of the DRUJ increased slightly from wrist flexion to extension and ulnar deviation. In the malunited wrist, we found the contact areas of DRUJ to be progressively reduced from 20° flexion to neutral, 40° extension, and 20° extension, to ulnar deviation. The centroid of this area on the sigmoid notch moved to distal from flexion to extension. Compared with the contralateral uninjured wrist, the contact area significantly decreased during wrist extension and ulnar deviation, and significantly increased during wrist flexion. The centroids of this area on sigmoid notch all moved volarly in all selected wrist positions. The contact areas of the DRUJ and the centroid of contact area on sigmoid notch are altered in patients with malunited distal radius fractures. The contact area of the DRUJ increases during wrist flexion and decreases during wrist extension and ulnar deviation. The centroids of the contact area on sigmoid notch move volarly during wrist flexion-extension and ulnar deviation. The in vivo findings suggest that alterations in joint mechanics may have an important role in the dysfunction associated with these injuries. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Joint inference of dominant scatterer locations and motion parameters of an extended target in high range-resolution radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Freitas, A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available was modelled with a discrete almost constant angular velocity random acceleration model [22]. The motion model for each state is given by rc,k = rc,k−1 + pc,k, θc,k = θc,k−1 + ωk−1∆t+ 1 2 ∆t2qk, ωk = ωk−1 + ∆tqk, (4) where ∆t represents the constant time... that is elapsed between discrete time steps, and pc,k and qk represent zero- mean Gaussian random variables with respective standard deviations of σp and σq . Since the data is simulated, the dynamic noise parameters are chosen and hence σp and σq are place...

  16. Function of anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments during in-vivo motion of the ankle joint complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guoan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the numerous in-vitro studies on the mechanical properties and simulated injury mechanisms of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL, the in-vivo biomechanical behavior of these two ligaments has not yet been described. Methods Apparent length of the ATFL and CFL was measured in four ankles in healthy male subjects between 32 and 45 years of age (two left and two right during a dorsiflexion-plantarflexion and supination-pronation arc of motion using a combined dual-orthogonal fluoroscopic and magnetic resonance imaging technique. Results The ATFL elongated from the neutral position at 16.3 +/- 3.0 mm to 20.8 +/- 2.7 mm at maximal plantarflexion and shortened significantly from the neutral position to 13.9 +/- 2.9 mm at maximal dorsiflexion (p = 0.01. The CFL shortened from the neutral position at 28.0 +/- 2.9 mm to 26.6 +/- 2.2 mm at maximal plantarflexion (p = 0.08 and elongated significantly from the neutral position to 29.9 +/- 3.0 mm at maximal dorsiflexion (p = 0.003. The ATFL elongated significantly from 14.8 +/- 2.5 mm at maximal pronation to 17.4 +/- 3.0 mm at maximal supination (p = 0.08. At the same time, the CFL shortened from 31.0 +/- 3.8 mm at maximal pronation to 26.9 +/- 3.6 mm at maximal supination (p = 0.02. Conclusion The results showed that the ATFL elongates more during plantarflexion and supination whereas the CFL increases in length with dorsiflexion and pronation. Concurrently, these data also demonstrated the reciprocal function between the two ligaments. While one shortens, the other one elongates. The different elongation of the ATFL and CFL during the same motion arc suggests that under excessive loading conditions the ATFL might be more vulnerable in plantarflexion and supination while the CFL might be more susceptible to injury in dorsiflexion and pronation. Furthermore, in the case of surgical reconstruction the grafts used to reconstruct the two

  17. Function of anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments during in-vivo motion of the ankle joint complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Asla, Richard J; Kozánek, Michal; Wan, Lu; Rubash, Harry E; Li, Guoan

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the numerous in-vitro studies on the mechanical properties and simulated injury mechanisms of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL), the in-vivo biomechanical behavior of these two ligaments has not yet been described. Methods Apparent length of the ATFL and CFL was measured in four ankles in healthy male subjects between 32 and 45 years of age (two left and two right) during a dorsiflexion-plantarflexion and supination-pronation arc of motion using a combined dual-orthogonal fluoroscopic and magnetic resonance imaging technique. Results The ATFL elongated from the neutral position at 16.3 +/- 3.0 mm to 20.8 +/- 2.7 mm at maximal plantarflexion and shortened significantly from the neutral position to 13.9 +/- 2.9 mm at maximal dorsiflexion (p = 0.01). The CFL shortened from the neutral position at 28.0 +/- 2.9 mm to 26.6 +/- 2.2 mm at maximal plantarflexion (p = 0.08) and elongated significantly from the neutral position to 29.9 +/- 3.0 mm at maximal dorsiflexion (p = 0.003). The ATFL elongated significantly from 14.8 +/- 2.5 mm at maximal pronation to 17.4 +/- 3.0 mm at maximal supination (p = 0.08). At the same time, the CFL shortened from 31.0 +/- 3.8 mm at maximal pronation to 26.9 +/- 3.6 mm at maximal supination (p = 0.02). Conclusion The results showed that the ATFL elongates more during plantarflexion and supination whereas the CFL increases in length with dorsiflexion and pronation. Concurrently, these data also demonstrated the reciprocal function between the two ligaments. While one shortens, the other one elongates. The different elongation of the ATFL and CFL during the same motion arc suggests that under excessive loading conditions the ATFL might be more vulnerable in plantarflexion and supination while the CFL might be more susceptible to injury in dorsiflexion and pronation. Furthermore, in the case of surgical reconstruction the grafts used to reconstruct the two ligaments may need to be

  18. Function of anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments during in-vivo motion of the ankle joint complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Asla, Richard J; Kozánek, Michal; Wan, Lu; Rubash, Harry E; Li, Guoan

    2009-03-16

    Despite the numerous in-vitro studies on the mechanical properties and simulated injury mechanisms of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL), the in-vivo biomechanical behavior of these two ligaments has not yet been described. Apparent length of the ATFL and CFL was measured in four ankles in healthy male subjects between 32 and 45 years of age (two left and two right) during a dorsiflexion-plantarflexion and supination-pronation arc of motion using a combined dual-orthogonal fluoroscopic and magnetic resonance imaging technique. The ATFL elongated from the neutral position at 16.3 +/- 3.0 mm to 20.8 +/- 2.7 mm at maximal plantarflexion and shortened significantly from the neutral position to 13.9 +/- 2.9 mm at maximal dorsiflexion (p = 0.01). The CFL shortened from the neutral position at 28.0 +/- 2.9 mm to 26.6 +/- 2.2 mm at maximal plantarflexion (p = 0.08) and elongated significantly from the neutral position to 29.9 +/- 3.0 mm at maximal dorsiflexion (p = 0.003). The ATFL elongated significantly from 14.8 +/- 2.5 mm at maximal pronation to 17.4 +/- 3.0 mm at maximal supination (p = 0.08). At the same time, the CFL shortened from 31.0 +/- 3.8 mm at maximal pronation to 26.9 +/- 3.6 mm at maximal supination (p = 0.02). The results showed that the ATFL elongates more during plantarflexion and supination whereas the CFL increases in length with dorsiflexion and pronation. Concurrently, these data also demonstrated the reciprocal function between the two ligaments. While one shortens, the other one elongates. The different elongation of the ATFL and CFL during the same motion arc suggests that under excessive loading conditions the ATFL might be more vulnerable in plantarflexion and supination while the CFL might be more susceptible to injury in dorsiflexion and pronation. Furthermore, in the case of surgical reconstruction the grafts used to reconstruct the two ligaments may need to be tensioned at different positions of the

  19. MOTOR IMAGERY BOOSTS PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION IN THE ATTAINMENT AND RETENTION OF RANGE-OF -MOTION AT THE HIP JOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Callaghan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF coupled with an internal mental imagery technique (PNFI on both the attainment and retention of increased range-of-movement (ROM at the hip joint. Twenty-four young adult subjects were randomly allocated to PNF, PNFI, and control treatments administered in fifteen sessions over a three-week period. ROM was assessed prior to training then at the completion of sessions 1 day, 3, 7, and 14 during training, then 28 days after program completion. Analysis-of-Variance with repeated measures showed both significant treatment (p < 0.01 and time effects (p < 0.05. Mean change of ROM values were always larger under the PNFI condition and significantly different (p < 0.05 at day 1 and 3 following training program completion. Thereafter, the diminution of ROM was comparable to the PNF condition. Mean ROM increment relative to baseline was 7.55 and 9.45 degrees for PNF and PNFI respectively receding to 5.86 and 6.5 degrees at twenty-eight days following treatment cessation. Motor imagery coupled with PNF to enhance and retain ROM yields superior results to physical training used alone and can benefit both athletes and those undergoing rehabilitation.

  20. Distal radioulnar joint injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Binu P.; Raveendran Sreekanth

    2012-01-01

    Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint , forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triang...

  1. Image based weighted center of proximity versus directly measured knee contact location during simulated gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongsheng; Chen, Tony; Koff, Matthew F; Hutchinson, Ian D; Gilbert, Susannah; Choi, Dan; Warren, Russell F; Rodeo, Scott A; Maher, Suzanne A

    2014-07-18

    To understand the mechanical consequences of knee injury requires a detailed analysis of the effect of that injury on joint contact mechanics during activities of daily living. Three-dimensional (3D) knee joint geometric models have been combined with knee joint kinematics to dynamically estimate the location of joint contact during physiological activities-using a weighted center of proximity (WCoP) method. However, the relationship between the estimated WCoP and the actual location of contact has not been defined. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between knee joint contact location as estimated using the image-based WCoP method, and a directly measured weighted center of contact (WCoC) method during simulated walking. To achieve this goal, we created knee specific models of six human cadaveric knees from magnetic resonance imaging. All knees were then subjected to physiological loads on a knee simulator intended to mimic gait. Knee joint motion was captured using a motion capture system. Knee joint contact stresses were synchronously recorded using a thin electronic sensor throughout gait, and used to compute WCoC for the medial and lateral plateaus of each knee. WCoP was calculated by combining knee kinematics with the MRI-based knee specific model. Both metrics were compared throughout gait using linear regression. The anteroposterior (AP) location of WCoP was significantly correlated with that of WCoC on both tibial plateaus in all specimens (p0), but the correlation was not significant in the mediolateral (ML) direction for 4/6 knees (p>0.05). Our study demonstrates that while the location of joint contact obtained from 3D knee joint contact model, using the WCoP method, is significantly correlated with the location of actual contact stresses in the AP direction, that relationship is less certain in the ML direction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring Behavior using Motion Capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; van der Kooij, Herman; Ruttkay, Z.M.; van Welbergen, H.; Spink, A.J.; Ballintijn, M.R.; Bogers, N.D.; Grieco, F; Loijens, L.W.S.; Noldus, L.P.J.J.; Smit, G; Zimmerman, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    Motion capture systems, using optical, magnetic or mechanical sensors are now widely used to record human motion. Motion capture provides us with precise measurements of human motion at a very high recording frequency and accuracy, resulting in a massive amount of movement data on several joints of

  3. Hip abductor moment arm - a mathematical analysis for proximal femoral replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple H Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing proximal femoral replacement for tumor resection often have compromised hip abductor muscles resulting in a Trendelenberg limp and hip instability. Commercially available proximal femoral prostheses offer several designs with varying sites of attachment for the abductor muscles, however, no analyses of these configurations have been performed to determine which design provides the longest moment arm for the hip abductor muscles during normal function. Methods This study analyzed hip abductor moment arm through hip adduction and abduction with a trigonometric mathematical model to evaluate the effects of alterations in anatomy and proximal femoral prosthesis design. Prosthesis dimensions were taken from technical schematics that were obtained from the prosthesis manufacturers. Manufacturers who contributed schematics for this investigation were Stryker Orthopaedics and Biomet. Results Superior and lateral displacement of the greater trochanter increased the hip abductor mechanical advantage for single-leg stance and adduction and preserved moment arm in the setting of Trendelenberg gait. Hip joint medialization resulted in less variance of the abductor moment arm through coronal motion. The Stryker GMRS endoprosthesis provided the longest moment arm in single-leg stance. Conclusions Hip abductor moment arm varies substantially throughout the hip's range of motion in the coronal plane. Selection of a proximal femur endoprosthesis with an abductor muscle insertion that is located superiorly and laterally will optimize hip abductor moment arm in single-leg stance compared to one located inferiorly or medially.

  4. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  5. Myofascial techniques: What are their effects on joint range of motion and pain? - A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Tamsyn R; Rajendran, Dévan

    2016-07-01

    This systematic review aimed to determine the evidence for the effect of a single manually applied myofascial technique (MFT) on joint range of motion (JROM) and pain in non-pathological symptomatic subjects. Authors independently searched the following databases: PEDro; Cochrane Library; NLM PubMed; EMBASE; Academic Search Premier; MEDLINE; Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection; PsycINFO; SPORTSDiscus; CINAHL Plus from 2003 to 2015. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that used JROM as an outcome measure were identified. RCT quality was independently evaluated using PEDro and Cochrane Risk of Bias tools and all reported outcome data were independently abstracted and presented. If post-intervention central tendencies and variance were reported, these were assessed for heterogeneity with a view to performing a meta-analysis. Nine RCTs (n = 534) were systematically reviewed and outcome data presented; all trials concluded that MFT increased JROM and reduced pain levels in symptomatic patients. Two RCTs (n = 161) were judged 'moderately' heterogeneous (I(2) = 47.2%; Cochran's Q = 5.69; p = 0.128, df = 3) and meta-analysis using a fixed effects model suggested a 'moderate' effect size of MFTs on jaw opening (ES = 0.578; 95%CI 0.302 to 0.853). Although results reported by each RCT indicate that MFT increases JROM and reduces pain scores, there are a number of threats that challenge the statistical inferences underpinning these findings. Only two trials could be meta-analysed, the results of which suggest that applying MFTs to symptomatic patients diagnosed with latent trigger-points in masseter muscle can increase jaw JROM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of an external hip joint stabiliser on gait function after surgery for tumours located around the circumference of the pelvis: analysis of seven cases of internal hemipelvectomy or proximal femur resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Toru; Saita, Kazuo; Ogura, Koichi; Kawai, Akira; Imanishi, Jungo; Yazawa, Yasuo; Kawashima, Noritaka; Ogata, Toru

    2016-03-01

    Limb-sparing resection of malignant pelvic tumours provides the opportunity for patients to obtain better post-operative mobility. However, because few studies have examined in detail the gait function of patients following pelvic tumour resection, the factors affecting gait performance remain to be clarified. Here, with the laboratory-based computer-assisted gait analysis, we evaluated these patients' gait objectively and the impact of a hip-stabilising supporter on gait improvement was simultaneously examined. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed to obtain cross-sectional data for seven post-operative patients (mean age, 42.7 years; range, 20-61 years) who underwent various types of resection, including P1/4 internal hemipelvectomy (IH), P1/2/3 IH, and proximal femur resection with prosthetic reconstruction. To assess the immediate effects of a hip joint stabiliser, we instructed subjects to walk at their self-selected preferred speed and compared gait parameters with and without use of the hip stabiliser. At baseline, the average walking speed was 0.75 m/s (95% CI 0.53-0.97). As shown by the intra-subject comparison, the hip stabiliser increased walking speed in all but one subject, increasing both temporal and spatial parameters. Ground reaction force of operated limbs increased for some subjects, while step length increased on at least one side in all subjects. Improvement in the gait parameters is indicative of better control provided by the external hip stabiliser over the affected limb. Moreover, our findings show the potential of a biomechanical approach to improve gait function following pelvic tumour resection.

  7. Effects of ankle joint mobilization with movement and weight-bearing exercise on knee strength, ankle range of motion, and gait velocity in patients with stroke: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chang-Man; Won, Jong-Im

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ankle joint mobilization with movement on knee strength, ankle range of motion, and gait velocity, compared with weight-bearing exercise in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects with chronic stroke were divided into three groups: MWM (n = 12), WBE (n = 8), and control (n = 10). All groups attended physical therapy sessions 3 times a week for 5 weeks. Subjects in the MWM group performed mobilization with movement exercises, whilst participants in the WBE group performed weight-bearing exercises. Knee peak torque, ankle range of motion, and spatiotemporal gait parameters were evaluated before and after the interventions. [Results] Knee extensor peak torque increased significantly in both MWM and WBE groups. However, only the MWM group showed significant improvement in passive and active ankle range of motion and gait velocity, among the three groups. [Conclusion] Ankle joint mobilization with movement intervention is more effective than simple weight-bearing intervention in improving gait speed in stroke patients with limited ankle motion.

  8. Joint Replacement (Finger and Wrist Joints)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alternate procedures for treating arthritis include: Joint injections Oral medications such as aspirin or anti-inflammatory medicines Hand therapy exercises and protective splints Arthrodesis surgery to fuse bones together, which relieves pain by eliminating motion be-tween damaged joint surfaces ...

  9. Wrist joint assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, L.; Johnson, J. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A wrist joint assembly is provided for use with a mechanical manipulator arm for finely positioning an end-effector carried by the wrist joint on the terminal end of the manipulator arm. The wrist joint assembly is pivotable about a first axis to produce a yaw motion, a second axis is to produce a pitch motion, and a third axis to produce a roll motion. The wrist joint assembly includes a disk segment affixed to the terminal end of the manipulator arm and a first housing member, a second housing member, and a third housing member. The third housing member and the mechanical end-effector are moved in the yaw, pitch, and roll motion. Drive means are provided for rotating each of the housings about their respective axis which includes a cluster of miniature motors having spur gears carried on the output drive shaft which mesh with a center drive gear affixed on the housing to be rotated.

  10. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Cowley

    Full Text Available Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor or distal (finger flexor muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p < 0.005 in trunk lean and velocity, reduced humeral elevation (11°, p < 0.005, and increased elbow flexion (4°, p < 0.01. In contrast, distal fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p < 0.05, increased velocity of wrench movement relative to the hand (17°/s, p < 0.001, and earlier wrist extension (4%, p < 0.005. Movement variability increased at proximal joints but not distal joints after both fatigue protocols (p < 0.05. Varying movements at proximal joints may help people adapt to fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.

  11. Human motion simulation predictive dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Malek, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Simulate realistic human motion in a virtual world with an optimization-based approach to motion prediction. With this approach, motion is governed by human performance measures, such as speed and energy, which act as objective functions to be optimized. Constraints on joint torques and angles are imposed quite easily. Predicting motion in this way allows one to use avatars to study how and why humans move the way they do, given specific scenarios. It also enables avatars to react to infinitely many scenarios with substantial autonomy. With this approach it is possible to predict dynamic motion without having to integrate equations of motion -- rather than solving equations of motion, this approach solves for a continuous time-dependent curve characterizing joint variables (also called joint profiles) for every degree of freedom. Introduces rigorous mathematical methods for digital human modelling and simulation Focuses on understanding and representing spatial relationships (3D) of biomechanics Develops an i...

  12. Wrist range of motion and motion frequency during toy and game play with a joint-specific controller specially designed to provide neuromuscular therapy: A proof of concept study in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisco, Joseph J; Schwartz, Joel B; Wilcox, Bethany; Brideau, Holly; Basseches, Benjamin; Kerman, Karen

    2015-08-20

    Upper extremities affected by hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) and other neuromuscular disorders have been demonstrated to benefit from therapy, and the greater the duration of the therapy, the greater the benefit. A great motivator for participating in and extending the duration of therapy with children is play. Our focus is on active motion therapy of the wrist and forearm. In this study we examine the wrist motions associated with playing with two toys and three computer games controlled by a specially-designed play controller. Twenty children (ages 5-11) with no diagnosis of a muscular disorder were recruited. The play controller was fitted to the wrist and forearm of each child and used to measure and log wrist flexion and extension. Play activity and enjoyment were quantified by average wrist range of motion (ROM), motion frequency measures, and a discrete visual scale. We found significant differences in the average wrist ROM and motion frequency among the toys and games, yet there were no differences in the level of enjoyment across all toys and games, which was high. These findings indicate which toys and games may elicit the greater number of goal-directed movements, and lay the foundation for our long-term goal to develop and evaluate innovative motion-specific play controllers that are engaging rehabilitative devices for enhancing therapy and promoting neural plasticity and functional recovery in children with CP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. New endoprosthesis suspension method with polypropylene monofilament knitted mesh after resection of bone tumors in proximal humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibuchi, Taketsugu; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Shimoji, Takashi; Ae, Keisuke; Tanizawa, Taisuke; Gokita, Tabu; Hayakawa, Keiko

    2015-06-01

    Endoprosthetic reconstruction of the proximal humerus is one of the standard procedures after resection of tumors of the proximal humerus and has been considered a reliable method to reconstruct the proximal humerus in recent reports. However, instability of the shoulder joint caused by loss of the rotator cuff and deltoid muscle function is often observed after such an endoprosthetic reconstruction. We performed the endoprosthesis suspension method with polypropylene monofilament knitted mesh. This suspension method, by which the endoprosthesis is suspended from the bone structure, was used after resection of tumors in 9 patients. We assessed postoperative stability of the shoulder joint by comparing these patients with 12 patients who underwent the conventional surgical technique, by which the mesh-wrapped endoprosthesis is attached only to soft tissue. In radiographic and physical evaluation, 4 of the 12 patients in the soft tissue reconstruction group showed shoulder joint instability. No patient in the suspension method group showed subluxation of the humeral prosthesis. The mean shoulder flexion was 35° and 65° and the mean shoulder abduction was 40° and 40° for the soft tissue reconstruction group and the suspension method group, respectively. Shoulder joint subluxation sometimes occurs because of elongation of the attached soft tissue in the conventional reconstruction with mesh, whereas no shoulder joint subluxation occurs after endoprosthetic reconstruction in the suspension method because the bone structure has no leeway for elongation. Excellent stability of our new method enables exercise of the surgical shoulder at an early stage, leading to improved range of shoulder joint motion. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimating joint space of the knee during weight-bearing squatting activity using motion capture ? preliminary results of a new method

    OpenAIRE

    CLEMENT, Julien; CRESSON, T.; HAGEMEISTER, Nicola; DUMAS, Raphaël; DE GUISE, Jaques A

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, several studies analyzed 3D joint space of the knee and deduced articular contact kinematics during various weight-bearing activities. Joint space and articular contact kinematics provide relevant data on how the intrinsic biomechanics of the knee is altered after a disease or a surgical procedure, such as knee osteoarthritis (OA) or total knee arthroplasty. Although very accurate, the methods employed by these studies require complex acquisition protocols, implying 3D...

  15. Joint Wavelet Video Denoising and Motion Activity Detection in Multimodal Human Activity Analysis: Application to Video-Assisted Bioacoustic/Psychophysiological Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimoulas, C. A.; Avdelidis, K. A.; Kalliris, G. M.; Papanikolaou, G. V.

    2007-12-01

    The current work focuses on the design and implementation of an indoor surveillance application for long-term automated analysis of human activity, in a video-assisted biomedical monitoring system. Video processing is necessary to overcome noise-related problems, caused by suboptimal video capturing conditions, due to poor lighting or even complete darkness during overnight recordings. Modified wavelet-domain spatiotemporal Wiener filtering and motion-detection algorithms are employed to facilitate video enhancement, motion-activity-based indexing and summarization. Structural aspects for validation of the motion detection results are also used. The proposed system has been already deployed in monitoring of long-term abdominal sounds, for surveillance automation, motion-artefacts detection and connection with other psychophysiological parameters. However, it can be used to any video-assisted biomedical monitoring or other surveillance application with similar demands.

  16. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Jeffrey C; Gates, Deanna H

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks.

  17. Proximal and distal muscle fatigue differentially affect movement coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle fatigue can cause people to change their movement patterns and these changes could contribute to acute or overuse injuries. However, these effects depend on which muscles are fatigued. The purpose of this study was to determine the differential effects of proximal and distal upper extremity muscle fatigue on repetitive movements. Fourteen subjects completed a repetitive ratcheting task before and after a fatigue protocol on separate days. The fatigue protocol either fatigued the proximal (shoulder flexor) or distal (finger flexor) muscles. Pre/Post changes in trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist kinematics were compared to determine how proximal and distal fatigue affected multi-joint movement patterns and variability. Proximal fatigue caused a significant increase (7°, p fatigue caused small but significant changes in trunk angles (2°, p fatigue protocols (p fatigue at either proximal or distal joints. The identified differences between proximal and distal muscle fatigue adaptations could facilitate risk assessment of occupational tasks. PMID:28235005

  18. Open Reduction of Proximal Interphalangeal Fracture-Dislocation through a Midlateral Incision Using Absorbable Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Jun Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP joint is a relatively common injury. Various treatments for fracture-dislocation of the PIP joint have been reported. In the present study, we performed open reduction through a midlateral incision using absorbable sutures to reduce the small bone fragments and performed volar plate repair.MethodsWe treated nine patients with fracture-dislocation of the PIP joint with small fractured bone fragments too small for pinning or screw fixation. Patients with volar plate injury were treated with open reduction and volar plate repair at the periosteum of the middle phalangeal bone base by the modified Kessler method using absorbable sutures. All patients were placed in a dorsal aluminum extension block splint, which maintained the PIP joint in approximately 30 degrees of flexion to avoid excessive tension on the sutured volar plate.ResultsAt a mean final follow-up of postoperative 9 months, all patients were evaluated radiographically and had adequate alignment of the PIP joint and reduction of the displaced bone fragments. Range of motion was improved and there were no complications.ConclusionsThis technique is an excellent alternative to the current method of treating patients with fracture-dislocations that include small fragments that are too small for pinning or screw fixation. It is a less invasive surgical method and enables stable reduction and early exercise without noticeable complications.

  19. Exploiting kinematic constraints to compensate magnetic disturbances when calculating joint angles of approximate hinge joints from orientation estimates of inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidig, Daniel; Schauer, Thomas; Seel, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) have become a widely used tool for rehabilitation and other application domains in which human motion is analyzed using an ambulatory or wearable setup. Since the magnetic field is inhomogeneous in indoor environments and in the proximity of ferromagnetic material, standard orientation estimation and joint angle calculation algorithms often lead to inaccurate or even completely wrong results. One approach to circumvent this is to exploit the kinematic constraint that is induced by mechanical hinge joints and also by approximate hinge joints such as the knee joint and the finger (interphalangeal) joints of the human body. We propose a quaternion-based method for joint angle measurement for approximate hinge joints moving through inhomogeneous magnetic fields. The method exploits the kinematic constraint to compensate the error that the magnetic disturbances induce in the IMU orientation estimates. This is achieved by realtime estimation and correction of the relative heading (azimuth) error that is caused by the disturbance. Since the kinematic constraint does not allow heading correction when the joint axis is vertical, we extend the proposed method such that it improves accuracy and robustness when the joint is close to that singularity. We evaluate the method by simulations of a quick hand motion and study the effect of inaccurate sensor-to-segment (anatomical) calibration and joint constraint relaxations. As a main result, the proposed method is found to reduce the root-mean-square error of the joint angle from 25.8° to 2.6° in the presence of large magnetic disturbances.

  20. Multiset proximity spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kandil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A multiset is a collection of objects in which repetition of elements is essential. This paper is an attempt to explore the theoretical aspects of multiset by extending the notions of compact, proximity relation and proximal neighborhood to the multiset context. Examples of new multiset topologies, open multiset cover, compact multiset and many identities involving the concept of multiset have been introduced. Further, an integral examples of multiset proximity relations are obtained. A multiset topology induced by a multiset proximity relation on a multiset M has been presented. Also the concept of multiset δ- neighborhood in the multiset proximity space which furnishes an alternative approach to the study of multiset proximity spaces has been mentioned. Finally, some results on this new approach have been obtained and one of the most important results is: every T4- multiset space is semi-compatible with multiset proximity relation δ on M (Theorem 5.10.

  1. Treatment of three- and four-part proximal humeral fractures with locking proximal humerus plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Cheng; Li, Yu-Lin; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Wu, Qiang; Feng, Shi-Qing

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of the locking proximal humerus plate to treat proximal humerus fractures. A retrospective clinical trial. Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with locking proximal humerus plates. The deltopectoral anterolateral acromial approach was used to the proximal humerus; open reduction and locking proximal humerus plate were applied. Constant Score was used to measure the shoulder functional recovery, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to measure subjective evaluation of pain. The radiology was observed. After average 26.7 months, the average Constant Score was 72.6 ± 13.2 points and the average VAS was 1.2 ± 0.8 points. All the complications such as screw perforation into the glenohumeral joint, screws loosening, soft tissue infections, avascular necrosis and delayed union occurred in eight cases (11.8 %). The effectiveness of the locking proximal humerus plate was similar to other published literatures on treating fractures of the proximal humerus; however, a lower complications rate in short follow-up time was observed in this study. It may potentially provide a favorable option for treating three- or four-part fractures of the proximal humerus. Dealing with each particular fracture pattern, surgeons should have a decision of appropriate way to internal fixation.

  2. Short-term effects of self-mobilization with a strap on pain and range of motion of the wrist joint in patients with dorsal wrist pain when weight bearing through the hand: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Sung-Dae; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Park, Kyue-Nam; Kim, Si-Hyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock

    2013-12-01

    Dorsal wrist pain frequently occurs in weight bearing through the hand in patients with distal radius stress injuries, scaphoid impaction syndrome, and dorsal impingement. To improve the wrist extension motion, joint mobilization has been used. However, there is no report on the effects of mobilization on the range of motion (ROM) and pain onset in patients with dorsal wrist pain when weight bearing through the hand. This study determined the effects of self-mobilization with a strap (SMWS) while weight bearing through the hand on the ROM and force generated at the onset of pain (FGOP) and intensity in the wrist joints of patients with dorsal wrist pain. Fifteen patients (six men, nine women) with dorsal wrist pain during weight bearing through the hand were recruited from a workplace-based work-conditioning center. SMWS was applied during five visits for a 1-week period. Both passive and active wrist extension ROM, FGOP, and pain intensity (PI) while pushing down through the hand were measured before and after SMWS. Passive and active ROM of wrist extension and FGOP increased significantly after the five sessions over 1 week of SMWS (p wrist extension ROM and decrease wrist pain in patients with dorsal wrist pain during weight bearing through the hand. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. NUMERICAL CALCULUS REGARDING THE MOTION BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Cristian GRIGORE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The kinematic links motion is influenced mostly by the clearance size from the joint and the number of joints with clearance. The presented paper studies a particular kinematic chain as physical pendulum with clearance.

  4. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  5. Proximal tibiofibular dislocation: a case report and review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwe Weme, R. A.; Somford, M. P.; Schepers, T.

    2014-01-01

    An isolated dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint is uncommon. The mechanism of this injury is usually sports related. We present a case where initial X-rays did not show the tibiofibular joint dislocation conclusively. It was diagnosed after comparative bilateral AP X-rays of the knees

  6. Comparison of three drilling techniques for carpometacarpal joint arthrodesis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Hayley M; Panizzi, Luca; Allen, Andrew L; Woodbury, Murray R; Barber, Spencer M

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate 3 drilling techniques for arthrodesis of the equine carpometacarpal (CMC) joint. Experimental study. Cadaveric equine forelimbs (n=15). Limbs were divided into 3 groups (5 limbs each) to evaluate 3 drilling techniques: (1) use of a 4.5 mm drill bit inserted into the joint through 4 entry points and moved in a fanning motion; (2) a 5.5 mm drill bit inserted through 2 entry points to create 3 nonfanned drill tracts (3 drill technique); and (3) a 4.5 mm drill bit used in a 3 drill technique. The CMC joint was disarticulated after drilling, and cartilage and subchondral bone damage evaluated visually and by gross and microradiographic examination using planimetry. Technique 1 produced significantly more damage of the proximal surface, but significantly less to the subchondral bone of the distal surface. Technique 1 produced the most damage to both the articular cartilage and subchondral bone of the total CMC joint than either of the 3 drill tract techniques; however, the difference between techniques 1 and 2 was not significant. Damage from technique 3 was significantly less than that with techniques 1 or 2. Techniques 1 and 2 produced the most cartilage and subchondral bone damage with technique 2 changes more equally distributed between proximal and distal joint surfaces. Technique 1 (fanning) and 2 (5.5 mm 3 drill tracts) may be preferable to achieve arthrodesis of the CMC joint. Morbidity and efficacy of these arthrodesis techniques need to be evaluated in vivo.

  7. Joint surface reconstruction and 4D deformation estimation from sparse data and prior knowledge for marker-less Respiratory motion tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkels, Benjamin; Bauer, Sebastian; Ettl, Svenja; Arold, Oliver; Hornegger, Joachim; Rumpf, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The intraprocedural tracking of respiratory motion has the potential to substantially improve image-guided diagnosis and interventions. The authors have developed a sparse-to-dense registration approach that is capable of recovering the patient's external 3D body surface and estimating a 4D (3D + time) surface motion field from sparse sampling data and patient-specific prior shape knowledge. The system utilizes an emerging marker-less and laser-based active triangulation (AT) sensor that delivers sparse but highly accurate 3D measurements in real-time. These sparse position measurements are registered with a dense reference surface extracted from planning data. Thereby a dense displacement field is recovered, which describes the spatio-temporal 4D deformation of the complete patient body surface, depending on the type and state of respiration. It yields both a reconstruction of the instantaneous patient shape and a high-dimensional respiratory surrogate for respiratory motion tracking. The method is validated on a 4D CT respiration phantom and evaluated on both real data from an AT prototype and synthetic data sampled from dense surface scans acquired with a structured-light scanner. In the experiments, the authors estimated surface motion fields with the proposed algorithm on 256 datasets from 16 subjects and in different respiration states, achieving a mean surface reconstruction accuracy of ± 0.23 mm with respect to ground truth data-down from a mean initial surface mismatch of 5.66 mm. The 95th percentile of the local residual mesh-to-mesh distance after registration did not exceed 1.17 mm for any subject. On average, the total runtime of our proof of concept CPU implementation is 2.3 s per frame, outperforming related work substantially. In external beam radiation therapy, the approach holds potential for patient monitoring during treatment using the reconstructed surface, and for motion-compensated dose delivery using the estimated 4D surface motion field in

  8. Consequences of Avulsion Fracture of the Proximal Phalanx Caused by a Technical Failure of Hallux Valgus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Uk; Lee, Kyung Tai; Jegal, Hyuk; Kim, Ki Chun; Choo, Ho Sik; Kweon, Heon Ju

    2016-01-01

    Several cases of avulsion fracture of the proximal phalanx of the big toe during the lateral capsular release procedure were observed. However, these fractures have not been reported as a complication of hallux valgus surgery. The purpose of the present study was to report the proximal phalanx base fracture as an unrecognized complication and to evaluate the clinical and radiographic consequences of this complication. We retrospectively reviewed 225 feet that had undergone hallux valgus surgery involving proximal chevron osteotomy and distal soft tissue release from May 2009 to December 2012. Of these 225 feet (198 patients), 12 (5.3%) developed proximal phalanx base fracture postoperatively. These patients were assigned to the fracture group. The remaining patients were assigned to the nonfracture group. Patients were followed to observe whether the fractures united and whether degenerative changes developed at the first metatarsophalangeal joint because of this fracture. The mean follow-up period was 36 (range 12 to 72) months. All the subjects in the fracture and nonfracture groups underwent weightbearing anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the foot at the initial presentation and final follow-up point. The 2 groups were compared with respect to the hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, range of motion, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score, satisfaction, and degenerative changes. No significant differences were found in age, follow-up period, hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score, satisfaction, and degenerative changes between the 2 groups. Ten (83.3%) of the 12 fractures healed, 2 (16.7% of the fractures, 0.89% of the operated feet) progressed to asymptomatic nonunion, and 3 (1.33%) developed first metatarsophalangeal joint degeneration. Avulsion fracture of the proximal phalanx of the big toe is an uncommon complication of

  9. TU-AB-BRA-06: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): An MRI Compatible Externally and Internally Deformable Lung Motion Phantom for Multi-Modality IGRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabouri, P; Sawant, A [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Arai, T [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: MRI has become an attractive tool for tumor motion management. Current MR-compatible phantoms are only capable of reproducing translational motion. This study describes the construction and validation of a more realistic, MRI-compatible lung phantom that is deformable internally as well as externally. We demonstrate a radiotherapy application of this phantom by validating the geometric accuracy of the open-source deformable image registration software NiftyReg (UCL, UK). Methods: The outer shell of a commercially-available dynamic breathing torso phantom was filled with natural latex foam with eleven water tubes. A rigid foam cut-out served as the diaphragm. A high-precision programmable, in-house, MRI-compatible motion platform was used to drive the diaphragm. The phantom was imaged on a 3T scanner (Philips, Ingenia). Twenty seven tumor traces previously recorded from lung cancer patients were programmed into the phantom and 2D+t image sequences were acquired using a sparse-sampling sequence k-t BLAST (accn=3, resolution=0.66×0.66×5mm3; acquisition-time=110ms/slice). The geometric fidelity of the MRI-derived trajectories was validated against those obtained via fluoroscopy using the on board kV imager on a Truebeam linac. NiftyReg was used to perform frame by frame deformable image registration. The location of each marker predicted by using NiftyReg was compared with the values calculated by intensity-based segmentation on each frame. Results: In all cases, MR trajectories were within 1 mm of corresponding fluoroscopy trajectories. RMSE between centroid positions obtained from segmentation with those obtained by NiftyReg varies from 0.1 to 0.21 mm in the SI direction and 0.08 to 0.13 mm in the LR direction showing the high accuracy of deformable registration. Conclusion: We have successfully designed and demonstrated a phantom that can accurately reproduce deformable motion under a variety of imaging modalities including MRI, CT and x-ray fluodoscopy

  10. 14 CFR 23.693 - Joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joints. 23.693 Section 23.693 Aeronautics... Systems § 23.693 Joints. Control system joints (in push-pull systems) that are subject to angular motion... factor may be reduced to 2.0 for joints in cable control systems. For ball or roller bearings, the...

  11. Use of an inverse dynamics method to compare the three-dimensional motion of the pelvic limb among clinically normal dogs and dogs with cranial cruciate ligament-deficient stifle joints following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy or lateral fabellar-tibial suture stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headrick, Jason F; Zhang, Songning; Millard, Ralph P; Rohrbach, Barton W; Weigel, Joseph P; Millis, Darryl L

    2014-06-01

    To compare the 3-D motion of the pelvic limb among clinically normal dogs and dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)-deficient stifle joints following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) or lateral fabellar-tibial suture (LFS) stabilization by use of an inverse dynamics method. 6 clinically normal dogs and 19 dogs with CCL-deficient stifle joints that had undergone TPLO (n = 13) or LFS (6) stabilization at a mean of 4 and 8 years, respectively, prior to evaluation. For all dogs, an inverse dynamics method was used to describe the motion of the pelvic limbs in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes. Motion and energy patterns for the hip, stifle, and tibiotarsal (hock) joints in all 3 planes were compared among the 3 groups. Compared with corresponding variables for clinically normal dogs, the hip joint was more extended at the beginning of the stance phase in the sagittal plane for dogs that had a TPLO performed and the maximum power across the stifle joint in the frontal plane was greater for dogs that had an LFS procedure performed. Otherwise, variables in all planes were similar among the 3 groups. Gait characteristics of the pelvic limb did not differ between dogs that underwent TPLO and dogs that underwent an LFS procedure for CCL repair and were similar to those of clinically normal dogs. Both TPLO and LFS successfully provided long-term stabilization of CCL-deficient stifle joints of dogs with minimal alterations in gait.

  12. Assessing Finger Joint Biomechanics by Applying Equal Force to Flexor Tendons In Vitro Using a Novel Simultaneous Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Hua Yang

    Full Text Available The flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP are critical for finger flexion. Although research has recently focused on these tendons' coactivity, their contributions in different tasks remain unclear. This study created a novel simultaneous approach to investigate the coactivity between the tendons and to clarify their contributions in different tasks.Ten human cadaveric hands were mounted on our custom frame with the FDS and FDP of the third finger looped through a mechanical pulley connected to a force transducer. Joint range of motion, tendon excursion and loading force were recorded during individual joint motion and free joint movement from rest to maximal flexion. Each flexor tendon's moment arm was then calculated.In individual motions, we found that the FDP contributed more than the FDS in proximal interphalangeal (PIP joint motion, with an overall slope of 1.34 and all FDP-to-FDS excursion (P/S ratios greater than 1.0 with force increase. However, the FDP contributed less than the FDS in metacarpophalangeal (MCP joint motion, with an overall slope of 0.95 and P/S ratios smaller than 1.0 throughout the whole motion except between 1.9% and 13.1% force. In free joint movement, the FDP played a greater role than the FDS, with an overall ratio of 1.37 and all P/S ratios greater than 1.0.The new findings include differences in finger performance and excursion amounts between the FDS and FDP throughout flexion. Such findings may provide the basis for new hand models and treatments.

  13. Plate fixation of extra-articular fractures of the proximal phalanx: do new implants cause less problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei-Thoma, Pascale; Vögelin, Esther; Franz, Torsten

    2015-03-01

    Limited range of finger motion is a frequent complication after plate fixation of phalangeal fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of plate fixation of extra-articular fractures of the proximal phalanx using current low-profile mini-fragment-systems. From 2006 to 2012, 32 patients with 36 extra-articular fractures of the proximal phalanx of the triphalangeal fingers were treated with open reduction and plate fixation (ORPF) using 1.2 and 1.5 mm mini-fragment systems. Patients presenting with open fractures grade 2 and 3 or relevant laceration of adjacent structures were excluded from the study. We retrospectively evaluated the rate of mal-union or non-union after ORPF, the need for revision surgery, for plate removal, and for tenolysis. Data were analyzed for further complications with regard to infections or complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). No infections were noted. Five patients developed transient symptoms of CRPS. Six weeks postoperatively, total active finger motion (TAM) averaged 183°, and all 32 patients underwent formal hand therapy. At the latest follow-up or at the time of plate removal, respectively, the mean TAM improved to 213°. Extension lag of proximal interphalangeal joints was found in 67 % of all fractured fingers. Secondary surgery was necessary in 14 of 32 patients (2 corrective osteotomies, 12 plate removals including 7 procedures explicitly because of reduced mobility). Despite of new implant designs significant problems persist. Adhesions of extensor tendons leading to limited range of finger motion are still the most frequent complications after ORPF of proximal phalangeal fractures, even in absence of significant soft-tissue damage. Therapeutic, Retrospective, Level IV.

  14. Isolated Proximal Tibiofibular Dislocation during Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Chiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal tibiofibular dislocations are rarely encountered in the Emergency Department (ED. We present a case involving a man presenting to the ED with left knee pain after making a sharp left turn on the soccer field. His physical exam was only remarkable for tenderness over the lateral fibular head. His X-rays showed subtle abnormalities of the tibiofibular joint. The dislocation was reduced and the patient was discharged from the ED with orthopedic follow-up.

  15. TU-F-17A-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY) - An Automatic Toolkit for Efficient and Robust Analysis of 4D Respiratory Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, J [City College of New York, New York, NY (United States); Yuan, A; Li, G [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To provide an automatic image analysis toolkit to process thoracic 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and extract patient-specific motion information to facilitate investigational or clinical use of 4DCT. Methods: We developed an automatic toolkit in MATLAB to overcome the extra workload from the time dimension in 4DCT. This toolkit employs image/signal processing, computer vision, and machine learning methods to visualize, segment, register, and characterize lung 4DCT automatically or interactively. A fully-automated 3D lung segmentation algorithm was designed and 4D lung segmentation was achieved in batch mode. Voxel counting was used to calculate volume variations of the torso, lung and its air component, and local volume changes at the diaphragm and chest wall to characterize breathing pattern. Segmented lung volumes in 12 patients are compared with those from a treatment planning system (TPS). Voxel conversion was introduced from CT# to other physical parameters, such as gravity-induced pressure, to create a secondary 4D image. A demon algorithm was applied in deformable image registration and motion trajectories were extracted automatically. Calculated motion parameters were plotted with various templates. Machine learning algorithms, such as Naive Bayes and random forests, were implemented to study respiratory motion. This toolkit is complementary to and will be integrated with the Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR). Results: The automatic 4D image/data processing toolkit provides a platform for analysis of 4D images and datasets. It processes 4D data automatically in batch mode and provides interactive visual verification for manual adjustments. The discrepancy in lung volume calculation between this and the TPS is <±2% and the time saving is by 1–2 orders of magnitude. Conclusion: A framework of 4D toolkit has been developed to analyze thoracic 4DCT automatically or interactively, facilitating both investigational

  16. Proximal-to-distal sequencing in vertical jumping with and without arm swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Loren Z F; Bryanton, Megan A; Moolyk, Amy N

    2014-05-01

    Vertical jumping performance is dependent on muscle strength and motor skill. An understanding of motor skill strategies and their influence on jumping mechanics provides insight into how to improve performance. This study aimed to determine whether kinematic sequencing strategy influenced jump height, the effect of sequencing on jumping mechanics, and whether arm swing influences sequencing strategy. Women volleyball players (n = 16) performed vertical jumps with and without arm swing on force platforms while recorded with a 6-camera motion capture system. Sequencing strategy was determined as the relative time delay between pelvis and knee extension. A long time delay indicated a proximal-to-distal strategy, whereas no time delay represented a simultaneous strategy. Longer relative time delay was correlated with higher jump height in jumps with (r = 0.82, p jump height were associated with greater hip extensor and ankle plantar flexor net joint moments (NJM), and greater ratio of concentric to eccentric knee extensor NJM (p ≤ 0.05). Longer relative time delay and higher jump height were correlated with greater thigh and leg angular accelerations (p ≤ 0.05). These kinetic and kinematic variables, along with relative time delay and jump height were greater in jumps with arm swing than without (p ≤ 0.05), indicating arm swing promotes use of a proximal-to-distal strategy. Use of a proximal-to-distal strategy is associated with greater NJM and segment accelerations, which may contribute to better vertical jump performance.

  17. EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPING ALONG WITH QUADRICEPS STRENGTHENING EXERCISES ON PAIN, JOINT RANGE OF MOTION AND FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES OF KNEE IN SUBJECTS WITH PATELLOFEMORAL OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Harshitha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patello femoral Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative disease in older age group, causing pain, physical disability, and decreased quality of life.As many treatment options available, kinesiotaping is an efficacious treatment for management of pain & disability in patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Previous studies have shown that kinesiotaping as well as quadriceps strengthening significantly yields functional benefits. But there is lack of evidence revealing combined effectiveness & effects of kinesiotaping along with quadriceps strengthening in subjects with patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis. Methods: 30 subjects with symptoms of patellofemoral osteoarthritis fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 15 in each group. Taping along with quadriceps strengthening program is compared to the quadriceps strengthening program alone. Pain were measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, knee ROM were measured by Goniometer, Functional status were measured by Western Ontario McMaster Universities index (WOMAC, score. Measurements were taken pre & post intervention. Results: The results indicated that kinesiotaping along with quadriceps strengthening exercises showed there was statistically significant improvement in pain (<0.05, knee ROM (<0.05 and functional activities (<0.05 after 6 weeks compared to quadriceps strengthening alone. Conclusion: Subjects with kinesiotaping along with quadriceps strengthening showed significant improvement in reducing pain, in improving ROM & functional activities at the end of 6th week treatment when compared to subjects with patellofemoral osteoarthritis underwent quadriceps strengthening exercises alone.

  18. Variability of leg kinematics in free-walking crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, and related inter-joint coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamon; Clarac

    1997-01-01

    The inter-joint coordination in leg 4 of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii was investigated while they travelled freely along straight paths. Video analysis of the kinematics of the leg's three-dimensional motion, combined with a statistical method based on conjugate cross-correlation functions, showed stable inter-joint coordination in the leg kinematics. In particular, the inter-joint coordination involved a strong movement in the distal mero-carpopodite (M-C) joint occurring between the movements of the proximal thoraco-coxopodite and coxo-basal joints; thus, the leg extended during the swing phase and flexed during the stance phase. This synchronisation was mainly independent of global changes in the locomotor pattern induced by variation in speed or contralateral inter-leg coupling which occurred during free walking. The main changes in inter-joint coordination were found to be related to the appearance of a biphasic flexion/extension movement during each stroke of the step cycle when the leg retracted far backwards. This movement was observed more frequently in large animals and was therefore possibly related to changes in postural control. The functional role of this distal M-C joint movement in the leg motion is discussed.

  19. TEMPOROMANDIBULAR-JOINT OSTEOARTHROSIS AND TEMPOROMANDIBULAR-JOINT HYPERMOBILITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIJKSTRA, PU; DEBONT, LGM; DELEEUW, R; STEGENGA, B; BOERING, G

    1993-01-01

    For studying the relationship between condylar hypermobility of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and osteoarthrosis (OA), 13 patients with bilateral condylar hypermobility were evaluated clinically and radiographically, 30 years after non-surgical treatment. The evaluation included range of motion,

  20. Pathological fractures of the proximal humerus treated with a proximal humeral locking plate and bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, H J; Lopez-Ben, R; Mann, J P; Ponce, B A

    2010-05-01

    Bone loss secondary to primary or metastatic lesions of the proximal humerus remains a challenging surgical problem. Options include preservation of the joint with stabilisation using internal fixation or resection of the tumour with prosthetic replacement. Resection of the proximal humerus often includes the greater tuberosity and adjacent diaphysis, which may result in poor function secondary to loss of the rotator cuff and/or deltoid function. Preservation of the joint with internal fixation may reduce the time in hospital and peri-operative morbidity compared with joint replacement, and result in a better functional outcome. We included 32 patients with pathological fractures of the proximal humerus in this study. Functional and radiological assessments were performed. At a mean follow-up of 17.6 months (8 to 61) there was no radiological evidence of failure of fixation. The mean revised musculoskeletal Tumour Society functional score was 94.6% (86% to 99%). There was recurrent tumour requiring further surgery in four patients (12.5%). Of the 22 patients who were employed prior to presentation all returned to work without restrictions. The use of a locking plate combined with augmentation with cement extends the indications for salvage of the proximal humerus with good function in patients with pathological and impending pathological fractures.

  1. Rehabilitation of proximal hamstring tendinopathy utilizing eccentric training, lumbopelvic stabilization, and trigger point dry needling: 2 case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaseelan, Dhinu J; Moats, Nick; Ricardo, Christopher R

    2014-03-01

    Case report. Proximal hamstring tendinopathy is a relatively uncommon overuse injury seen in runners. In contrast to the significant amount of literature guiding the evaluation and treatment of hamstring strains, there is little literature about the physical therapy management of proximal hamstring tendinopathy, other than the general recommendations to increase strength and flexibility. Two runners were treated in physical therapy for proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Each presented with buttock pain with running and sitting, as well as tenderness to palpation at the ischial tuberosity. Each patient was prescribed a specific exercise program focusing on eccentric loading of the hamstrings and lumbopelvic stabilization exercises. Trigger point dry needling was also used with both runners to facilitate improved joint motion and to decrease pain. Both patients were treated in 8 to 9 visits over 8 to 10 weeks. Clinically significant improvements were seen in pain, tenderness, and function in each case. Each patient returned to running and sitting without symptoms. Proximal hamstring tendinopathy can be difficult to treat. In these 2 runners, eccentric loading of the hamstrings, lumbopelvic stabilization exercises, and trigger point dry needling provided short- and long-term pain reduction and functional benefits. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of this cluster of interventions for this condition. Therapy, level 4.

  2. Regular Mechanical Transformation of Rotations Into Translations: Part 2. Kinematic Synthesis of the Elements of High Kinematic Joints, Realizing the Process of Motions Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadjieva, Emilia; Abadjiev, Valentin

    2017-09-01

    This work is developed on the basis of the illustrated main parts of the kinematic theory (theory of gearing) of the spatial rack drives in Part 1 of this study. The applied theoretical approach to their synthesis, based on the T. Olivier's second principle is defined. A study of the geometric nature of the surface of action (mesh region, respectively) of these class transmissions is shown. Research software programs for synthesis and visualization of these transmissions and their specific elements are elaborated, on the basis of the given algorithms to the synthesis of the elements of high kinematic joints (active tooth surfaces), with which the movable links of the studied gear systems are equipped.

  3. Joint mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Deborah Gross; Walker, J Randy; Levine, David

    2005-11-01

    Therapeutic touch has been used in human beings to soothe aches and pains. Most dogs also seem to enjoy being touched. Manual therapy techniques are skilled hand movements intended to improve tissue extensibility; increase range of motion; induce relaxation; mobilize or manipulate soft tissue and joints; modulate pain; and reduce soft tissue swelling, inflammation, or restriction. The intent of this article is to provide an overview of the principles of manual therapy, followed by selected treatment techniques for the hip, stifle, elbow, shoulder, carpus.and thoracic and lumbar spine. The techniques of G.D. Maitland, an Australian physical therapist who developed a clinically based approach in the 1960s and 1970s, are emphasized.

  4. Capacitive proximity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  5. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  6. Joint-sparing Corrections in Malunited Lisfranc Joint Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Caio; Raduan, Fernando; Baumfeld, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Lisfranc fracture-dislocations are very serious and potentially disabling injuries. Unfortunately, they are often misdiagnosed. Multiplanar midfoot deformities that result from these fracture-dislocations are precursors of joint degeneration and significant functional disabilities. Anatomic reduction with different types of internal fixation is an efficient method to reconstruct midfoot alignment and stability. Joint-preserving reconstruction techniques emerge as a viable alternative to corrective fusion as they achieve stable joint realignment with preserved motion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Non-Contact Measurement System for the Range of Motion of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trieu Pham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An accurate and standardised tool to measure the active range of motion (ROM of the hand is essential to any progressive assessment scenario in hand therapy practice. Goniometers are widely used in clinical settings for measuring the ROM of the hand. However, such measurements have limitations with regard to inter-rater and intra-rater reliability and involve direct physical contact with the hand, possibly increasing the risk of transmitting infections. The system proposed in this paper is the first non-contact measurement system utilising Intel Perceptual Technology and a Senz3D Camera for measuring phalangeal joint angles. To enhance the accuracy of the system, we developed a new approach to achieve the total active movement without measuring three joint angles individually. An equation between the actual spacial position and measurement value of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint was established through the measurement values of the total active movement, so that its actual position can be inferred. Verified by computer simulations, experimental results demonstrated a significant improvement in the calculation of the total active movement and successfully recovered the actual position of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint angles. A trial that was conducted to examine the clinical applicability of the system involving 40 healthy subjects confirmed the practicability and consistency in the proposed system. The time efficiency conveyed a stronger argument for this system to replace the current practice of using goniometers.

  8. Atrofia muscular proximal familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1962-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.

  9. A technique for quantifying wrist motion using four-dimensional computed tomography: approach and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kristin; Breighner, Ryan; Holmes, David; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia; An, Kai-Nan

    2015-07-01

    Accurate quantification of subtle wrist motion changes resulting from ligament injuries is crucial for diagnosis and prescription of the most effective interventions for preventing progression to osteoarthritis. Current imaging techniques are unable to detect injuries reliably and are static in nature, thereby capturing bone position information rather than motion which is indicative of ligament injury. A recently developed technique, 4D (three dimensions + time) computed tomography (CT) enables three-dimensional volume sequences to be obtained during wrist motion. The next step in successful clinical implementation of the tool is quantification and validation of imaging biomarkers obtained from the four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) image sequences. Measures of bone motion and joint proximities are obtained by: segmenting bone volumes in each frame of the dynamic sequence, registering their positions relative to a known static posture, and generating surface polygonal meshes from which minimum distance (proximity) measures can be quantified. Method accuracy was assessed during in vitro simulated wrist movement by comparing a fiducial bead-based determination of bone orientation to a bone-based approach. The reported errors for the 4DCT technique were: 0.00-0.68 deg in rotation; 0.02-0.30 mm in translation. Results are on the order of the reported accuracy of other image-based kinematic techniques.

  10. [Experimental proximal carpectomy. Biodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J N

    1992-01-01

    Proximal carpectomy was performed in 10 fresh cadavre wrists. Dynamic x-rays were taken and the forces necessary to obtain different movements before and after the operation were measured. Comparison of these parameters clearly defines the advantages and limitations of carpectomy and indicates the reasons.

  11. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  12. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Currently selected Injections and other Procedures Treatments ... from which the bone was taken if the foot/ankle surgeries done at the same time allow for it. ... problems after a PTBG include infection, fracture of the proximal tibia and pain related ...

  13. Vascularized proximal fibular epiphyseal transfer for distal radial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Marco; Delcroix, Luca; Manfrini, Marco; Ceruso, Massimo; Capanna, Rodolfo

    2005-09-01

    Treatment of the loss of the distal part of the radius, including the physis and epiphysis, in a skeletally immature patient requires both replacement of the osseous defect and restoration of longitudinal growth. Autologous vascularized epiphyseal transfer is the only possible procedure that can meet both requirements. Between 1993 and 2002, six patients with a mean age of 8.4 years (range, six to eleven years) who had a malignant bone tumor in the distal part of the radius underwent microsurgical reconstruction of the distal part of the radius with a vascularized proximal fibular transfer, including the physis and a variable length of the diaphysis. All of the grafts were supplied by the anterior tibial vascular network. The rate of survival and bone union of the graft, the growth rate per year, the ratio between the lengths of the ulna and the reconstructed radius, and the range of motion of the wrist were evaluated for five of the six patients who had been followed for three years or more. The mean duration of follow-up of the six patients was 4.4 years (range, eight months to nine years). All six transfers survived and united with the host bone within two months postoperatively. The five patients who were followed for three years or more had consistent and predictable longitudinal growth. Serial radiographs revealed remodeling of the articular surface. The functional result was rated as excellent for all but one patient, in whom the distal part of the ulna had also been resected because of neoplastic involvement. No major complication occurred at the recipient site, whereas a peroneal nerve palsy occurred at the donor site in three patients. The palsy was transient in two patients, but it persisted in one. No instability of the knee joint was observed. After radical resection of the distal part of the radius because of a neoplasm in children, vascularized proximal fibular transfer, based on the anterior tibial artery, permits a one-stage skeletal and joint

  14. Pseudoarthrosis following proximal humeral fractures: A possible mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooney, P.J.; Cockshott, W.P.

    1986-01-01

    A small series of four patients with pseudarthrosis of the proximal humeral shaft is reported. These patients all had restricted movement of the shoulder joint prior to the trauma, three as a result of rheumatoid arthritis and one due a surgical fusion of the glenohumeral joint. It is suggested that pseudarthrosis is more likely under these circumstances and that pursuit of union of the fracture in such patients may not always be necessary.

  15. Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motion sickness is a common problem in people traveling by car, train, airplanes, and especially boats. Anyone ... children, pregnant women, and people taking certain medicines. Motion sickness can start suddenly, with a queasy feeling ...

  16. 14 CFR 25.693 - Joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joints. 25.693 Section 25.693 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.693 Joints. Control system joints (in push-pull systems) that are subject to angular motion, except those in ball and roller...

  17. SINA: A test system for proximity fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruizenaar, M. G. A.

    1989-04-01

    SINA, a signal generator that can be used for testing proximity fuses, is described. The circuitry of proximity fuses is presented; the output signal of the RF circuit results from a mixing of the emitted signal and received signal that is Doppler shifted in frequency by the relative motion of the fuse with respect to the reflecting target of surface. With SINA, digitized and stored target and clutter signals (previously measured) can be transformed to Doppler signals, for example during a real flight. SINA can be used for testing fuse circuitry, for example in the verification of results of computer simulations of the low frequency Doppler signal processing. The software of SINA and its use are explained.

  18. Motion sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.; Kruit, H.

    2000-01-01

    The number of recently published papers on motion sickness may convey the impression that motion sickness is far from being understood. The current review focusses on a concept which tends to unify the different manifestations and theories of motion sickness. The paper highlights the relations

  19. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    -displaced femoral neck fractures and prosthesis for displaced among the elderly; and sliding hip screw for stabile- and intramedullary nails for unstable- and sub-trochanteric fractures) but they are based on a variety of criteria and definitions - and often leave wide space for the individual surgeons' subjective...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  20. Proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures may present with many different configurations in patients with varying co-morbities and expectations. As a result, the treating physician must understand the fracture pattern, the quality of the bone, other patient-related factors, and the expanding range of reconstructive options to achieve the best functional outcome and to minimize complications. Current treatment options range from non-operative treatment with physical therapy to fracture fixation using percuta...

  1. Proximal iliotibial band syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Guadagnini Falotico

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The overuse injuries in the hip joint occur commonly in sports practitioners and currently due to technical advances in diagnostic imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, are often misdiagnosed. Recently, a group of people were reported, all female, with pain and swelling in the pelvic region.T2-weighted MRI showed increased signal in the enthesis of the iliotibial band (ITB along the lower border of the iliac tubercle. We report a case of a 34 year old woman, non-professional runner, with pain at the iliac crest with no history of trauma and whose MRI was compatible with the proximal iliotibial band syndrome.

  2. Customized Knee Prosthesis in Treatment of Giant Cell Tumors of the Proximal Tibia: Application of 3-Dimensional Printing Technology in Surgical Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenbin; Huang, Lanfeng; Liu, He; Qu, Wenrui; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Chenyu; Li, Chen; Yu, Tao; Han, Qing; Wang, Jincheng; Qin, Yanguo

    2017-04-07

    BACKGROUND We explored the application of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology in treating giant cell tumors (GCT) of the proximal tibia. A tibia block was designed and produced through 3D printing technology. We expected that this 3D-printed block would fill the bone defect after en-bloc resection. Importantly, the block, combined with a standard knee joint prosthesis, provided attachments for collateral ligaments of the knee, which can maintain knee stability. MATERIAL AND METHODS A computed tomography (CT) scan was taken of both knee joints in 4 patients with GCT of the proximal tibia. We developed a novel technique - the real-size 3D-printed proximal tibia model - to design preoperative treatment plans. Hence, with the application of 3D printing technology, a customized proximal tibia block could be designed for each patient individually, which fixed the bone defect, combined with standard knee prosthesis. RESULTS In all 4 cases, the 3D-printed block fitted the bone defect precisely. The motion range of the affected knee was 90 degrees on average, and the soft tissue balance and stability of the knee were good. After an average 7-month follow-up, the MSTS score was 19 on average. No sign of prosthesis fracture, loosening, or other relevant complications were detected. CONCLUSIONS This technique can be used to treat GCT of the proximal tibia when it is hard to achieve soft tissue balance after tumor resection. 3D printing technology simplified the design and manufacturing progress of custom-made orthopedic medical instruments. This new surgical technique could be much more widely applied because of 3D printing technology.

  3. Proximal focal femoral deficiency in Ibadan a developing country's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2011-06-09

    Jun 9, 2011 ... The major problems are limb length inequality and variable inadequacy of the proximal femoral musculature and hip joint. Treatment is indicated and ranges from amputation and prosthetic rehabilitation to limb salvage, lengthening, and hip re- construction. Until the early 1960s, treatment for PFFD at the St.

  4. Outcome of plate osteosynthesis in the management of proximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This paper reports the aetiology, presentation and management of proximal humeral fractures (PHF) in our setup. Objective: To ... Five of thirty two operated cases (15%) developed significant shoulder joint stiffness. ... There is need for arthroplasty in those with severe injury, particularly those with osteoporosis.

  5. Effectiveness of adaptive silverware on range of motion of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S. McDonald

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hand function is essential to a person’s self-efficacy and greatly affects quality of life. Adapted utensils with handles of increased diameters have historically been used to assist individuals with arthritis or other hand disabilities for feeding, and other related activities of daily living. To date, minimal research has examined the biomechanical effects of modified handles, or quantified the differences in ranges of motion (ROM when using a standard versus a modified handle. The aim of this study was to quantify the ranges of motion (ROM required for a healthy hand to use different adaptive spoons with electrogoniometry for the purpose of understanding the physiologic advantages that adapted spoons may provide patients with limited ROM. Methods. Hand measurements included the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP, proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP, and metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP for each finger and the interphalangeal (IP and MCP joint for the thumb. Participants were 34 females age 18–30 (mean age 20.38 ± 1.67 with no previous hand injuries or abnormalities. Participants grasped spoons with standard handles, and spoons with handle diameters of 3.18 cm (1.25 inch, and 4.45 cm (1.75 inch. ROM measurements were obtained with an electrogoniometer to record the angle at each joint for each of the spoon handle sizes. Results. A 3 × 3 × 4 repeated measures ANOVA (Spoon handle size by Joint by Finger found main effects on ROM of Joint (F(2, 33 = 318.68, Partial η2 = .95, p < .001, Spoon handle size (F(2, 33 = 598.73, Partial η2 = .97, p < .001, and Finger (F(3, 32 = 163.83, Partial η2 = .94, p < .001. As the spoon handle diameter size increased, the range of motion utilized to grasp the spoon handle decreased in all joints and all fingers (p < 0.01. Discussion. This study confirms the hypothesis that less range of motion is required to grip utensils with larger diameter handles, which in turn may reduce challenges for

  6. The effect of different design concepts in lumbar total disc arthroplasty on the range of motion, facet joint forces and instantaneous center of rotation of a L4-5 segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hendrik; Midderhoff, Stefan; Adkins, Kyle; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2009-11-01

    Although both unconstrained and constrained core lumbar artificial disc designs are in clinical use, the effect of their design on the range of motion, center of rotations, and facet joint forces is not well understood. It is assumed that the constrained configuration causes a fixed center of rotation with high facet forces, while the unconstrained configuration leads to a moving center of rotation with lower loaded facets. The authors disagree with both assumptions and hypothesized that the two different designs do not lead to substantial differences in the results. For the different implant designs, a three-dimensional finite element model was created and subsequently inserted into a validated model of a L4-5 lumbar spinal segment. The unconstrained design was represented by two implants, the Charité disc and a newly developed disc prosthesis: Slide-Disc. The constrained design was obtained by a modification of the Slide-Disc whereby the inner core was rigidly connected to the lower metallic endplate. The models were exposed to an axial compression preload of 1,000 N. Pure unconstrained moments of 7.5 Nm were subsequently applied to the three anatomical main planes. Except for extension, the models predicted only small and moderate inter-implant differences. The calculated values were close to those of the intact segment. For extension, a large difference of about 45% was calculated between both Slide-Disc designs and the Charité disc. The models predicted higher facet forces for the implants with an unconstrained core compared to an implant with a constrained core. All implants caused a moving center of rotation. Except for axial rotation, the unconstrained and constrained configurations mimicked the intact situation. In axial rotation, only the Slide- Disc with mobile core reproduced the intact behavior. Results partially support our hypothesis and imply that different implant designs do not lead to strong differences in the range of motion and the location

  7. Fractures of the Proximal Third Tibia Treated With Intramedullary Interlocking Nails and Blocking Screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanaty Mohamed Al-Toukhy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Internal splintage of proximal metaphyseal tibial fractures has gained acceptance as a method of early stabilization of such injuries. Intramedullary nailing is a challenging procedure. This study tries to evaluate treatment outcomes of closed reduction and intramedullary nailing with the aid of blocking screws to maintain the reduction and stabilize theses injuries. METHOD: Thirty patients (23 males and 7 females with proximal metaphyseal tibial fractures were treated and followed from June 2010 and February 2014 (44 months with average 19 months. Age ranged between 23 to 55 years (average, 38 years. According to A.O. Classification 13 cases were Type A2.1, 9 cases were Type A2.1 (II, and 8 cases were Type A3.2. Seven cases were open fractures and according to Gustilo Anderson classification 4 cases were Grade (I, 3 cases were Grade (II. All cases were treated by interlocking intramedullary tibial nailing assisted by the use of blocking screws technique. RESULTS: The results had been evaluated through the following parameters: (pain, union, malunion, infection, range of motions, walking capacity, extension lag, knee stability and implant and technical failure. All cases had been united. Excellent alignment obtained in 27 fractures (90%. Knee and Ankle joints range of motions were equivalent to the unaffected side in 25 patients (82%. Two patients got superficial wound infection (2.7%. The final functional results were evaluated through modified Karlstrom-Olerud Score and we get: Excellent: 20 cases (66.7%, Good: 7 cases (23.3%, Satisfactory: 2 cases (6.7% and Poor: 1 case (3.3%. DISCUSSION: Intramedullary nailing of proximal tibial fracture is a load sharing procedure, sparing the extraosseous blood supply, avoiding additional soft-tissue dissection, thereby minimizing the risk of postoperative complications. Also, it reduces the length of hospital stay and costs, enables early mobilization and achieves satisfactory outcomes

  8. A joint-constraint model for human joints using signed distance-fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Abel, Sarah Maria Niebe; Erleben, Kenny

    2012-01-01

    -constraint models for kinematic figures. Our model is compared to existing joint-constraint models, both in terms of generality and computational cost. The presented method supports joint-constraints of up to three degrees of freedom and works well with sampled motion data. Our model can be extended to handle inter......-joint dependencies, or joints with more than three degrees of freedom. The resolution of the joint-constraints can be tweaked individually for each degree of freedom, which can be used to optimize memory usage. We perform a comparative study of the key-properties of various joint-constraint models, as well...... as a performance study of our model compared to the fastest alternative, the box limit model. The study is performed on the shoulder joint, using a motion captured jumping motion as reference....

  9. Effect of ankle taping on knee and ankle joint biomechanics in sporting tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Karl K; Nicholls, Rochelle L; Winata, Andrianto R; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Boyle, Jeffrey J W; Lloyd, David G

    2010-11-01

    Prophylactic taping is commonly used to prevent ankle injuries during sports. However, unnatural constraint of the ankle joint may increase the risk of injury to proximal joints such as the knee. The association between ankle taping and knee joint loading during open sporting tasks has not been quantified. This research aimed to measure changes in knee and ankle kinetics and kinematics during dynamic athletic activities undertaken with and without ankle taping. A kinematic and inverse dynamics model was used to determine ankle and knee joint motion and loading in 22 healthy male participants undertaking running and sidestepping tasks. Both tasks were randomized to planned and unplanned conditions and undertaken with and without the use of ankle tape. At the knee, peak internal rotation moments (P < 0.001) and peak varus moments (P < 0.05) were significantly reduced during all running and sidestepping trials (planned and unplanned) when undertaken with ankle tape. Internal rotation impulse (P < 0.001) was reduced for sidestepping tasks. Varus impulse during unplanned sidestepping maneuvers (P = 0.04) was reduced with the use of ankle tape. However, there was a trend toward increased valgus moments and impulse for planned sidestepping trials undertaken with ankle tape(P = 0.056). Taping reduced the range of motion at the ankle in all three planes (P < 0.05). Peak inversion (P < 0.001) was reduced for running trials only. Average eversion and peak dorsiflexion moments were significantly reduced in sidestepping tasks by use of taping. By limiting motion at the ankle, taping increased mechanical stability at this joint. Ankle taping also provided protective benefits to the knee via reduced internal rotation moments and varus impulses during both planned and unplanned maneuvers. Medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligament injuries may, however, occur through increased valgus impulse during sidestepping undertaken with ankle tape.

  10. Demonstration of automated proximity and docking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert L.; Tsugawa, Roy K.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    Automated spacecraft docking operations are being performed using a full scale motion based simulator and an optical sensor. This presentation will discuss the work in progress at TRW and MSFC facilities to study the problem of automated proximity and docking operations. The docking sensor used in the MSFC Optical Sensor and simulation runs are performed using the MSFC Flat Floor Facility. The control algorithms and six degrees of freedom (6DOF) simulation software were developed at TRW and integrated into the MSFC facility. Key issues being studied are the quantification of docking sensor requirements and operational constraints necessary to perform automated docking maneuvers, control algorithms capable of performing automated docking in the presence of sensitive and noisy sensor data, and sensor technologies for automated proximity and docking operations. As part of this study the MSFC sensor characteristics were analyzed and modeled so that off line simulation runs can be performed for control algorithm testing. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate full 6DOF docking capabilities with actual sensors on the MSFC motion based simulator. We present findings from actual docking simulation runs which show sensor and control loop performance as well as problem areas which require close attention. The evolution of various control algorithms using both phase plane and Clohessy-Wiltshire techniques are discussed. In addition, 6DOF target acquisition and control strategies are described.

  11. Vascularized proximal fibular epiphyseal transfer for Bayne and Klug type III radial longitudinal deficiency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiantao; Qin, Bengang; Li, Ping; Fu, Guo; Xiang, Jianping; Gu, Liqiang

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of Bayne and Klug type III radial longitudinal deficiency with fibular epiphyseal transplantation in children has had limited success to date. The purpose of this investigation was to review the authors' results of microvascular epiphyseal transplantation for radial longitudinal deficiency. Between 2007 and 2009, four children with a mean age of 4.3 years (range, 3.3 to 5.8 years) who had a type III radial longitudinal deficiency underwent microsurgical reconstruction of the distal radius with vascularized proximal fibular transplantation, including the physis, partial superior tibiofibular joint, and a variable length of the diaphysis. All of the grafts were supplied by the inferior lateral genicular artery. In all patients, the range of motion of the digits, wrist, forearm, and elbow; the length of the forearm; and the deviation of the wrist were evaluated. The mean duration of follow-up was 42 months (range, 24 to 65 months). All four transfers survived and united with the host bone within 3 months postoperatively. An average correction of 28 degrees in the hand-forearm angle was obtained. Forearm length was 67.9 percent that of the normal side on average at the final follow-up. The overall range of wrist motion was approximately 55 percent that of the contralateral extremity. No major complications were observed. Vascularized proximal fibular epiphyseal transfer, based on the inferior lateral genicular artery, is a technically feasible method for treatment of type III radial longitudinal deficiency, which maintains hand-forearm alignment, provides excellent function, and minimizes the length discrepancy between the distal radius and ulna. Therapeutic, IV.

  12. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  13. The role of the antebrachiocarpal ligaments in the prevention of hyperextension of the antebrachiocarpal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, Joshua; Milshtein, Tomer; Meiner, Yaron

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the role of the medial collateral ligament, lateral collateral ligament, and the palmar carpal ligaments in the prevention of hyperextension of the antebrachiocarpal (AC) joint. In vitro experiment. Cadaveric canine thoracic limbs (n = 12 pair). Thoracic limbs from 12 healthy mixed breed dogs, free of carpal joint pathology, were assigned to 1 of 6 groups, defined by the order in which the ligaments stabilizing the AC joint were cut. The antebrachium, carpus, and proximal metacarpal (MC) bones were stripped of all muscle tissue, preserving the carpal joint capsule. After specimens were prepared for biomechanical testing, the manus was loaded using a system of weights and pulleys to extend the carpus. Extension was measured using a single motion tracking sensor fixed to the MC bones. All specimens were tested with all ligaments intact and after cutting each of the ligaments. Cutting each of the ligaments resulted in a significant change in the angle of extension of the carpus when compared with carpal extension with the ligaments intact. Cutting the palmar AC ligaments resulted in a significantly larger change in extension angle than occurred after cutting the medial and lateral collateral ligaments. Each of the ligaments tested contribute to the prevention of hyperextension of the AC joint. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  14. Joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    Afhandlingen analysere de konkurrenceretlige og selskabsretlige regler som er bestemmende for hvordan et joint venture samarbejde er struktureret......Afhandlingen analysere de konkurrenceretlige og selskabsretlige regler som er bestemmende for hvordan et joint venture samarbejde er struktureret...

  15. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  16. Joint Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    A joint is where two or more bones come together, like the knee, hip, elbow, or shoulder. Joints can be damaged by many types of injuries or diseases, including Arthritis - inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, ...

  17. Comparing motion induction in lateral motion and motion in depth

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Julie; German, KJ

    2008-01-01

    Induced motion, the apparent motion of an object when a nearby object moves, has been shown to occur in a variety of different conditions, including motion in depth. Here we explore whether similar patterns of induced motion result from induction in a lateral direction (frontoparallel motion) or induction in depth. We measured the magnitude of induced motion in a stationary target for: (a) binocularly viewed lateral motion of a pair of inducers, where the angular motion is in the same directi...

  18. Evolution of treatment of of the proximal humerus fractures (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Kogan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article in generalized form acquaints with the publications devoted to the bases of proximal humeral fractures treatment. A brief digression on anatomy and biomechanics of the humeral joint allows to consider the main morphological features of it. The most commonly used classification of proximal humeral fractures concisely classify many types of damage. According to the clinical and anatomical characteristics of fractures tracked the historical aspect, the development and the current state of the most common methods of treatment. In his review collected works authors share their experience in the application of methods. It allows to further the perspective directions.

  19. Joint Injection/Aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Patient / Caregiver Treatments Joint Injection / Aspiration Joint Injections (Joint Aspirations) Fast Facts Joint aspiration is used ... is derived from a joint aspiration or joint injection? Joint aspiration usually is done for help with ...

  20. Landing Motion Control of Articulated Hopping Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngil Youm

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the landing motion of an articulated legged robot. Humans use a peculiar crouching motion to land safely which can be characterized by body stiffness and damping. A stiffness controller formulation is used to realize this human behavior for the robot. Using this method, the landing motion is achieved with only the desired body stiffness and damping values, without desired COG(Center of Gravity or joint paths. To achieve soft landing, variable body stiffness and damping values were optimized. PBOT, which has four links with flexible joints was used for validation of the landing controller. A body stiffness and damping controller was used as an outer landing control loop and a fast subsystem controller for flexible joints was used as an inner force control loop. Simulations and experimental results about the landing motion are presented to show the performance of the body stiffness and damping controller.

  1. Design and Clinical Application of Proximal Humerus Memory Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuo-Gui; Zhang, Chun-Cai

    2011-02-01

    Treatment for comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions are a substantial challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Plate and screw fixation does not provide enough stability to allow patients to begin functional exercises early after surgery. Using shape memory material nickel titanium alloy, we designed a new device for treating severe comminuted proximal humerus fractures that accommodates for the anatomical features of the proximal humerus. Twenty-two cases of comminuted fracture, malunion, and nonunion of the proximal humerus were treated with the proximal humeral memory connector (PHMC). No external fixation was needed after the operation and patients began active shoulder exercises an average of 8 days after the operation. Follow-up evaluation (mean 18.5 months) revealed that bone healing with lamellar bone formation occurred an average of 3.6 months after surgery for the fracture cases and 4.5 months after surgery for the nonunion cases. Average shoulder function was 88.5 according to the criteria of Michael Reese. PHMC is an effective new device to treat comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions. The use of this device may reduce the need for shoulder joint arthroplasty.

  2. Additive fiber-cerclages in proximal humeral fractures stabilized by locking plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurschler, Christof; Rech, Louise; Vosshenrich, Rolf; Lill, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose The effect of additive fiber-cerclages in proximal humeral fractures stabilized by locking plates on fracture stabilization and rotator cuff function is unclear. Here it was assessed in a human cadaver study. Methods 24 paired human shoulder specimens were harvested from median 77-year-old (range 66–85) female donors. An unstable 3-part fracture model with an intact rotator cuff was developed. 1 specimen of each pair received an additive fiber-cerclage of the rotator cuff after plate fixation, and the other one received a plate fixation without an additive fiber-cerclage. Force-controlled hydraulic cylinders were used to simulate physiological rotator cuff tension, while a robot-assisted shoulder simulator performed 4 relevant cases of load: (1) axial loading at 0°, (2) glenohumeral abduction at 60°, (3) internal rotation at 0° abduction, and (4) external rotation at 0° abduction, and imitated hanging arm weight during loading without affecting joint kinematics. A 3-dimensional real-time interfragmentary motion analysis was done in fracture gaps between the greater tuberosity and the head, as well as subcapital. The capacity of the rotator cuff to strain was analyzed with an optical system. Results Interfragmentary motion was similar between the groups with and without fiber-cerclages, in both fracture gaps and in any of the cases of load. Cerclages did not impair the capacity of the rotator cuff to strain. Interpretation Provided that unstable 3-part fractures are reduced and stabilized anatomically by a locking plate, additive fiber-cerclages do not reduce interfragmentary motion. Additive fiber-cerclages may be necessary in locking plate osteosyntheses of multiple-fractured greater tuberosities or lesser tuberosity fractures that cannot be fixed sufficiently by the plate. PMID:19562564

  3. [Clinical analysis of prosthesis replacement for proximal humerus tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiaojun; Liao, Qiande; Li, Xiaosheng; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    To explore surgical strategies, functions and prognosis of artificial prosthesis replacement and soft tissue reconstruction for patients with invasive benign or primary malignant proximal humerus tumor.
 A total of 17 patients with invasive benign or primary malignant proximal humerus tumor underwent prosthetic replacement after segment bone tumor resection and soft tissues reconstruction from April 2007 to April 2014 were enrolled. Based on histological types, tumor stages and surgical procedures, the effects of artificial prosthesis replacement and soft tissue reconstruction on prognosis and shoulder joint function were evaluated.
 All patients were followed up for 8 to 96 months (average time: 58.9 months). Among 11 patients with primary malignant tumor, 5 died of tumor recurrence or metastasis, and 6 showed tumor-free survival for 24 to 91 months (average time: 54.83 months). The 6 patients with aggressive benign tumors survived for 39 to 96 months, with an average of 72.33 months. The shoulder joint function of 17 patients recovered to 64.88% of normal. There were significant differences in the shoulder joint function between the patients who underwent half shoulder replacement and those who underwent total shoulder replacement (56.25% vs 72.56%, Pshoulder joint function between the patients who underwent Type I A excision (retention of abductor muscles and rotator cuff) and those who underwent Type I B excision (68.75% vs 61.44%, Pshoulder joint function is associated with the methods of prosthesis replacement and soft tissue resection.

  4. [Complex injury of the elbow joint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel, G; Seekamp, A; Blauth, M; Klemme, R; Kuhn, K; Tscherne, H

    1996-02-01

    High-velocity trauma now often results in complex injuries to the upper extremity, and especially the elbow joint. These can lead to both an enormous reduction in the range of motion of the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints, in severe cases with complete loss of upper extremity function. A complex injury is defined as a fracture and/or dislocation of the elbow in association with (1) a serial injury of the upper extremity, (2) a severe soft tissue trauma, or (3) concomitant injury to vessels or nerves. Serial fractures, in particular can lead to enormous problems with treatment and are often associated with special complications. A standardized operative approach therefore seems essential. An analysis of our patient populations was made to compare the frequency of different injury types, develop specific treatment regimens, and document the clinical course. We made a retrospective analysis of patients admitted to our facility between 1981 and 1992, with particular reference to cause of accident, severity of injury (ISS), type of fracture of the upper extremity (according to the AO classification), extent of soft tissue trauma and whether closed or open, and the concomitant injuries (vascular, compartment and nerve lesions). Type and sequence of therapy and any complications were noted, and the clinical course up to consolidation was recorded. The functional result (i.e., ROM, neurology) was observed at primary discharge and 12 weeks, 6 months and 2 years later. In the time period mentioned 224 complex injuries of the elbow region were noted. Often MVAs were the cause of the complex trauma (39% car/30% motorcycle). The average injury severity was scored as 32 (ISS) in these, mostly polytraumatized, patients (68%). The most frequent fracture combination at the elbow region was combined with C2/C3 fractures of the distal humerus (57%) and proximal ulna (43%). A very commonly seen complex injury was the Monteggia equivalent, with fracture dislocation of the proximal

  5. Recruitment of knee joint ligaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankevoort, L.; Huiskes, R.; de Lange, A.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of earlier reported data on the in vitro kinematics of passive knee-joint motions of four knee specimens, the length changes of ligament fiber bundles were determined by using the points of insertion on the tibia and femur. The kinematic data and the insertions of the ligaments were

  6. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Yongyu Ye; Wei You; Weimin Zhu; Jiaming Cui; Kang Chen; Daping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze...

  7. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Dailey, Eric; Kyle, Nicholas; Taylor, Matt; Whittacre, Sean; Swisher, Anne K

    2015-01-01

    To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery. Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods. Academic cancer center oncology clinic. 20 women (mean age = 60 yrs) were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery) following mastectomy (n = 4) or lumpectomy (n = 16) for breast cancer. Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle). Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation. Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70-0.80), while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more. Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation.

  8. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriya Gritsenko

    Full Text Available To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery.Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods.Academic cancer center oncology clinic.20 women (mean age = 60 yrs were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery following mastectomy (n = 4 or lumpectomy (n = 16 for breast cancer.Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle.Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation.Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70-0.80, while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more.Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation.

  9. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Dailey, Eric; Kyle, Nicholas; Taylor, Matt; Whittacre, Sean; Swisher, Anne K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery. Design Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods. Setting Academic cancer center oncology clinic. Participants 20 women (mean age = 60 yrs) were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery) following mastectomy (n = 4) or lumpectomy (n = 16) for breast cancer. Interventions Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle). Main Outcome Measure Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation. Results Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70–0.80), while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more. Conclusions Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation. PMID:26076031

  10. Kinematic evaluation of movement smoothness in golf: relationship between the normalized jerk cost of body joints and the clubhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahnryul; Joo, Su-Bin; Oh, Euichaul; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2014-02-26

    When the human body is introduced to a new motion or movement, it learns the placement of different body parts, sequential muscle control, and coordination between muscles to achieve necessary positions, and it hones this new skill over time and repetition. Previous studies have demonstrated definite differences in the smoothness of body movements with different levels of training, i.e., amateurs compared with professionals. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that skilled golfers swing a driver with a smoother motion than do unskilled golfers. In addition, the relationship between the smoothness of body joints and that of the clubhead was evaluated to provide further insight into the mechanism of smooth golf swing. Two subject groups (skilled and unskilled) participated in the experiment. The skilled group comprised 20 male professional golfers registered with the Korea Professional Golf Association, and the unskilled group comprised 19 amateur golfers who enjoy golf as a hobby. Six infrared cameras (VICON460 system) were used to record the 3D trajectories of markers attached to the clubhead and body segments, and the resulting data was evaluated with kinematic analysis. A physical quantity called jerk was calculated to investigate differences in smoothness during downswing between the two study groups. The hypothesis that skilled golfers swing a driver with a smoother motion than do unskilled golfers was supported. The normalized jerk of the clubhead of skilled golfers was lower than that of unskilled golfers in the anterior/posterior, medial/lateral, and proximal/distal directions. Most human joints, especially in the lower body, had statistically significant lower normalized jerk values in the skilled group. In addition, the normalized jerk of the skilled group's lower body joints had a distinct positive correlation with the normalized jerk of the clubhead with r = 0.657 (p joints than that of the upper body joints. These findings can be used to

  11. Asymmetry and structural system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis: osteoarticular anatomical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baydoun Safaa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human femur is commonly considered as a subsystem of the locomotor apparatus with four conspicuous levels of organization. This phenomenon is the result of the evolution of the locomotor apparatus, which encompasses both constitutional and individual variability. The work therein reported, therefore, underlies the significance of observing anatomical system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis in normal conditions, according to the anatomic positioning with respect to the right or left side of the body, and the presence of system asymmetry in the meta-epiphysis structure, thus indicating structural and functional asymmetry. Methods A total of 160 femur bones of both sexes were compiled and a morphological study of 15 linear and angulated parameters of proximal femur epiphysis was produced, thus defining the linear/angulated size of tubular bones. The parameters were divided into linear and angulated groups, while maintaining the motion of the hip joint and transmission of stress to the unwanted parts of the limb. Furthermore, the straight and vertical diameters of the femoral head and the length of the femoral neck were also studied. The angle between the neck and diaphysis, the neck antiversion and angle of rotation of the femoral neck were subsequently measured. Finally, the condylo-diaphyseal angle with respect to the axis of extremity was determined. To visualize the force of intersystem ties, we have used the method of correlation galaxy construction. Results The absolute numeral values of each linear parameter were transformed to relative values. The values of superfluity coefficient for each parameter in the right and left femoral bone groups were estimated and Pearson's correlation coefficient has been calculated (> 0.60. Retrospectively, the observed results have confirmed the presence of functional asymmetry in the proximal femur meta-epiphysis. On the basis of compliance or insignificant difference in

  12. Asymmetry and structural system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis: osteoarticular anatomical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, Ali A; Ivanov, Alexander V; Haddad, John J; Kolesnik, Alexander I; Baydoun, Safaa; Arabi, Maher R; Yashina, Irena N; Samaha, Rana A; Ivanov, Dimetry A

    2008-02-27

    The human femur is commonly considered as a subsystem of the locomotor apparatus with four conspicuous levels of organization. This phenomenon is the result of the evolution of the locomotor apparatus, which encompasses both constitutional and individual variability. The work therein reported, therefore, underlies the significance of observing anatomical system analysis of the proximal femur meta-epiphysis in normal conditions, according to the anatomic positioning with respect to the right or left side of the body, and the presence of system asymmetry in the meta-epiphysis structure, thus indicating structural and functional asymmetry. A total of 160 femur bones of both sexes were compiled and a morphological study of 15 linear and angulated parameters of proximal femur epiphysis was produced, thus defining the linear/angulated size of tubular bones. The parameters were divided into linear and angulated groups, while maintaining the motion of the hip joint and transmission of stress to the unwanted parts of the limb. Furthermore, the straight and vertical diameters of the femoral head and the length of the femoral neck were also studied. The angle between the neck and diaphysis, the neck antiversion and angle of rotation of the femoral neck were subsequently measured. Finally, the condylo-diaphyseal angle with respect to the axis of extremity was determined. To visualize the force of intersystem ties, we have used the method of correlation galaxy construction. The absolute numeral values of each linear parameter were transformed to relative values. The values of superfluidity coefficient for each parameter in the right and left femoral bone groups were estimated and Pearson's correlation coefficient has been calculated (> 0.60). Retrospectively, the observed results have confirmed the presence of functional asymmetry in the proximal femur meta-epiphysis. On the basis of compliance or insignificant difference in the confidence interval of the linear parameters, we

  13. Exoskeleton Motion Control for Children Walking Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ploscaru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a quick method for motion control of an exoskeleton used on children walking rehabilitation with ages between four to seven years old. The exoskeleton used on this purpose has six servomotors which work independently and actuates each human lower limb joints (hips, knees and ankles. For obtaining the desired motion laws, a high-speed motion analysis equipment was used. The experimental rough data were mathematically modeled in order to obtain the proper motion equations for controlling the exoskeleton servomotors.

  14. Interrater reliability in finger joint goniometer measurement in Dupuytren's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrand, Christina; Krevers, Barbro; Kvist, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    We investigated interrater reliability of motion (ROM) measurement in the finger joints of people with Dupuytren's disease. Eight raters measured flexion and extension of the three finger joints in one affected finger of each of 13 people with different levels of severity of Dupuytren's disease, giving 104 measures of joints and motions. Reliability measures, represented by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of the mean (SEM), and differences between raters with the highest and lowest mean scores, were calculated. ICCs ranged from .832 to .973 depending on joint and motion. The SEM was ≤3° for all joints and motions. Differences in mean between highest and lowest raters were larger for flexion than for extension; the largest difference was in the distal interphalangeal joint. The results indicate that following these standardized guidelines, the interrater reliability of goniometer measurements is high for digital ROM in people with Dupuytren's disease.

  15. Korrekturosteotomie bei lateraler Tibiakopfimpression und Valgusfehlstellung == Correction of lateral tibial plateau depression and valgus malunion of the proximal tibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marti, René K.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Rademakers, Maarten V.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Improvement of joint congruency in malunited lateral tibial plateau fractures, reduction of pain, prevention of osteoarthritis. INDICATIONS: Valgus malalignment of the proximal tibia combined with intraarticular depression of the tibial plateau. CONTRAINDICATIONS: Patients in poor general

  16. Measuring implementation of a school-based violence prevention program : Fidelity and teachers' responsiveness as predictors of proximal outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultes, Marie Therese; Stefanek, Elisabeth; van de Schoot, Rens|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    When school-based prevention programs are put into practice, evaluation studies commonly only consider one indicator of program implementation. The present study investigates how two different aspects of program implementation - fidelity and participant responsiveness - jointly influence proximal

  17. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    . The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis......Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  18. Technical issues in using robots to reproduce joint specific gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosvold, J M; Darcy, S P; Peterson, R C; Achari, Y; Corr, D T; Marchuk, L L; Frank, C B; Shrive, N G; Rosvold, Joshua M; Darcy, Shon P; Peterson, Robert C; Achari, Yamini; Corr, David T; Marchuk, Linda L; Frank, Cyril B; Shrive, Nigel G

    2011-05-01

    Reproduction of the in vivo motions of joints has become possible with improvements in robot technology and in vivo measuring techniques. A motion analysis system has been used to measure the motions of the tibia and femur of the ovine stifle joint during normal gait. These in vivo motions are then reproduced with a parallel robot. To ensure that the motion of the joint is accurately reproduced and that the resulting data are reliable, the testing frame, the data acquisition system, and the effects of limitations of the testing platform need to be considered. Of the latter, the stiffness of the robot and the ability of the control system to process sequential points on the path of motion in a timely fashion for repeatable path accuracy are of particular importance. Use of the system developed will lead to a better understanding of the mechanical environment of joints and ligaments in vivo.

  19. Ceramic joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bradley J.; Patten, Jr., Donald O.

    1991-01-01

    Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

  20. Causes of persistent joint pain after arthrocentesis of temporomandibular joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kosuke; Yasukawa, Yoko; Fujiwara, Masanori; Abe, Tetsuya; Urade, Masahiro

    2011-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the factors responsible for the failure of arthrocentesis to cure persistent joint pain in patients with nonreducing articular disc displacement in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Thirty-six patients with internal derangement of the TMJ were selected. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine the configuration and position of the articular discs, cortical changes, and bone marrow abnormalities in the condyle and the presence of joint effusion. Arthrocentesis was then performed, and the patients were followed for 6 weeks. The results were then classified as poor or improved. The effects of arthrocentesis did not depend on the configuration of the disc, disc position and motion, or bone marrow abnormalities. Joints with no or minimal amounts of joint effusion achieved a good response to arthrocentesis. Joints with erosive cortical changes of the condyle were less responsive to arthrocentesis. Persistent joint pain after arthrocentesis is generally associated with extensive amounts of joint effusion or erosive cortical changes of the condyle. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2015-01-01

    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a pilot...... (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  2. [Metacarpophalangeal joint injuries and sequelae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, R

    2014-04-01

    Injuries of the metacarpophalangeal joints of the thumb and fingers are of a bony or ligamentous nature. They can heal without subsequent problems if correctly diagnosed and treated but incorrect or absent diagnostics and therapy can result in chronic instability, dislocation, fusion as well as subsequent arthritis and functional limitations. They can lead to substantial impairment of the gripping function. Fractures with inclusion of joints and with fragments sufficiently large for refixation are as a rule treated operatively just as differences in torsion and instability. Persisting instabilities are secondarily stabilized by ligamentoplasty and arthritis of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb is treated by fusion. For metacarpophalangeal joints of the fingers the main concern is preserving motion. Established salvage operations for arthritis include denervation, resection arthroplasty and systematic arthrolysis for impairment of the joint and contractures with intact joint surfaces. Even in chronic conditions, with appropriate treatment good functional results for metacarpophalangeal joints of the thumb and fingers can be achieved. This article presents the current pathophysiological principles and concepts for diagnostics and therapy of acute and chronic injuries of the metacarpophalangeal joints of fingers and thumbs.

  3. A 2-DOF joint with coupled variable output stiffness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Daniel J.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Fumagalli, Matteo; Carloni, Raffaella

    This paper presents a 2-degree-of-freedom (DOF) joint with coupled variable output stiffness that makes use of three actuators, i.e., two for the 2-D joint motions and one for the joint stiffness adjustment. By base-mounting the actuators and the variable stiffness module that contains the passive

  4. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yongyu; You, Wei; Zhu, Weimin; Cui, Jiaming; Chen, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases. PMID:29081829

  5. The Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyu Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal humeral fractures are common and most challenging, due to the complexity of the glenohumeral joint, especially in the geriatric population with impacted fractures, that the development of implants continues because currently the problems with their fixation are not solved. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative assessments are crucial in management of those patients. Finite element analysis, as one of the valuable tools, has been implemented as an effective and noninvasive method to analyze proximal humeral fractures, providing solid evidence for management of troublesome patients. However, no review article about the applications and effects of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures has been reported yet. This review article summarized the applications, contribution, and clinical significance of finite element analysis in assessing proximal humeral fractures. Furthermore, the limitations of finite element analysis, the difficulties of more realistic simulation, and the validation and also the creation of validated FE models were discussed. We concluded that although some advancements in proximal humeral fractures researches have been made by using finite element analysis, utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical management and adequate simulation requires more state-of-the-art studies to provide evidence and bases.

  6. Frontal plane knee and hip kinematics during sit-to-stand and proximal lower extremity strength in persons with patellofemoral osteoarthritis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoglund, Lisa T; Hillstrom, Howard J; Barr-Gillespie, Ann E; Lockard, Margery A; Barbe, Mary F; Song, Jinsup

    2014-02-01

    Increased joint stress and malalignment are etiologic factors in osteoarthritis. Static tibiofemoral frontal plane malalignment is associated with patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA). Patellofemoral joint stress is increased by activities such as sit-to-stand (STS); this stress may be even greater if dynamic frontal plane tibiofemoral malalignment occurs. If hip muscle or quadriceps weakness is present in persons with PFOA, aberrant tibiofemoral frontal plane movement may occur, with increased patellofemoral stress. No studies have investigated frontal plane tibiofemoral and hip kinematics during STS in persons with PFOA or the relationship of hip muscle and quadriceps strength to these motions. Eight PFOA and seven control subjects performed STS from a stool during three-dimensional motion capture. Hip muscle and quadriceps strength were measured as peak isometric force. The PFOA group demonstrated increased peak tibial abduction angles during STS, and decreased hip abductor, hip extensor, and quadriceps peak force versus controls. A moderate inverse relationship between peak tibial abduction angle and peak hip abductor force was present. No difference between groups was found for peak hip adduction angle or peak hip external rotator force. Dynamic tibiofemoral malalignment and proximal lower extremity weakness may cause increased patellofemoral stress and may contribute to PFOA incidence or progression.

  7. Relationship of medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursion and ankle joint power and work performance during gait in typically developing children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Lorenzo, Teresa; Albi Rodríguez, Gustavo; Rocon, Eduardo; Martínez Caballero, Ignacio; Lerma Lara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Muscle fascicles lengthen in response to chronic passive stretch through in-series sarcomere addition in order to maintain an optimum sarcomere length. In turn, the muscles’ force generating capacity, maximum excursion, and contraction velocity is enhanced. Thus, longer fascicles suggest a greater capacity to develop joint power and work. However, static fascicle length measurements may not be taking sarcomere length differences into account. Thus, we considered relative fascicle excursions through passive ankle dorsiflexion may better correlate with the capacity to generate joint power and work than fascicle length. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine if medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursions correlate with ankle joint power and work generation during gait in typically developing children. A sample of typically developing children (n = 10) were recruited for this study and data analysis was carried out on 20 legs. Medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursion from resting joint angle to maximum dorsiflexion was estimated from trigonometric relations of medial gastrocnemius pennation angle and thickness obtained from B-mode real-time ultrasonography. Furthermore, a three-dimensional motion capture system was used to obtain ankle joint work and power during the stance phase of gait. Significant correlations were found between relative fascicle excursion and peak power absorption (–) r(14) = −0.61, P = .012 accounting for 31% variability, positive work r(18) = 0.56, P = .021 accounting for 31% variability, and late stance positive work r(15) = 0.51, P = .037 accounting for 26% variability. The large unexplained variance may be attributed to mechanics of neighboring structures (e.g., soleus or Achilles tendon mechanics) and proximal joint kinetics which may also contribute to ankle joint power and work performance, and were not taken into account. Further studies are encouraged to provide

  8. [EFFECTIVENESS OF COMBINED TENODESIS FOR PROXIMAL LESIONS OF BICEPS TENDON WITH MASSIVE ROTATOR CUFF TEAR BY ARTHROSCOPY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianwu; Ye, Ruqing; Xu, Haiping; Lu, Jianmeng

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the combined tenodesis for proximal lesions of biceps tendon with massive rotator cuff tear by arthroscopy. Between January 2011 and June 2013, 48 patients with massive rotator cuff tear and proximal lesions of biceps tendon underwent combined tenodesis under arthroscopy, and the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Of 48 cases, 22 were male and 26 were female with an average age of 46 years (range, 35-59 years); 12 cases had clear history of trauma. The disease duration ranged from 1 to 57 months (mean, 4.6 months). All cases suffered from moderate to severe shoulder pain, the strength and the range of motion (ROM) declined when compared with those of the other side. According to Goutallier classification standard, 3 cases were rated as grade 0, 18 cases as grade 1, and 27 cases as grade 2. The operation time and complication were recorded. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score, ROM, the strength of flexed elevation and elbow flexion, Constant-Murley score, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS) were used to evaluate the effectiveness. The operations were performed successfully, and incisions healed primarily. The operation time was 120-160 minutes (mean, 135 minutes). One case had shoulder joint swelling with wound bleeding, which was cured after proper treatment. All 48 patients were followed up 12-18 months (mean, 13.9 months). The results of MRI showed good healing of tendon at 6 months after operation. When compared with preoperative values, VAS score was significantly decreased (P 0.05). The technique of combined tenodesis under arthroscopy can obtain satisfactory clinical outcomes in treating proximal lesions of biceps tendon with massive rotator cuff tear.

  9. Joint Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Commission Websites Quick Links The Center for Transforming Healthcare Blogs DataMart Event ... Table of Contents and Abstracts for The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety Monday October 2, ...

  10. Joint pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or conditions. It may be linked to arthritis , bursitis , and muscle pain . No matter what causes it, ... Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus Bursitis Chondromalacia patellae Crystals in the joint: Gout (especially ...

  11. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  12. WE-G-BRD-04: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): An Integrated Model-Based Intrafractional Organ Motion Tracking Approach with Dynamic MRI in Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Dolly, S; Anastasio, M; Li, H; Wooten, H; Gay, H; Mutic, S; Thorstad, W; Li, H [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Victoria, J; Dempsey, J [ViewRay incorporated, Oakwood Village, Ohio (United States); Ruan, S [University of Rouen, QuantIF - EA 4108 LITIS, Rouen (France); Low, D [Deparment of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In-treatment dynamic cine images, provided by the first commercially available MRI-guided radiotherapy system, allow physicians to observe intrafractional motion of head and neck (H&N) internal structures. Nevertheless, high anatomical complexity and relatively poor cine image contrast/resolution have complicated automatic intrafractional motion evaluation. We proposed an integrated model-based approach to automatically delineate and analyze moving structures from on-board cine images. Methods: The H&N upper airway, a complex and highly deformable region wherein severe internal motion often occurs, was selected as the target-to-be-tracked. To reliably capture its motion, a hierarchical structure model containing three statistical shapes (face, face-jaw, and face-jaw-palate) was first built from a set of manually delineated shapes using principal component analysis. An integrated model-fitting algorithm was then employed to align the statistical shapes to the first to-be-detected cine frame, and multi-feature level-set contour propagation was performed to identify the airway shape change in the remaining frames. Ninety sagittal cine MR image sets, acquired from three H&N cancer patients, were utilized to demonstrate this approach. Results: The tracking accuracy was validated by comparing the results to the average of two manual delineations in 20 randomly selected images from each patient. The resulting dice similarity coefficient (93.28+/−1.46 %) and margin error (0.49+/−0.12 mm) showed good agreement with the manual results. Intrafractional displacements of anterior, posterior, inferior, and superior airway boundaries were observed, with values of 2.62+/−2.92, 1.78+/−1.43, 3.51+/−3.99, and 0.68+/−0.89 mm, respectively. The H&N airway motion was found to vary across directions, fractions, and patients, and highly correlated with patients’ respiratory frequency. Conclusion: We proposed the integrated computational approach, which for the first

  13. The relative effectiveness of segment specific level and non-specific level spinal joint mobilization on pain and range of motion: results of a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaven, Emily Joan; Goode, Adam P; Coronado, Rogelio A; Poole, Charles; Hegedus, Eric J

    2013-02-01

    Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. IN SYMPTOMATIC SUBJECTS TO: (1) examine the effects of a single session of joint mobilization on pain at rest and with most painful movement, and (2) compare the effects when joint mobilization is provided to a specific or non-specific spinal level. Joint mobilization is routinely used for treating spinal pain in conjunction with other interventions, but its unique effect is not well understood. Further, there is controversy about the role of 'specific level' techniques in producing benefit. Searches were performed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PEDro) from 1966 through November 2010. Methodological quality was assessed using previously detailed criteria. Meta-analysis and meta-regression were conducted on eligible studies. Eight RCTs with a mean methodological score of 10/12 were included. Significant heterogeneity (P = 0.075) was found in the overall meta-analysis estimate. When stratified by body location, no significant individual effect was found for pain at rest. However, there was a statistical mean difference [0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.13-1.28)] between pain at rest for the cervical and lumbar individual means. We found multiple studies which provided evidence that a single session of joint mobilization can lead to a reduction of pain at rest and with most painful movement. When using joint mobilization, the need for specific versus non-specific level mobilization may be influenced by anatomical region; the direction of effect in the cervical spine was toward specific mobilization and in the lumbar spine towards non-specific mobilization.

  14. Predicting articulated human motion from spatial processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2011-01-01

    We present a probabilistic interpretation of inverse kinematics and extend it to sequential data. The resulting model is used to estimate articulated human motion in visual data. The approach allows us to express the prior temporal models in spatial limb coordinates, which is in contrast to most......, we avoid the problem of accumulated variance, where noise in one joint affects all joints further down the kinematic chains. All this combined allows us to more easily construct high quality motion models. In the evaluation, we show that an activity independent version of our model is superior...

  15. Nutrition of the anterior cruciate ligament. Effects of continuous passive motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyhar, M J; Danzig, L A; Hargens, A R; Akeson, W H

    1985-01-01

    Twelve freshly killed mature male rabbits were used to study the effects of continuous passive motion (CPM) on regional and overall nonvascular nutritional pathways of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). One hundred fifty microcuries of 35sulphate was injected intraarticularly into each knee joint. The right knee underwent CPM for 1 hour, while the left knee remained immobilized. Both knee joints were then isolated and immediately frozen. The ACLs were removed while still mostly frozen, and sectioned into anterior, middle, and posterior thirds for the six rabbits in Group 1, and proximal, middle, and distal thirds for the six rabbits in Group 2. In addition, quadriceps tendon samples were harvested from each limb of three rabbits. After appropriate processing, all samples were counted in a scintillation counter, and counts per minute per milligram of tissue were calculated. There was significantly higher uptake in rest extremity ACLs compared to CPM extremity ACLs (P = 0.0001). No significant difference was demonstrated in regional uptake comparing respective thirds of the ACL in either Group 1 or Group 2. Quadriceps tendon uptake trended higher in the limbs exposed to CPM compared to those maintained at rest (P = 0.14). The ACL uses diffusion as a primary nutrient pathway. CPM does not increase nutrient uptake by the ACL in this avascular model, but CPM may facilitate transport of metabolites out of the joint. No regional differences in uptake within the ACL occurred in either group.

  16. Distributed motion planning for modular robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Kristian; Petersen, Henrik G.; Petersen, Morten L.

    2001-10-01

    On the software side of modular robotics, there are many challenging steps towards the ultimate intelligent and autonomous robot module (sub-component). Examples of such challenges are to derive distributed task planning, distributed motion planning and distributed control methods. In this paper we focus on the derivation of a distributed or truly modular local motion planner. Such a motion planner must as input take tasks for the assembled modular robot and without any central intelligence deliver the necessary robot motion. More specifically, we illustrate how the method of artificial forces together with a new description of the robot kinematics can be used for developing a distributed local motion planner. The motion planner is truly distributed as the software on each module only needs information about the module itself and of modules which are physically directly connected to it. Although the method is essentially very general, we for simplicity only illustrate it for planar K-linked modular robots. We present the motion planning algorithms for link and joint processors for this special case and we show output of simulations. Furthermore, we present results from applying the motion planner to a planar truly modular robot consisting of 4 links and 4 revolute joints each with their own on-board processor.

  17. Correlation between generalized joint hypermobility and hallux valgus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kardanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate correlation between generalized joint hypermobility, forefoot deformities and elasticity of the first ray of the foot. Material and methods. We examined 138 patients with complaints related with deformities at the forefoot level. During this study the medical history was obtained, the elasticity type of the feet was defined and the degree of motion of the medial metatarsal-cuneiform joint was evaluated. Forefoot elasticity was identified by bringing together the heads I and V metatarsal bones with fingers. If convergence occurred with little resistance, those feet were called hyperelastic. The convergence of the heads I and V metatarsal bones of the foot with an average type of elasticity occurred with resistance. It was impossible to converge the heads of I and V metatarsal bones. Due to the results of weight-bearing and non-weight bearing X-ray, analysis of the main radiographic angles of the foot was performed: between I and V metatarsal bones, between the first and second metatarsal bones and between the first metatarsal bone and proximal phalanx of the great toe. Calculation formula of the forefoot flatness index, showing the average ratios of basic radiographic angles of the foot on the x-ray images (weight-bearing and non-weight bearing was created. An assessment of total joint hypermobility using Beighton scale and evaluation of first ray deformity using DuPont scale were performed. Statistical analysis of obtained data was performed, as a result of which significantly strong correlation between total joint hypermobility, forefoot elasticity and valgus deviation of the great toe were revealed. Results. 11% of the feet were hyperelastic. Calculation of the index of forefoot flatness showed that forefoot flatness wasn’t significant for a rigid foot - 5.6 %, for the feet with an average degree of mobility it was 6.0% and it was expressed for hypemobile feet - 12.3 %. Strong correlation relation between the forefeet

  18. Joint dynamics and intra-subject variability during countermovement jumps in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated lower limb joint work, lower limb joint energy transport and intra-subject variation of the joint dynamics during countermovement jumps in children and adults. Twelve healthy men and eleven healthy boys performed ten maximal countermovement jumps. Three dimensional...... countermovement jumps were less efficient in producing proximal joint work, transferring energy through joint centres and characterized by a higher intra-subject variation....

  19. Effects on ROM and joint position sense of the neck of two different interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Kurosawa, Kazuo; Hiiragi, Yukinobu; Huang, Qiuchen; Li, Desheng; Zhou, Bin; Yin, Lu; Wang, Hongzhao

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) training is superior to NJF distal resistance training at improving the ROM and proprioceptive acuity of the neck. [Subjects] 10 healthy subjects (8 males, 2 females) participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were allocated to three groups: 10 in the control group, 10 in the NJF distal resistance training group, and 10 in the NJF training group. A miniature wireless motion recorder was used to record the maximum cervical range of motion and joint position error (JPE) before and after the interventions. The three interventions were tested on different days. [Results] No difference of ROM was observed among the three groups. A significant pre- to post-intervention decrease in JPE in extension was identified in the NJF group. No other significant differences were observed among the three groups. [Conclusion] The NJF training conferred remarkable benefits on the cervical JPE of healthy people. This result suggests that the best way to improve proprioceptive acuity is intervention together with proximal resistance training, such as NJF training.

  20. Measurement and Quantification of Gross Human Shoulder Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Newkirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder girdle plays an important role in the large pointing workspace that humans enjoy. The goal of this work was to characterize the human shoulder girdle motion in relation to the arm. The overall motion of the human shoulder girdle was characterized based on motion studies completed on test subjects during voluntary (natural/unforced motion. The collected data from the experiments were used to develop surface fit equations that represent the position and orientation of the glenohumeral joint for a given humeral pointing direction. These equations completely quantify gross human shoulder girdle motion relative to the humerus. The equations are presented along with goodness-of-fit results that indicate the equations well approximate the motion of the human glenohumeral joint. This is the first time the motion has been quantified for the entire workspace, and the equations provide a reference against which to compare future work.

  1. Design and Performance Analysis of a new Rotary Hydraulic Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yong; Yang, Junhong; Shang, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhuo; Fang, Delei

    2017-07-01

    To improve the driving torque of the robots joint, a wobble plate hydraulic joint is proposed, and the structure and working principle are described. Then mathematical models of kinematics and dynamics was established. On the basis of this, dynamic simulation and characteristic analysis are carried out. Results show that the motion curve of the joint is continuous and the impact is small. Moreover the output torque of the joint characterized by simple structure and easy processing is large and can be rotated continuously.

  2. SHORT COMMUNICATION PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    SHORT COMMUNICATION. PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL CONTENT AND ANTINUTRITIONAL. FACTORS OF SOME CAPSICUM (Capsicum annum) VARIETIES GROWN IN. ETHIOPIA. Esayas K.1, Shimelis A.2, Ashebir F.3, Negussie R.3, Tilahun B.4 and Gulelat D.4*. 1Hawassa University, Department of Food ...

  3. Anatomy and Physiology of the Lesser Metatarsophalangeal Joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Fred T; Cata, Ezequiel; Holmes, James R; Talusan, Paul G

    2018-03-01

    Knowledge and command of anatomy is paramount to effectively treating disorders of the lesser metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints. The osseous structures consist of the proximal phalanx of the toe and the metatarsal head. The soft tissues on the dorsum of the MTP joint include the joint capsule and the tendons of extensor digitorum longus and extensor digitorum brevis. The proper and accessory collateral ligaments form the medial and lateral walls and contribute to stability in the coronal and sagittal planes. The plantar plate forms the plantar border of the MTP joint and stabilizes the MTP joint against hyperextension and dorsal translation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adjacent Joint Kinematics After Ankle Arthrodesis During Cadaveric Gait Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturnick, Daniel R; Demetracopoulos, Constantine A; Ellis, Scott J; Queen, Robin M; Kolstov, Jayme C B; Deland, Jonathan T; Baxter, Josh R

    2017-11-01

    Arthrodesis is an effective and reliable treatment for end-stage ankle arthritis; however, many patients develop ipsilateral adjacent joint arthritis following surgery. The mechanism that drives adjacent joint arthritis remains uncertain. Cadaveric simulation permits direct investigation of the effects of both arthrodesis and movement strategy on adjacent joints during simulated walking. The objective of this study was to identify the isolated effect of ankle arthrodesis on adjacent joint kinematics during simulated walking. Effects of ankle arthrodesis on adjacent joint kinematics were assessed in 8 cadaveric foot and ankle specimens using a robotic gait simulator. Gait parameters acquired from healthy adults and patients with ankle arthrodesis were used as inputs for simulations. Three-dimensional subtalar and talonavicular joint kinematics were directly measured before and after ankle arthrodesis, and healthy- and arthrodesis-gait parameters were applied to identify the isolated effect of the ankle arthrodesis on adjacent joint kinematics. Ankle arthrodesis increased subtalar and talonavicular joint motion during early and midstance independent of which gait parameters were used as inputs to the gait simulator. However, adjacent joint motions did not differ between the control and arthrodesis condition during late stance, when the healthy gait parameters were used as inputs. Conversely, adjacent joint motion decreased during late stance following arthrodesis when simulating gait using parameters typical in arthrodesis patients. Regardless of the gait parameter inputs, subtalar and talonavicular joint motions increased from normal kinematics, which likely increase the biomechanical burden placed on these adjacent joints and may lead to joint degeneration. Increased motion of the adjacent joints caused by ankle arthrodesis may explain the articular degeneration observed clinically.

  5. Position Control of a Manipulator with Passive Joints Using Dynamic Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Hirohiko; Tachi, Susumu

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a method ofcontrolling the position of a manipulator composed of active and passive joints. The active joints have actuators and position sensors. The passive joints have holding brakes instead of actuators. While the brakes are released, the passive joints are indirectly controlled by the motion of the active joints using the coupling characteristics of manipulator dynamics. While the brakes are engaged, the passive joints are fixed and the activejoints are controlled. T...

  6. Verification of an improved hip joint center prediction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily J; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2018-01-01

    In motion analysis, the hip joint center (HJC) is used to define the proximal location of the thigh segment and is also the point about which hip moments are calculated. The HJC cannot be palpated; its location must be calculated. Functional methods have been proposed but are difficult to perform by some clinical populations. Therefore, regression methods are utilized, but yield large errors in estimating the HJC location. These prediction methods typically utilize the anterior and posterior superior iliac spines, where excessive adipose tissue makes correctly locating difficult. A new regression method (Hara) utilizes leg length and has been shown to improve HJC location in cadavers and less error than previous pelvic based regression methods, such as those proposed by Harrington et al. This study compared the accuracy of the HJC location calculated with both of the Harrington methods and the Hara method. The coronal knee angle was calculated for each method using a static motion analysis trial, and compared to the tibiofemoral angle measured on a gold standard digital full-leg coronal radiograph. This study demonstrated that the Hara method was more accurate than either of the Harrington methods. The mean error between the gold standard x-ray measurement and the motion analysis calculation for the Harrington (stepwise and LOOCV), the Harrington (linear regression), and Hara regression methods, respectively were 6.0°, 4.0°, and 1.8°. Accurately modeling the HJC is critical for data interpretation and patient care. This study confirmed that the Hara HJC regression method is valid in an in-vivo setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of cervical joint manipulation, based on passive motion analysis, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture, and cervical ROM in university students with abnormal posture of the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wontae

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cervical posture manipulation, based on passive motion analysis (MBPMA) and general mobilization, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture (FHP), and cervical ROM in university students with problems in cervical posture and range of motion (ROM). [Subjects] The Subjects were 40 university students in their 20s who displayed problems in cervical posture and ROM; they were divided into an MBPMA group (n=20) and a mobilization group (n=20). [Methods] Each group underwent MBPMA or mobilization three times a week for four weeks. The effects of MBPMA and mobilization on cervical lordosis, FHP, and cervical ROM were analyzed by radiography. [Results] MBPMA was effective in increasing the cervical lordosis, cervical extension ROM (CER), and ranges of flexion and extension motion (RFEM) and in decreasing FHP. Mobilization was effective in increasing CER and decreasing FHP. [Conclusion] MBPMA can be utilized as an effective method for decreasing FHP and improving cervical lordosis and cervical ROM.

  8. Prosthetic hand control using motion discrimination from EMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisu, Naoyuki; Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we improve the motion discrimination method from electromyogram (EMG) for a prosthetic hand and propose prosthetic hand control. In the past, we proved that a motion discrimination method using conic models could discriminate three hand motions without the incorrect discriminations that the elbow motions cause. In this research, to increase discrimination accuracy of motion discrimination using conic models, we propose a feature extraction method using quadratic polynomials. Additionally, because many prosthetic hands using motion discrimination have constant motion speed that can't be controlled, we propose an angular velocity generation method using multiple regression models. We verified these methods by controlling the 3D hand model. In the experiment, the proposed method could discriminate five motions at a rate of above 90 percent without the incorrect discriminations that elbow motions cause. Moreover, the wrist joint angle of the 3D hand model could be controlled by standard variation of 3[deg] or less.

  9. Two case reports-Use of relative motion orthoses to manage extensor tendon zones III and IV and sagittal band injuries in adjacent fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, Melissa J; Howell, Julianne W; O'Brien, Lisa

    Case report. Injuries to adjacent fingers with differing extensor tendon (ET) zones and/or sagittal band pose a challenge to therapists as no treatment guidelines exist. This report highlights how the relative motion flexion/extension (RMF/RME) concepts were combined into one orthosis to manage a zone IV ET repair (RME) and a zone III central slip repair (RMF) in adjacent fingers (Case 1); and how a single RME orthosis was adapted to limit proximal interphalangeal joint motion to manage multi-level ET zone III-IV injuries and a sagittal band repair in adjacent fingers (case 2). Adapted relative motion orthoses allowed early active motion and graded exercises based on clinical reasoning and evidence. Outcomes were standard TAM% and Miller's criteria. 'Excellent' and 'good' outcomes were achieved by twelve weeks post surgery. Both cases returned to unrestricted work at 6 and 7 weeks. Neither reported functional deficits at discharge. Outcomes in 2 cases involving multiple digit injuries exceeded those previously reported for ET zone III-IV repairs. Relative motion orthoses can be adapted and applied to multi-finger injuries, eliminating the need for multiple, bulky or functionally-limiting orthoses. 4. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling depth from motion parallax with the motion/pursuit ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eNawrot

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of unambiguous scaled depth from motion parallax relies on both retinal image motion and an extra-retinal pursuit eye movement signal. The motion/pursuit ratio represents a dynamic geometric model linking these two proximal cues to the ratio of depth to viewing distance. An important step in understanding the visual mechanisms serving the perception of depth from motion parallax is to determine the relationship between these stimulus parameters and empirically determined perceived depth magnitude. Observers compared perceived depth magnitude of dynamic motion parallax stimuli to static binocular disparity comparison stimuli at three different viewing distances, in both head-moving and head-stationary conditions. A stereo-viewing system provided ocular separation for stereo stimuli and monocular viewing of parallax stimuli. For each motion parallax stimulus, a point of subjective equality was estimated for the amount of binocular disparity that generates the equivalent magnitude of perceived depth from motion parallax. Similar to previous results, perceived depth from motion parallax had significant foreshortening. Head-moving conditions produced even greater foreshortening due to the differences in the compensatory eye movement signal. An empirical version of motion/pursuit law, termed the empirical motion/pursuit ratio, which models perceived depth magnitude from these stimulus parameters, is proposed.

  11. Biomechanical superiority of plate fixation for proximal tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartford, James M; Hester, Peter; Watt, Phil M; Hamilton, Doris; Rohmiller, Michael; Pienkowski, David

    2003-07-01

    Proximal tibial osteotomies require secure and durable fixation to allow early range of motion; however, biomechanical data comparing commonly used fixation methods are lacking. The current study was done to quantify the dynamic biomechanical performance of blade staple fixation and plate fixation of simulated proximal tibial osteotomies. A 15 degrees proximal tibial osteotomy was done on each of 18 synthetic adult composite tibias. Blade staples were used as the means of fixation in nine tibias; plate fixation was used in the remaining nine tibias. The specimens were stressed cyclically in sinusoidal loading whose peak compression and tension loads imitate those measured during normal gait. Device performance was quantified by measuring displacement at the osteotomy site and the number of cycles to failure. Plate fixation had a greater fatigue life than staples (eight plates surviving past 200,000 cycles versus one blade staple) and showed a trend toward less displacement (0.69 mm versus 0.97 mm). Plate fixation of proximal tibial osteotomies offers better fixation and dynamic mechanical performance than blade staples.

  12. [Anatomy of the fetlock joint in horses by means of joint casts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglhuber, A; Breit, S; König, H E

    1997-04-01

    The equine fetlock joint cavity shows ten pouches. The dorsal recess, which is oriented to the proximal side, is separated from those three pouches, which show to the distal direction, by several capsular folds. These folds are documented by means of sagittal sections through the fetlock joint. A medial/lateral recess is covered by the deep part of the collateral ligament of the fetlock joint. The collateral ligaments as well as the sesamoidean collateral ligaments are closely connected with the joint capsule, from which two capsular folds are separated. Between the part of the sesamoidean collateral ligament, that inserts to the metacarpus/metatarsus and the part that inserts to the proximal phalanx, the fetlock joint cavity pouches as Recessus palmaris/plantaris distalis medialis/lateralis. The palmar/plantar distal pouch, which lies in the median line, is covered by the Ligamentum sesamoideum rectum. This recess is narrowed down by the cruciated sesamoidean ligaments. The dominant palmar/plantar proximal recess is subdivided into several small pouches by strings or bands of the joint capsule, which can already be seen with an unaided eye.

  13. Indications for computed tomography (CT-) diagnostics in proximal humeral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrs, Christian; Rolauffs, Bernd; Südkamp, Norbert P

    2009-01-01

    diagnostics depending on the fractured parts. METHODS: In a prospective diagnostic study in two level 1 trauma centers, 44 patients with proximal humeral fractures were diagnosed with conventional X-rays (22 AP + axillary views, 22 AP + scapular Y-views) and CT (multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) and maximum...... a significantly better assessment of the relevant structures than conventional diagnostics (p X-rays with AP view and a high-quality axillary view are useful for primary diagnostics of the fracture......--independently of the number of fractured parts--when the proximal humerus and the shoulder joint are not presented with sufficient X-ray-quality to establish a treatment plan....

  14. Joint purpose?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2013-01-01

    of anti-discrimination in Europe today? And what empirical evidence may be found for such a joint approach? The paper discusses how the contemporary EU context differs from the American context which prompted Crenshaw to raise the point about intersectionality, and it analyses documents and interviews...

  15. Programmable motion of DNA origami mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Alexander E.; Zhou, Lifeng; Su, Hai-Jun; Castro, Carlos E.

    2015-01-01

    DNA origami enables the precise fabrication of nanoscale geometries. We demonstrate an approach to engineer complex and reversible motion of nanoscale DNA origami machine elements. We first design, fabricate, and characterize the mechanical behavior of flexible DNA origami rotational and linear joints that integrate stiff double-stranded DNA components and flexible single-stranded DNA components to constrain motion along a single degree of freedom and demonstrate the ability to tune the flexibility and range of motion. Multiple joints with simple 1D motion were then integrated into higher order mechanisms. One mechanism is a crank–slider that couples rotational and linear motion, and the other is a Bennett linkage that moves between a compacted bundle and an expanded frame configuration with a constrained 3D motion path. Finally, we demonstrate distributed actuation of the linkage using DNA input strands to achieve reversible conformational changes of the entire structure on ∼minute timescales. Our results demonstrate programmable motion of 2D and 3D DNA origami mechanisms constructed following a macroscopic machine design approach. PMID:25561550

  16. Programmable motion of DNA origami mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Alexander E; Zhou, Lifeng; Su, Hai-Jun; Castro, Carlos E

    2015-01-20

    DNA origami enables the precise fabrication of nanoscale geometries. We demonstrate an approach to engineer complex and reversible motion of nanoscale DNA origami machine elements. We first design, fabricate, and characterize the mechanical behavior of flexible DNA origami rotational and linear joints that integrate stiff double-stranded DNA components and flexible single-stranded DNA components to constrain motion along a single degree of freedom and demonstrate the ability to tune the flexibility and range of motion. Multiple joints with simple 1D motion were then integrated into higher order mechanisms. One mechanism is a crank-slider that couples rotational and linear motion, and the other is a Bennett linkage that moves between a compacted bundle and an expanded frame configuration with a constrained 3D motion path. Finally, we demonstrate distributed actuation of the linkage using DNA input strands to achieve reversible conformational changes of the entire structure on ∼ minute timescales. Our results demonstrate programmable motion of 2D and 3D DNA origami mechanisms constructed following a macroscopic machine design approach.

  17. Motion Analysis of Thumb in Cellular Phone Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naotaka Sakai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The thumb motion of 10 normal subjects during cellular phone use was measured using a reflective marker detection system to compare the maximum, minimum and range of flexion angles of the interphalangeal (IP, metacarpophalangeal (MP and carpometacarpal (CM joints. Two micro-reflective markers 3 mm in diameter were each placed on the dorsal surface of the distal phalanx, basal phalanx and metacarpal bone of the thumb. Three markers were placed on the dorsal hand in order to define the dorsal hand plane. Each subject pushed the 12 keys of a folding cellular phone with an 85-mm-long and 40-mm-wide keypad, sequentially from ‘1’ to ‘#’, and the pushing motion was recorded by six infrared video cameras for 12 seconds, using the VICON 612 system. The mean maximum flexion angle of the MP joint was significantly (p < .05 larger than the CM joint, and the mean minimum flexion angle of the CM joint was significantly (p < .01 smaller than the IP and MP joints. The mean range of motion of the IP joint was significantly (p < .05 larger than the MP and the CM joints. In a comparison of different key-pushing motions, only the CM joint was significantly (p < .05 larger in its range of motion. In conclusion, thumb motion on pushing the keys of the cellular phone was produced mainly by the MP and the CM joints. In addition, the ability to reach keys in different areas of the cellular phone keypad is regulated by changing the flexion angle of the CM joint.

  18. Photoactivated In Vivo Proximity Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, David B; Bonasio, Roberto

    2017-06-19

    Identification of molecular interactions is paramount to understanding how cells function. Most available technologies rely on co-purification of a protein of interest and its binding partners. Therefore, they are limited in their ability to detect low-affinity interactions and cannot be applied to proteins that localize to difficult-to-solubilize cellular compartments. In vivo proximity labeling (IPL) overcomes these obstacles by covalently tagging proteins and RNAs based on their proximity in vivo to a protein of interest. In IPL, a heterobifunctional probe comprising a photoactivatable moiety and biotin is recruited by a monomeric streptavidin tag fused to a protein of interest. Following UV irradiation, candidate interacting proteins and RNAs are covalently biotinylated with tight spatial and temporal control and subsequently recovered using biotin as an affinity handle. Here, we describe experimental protocols to discover novel protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions using IPL. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  20. Prox-1 Automated Proximity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-13

    on demonstrating the functionality required to meet minimum mission success criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of...also includes deployment of LightSail-B from the P-POD, and imaging of LightSail-B for 20 minutes as it recedes from Prox-1. small satellite ; proximity...criteria. The minimum mission includes on- orbit spacecraft checkout of all spacecraft subsystems, including flight qualification of the following new

  1. Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: current orthopedic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaker G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gerrit Haaker, Albert Fujak Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a hereditary neuromuscular disease of lower motor neurons that is caused by a defective "survival motor neuron" (SMN protein that is mainly associated with proximal progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Although SMA involves a wide range of disease severity and a high mortality and morbidity rate, recent advances in multidisciplinary supportive care have enhanced quality of life and life expectancy. Active research for possible treatment options has become possible since the disease-causing gene defect was identified in 1995. Nevertheless, a causal therapy is not available at present, and therapeutic management of SMA remains challenging; the prolonged survival is increasing, especially orthopedic, respiratory and nutritive problems. This review focuses on orthopedic management of the disease, with discussion of key aspects that include scoliosis, muscular contractures, hip joint disorders, fractures, technical devices, and a comparative approach of conservative and surgical treatment. Also emphasized are associated complications including respiratory involvement, perioperative care and anesthesia, nutrition problems, and rehabilitation. The SMA disease course can be greatly improved with adequate therapy with established orthopedic procedures in a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach. Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, scoliosis, contractures, fractures, lung function, treatment, rehabilitation, surgery, ventilation, nutrition, perioperative management

  2. MO-G-BRF-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY) - Sensitivity of PET-Based Texture Features to Respiratory Motion in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, S; Aerts, H; Berbeco, R [Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); McCall, K [Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Aristophanous, M [Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, A [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: PET-based texture features are used to quantify tumor heterogeneity due to their predictive power in treatment outcome. We investigated the sensitivity of texture features to tumor motion by comparing whole body (3D) and respiratory-gated (4D) PET imaging. Methods: Twenty-six patients (34 lesions) received 3D and 4D [F-18]FDG-PET scans before chemo-radiotherapy. The acquired 4D data were retrospectively binned into five breathing phases to create the 4D image sequence. Four texture features (Coarseness, Contrast, Busyness, and Complexity) were computed within the the physician-defined tumor volume. The relative difference (δ) in each measure between the 3D- and 4D-PET imaging was calculated. Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p<0.01) was used to determine if δ was significantly different from zero. Coefficient of variation (CV) was used to determine the variability in the texture features between all 4D-PET phases. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to investigate the impact of tumor size and motion amplitude on δ. Results: Significant differences (p<<0.01) between 3D and 4D imaging were found for Coarseness, Busyness, and Complexity. The difference for Contrast was not significant (p>0.24). 4D-PET increased Busyness (∼20%) and Complexity (∼20%), and decreased Coarseness (∼10%) and Contrast (∼5%) compared to 3D-PET. Nearly negligible variability (CV=3.9%) was found between the 4D phase bins for Coarseness and Complexity. Moderate variability was found for Contrast and Busyness (CV∼10%). Poor correlation was found between the tumor volume and δ for the texture features (R=−0.34−0.34). Motion amplitude had moderate impact on δ for Contrast and Busyness (R=−0.64− 0.54) and no impact for Coarseness and Complexity (R=−0.29−0.17). Conclusion: Substantial differences in textures were found between 3D and 4D-PET imaging. Moreover, the variability between phase bins for Coarseness and Complexity was negligible, suggesting that similar

  3. Morphological study of mechanoreceptors in collateral ligaments of the ankle joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaochuan; Song, Weidong; Zheng, Cuihuan; Zhou, Shixiong; Bai, Shengbin

    2015-06-12

    The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern and types of sensory nerve endings in ankle collateral ligaments using histological techniques, in order to observe the morphology and distribution of mechanoreceptors in the collateral ligaments of cadaver ankle joint, and to provide the morphological evidence for the role of the ligament in joint sensory function. Twelve lateral collateral ligaments including anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL; n = 6), posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL; n = 6), and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL; n = 6) were harvested from six fresh frozen cadavers. The ligaments were embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 4 μm, and then stained using a modified gold-chloride staining methods. The collateral ligament was divided into three segments: proximal, middle, and distal segments. Fifty-four ATFL slides, 90 PTFL slides, and 108 CFL slides were analyzed. Mechanoreceptors were classified based on Freemen and Wyke's classification. Mechanoreceptor distribution was analyzed statistically. One-way ANOVA (postHoc LSD) was used for statistical analysis. All the four typical types of nerve endings (the Ruffini corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, Golgi tendon organs, and free nerve endings) were identified in these ligaments. Pacinian corpuscles were the predominant in all four complexes. More mechanoreceptors were found in synovial membrane near both ends of the ligaments attached to the bone. No statistical differences were found in the amount of mechanoreceptors among distal, middle, and proximal parts of the ligaments. The four typical types of mechanoreceptors were all identified in the collateral ligaments of the human ankle. Pacinian corpuscles were the predominant in all four complexes. This indicates that the main function of ankle collateral ligaments is to sense joint speeds in motions.

  4. Joint Hypermobility: What Causes Loose Joints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result in a higher incidence of dislocations and sprains. Your doctor might suggest physical therapy to help strengthen the muscles surrounding these joints. See your doctor if your loose joints also cause you pain. Rarely, joint hypermobility is a sign ...

  5. Combined Treatment of Wrist and Trapeziometacarpal Joint Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitzenegger, Thomas; Leclercq, Caroline; Masmejean, Emmanuel; Lenoir, Hubert; Harir, Amir; Coulet, Bertrand; Chammas, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background Combined thumb basal and wrist joint arthritis (excluding scaphotrapeziotrapezoid arthritis) is rare considering the frequency of arthritis of either joint alone. Combined surgical treatment has never been described in the literature. Furthermore, the scaphoidectomy common to all interventions for Watson stage 2 or 3 wrist arthritis theoretically makes it impossible to perform a trapeziectomy for thumb basal joint arthritis. Question/Purpose The aim of this study was to present and analyze the results of two types of surgical treatment when both wrist and thumb arthritis was present. Materials and Methods Our retrospective series included 11 patients suffering from Eaton Stage III thumb basal joint arthritis and scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) II and III-type wrist arthritis. Five patients (group A) underwent trapeziectomy and palliative surgery for their wrist with conservation of the distal pole of the scaphoid (one proximal row carpectomy [PRC] and four four-corner fusions), and six (group B) patients had a trapeziometacarpal arthroplasty either with PRC (two cases) or four-corner arthrodesis (four cases) including total scaphoidectomy. Results The mean follow-up was 57 months. The overall visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain was 1.5 at rest, with no difference between the trapeziectomy and arthroplasty groups. The average Kapandji score was 9.3 (9 in group A and 9.5 in group B). The flexion/extension range of motion for the wrist was 64° following four-corner arthrodesis and 75° following PRC. Only one case of algodystrophy was observed. The radiological analysis revealed no complications. Discussion This study shows that thumb basal joint arthritis and SLAC type wrist arthritis may be treated by combined treatment during the same intervention without any complications. The results of palliative surgery for the wrist, either with trapeziectomy or with a trapeziometacarpal arthroplasty, are comparable. With a trapeziectomy, the

  6. Effect of triple pelvic osteotomy on the proximal femoral geometry in dysplastic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarierler, Murat; Yildirim, Ismail Gokce; Ocal, Mehmet Kamil

    2012-02-01

    Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) is one of the surgical procedures for use to try to reduce subsequent degenerative joint disease or modify the progress of hip dysplasia in young dogs. Joint force and pressure distribution were changed by this procedure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out whether the remodeling of proximal femur exists or not after TPO in dysplastic dogs. Ten femora from five young dysplastic mongrel dogs, treated unilaterally with TPO using 20° canine pelvic osteotomy plates, were used. One year after TPO, neck-proximal shaft angle, femoral head, neck, diaphyseal and mid-shaft diameters, total femoral, femoral neck axis, and intertrochanteric, femoral head offset lengths as well as the lengths from head center to lateral margin of greater trochanter and to proximal femoral axis were measured from the bone. The significant differences between treatment and control side were determined in Norberg angle, neck-proximal shaft angle, neck diameter, diaphyseal diameter, mid-shaft diameter, length from head center to proximal femoral axis and femoral head offset length. In conclusion, although small number of cases was used, it was determined that the aforementioned variables are affected by TPO. So, these variables may be supply additional information about the changes to the joint following TPO in dysplastic dogs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  8. Minimally invasive percutaneous plating of proximal humeral shaft fractures with the Proximal Humerus Internal Locking System (PHILOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Alexander; Thormann, Sebastian; Babst, Reto

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated our results after minimally invasive percutaneous plating of proximal humeral shaft fractures with the Proximal Humerus Internal Locking System (PHILOS, Synthes, Switzerland). Between 2005 and 2008, 15 patients with unilateral displaced proximal humeral shaft fractures were treated and followed up over a median period of 27 months (range, 12-38 months). The final follow-up included anteroposterior and lateral x-rays, range of shoulder motion, pain by visual analog scale (VAS), the Constant-Murley shoulder score, the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Elbow (DASH) score, and the Short Form 36 (SF36) assessment. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. No secondary fracture displacement or radial neuropathy was observed postoperatively. One patient had open reduction and internal fixation for pseudoarthrosis 16 months after the initial surgery. At the final follow-up, the median range of motion of the operated shoulder was flexion, 145°; extension, 45°; internal rotation, 40°; external rotation, 70°; and abduction, 135°. Median results on outcome assessments were VAS pain score, 0 points; Constant-Murley score, 74 points, representing 87.5% of the median Constant-Murley score of the unaffected shoulder; DASH score, 34 points, and the SF36, 83 points. Minimally invasive percutaneous plating with the PHILOS offers a valid option in the treatment of proximal humeral shaft fractures with comparable rates of nonunion and lower rates of radial neuropathy compared with open procedures. Furthermore, the results indicate that this method is associated with lower rates of wound infection and a shorter stay in the hospital for the patient. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship of medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursion and ankle joint power and work performance during gait in typically developing children: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Lorenzo, Teresa; Albi Rodríguez, Gustavo; Rocon, Eduardo; Martínez Caballero, Ignacio; Lerma Lara, Sergio

    2017-07-01

    Muscle fascicles lengthen in response to chronic passive stretch through in-series sarcomere addition in order to maintain an optimum sarcomere length. In turn, the muscles' force generating capacity, maximum excursion, and contraction velocity is enhanced. Thus, longer fascicles suggest a greater capacity to develop joint power and work. However, static fascicle length measurements may not be taking sarcomere length differences into account. Thus, we considered relative fascicle excursions through passive ankle dorsiflexion may better correlate with the capacity to generate joint power and work than fascicle length. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine if medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursions correlate with ankle joint power and work generation during gait in typically developing children. A sample of typically developing children (n = 10) were recruited for this study and data analysis was carried out on 20 legs. Medial gastrocnemius relative fascicle excursion from resting joint angle to maximum dorsiflexion was estimated from trigonometric relations of medial gastrocnemius pennation angle and thickness obtained from B-mode real-time ultrasonography. Furthermore, a three-dimensional motion capture system was used to obtain ankle joint work and power during the stance phase of gait. Significant correlations were found between relative fascicle excursion and peak power absorption (-) r(14) = -0.61, P = .012 accounting for 31% variability, positive work r(18) = 0.56, P = .021 accounting for 31% variability, and late stance positive work r(15) = 0.51, P = .037 accounting for 26% variability. The large unexplained variance may be attributed to mechanics of neighboring structures (e.g., soleus or Achilles tendon mechanics) and proximal joint kinetics which may also contribute to ankle joint power and work performance, and were not taken into account. Further studies are encouraged to provide greater insight

  10. Determination of muscle effort at the proximal femur rotation osteotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachenkov, O.; Hasanov, R.; Andreev, P.; Konoplev, Yu

    2016-11-01

    The paper formulates the problem of biomechanics of a new method for treatment of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. Numerical calculations of the rotational flexion osteotomy have been carried out for a constructed mathematical model of the hip joint, taking into account the main set of muscles. The work presents the results of the calculations and their analysis. The results have been compared with the clinical data. The calculations of the reactive forces arising in the acetabulum and the proximal part of the femur allowed us to reveal that this reactive force changes both in value and direction. These data may be useful for assessing the stiffness of an external fixation device used in orthopedic intervention and for evaluating the compression in the joint.

  11. Cushing proximal symphalangism and the NOG and GDF5 genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plett, Sara K. [Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (United States); Berdon, Walter E.; Oklu, Rahmi [Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Cowles, Robert A. [Morgan Stanley Children' s Hospital of New York-Presbyterian, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Campbell, John B. [Arnold Palmer Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Proximal symphalangism (SYM1) is an autosomal-dominant developmental disorder of joint fusion. This disorder is best known from famous historical descriptions of two large kindred: Cushing's description in 1916 of the ''straight-fingered'' Brown family of Virginia and Drinkwater's description in 1917 of the British Talbot family of noble blood, descended from the English war hero John Talbot, the first Earl of Shrewsbury (1388-1453). Recent genetic studies link this phenotype to expression of abnormal genes at future joint sites: too little expression of NOG, a growth antagonist, or overexpression of GDF5, a growth agonist, results in cartilage overgrowth and bony fusion. This review unites in depth the first historical accounts of SYM1 with a clinical description and reviews the current understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying what is likely the oldest dominant trait ever studied. (orig.)

  12. PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    PROXIMATE AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE GRUBS. 1 Alhassan, A. J. 1M .S. Sule, 1J. ... ABSTRACT. This study determined the proximate and mineral element composition of whole white grubs using standard methods of analysis. Proximate ... days, before pulverized to powder and kept in plastic container.

  13. 76 FR 54163 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... pinned by the machine. Proximity detection is a technology that uses electronic sensors to detect motion... also observed the Booyco Collision Warning System (CWS) being used on continuous mining machines. The... further analysis due to its potential to force machine operators out of previously safe areas into...

  14. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty with glenoid bone grafting for anterior glenoid rim fracture associated with glenohumeral dislocation and proximal humerus fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, R; Brody, F; Castagna, A; Ceccarelli, E; Krishnan, S G

    2016-12-01

    Large fractures of the anterior glenoid rim can result in persisting instability and osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint When this fracture is associated with a glenohumeral dislocation and proximal humerus fracture could be a concern. The goal of this paper was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes and complications of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) and glenoid bone graft in cases with a significant anterior glenoid fracture associated with a proximal humerus fracture. RSA and step bone graft harvested from proximal humeral head could be a viable option in the treatment of this complex injury. Retrospective case series. Twenty-six patients underwent RSA and glenoid bone graft in a single stage procedure were evaluated at an average 32 months postoperatively. There were 18 women and 8 men with a mean age of 68.5 years (range 63-75 years). Reverse shoulder arthroplasty with a contoured glenoid bone graft placed underneath the baseplate using humeral head autograft was utilized in all cases. Clinical outcomes were evaluated with range of motion, Constant score and self-reported subjective outcome rated as excellent, good, fair or poor. Radiographic evaluation was performed to evaluate for baseplate displacement or loosening, bone graft union, resorption or collapse. At final follow-up, average active elevation was 135° (range 110°-145°), abduction 122° (range 60°-160°), and external rotation 30° (range 0 to 45°). The mean Constant score was 68.2 (range 54-83). The clinical results were rated as excellent by 15 patients, good by 9, and fair by 2. Radiographic evaluation showed the disc of cancellous bone graft healed without any signs of graft resorption or migration in all 26 cases. No reoperation was performed on any patient in this series. RSA with glenoid bone grafting produces satisfactory short-term outcomes with acceptable complication rates for treatment of patients greater than 60 years old with proximal humerus fractures

  15. Temporomandibular joint arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyung Sik; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Myoung Joon; Jun, Young Hwan; Chang, Duk Soo; Jung, Don Young; Jung, In Won [Capital Armed Forces General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-04-15

    The stress and occlusion disturbance are very important etiologic factors in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain dysfunction syndromes. Authors performed TMJ arthrograms in the patients with TMJ problem such as pain, click sound, limited motion and locking, etc. The following results noted: 1. The arthrographic findings of 22 TMJ were analyzed. a) Normal: 6 cases b) Anterior disc displacement with rediction: 6 cases {center_dot} Early reduction: 2 cases {center_dot} Intermediate reduction: 3 cases {center_dot} Late reduction: 1 case c) Anterior disc displacement without reduction: 6 cases {center_dot} Two cases had adhesion between the posterior portion of disc and the posterior surfaces of the articular eminence. 2. Among 22 cases, the clinical findings of 16 cases (73%) were compatible with arthrographic findings. 6 cases showed disparity between them.

  16. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Dizziness and Motion Sickness Dizziness and Motion Sickness Patient Health Information ... other respiratory infections If you are subject to motion sickness: •Do not read while traveling •Avoid sitting ...

  17. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-12-31

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  18. Timing of electromyographic activity and ranges of motion during simple motor tasks of upper extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syczewska Małgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Improvement of the upper extremities’ performance is one of the key aims in the rehabilitation process. In order to achieve high effectiveness of this process the amount of functional improvement achieved by a patient during the therapy needs to be assessed. The aim of this study was to obtain electromyographic (EMG activity profiles of the upper extremity muscles during execution of simple tasks in healthy subjects. Additionally the ranges of wrist, elbow and shoulder joints were measured and reported during performed trials. The second aim was to determine whether the movement execution and ranges of move­ments and muscular activity depend on age. Material and methods: Twenty-eight healthy adults, age range 21 to 65 years old, participated in the study. Surface electrodes were placed bilaterally on 7 upper extremity muscles. To obtain information about the beginning and end of the movement task and ranges of upper extremity joints, 13 markers were placed on the elbows and wrists of both upper extremities. The move­ments of the segments were calculated (distal vs proximal in five simple functional tasks (each task involved only one joint, performed while sitting. Kinematic data were collected by the VICON 460 system, and electromyographic data with the Mo­tion Lab EMG system. Results: Charts of timing of EMG activity of the upper extremity muscles together with ranges of upper extremity joint motion were obtained. Conclusion: The results show that the number of muscles activated and the time (or percentage of the task during which they are active depend on the type of the task and age. These data can be used as a reference in evaluation of functional deficits of patients.

  19. Compensation or Restoration: Closed-Loop Feedback of Movement Quality for Assisted Reach-to-Grasp Exercises with a Multi-Joint Arm Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Florian; Naros, Georgios; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Assistive technology allows for intensive practice and kinematic measurements during rehabilitation exercises. More recent approaches attach a gravity-compensating multi-joint exoskeleton to the upper extremity to facilitate task-oriented training in three-dimensional space with virtual reality feedback. The movement quality, however, is mostly captured through end-point measures that lack information on proximal inter-joint coordination. This limits the differentiation between compensation strategies and genuine restoration both during the exercise and in the course of rehabilitation. We extended in this proof-of-concept study a commercially available seven degree-of-freedom arm exoskeleton by using the real-time sensor data to display a three-dimensional multi-joint visualization of the user's arm. Ten healthy subjects and three severely affected chronic stroke patients performed reach-to-grasp exercises resembling activities of daily living assisted by the attached exoskeleton and received closed-loop online feedback of the three-dimensional movement in virtual reality. Patients in this pilot study differed significantly with regard to motor performance (accuracy, temporal efficiency, range of motion) and movement quality (proximal inter-joint coordination) from the healthy control group. In the course of 20 training and feedback sessions over 4 weeks, these pathological measures improved significantly toward the reference parameters of healthy participants. It was moreover feasible to capture the evolution of movement pattern kinematics of the shoulder and elbow and to quantify the individual degree of natural movement restoration for each patient. The virtual reality visualization and closed-loop feedback of joint-specific movement kinematics makes it possible to detect compensation strategies and may provide a tool to achieve the rehabilitation goals in accordance with the individual capacity for genuine functional restoration; a proposal that warrants

  20. A STUDY ON PROXIMAL HUMERAL FRACTURES STABILISED WITH PHILOS PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Sivakumar K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Techniques for treating complex proximal humeral fractures vary and include fixations using tension bands, percutaneous pins, bone suture, T-plates, intramedullary nails, double tubular plates, hemiarthroplasty, plant tan humerus fixator plates, Polaris nails and blade plates. Complications of these techniques include cutout or back out of the screws and plates, avascular necrosis, nonunion, malunion, nail migration, rotator cuff impairment and impingement syndromes. Insufficient anchorage from conventional implants may lead to early loosening and failure, especially in osteoporotic bones. In general, nonoperative treatment of displaced three and four-part fractures of the proximal humerus leads to poor outcome due to intraarticular nature of injury and inherent instability of the fragments. Comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus are at risk of fixation failure, screw loosening and fracture displacement. Open reduction and internal fixation with conventional plate and screws has been associated with unacceptably high incidence of screw pull out. PHILOS (the proximal humeral internal locking system plate is an internal fixation system that enables angled stabilisation with multiple interlocking screws for fractures of the proximal humerus. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 patients with proximal humerus fractures who were admitted in the Department of Orthopaedics, Government General Hospital, Kakinada, during the period November 2014 - November 2016 were taken up for study according to inclusion criteria. All patients were treated with PHILOS plate. These proximal humerus fractures were classified according to Neer’s classification. Patients were followed up at 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months’ interval. Functional outcomes for pain, range of motion and muscle power and function were assessed using the Constant-Murley scoring system. Collected data analysed with independent t-test and ANNOVA test. RESULTS The outcome of the study was 1

  1. DEMES rotary joint: theories and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu; Hao, Zhaogang; Li, Mingyu; Huang, Bo; Sun, Lining; Zhao, Jianwen

    2017-04-01

    As a kind of dielectric elastomer actuators, dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure (DEMES) can realize large angular deformations by small voltage-induced strains, which make them an attractive candidate for use as biomimetic robotics. Considering the rotary joint is a basic and common component of many biomimetic robots, we have been fabricated rotary joint by DEMES and developed its performances in the past two years. In this paper, we have discussed the static analysis, dynamics analysis and some characteristics of the DEMES rotary joint. Based on theoretical analysis, some different applications of the DEMES rotary joint were presented, such as a flapping wing, a biomimetic fish and a two-legged walker. All of the robots are fabricated by DEMES rotary joint and can realize some basic biomimetic motions. Comparing with traditional rigid robot, the robot based on DEMES is soft and light, so it has advantage on the collision-resistant.

  2. Functional outcomes of proximal row carpectomy: 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarano-Filho, Luiz Garcia; Campioto, Débora Schalge; Bezuti, Márcio Takey; Mazzer, Nilton; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique

    2015-01-01

    : To evaluate functional outcomes of patients submit-ted to proximal row carpectomy for the treatment of wrist arthri-tis. : This is a retrospective study using wrist motion and grip strenght of patients diagnosed with Kienböck disease and scaphoid non-union surgically treated by this technique. : Eleven patients with 2-year follow-up were evaluated. Wrist motion (flexion, extension and ulnar deviation) and grip strength were significantly better from preoperative values. Ho-wever, no difference in radial deviation was observed in these patients. : Proximal row carpectomy provides an alternative option for treatment of wrist arthritis, resulting in better active range of motion and grip strength in the long run. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series.

  3. The effect of wrist surgery on the kinematic consistency of joint axis reconstruction in a static posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraszewski, Andrew P; Osei, Daniel A; Garg, Rohit; Jang, Eugene; Hillstrom, Howard J; Lenhoff, Mark W; Wolfe, Scott W

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional analysis of wrist motion is a growing focus in orthopedic research, however, our understanding of its validity (accuracy and reliability) remains limited. Nine human cadavers were tested to estimate wrist joint axes alignment in a postural static pose. The objective was to investigate a rater's ability to reliably align three skin- tracked wrist joint coordinate system (WJCS) definitions across baseline and reconstructive wrist states (intact, mid-carpal arthrodesis, and proximal-row carpectomy). Two WJCSs (legacy, anatomic) were based on palpated bony landmarks and the third (functional) was based on both landmarks and passive flexion-extension motion. A coordinate frame based on the anatomic definition was tracked with bone pins and served as a reference. Each WJCS was tested in each wrist state and in three forearm position (45° pronation, neutral, 45° supination). The angular offset about each axis of the WJCS frames were calculated with respect to the reference in flexion-extension, radial-ulnar deviation, and pronation-supination for every iteration. Reliability and root mean square deviation values were analyzed across wrist states. Our data suggest that no WJCS is uniformly more reliable than another. The functional WJCS definition was most consistent across intact and post-operative states for pronation-supination offset, but this was dependent on rater interpretation. It still however offers the practical benefit of requiring fewer landmarks. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Dynamic CT technique for assessment of wrist joint instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuai; Zhao, Kristin; Qu, Mingliang; An, Kai-Nan; Berger, Richard; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2011-07-01

    To develop a 4D [three-dimensional (3D) + time] CT technique to capture high spatial and temporal resolution images of wrist joint motion so that dynamic joint instabilities can be detected before the development of static joint instability and onset of osteoarthritis (OA). A cadaveric wrist was mounted onto a custom motion simulator and scanned with a dual source CT scanner during radial-ulnar deviation. A dynamic 4D CT technique was utilized to reconstruct images at 20 equidistant time points from one motion cycle. 3D images of carpal bones were generated using volume rendering techniques (VRT) at each of the 20 time points and then 4D movies were generated to depict the dynamic joint motion. The same cadaveric wrist was also scanned after cutting all portions of the scapholunate interosseus ligament to simulate scapholunate joint instability. Image quality were assessed on an ordinal scale (1-4, 4 being excellent) by three experienced orthopedic surgeons (specialized in hand surgery) by scoring 2D axial images. Dynamic instability was evaluated by the same surgeons by comparing the two 4D movies of joint motion. Finally, dose reduction was investigated using the cadaveric wrist by scanning at different dose levels to determine the lowest radiation dose that did not substantially alter diagnostic image quality. The mean image quality scores for dynamic and static CT images were 3.7 and 4.0, respectively. The carpal bones, distal radius and ulna, and joint spaces were clearly delineated in the 3D VRT images, without motion blurring or banding artifacts, at all time points during the motion cycle. Appropriate viewing angles could be interactively selected to view any articulating structure using different 3D processing techniques. The motion of each carpal bone and the relative motion among the carpal bones were easily observed in the 4D movies. Joint instability was correctly and easily detected in the scan performed after the ligament was cut by observing the

  5. Mobile Phone-Based Joint Angle Measurement for Functional Assessment and Rehabilitation of Proprioception

    OpenAIRE

    Quentin Mourcou; Anthony Fleury; Bruno Diot; Céline Franco; Nicolas Vuillerme

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of joint functional and proprioceptive abilities is essential for balance, posture, and motor control rehabilitation. Joint functional ability refers to the capacity of movement of the joint. It may be evaluated thereby measuring the joint range of motion (ROM). Proprioception can be defined as the perception of the position and of the movement of various body parts in space. Its role is essential in sensorimotor control for movement acuity, joint stability, coordination, and balan...

  6. Distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx in distal thumb amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansü, Eren; Ünal, Mehmet Bekir; Parmaksızoğlu, Fatih; Gürcan, Serkan

    2015-01-01

    Thumb amputation is a major cause of hand dysfunction, and the treatment for distal thumb amputations remains controversial. Although finger reconstruction methods using distraction lengthening are known to restore finger length and function, we found no reports in the literature regarding phalangeal lengthening in thumb amputations. We aimed to evaluate proximal phalangeal lengthening in thumb amputations at or near the interphalangeal (IP) joint. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had undergone distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx of the thumb. All patients underwent osteotomy, either during the initial procedure or as a second-stage procedure. Distraction began 10 days after osteotomy with the use of an external fixator that remained in place until ossification of the gap occurred without bone grafting. Patients were evaluated using the QuickDASH score. Fourteen patients with a mean age of 27 years and a mean follow-up period of 7 years were enrolled. The mean phalangeal lengthening achieved was 20 mm. Ossification occurred at all distraction sites, and the fixators were maintained for a mean of 85 days. The mean healing index was 42.5 days/cm. All 14 patients achieved the desired amount of phalangeal lengthening without major complications such as nonunion, premature union, or gross infection. For reconstruction in cases of distal thumb amputations, distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx can be used to improve absolute length, web space, and grip distance. The technique is safe and effective, improves functionality/cosmesis, and offers a low complication risk.

  7. Concomitant ipsilateral proximal tibia and femoral Hoffa fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anuj; Aggarwal, Prakash; Pankaj, Amite

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report our experience on concomitant ipsilateral proximal tibia and femoral Hoffa fractures. Nine patients (8 male, 1 female; mean age: 30.9; range: 19-49 years) presented to our emergency room with an ipsilateral proximal tibia and femoral Hoffa fracture, following road traffic accident. Six patients had open fracture. Two patients had ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture, two patients had fracture of intercondylar part of distal femur, one had fracture of patella and one had fracture of both bones of the leg. Out of nine Hoffa's fracture eight involved lateral and one involved medial femoral condyle. There were five type II, two type VI, one type I and one type IV proximal tibial fracture according to Schatzker classification. Mean duration of follow-up was 13 months (range: 9-21 months). At final follow-up, all fractures united. Mean knee society score was 163 (range: 127-182). Mean ROM at knee joint was 97.4 degrees (75°-115°). Our results suggest that in this combination of intraarticular fractures anatomic reduction and rigid fixation followed by early mobilization reveal satisfactory results.

  8. [RESEARCH PROGRESS OF BIOMECHANICS OF PROXIMAL ROW CARPAL INSTABILITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinhai; Huang, Fuguo

    2015-01-01

    To review the research progress of the biomechanics of proximal row carpal instability (IPRC). The related literature concerning IPRC was extensively reviewed. The biomechanical mechanism of the surrounding soft tissue in maintaining the stability of the proximal row carpal (PRC) was analyzed, and the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of the PRC were summarized from two aspects including basic biomechanics and clinical biomechanics. The muscles and ligaments of the PRC are critical to its stability. Most scholars have reached a consensus about biomechanical mechanism of the PRC, but there are still controversial conclusions on the biomechanics mechanism of the surrounding soft tissue to stability of distal radioulnar joint when the triangular fibrocartilage complex are damaged and the biomechanics mechanism of the scapholunate ligament. At present, there is no unified standard about the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of the PRC. So, it is difficult for clinical practice. Some strides have been made in the basic biomechanical study on muscle and ligament and clinical biomechanical study on the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of PRC, but it will be needed to further study the morphology of carpal articular surface and the adjacent articular surface, the pressure of distal carpals to proximal carpal and so on.

  9. Open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures with use of the locking proximal humerus plate. Surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, G; Bayer, J; Hepp, P; Voigt, C; Oestern, H; Kääb, M; Luo, C; Plecko, M; Wendt, K; Köstler, W; Südkamp, N

    2010-03-01

    The treatment of unstable displaced proximal humeral fractures, especially in the elderly, remains controversial. The objective of the present prospective, multicenter, observational study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the complication rate after open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures with use of a locking proximal humeral plate. One hundred and eighty-seven patients (mean age, 62.9 +/- 15.7 years) with an acute proximal humeral fracture were managed with open reduction and internal fixation with a locking proximal humeral plate. At the three-month, six month,and one-year follow-up examinations, 165 (88%), 158 (84%), and 155 (83%) of the 187 patients were assessed with regard to pain, shoulder mobility, and strength. The Constant score was determined at each interval, and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score was determined for the injured and contralateral extremities at the time of the one-year follow-up. Between three months and one year, the mean range of motion and the mean Constant score for the injured shoulders improved substantially. Twelve months after surgery, the mean Constant score for the injured side was 70.6 +/- 13.7 points, corresponding to 85.1% +/- 14.0% of the score for the contralateral side. The mean DASH score at the time of the one-year follow-up was 15.2 +/- 16.8 points. Sixty-two complications were encountered in fifty-two (34%) of 155 patients at the time of the one-year follow-up. Twenty-five complications (40%) were related to incorrect surgical technique and were present at the end of the operative procedure. The most common complication, noted in twenty-one (14%) of 155 patients, was intraoperative screw perforation of the humeral head. Twenty-nine patients (19%) had an unplanned second operation within twelve months after the fracture. Surgical treatment of displaced proximal humeral fractures with use of the locking proximal humeral plate that was evaluated in the

  10. Therapeutic efficacy of facet joint blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Christoph; Schmid, Marius R; Elfering, Achim; Hodler, Juerg; Boos, Norbert

    2006-05-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate outcome predictors of short- and medium-term therapeutic efficacy of facet joint blocks. Forty-two patients with chronic lower back pain who were undergoing facet joint blocks at one (n = 29) or two (n = 13) levels were analyzed. All patients underwent MRI or CT of the lumbar spine within 5 months before the facet joint blocks. The facet joint blocks were performed under fluoroscopic guidance. A small amount ( 1 week) and medium-term effect (> 3 months), were collected by a structured telephone interview. CT and MRI were reviewed with regard to the extent of facet joint abnormalities. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify outcome predictor for efficacy of facet joint blocks. A positive immediate effect was seen in 31 patients (74%). A positive medium-term effect was found in 14 patients (33%). Pain alleviated by motion (p = 0.035) and the absence of joint-blocking sensation (p = 0.042) predicted pain relief. However, the extent of facet joint osteoarthritis on MRI and CT was not a significant predictor for outcome (p = 0.57-0.95). Facet joint blocks appear to have a beneficial medium-term effect in one third of patients with chronic lower back pain and may therefore be a reasonable adjunct to nonoperative treatment. However, outcome appears to depend on clinical, not on morphologic, imaging findings.

  11. An inverse kinematics model for post-operative knee. Ligament parameters estimation from knee motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Elvis C S; Ellis, Randy E

    2006-01-01

    A motion-based Inverse Kinematics Knee (IKK) model was developed for Total Knee Replacement (TKR) joints. By tracking a sequence of passive knee motion, the IKK model estimated ligament properties such as insertion locations. The formulation of the IKK model embedded a Forward Kinematics Knee (FKK) model in a numerical optimization algorithm known as the Unscented Kalman Filter. Simulation results performed on a semi-constrained TKR design suggested that ligament insertions could be accurately estimated in the medial-lateral (ML) and the proximal-distal (PD) directions, but less reliably in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction for the tibial component. However, the forward kinematics produced by both the true and estimated ligament properties were nearly identical, suggesting that the IKK model recovered a kinematically equivalent set of ligament properties. These results imply that it may not be necessary to use a patient-specific CT or MRI scan to locate ligaments, which considerably widens potential applications of kinematic-based total knee replacement.

  12. Kinematics differences between the flat, kick, and slice serves measured using a markerless motion capture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Alison L; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Corazza, Stefano; Safran, Marc R; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2011-12-01

    Tennis injuries have been associated with serving mechanics, but quantitative kinematic measurements in realistic environments are limited by current motion capture technologies. This study tested for kinematic differences at the lower back, shoulder, elbow, wrist, and racquet between the flat, kick, and slice serves using a markerless motion capture (MMC) system. Seven male NCAA Division 1 players were tested on an outdoor court in daylight conditions. Peak racquet and joint center speeds occurred sequentially and increased from proximal (back) to distal (racquet). Racquet speeds at ball impact were not significantly different between serve types. However, there were significant differences in the direction of the racquet velocity vector between serves: the kick serve had the largest lateral and smallest forward racquet velocity components, while the flat serve had the smallest vertical component (p < 0.01). The slice serve had lateral velocity, like the kick, and large forward velocity, like the flat. Additionally, the racquet in the kick serve was positioned 8.7 cm more posterior and 21.1 cm more medial than the shoulder compared with the flat, which could suggest an increased risk of shoulder and back injury associated with the kick serve. This study demonstrated the potential for MMC for testing sports performance under natural conditions.

  13. Motion in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPE...

  14. Brief communication: Cineradiographic analysis of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nathan E; Holowka, Nicholas B; O'Neill, Matthew C; Larson, Susan G

    2014-08-01

    During terrestrial locomotion, chimpanzees exhibit dorsiflexion of the midfoot between midstance and toe-off of stance phase, a phenomenon that has been called the "midtarsal break." This motion is generally absent during human bipedalism, and in chimpanzees is associated with more mobile foot joints than in humans. However, the contribution of individual foot joints to overall foot mobility in chimpanzees is poorly understood, particularly on the medial side of the foot. The talonavicular (TN) and calcaneocuboid (CC) joints have both been suggested to contribute significantly to midfoot mobility and to the midtarsal break in chimpanzees. To evaluate the relative magnitude of motion that can occur at these joints, we tracked skeletal motion of the hindfoot and midfoot during passive plantarflexion and dorsiflexion manipulations using cineradiography. The sagittal plane range of motion was 38 ± 10° at the TN joint and 14 ± 8° at the CC joint. This finding indicates that the TN joint is more mobile than the CC joint during ankle plantarflexion-dorsiflexion. We suggest that the larger range of motion at the TN joint during dorsiflexion is associated with a rotation (inversion-eversion) across the transverse tarsal joint, which may occur in addition to sagittal plane motion. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Complications in proximal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensitivity of standardised musculoskeletal examination of the hand and wrist joints in detecting arthritis in comparison to ultrasound findings in patients attending rheumatology clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoallim, Hani; Attar, Suzan; Jannoudi, Nahid; Al-Nakshabandi, Nizar; Eldeek, Basem; Fathaddien, Omar; Halabi, Hussien

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to standardise the muscuoloskeletal (MSK) examination of the hand and wrist joints and to determine the sensitivity of this standard exam to diagnose arthritis in comparison to ultrasound (US) findings. A standardised approach to MSK examination of the hand and wrist joints was formulated. It consists of inspection, followed by screening exam based on active range of motion testing, and then using specific techniques to detect clinical swelling and tenderness. The scissor and squeeze techniques for metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints, 4-finger technique for the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints and 2-thumb technique for the wrist joints. Patients aged 18-75 years with symptoms suggestive of inflammatory arthritis for more than 3 months were included in the study from two centres. Two rheumatologists conducted MSK examination, while a grayscale with power Doppler US was performed by two ultrasonographers recording signs of arthritis (effusion, proliferation and hyperaemia) on the same day of visit. Statistical analysis was carried out to compare MSK examination findings in detecting swelling and tenderness to US examination findings. A total of 2,112 joints were assessed both clinically and with US. Using a standard MSK examination by a rheumatologist to detect clinical swelling showed the following sensitivities as compared to US findings: 4-finger technique of 69 % in third PIP, the scissor technique of 74 % in second MCP and 70 % in third MCP, and the 2-thumb technique of 80 % at the wrist joint. The MCP squeeze technique showed sensitivity of 66 % for tenderness. A standard MSK examination with its described techniques is a sensitive tool if used appropriately to diagnose clinical arthritis as compared to US.

  17. IN VIVO MOTION OF FEMORAL CONDYLES DURING WEIGHT-BEARING FLEXION AFTER ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RUPTURE USING BIPLANE RADIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaining Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo three- dimensional tibiofemoral kinematics and femoral condylar motion in knees with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL deficiency during a knee bend activity. Ten patients with unilateral ACL rupture were enrolled. Both the injured and contralateral normal knees were imaged using biplane radiography at extension and at 15°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of flexion. Bilateral knees were next scanned by computed tomography, from which bilateral three-dimensional knee models were created. The in vivo tibiofemoral motion at each flexion position was reproduced through image registration using the knee models and biplane radiographs. A joint coordinate system containing the geometric center axis of the femur was used to measure the tibiofemoral motion. In ACL deficiency, the lateral femoral condyle was located significantly more posteriorly at extension and at 15° (p < 0.05, whereas the medial condylar position was changed only slightly. This constituted greater posterior translation and external rotation of the femur relative to the tibia at extension and at 15° (p < 0.05. Furthermore, ACL deficiency led to a significantly reduced extent of posterior movement of the lateral condyle during flexion from 15° to 60° (p < 0.05. Coupled with an insignificant change in the motion of the medial condyle, the femur moved less posteriorly with reduced extent of external rotation during flexion from 15° to 60° in ACL deficiency (p < 0.05. The medial- lateral and proximal-distal translations of the medial and lateral condyles and the femoral adduction-abduction rotation were insignificantly changed after ACL deficiency. The results demonstrated that ACL deficiency primarily changed the anterior-posterior motion of the lateral condyle, producing not only posterior subluxation at low flexion positions but also reduced extent of posterior movement during flexion from 15° to 60°

  18. Repetitive Motion Planning of Free-Floating Space Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, a repetitive motion-planning scheme of free-floating space manipulators is presented. Repetitive motion means when one task ends, the end-effector pose, the joint angles and the base pose should reset (return to their initial value, which will facilitate the subsequent tasks. First, due to the lack of DOF, an order of priority to the given tasks is introduced. Second, the joint reset optimization operator, the base attitude reset optimization operator and the end-effector attitude reset optimization operator are designed. Then, the repetitive motion scheme is proposed by combining the three optimization operators above in a creative way. Finally, to make the optimization of repetitive motion obvious, the base attitude maintenance is also considered. Simulation results verify the correctness and the validity of the repetitive motion planning method of space manipulator.

  19. Hip joint mobility in dancers: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drężewska, Marlena; Gałuszka, Renata; Sliwiński, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of dancing on hip joint mobility and to assess the relationship between active movements of the hips and injuries among dancers, which may be important in planning rehabilitation in this group. The sample comprised 49 dancers (37 women and 12 men) aged 15 to 32 years. The participants were the professional dancers of the Kielce Dance Theatre and members of two youth jazz dance teams from the Kielce Dance Theatre. The active range of motion of the hips was measured in three planes using a goniometer in order to assess the influence of dance training on hip joint mobility. A questionnaire-based survey was also conducted. The range of flexion, extension and external rotation was significantly greater in the group of long-time dancers (p gender were associated with an increased range of hip joint motion.

  20. [In vivo study on the body motion during the Shi's cervical reduction technique with 3D motion capture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-hao; Zhang, Min; Niu, Wen-xin; Shen, Xu-zhe; Zhan, Hong-sheng

    2015-10-01

    The clinical effect of the Shi's cervical reduction technique for cervical spondylosis and related disorders has confirmed, however, there were few studies on the body motion during manipulation in vivo study. This study is to summary the law of motion and the motion characteristics of the right operation shoulder, elbow, knee and ankle joints by data acquisition and analysis with the 3D motion capture system. The markers were pasted on the head, trunk, left and right acromion, elbow joint, wrist joint inner side and the outer side of the inner and the outer side and the lateral upper arm, forearm lateral, anterior superior iliac spine, posterior superior iliac spine, trochanter, femoral and tibial tubercle, inner and outer side of knee, ankle, fibular head, medial and lateral in first, 2,5 metatarsal head, heel and dual lateral thigh the calf, lateral tibia of one manipulation practioner, and the subject accepted a complete cycle of cervical "Jin Chu Cao and Gu Cuo Feng" manipulation which was repeated five times. The movement trajectory of the practioner's four markers of operation joints were captured, recorded, calculated and analyzed. The movement trajectories of four joints were consistent, while the elbow joint had the biggest discrete degree. The 3D activities of the shoulder and elbow were more obvious than other two joints, but the degree of flexion and extension in the knee was significantly greater than the rotation and lateral bending. The flexibility of upper limb joint and stability of lower limb joint are the important guarantees for the Shi's cervical reduction technique, and the right knee facilitated the exerting force of upper limb by the flexion and extension activities. The 3D model built by the motion capture system would provide a new idea for manipulation teaching and further basic biomechanical research.

  1. Bilateral sternoclavicular joint dislocation due to sternal fracture: Is it a dislocation or a separation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jin Woong; Kim, Doo Hyun; Heo, Youn Moo; Jun, June Bum

    2016-05-01

    Traumatic bilateral sternoclavicular joint dislocation is very rare injury. In shoulder girdle injuries, anterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint accounts for 3 % and posterior sternoclavicular joint dislocation is lesser. Previous reported cases about bilateral sternoclavicular joint dislocation were result from proximal clavicle fracture with intact connection between sternum and ribs. But, the sternoclavicular joint dislocation secondary to fracture and angulation of the sternum with intact relationship between ribs and clavicle has not been reported. Authors experienced patient who has a bilateral anterior sternoclavicular joint dislocation caused by sternum fracture and anterior angulation, but intact relationship between ribs and clavicle. We report this case with satisfactory result.

  2. Proximity sensor technology for manipulator end effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    Optical proximity sensing techniques which could be used to help control the critical grasping phase of a remote manipulation are described. The proximity sensors described use a triangulation geometry to detect a surface located in a pre-determined region. The design of the proximity sensors themselves is discussed, as well as their application to manipulator control with a local control loop, and possibilities for future development are discussed.

  3. Reliability of Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by tests on tubular joints are presented. The joints are T-joints and the loading is static. It is the intention in continuation of these tests to perform tests on other types of joints (e.g. Y-joints) and also with dynamic loading. The purpose of th...

  4. Motion Transplantation Techniques: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Basten, Ben|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30484800X; Egges, Arjan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822779

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, researchers have developed several techniques for transplanting motions. These techniques transplant a partial auxiliary motion, possibly defined for a small set of degrees of freedom, on a base motion. Motion transplantation improves motion databases' expressiveness and

  5. Paraplegic flexion contracture of hip joints: An unsolvable problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sailendra

    2016-01-01

    Paraplegic flexion contracture of hip joints beyond 90° is a difficult condition to treat for any orthopedic surgeon. There is no fixed protocol of treatment described, by and large it is individualized. A 20 year old female presented with paraplegia for last 15 years due to irrecoverable spinal cord disease with complete sensory and motor loss of both lower extremities and was admitted with acute flexion contracture of both hip joints with trunk resting on thighs. She underwent bilateral proximal femoral resection. Both hip joints were straight immediately after surgery and patient could lie on her back. In a course of time, she started sitting on her buttocks, led a comfortable wheelchair life with a sitting balance. Proximal femoral resection is an effective method to treat long standing irrecoverable paraplegic acute flexion deformity of the hip joint.

  6. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  7. Development Requirements for Spacesuit Elbow Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Functional Requirements for spacesuit elbow joint:1) The system is a conformal, single-axis spacesuit pressurized joint that encloses the elbow joint of the suited user and uses a defined interface to connect to the suit systems on either side of the joint.2) The system shall be designed to bear the loads incurred from the internal pressure of the system, as well as the expected loads induced by the user while enabling the user move the joint through the required range of motion. The joint torque of the system experienced by the user shall remain at or below the required specification for the entire range of motion.3) The design shall be constructed, at a minimum, as a two-layer system. The internal, air-tight layer shall be referred to as the bladder, and the layer on the unpressurized side of the bladder shall be referred to as the restraint. The design of the system may include additional features or layers, such as axial webbing, to meet the overall requirements of the design.

  8. Optimizing Motion Planning for Hyper Dynamic Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboura, Souhila; Omari, Abdelhafid; Meguenni, Kadda Zemalache

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimal motion planning for an hyper dynamic manipulator. As case study, we consider a golf swing robot which is consisting with two actuated joint and a mechanical stoppers. Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique is proposed to solve the optimal golf swing motion which is generated by Fourier series approximation. The objective function for GA approach is to minimizing the intermediate and final state, minimizing the robot's energy consummation and maximizing the robot's speed. Obtained simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  9. Submicrosecond-timescale readout of carbon nanotube mechanical motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerwaldt, H.B.; Johnston, S.R.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Steele, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    We report fast readout of the motion of a carbon nanotube mechanical resonator. A close-proximity high electron mobility transistor amplifier is used to increase the bandwidth of the measurement of nanotube displacements from the kHz to the MHz regime. Using an electrical detection scheme with the

  10. Musculoskeletal modelling of human ankle complex: Estimation of ankle joint moments

    OpenAIRE

    Jamwal, PK; Hussain, S; Tsoi, YH; Ghayesh, MH; Xie, SQ

    2017-01-01

    Background: A musculoskeletal model for the ankle complex is vital in order to enhance the understanding of neuro-mechanical control of ankle motions, diagnose ankle disorders and assess subsequent treatments. Motions at the human ankle and foot, however, are complex due to simultaneous movements at the two joints namely, the ankle joint and the subtalar joint. The musculoskeletal elements at the ankle complex, such as ligaments, muscles and tendons, have intricate arrangements and exhibit tr...

  11. Shoulder injuries from attacking motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tetsu; Itoh, Masaru; Wada, Yuhei; Watanabe, Naoki

    1997-03-01

    Sports injuries have bothered professional players. Although many medical doctors try to treat injured players, to prevent sports injuries is more important. Hence, it is required to clear a kinematic mechanism of the sport injuries. A shoulder of volleyball attacker or baseball pitcher is often inured by playing motion. The injuries are mainly caused at the end of long head tendon, which is located in the upper side of scapula. Generally, a muscle and tendon have enough strength against tensile force, however, it seems that they are sometimes defeated by the lateral force. It is imagined that the effect of the lateral force has a possibility of injuring the tendon. If we find the influence of the lateral force on the injured portion, the mechanism of injuries must be cleared. In our research, volleyball attacking motion is taken by high speed video cameras. We analyze the motion as links system and obtain an acceleration of an arm and a shoulder from video image data. The generated force at a shoulder joint is calculated and resolved into the lateral and longitudinal forces. Our final goal is to discuss a possibility that the lateral force causes the injuries.

  12. Assessment of finger joint inflammation by diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielscher, Andreas H.; Klose, Alexander D.; Scheel, Alexander K.; Backhaus, Marina; Netz, Uwe J.; Beuthan, Juergen

    2003-10-01

    Inflammatory processes as they occur during rheumatoid arthritis (RA) lead to changes in the optical properties of joint tissues and fluids. These changes occur early on in the disease process and can potentially be used as diagnostic parameter. In this work we report on in vivo studies involving 12 human subjects, which show the potential of diffuse optical tomographic techniques for the diagnosis of inflammatory processes in proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints.

  13. Joint Replacement (Finger and Wrist Joints)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artificial joint Damage to vessels, nerves or other structures in the region of the surgery Alternatives Some alternate procedures for treating arthritis include: Joint injections Oral medications such as aspirin or anti-inflammatory medicines Hand therapy exercises and ...

  14. Joint x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  15. Differential Inverse Kinematics of a Redundant 4R Exoskeleton Shoulder Joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keemink, A.Q.L.; van Oort, G.; Wessels, M.; Stienen, A.

    2017-01-01

    Most active upper-extremity rehabilitation exoskeleton designs incorporate a 3R rotational shoulder joint with orthogonal axes. This kind of joint has poor conditioning close to singular configurations when all joint axes become coplanar, which reduces its effective range of motion. We investigate

  16. The relation between geometry and function of the ankle joint complex: a biomechanical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleipool, Roeland P.; Blankevoort, Leendert

    2010-01-01

    This review deals with the relation between the anatomy and function of the ankle joint complex. The questions addressed are how high do the forces in the ankle joint get, where can the joints go (range of motion) and where do they go during walking and running. Finally the role of the ligaments and

  17. Comparison of the Effect of Kinesiotape on Pain and Joint Range of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of kinesiotaping on knee pain and range of motion (ROM) in patients with knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) and knee joint sport injury. Sixty out of 76 subjects of which 45 were patients with diagnosis of knee joint OA and 31 subjects with knee pain as a result of sport injury ...

  18. Macro motion vector quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Y.; Woods, John W.

    1995-04-01

    A new algorithm is developed for reducing the bit rate required for motion vectors. This algorithm is a generalization of block matching motion estimation in which the search region is represented as a codebook of motion vectors. The new algorithm, called macro motion vector quantization (MMVQ), generalized our earlier MVQ by coding a group of motion vectors. The codebook is a set of macro motion vectors which represent the block locations of the small neighboring blocks in the previous frame. We develop an interative design algorithm for the codebook. Our experiments show that the variances of displaced frame differences (DFDs) are reduced significantly compared to block matching algorithm (BMA) with the macroblock size.

  19. Functional outcome following proximal humeral interlocking system plating for displaced proximal humeral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Thyagarajan David; Haridas Samarth; Jones Denise; Dent Colin; Evans Richard; Williams Rhys

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess the functional outcome following internal fixation with the PHILOS (proximal humeral interlocking system) for displaced proximal humeral fractures. Patients and Methods: We reviewed 30 consecutive patients treated surgically with the proximal humeral locking plate for a displaced proximal humeral fracture. Functional outcome was determined using the American Shoulder and Elbow Society (ASES) score and Constant Murley score. Results: Average age of the patients was 58 years...

  20. Best Proximity Points for a New Class of Generalized Proximal Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Kamran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The best proximity points are usually used to find the optimal approximate solution of the operator equation Tx = x, when T has no fixed point. In this paper, we prove some best proximity point theorems for nonself multivalued operators, following the foot steps of Basha and Shahzad [Best proximity point theorems for generalized proximal contractions, Fixed Point Theory Appl., 2012, 2012:42].

  1. Preliminary phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seed powder of Moringa oleifera was analysed for its phytochemical, proximate and elemental composition using Folin-Denis spectrophotometric method, gravimetric method and energy dispersing X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) transmission emission technique respectively. The seed powder had the following proximate ...

  2. Bimalleolar ankle fracture with proximal fibular fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, R. J.; Struijs, P. A. A.; Ultee, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 56-year-old female patient suffered a bimalleolar ankle fracture with an additional proximal fibular fracture. This is an unusual fracture type, seldom reported in literature. It was operatively treated by open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral malleolar fracture. The proximal fibular

  3. Grouping by Proximity in Haptic Contour Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Krampe, Ralf Th.; Wagemans, Johan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection. PMID:23762364

  4. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Vol. 15 (1) 9 - 11. Full-text Available Online at www.bioline.org.br/ja. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms. ADEDAYO, MAJEKODUNMI RACHEL. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, P.M.B.3032, Kano. ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in.

  5. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

  6. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spigelia anthelmia is used traditionally in Southern Nigeria for the treatment of infant convulsion and epilepsy. This study investigated the phytochemical constituents, proximate analysis and anticonvulsant effect of the methanolic extract of Spigelia anthelmia. Phytochemical evaluation and proximate analysis was carried ...

  7. Motion Capture Depends Upon the Common Fate Factor Among Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Makoto; Masakura, Yuko

    2017-12-01

    When observers move the head backwards and forwards while fixating on the center of the concentric circles that consist of oblique lines, they see illusory rotation of those circles. If several dots are superimposed on the proximity to the inner concentric circles, observers see the illusory rotation not only for the circles but also for the superimposed dots. This illusory rotation of the dots is based on motion capture. In this study, in order to understand the basis of the motion capture, we examined how motion signal with different directions (rotation, expansion/contraction, and horizontal translation) in terms of motion on a display, as well as illusory motion signal from the oblique components, affects the motion capture. If the stimulus presented rotation with expansion/contraction, or rotation with horizontal translation for the entire stimulus, then observers tended to perceive motion capture for the superimposed dots. However, if the stimulus presented only rotation of the circles, then observers tended to perceive induced motion for the superimposed dots. These results suggest that the existences of the common fate factor for the entire stimulus determine the means of allocating and integrating the motion signal in each element in the stimulus to generate motion capture.

  8. Structural dynamic analysis of a ball joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seok-Cheol; Lee, Kwon-Hee

    2012-11-01

    Ball joint is a rotating and swiveling element that is typically installed at the interface between two parts. In an automobile, the ball joint is the component that connects the control arms to the steering knuckle. The ball joint can also be installed in linkage systems for motion control applications. This paper describes the simulation strategy for a ball joint analysis, considering manufacturing process. Its manufacturing process can be divided into plugging and spinning. Then, the interested responses is selected as the stress distribution generated between its ball and bearing. In this paper, a commercial code of NX DAFUL using an implicit integration method is introduced to calculate the response. In addition, the gap analysis is performed to investigate the fitness, focusing on the response of the displacement of a ball stud. Also, the optimum design is suggested through case studies.

  9. Intramedullary compression device for proximal ulna fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Han, Fucai; Decruz, Joshua; Pannirselvam, Vinodhkumar; Murphy, Diarmuid

    2015-02-01

    Proximal ulna fractures account for 20% of all proximal forearm fractures. Many treatment options are available for such fractures, such as cast immobilisation, plate and screw fixation, tension band wiring and intramedullary screw fixation, depending on the fracture pattern. Due to the subcutaneous nature of the proximal forearm, it is vulnerable to open injuries over the dorsal aspect of the proximal ulna. This may in turn prove challenging, as it is critical to obtain adequate soft tissue coverage to reduce the risk of implant exposure and bony infections. We herein describe a patient with a Gustillo III-B open fracture of the proximal ulna, treated with minimally invasive intramedullary screw fixation using a 6.0-mm cannulated headless titanium compression screw (FusiFIX, Péronnas, France).

  10. The shape of the hominoid proximal femur: a geometric morphometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Elizabeth H

    2007-01-01

    As part of the hip joint, the proximal femur is an integral locomotor component. Although a link between locomotion and the morphology of some aspects of the proximal femur has been identified, inclusive shapes of this element have not been compared among behaviourally heterogeneous hominoids. Previous analyses have partitioned complex proximal femoral morphology into discrete features (e.g. head, neck, greater trochanter) to facilitate conventional linear measurements. In this study, three-dimensional geometric morphometrics are used to examine the shape of the proximal femur in hominoids to determine whether femoral shape co-varies with locomotor category. Fourteen landmarks are recorded on adult femora of Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo and Hylobates. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) is used to adjust for position, orientation and scale among landmark configurations. Principal components analysis is used to collapse and compare variation in residuals from GPA, and thin-plate spline analysis is used to visualize shape change among taxa. The results indicate that knucklewalking African apes are similar to one another in femoral shape, whereas the more suspensory Asian apes diverge from the African ape pattern. The shape of the human and orangutan proximal femur converge, a result that is best explained in terms of the distinct requirements for locomotion in each group. These findings suggest that the shape of the proximal femur is brought about primarily by locomotor behaviour. PMID:17310545

  11. Additive fiber-cerclages in proximal humeral fractures stabilized by locking plates: no effect on fracture stabilization and rotator cuff function in human shoulder specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christine; Hurschler, Christof; Rechi, Louise; Vosshenrich, Rolf; Lill, Helmut

    2009-08-01

    The effect of additive fiber-cerclages in proximal humeral fractures stabilized by locking plates on fracture stabilization and rotator cuff function is unclear. Here it was assessed in a human cadaver study. 24 paired human shoulder specimens were harvested from median 77-year-old (range 66-85) female donors. An unstable 3-part fracture model with an intact rotator cuff was developed. 1 specimen of each pair received an additive fiber-cerclage of the rotator cuff after plate fixation, and the other one received a plate fixation without an additive fiber-cerclage. Force-controlled hydraulic cylinders were used to simulate physiological rotator cuff tension, while a robot-assisted shoulder simulator performed 4 relevant cases of load: (1) axial loading at 0 degrees, (2) glenohumeral abduction at 60 degrees, (3) internal rotation at 0 degrees abduction, and (4) external rotation at 0 degrees abduction, and imitated hanging arm weight during loading without affecting joint kinematics. A 3-dimensional real-time interfragmentary motion analysis was done in fracture gaps between the greater tuberosity and the head, as well as subcapital. The capacity of the rotator cuff to strain was analyzed with an optical system. Interfragmentary motion was similar between the groups with and without fiber-cerclages, in both fracture gaps and in any of the cases of load. Cerclages did not impair the capacity of the rotator cuff to strain. INTERPRETATION; Provided that unstable 3-part fractures are reduced and stabilized anatomically by a locking plate, additive fiber-cerclages do not reduce interfragmentary motion. Additive fiber-cerclages may be necessary in locking plate osteosyntheses of multiple-fractured greater tuberosities or lesser tuberosity fractures that cannot be fixed sufficiently by the plate.

  12. Fuzzy Modelling of Knee Joint with Genetic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. K. K. Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of joint properties of lower limbs in people with spinal cord injury is significantly challenging for researchers due to the complexity of the system. The objective of this study is to develop a knee joint model capable of relating electrical parameters to dynamic joint torque as well as knee angle for functional electrical stimulation application. The joint model consists of a segmental dynamic, time-invariant passive properties and uncertain time-variant active properties. The knee joint model structure comprising optimised equations of motion and fuzzy models to represent the passive viscoelasticity and active muscle properties is formulated. The model thus formulated is optimised using genetic optimization, and validated against experimental data. The developed model can be used for simulation of joint movements as well as for control development. The results show that the model developed gives an accurate dynamic characterisation of the knee joint.

  13. Biomechanics of the natural, arthritic, and replaced human ankle joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The human ankle joint complex plays a fundamental role in gait and other activities of daily living. At the same time, it is a very complicated anatomical system but the large literature of experimental and modelling studies has not fully described the coupled joint motion, position and orientation of the joint axis of rotation, stress and strain in the ligaments and their role in guiding and stabilizing joint motion, conformity and congruence of the articular surfaces, patterns of contact at the articular surfaces, patterns of rolling and sliding at the joint surfaces, and muscle lever arm lengths. The present review article addresses these issues as described in the literature, reporting the most recent relevant findings. PMID:24499639

  14. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  15. Arthroscopy of the fetlock joint of the dromedary camel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M M; Abd-Elnaeim, M

    2012-01-01

    To describe a technique for arthroscopy of the fetlock joint of the dromedary camel, and the problems that could occur during and after arthroscopy. Seven animals (4 cadaveric limbs and 3 living camels) were used in this study. Two dorsal arthroscopic portals (lateral and medial) and one palmaro-lateral portal were used. Distension of the joint capsule was effected by injecting Ringer´s lactate solution into the joint cavity. Landmarks for the dorsal arthroscopic portals were located at the centre of the groove bounded by the lateral branch of the suspensory ligament and the large metacarpus at a point 1 cm proximal to the joint. The palmaro-lateral portal was located in a triangular area between the branch of the suspensory ligament, the large metacarpus, and the sesamoid bone, with insertion of the arthroscope in a 45° joint flexion angle. Arthroscopy of the fetlock joint via the dorso-lateral portal allowed examination of the distal end of the large metacarpus and the proximal end of the first phalanx of the fourth digit. Arthroscopy via a dorso-medial approach allowed examination of the distal end of the large metacarpus and the proximal end of the first phalanx and the distal end of the third digit. The palmaro-lateral portal allowed examination of the sesamoid bones, the synovial membrane, and the synovial villi. The main complications recorded during arthroscopy were iatrogenic articular surface injury as well as obstruction of vision with the synovial villi. This is the first work to describe the normal arthroscopy of the fetlock joint in the dromedary camel, the arthroscopic portals, and the complications that could occur during and after arthroscopy. Further studies are required for diagnosis of pathological changes in the fetlock joint of the dromedary camel and for arthroscopy of other joints in the dromedary camel.

  16. AMUC: Associated Motion capture User Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sally Jane; Lawson, Sian E M; Olivier, Patrick; Watson, Paul; Chan, Anita M-A; Dade-Robertson, Martyn; Dunphy, Paul; Green, Dave; Hiden, Hugo; Hook, Jonathan; Jackson, Daniel G

    2009-07-13

    The AMUC (Associated Motion capture User Categories) project consisted of building a prototype sketch retrieval client for exploring motion capture archives. High-dimensional datasets reflect the dynamic process of motion capture and comprise high-rate sampled data of a performer's joint angles; in response to multiple query criteria, these data can potentially yield different kinds of information. The AMUC prototype harnesses graphic input via an electronic tablet as a query mechanism, time and position signals obtained from the sketch being mapped to the properties of data streams stored in the motion capture repository. As well as proposing a pragmatic solution for exploring motion capture datasets, the project demonstrates the conceptual value of iterative prototyping in innovative interdisciplinary design. The AMUC team was composed of live performance practitioners and theorists conversant with a variety of movement techniques, bioengineers who recorded and processed motion data for integration into the retrieval tool, and computer scientists who designed and implemented the retrieval system and server architecture, scoped for Grid-based applications. Creative input on information system design and navigation, and digital image processing, underpinned implementation of the prototype, which has undergone preliminary trials with diverse users, allowing identification of rich potential development areas.

  17. Joint Mobilization and Manipulation for the Equine Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussler, Kevin K

    2016-04-01

    Joint mobilization and manipulation provide important diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for addressing musculoskeletal issues in veterinary medicine. Soft tissue and joint mobilization are used to assess the quality and quantity of joint range of motion and as a primary means of treating musculoskeletal disorders. Spinal manipulation was shown to be effective for reducing pain, improving flexibility, reducing muscle tone, and improving symmetry of spinal kinematics in horses. Because of potential misuse and safety issues, joint mobilization and manipulative therapies should be provided only by specially trained veterinarians or licensed human manual therapists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A closed dorsolateral dislocation of PIP joint of the fourth toe-a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interphalangeal (IP) joint dislocations of the toes are uncommon lesions. We present here a case of closed dorsolateral dislocation of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint of the fourth toe. Closed reduction and buddy strapping have been done with middle toe for two weeks under digital block. There was painless full range ...

  19. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging, radiography, and scintigraphy of the finger joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, M; Ostergaard, M; Jensen, K E

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate synovial membrane hypertrophy, tenosynovitis, and erosion development of the 2nd to 5th metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints by magnetic resonance imaging in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or suspected RA followed up for one year...

  1. Predicted knee kinematics and kinetics during functional activities using motion capture and musculoskeletal modelling in healthy older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Peter; Stokes, Maria; Taylor, Mark

    2011-02-01

    Knowledge of joint forces and moments is essential for comparisons between healthy people and those with pathological conditions, with observed changes at joints providing basis for a particular intervention. Currently the literature analysing both kinematics and kinetics at the knee has been limited to small samples, typically of young subjects or those who have undergone joint arthroplasty. In this study, we examined tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) kinematics and kinetics during gait, sit-stand-sit, and step-descent in 20 healthy older subjects (aged 53-79 years) using motion capture data and inverse dynamic musculoskeletal models. Mean peak distal-proximal force in the TFJ were 3.1, 1.6, and 3.5 times body weight (N/BW) for gait, sit-stand, and step-descent respectively. There were also significant posterior-anterior forces, with sit-stand activity peaking at 1.6 N/BW. Moments about the TFJ peaked at a mean of 0.07 Nm/BW during the sit-stand activity. One of the most important findings of this study was variability found across the subjects, who spanned a wide age range, showing large standard deviations in all of the activities for both kinematics and kinetics. These data have provided an initial prediction for assessing kinematics and kinetics in the older population. Larger studies are needed to refine the database, in particular to reduce the variability in the results by studying sub-populations, to enable more robust comparisons between healthy and pathological TFJ kinematics and kinetics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Additional Crime Scenes for Projectile Motion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Dan; Bonner, David

    2011-12-01

    Building students' ability to transfer physics fundamentals to real-world applications establishes a deeper understanding of underlying concepts while enhancing student interest. Forensic science offers a great opportunity for students to apply physics to highly engaging, real-world contexts. Integrating these opportunities into inquiry-based problem solving in a team environment provides a terrific backdrop for fostering communication, analysis, and critical thinking skills. One such activity, inspired jointly by the museum exhibit "CSI: The Experience"2 and David Bonner's TPT article "Increasing Student Engagement and Enthusiasm: A Projectile Motion Crime Scene,"3 provides students with three different crime scenes, each requiring an analysis of projectile motion. In this lesson students socially engage in higher-order analysis of two-dimensional projectile motion problems by collecting information from 3-D scale models and collaborating with one another on its interpretation, in addition to diagramming and mathematical analysis typical to problem solving in physics.

  3. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  4. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  5. Evaluation of percutaneous pinning in unstable proximal humeral fractures: A novel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishikant Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of unstable proximal humeral fractures has remained controversial since ages. Open reduction and internal fixation have resulted in devastating complications like stiffness of shoulder joint, avascular necrosis, infection, etc., We are presenting a novel method of percutaneous pinning of unstable proximal humeral fractures. All cases (32 were done closely without soft tissue stripping. All cases were followed-up for a period of 3 years; and results were assessed according to 100 point constant score. A total of 75% cases showed excellent to good results. To minimize the complications like pin site infection, loosening, neurovascular damage we used fixed pin site insertion technique, and threaded pins in osteoporotic patients. So percutaneous pinning is a safe and novel method of management of unstable proximal humeral fractures if certain principles are borne in mind before using it.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of osteoid osteoma of the proximal femur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, Michele; Minutoli, Fabio; Pandolfo, Ignazio; Vinci, Sergio; Blandino, Alfredo [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Messina, Policlinico ' ' G. Martino' ' , Via Consolare Valeria, 98100, Messina (Italy); D' Andrea, Letterio [Department of Orthopedics, University of Messina, Policlinico ' ' G. Martino' ' , Via Consolare Valeria, 98100, Messina (Italy)

    2004-09-01

    Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign bone tumor whose main radiological finding is nidus. OO of the proximal femur can also result in non-specific findings such as hip joint effusion, perinidal bone marrow edema and soft tissue mass. Since the nidus may be difficult to identify with MR, these non-specific findings can lead to erroneous diagnosis. Therefore, MR imaging technique should be optimized in order to identify nidus. Since MR imaging has assumed increasing importance in the evaluation of disorders of the hip, radiologists must be aware of the spectrum of findings of OO of the proximal femur. The aim of this pictorial review is to show the MR imaging findings of intra-articular and extra-articular OO of the proximal femur. (orig.)

  7. Composite pipe to metal joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie, James C.; Leslie, II, James C.; Heard, James; Truong, Liem V.; Josephson, Marvin

    2017-06-27

    A method for making a metal to composite tube joint including selecting an elongated interior fitting constructed with an exterior barrel, reduced in exterior diameter to form a distally facing annular shoulder and then projecting still further distally to form an interior sleeve having a radially outwardly facing bonding surface. Selecting an elongated metal outer sleeve formed proximally with a collar constructed for receipt over the barrel and increased in interior diameter and projecting distally to form an exterior sleeve having a radially inwardly facing bonding surface cooperating with the first bonding surface to form an annulus receiving an extremity of a composite tube and a bond bonding the extremity of the tube to the bonding surfaces.

  8. Infected shoulder joint with loose Suture Anchor in the joint after Bankart's Repair- A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Thilak, Jai

    2016-01-01

    The glenoid labrum is frequently torn in traumatic glenohumeral dislocation; arthroscopic repair is the standard method of treatment. The complications associated with this repair are pulling out of metal suture anchors, chondrolysis and joint infection. The infection of joint after arthroscopy is less than 1%. Staphylococcus is most common organism and rarely followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We report a case of infected shoulder with chondrolysis of the joint and pulled out metal suture anchor lying inside the joint after Bankart's repair. A 22-year-old gentleman came to us with complaints of shoulder joint pain & gross restriction of movements for one year, with history of intermittent fever and treatment in nearby hospital. He also gives past history of recurrent dislocation of shoulder with last episode 18 months back, which was diagnosed as Bankart's lesion and arthroscopic Bankart's repair was done 15 months back. He was evaluated at our institute and suspected to have infection of shoulder joint with pulled out metal suture anchor inside the joint. Arthroscopic removal of suture anchor and debridement of shoulder joint was done, Culture was obtained and culture specific antibiotics were given for six weeks, and significant improvement was observed with this line of treatment. At lyear follow up, the patient was able to perform his daily activities with terminal restriction of range of motion. Shoulder joint infection is rare after Bankart's repair and required a high degree of suspicion. Any foreign materials inside the joint should be taken out & followed with aggressive treatment by debridement, irrigation and culture specific antibiotics. Suppression of joint infection with antibiotics should be avoided specially when there is foreign body inside the joint.

  9. Detailed examination of the lower cervical spine facet joints in a road traffic crash fatality - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Nielsen, Edith; Vesterby, Annie

    2005-01-01

    The lower cervical spine facet joints of a road traffic crash fatality were examined using diagnostic imaging and histological techniques. No injuries to the cervical spine facet joints could be identified with diagnostic imaging including conventional radiology, CT and MRI. Examination of stained...... histological sections visualised the morphology and integrity of the facet joints in detail. Occult injuries to and in close proximity of the cervical spine facet joints were identified only on histological examination....

  10. Detailed examination of the lower cervical spine facet joints in a road traffic crash fatality - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Nielsen, Edith; Vesterby, Annie

    2005-01-01

    The lower cervical spine facet joints of a road traffic crash fatality were examined using diagnostic imaging and histological techniques. No injuries to the cervical spine facet joints could be identified with diagnostic imaging including conventional radiology, CT and MRI. Examination of staine...... histological sections visualised the morphology and integrity of the facet joints in detail. Occult injuries to and in close proximity of the cervical spine facet joints were identified only on histological examination....

  11. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...

  12. Proximity sensing of electrostatic induction electret nanoparticles device using separation electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiong Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We reported a two dimensional self-powered proximity sensor based on nanoparticles polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE electrostatic induction electret using separation electrode. The structural pattern was carefully designed for identifying the specific position on the horizontal plane. When the separation electrode is motioned above the sensor, the induced charges on electrodes will change based on the coupling effect of the electret film. Experiment results showed that the proximity sensor works well with the velocity 0.05 m/s. We also found that the prototype have a good stability even with a huge uncontrolled perturbation on the Y direction. Our work could be a significant step forward in self-powered proximity sensing technology, with a wide range of potential applications in touchpad, robotics, and safety-monitoring device.

  13. Proximity sensing of electrostatic induction electret nanoparticles device using separation electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianxiong; Huang, Run; Zhu, Hua

    2017-04-01

    We reported a two dimensional self-powered proximity sensor based on nanoparticles polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) electrostatic induction electret using separation electrode. The structural pattern was carefully designed for identifying the specific position on the horizontal plane. When the separation electrode is motioned above the sensor, the induced charges on electrodes will change based on the coupling effect of the electret film. Experiment results showed that the proximity sensor works well with the velocity 0.05 m/s. We also found that the prototype have a good stability even with a huge uncontrolled perturbation on the Y direction. Our work could be a significant step forward in self-powered proximity sensing technology, with a wide range of potential applications in touchpad, robotics, and safety-monitoring device.

  14. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  15. Percutaneous Distraction Pinning for Metacarpophalangeal Joint Stabilization After Blast or Crush Injuries of the Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Matthew A; Cheung, Kevin; Li, Zhongyu

    2015-09-01

    Unstable, severely comminuted fractures of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint are difficult to treat. Closed treatment and casting of these fractures often fail to maintain proper alignment and impede wound care where concomitant open injuries such as gunshot wounds are present. Conventional pinning or plating techniques are not feasible if extensive bone loss and comminution are present. A distraction pinning technique represents a potential alternative, but results with this approach, to our knowledge, have not been reported. The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate the effectiveness (defined as osseous union and joint stability) of distraction pinning for comminuted fractures involving MCP joints after gunshot or crush injuries; (2) to report the short-term results in terms of pain and function in a small group of patients who underwent MCP distraction pinning; and (3) to evaluate complications and return to work status of these patients in the short term. We reviewed 10 patients with comminuted pilon-type fractures of the base of the proximal phalanx or metacarpal head treated with wire distraction fixation from 2005 and 2014. During that period, we used this technique to treat all patients whose fractures were deemed too comminuted for plating or pinning, and during that period, no other techniques (such as simple external fixation) were used for patients meeting those indications. The minimum followup was 6 months; eight of the 10 patients were accounted at a median of 10 months (range, 6-89 months). The median age was 47 years (range, 28-57 years), and seven of the eight were male. Kirschner wire fixation frames were removed 3.5 to 6 weeks after the index surgery when fracture consolidation was confirmed on radiography by the treating surgeon. Stability and range of motion of the MCP joint were assessed using physical examination, radiographs, and goniometer by the treating surgeon. Patients completed the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and

  16. Motion Simulation of a New Ankle Rehabilitation Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Racu (Cazacu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ankle structure holds one of the most important role in the human biomechanics. Due to complexity of everyday activities this joint is the most prone to be injured part of the lower limb. For a complete recovery of the locomotion function, recovery exercises are mandatory. The introduction of robotic physical recovery systems represents a modern alternative to traditional recovery. Based on the 3D virtual model and a previous dimensional synthesis of a new ankle rehabilitation device, its motion simulation is presented in this paper, to prove that it may fully recover the range of motion required for this joint.

  17. Proximal row carpectomy in total arthrodesis of the rheumatoid wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, T T; Lenoir, H; Coulet, B; Wargny, M; Lazerges, C; Chammas, M

    2015-12-01

    Advanced proximal carpal row damage is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Proximal row carpectomy (PRC) simplifies total wrist arthrodesis, obviating the need for an iliac bone graft. In theory, PRC also improves the chances of healing, as fusion of a single joint space is needed for the procedure to be successful. Potential effects of the loss of carpal height related to PRC are unknown. We hypothesised that PRC performed concomitantly with total wrist arthrodesis in patients with RA produces good clinical and radiological outcomes, without inducing loss of strength or digital deformities. In 38 total arthrodeses of rheumatoid wrists, a clinical evaluation was performed, including a visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE), grip strength, digital deformities, and patient satisfaction. A standard radiographic workup was obtained to assess healing and carpal height indices. After a mean follow-up of 50 months, the mean VAS pain score was 0.4 (range: 0-7), the mean PRWE score was 21 (range: 0-80.5), and grip strength as a percentage of the contralateral limb was 76%. The healing rate was 92% (35/38 wrists), and 34 (90%) patients reported being satisfied or very satisfied. No effects of carpal height loss on clinical or radiographic parameters was detected. Total wrist arthrodesis combined with PRC provides reliable and reproducible benefits. This study found no evidence of adverse effects related to the loss of carpal height. IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Indexing and retrieving motions of characters in close contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Edmond S L; Komura, Taku

    2009-01-01

    Human motion indexing and retrieval are important for animators due to the need to search for motions in the database which can be blended and concatenated. Most of the previous researches of human motion indexing and retrieval compute the Euclidean distance of joint angles or joint positions. Such approaches are difficult to apply for cases in which multiple characters are closely interacting with each other, as the relationships of the characters are not encoded in the representation. In this research, we propose a topology-based approach to index the motions of two human characters in close contact. We compute and encode how the two bodies are tangled based on the concept of rational tangles. The encoded relationships, which we define as TangleList, are used to determine the similarity of the pairs of postures. Using our method, we can index and retrieve motions such as one person piggy-backing another, one person assisting another in walking, and two persons dancing / wrestling. Our method is useful to manage a motion database of multiple characters. We can also produce motion graph structures of two characters closely interacting with each other by interpolating and concatenating topologically similar postures and motion clips, which are applicable to 3D computer games and computer animation.

  19. Motion Control of Robot by using Kinect Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Mohammed A.; Ali, Ahmed S.; F.A. Elmisery; Mostafa, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the presented work, a remote robot control system is implemented utilizes Kinect based gesture recognition as human-robot interface. The movement of the human arm in 3 d space is captured, processed and replicated by the robotic arm. The joint angles are transmitted to the Arduino microcontroller. Arduino receives the joint angles and controls the robot arm. In investigation the accuracy of control by human's hand motion was tested.

  20. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-02-01

    development of the electron microscope, which aimed to exceed the resolving power of diffraction-limited optical microscopes. Since the diffraction limit is proportional to the incident wavelength, the shorter wavelength electron beam allows smaller features to be resolved than optical light. Ernst Ruska shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1986 for his work in developing the transmission electron microscope [5]. The technique continues to provide an invaluable tool in nanotechnology studies, as demonstrated recently by a collaboration of researchers in the US, Singapore and Korea used electron and atomic force microscopy in their investigation of the deposition of gold nanoparticles on graphene and the enhanced conductivity of the doped film [6]. The other half of the 1986 Nobel Prize was awarded jointly to Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer 'for their design of the scanning tunnelling microscope'. The scanning tunnelling microscope offered the first glimpses of atomic scale features, galvanizing research in nanoscale science and technology into a burst of fruitful activity that persists to this day. Instead of using the diffraction and scattering of beams to 'see' nanoscale structures, the atomic force microscope developed by Binnig, Quate and Gerber in the 1980s [1] determines the surface topology 'by touch'. The device uses nanoscale changes in the forces exerted on a tip as it scans the sample surface to generate an image. As might be expected, innovations on the original atomic force microscope have now been developed achieving ever greater sensitivities for imaging soft matter without destroying it. Recent work by collaborators at the University of Bristol and the University of Glasgow used a cigar-shaped nanoparticle held in optical tweezers as the scanning tip. The technique is not diffraction limited, imparts less force on samples than contact scanning probe microscopy techniques, and allows highly curved and strongly scattering samples to be imaged [7]. In this issue

  1. The Proximity Electronics of the GAIA Focal Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alejandro; Peran, Francisco; Elorz, Ainhoa; Cuesta, Hermilo; Velasco, Raul; Polo, Jesus

    2011-08-01

    Gaia (Global Astrometric Intereferomenter for Astrophysics) is an ESA mission which will chart a three-dimensional map of our Galaxy, continuing the work initiated with ESA Hipparcos mission. The main objective is to investigate the origin and evolution of the Milky Way. This goal will be achieved by measuring the position and motion of around 1 billion stars, as well as measuring the physical properties of each star.The spacecraft payload consists of a single instrument. This instrument provides three functions (Astrometry, Photometry and Spectrometry), which will use common telescopes and a shared focal plane.The Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) will be the largest ever developed, comprising 106 CCDs-PEMs (Proximity Electronics Module) pairs, for a total 1 Gigapixels and 0.5x1 m dimensions. The CCDs are distributed on an array layout, with the different functions in separate columns. The proximity electronics main functions are CCD operation, video processing, sequencing and power supply distribution. A single PEM design is used for all the focal plane functions, as it is able to adapt the sequencing, biasing, video bandwidth and gain to each instrument function. All these functions and capabilities have been integrated in a very small module, weighting only 162 g.The video processing includes analogue amplification, filtering, A/D conversion and digital processing. This extremely exigent electronic module is able to deliver very low noise levels on a 16 bit video chain, in the range of fractions of a LSB.Such demanding level of performances has made necessary the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts instead of Hi-Rel parts for certain taxing functions of the PEM. Furthermore, the level of exigency in performances has been extremely difficult to achieve not only on the PEM, but on the test equipment also, so as to demonstrate the full capabilities of the proximity electronics. The excellent performances of the PEM will help to achieve the very challenging goals

  2. Thumb proximal phalanx reconstruction with nonvascularized corticocancellous olecranon bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Maximillian

    2015-01-01

    Large segmental bone defects of the phalanges reportedly have been treated with free vascularized grafts from the hand, foot, or knee, or with nonvascularized grafts from the iliac crest. A nonvascularized structural corticocancellous graft from a local site would be advantageous. The olecranon has been used as a source of both cancellous and corticocancellous graft. The authors describe a unique case of the use of nonvascularized corticocancellous olecranon bone graft for structural purposes in a mutilating thumb injury. The patient injured the left thumb with a miter saw, resulting in a large degloving wound over a severely comminuted fracture of the proximal phalanx, with segmental bone loss between a base fragment and displaced condylar fragments. Provisional pin fixation was performed at the time of initial emergent irrigation and debridement, along with repairs of the extensor pollicis longus, radial digital nerve, and dorsal digital nerve. This was followed 3 weeks later by non-vascularized corticocancellous bone grafting from the olecranon to the proximal phalanx under regional anesthesia. The thumb was mobilized at 11 weeks, and solid union was radiographically confirmed at 6 months. The patient achieved moderate active range of motion and was able to return to work as a physical therapist. The elbow healed uneventfully and without pain or fracture at the donor site. This case shows that robust structural bone graft for the phalanges may be obtained from the nearby olecranon, under regional anesthesia, without microsurgery, and with potential advantages over the iliac crest. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Nonrigid external fixation of the elbow, coxofemoral, and tarsal joints in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Zeev; Griffon, Dominique

    2008-12-01

    Nonrigid external fixation of a joint is designed to restrict abnormal joint movement and facilitate healing of traumatized ligaments and capsule tissue with minimizing the impact of immobilization on articular homeostasis and cartilage metabolism. Weight bearing and joint motion minimize muscle atrophy and loss of bone mineral and allow controlled loading of the ligaments, thereby improving their strength and functionality. This article describes simple, cost effective techniques for the percutaneous application of external fixators to the elbow, coxofemoral, and tarsal joint of dogs.

  4. The immediate and short-term effects of a wrist extension orthosis on upper-extremity kinematics and range of shoulder motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie; Thomas, Julie Jepsen; Rice, Martin S

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate upper-extremity kinematics and range of shoulder motion while wearing a wrist extension orthosis compared to the free hand at initial testing and after a week's wear. A convenience sample of healthy women, ages 20-50 years, performed a stacking task and a pouring task, freehanded and splinted, at two times, 1 week apart in this counterbalanced, repeated measures design. A Motion Analysis 3-D system measured quality of movement and range of motion variables. A 2 by 2 analysis of variance (splinted vs. freehanded by time of testing) was used to analyze each variable. In both tasks, participants tended to move more slowly (p = 0.005) with less direct movements (p splinted movements were also less smooth than when free-handed (p splinted both tasks required more shoulder abduction (p wrist extension orthosis interfered with the quality of upper-extremity movement and required more range of shoulder movement compared to the free hand. Future research is needed to determine whether persons with upper-extremity conditions (i.e., arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome) respond similarly to wrist orthoses. Therapists should consider discussing with patients how their wrist splint could affect their hand performance and help patients learn techniques to reduce stress on their proximal joints.

  5. The effect of footwear and foot orthoses on transverse plane knee motion during running - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Laura; Scharfbillig, Rolf; Uden, Hayley; Bishop, Chris

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the immediate effects of footwear and foot orthoses on transverse plane rotation of the knee joint during the stance phase of jogging gait. An experimental, within subjects, repeated measures design. Three-dimensional knee kinematics were estimated in the transverse plane by surface-mounted markers as 14 asymptomatic participants ran in four randomised conditions; neutral shoe, neutral shoe with customised orthoses, neutral shoe with prefabricated orthoses, and a stability shoe. Peak internal/external rotation joint angles and ranges of motion (ROM) during loading response, midstance and propulsion were determined. Immediate subjective comfort was also recorded for each condition using a 100 mm visual analogue scale. Significant main effects of condition were observed for all outcomes except transverse plane knee ROM during loading response (p shoe and another condition, with less knee internal rotation in the stability shoe (mean differences ranged between 1.7° and 6.1°) (p shoe with prefabricated orthoses was reported as more uncomfortable than all other testing conditions. The stability shoe reduced peak knee internal rotation throughout stance phase of jogging more than any other condition. Importantly, it was subjectively as comfortable as the other conditions. These results identify the ability for footwear alone to induce immediate proximal kinematic effects. The use of the kinematic theory behind foot orthoses therapy is also questioned. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Association between limited joint mobility syndrome and risk of accidental falls in diabetic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, I; Benito Ortiz, L; Rodríguez-Borlado, B; Cano Langreo, M; García-Martínez, F J; Martín Rodríguez, M F

    2015-03-01

    Limited joint mobility syndrome (LJMS) appears exclusively in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. It is characterized by a limited range of digital motion, with involvement of small joints of the hands. It initially affects the proximal interphalangeal joints, followed by wrists, elbows, shoulders, knees, and axial skeleton. The diagnosis can be made by the simple "prayer sign" test. The objective was to study the prevalence of diabetic patients with LJMS, and to evaluate the association between LJMS and metabolic control, and the risk of accidental falls. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the San Fernando II Health Centre, Madrid (suburbs). The sample consisted of 184 patients with a diagnosis of diabetes of over 5 years from November to March, 2013. The prayer sign was used to define which patients had LJMS. Fall risk was determined using the Timed Up & Go test. A total of 99 patients (53.8%) (95% CI 46.6 to 61) had a positive prayer sign. No statistically significant relationship was found with HbA1c, but there was an association with the Timed Up & Go test (P<.001) (95% CI 1.173 to 1.611). The patients with LJMS had a moderate risk of falls compared with those without LJMS, which was of low risk. The prevalence of LJMS is high. This is the first study that shows a relationship between LJMS and the risk of falls in diabetic patients. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Proximity and Collaboration in European Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.W.; Werker, C.

    2011-01-01

    Collaborations are particularly important for the development and deployment of technology. We analyze the influence of organizational, technological and geographical proximity on European nanotechnology collaborations with the help of a publication dataset and additional geographical information.

  8. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  9. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, L L; Simon, E E

    1990-01-01

    The transport of ammonia in the proximal tubule is a complex interaction of a number of processes. Ammonia transport in the proximal tubule is clearly bidirectional; ammonia is secreted into the early proximal tubule lumen, but later in the proximal tubule, efflux out of the lumen may result in net ammonia reabsorption. Two mechanisms of ammonia transport have clearly been established: NH3 diffusion and NH4+ transport on the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. The relative contribution of these pathways to ammonia transport is still unsettled. Other pathways for ammonia transport, particularly NH4+ efflux out of the lumen, may be important as well. A variety of factors may modulate ammonia transport: plasma, cell and luminal pH, luminal flow rate, luminal potassium, and angiotensin II. Each of these factors also alters ammonia production rates and in most circumstances, ammonia transport appears to follow ammonia production rates.

  10. Proximate composition and cholesterol concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    DWB) for raw and fried samples, respectively, but decreased to 295.20 ... Key words: Rhynchophorus phoenicis, Oryctes monoceros, proximate composition, cholesterol, heat treatment. INTRODUCTION. Insects have played ...

  11. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITIONS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde Emmanuel

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... Fish allows for protein improved nutrition in that it has a high biological value in terms of high ... marine algae upon which the fish feed [11]. ... Proximate composition of catfish Clarias gariepinus and Tarpon atlanticus were.

  12. Orbit-attitude coupled motion around small bodies: Sun-synchronous orbits with Sun-tracking attitude motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Shota; Howell, Kathleen C.; Tsuda, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Jun'ichiro

    2017-11-01

    The motion of a spacecraft in proximity to a small body is significantly perturbed due to its irregular gravity field and solar radiation pressure. In such a strongly perturbed environment, the coupling effect of the orbital and attitude motions exerts a large influence that cannot be neglected. However, natural orbit-attitude coupled dynamics around small bodies that are stationary in both orbital and attitude motions have yet to be observed. The present study therefore investigates natural coupled motion that involves both a Sun-synchronous orbit and Sun-tracking attitude motion. This orbit-attitude coupled motion enables a spacecraft to maintain its orbital geometry and attitude state with respect to the Sun without requiring active control. Therefore, the proposed method can reduce the use of an orbit and attitude control system. This paper first presents analytical conditions to achieve Sun-synchronous orbits and Sun-tracking attitude motion. These analytical solutions are then numerically propagated based on non-linear coupled orbit-attitude equations of motion. Consequently, the possibility of implementing Sun-synchronous orbits with Sun-tracking attitude motion is demonstrated.